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1968
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46

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7 -1 -4
50/1967

................................................................................................ 1 !
...........................................................................................................................12
........................................................................................................................................................13
( 1 7 ) ................................................................... 13

I.

( 8 ) ..................................................................... 17
( 9 1 2 ) ................................... 18
( 13 15) 21
( 1 4 ) .......................................................................................................................... 22
( 1 5 ) .............................................2 3
( 16 2 6 ) ................................... 2 5
( 16 1 8 ) ..........................................................................2 5
( 1 9 ) ................................................................................................................ 2 8
( 2 0 ) ..................................................2 9
( 2 1 ) 30
( 2 2 ) ..................................................31
( 2 3 ) ................................................................................................................ 3 2
( 2 4 ) . , ( 2 5 2 6 )

( 2 7 35) 36
( 2 7 2 8 ) ............................................................................................ 36
( 29)

( 3 0 ) ........................................................................................................... 3 9
( 30)

( 3 1 3 5 ) ..........................................................................................................................4 0
( 3 2 3 3 ) . ( 3 4 35)

II*

( 3 6 3 7 ) ...................................................................................... 45
( 3 8 ) 46
- ( 3 9 4 0 ) ......................................................................... 47
($ 41 4 2 ) ............................................. 4 9
( 4 3 44) 51

1* 3
III.

( 45) 53
( 4 6 4 8 ) ....................................... 54
( 4 9 6 9 ) ............................................................................................. 58
( 4 9 ) ................................................................................................................................ 58
( 5 0)

( 5 1 ) .......................................................................................................................... 60
( 5 2 6 9 ) ....................................................................................... 61
( 5 2 6 0 ) ................................................................................................................ 61

( 5 2 ) . ( 5 3 ) . ,
( 5 4 5 7 ) : -i ( 5 5 ) ; ( 5 5 ) ,
( 5 5 ) ; () ( 5 6 ) , h ( 5 7 ) .
( 5 8 ) . ( 5 9)

( 6 0 ) ...........................................................................................................................67
( 6 0 ) . ( 6 1 ) .
( 6 2 ) . ( 6 3 )

( 6 4 ) 69
(65) 70
( 6 6 68) 71
( 6 7 ) 72
( 6 8 ) 72
( 6

( 70 8 4 ) .......................................................................................................................... 73
( 7 0 ) ................................................................ 73
( 7 1 8 3 ) ................................................. 74
( 7 2 7 9 ) ; ( 7 3 ) ;
( 7 4 ) ; ( 7 4 7 7 ) , ( 7 5 ) ,
( 7 6 ) , ( 7 7 ) ; ( 7 8 ) ;
( 7 9 ) ; ( 8 0 ) ;
( 8 1 ) : , ( 8 2 ) ;
( 83 )

( 8 4 ) .................................................................................................. 80
( 8 5 2 2 8 ) ....................................................................................... 81
( 8 5 1 7 2 ) ............................................................................................................... 81
( 8 5 ) .................................................................................................. 81
( 8 6 103) 82
( ) ( 9 0 9 8 ) : - ( 9 1 ) ,
- j a ( 9 2 ) , -wa ( 9 3 ) , - ( 9 4 ) , -jo ( 9 5 ) ,
-wo ( 9 6 ) , -1 ( 9 7) , - ( 98 )
- ( ) ( 9 9 ) . ( 1 0 0 ) ;
( 1 0 0 ) , (' ' 1 0 0 ) . - ( 1 0 1 ) . -es
( 1 0 2 1 0 3 )

( 104 1 1 2 ) ...................................................................................................... 9 6
( 1 0 5 ) . ( 1 0 6 ) .
( 1,07). ( 1 0 8 ) .
( 1 0 9 ) . ( 1 1 0 ) .
( 1 1 1 ) . ( 1 1 2) .

( 113 121)

( 1 1 4 ) : - , - ( 1 1 5 ) : ( 1 1 5 ) ,
. ( 1 1 6 ) ; - j a , -jo ( 117*), - w a , -wo ( 1 1 8 ) .
( 1 1 9 ) . ( 1 2 0 ) :
( 1 2 0 ) , ( 1 2 0 ) . ( 1 2 1 ) .

4
( 122 1 2 3 ) .....................................................................................................105
( 1 2 2 ) . ( 123 )
( 124 1 2 8 ) .................. 106
( 1 2 9 - 1 6 1 ) ................................................................................................................... 108
( 1 2 9 1 3 4 ) . ( 1 3 5 1 4 2 ) : I ( 1 3 6
1 3 9 ) : ( 1 3 6 ) , ( 1 3 7 1 3 9 ) :
11 ( 1 4 0 1 4 1 ) ; 1 1 1 ( 1 4 2 ) . ( 1 4 3 1 4 6 ) :
( 1 4 4 1 4 5 ) ,
( 14 6) ( 1 4 7 ) . -
- ( 1 4 8 ) . ( 1 4 9 ) :
, wesan ( 1 4 9 ) , don w il la n ( 1 0 5 ) .
( 1 5 1 ) .
( 1 5 2 ) .
( 1 5 3 ) . ( 1 5 4 1 5 5 ) . ( 1 5 6 1 5 8 ) .
( 1 5 9 1 6 1 ) .

( 1 6 2 - 1 6 7 ) ................................................................................................................ 135
( 164167).

( 1 6 8 ) ................................................................................................ 137
( 1 6 9 ) ............................................................................................................................. 138
( 1 7 0 ) .................................................................................................................................. 139
( 1 7 1 ) ................................................................................................................... 139
( 1 7 2 ) ................................. 140
( 173 2 2 8 ) ................................................................................................................ 141
( 1 7 4 2 0 7 ) .............................................................................. 141
( 174 1 8 4 ) ......................................................................... 141
( 175 1 7 8 ) .................................................................................. 141
( 1 7 5 ) ..........................................................................................................141
( 1 7 6 1 7 8 ) ................................................................................................. 142
( 177). ( 178)

( 179 1 8 4 ) .................................. 142


( 1 7 9 ) ....................................................................* .................................143
( 179). ( 179).
( 1 8 0 ) .......................................................................................................... 143
( 1 8 1 ) ..................................................................................................... 144
( 1 8 2 ) ..........................................................................................................144
( 1 8 3 ) ...............................................................................................................144
( 1 8 4 ) ..................................................................................................... 144
( 1 8 5 ) ..................................................................................................... 145

( 186187).
( 188189)
(190 191) 148
hit { ( 1 9 2 ) ........................................................................ 148
( 1 9 3 1 9 5 ) ......................... 148
( 194).
( 195).

( 1 9 6 ) 15.0
(197 2 0 7 ) ......................... 151
( 197 202) 151
( 198). .
( 199). ( 200).
(. 201). ( 202).

( 2 0 3 2 0 4 ) ................................................................................................. 154
( 2 0 5 ) ............................................................................................................... 155
( 2 0 6 2 0 7 ) ...................................................................................................... 156

5
( 2 0 8 2 2 8 ) ......................................................................... 157
( 208) .................................................................... 157
( 2 0 9 ) ............................................................... 157
( 2 1 0 228) ............................................ 157
( 2 1 1 2 1 2 ) . ( 2 1 3 ) .
( 2 1 4 ) . ( 2 1 5 2 1 6 ) .
- ( 2 1 7 ) .
( 2 1 8 ) : ( 2 1 9 ) , ( 2 2 0 ) ,
( 2 2 1 ) , ( 2 2 2 ) ,
( 2 2 3 ) , ( 2 2 4 ) ,
( 2 2 5 ) , ( 2 2 6 2 2 7 ) . ( 2 2 8 ) .

IV.

( 2 2 9 2 3 0 ) ......................................................................... 165
( 2 3 1 2 3 3 ) ................................................................................... 167
( 2 3 4 2 3 5 ) .................................. 170
( 2 3 6 2 4 2 ) ................................................. 171
( 2 4 3 2 4 7 ) ....................................... 176
( 2 4 3 2 4 5 ) ............................................ 176
( 2 4 6 ) ..................................................................................................................... 180
( 2 4 7 ) .......................................................... 180
( 2 4 8 ) .............................................................................. 182
( 2 4 9 2 5 1 ) ........................ 183
( 2 5 2 2 6 1 ) .................................. 186

( 2 6 2 ) ........................................................................................................................................ 191
( 263). ( 264).
( 2 6 5 2 6 8 ) .............................................................................. 193
( 2 6 9 3 0 3 ) ................................................................................... 195
( 2 7 0 2 8 4 ) ........................................................................................................... 195
( 2 7 0 ) .......................................................... 195
( 271). ( 272273).
( 274): ( 274),
( 275), ( 276),
( 277),
( 278283), ( 284)

( 2 8 5 2 9 1 ) ..................................................................................................... 202 *

( 2 9 2 2 9 8 ) ............................................................................................................................... 204
( 2 9 4 2 9 5 ) ...................................................... 206
( 2 9 6 2 9 7 ) .......................................................... 2 06

( 2 9 8 ) ................................................................................................................................... 208

( 2 9 9 3 0 2 ) ...................................................................................................... 208
( 3 0 3 ) ...................................................... 210
( 3 0 4 4 2 4 ) .............................................................................. 211
( 3 0 4 377) ........................................................................................................... 211
( 3 0 4 3 1 3 ) ........................................................................................ 211
( 3 1 4 321) . ........................................................................................ 218
( 314316).
( 317). ( 318).
( 319). ( 320). ( 321)

( 3 2 2 326) ...................................................................................... 222


( 3 2 7 328)...... ........................................................................................... 224
( 327), ($ 328)

6
( 3 2 9 ) .......................................................... 226
( 3 3 0 3 3 4 ) ........................................... 226
(3 3 5 3 3 6 ) ........................................................... 2 28
( 3 3 7 3 6 5 ) ......................................................................................................................... 230
( 3 3 8 3 4 1 ) . ( 3 4 2 3 4 5 ) .
( 3 4 6 3 4 7 ) .
( 3 4 8 3 5 1 ) . - ( 3 5 2 ) .
( 3 5 3 3 5 4 ) : gon ( 3 5 3 ) , don willen ( 3 5 4 ) .
( 3 5 5 3 6 5 ) :
( 3 5 5 ) , ( 3 5 6 3 5 8 ) , ( 3 5 9 3 6 0 ) .
( 3 6 1 ) . ( 3 6 2 ) :
( 3 6 2 ) . ( 3 6 3 3 6 5 ) : ( 3 6 3 3 6 5 ) .

( . 3 6 6 - 3 7 0 ) .................................................................................................................... 249
( 3 7 1 ) .......................................................................................................... 251
( 3 7 2 ) .............................................................................................................................. 251
( 3 7 3 ) .............................................................................................................................. 252
( 3 7 4 ) ....................................................................................................................................... 253
( 3 7 5 ) ......................................................................................................................... 253

( 3 7 6 ) ..................................................................................................................... 254
: , . : ,
. - : , . ( -
) : , .

( 3 7 7 ) ..................................... 258
( 3 7 8 4 2 4 ) ............................................................................................................... 259
( 3 7 9 ) ............................................................... 259
( 3 8 0 4 0 9 ) ............................................................................. 260
( 3 8 1 3 8 8 ) ......................................................................... 2 60
( 3 8 1 ) ......................................................................................................... 260
( 3 8 2 ) ............................................................................................................... 260
( 3 8 3 ) .......................................................................................................... 261
( 3 8 4 ) ......................................................................................................... 261
( 3 8 5 ) ................................................................................................. 261
( 3 8 6 ) .......................................................................................................... 262
( 387) 262
( 3 8 8 ) ..................................................................................................... 262
( 3 8 9 393) 262
( 3 9 4 397) 264
( 3 9 5 ) ...................................................................................................... 264
( 3 9 6 ) ........................................................................ 266
( 3 9 7 ) .......................................................................................................... 266
, (3 9 8 4 0 6 ) .............................................. 267
( 4 0 2 4 0 5 ) . ( 4 0 6 )

( 407) 2 70
( 4 0 8 4 0 9 ) .......................................... 271
( 4 1 0 4 2 4 ) .................................................................................. 272
( 4 1 1 ) .................................................................. 272
(4 1 2 424) 273
( 4 1 2 ) . ( 4 1 3 ) .
( 4 1 4 ) . ( 4 1 5 ) .
( 4 1 6 ) : ( 4 1 6 ) ,
( 4 1 7 ) , ( 4 1 8 ) ,
(. 4 1 9 ) , ( 4 2 0 ) , ( 4 2 1 ) ,
( 4 2 2 ) , ( 4 2 3 ) ,
( 4 2 4 )

V.
( 4 2 5 4 3 1 ) ..................................................... 277
X V . ( 4 2 5 431) . . . 277
( 4 3 2 4 3 3 ) ............................................................................................ 284

7
( 4 3 4 4 4 1 ) ............................................................... 286
( 4 4 2 4 4 3 ) ............................................................... 291
( 4 4 4 4 5 2 ) .................................................................... 293
( 4 5 3 4 5 4 ) ........................................................................ 298
( 4 5 5 ) .......................................................................................................... 299
( 456 463) 300
( 4 5 8 ) ............................................................... 301
( 4 5 9 4 6 0 ) ....................................................................................... 302
( 4 6 1 462) 304
( 4 6 3 ) ...................................................................................................... 306
( 464) 306
X V I I
( 4 6 5 - 4 6 6 ) .............................................................................................................................. 307
X V I I I X X . ( 4 6 7 4 6 9 ) ..................................................... 308
( 4 7 0 ) ............................................................................. 309
( 4 7 1 472) 310
( 472) 311
( 4 7 4 5 2 3 ) .................................................................................. 313
( 4 7 4 5 0 5 ) .......................................................................................................... 313
[-] ( 4 7 4 4 7 6 ) . 1
( 4 7 7 ) . ( 4 7 8 ) . ( 4 7 9 4 8 7 ) .
[] ( 4 8 8 ) . ( 4 8 9 ) .
( 4 9 0 5 0 5 ) : [] [] ( 4 9 0 ) ,
( 4 9 1 ) . [*] [ :] ( 4 9 2 ) . [*]
1 ( 4 9 3 ) , au [:] ( 4 9 4 ) . ( 4 9 5 4 9 6 ) .
[:] ( 4 9 7 ) . X V I I . ( 4 9 8 5 0 3 ) :
[] [] [w] ( 4 9 8 ) , . [] [] ( 4 9 9 5 0 1 ) , [:] [i :]
( 5 0 2 ) , ( 5 0 3 ) . ( 5 0 4 5 0 5 )

( 5 0 6 5 2 1 ) ...................................................................................................... 330
[%] ( 5 0 6 ) . [1] [k, m , f, v] ( 5 0 7 ) .
[w] ( 5 0 8 ) .
( 5 0 9 ) . ( 5 1 0 5 1 1 ) . [d] [6]
[] ( 5 1 2 ) .

[j] (5 1 3 520) . . . . 335


( 5 2 1 ) ............................................ 338
( 5 2 2 ) ............................................................................................ 338
( 523) . . . 339
( 5 2 4 5 2 6 ) ............................................................................. 339
( 5 2 5 5 8 7 ) .......................................................................................................... 340
( 5 2 5 5 2 7 ) ....................................................................................... 340
( 5 2 5 526) 340
( 5 2 7 5 2 8 ) ............................................................................. 341
( 529) 342
( 5 2 9 5 3 0 ) .
( 5 3 1 ) . ( 5 3 2 ) .
( 5 3 3 ) . ( 5 3 4 )

( 5 3 5 5 3 7 ) ............................................................................................ 344
- ( 5 3 5 ) . ( 5 3 6 5 3 7 ) .

( 5 3 8 ) .......................................................................................................... 345
( 5 3 8 ) . ( 5 3 8 ) .

( 5 3 9 ) ....................................................................................... 346
( 5 4 0 5 7 9 ) ............................................................................................................... 346
( 5 4 0 5 4 2 ) . ( 5 4 3 5 4 8 ) .
( 5 4 9 ) . ( 5 5 0 ) .
( 5 5 1 5 5 6 ) .
( 5 5 7 5 5 9 ) :
( 5 5 8 ) . ( 5 5 9 ) . -
( 5 6 0 ) . be, go , do, will ( 5 6 1 5 6 4 ) .
( 5 6 5 5 7 4 ) : ( 5 6 5 ) , ( 5 6 6 5 7 0 ) .
( 5 7 1 5 7 4 ) . do
( 5 7 5 5 7 6 ) . ( 5 7 7 5 7 9 ) .

