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-

.., .., ..


U(r)

-
" "
30 2009.,

1.
2.
3.
-
4.
-
5.



~1 /c3


~ 10 /c3
~ 100 /c3
~ 1000 /c3
:
1.

2.
3.

-
4. (>100000
)

-/ / -/ /
1,5 5,0 2,5 10,0

. 6,0 0,5 10,0 2,0




- < 0,7
- 0,7 2
- 2 50
- > 50


: 10 50
: 0,7 50
: 2500 ./


1 1,5
: 40 -100
: 100 ./

-
-

2` >> 2

2`-

k -

2 -

x


:

ne= 1019 c-3 np= 1019 c-3

ni ~ 1022 c-3

ne + np << ni

:

ne= 1019 c-3 np= 1019 c-3


:

ni ~ 1022 c-3
:

C C

1/C = 1/C + 1/C


/C~ ((ne+np)/ni)1/2<<1

-

-
-

3 -

,a..
1
E
0


K+
-1
0 20 40 60 80
z/a0

2 -

,a..
0

-1

K+
-2
0 20 40 60 80
z

-
-0.1

-0.2

, a.. -0.3
-0.4

-0.5
0 20 40 60 80
z/a0


-
0.4
2R

U
0.2
2L
, a..

0
E

-0.2
0 20 40 60 80
z/a0

2L = 0.82 2R = 0.68

U = 1.22

L= 6.12 R = 7.35
, :

U = 4.35

C/ ~ U/U > 4

-

-!

-
-
-


1.2

0.8

,a.. q
0.4

-0.4
0 20 40 60 80
z


0.4

U
0.3

, a..
0.2

0.1

0
0 20 40 60 80
z

- !

i ~ q/U

Smax ~ 3/2,

Smax = 0/rD= 3.4 /2



max< Smax/l ~ 20/3
*

, /2

, 12

, 60

3
,

50-70
,

* Jean-Paul Randin and Earnest Yeager, 1971




-


.

, OH-, -,
.

20
/3.

Ab initio








~100 ~20
~10 ns ~10 ps

~1/c3
~ 10 /c3
~ 100 /c3
~ 1000 /c3

H++e- H2 E0 = 0
H20+e- H2 +OH- E0 = 0.828

< E

-

H++e- H2 E0 = 0
H20+e- H2 +OH- E0 = 0.828

< E

-
- +
- + + - -


- -
- + + +- + + ,
- - + +
- + +- +- -
,

.



,

.


d

-

2` >> 2

2`-

k -

2 -

x

*

,
/2
, 12
, 60

3
,

50-70

,
NaF c 0,1
0,9

* Jean-Paul Randin and Earnest Yeager, 1971