8
( 5 8 0 ) ........................................................................................................................ 367
( 5 8 1 ) ................................................................................................ 368
( 5 8 2 ) .................................................................................................................... 368
( 5 8 3 ) ........................................................................................................................ 369
( 5 8 4 5 8 5 ) .......................................................................................................... 370
( 5 8 6 ) ............................................................................................................................. 371
( 5 8 7 ) ............................................................................................................... 371
( 5 8 8 597) . . . ............................................................................................ 371
( 5 8 9 5 9 3 ) ........................ 372
( 5 9 0 ) ..................................................................................................... 372
( 5 9 1 ) .......................................................................................................... 372
( 5 9 2 ) .......................................................................................................... 373
( 5 9 3 ) ............................................................................................................... 373
( 594) 374
( 5 9 5 5 9 6 ) ....................................... 374
( 5 9 7 ) ....................................................................... 375
( 5 9 8 6 0 0 ) .................................................................................. 376
I. . II. . III.
IV. V. . VI. .

( 6 0 1 609) 380
...................................................................................................................385
......................................................................................................................................390



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. ,
,

. , --
, j
. , . ,
(.
16 20),
. ff
2:

1 . K u r y l o w i c z . L e sens des m u t a ti o n s co n so na n tiqu e s. .


Esquisses lin g uisti q ues . W r o c l a w , 1960, p. 2 4 0 247.
2
, : . . b a i t r s / .-a. bit tor ,
. sn u trs/ .-a. sn o tt o r .

31
:
*saetian > settan * ( . satjan)
*staepian > steppan *
*sae3ian > *
*raecian > reccan/reccean * (. . rakjan)
*framian > fremman *
*taelian > tellan *
*saelian > sellan *
*cnusian > cnyssan
*swaefian > *sweffan > swebban *
*hleahian > hliehhan, hlyhhan * (. . hlahjan)

23.
.
,
.


.

. :

.-. . .-. ,
. . Apfel . octo . ahtau
. noct-em . nahts , okto . acht
. . Nacht .


. :
.- . . .-. ,
. frater * . . flos - .-a. blorna
, phrator .-. *

,
, .

.

24.
,



32
, .
,
(Brechung).
:
i .
.
1.
1, i, j
.
. :

. medius .-a. midde


. ventus .-a. wind
. edere .-a. etan
. ferre .-. beran

, ,
.
, i j:
, . .

. +
, .
.
2.
:
,
;
. :
. sunus .-a. sunu; . iugum .-.
( < *3 0 ) 1.

.
. ,
, .
,
:
i, , h i .

, h .
: . sedere . sitan, ferre
. bafran; sequi . saftoan
.
ai
.

1
41.

2 . . 33
i .
.
.

25.
,
1. .
., , : -/, --/-,
--/-, -/, --/-, --/-
, --/, --/-; . : -/.
,
. , leipo
(
) elipon leloipa ,
,
: lip-/
lei-/loi-. , ,
.

.
, ,
,
, .
//
( ).
:
;
;
(. . ).

26. ,
,
2 . IV .
,
,
,
,
.

.

1 abla ut g ra d a t io n ,
, -
, a p o p h o n ie.
2 . 32, 33.

34

:
. .
. . . .
I reisan1 rais risum risans
II kiusan kaus kusum kusans
III bindan band bundum bundans
IV stilan stal stelum stulans
V giban gaf gebum gibans

, :
. .
. . . .
I ai i i
II au U
III U U
IV U
V i


i,
i/a/.
,
i //.
.
.
, i // .
,
,
(
), ,
. ,

i // .

, ,
. ,

.
, ,
, , .
.
,

1 ei [ i :] .
, (. 14)
, ei
[ i : J .

2* 35
,
,
.
,
/ 1,

, sedeo sedi;
lego legi. ,
i // ,
.
, ,

. ,

;
, ,
. -, i
.
,
// , (. 24)
i // .
.

27. ,
,
, , ,
. , . .
IV .,
. ,
, , ,
,
.

.
,
,
. : 1) ,
2) , 3) .
.
: .
:

1 i . 24.

36
,
.
. ,
,
,
.
,
, , 1.
-,

.
, .
,
:
,
-, : fadar ,
, swistar . .
-
. ,
,
.

28.

: . dagam ,
gibom , gastim , sunum .
. ,
dagam dag-, --
- ; gibom gib-,
-- - . .
, - ,
, . . --, --, -i- --,
.

: . dagans, gibos, gastins,
sununs. ,
: dags,
giba, gasts; sunus
.

1

. , ,
-
Ia ukaR ,
IV . dags ,
3
dae .
- - , ,
.

37


. ,
,
,
:
, :

. .

, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, . .
.

29.
:
1. : --, --, -1-, --.
.
2. --.
1.
3. : -s- --.
4. .
;
,
,
.


, ,
,
.

1
. ,
(, )
, :
der Tag , des Tages, dem Tage,
,
,
: der Lowe, des Lowen,
dem Lowen.
, .

38

30.
,
. , ,

. , bonus
I II : bonus
, II hortus ,
bonum II
vallum , bona
I silva \
,
.
, ,
.
:
1.
(. . ),
(. . -).

,
; ,
.
.
2.
:
,

.
, -
, .
,
,
-: , strabos strabon ,

(Strabon),
I . . .; platys Platon ,
.

,
,
. ,
:
-
39
, ,
, ,

.

31. ,
, .
,

(. 25), ,
-d- ( - t - ) *.
,
-, ,
,
.


32.
().
, ,
.
; ,
pello pepuli ( *pepoli),
/ pel-/pol-.

. ,
,
,
; ,
, ,
, . . ,
.
, -, : ,
.
- . ]-
.
,
, . . .
,
( 25).

1 ,
,
. ,
,
.

40
: lei'po *
( ); elipon ( );
leloipa ( ).

, :
,
. .
:
, .
,
, .
, :

, -

(. 148).



.

33.
: 1) , 2)
, 3) ,
4) .

.
25 .
VI ,
. ///.
.
,
.
, ,
VI , ///.
;
, > ,
. ,
faran for forum farans.
VII .
VII :
. .
. . . .

) haitan haihait haihaitum haitans


) letan laflot lailotum letans
41
VII () .
VII () ///,

/.

, . . ,
.

.
, pello pepulf; mordeo
momordr, curro cucurri . .

. , -,
, ,
, -
-.
: -
, .
.

34. ,

.
:
.

.
, -d-
(.-a. don, . . tun).
,
, : .
. hausjan :
hausida ,
hausidedum . -dedum,
, ,

tun '
taten *.
,
,

1 . d . t
(. . 25).

42
, . , , ,
, . amatus, deletus, lectus, auditus.
.-. t , d
( 19).
,

,
.

.


,
' ,
-t-,
.

,
.
,
,

.

35. , ,
,
. , ,
.
:

. .
. . . .

I hausian hausida hausidedum hausips


II salbon salboda salbodedum sal bops
III haban habaida habaidedum habaips
IV fullnan fullnoda fullnodedum

,
I -j-, II -, III -ai-,
, , , IV
----- ()-.
, ,
, . . ,
. , ,
,
, ,
43
,
IV :
;
, fullnan , fraqistnan
, gahailnan . .
-
, , weaken, stif
fen, redden .

: ,

,
,
.
II.

36. - ,
.
, V , ,
\ : ,
2.
: , ;
, ;
, ,
.
,
(, ),

1 , ( B e d e B a e d a )
, . I, . 15.
2
( T a c i t u s , Corn eliu s, . 55 . . 120 .)
, . 40;
E u d o ses, , , .
(C laudius P t o l e m a e u s,
11 . . .) 11 II .

45
,
. IV . . .

;

( ),

V .
,
.


IV . . .,
-
(Pytheas) -
( ),

,
, -
.


,

.
37.
: --
. --
: 1)
,
( ),
2) ,
( )
, ,
,
- ( X V I I I .), ,
. : 1) ,
2) , E r s e , 3) (M anx)
, .

38. 55 . . .
.
, , ;
.
54 . ,
:
46
1.
43 . . . .
,
,
. 80- I .,
, ( )
( ). ,
,
.
.
, , .
,
- .
, ,
. IV .,
,
.

, V . 410 .

(
);

.


39. V .
. 449 .
Hengest Horsa, ,
.

600 . (VI .)
.
, :

--;
; -
.
,

. V .,
,
.
( ), (-
1
, . IV , . 2 0 3 6, . V , .
8-23.

47
( X . ,
)
-), (
) ' (
). ,
: IX .,
XI . . , XI I I . ,
, , ,
,
. ,
, -
.
;
X II .
40. ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
, -,
,
1.

,
, ,
. ;
,
, ,
2.
: , 60 0 .
,
,
,
. ,
- ,
,
,
,
3.
,
, (
) .

41.
: 1) ( -), 2) -
, 3) .
:
( -)
(

1 A. J I . . . ., 1950, . 36.
2 , . 37.
3 , . 42.

49
V .)
(VII .) 1100 .;
1100 1500 .;
1500 .
.

, 1500 1660.
, (1100, 1500),
;
,
XI X II . XV
XVI . ,
, 1789 . 1917 .,
.
,
,
1066 ., .


.
'(1455 1485 .).

42.
.
(Sweet, Henry, 1845 1912)
, --
:
(full
endings):
, sunu ' , sin 3an '.
,
(levelled endings):
[] (
): sune, singen.
(lost
endings): : son, sing.

.

,
, .

, . .
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
50
, ,
,
. ,

,
.
,
.


43.
.
, .

: ,
(
,
);
,
.

:
1) ,
, , . . .

;
2) . , ,
, , ,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
(
rhymes to the eye), ,
far: war, lo ve: move. ,
, , , light: write,
,
g h light
;
3) , ,
.
XVI X V II .
,
,
; ,
, ,
.

51
44.

.

VII .
. ,
,
, ,
, .

, ,
,
.
,
,
, : ,
IV . (. 8).
,
, ,
-
,
, .
, ,
, .
,

.

, .

,

.


, ,
,
.
,

. ,

, -
,
.
, .
III.

45. , ,
,

: , , , , ,
, -
.
, . 828 . -

.
.
, , (
100 - ) .
VI . -
, , .
597 . I

.
,
.
53

(642 670). VII .
.
.

.
-
,
,
- .

46.
:
.

; .
,
(Ruthwell) - .

.

,
- (Clermont-Ferrand).

.
1. , ,
V III .
-
.

,
. -
,
;
. ,
, (
g) ;
.
: f)
(
)
[w].

1 . . .
, . 3- ( ., 1953, . 13).

54

V II .;
,

, .

47.
: (Northumbrian,
, );
(Mercian, )
( -) (West Saxon, ,
). ,
(Kentish, ). -
55
:
IX .
.

48.

:
.
( 849 900 .): 1) Cura Pastoralis
56
( 1 ( 540 604 .)
, 2) ,
, , -
V .;
, 3)
(470524),
4) - ( 891 .),
5) (X .), 6)
( XI .).
.
; .
.

( V I I I .
)

(IX .)
.
. L L X X
.



.

.
: ,
, , ,
, , .

. -, ,
, -
,
.

,
.

57

49. , ,
.

: i : ie io

[]
man, hat; ,
Mutter;
Gemiit.
, . .
.

, : , , land, lond
, , .
.
,
, : da3as (. dagos); ,
macian . .
: habban (. haban), asce , wascan .
.
ai , : stan (. stains), hatan (.
haitan), cnawan .
. ,
: dae3 (. dags), baed ,
,
, : dae3es , waeter (. wato).
:
1) 1 . , ,
. . . IV V
( 60): staelon (. stelum), (.
berum), spraecon , maeton ,
, daed (. de|)s); 2) 2
i (. 3 4 ) ,
ai.
I : haelan , draefan , laefan .
: 1)
i (. 24)
III, IV V : helpan , stelan
, sprecan , beran (. hilpan, stilan,
bafran);
2) i- , :
, bendan .
58
i ;
I , :
deman , .
i . i
i; ; : bin-
dan (. bindan), niman (. niman).
i
ie , niht (nieht,
nyht).
. 1
ei ( ).
I , :
wrltan , bidan , (. greipan).
,
hi (hie, hy).
(. 14).
, ,
II, III , IV : , worden
, stolen (. kusans, waurjbans, stulans).
& :
(. manna), hond (. handus).
, 3od
(. go|3s); . .
VI .: scoc , hloh .
(. 14);

II III , : curon , bundon
, hulpon , wurdon (. kusum, bun-
dum, hulpum, waiir|3um).
0 0 . ,
, , htis (. htis),
II : lflcan
, .
.
i ,
wyllen , 3ylden .
i.
.
i
, mys , fyr .
1.
, , io, ie,
,
( 5154).
, ,
.
beam , deaj} ,
II ,
59
: ceas , 1 (. dau"f)us, kaus,
lauk).
iu.
II : ceosan , beodan
(. kiusan, biudan).
.

50. ,
IV .
( 25),

. , ,
I
i / /
, i (. reisan
rais risum risans), ,
ai ,
(.-a. risan ras rison risen).
II
, iu
, . .: .
biudan budum budans .-a. beodan bead bu-
don boden. (
i / / , )
.
129 130
.

. ., : bellfan laf
, forleosan leas beran baex.
, faran for , rldan -
rad .

51.
. : , b, m , f, v; : t , d,
3, n, s, r, 1; : , , h.
cs.

.
, ,
68.

.
60
1.
,
[],
1 , 3od , , sin 3an .
2. ,
1
[], da3as , sor 3 , fol 3 ian .
3. ,

[j], : 3 iefan ,
, d3 .
, : sec 3an ,
.

52.

.
. :
> + , 1 + ,
+ h ; :
* > , *add>eald , * 2eh ta>eah ta
, *seh>seah .
> + , 1, lh, h +
h ; : *h erte>h eo rte
, *m elcan>m eolcan , *selh>seolh
, *fe h > fe o h , .

,

(),
.

. ,
, ,
st
; arm, aid, ahta, sah.

53.
.
, sc.
61
,
sc .
:
e > i e : * 3e f a n > 3iefan , * 3e ld a n > 3 ieldan ,
> : * 3a e f> 3eaf , * 3a e t> 3eat , *caester>ceas-
ter , *scael > sceal
> : 3aefo n > 3eafon
> : *scacan>sceacan
> : *scort>sceort

, , , 3 iefan,
3 ieldan . ,
i 3iefan
,
(,
Mickiewicz).
.
sceacan,
: scacan, scort . .

54.
,
.
.

55.
, i ( j)
.
*.
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
.
.

1 ,
u m la u t, m u ta tio n ,
-
tap h o n ie, a p o p h o n ie,
(. 25 ).

62
.
, , *.'
,
,
;
.

,
.

i ( j)
.
.
, IV .,
,
1. ,
, . . -
,
, , , ,
, , ,
. ,
V VI .
i
.
i, , ( 2 4),

(
).

. , ,
*fu llia n > fy lla n ,
>
:
; j,
,
. ,
,
j, , ,
, . ,
, ,
, j, ,
.
:
j,

1 ,
(VI .) , ,
.

63
. ,
i
, . . ().

. i
:

> : *fram ian>frem m an


*sandian>sendan
*nam nian>nem nan (. , )
ae>e: *taelian>tellan
*saelian>sellan
*saetian>settan , (. saet )
* 11 > 1 (. 1 )
> : *larian>laeran (. 1 )
*halian>haelan (. hal )
> ( 1): *o fstian >efstan (. ofost
)
0> ( ); dom ian>dem an (. dom
),
*wopian>w epan (. wop )
> : *fu llia n > fy lla n (. full )
u > y : *c 0|3ian >cy])an (. );
*ontunian>or]tynan (. tun )

ea>ie: ierm^u * (. ); hliehhan


*hleahian. ie i, :
irmpu, yrm]bu; hlihhan, hlyhhan ( 28).
>1: seliefan * 3eleafian (. 3eleafa ); hieran
*hearian. , :
3elyfan; hlran, hyran.
eo >ie: afierran *afeorrian (. feorr )
ie i, : afirran, afyrran.
>: 3etrTewe * 3etreowi (. treow ).
, : 3etriwe, setrywe.
1
,
.

64
e o > i o , , :
3e]node, 1 * 3e]3eodi (. eod ).
i
.
, , ,
. :
1) , ,
( ) ,
. , , //,
[], tellan
, net ,
, etan , medu '; 2) ,
,
. , , //,
[], fyllan
, pytt , . *
.

()

56.
(, , ) . (back
u m la u t) ,
, .

.
(, 1) (, f, ).
, ,
:
i> io : h i r a > h i o r a ( ), silu f > s i o l u f *, -
f a s t > l i o f a s t , s i f o n > s i o f o n *, c l i p a s > clio p a s *,
l i m u > l i o m u *. io : heora, se olufr
. .

>: herot>h eorot , h e f o n > h e o f o n , e f o r > e o f o r *.


>: saru>searu *.

, w i-,
, i-, : w i d u >
wiodu , c w i c u > c w i o c u *. wio
wu wudu, cwucu.

57. ,
,

. ,
i, ,
i j , i j
3 . . 65
() . ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
,
: n e ah t, n i e h t , niht n yh t.
*naeht (.
. nahts). , n ie h t, ,
(., , e a > i e i
* e a l d i r a > i e l d r a , * a f e o r r i a n > a f i e r r a n . .).
ie i,
, , n y h t ,
,
i. ,
neaht nie ht.
, neaht - ,
, i-.
, h,
-

. .

, m e a h t e ,
m iehte, m ih te , m yh te , .

58.
,
. :
1. ah + eah+
+ h .
VI ( 133):
slean *slahan; *3wean *c3wahan.
2. e h -f-, ih +
h : seon *sehan;
3efeon * 3efehan; teon *11h;
*|)ihan.
3. oh -f h
: fon *fohan, hon *hohan.
4. ,
, : sae *saee (
); * ( ).

59. IX .
n d, Id, m b , : bindan > bindan ;
bunden > biinden ; cild > cild ; wild > wild
; climban > climbaii .
66
,
, : cildru (. 102).
,
(
).

60. ,
.
, ,
, (
),
.
: [v],
[f].

1, ,
, .
, ,
:
wif ,
wifes -
wife
.
:
hof
, hofes,
hofe .

, : .
. Weib, Weibes ' Hof,
Hofes .
v./f
,
.

[0] [3],
5..
, III weor|)an
,
, ,
wear]), ,

1 ,
s, z.

. ,
.
, , II *
fleah,
. .
. , !
,
.
, ,

.

61.
, cild, ,
, [tj4].
, ,
[ t j] ,
ch. sc,
scip, [| ] .
[J4],
sh.
.
-
, [ ] : ,
, wec3 . . (.-. singe, bridge, wedge
[d3]). dg
.

62,
, ,
:
-f t > ht
-f-t>ft
+ 1 > ss
: sohte (. secan ), 3esceaft
(. scieppan ); wisse (. witan ).
h , f , s , >.
, .
,
. h
.
68
: brohte * *br5hte <
*bronhte < *branhto (. brinjan); pohte *
pOhte < *onhte (. |); softe
*s 2fto (. . sanft); fif (. . fiinf); 30s
(. . Gans); us (. . uns); (. .
ander); dust (. . Dunst); (. . Mund).
fn mn, . . f
.
. :
s te fn > s te m n , efn > emn .
fm > mm wifman > wimman .
d
t, . . . 2-

, : bintst
bindst ( bindan); stentst
stendst ( standan); cepte , ;
, wyscte . . (. 136).
h , : *tihan > teon
, *fonhan > *fohan > *foan > fon .
d ;
: fri 3nan > frinan ,
sae3d e> sa ed e , maesden > maeden .

6 3 . ,
.
.
, :
jiridda > jiirda ; rin nan > irnan, iernan
.
, -
, , , ,
, :
* ^ f d a , *rnan . . , , ,
, : "jjirda, irnan.
, :
s. ,
: ascian > ax ia n ; wascan > w ax an .

.

64.
, : 'Eoforwicceaster , 'eadi3r a .-
, 'nor|>eweardum .
, ;
, : of 'dune ,
under'fon , ' , 3e'f>eode .
69

65.
, , ,
, ,
,

" o n W V W e e n

flh y p O 'b n & fe u n i


,
\

e c u p i n I

&~- f k ^ ^ < | er,5 r ^ '^ unJ'r 'e a r ,S e '

/ i j r d f e v ? n 6-ue- ( jr fta f tmcLe- pojtjtajui ,

( 1m iceln efse- n tm <% rtan tnctn


i ita^J>*bce- otifrlatib
jiom p fse- Ccoye-vC

Je n ife r
.jftpg-e- v e a h |)cef
Iff

( X I .)

70
. ,

,

j ;
;
, . .
;
,

.
, ,
.
, ,
, ,

,
,
, ,
(
), , , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.

.

6 6 .
.
,
.
, .

.

.
,
.

1 . : . .
( ., 1951); - . -
ai (
, 1956).

71

67. , ,
,
.
.
. , ,
,
(. 52 57). , :
+ ,
- , 3
- sc- .
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
1.

. , , ,

, .
, ,
, - ,
, . .
.

68. .
, , , ,
, ,
.
, , f [ f ],
[ v ] . :
[v] , [f]
. [v] , ,
. :
((] [V] .
: [s] [z ], [0] [9 ].
IS] [Z] ,
(0] [ 9 ].
, 3
(. 46).
, .
,
, .

69.
. :
&1 ,
: s t re t , , slepan .

1 :
,
, , -, .

72

, : s t r e e t , sleep.
2
: delan .
ie, i, ,
* _ _
, , ,
: dlad .
14-
, , :
aid , all .

; , 3 iofu,
3 3
eofu , , b e eota n .

: h, ht, , : 3 esah ,
, , : ; h, 3 , i
, : ; h, , , , rh, lh
, : sex ; ,
: .

.

: *d earni > derne .
,
3
: *h e a r i a n > heran , * e l e a f i a n >3elefan .

, : hear, believe ( ).
- , - , sc-
: 311 3
, 3
efan , ,
seeld .

70.
:
.
:
1. .
,
. ,
,
-. ,
, :
) : faeder , modor , ,
tunse , lot , niht , heorte .
) : neowe , , riht
, 1 .
) : sittan , , beran ,
teran .
2. . ,
,
. ,
73
,
-. , ,
:
) : eorf)e , land , sae ,
heall , sand , .
) : , .
) : findan , sinsan , steorfan
.
3. ,
. .
, , clipian .


71. ,
, : 1)
,
, 2) .

.

72.
,
:
1. , . .
.
2. , . .
.
3. , . .

.

.



.
,

1,
.

1 ., , . .
( -, 1949) . .

(JT., 1949).

74

73.
.
, , ,
.

74.
.
, , .
, . .
, ,
. . .

75. ,
,
.
. ,

,
.
, , -ere
, : fiscere , fu elere 3
, w rl te r e , .
, , :
fjrowere . -a reis,
, lais areis , bokareis
- , . .
-estre ,
, :
sp in nest re , baecestre - . . : 3
w i t e estre
.

-nd,
-ende, , : freond , , feond
, , h<lend , demen d , w ealden d
.
3
- m p a tr o n y m i c a
, . . ,
, , :
3
, , , /E d e lw u lf in
. .
, :
l y t , . .
-
,
, (

75
), : osl in 3 3
, d e o r li n 3 3
, h y r l i n . .
-e str e ,
,
-.
* - i n
3 3 3
. : yden ( < * udin), . od; fyxen
( < * f u x i n ) , . fox.
-nis ,-nes
: 3
odnis , r e n e s .
.
-Jj ;
, : treowj}
tre ow , { {jeof .
.
-u|>, - :
{ , fiscojj , huntojj .
- 11113, - m 3
1 1
: , , , raBdin . 3
.
. ,
, dom , ( .- . doom)
-dom wisdom , freodom
.
had ,
3
: ci ld had , ma |)had .
lac - l a c :
( .- . berea v e ), w e d la c , scl n l a c ,
; raBden ,
-raeden freondraeden , sibbraSden , mannra^den
.
-scipe (. sciepp an )
3
freondscipe , weorjjscipe , e b e o r scip e (
) .

:
;
(
-)
,
* - i n . : 1 1 , stre n 3 U
3
s t r o n , brSedu brad , h s t u hat
, haBlu hal , ieldu eald ,
wr3e|j{ju w r a .


76. -ede
1
- - , : m icelheafded e
; , : hocede
, h e a le d e . .
-ih te ,
, : staenihte
sta n , d yrnih te dorn ( *d urn).

, .
3 3
: h a l i ( hal ), m od i ( mod ,
3 3
), m i s t i ( mist ), i si ( I s ),
3 3
b y s i , d ys i . .

76
-
: 3ylden * ( old 3
5
* uld ), w yllen ( w ulle ), staenen
( stan ), linen ( 11
).
-isc
, :
1
is , F r e n c i s c , W e l i s c , *
( W a l a s ); m en n is c , folcisc *.
.
-su m ,
1
: sibbsum (sibb ), ( 1
), h ie rsu m (h ieran , ).
.
-fe ald (. fealdan 4)
3
: p rle fe ald , seofonfeald , m a n i feald
.
-full ( full )
: sorsfull , synnfull
, c a r full .
- le a s ( leas )
: slSBplSas
, 3
eleaf leas , arleas , re c cele as
.
-lie ( 11 ; . Leic he )
:
, freondlic , luflie , , ,
5 odlic , d e a d l ic , (
) .
-weard ,
: h am w eard , middeweard
, inneweard .


77. -s- :
clSensian ( claene ), b le tsian *b led sia n
( blod ; ), rim sia n 3
, mSersian .
-1- ( - la c )
: nealSBcan , serih tlaecan .
- e tt - : b li c c e t ta n ,
s p o re t ta n , c o h h e t ta n , ce a h h e t ta n *.

78. - - , , ,
a rlsa n , a w a ca n , aberan , a b y s ian 3
. .
- ( )
-, :
hwser ahwaer ; hwaefer ahwaejjer
.
* i - (,
- ) * 1- > ( ), ^-, -,
-:
3 3 3 3 3
& h w r ( * a - i - h w ^ r ) , Se hwilc ( * a - i-h w i-lic); hwaefjer
3
( * a - i-hwaeper).

77
be- (. bl be )
.
,
-, -.
: , , behon , b esettan
, bewSpan , b e f e n c a n , b enim an ,
beheafdian .
for- : fordon
, forweorjjan .
- , -
() .
. :
, (for , ), 3 1
ef (folc ), emynd 3
, , .
m is- : misll-
ci a n , misdaed .
of- : ofslean , ofteon
^ .
on- ( e n t- , - en tlas-
sen, em pfangen) (.
- ): onb indan , o n la ca n .
, : onfon , ondrSedan .
t o - (. . zer- zerbrechen ,
zerreifien): tob re can , totera n .
u n- : uncujj .
: undSed (. . ).
.
wan- : w anh al ^ .

79. .
, ,
, .
: 1 )
+ , : ^ f e n t i d ,
3 2
oldsmid ; ) +
, ,
: cw ic -seo lfo r ( .: ).
1
: )
2
+ : wln-sSed ; )
+ - : w ld -c od ; 3)
+ ;
, : blid-heort
3
, laed-mod .
,
6 3
: M nandae ( .: ) , Tiwesdae 3 ( .:
3
, ) , Wednesd ae (.: ) ,
f)unresdae 3 3 3
( .: , ) , F r i edae (.:
3
) , S $ te r n e sd a e ( ) , Sunnandae 3
3
( ) ; E n la la nd (.: ) ,
3
F r a n c n a l a n d ( ) ; w i t e n a emot
( .: w ita m ot-, . m e ta n
* m o t i a n ) ; S n o t in sa h a m ( .: ',
. . ), Oxenaford ( .: ), dae e se a e 3 3
( .: , .- . daisy).

; : efenjjrowian
( .: ).

78

80.

. ,
, ,
.


81.
: 1) ,
,
, 2)
,
, 597 .; ,
, V II .

82. , ,
, ,
- .
: straet (. -a. street) , . strata (via)
; weall ( .-a. wall) . vallum;
( . -a. kitchen) . coquina; myln (.- m ill)
. molinum; pi (.-. pepper) .
piper; win (.-. wine) . vmum.
castra
: Chester, Manchester,
Winchester, Worcester, Leicester; . colonia
Lincoln, Colchester .; . portus
Portsmouth, Bridport; . strata
Stratford, . fossa Fossway, Fosbrooke.

,
.
( )
.
.
: biscop (.-. bishop)
. episcopus, . epfskopos; cleric (.-. clerk) *
. clericus, . klerikos; apostol (.-. apostle) *
. apostolus, . apostolos; deofol (.-. devil)
79
. diabolus, . diabolos; maesse {.-. mass) ' .
missa; munuc {.-. monk) ' . monachus, . -
nachos; masister {.-. master) ' . magister; scrifan
{.-. shrive ') . scribere.

: biscophad ', bis-
, scrift .
,

; , , eastron,
,
. ,
,
: sodspell {, ' ), firenes .

83.
.
dun {.-. down) ,
( of dune
down ), dun , binn {.-. bin) .
, -,
, -
.
:
. amhuin Avon, Evan; . uisge
Exe, Usk, Esk; . cothair Car
narvon; dun, dum Dumbarton, Dumfries, Dunedin;
llan Llandaff, Llandovery, Llandudno; kil
Kilbride, Kilmacolm; c o i l l Kilbrook, Killiemore; ceann
Kebadre, Kingussie; inis Innisfail; inbher
Inverness, Inverurie; bail Ballantrae, Bal-
lyshannon.
, ,

,
.

84.
. ,
,
, , ,
. ,
rinc, > secs, , freca, :
80
beado-rinc, , here-rinc -, hilde-
, hilde-rinc , - ,
3uf>-freca , 3flj>rinc , 3ilf>-wi3 a
', hea5o-lif>end ', heado-rinc ,
helm-berend ; : -
, beado-mece , -wine ;
( hearpe): -wudu , 1-
.

85. ,
,
: , , ,
, , , .
.
, ,
.
, , . .
. .
.

. . :



, ,
,
,
, 1.

.
-
,
. -,
. , ,
,
.
,
, .

1 1
J . . . .
. ., 1957, . 63.

81
. ,
.
.

86.

, ,
,
.

87.
, .
-:
-
;
: -
.

. , ,
, , fseder ,
sunu , , , eorl , ceorl ;
modor , dohtor , cwen
, ides .
, ,
. ,
, fot , ende
, ; 3 iefu , tun 3e ,
burh ; scip , word ,
. , ,
- ,
,
.

. ,
wlf , wifman, wimman
. mae3den
.
;
,
, ,
-,
.

1 ,
.

82
88.
. (
, . 105).

89.
: , , .
<
, . 115)1.

.
. ,
2-
:
oppidum , oppida;
3- , ,
opus , opera.
, , ,
, ,
,
,
, .
,
,
;
,
.
, -

2- -urn,

(, iiortum hortus
, lupum lupus . .).


.

.

( )
90.
( 27, 28)
.

1 , ,
,
, , ,

83
,
- - : faeder modor
, , sweostor .

,
:
, ,
dae3 -, ,
, ,
,
--.

- 1

91. -
.

.
-as;
: 1) ,
2) .


- ; 2
.


;
-.
, -, .
-
, , 2-
hortus , oppidum .

,
.
,
.
1
,

,
. , ,
S. . C a r p e n t e r An I n t ro d u c t io n to the S tu dy of the A n g lo -S a xo n L a n
g u a g e ( B o s t o n , 1891). C m . 103.
2 .
, , : ban
, 11 , fyr . ,
, : word
, bearn . .

84

- - .

-. ,
-
. , , . . .

. ,
,
,

- .

. stan scip * ban *


. stanes scipes banes
. stane scipe bane
. stan scip ban

. reced nieten
. recedes nietenes
. recede nietene
. reced nieten v
\

. stan as scipu ban reced nietenu


. stana scipa bana reced a nletena
. stanum scipum banum recedum nletenum
. stanas scipu ban reced nietenu


. ,

,
.

. . . .
. das dasas fa t fatu
. dases dasa fates fata
. d ase dasum fate fatum
. das dasas fa t fatu
85
, -f
;
, : ]) ,
pae^es, pa^as;
, lifes,
Hf .

,
, : t a ce n , ta cnes; h eafo d
, h e a fd e s; tu n jo l ,
tunsles.
, -Ih, h
, ;
, : seolh : seoles,
seo le.
- , , : ) 1
3
, eorl , helm , h r i n , ;
2 ) dor , hof , , word , deor
, , .

-/

92.
-.

-j- .
( -ja-)
, ,
-, ( 22);
,
-

-.

. here ende
. hrycses her(i3)es endes
. her(i3)e ende
. here ende

. () rice
. cynnes rices
. rice
. () rice
86

. hryc 3(e)as her(i) 3(e)as endas cyn(n) nc(i)u


. () her(i)3(e)a enda cynna ric(e)a
. hryc 3(i)um her(i)3um endum cynnum ric(i)um
. hryc 3 (e)as her(i) 3(e)as endas cyn(n) ric(i)u

-ja , , : 1)
wec3 , , fiscere ; 2)
net , bed wite .
-ja
, , 2-
gladius , officium .

-wa

93.
-.

. bearu bealu . bearwas bealu


. bearwes bealwes . bearwa bealwa
. bearwe bealwe . bearwum bealwum
. bearu bealu . bearwas bealu

-u - : bearo , b ea lo .
, , : ) . 1
2
snaw , jjeaw , Oeow ; ) . searu , t re o w
, cn eow .

94. -
.
: 1)
, 2) .

-;

.

. swajiiu for tisol *


. swa|)e fore ti 1
. swape fore tisole
. swape fore 1
87

. swapa fora tiso la


. swapa fora tiso la
. swapum forum tisolum
. swapa fora tiso la


, : sawol ,
saw le; frofor , frofre.
, , ,
sceam u , ondswaru , lufu , 1
, ,
, ides .

-
,
1- silva .

- .

-. ,

(. ),
- . , ,
- - ,
-.

-jo

95.
-.

-j- .
( - j o - )
.

.
.
.
.

, , sibb ,
3
, sec , hild , .

-j o
,
1- copia .
88
-wo

96.
-.

. sceadu maed sceadwa maedwa


. sceadwe msedwe sceadwa maedwa
. sceadwe maedwe sceadwum maedwum
. sceadwe maedwe sceadwa maedwa
, , beadu , n earu
, l<s .

-/

97. .
- (
) - (
).
.

. sise hyll sife hilt "


. sises hylles sifes hiltes
. sise hylle sife hilte
. sise hyll sife hilt

. sise, siseas hyllas sifu hilt


. sisea hylla sifa hilta
. sisum hyllum sifum hiltum
. si 3e, siseas hyllas sifu hilt


, :
1 , Seaxe *, Mierce , Norphymbre
, Dene .
:

. 1
. 1
. 1
. 1

Mierce S e a x e
-, ( 99 ): M ie rcn a , S e a x n a .

89

. .
. hyd , hyde, hyda
. hyde hyda
. hyde hydum
. hyd hyde, hyda


- -.
s * :
s s , saS, sae;
safcs, s $ w a , saem, s s ;
: sae (saSs),
saB; saB, saBwa,
s3Bm, saB. 5 ,

; aBwa,
.
1
, , : ) :
, , m ete , bite ; daBl , 3
iest ,
dry nc ; 2) : spere , flaBsc ; 3)
cw e n , w ih t .

- i
,
3- finis .

98.
.
-
.

-;

.

. sunu feld duru hand


. suna felda dura handa
. suna felda dura handa
. sunu feld duru hand

. suna felda dura handa


. suna felda dura handa
. sunum feldum durum handum
. suna felda dura handa
90

:
sunu suno, suna;

suna
sunu, suno. feld
- ,
-: feldes,
felde,
feldas.

, ,
: w in te r
w in tr a .
, , ) : 1
wudu , medu ; weald , sumor ; 2
) :
nosu ; flor .

-
4- fructus .

- ( )
99.
-,
-;
, ,
.
.

. cwene * *
. cwenan
. naman cwenan
cwenan

. cwenan
. cwenena
. cwenum
. cwenan

- -, ,
, .
- , ,
1
: ) : j u m a , w ita , steo rra ,
2
, d e m a ; ) : , he orte ,
sunne ; 3) : .

91
-
braedu , fyrhtu .
- ( -)
-
, . . -
.
.

-
,
3- nomen .

100. ,
, , -


turn
n p i ^

*-*
.
. ^&*'. ]'<m<*TnUt hflfcscm-Sytfan , . .
fy*inj U cymv^lyo ,
Cp mdpt -mdi oyfy fbji&a.|i jaU.

X&pui hyazfr yoyfl'jtttMoy* Jwi ytWib ?-

Jttba,. hflm ftil^obcrr yaxnp' '*

yum-9f mj i e n t p t n epbyyiU. *| yytrtn
.
fwljz/k hljrzjec(bbe<.at or^cec 5
-,
Ml iojrr dftfr nt Tmlrr^.
. Crfzbmx bev&Wshtwb enbfypjtlbcL htkj&P'

trfctobfr fkljdj' rr&OflC Ittrib ,
,
rton'Mh'JbcnG'jolc W e & d ttt n4yj*^t.
nUj^* yijc pfymn onfam jwnjfr'. VVyedtytif >|iyt)C
' aJi P p p t jpbflcc homaa .
yftyycyon cvrotfijvt_5 #mb ya
|. jra tit*' *11 Sfa?btjUL
fimCPmtyfr mfte ffttpffabv foyux {e- flalanb fffcui 3- ,
yobr^v. Sjylc v<$^ ^<^yAc6rjM&ffo tflay* *ccuOi : pes (
e^o ^n bkvb ftcei bflp|u>5 |MTiime< ped-,
'&^ t S g r f lc b + ojObtti .-jJ^Sen ped-is), pax
Inm^&Uutan brtyfr &'. jrcyiji ( -,
cp^-bjifnc en/jftyn^.ye'cnytH^^fpcyqw^Jii^ -is), rex
|> Sfrjmm Jrjiffcji*; on cywiA *' ( reg-,
rmijuiNwj < ^ v tiutn frjiaunf'. (& rtfrno a itf a p reg-is) . .
^( & '
TTiaxnfciy ^^ lrrp5 crnnib I n ^
ctoyt] c1Jaa w e d jp m b mi\&!
fijuwbU. ^jjm baurgs ,
,
-
( X I .)
92
-i
baurgim.

,
.

:

. mann , fot top *


. mannes fotes topes
. menn fet tep
. mann fot top

. menn fet tef)


. manna fota tof>a
. mannum fotum topum
. menn fet tef>



,
. ,
*manni,
- i ,
,
. ,

- i ; ., , .
pedi , . podi.
,


.

.
haele|> monaf)
,

.
--.
,
,
-; ,
93
,
.
.

. hnutu 30s
. hnute , 36se,
. hnyte
. hnutu boc 30s
. mus
. muse, mys
. mys byris
. mus

. hnyte 3es mys byris


. hnuta boca musa bursa
. hnutum bocum sosum mflsum bursum
. hnyte ses mys byris

mann w lf m a n , w im m an '
*. :
, s a t , , wloh , duns , furh
3
, sulh , turf , ru t , IQs , druh ' ,
, , , niht , {) .
;
, 1, . niht

;
n ih te , n ih te s, nih te .
scrQd
: scr yd.
ealu
, , 1
eale{ja.


3- pes, pedis
, pax, pacis .

101. -
, :
faeder , , modor , dohtor , sweostor
.
.
94

. faeder bro *
. faeder, -es
. faeder
. faeder broJ

. modor dohtor ' sweostor '*


. modor dohtor sweostor
. meder dehter sweostor
. modor dohtor sweostor

. faederas bropor modru, -a dohtor, -tra, -tru sweostor


. faedera bropra modra dohtra sweostra
. faederum broprum modrum dohtrum sweostrum
. faederas bropor modru, -a dohtor, -tra, -tru sweostor

-
, ,
3- pater.

-es1
102.
,
-. -
-es
(, . 19).

. lamb cealf cild *


. lambes cealfes aeses cildes
. lambe cealfe cilde
. lamb cealf cild

. lambru cealfru cild, cildru


. lambra cealfra cilda, cildra
. lambrum cealfrum cildum
. lambru cealfru cild, cildru

1 ,
- , , -
faeder,
-es.

95
cild
-
-
(. 91). , , ,
--.

(. )
(. ), 3-
genus .

103. ( 91),
,

.
1958 .
. . . 1.
:
(, wealh, baecere, stede),
(scip, land, feorh, wite),
(talu, 3lof, daed),
D - (, byrne, ),
( sunu, hond; , rldend, haelef),
fot, 30s).


.

104.
: , , ,
, , ,
.

105. , ,
,
1 2- .

1 R. Q u i r k and . L . W n n. An Old E n g lis h G ra m m a r . L o n d o n , 1958.

96

1- 2- 3- 1- 2-


. ic pfi he heo h it wit 3it
. mln p in his hire his uncer incer
. me pe him hire him unc inc
. me, mec p e ,p e c h in e hie, hi hit unc, uncit inc, incit

1- 2- 3-

. we hie, hi, hy, heo


. fire eower hiera, hira, hyra, hiora, heora
. fis eow him
. fis, usic eow,eowic hie, hi, hy, heo
,
( ).

self (seolf, sylf) , : he hit sylf ne3eseah
; swa self talast .
, ;
self a ne-dorste under 3ewin aldre
.


, : hyrte
hine hord-weard ; he hyne -
wyrpte .

self, : ic pa sona eft me sylfum and-
wyrde .


106.
.
min, pin, uncer, incer, fire, eower
(. 114).
, sin ,

.

107. ,
,
,
: s mann (the man); seo sae (the sea);
paet lond (the land).
4 . . 97
so

. s5 ! seo
. paes par ,
. ,
. !
. , ,

fjes

pes
,
. (,

) -s
,
se, (,

) -s ,
. ,

.

. 1 peos, pios
. |)isses jjisses pisse
. 18, fissum, ^ pisse
. f)isne, f>is pas
. , j)is , pis

.
. {Mssa
. f>issum, fjeossum
.
.


108. hvva? ? hwaet?
? .
. hwa hwaet
. hwaes hwaes
68
. hwaem hwaem
. hwone hwaet
. hwy, hwl

hwilc ? ( *hwilic)
(. 114).


109. : 3ehwa (
hwa), 3ehwilc ,
, selc ( *a- 3 i-lic) , swilc
( ) se ilea
( ).


110. sum -
- .


111.
.

112.
, : -
3as, man hset Alpis , ;
butan paim dsele, under Dena onwalde waes ,
.
sepe,
se .
: Historia Anglorum, A lfred of ledene on
enslisc awende ,
, ieldran, pas stowa
hioldon , .
, se,
, ,
, (.
-, -, -, -).
, se
, : se dryhten,
sc eow pa mapmas 3eaf , *.
,
4* 99
, . .

.

113.
(, ), (
) (,
, , ).
,
, :
.

,
( 30).


114.
,

,
, ,
. , ,
.
,


, (, blind) ,
-ata (, blindata). -,

.
.

- -
1.

-, -

1)

115.

1 ( -i -) *
.

100
-;

.

. blaec blacu
. blaces blaces blaecre
. blacum blacum blaecre
. blaecne blaec blace
. blace blace

. blace blacu blaca


. blacra blacra blacra
. blacum blacum blacum
. blace blacu blaca

. 3od 30d sod


. 3odes 3odes 3odre
. 36dum 3odum sodre
. sodne 3od 3ode
. 3ode 3ode

. 3ode 3od soda


. 3odra sodra sodra
. sodum sodum 3odum
. 3ode 3od soda

2)

116.
,
.

. eadis eadi3 ead(i) 3u


. ead(i) 3es ead(i) 3es eadisre
. ead(i)3um ead(i) 3um eadisre
. eadisne eadis ead(i) 3e
. ead(i) 3e ead(i) 3e
101

. ead(i)se ead(i)su, eadis ead(i)sa


. eadisra eadisra eadisra
. ead(i) 3um ead(i) 3um ead(i) 3um
. ead(i)se ead(i)su, eadis ead(i)sa

-ja , -jo

117.
-, -. .

. swete swete swetu


. swetes swetes swetre
. swetum swetum swetre
. swetne swete swete
. swete swete

. swete swetu sweta


. swetra swetra swetra
. swetum swetum swetum
. swete swetu sweta

-wa, -wo

118. -wa, -wo


-, -.

. nearu nearu
. nearwes nearwes nearore
. nearwum nearwum nearore
. nearone nearu nearwe
. nearwe nearwe

. nearwe nearu nearwa


. nearora nearora nearora
. nearwum nearwum nearwun
. nearwe nearu nearwa
-i
-ja, - jo . , , *,
swice . -
w la cu cw ucu .

102

119.
,
.
- (,
).


M

. soda 3ode 36de 36dan


. sodan 36dan 36dan 36dra (sodena)
. 36dan 36dan 36dan 36dum
. 36dan 36de 36dan 36dan

120.
-ja , -jo.

. drincende drincende drincendu


. drincendes drincendes drincendre
. drincendum drincendum drincendre
. drincendne drincende drincende
. drincende drincende

. drincende drincendu drincenda


. drincendra drincendra drincendra
. drincendum drincendum drincendum
. drincende drincendu drincenda


, .
,
.
:

. . writen teald writen teald writen(u) teald


. . writene tealde writen(u) teald writena teald
103

. . writena tealda writene tealde writene tealde


. . writenan tealdan writenan tealdan writenan tealdan


121. ,
-z- -st-
- -,
-i-; ., ,
swings swinpoza swinposts manags
managiza managists ( .
.-. ; . 19).

, - -, -st-
-i-.

;

.


earm earmra earmost
blaec blaecra blacost


:
eald ieldra (< * e a ld ir a ) ieldest (< *ealdist)
strons strensra ( < *stron 3ira) strensest (< *stron 3ist)
1 1 ( < * l o n 3ira) lensest (< *lon 3ist)
( < * 1) sin sest (< * 3eon 3ist)


.
( bet era betst
36d
\ selra selest
yfel wiersa wierest
mi cel maest
lytel laessa laest


:
feor fierra fierrest, fyrrest
neah niehst, nyhst
aErest
fore furpra fyrest
104


122. 1 3 .
4 19 ,
,
, ;
, ,
-es -, -, -um.
1 .
Mt/

2 - . twesen tfl, twa twa


. twesea, twesra
. twSim, twam
. twesen til, twa twa

. fine, prT, fry jrio, freo frfo, freo


. , freora
.
. frie, fr i, fry , freo frio, freo

4 feower 16 siextiene 100 hundteon-


5 fit 17 siofontlene tis , hund,
6 siex, six, syx 18 eahtatlene hundred
7 seofon, siofon, 19 nisontlene 110 hundaellef-
syfon 20 twentis tis
8 eahta (< *tw e3 en ti3 ) 120 hundtwelf-
9 n ison 30 f r itis ti3
10 tien, tyn, ten 4 0 feower tis 200 Q hund
11 endlefan 5 0 flfti 3 300 hund
12 twelf 6 0 siextis, s ix tis 1000 ffisend
13 friotien e, 70 hundsiofontis 2000 fiisendu
-tyne 8 0 hundeahtatis
14 feowertlene 90 hundnisontis
15 fiftiene

twesen, tu, twa ,


bu, ba.

: 22 twa and tw entis, 48 eahta and feowertis.
an
,
, : fa 1 far an micel ()
.
sum
, , : waes sum brofor ()
105
; stod him sum mon aet swefn
() .
, ,
: he
waes swype spedis man .


123. ,
, ;
.
1 forma, fyresta 12 twelfta 6 0 s ie x tis o S a
2 , aefterra 13 3reoteo3a 7 0 hundsiofon-
3 Joridda, JMrda 14 feowerteo3a tiso d a
4 feorfja 15 fifteo3a 8 0 hundeahtati-
5 fifta 16 siexteoSa
6 siexta, sixta, 17 siofonteoSa 9 0 h u n d n ison ti-
syxta 18 eahtateo3a
7 siofofa 19 nisontgoSa 1 0 0 hundteonti-
8 eahtopa 2 0 twentisoSa
9 3 0 1 1 0 hundaellefti-
10 teof>a 4 0 feow ertisoSa
11 endlefta 5 0 fiftisoSa 1 2 0 hundtw elfti-


: 2 2 twa and tw entisoSa twentisum;
48 eahta and feowertisoSa eahtoda feowertisum.

124.
,
.

125.
.
.
, : Finnas and Beormas sprsecon an
3epeode ()
.
, : eart Beowulf se wi|j Brecan
wunne? , ?

126. ,
: cyninsa setruman ; folces serihtu
; sarsecses ;
106
: eall seo , nu is on
1, friora monna ,
( ) '.

, : | dasa faesten
, . . ' '.
,
, ,
, . ., : full wraetta ond wira
; firenlusta claene '
; mor9res scyldi 3
; , ,
, . ., : ic | biddan
wilie anre bene (.:
); | bad westanwindes
; wundrade ic swi9e, swi9e sodena
wiotona , .

. , ,
, : 3if peof brece
mannes hus nihtes ;
monn sepe his sewealdes monnan ofslea ,
.

.
,
: irnef) wi> his eardes .

127. ,
,
. ',
', , . ., : Ohthere saede his hla-
forde, y E lf^d e ,
; he bebad Tituse his suna ,
; ic sona selfum andwyrde
; sins rne hwaethwusu -.
,
, , , ,
. ., : faet is
; waes him man \1 .

. ,
: on sande , fram fondum , won
wif) winde .


.
, ,
107
, ,
, , : A lfred cyning hatep sretan
WaerferS biscop his wordum
; tryddode setrume micle '
; ealle feorh e a ljia n
; opre narnan ; ilcan
; ceolum llSan .

, ,
.

,
: mid scipe 99 .

, : sewiton mid waese ;
mid folce .

128. ,
,
, : se here paet lond 3eode ;
pone cynins Bursraed ofer sae adraefdon
.
, :
hyne (.:
; . . mich hungert); mec lonsade '
(.: ); hine lyst .
, : sefeaht
wip pone here ; on land sti 3on
.
,

, : let him ealnewes paet weste land on
paet steorbord, and pa widsae on baecbord pry da3as
,
. ealnew es
pry dasas .

129.
. ( V II)
:
,
1 3-
, 2-
108
,
;
1.
, ,

(grammatischer Wechsel), (. 19);

,
.

f.
. .
. . . .

I
[I] []
writ * wrat writon writen
fsnipan * snap snidon sniden

II
[] [] [u ] []
beodan bead budon boden
fceosan ceas curon coren

I I I
) +

[i] [ ()] [] []
drincan dranc druncon druncen

) I +

[] [] [] []
helpan healp hulpon holpen

) + , +

[] [] [u] [o]
steorfan stearf sturfon storfen
fw eorSan wearS wurdon worden
feohtan feaht fuhton fohten

1 ,
.
; , , . ( . S w e e t .
A N ew E n g lis h G r a m m a r . V. I. O x f., 1892) I
V I I , II V I , II I I I I , I V IV, V V , VI I, V II II;
. (R . u c h o n . H is t o ir e de la lang ue a n g la ise . V. I.
P a r i s , 1923) I V , II IV , III I I I , I V I,
V I I , VI V I , V I I V II.

109
IV
I,

[] [] [] []
stelan stael staelon stolen
baer baeron boren
V

[] [] Jae] [e]
tredan traed traedon treden
fcw epan cwaep cwaedon cweden

VI
[a] [] [] [a]
faran for foron faren
V II
hatan het heton haten
feallan feoll feollon feallen
cnawan cneow cneowon cnawen

130. -

(. 25). ,

, ,

.

,
( 24). , II

(budon boden) ,
,
, ,
,
,
.

III helpan, steorfan,
weorpan feohtan.
131. I : b ellfan ' , cllf a n ' ,
d rlfa n ' , ' , b lt a n ' , s l lt a n ' , besml-
tan ' , 3 e w ltan ' , bldan ' , 3 lid ' , rldan
' , si id ' , s t r i d a n ' , ' ,
sican ' , ' , s cin a n ' , arisa n '
, 1 1 1 {) ' .

110
I scrlfan
' , s c r lb e r e ' .
II : ' , c l e o fa n ' , c e o w a n
3
' , fle o ta n ' , e o ta n ' , 3
re o t a n ' , n e o t a n '
, s c e o t a n ' , 1
' , b ow an ' ,
' , f ^ o s a n ' , t ^ o s a n ' , fo rleo sa n ' ,
' .
III : a) bindan ' , fin dan ' ,
3 rindan ' , sw indan ' , w indan ' , ' ,
sinn an ' , spin nan ' , w in nan ' , '
3 3 3 3
, sin an ' , s p r i n an ' , s t i n an ' , s w in an '
, sinca n ' , clim b a n ' , ' ,
s w im m a n ' .
3
) delfan ' , sw e l an ' , m e ltan ' ', sw eltan '
, bellan ' , sw ellan ' , mel can ' .
) ce o rfan ' , hweorf an ' , w eorpa n ' ,
' , ' .
IV : cw elan ' , hela n ' , te ra n
' , b re ca n ' .
V : m etan , swefan , wefan *,
cnedan , sp re ca n , w re ca n , lesan ,
etan ( S t ) , wesan
( 149).
3
VI : 1 , rafan , h la d an ,
3
w adan , d r a an , , , s c (e)acan
, w ascan, w a x a n (. 63).
VI I : ) []
: blondan ' , o n d rS d a n
, r s d a n , , l s t a n , s l S p a n ,
laca n , sca dan ; ) [] : fe a ld an
, heald an , w e ald a n , s e a l ta n , w e alcan
, sponnan ; ) [ ]: b e a t a n , -
wan , , \^ , blowan , flowan
, 3 rowan , hlowan , rowan , spowan
, bla w an , cr aw an ( ), m aw an , sawan
, ra w a n .

132. (
, ) V II
, :
V II
. ,
,
: heht hatan
het; leolc lacan
; leort laetan . ,
, feallan ,
feoll cnawan
cneow, , ,
,
f, . . ,
,
. ,
V II .
1 .

111
133.
.
: 1)
; 2)
-i ; 3)
4) .
1.
III V :
III . sieldan seald 3uldon solden
sielpan 1 3ulpon 3olpen

V . siefan' 3eaf seafon siefen


sietan seat Seaton sieten

2. ()
-j-
V VI :
V . biddan baed baedon beden
() 1 laeson lesen
sittan saet saeton seten
VI . swerian swor sworon sworen
hebban hof hofon hafen
f hliehhan 03 630 hlaesen
staeppan stop stopon stapen
scieppan 1 scop scopon sceapen
( sceddan scod scodon sceaden
3. ,
-h-, (I, II, V .V I,
V II ):
I . f teon tah tison tisen
f eon |>ah i 3on i 3en
t wreon wrah wrison wri3en
11 . f teon teah tuson to 3en
f fleon fleah
V . f sefeon 3efeah 3efaegon
| seon seah sawon, sewen,
s $ 3on sawen,
se 3en
VI . f slean slos sloson slaesen
t flean fl03 floson
f lean I63 30 1
f 5wean 9wo3 9w63on Swaejen
V II . f fon ( < *farihan) fens fenson fansen
f hon (< * h a n h a n ) hens

1 .

112

.
4. :
1) II
[] [];
II . :
' leac lucon locen

,
, dufan , lutan , scufan
, slupan , supan .
2) I II
:
berstan baerst burston borsten
brejdan braesd brusdon brojden
frijn a n , frinan fraejn frusnon frusnen
(friinon) (friinen)
Serscan Saersc 6urscon Sorscen
iernan orn urnon urnen
biernan born burnon burnen
murnan mearn murnon
spurnan spearn spurnon spornen
strejdan straejd strusdon strosden

3) IV :
niman , ,
' c(w)6m c(w)6mon cumen
niman
.
cuman , -,
, .
VI
-:
standan stod stodon standan

VI
-:
waecnan woe wocon wacen

134.
.
I; III , ; IV, V I; II, III ,
V, V II .
;
(
, sprecan, .-. speak V IV); ,
113
, ,
.
.

135.
,
. IV
(Tiinfullnan, fullnoda, fullnodedum )
.

: ,
.

- -on,

.
.
I

136. I
-i
. 1. -i
, .
2. () ,
- -, -i
, - , ()
, -
, --, -i , ,
. . (-
; . 22).

1. deman demde demed


hieran hierde hlered
2. a) nerian nerede nered
styrian styrede styred
6) fremman fremede fremed
cnyssan cnysede cnysed
-d-
-t- ( );
-t -ed:
cepte cept, ceped
3retan 3rette 3ret, 3reted
114
+ d
+ t,
-d, -t, -ded, -ted:

sendan * sende send, sended


restan * reste rest, rested

137. I
, - j- , ,
.

, .

. ,


,

. (, )
,

.

(. 345 550).
sellan sealde seald
tellan tealde teald
cwellan cwealde cweald
taec(e)an tahte taht
raec(e)an rahte raht
laecc(e)an laehte lseht
() bohte boht
sec(e)an sohte soht
wyrc(e)an worhte worht
3enc(e)an Sohte Soht
3ync(e)an Suhte Suht

,

. III
: -/1-,
-t-.
,
I :

brohte broht
115
138. I
;

,
, : drenc(e)an * *drancian drincan *;
senc(e)an * *sancian sincan *; cwel-
lan * *cwaelian cwelan ; spren3(e)an
* *spran 3 ian sprin3an *; a-swebban ,
* *swaefian swefan ; laEdan *la|>ian
*; *rasian risan *.

139. I :
berian , derian *, erian *, ferian ,
herian , amerian , werian *, 3ewe-
rian , byrian *, spyrian *,
*, ternman , trymman *, dennan
, wennan , clynnan , dynnan
, hlynnan *, hrissan , sce35an ,
sweSSan *, wreSSan *, wec3(e)an ,
3ic 3(e)an , settan , feran , laeran
*, celan , haelan *, 3 iernan *,
draefan *, laefan , fysan , dry3(e)an
, hlepan , metan *, wysc(e)an*,
byldan *, bendan , wendan *,
efstan *.

I I

140.
-oja- -- .

(-ode, -od) --
. -oja- -i-;
-ian.

macian macode macod


lufian lufode lufod
hopian hopode hopod

i-
, -i- ( -oja-) ,
.

141. II : lofian *, stic ia n ,


ea rd ia n , endian , scea w ian , w eordian
, w undria n , faestnian , maersian *.

116
I I I

142. III
III -ai.
.
III
.

,
. ,
, -j-.

I . habban
; , hebban
- , VI
hebban (. 133).
:
[]
[] (. 33),
- -, .

( ; 22),
-j- .
III
- . ,
, I II .
,
,
.

habban haefde haefd


libban lifde lifd
sec 3(e)an sae3de, saede sae3d, saed
hyc3(e)an ho3de ho 3od
() Sreade Sread
smea 3(e)an smeade smead
freo 3(e)an freode freod
feo 3(e)an feode feod

143.
,
, . ,
.
117

144.
.

I wrltan

. . 1 . write ) wrat \
2 . writest, writst > write writ write > write
3 . writep, writ J wrat J
. . writap writen 2 . writap writon writen

writan

. to writenne (wrltanne): writende ( 3e)writen

III bindan




. . 1 . binde 'j band, bond 'j
2 . bindest, bintst I binde bind bunde >bunde
3 . bindep, bint j band, bond j
. . bindap binden 2 . bindap bundon bunden

bindan bindende ( 3e)bunden

-e- 2 3-
;
-d -t, -dp -tp 3-
-t.
.
-,
.

2-
-, -
, : nu binde we.

1
to.

118
2 3-

()
-i-,
-st,
, helpan hilpst,
hilpf), feallan fielst, fielf), ceosan ciest, desf),
cuman cymst, . . , ,

.

145. , -h-,
: -h- ,
.

V seon

. . 1 . seo seah ]
2 . sTehst seo seoh sawe > sawe,
3 . slehp seah j
. . seop seon 2 . seo|) sawon, sse3on sawen, sse3en

seon seonde ( 3e)sewen, ( 3e)se3en

VII fon


. . 1 . fo 'j fens
2 . fehst > fo foh fense > fense
3 . fehfi J fens J
. . fof> fon 2 . fo fen son fen sen

fon fonde (se)fansen, (se)fonsen

146.
: 2 3-
2-
119
-i-
, .

. 2-
I -;
I
.

I styrian 1

. . 1 . styrie styrede
2 . styrest styrie styre styredest styrede
3 . styref , styrede
. . styriaf) styrien 2 . styriaf) styredon styreden

sty rian styriende ( 3e)styred

I tellan



. . 1 . telle 'I tealde
2 . telest, tellest > telle tele, tell tealdest > tealde
3 . telefj, te lle f J tealde J
. . tellaji tellen 2 . tellaf tealdon tealden

tellan tellende ( 3 e)teald

II luffian



. . 1 . lufie lufode 'J
2 . lufast lufa lufodest 1 lufode
3 . lufaf) lufode J
. . lufiaf) 2 . lufiaf) lufodon lufoden

lufiende ( 3e)lufod
120
III sec3(e)an


- - -

. . 1 . \ saesde 'j
2 . saesst (sasast) > sae3e(sa 3a) sae3dest > saesde
3 . saesf) (sa 3af>) j sae3de j
. . sec 3(e)af> secsen 2 . sec 3(e)a sae3don saesden

sec3(e)an sec3ende ( 3e)sae3d

III libban


- - -

. . 1 . libbe 'l lifde


2 . liofast > libbe liofa lifdest v lifde
3 . liofafj j lifde J
. . libbaf) libben 2 . libbaf) lifdon lifden

libban libbende ( 3e)lifd

III habban


- - -

. . 1. haebbe \ haefde ")


2 . hafast, haefst > haebbe hafa haefdest > haefde
3 . hafaf), haeff J haefde J
. . habbajj haebben 2 . habbafi haefdon haefden

habban haebbende ( 3e)haefd


ne: ne habban > nabban, ne haebbe > naebbe, ne haefde >
naefde.
121

147.
, .

- .
, , haitan
( ):

. . 1 . haitada haitaidau
2 . haitaza haitaizau
3 . haitada haitaidau
. . haitanda haitaindau


.

.
.

, , , ,
, .
V II hatan
1 3- hatte
hatton. hatte, -,
haitada (.
. satida . -a. sette), hatton

.
,
.

, , ,
.
, . .
.


, . .
.
(. 159, 160).

-
1+8. -
.
,
122

. ,
wat,
witon; wisse wiste.
,
I (.,
, ras rison),
(wisse < *wit-te).
,
,


(. 32). ,
.
:
,

.
- .
,
, ,
( 34), , .
-
, ,
:
; ;
. .

,
perfec-
tum praesens, : memini , novi , odi
.
oida pepoitha '.
-
,
.
,
, . , ,

V ( --
),
,
V
.
man sceal
, ,
, :
man
123
munon, sceal sculon.
,
IV .
, -

, IV .

( = )
-

1) . . 1 . wat \
2 . wast (< *w a tt) > wite wite
3 . wat J
. . witon witen 2 . witap

( )

. . . wisse, wiste
. wistest, wistest > wisse, witan
. wisse, wiste 1 wiste
witende
. . wisson, wiston wissen,
wisten
witen


ne: ne wat > nat, ne wisse > nysse.

- -

2) . . 1 . ahte }
2 . ahst ahtest > ahte ,
3 . ahte I
. . ahton ahten

3) . . 1 . deas
2 .
3 . deas
duse |
dusan

. . duson dusen dusende

4) . . 1 . ^\
'j
unnan
2 . > Qdest >


3 .
. .
124

5) . . 1 .
2 . canst
3 . I cuSest




. . cunnen cunnen,

6) . . 1 . 5earf 3orfte \
2 . 8earft 3urfe Sorftest > 3orfte 3urfan
3 , 5earf Sorfte I

Searfende
. . 5urfon Surfen 3orfton Sorften

7) . . dear(r) dorste
dearst durre dorstest dorste
dear(r) dorste
. . durron durren dorston dorsten
8) . . 1 JI. sceal(l)
] sceolde \
2 . scealt > scule sceoldest > sceolde sculan
3 . sceal(l) J sceolde I
. . sculon sculen sceoldon sceolden

9) . . 1 . man \ munde \
2 . manst > mune mundest > munde munan
3 . man I munde I

munende
. . munon munen mundon munden

munen
10) . . 1 . ^ meahte, mihte ^
2 . meaht > meahtest, mihtest [> mihte
3 . i meahte, mihte J
. . meahton, mihton mihten




masende
11) . . 3 . * 3enohte
. .
12) . . 1 . mot moste \
2 . most > mote mostest > moste
3 . mot J moste I
. , moton moten moston mosten
125

, wesan '

1+9. ,
, . .
.
: be-, wes- e s -1.
: . . sein war bin, .
, . sum fui. , -
, , ,
, ,
.
,
: be-, . fu-,
. - phy-,
(. . physis ).
:
.: . , . aller je vais j irai.

, .: je vais nous allons.
-,
, : ,
,
, . .
.
, wesan

. . 1 . , )
2 . eart, bist wes, beo
3 . is,
. . sint, , slen, sin, , wesap, beop
sind (on) syn

-


wesan,

. . 2 . waeron waeren wesende, beonde

1 wesan
. : ,
: wesan,
, wes- es-, , .

126

ne: ne is > nis, ne waes > naes, ne waeron > naeron.
wesan waes waeron V
s .
, be-,
.


- -

. . 1 . 1 gode
2 . 3gst } eodest
3 . ) gode
. 2 . godon

, 3ande,
! ()
2 3-

.
don wlllan

150.
.
don

. . 1 . do dyde 'i
2 . dgst do do dydest | dyde
3 . dgp dyde
. . dop don 2 . dop dydon dyden


don donde (3e)don

don 2 3-

.

.
/ .
127
wlllan ''

. . 1 . wille wolde
2 . wilt } wille woldest \ wolde
3 . wil(l)e ) wolde )
. . w illa^ willen woldon wolden

willan willende


ne: ne wille > nylle, nelle; ne wolde > nolde . .


1. :

:
\

151.
,
. h- w-.
:
1. habban : ne habban > n ab b a n , ne haefde > naefde.
2. wesan : ne is > nis, ne waes > naes, ne waBron >
naBron.
3. w itan : ne w at > n a t, ne w ito n > n yto n, ne w iste >
nyste.
4. w illa n : ne wille > nylle, nelle, ne wold e > nolde.

, ,
. .

1 5 2 .

(IV .) ,
,

1 ,
w ilja n
: w il ja n , wileis , w ili, w ile im a , wileijj, w ileina.

128

.
,
,
. ,
, , 2.
:
, ,
,
(
3 - ).
,
.

( ,
):
-.

,
, , .

(. 1 5 9 , 160 ).

153.
.
,
, , ( 3 2 ) , ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
,
, . . ,
.
.
,
^ - . ^ - -

1 ,
IV .
- . , ,
,
,
.
2 1 3-
, :
,
-.

^ . . 129
, . .
,
, . .
. , seah ,
3 eseah .
band 3 eband.
. - ,
,
. , , cu man ,
- ,
sae3de : {ja com
3
he on to t u n erefan
; O hthe re saBde his h la forde, , paet he e alra Norjjmonna
norjjmest bude , ,
.
nim a n , : Ond fjy
namon W e s t s e a x e fri{j wi{j {jone here (
: ) () .
,
, (
),
- ( ).
,
, , -
, , , ,
.

.
( 159, 160).

154.
.


. , ,

: eft - mot
to medo m odis, sippan -leoht ofer ylda beam opres dosores,
sunne swesl-wered supan scmep , ,
,
, , , .

: Of forp se heretosa, sepe rmn
folc , ; Ic paes
purhrumne.sefan raed 1, he frod ond 3od feond
oferswypep
, , , .

be - , : hi
3ef^fred e ; bip laest genemned
; ic nat hwaenne mine dasas
, .
130

,
. sculan
willan ,
,
.
sculan
,
: nu ic eower sceal frum-cyn witan
; swa sceal man don
. , ,
,
, : ic { 3odan sceal for his mod-f)raece
maOmas beodan
; sceal hrinsnaca ofer heafu lac and luf-tacen
.
willan
.
, : hyde se-f)e wylle ,
; ic hine sweorde swebban nelle .
;
: w ille ic asecsan
; ic f>aes wine D enisa, frean Scildinsa frinan wille
, ; nu wylle we
ymbe Europe londsemsere areccean '
.
,
.

1 5 5 . ,
,

, .
: f>aes ofer Eastron 3efor JE p ered cynin3, and he rfxode
fif , .

haefde
, : hie haefdon hlera cynin3 awor-
penne ( ) .
-
( 356 .).

1 5 6 . ,
, .
,
,
5* 131
. , ,
, ,
: swae claene hlo waes opfeallenu on 1-
cynne, paet swipe feawa waeron behionan Humbre, pe hiora
cupen understondan on en3lisc oppe furpum an aerend3ewrit of
laedene on en3lisc areccean ()
,
, -

.

157.
.
, . , far to
heorde and me twa pa betstan tyccenu
; wes us larena
3od (. . ).
, ,
: on saelum wes, 3old-wine
, .

158.
.
.
.

, : se ,
f he , .

, : haefde ic aelteowe penas, naere ic
pus eapelice oferswlped ,
; 3if waere her, naere min
bropor dead , .

, .
, : onsende H i3elace, 3if mec
hild nime, beaduscrflda betst ,
(. . ), ;
, ,
: ic de bebiode #aet # do, swae ic 3ellefe, #aet wille
, , , ;
: him waes leofre, #aet hine man
ofslo3e ponne hine man 3ebunde ,
, .


, : ne meahte ic aet hilde mid Hruntin3e
wiht 3ew yrcan, peah paet waepen du3e -
132
() , ; 3ebad
wintra worn, he on we3 hwurfe ,
.

: he saede #aet Nor^manna land waere swype 1 and swyjbe
smael ,
; ] sae3don hie paet him paet llcede and leof waere
, .

: ahsi3e eft hu 1 sio sibb 3estode ,
; # bip 3esaed hwaet 3edafeni3e to donne
, ; hie woldon witan hu
heah waere to pam hefone and hu #icce se hefon waere o##e hwaet
paer ofer waere , ,
, .

159.
,
.
,
habban .
,
, ,
, .

.
hie haefdon hiera
cynin3 aworpenne (. 155 ). :
( ).

: ()
.
,
,
- , ,
:
.
.

: haefde se 3oda 3 e a ta leoda cempan (:
, . .
( ) );
nu scealc hafaf) purh drihtnes miht daed 3efremede (:
,
. . () ).
133
,
, : haefde -
niri3-wuldor 3rendle to3eanes, swa 3efrun3on, sele-weard
aseted (: ,
, , . .
() , ).
,
, asetedne.
,
wesan, ; ,
.
,
: is his eafora nu heard her cumen
(: ); her synd 3eferede
feorran cumene .
,
,
habban .

habban.

160. ,
wesan, weorpan
.
; ,
,
. , , ) waes 8 3Upfana
,
, : , . .
, (
). wearp ofslaesen
. ,

: wesan,
, weorpan .
, ,
,
: ,
. , ,
weorpan,
,
,
. , habban
wesan,
, .

.
134
161.
. ,

willan
, ,
: nolde ic sweord beran, wsepen to wyrme, 3if ic wiste
hu wifj psem 1 elles meahte 1 wijxsrlpan
, , ,
; ic suna
rninum syllan wolde 3uf)3ew2edu, pser me 3 ifepe swa am i3 yrfe-
weard aefter wurde lice 1
, , ()
. , ,
.

sculan

, : ic Jaaes purh
sefan raed 1, hu he frod ond 30d feond oferswypef) 3yf him
edwendan aefre scolde bealuwa bissu
, ,
, , -
.

.

162.
, . . -
, , . .
.

, , { , { , { ,
]3ider , , hwonne? ? , hwaer? ? ,
hwider? ? , hwonan? ?, , her ,
hider , heonan . ,
, : sona , oft , eft
, swa . .
,
.
, -

,

.
135
, ,
: hwilum (
hwil
); : # ic . . . # boc wendan on en3lisc
. . . hwilum word be worde, hwilum and3it of and3iete
. . . . . .
, (. .
, ).
, -,

( ; .
, 115 .). -
.
,
, : wide , deope ,
faeste , hearde , freondlice .

163.
,

-lie ( , ,
, , , -).
, ,
luf 11 freondlic .

- , ,
, ,
: .

, . . -,
( - + -),
.
-
,
-, , bealdllce beald
, * bealdlic .

164. ,
,
, : -
-st .
--:

wide * widor widost


136
165.
,
, : 1 1 , feor(r)
fierr , softe seft , ] ief)
4 . , , ,

-, -i-; ,
, , -.

166. ,
,
, :
wel betre best
yfele wiers, wyrs wierst, wyrst
micele mare maest
lytle laesse laBst

167. ,
,
. ,
sofdice : f)a him ! waes,
3esae3d so|)lice sweotolan tacne heal-|)e3nes hete
,
(. . ); swa we sojblice sec3an hyrdon
, , he sofdice saesde ofer ealie
.
, .
, ,
,
- .

.

168.

,
.
,
.
,
. -

1 (
) . .
(1 947).

137
, : ond ymb feower niht ridon twesen
eorlas up (:
) . ,
, ,
,
,
-; .:
. . : ic stise
; astah on heofonum ; ic
inn ; com in ealdor ()
.
, , ,
: waes aefter wiste
wop ahafen (:
).
,
, ,
.
,
,
.

169.
.
, .

.

: 1) , . . ,
-
; 2) , . .
. , ,
, ,
, ,
, .
: of
, , at , , fram , to , wi , be ,
, , , under , ofer , aefter .
: beforan ( *be + foran),
bfltan ( *be + fltan), ,
, . .
,
, :
be ,
, : aet stunda 3ehwam
138
, for unfri|)e
- .
,
] menn of Lundenbyris fetodon scipu
.


. , ,
, ,
.

170.

.
.
,
,
. , ,
, . ,
, . (
,
; . 169 ).
a n d , .
- . . .
. . . .
- 3if .
hw onne
( ), ( ), ( ),
, |>aet(te) , swa ^ ,
, . .

(. 213 .).

171-

.
. -, ,
,
, . (
, ,
). ,
, . . ,
.
139

: ia , , wa .
-,
hwaet,
, ,
, ,
: Hwaet! we -Dena in -
- prym gefrtinon !
! ,
: Hwaet! aet secsan efne swa hwylc ^, swa
| cende !
, .

.

172. -
, :
. ,
- ;
-, -, -, -, : 630
, { heo rta . .
-
-es ( -)
-, : { j r e saules .


{,
{ (. se, seo). ,
, :
fj- .
-
3 1
- , : drinca , sin a . -

3
-, - (. -), : ic drincu ; ic sin o .
2 2
- -
-s
2
(. -st), . . -
{, : {ja drinces , Jja lufodes . 3-
-es
(. -efj), : he drinces .
-as (. -a{j); hi a drincas
.
-s -{j
. , 3-
is .
-and e (. -end e), :
drincande . .

arun (. sind, sindon,
beo}j).

. , ,
3
I : s t i an st ij e d e ;

140
3
rippede; h n n a n * hrlnade;
II : reo h te ; supan sQpede;
3
II I : bin dan binde; d ri n an
3
d i d; sw in an s w in j d e ; w orpan
3 3 3
w orpade; strae dan * s t r i d e ; f r e nan fr e nade;
VI : hebban hefde; V I I
: slS p a n slaepte; ondraedan ondraEdde, sc ea d an
scead ade.
,
, ,
.

173. ,
, ,
.
,
.

,
.

174.
, :
, ,
. ,
.

175.
, : com se fore-
sprecena swylce hider on Bryttas
; pa stod him sum
mon aet fmrh swefn ;
ponne wif) norpan Donua aewielme and be eastan Rine sindon
Eastfrancan
.

: 1) : ] aras he from ) slaepe
; haebbe we scortlice 3esaed mb Asia lond-
141
; 2)
: paet waes 36d ! ! ; paet
is wynsum won3 ; 3 ) :
hwa 3estillep paet? ?

176. ,
, .

177. .
:
pis aerendsewrit A sustinus ofer sealtne sae supan brohte iesbuen-
dum
; haefde pa sefohten foremaerne blaed Iudip at
; pa aras he fram
paem slaepe .

cunnan, motan :
ne con ic noht sinsan ; no he wiht fram
me flod- feor fleotan meahte
.

178. .
- .
wesan () ,
weorpan .

;
, : paet waes 3od !
! ; hals is min hwit ;
wurdon blipe burhsittende (.:
) ; underne Froncum ond Frysum fyll cynin-
3es wide weorpep
.
+ : here waes on lustum
.

179.
(
) . , ,
142
.

, ,
,
, . . ,
.

He forlet f)2et hus fiaes 3ebeorscipes


; f>a heht heo sesomnian ealle f)a selaeredestan men
.

: parn wife pa word wel licodon


; waes se iren-fireat waepnum -
wurpad ; saesde him,
hwelce ^ he onfens , ; mael
is me to feran .
: he had westanwindes
; ic paes wine D enisa, frean Scildinsa frinan
wille , .

Nu haebbe we scortlice 3esaed ymb Asia londsemaere


; ne f ) aefter saelum
; f>a aras he fram paem slaepe
.

180. ,
(,
, . .),
, .
: he waes swyfie spedis man
; ic forfxm of f)yssum sebeorscipe ut eode
; sunu min, hlyst mfnre lare ,
.
143

181.
.
, : him waes
ealnew ej paet land on paet steorbord
; ne muntas steape stondap
, ; on feawum stowum styccemae-
lum wfciap Finnas ;
he saede paet Norpmanna land waere swype 1 ond swype smael
, .
,
: pa waes on pa tid iCpelbryht haten on Cent
(.:
( ) ; in pysse abbudissan mynstre waes sum bropor
; he bude on
lande norpweardum wip pa WestsaB ,
.

182. ,

: her iCpelstan , eorla dryhten, beorna bBahsifa, and
his bropor eac, Eadmund , ealdorlansne tlr 3eslo3on aet
saecce , , ,
, ,
.

183.
, , :
sunu min, hlyste minre lare , ;
aris, faeder mfn , ; ia, leof, ic hit eom ,
, .

184. '
, : witodlice seo stemn is Iacobes stemn
, ; fram sylle medu-
benc moni3 mine !
, (.: )

1 ,
,
, .

144

185.

.
,
,
.
.

186.
:
1) ,
2) .
(
) (
). , ,
6 3 , 37 .
: straet waes stan-fah; sti3 wi-
sode aetsaedere
, ; hete waes onhrered, hord-weard
oncniow mannes reorde ,
() .
: lixte se leoma
; naes seo fracod hilde-rince
; ne nom he in wicum, W eder-3eata leod, m a 9 m-aehta
, , ; waes
sio swytswadu Sweona ond 3eata, wael-raes weora wide 3esyne
,
; waes se 3rim m a 3aest 3rendel h aten
; waes seo hwil micel .
,
.

, , ,
, , f)us .
: com in ealdor ()
; waes be feaxe on flet boren 3rendles heafod
;
saesdon ! saeliQende () ;
is ^ines maesnes blaed ane hwile
; waes fela of feor-wesum fraetwa
3elaeded ;
aet stod hrinsed-stefna ,
. : her braec se here on
145
fri 9 ; aras
he from slaepe ; het heo -
somnian ealle selairedestan men
; 5 wundrade ic ;
seslede he su 9 rihte .
(,
, ), ,
,
, : her 11 forf>ferde
; nu ic suna minum syllan wolde -
sewaedu ; nu ic,
Beowulf, , betsta, me for sunu wylle freosan
, , , , ()
.

187. ,
,
, ,
, ,
. , :
oft Scyld Scefins sceaSena , meodo-
setla ofteah , , ,
, ; we |>aet ellen-weorc estum
miclum feohtan fremedon
, ; ic hine hraedlice heardan clammum on
wael-bedde wriSan
; sona him sele- sides
w ersum , feorran-cundum for 5 wisade ,
, , .
,
70 ;

,
.
- : Eadmund him wi|>feaht,
and Deniscan sise namon, and cynins ofsloson, and !;
lond all seeodon , , ,
. AL1 pe\+
stan cyning and Ealchere dux micelne here ofsloson aet Sondwie
on Cent, and nison scipu sefensun and sefliemdon

,
.
: her Ceorl aldormon sefeaht wi
men mid Defenascire aet W icsan b earse
.

, : Ohthere saede his hlaforde, ^ l f r e d e
146
, ! he ealra nor^mest bude
, ,
; he f>as andsware onfens, on-
he sona sinsan ,
.
(
);
, : he cwae3 ! he bude
no^ew eardum \1 Westsae ,
; he saede 3 aet NorSmanna land waere
s w ^ e 1 and s w ^ e smael ,
.

188. ,
, enslisc 3ewrit ;
mislfcum and m anisfealdum bissum
; hu 3esseli3lica tida
; se foresprecena ; ealle
; aefter for 3 yrnendre tide
.
, , ealle ;
; his suna twesen ,
.
:
wine min , freo-drihten min ; Beowulf
leofa . ,
,
, Sidroc eorl se alda .

, : 3etru-
man , NorSmanna land ,
Seaxna od , monna mod
. , , ,

, : on healfe
.
,
: ,
, : micle meras fersce
.

189. ,
, : ^ ond Aitfred his
; w e a ^ ofslaesen
Lucumon cynses !, ond Wulfheard Friesa, ond iEbbe Friesa,
147
ond i 9 elhere Frlesa, ond ; E 9 elferp cynses 3eneat
, , ,
, , .

190. ,
: hu lomp eow in 1? ? him
on fyrste 1 aedre mid yldum, paet hit wearp eal-
, ()
.

191.
, : sySSan aerest wearS feasceaft funden, he
paes frofre 3ebad
, ; aledon pa leofne peoden on
bearm scipes .
,
, ,
.
, .

hit

192.
hit
, , ,
. : ne-waes hit
1 , paet se -hete a9 um-sweorum aefter wael-ni9 e waec-
nan scolde () ,
- ; ne-sceal
dyrne sum wesan () -
.

it
there is.

193.
.
, : all pas pin3 peode 3edafenap cup hab-
148
ban *.
, , ,
. ., : H iselac sinne seseldan in sele hean
faesrefricsean
; him ne con
.
: he si3e-hredi3 secean com maerne peoden ,
, .

to, : hie -
mon paet land to sceawienne .
, : 1
is to ( :
); soddaedum, pa hy forhosdun to donne
, ;
pin spor to fin d an n e .
,
: micel is to (. . ) .

, ,
, : 3ewat pa neosan hean
. huses () ;
com of under mist-hleofmm 3rendel
() .

, : him budon drincan sebitrodne wln-
drenc .

194. ,
, ,
,
accusativus
infinitivo .

, ,
1.

: seon ,
hyran , sefrisnan , ,
, , ,

1
. . "
(J1., 1947).
.

14
hatan , laetan , . .
: seseah he in recede rinca m anise, swefan sibbe-3edriht
, ,
; fyr-leoht seseah, blacne leoman beorhte sclnan ,
, , ; ne-hyrde ic
cym licor ceol sesyrw an ,
; ic f>aet lond-buend, leode mine, sele-rae-
dende secsan hyrde, paet hie sesawon swylce twesen micle mearc-
stapan moras healdan, ellor-saestas , ,
, , , ,
; pa ic wide -
fraesn weorc gebannan ,
; pone here he let mit paem scipum ponan
wendan ;
let hi syppan faran ham .

,
, .
.

, -
(X .).

1 9 5 .

, ,
, : sesyh 9 sorh-cearis on his suna bare wlnsele
westne wind-sereste, reote berofene ,
, ,
( = , . . . ); sedep him swa
sewealdene worolde daelas
; saesdon hine sundorwlsne ,
.

;
, : he seseah swapendum
windum pone 1 ahefenne ,
; forlaetenre ceastre, he com
, ( = , ).

1 9 6 .
.
, : nan f)ins his
150
willan wiSstandan ;
nan man ne bude him ;
he dorste f>in3 ascian
. ,
, ,
naht, noht ( ,
na + wiht ); : necon ic noht sinsan
() . ,
, ,
noht.

197. ,
, .
, , ,
( )
, ,
(. 202 ).
,
, ,
.
.
.

198.
,
. . , . ,
, .
,
. ,
: cyn insas, on-
wald haefdon Saes folces ,
; hie hiora sibbe hiora siodo hiora on-
weald innanbordes 3ehioldon ond eac ut hiora e 3 el rymdon
,
; ic fur3 um anne an-
lepne ne
; ieldran, 3 as stowa hioldon, hie lufodon
wisdom4 , ,
; we habba 3 forlaeten welan
wisdom , -
.

151
,
.
, ,
: cyninsas . . . 3ode ond his aerendwrecum
hiersumedon . . . ; we him
ne cunnon aefterspyrisean ;
sins me hwaethwusu - ; saesde him, hwelce
3ife he onfens , ; rehton
hie him ond saesdon sum hal is spell
.

,
, , :
swi3 e oft on sem ynd ; hu him
speow .
, .
: pa wundrade ic swipe swipe para sodena wiotena
, ; he sceolde
bidan westanwindes . ;
, -, ,
.

199.
. , : syxa
sum , - , dosra sehwilc ,
para .

200.
. , : sodes
wyrpe sons ; morpres scyldis
.
, -,
, , . .
.
: peah he him leof waere
, waes sehwaeSer 1
.

201.
.
, , -
152
,
: f>aes landes sceawuns ( f>aet land
sceawian ).

,
, ,
. . : sio lar laedensepiodes
; |- .

202.
.
,
. , ,
,
.
:
, . . ,
.
, , ,
- , ,
, -
- ,
, ,
. , in : in 1-
; in woruldhade ;
on , ; on ; on londe ;
me com on ; | awendon hie
hie on hiera 3ef)iode
.
,
-
, ,
in on . ,
,
.
. ,
,
. , ,
, . . . ,
, , , :
hu 3esaeli3Hca tida pa waeron 3eond 1
; to
, : ut waes to neata
scypene ; ymb
, : hu siorne hie waeron ymb
153
lare ymb liornunsa ymb ealle pa piowotdomas
,
.
, , fram, ofer, aet
- . ,

.

203.

.
, , . . ,
, ,
,
.
.

. ,
, , .
,
. ,
?
,
. . . , . .
,
.
.

.

: 1) : hu. gesaelislica
tida ; para sodena wiotona
; purh wise wealhstodas ;
oprum mislicum ond manisfealdum bissum
; 2)
: hu 3iorne hie waeron ; paette
aefre menn sceolden swa reccelease weorpan -
.
,
, ,
, : pa cyninsas,
pone onwald haefdon paes folces ,
; pissa woruldpinsa ; pas stowa
.
,
. ., : para
154
sodena wiotona, siu waeron 3iond 1
, ; pa boc wendan on
enslisc, is senemned on laeden Pastoralis
, - .

204. -

.
, -
.
,
.
-
.
, ,
,

,
, pa aras he fram slaepe ond eall paet
he slaepende sons faeste on semynde haefde ond wordum sona
monis word in paet ilce sem et sode wyrpes sonses to sepeodde
, ,

, ,
,
he , 3 -
aras sons
- haefde sepeodde.

205. , , ,
, ,
, ,
. .
,
. , ,
: A lfre d cynins hatep
sretan WaerferS biscep his wordum luflice ond freondlice

. luflice freond
lice

1 . . .
, . 7- ( ., 1956, . 187 .).

155
hatef) 3retan.
,
Waerferd biscep
his wordum.
,
, ,
.

206.
,

.
.

( )
.
,
{. 2 0 3 , 2 0 4 ), , : purh wise
wealhstodas ; ealla obrae crist-
nae dioda .
, ,
,

.
,
, : in 9 ysse abbudissan
mynstre ; purh 3odes 3iefe
.

207. , ,

.
,
.

:
,
, , ,
,
; ,
,
.

.
156

208.
, ,
.

209.
,
.
,
: fand f)a f)aer-inne sedriht swefan
aefter symble; sorse ne cufion, wonsceaft wera, wiht unhaelo
;
, , .
and , of)f)e
, . : waes he, se mon, in weoruldhade jeseted
of> f)a tide, f)e he waes 3elefedre yldo, ond he naefre leof>
3eleornade , ,
, ,
; ic me mid dom 3ewyrce, mec
deaf) nimef) () ,
; f>a Beormas haefdon swipe wel hira land;
hie ne dorston paeron cuman ()
; ()
.

210.
,
.
.
,
. .
.
.
.

211.
. ,
: him on fyrste 1,
157
aedre mid yldum, paet hit wearp eal , heal-aerna maest. Scop
him Heort naman, se pe his wordes seweald wide haefde
, ,
. , (),
.
: Him on mod beam paet he
heal-reced hatan wolde, medo-aern micel, men sewyrcean
, , ,
; me com swi5 e oft on 3emynd, hwelce wiotan iu waeron
3eond ,
; me pyncp betre, 3if eow swa pyncp,
paette, we eac sume bee . . . on paet sepiode wenden
, ,
. . . ; waes aefter dasum,
paet se com to pam ealonde ,
.

212.
, -, .

213.
. i
paet, : he saede paet he bude norpeweardum
, .

.
: he saede paet: he bode norpweardum :
.
,
paet: ,
,
, ,
.

. , , hyne
fyrwet braec, hwaeper collen-ferhp cwicne sem ette in pam wonsstede
Wedra peoden * (),
( ) .
hwaeper
, ;
:
, :
( ) .
hwy-;
der :!
158
Men ne-cunnon, hwyder hel-runan hwyrftumscripap ,
.

.

, .

2 1 4 .
paet; . : he cwaep
paet he biide norpeweardum , .
, , :
cwaep he wolde on meces setan , ()
() ; ic wene
w it sind oferswipde , () () .

3if, hwaeper . ,
: men ne cunnon to sope, sele-raed-
ende, haelep under heofenum, hwa hlaeste onfens
, , ,
; hine fyrwyt braec mod-3ehydum, hwaet pa men waeron
,
(.: ).
, 3if hwae
per: , 3if him waere niht setaese ,
; no hie faeder cunnon, hwaeper him waes acenned
, ; hine
fyrwet braec, hwaeper collenferp cwicne sem ette in pam won3-stede
W edra peoden ellen-siocne, he hine forlet
, ,
, ; 3ehwa 3if pses
beboda and opre pilllce habbap stede on his h e o rta n
,
- ; wenstu hwaeper hine habban
, - ; he nat
hwaeper he wyrpe is , .

sculan ,
: bead paet 1 man swa don sceolde ,
; pa 3ebudon him Perse paet hie haefden prie
winter sibbe wip hie ,
; hine baed paet h eh im sendan sceolde
ealle , ; he 1 ealle
Crecas paet hie Alexander wipsocen ,
.
159
,
,
: cwaep he - ofer swan-rade secean wolde, maerne
peoden, pa him waes manna pearf ()
, ,
.

, : he nyste hwaet paet sopes waes ,
; ofost is selest to , hwanan eowre
cyme syndon , (.:
).

215.
.
, se
, . . sepe.

;
, , '.
, ,
.

216.
, . . ,
, , , . .
,
, ,
: nalaes he hine laessan lacum teodan,
peod-3estreonum, ponne pa dydon, pe hine aet frumsceafte forp
onsendon aenne ofer y 3 e umbor-wesende
, ,
,
, .
: hwaet syndon searo-haebbendra
byrnum werede, pe pus brontne ceol ofer lasu-straete laedan cwomon,
hider ofer holmas? ,
,
, ?

, , ,
, swa,
, : madelode,
on wicse saet, ombeht unforht ,
, ; paet secsan maesefne swa hwylc ,
swa pone cende aefter -cynnum
, '.
160
-

217.
, : ic
, Bearht-Dena, biddan wille, eodor Scyldinsa, anre bene:
3aet me ne forwyrne, wlsendra hleo, freo-wine folca, nu ic pus
eorran cwom, paet ic mote ana ond mmra eorla sedryht, pes
learda heap, Heorot faesian , ,
, , ():
, , , ,
, ,
, ( ) .

: Ic paes purh rumne sefan raed 1, hu
he frod and 36d feond oferswyde
, , ,
.

218.
, ,
. ,
, .

.

219. :
, ponne, hwanne , sippan , ,
, penden , oppaet .
: he pas andsware onfens, he sona
sinsan ,
; ponne he 3eseah pa hearpan him nealaecan, ponne aras he
far sceome from symble ,
, .
ponne, ,
ponne .

.
: heold,
penden lifde, 1 ond 3Up-reow, 1 de Scyldin3as ,
, ,
(. . , ); naifre him
deap scepep on pam willwonse, penden woruld stondep
, ;
se eadsa mot . . . wunian in , oppaet wintra bip pusend urnen

^ . . 161
. . . ,
; sewat pa neosian, sippan niht becom, hean huses
, , .

220. .
,
, : Hwearf pa hraedllce, saet,
eald ond unhar mid his eorla sedriht
(), , ,
.

221.
forpaempe, forpaem .
: pa cirdon hie -in on , for- hie ne dors-
ton forp bi si3lan for unfripe; for- Saet land waes
eall on opre healfe eas
,
- ,
; waes seo hwll micel, twelf wintra tid
torn 3epolode wine Scyldin3a, wanna 3ehwylcne, sldra sor3a;
fordam syddan wearS ylda bearnum undyrne cud, 3yddum ,
paette 3rendel wan hwlle wi3 H rodsar ,
, ,
,
, , .

222.
paet , :
swa sceal 3ode 3ewyrcean, fromum feoh-3iftum on
faeder aerne, paet hine on ylde eft 3ewunien w il-3esi3as, ponne wl3
cume, teode 3elaesten
, ,
, ,
( ) .
,
, laes (): ,
: forpon ic \eof werud 1 wille -fremmende, paet
ower hus 3efaestni3en, py laes hit ferblaedum windas toweorpan
, ,
,
.

162

223. paet.
swa .
,
.
swa: swa claene hio waes opfeallenu on
!, Saet swipe feawa waeron behionan Humbre, 3 e hiora
understondan on en3lisc furSum an aerend3e-
writ of laedene on en3lisc awendan ()
,
, -

.
: eode ellen-rof, paet he for eaxlum 3estod Deni3a
fre3an , .

: . . . .

224. 3if
naefne () , : he me habban wille dreore
fahne, 3if mec dea 9 nime ,
; nis paet seld- waepnum 3eweorSad,
naefne his wlite 1, aenlic ansyn
, , ,
.

225. ()
, : pone si 9 -faet him snotere ceorlas lyt-hwon 1,
peah he him leof waere ()
, .

226. swa : nalaes


hi hine laessan lacum teodan, peod-3estreonum, ponne pa dydon,
pe hine aet frumsceafte for3 onsendon aenne ofer y 3 e umbor-wesende
,
, ,
, ; naefre ic maran 3eseah
eorla ofer eorSan, ponne is eower sum sec3 on searwum
, () ,
.
6* 163
, swa,
, :
wearde heoldon in pam faestenne, swa pam folce 3eomorm6dum
Iudip bebead ,
.

2 2 7 .
,
. ,
,
: . . . swa Saette, swa hwaet
swa he of 3odcundum stafum purh boceras 3eleornode, paet he aefter
medmiclum faece . . . in en3lisc3ereorde wel 3eworht forp brohte
,
(: ) (:
), . . .
.

, :
hy 3edop paet bip oferfroren, sam hit sy sumor sam winter
(), ,
(. . ,
) .

2 2 8 .
, :
waes him eallum 3ese3en, swa-swa hit waes, paet him w ^re from
drihtne sylfum heofonlic 3ifu forsifen ,
,
.
,

.
IV.

2 2 9 .
- ,
.
V III . -
, -
. IX .
. 878 .
. ,
, ; Dane-
lag 1 . ,
,
.

;
.
.

1 .: , . . .

165
X . , 1013 .
.
; 1016 .
.
.
1042 .
, -
.
166
230.
. ,
,

.

: ,
(
), ,
,
,
.

.
,
.

- ;


,
.

: (. 250 ).

231. 1066 . .

.
(Norman < Norfman
). IX .

. 912 .,
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
X I ., ,

.
1066 . .
, ,
, ,
167
. 14 1066 .

. ,
,
. -
:
, ,
. ,
, , .
,
.
-
. , ,
.
.
, , ,
.
(1066 1087) 200.000
. .
(1135 1154)

, .
( 1203 .)
,
.

. , ,
;
:
.
, , ,
;

.

232.
.
, ,
( XI I I .):

pus com Engelond into Normandies hond.


And pe Normans ne coupe speke po bote hor owe speche
and speke Frensh as hii dude atom, and hor children dude
also teche.

So that heiemen of pis lond, pat of hir blod come,


holdep alle pulke speche, pat hii of horn nome.
Vor bote a man conne Frensh, me telp of him lute;
168
Ac lowe men holdej) to Engliss and to hor owe speche yute.
Ich wene ] no ] in al ] world contreyes none,
pat ne holdep to hor owe speche, bote Engelond one
.
,
, -, ,
. ,
, ,
. , -
, ,
.
, ,
, .

X IV
(Ranulphus Higden, 1364 .) Polychronicon
( , 1387 . -
(John Trevisa):
j)is apairynge of ] bir|)etonge is by cause of twey ingis: oon
is: for children in scole, a3enus |)e usage and maner of alle o|>er
nacions, compelled forto leve her owne langage and forto con-
strewe her lessouns and her ingis a Frenshe, and have]) si])])e at
f)e Normans come first into Englond. Also gentilmennus children
bej) ytau3t forto speke Frenshe from ] tyme, ])at j)ei rokked
in her cradel and speke and playe wif) a childes brooche.

- ;
: ,
,
-,
, . ,
- ,

.


. X II
XI I I .
.
(. 265 267).

233.
. X II XI I I .

. ,
,
.
169
,

,
: XI I , X I I I XI V .
: 1)
X IV .
; 2)
: -
.

234. 1066 .
:
1. :
, ,
,
.
2.
.
3. ,
.
,
,
.
XI I , XI I I X IV

;
.
,
( ) *
.
X IV .
;
. XV .
.

235.
, .

. ,
, IV ( 1399
1413). -
,
. .
,
-; XI I I .
170
;
1440 .
;
.
, 1258 .
III
( ).
X IV . .
1362 . ( III) ,
, ,
,
.
.

. , X IV . -
,
,
,
: Dieu et mon droit
.

,
,
.

236. ,

.
, X IV .

,
,
. ,

.

.
-
:

,
,
.
,
.
171
1

1 :

1. 11. 21. 31.


2 . 12. 2 2. 32.
3. 13. 23. 33.
4. 14 . 24 . 34.
5. 15. 25. 35.
6. 16. 26. 36.
7. 1 7. 27. 37.
8. 18. 28. 38.
9. 19. 29. 39.
10. 20. 30. 40.
;
.
.
.

237. X IV .
: , .
,

.
.

:
,
.
, Polychronicon
(Ranulphus Higden), :
Men of fte est wi|) men of |>e west, as it were under pe same
partye of hevene, acordep more in sownynge of speche, pan men
of pe norp wip men of pe soupe. perfore it is, pat Mercii, pat
bep men of myddel Englond, as it were partyners with pe endes,
understondep better pe sidelangagis, norperen and soperen, pan
norperen and soperen undirstondip eiper oper.
,
, ,
. ,
, (),
(. . ), ,
.

(William of Malmesbury,
X II .):
Alle langages of Norphumbres, and specialiche at 3orke, is
so scharp, slittenge and frotynge and unschape, pat we souperen
men may pat language unnepe understonde.
, , ,
, , , ,
.

238.
,
. ; ,
. XI I I .

;
.
X IV .
.
173



.







.

,

;
,

,

,

.


.



.
, ,
, ,
,
.
, -
, - () -
.

: III 1258 .,
( X IV .),
(1340 1400), (1325 1408) (1320 1384).
,
-
-.
, X IV .
-eth,
,
-, .
3-
174
hii they ( ;
, , 250); -
( .-. -)
. . X IV .
,
.
.
239. X IX . 1

. ,

. ,
, .

, .
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
;
,
,
, ,
,
2.
240. , , II
IV, .
.
-ende ,
-inge.

241.
(Jo h n W y c l i f W y c l if f e ) .
,
X V I .

,
.
, ,
, .
- . ,
, .- . -- -i-,
-- --. 3-
-ip, -, -is, -s
;
-.

1 , . T e n B r i n k . Ch au cers Sprache and V erskunst. L e ip


zig, 1884.
2 H. C. W 1 d. A H is t o r y of Modern Colloquial E nglis h. O xfo rd , 1953,
p. 55.

175
242.

- X IV XV .
,
, .
, , --
-i-,
--, .
-- -- - -Q-
(lpnd, hpnd),
-a- (land, hand),

.
.
(
, , . .)
;
,
. , ,
-and,

-nd (lpnd, hpnd . .). -
,
.
,


.

243.

.
;

.

:
1. [:],
,
. ,
[] [:],
.
trouble , couch -
176
1 ,
iVtncr'tftcuroen m-lbuierfm^'cu(cu'^te\^ &<%
Iperfptofypitoia. gucr frifttiaao cdtatg-" ag-rtco

EE ^ ' . - | - ' - - - ?" , | >- f = = V

tom bllpttb affcer'calufw^ulluc(fertq>bucl^uertet


iv / qytao guitaym ieft fetmmttoe- ^

T
q tm tix h # omcu- Cmou cuccuT^d fmgefbu oiodu nf#ife
a ftigjlm o- ^ t E g -^^nac.guf^itttootUmar. in o f -
Sh
rilnifaiirem <\ tiMaEem btioWtlo kW
J - r bidder ^^|^|^*!^^^
Vu nauer'nu* nig az^fiti?wc^oarc^iJf^tciicr fc&tr#uicncrrc
it /fo It &noratnypffrcni^^hc^c^raliuf^fic&c*cai$>
^yauftc&nef
-faahW fpaao um nfl<m gcii<Kg. \f^

, _ .iboctwen
. ircpm tfwfyw acnfotW
img cuoro m ijflm g cuau-|(hgfflfyat^q<mem m fiitf

1=5 = 5
-,---------------- ^ ...? 1 " 'W^iflpalffoiifttlftriwiaSldtJf
Itng" CU O ll^0T>1^ t W i t t w c f t u t w p n g ' 1^

( 1250 .)

: hous [hu:s] (.-a. hus) ; out [u:t]


(.-. ut) ; loud [lu:d] ( .-. hlud) .
, , ow: cow [ku:]
(.-. cfl) ; how [hu:] (.-. hu) ; down [du:n]
(.-. dun) .
2. [u] .
: . -
, .
[]
, u ( v ) , n, ,
. . , .
,
, cume, , cimie . .
.
[] ,
[] - .
[] , , comen ['kumon]
(.-a. cuman) ; som [sum] (.-a. sum) ;
sone ['suno] (.-a. sunu) ; loue ['luve] (.-a. lufu) ;
bigonne [bi'guno] (.-. )
biginnen .
3. [:] ( )
ie.
[ie], -
X II . [], ie .
chief [tfe:f] ,
, relief [re'le:f] 4
: field [fe:ld] (.-a. feld) ; thief
[0e:f] (.-a. peof) , lief [le:f] (dp.-a. leof) .
4. [] ,
( 376), , : fur .

.
1. } 3 [0] [3]
th: this .-a. |)is ; three .-.
| .
2. [v],

f, v,
X V II . ):
over, ouer (.-a. ofer) ; love, loue (.-a. lufu) ;
: very , avengen .
3. [tj] ch;
chair , chambre
: t^chen , child . .;
[!] ,
, g, j, dg: courage
, joy , bridge .
4. [J] sh,
sch, : ship, schip , shal, schal
.
5. [] , , ,
, ,
h;
178
[%] [h].
- ]%], ,
, gh, g
, h
. , light [lixt] ,
night [nixt] , right [rixt] , broughte ['brouxto] ,
soughte ['souxto] .
6. []
, : drinken (.-a. drincan),
king (.-a. cyning), knowen (.-a. cnawan).
,
ki .
7. [kw]
cw qu, : quellen (.-a. cwellan).
8. [j] ,
, : yet
(.-a. 3 iet), (.-. ), (.-. ).

244. ,
,
,
.

i .
(
),
.
, i,
: rabbi , taxi
, : bacilli, genii.
i ,
: ryden (.-a. ridan), wryten
(.-a. writan).

w. w
you
thou.
ow [:]
,
.
, ow
[]. ow
[:], :
, [ou]: slow ,
snow , crow , low ; ,
[u:]: cow , now , how , down .
, X V II .,
v :
179
,
; , liuen , louen ,
vsen .

245.
;
,
, .


; ,

, .

246.
,
. , ,
.
(Northern),
(Midland), (Southern).

,
.
, ,
(West Midland) (East
Midland). ,
,
.

247.
:

: Dan Michel, Ayenbite of Inwit


( ) ,
(1340 .). William of Shoreham, ( X IV .).
Poema Morale ( XI I I .).
- : Layamon, Brut (
, - Wace),
XI I I ., . Ancren Riwle
180
''ins Ylfo/r !
^ A
Mjm f e i i w u m n ^ bi koiMrn? bwt b Jnlnta.fr
f f f i o f c t y f t o n i 1 \ W u te tw tu tuti) ftttgtttt.'* ftc
W .;4 rt)attwtt J I jteoulor tdlc-tV>io^cWoA.'fcr
&tlvccn.^cVwkytstcgalctevtluvrtfoc.'i>tiu!t&
ftntcmtCtefonc.' ||t 1*11
l& b u n b w to ^^l^ck ttw ttrfiK JtttCaim ttcgn^.
^ ap v crtttjcicctc^rtto ttu iia s tu
dnmfenXqpm twMc$
f .'s d ^ b tm vwlTXC-OnftQ" |j|-gcto CumnC-febtSfebarfauilc.-
&'[J>etechmtfaJjic |pw.l)uuifi& 115 ttw
* ottbiS <wtn tofitote^tfonctottahtttctltt*.
kmfcc.fee bcUI& of tfiubts aWxstc GutlGTtttbttt
p tf c le h \ b e * ib tw m j yg<Htrl>amft 3 .
&\ cmnatf V
engjmefou&tfttfrdbtcn. SOUl(MJCttWilH.dt
Vt{cbcf[dtc5!tcbc
VJ
VcdtTjCtrdqjt<teoi|utcfur p| ^wm cm oitt^.igiiduttjeRc
jfefiito**tunt i cmefy\wittt 1>tort
tcbtm.i\xaeftttr | Ittl4(fr <jffldl&ca.t<b.i

JlnMwnto-d^Atoc.lubcabTffiVtfpiijMBis dli>uutemndt*ct7]
fttctwm-bgtwm lucttgWca lof.^||^va(wie.0tU>m*6jintc\bc?ait /
[fUttulfcflteemir^ giQrlc ta)c-'buui>-(f
>ndwtmlimnrt^malig&sem^^vctffuu ftf>rc.*vcUjaffienMt (j)
[ & ^ V ] dvft^t-fttcds ^ n e > 4
fcrounibt&rittft>tten<m V* / rtc\vvn&. tjefc&fc 1
&.& {ratm tt& i4anui/ / <kng/t*gltoaCt;i>fmu(uu>.
fttfcdfroubis elftr.'VVftteU*5 1\'(&> Afftem
> ** [( te n twme- v 4$
t^b o ejef JMb.offamna
TcWbotmffl quote.*ItelEjCvJroffcBw-TC fukte jnu Niluvof
iutwes. la^etmmlctte ^ ttwmtct-of ?'| tr tms
m lgtf V f r a t f o T t t < a b a > u f ) .v utmrt gdgfitpen.

( X I I I .)
), X III ., , ,
. Robert of Gloucester,
( 1300 .). The Owl and the Nightin
gale ( X I I I .). John Trevisa.
Polychronicon Ranulphus Higden (1387).

: ,
(X II I .). William of Palerne ( ,
X IV .), Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight
( X IV .).
: King Horn (, X III .). Havelok
the Dane ( X I I I .). Orm, Ormulum ( ,
XIII .). Robert Mannyng of Brunne, Handlyng Synne (
., ,
1300). Genesis Exodus ( X I I I .). Debate of Body and Soul (X III .),
Peterborough Chronicle ( -
1132 1154).
. -
III (1258 .),
, Adam Davy (
X IV .), .

Richard Rolle de Hampole, The Prick of Conscience (


, , XIV .). Thomas
Castleford. ( X IV .). Towneley Plays
(, X IV .). York Plays (, X V .).


Barbour, Bruce (
, 1375 .). I. The ingis Quhair (
, , XV .).

248.
,

182
. ,
,
,

,
.

.

,
(: brotherhood , redynesse
, herty )
, :
cniht, , ,
( knight)
; sellan
(sellen) , . .
.

249.
^ .
,
.
:


dom , domr sunu sunr

fisc fiskr heorte hiarta
konongr tima time
stan steinn oxa oxe, uxe
eipr fot fotr
hlaford lavarSr faeder faQer
wind vindr modor moOer
dae3 dagr seoc siukr
heafod hofo3 kuOr
treo tre bitan bita
kyn fleotan fliota
wis viss seo3an sioDa
soO sa5r bindan binda
hal heill weorQan verOa

lytel litell beran bera
micel, mycel mikell stelan stela
gerr cweOan kueOa
183

3od go9r sittan sitia


ic ek faran fara
bidan bida hebban hefia
gripa standan standa
egg hatan heita
3 iefu giof feallan falla

250.
.

.
, ,
, .

, ,
.
, : lagu (.-. law) ,
wrang (.-. wrong) , husbonda (.-. husband)4
, sister , casten (.-. cast) , callen
(.-. call) , taken (.-. take) , feolaga (.-. fellow)
, skye (.-. sky) , , .


3- . peir
hie
they; peirra hira
their; peim him
them. peah
thogh, though.

at ,
: at be .
ado at do.

, : fylcian , lip ,

.

, : by (. ) Kirkby,
Whitby, Derby; toft (. toft) , ,
Langtoft; beck (. bekkr) Troutbeck;
ness (. nes) Inverness, Caithness .

251.
,
,
184
. , ,

.
.
, :


.
. , ,
- 3 iefan ( );
gefa ( g).
, X IV ., yiven, yeven
,
3 iefan. , XV .,
give g.
g
3 . ,
. ,


. , ,
.
, .-. 3 ietan, . geta: X IV .
gete. ' ,
, ,
,
. ,
3-,
:
. , , 3 ieldan
yelden,
yield , ; 3 iernan
yernen, yearn.
.
sweostor, swustor,
suster,
.
systir.
XV ., sister (
[] [i]).
, ,

.
, , .
,

, , . . , ,
.
185

252.
,
X II . X I I I X IV .

;
, 1265 .
.

1.
, ,
, .

, ,
.
,
.
.
:
1.
; .
2. ; ,

, .
3. ,
,
, .

253.
, .
:
1. , .
: prince , , baron ,
noble , governen , government
, royal , court , , justice
, judge , condemnen , aquiten
(.-. acquit), sentence .
king
queen.
2. : werre (.-. war), army
, bataille (.-. battle), regiment , lance
, (coat of) mail , castle , banner ,
harness , , siege , victory .

1
.
. .

186
3. : religion ,
saint , frere (.-. friar), preyen (.-.
pray), sermon , conscience , cloistre
(.-. cloister), chapel .
4 : bocher (.-. butcher),
peintre , (.-. painter), tailor .

: miller , shoemaker
, shepherd , smith .
5. : art , colour
, figure , image , column ,
ornament .
6. : plesir (.-. pleas
ure), leysir (.-. leisure), ese (.-. ease),
feste (.-. feast), dinner , soper (.-.
supper), rosten (.-. roast), deintee (.-.
dainty).
, ,
- :
air , place , coveren , river ,
large , change .
, ,
, : amity (
) friendship; moiety
( )
half . .

254. , ,
.
, I . ,
. -
, , :
beef ; calf veal , sheep
mutton , pig pork .

- , ,

, .

beginnen commencen. -
beginnen , a commencen
. .
,
, : work labour, life exis
tence.
,
,
.
137

,
:
Therefore, you clown, abandon, which is in the vulgar leave,
the society, which in the boorish is company, of this female,
which in the common is woman; which together is, abandon the
society of this female, or, clown, thou perishest; or, to thy better
understanding, diest1.
, (society company),
boorish -;
die, -, .

255.
.
, , riviere
; montagne ;
paix fri.
; ,
-.
, , ,

.
,
.

. , ,
haerfest, *
autumn ,
automne,
harvest *. *
.
3ebed, *,
preiere,
preiere, .-. prayer.
beads
, *.
* ,
, ,
,
, *.

256. , ,
.
,
:

1 W. S h a k e s p e a r e . As Y o u Lik e It. V, 1, 52;


. J e s p e r s e n Grow th and S tr u c t u r e of the E n g lis h L a n g u a g e . (Oxford ,
1940, p. 9 1 .)

188
,
. . ( mots populai res) . ,
, . deslderare > .- . desirer > . -a. desiren ; .
fr a te r > .- . frere > . -a. frere , ; . c a th ed ra > .-
. ch aie re > . -a. ch a ir ; . ca m era > .- . ch am b re > .-.
ch a m b re . .
,
I X X I V . ,
(
m ots s av a n ts). , , . d ig n ita te m > .-
. dignete > . -a. d ig nitee ; . positionem > .- .
position > . -a. positio n . .
,
,
, : physique , , monarque
.
, ,
, : , petti > . -
tia > .- . piece > . -a. piece ; , garris > .- . gar-
tier > .-. g a r t e r .

257. , , ,
,
. , ,
,
, .
, , .-. werre (.-. war).
w err e, , , wer-
(. 2 58). .- . gard en g a rd in < .
g a rt o ; .- . w a it e n . w a it ie r < , w ah te n .

258.
.
, . 58 51 . . .
, ,
. , ,
,
, : w err a > . werre, guerre : kausjan > .
ch o is i r . V . . . .
(- ),
, ,
, . 486 .
493 .
.
F r a n c i a . - ,
, ,
.
, .

, .
:
1. : w ard e, guarde * < , w ard a , w a it ie r , guai-
tie r < . w ahte n; maresch al < , ma-
ra h sk alk ; halberc < , halsberg; g ant < .
w a n tu ; gonfan on < , gunjjfano.
2. : wage, gage < .
w a d ja ; harengu e < , hring ; ordel < .
ordail (. . U rteil); b an n ir < , bannen.
3. , . .: faldestuel < , fa ld is tol;
banc < bank.

189
4. : gard in , jard n < , g ard in ; cr evise < .
krebis; esturgeon < , stu r jo .
5. : Charles < . K a rl; Geoffrey < . Gaufrid;
Louis < . H lo d w ig; R i c h a r d < . R ik h a rd ; H enri < . H e in ri k ;
W i ll a u m e , Guillaume < . W i li h e l m ; Rogie r < . Hrof>gair; Rol
and, R olland < . H ro fd and.

.

259.
: ,
, ,
.
: ) 1
, , 2
)
, .
.


,
( XI I I .),
. Anc rene R iw le ( ),
,
, .
O rm ulum . ,
. Ancrene R iw le
; O rm u lu m .

260.
, .

; , -,
, : terr e .
,
, . . .
. -,
, ;
, ; ,
. (
) , ;
X V . ( ).
, ;
.
: h o 'n o u r > 'honour , c o 'ra g e > 'c o rag e ,
n a 't u r e > 'nature , p re 'sen te n , 'present .

261. ,

.
, ,
, ,
, .

- -
.
, ,
,
, , ,
.
,

190
,
,

.

, .
, , V II .
:
, ;
, :
b iscop , munuc . .

.

, ( )
, ,
. , ,
: .

riv iere, riv er.
,
. , , ,
-
serve(n) servir; onfon
rec eve(n) re ce vo ir .
, ,
, ,
. , baron
, .

262. ,

. :
,
,

,
.


, : husbandry , , goddess
.
.

263.
-a n c e , - e n c e : ign o ran ce , arr ogance, en tran ce, repentance, innocence
. . ,

191
.
hindrance ,
hinder .
- m e n t,
, governm ent, t r e a t m e n t , agreem en t, ,
:
fulfilment , b ereavem en t , am a ze m en t ,
bew ild erm ent , .
-ess ( ),
, ,
princess, co untess, baroness.
: sh epherdess , goddess , m u r
deress .

-et, : coron et , ca b in et .
1
- , : islet , circ let
. -let,
: s t r e a m l e t , ringlet , leaflet
.
-age, c o u ra g e, c a r ri a g e , m a r ri a g e .,

luggage , leakage .
-,
I (
- a tu m ), ,
- , ,
: l e s s e e , , .
tru ste e
.
-ard ( )
coward , bastard .
w i z a r d (
wis ), drunkard , dullard ;
niggard .
-al ( . -aille)
. fune
ral , refusal , proposal .
burial .
- ab le , -ible,
, ,
a d m irab le , tolera ble, legible, flex ible .
readable
, unbearab le , understandable .

264.
.
, , d i s - f des-, ,
(disapp o in t, disdain)

: disown , disburden : d is
trust .
- ( . in-), ,
encage , encircle . .,
endear , embed
( nb > mb).

192

265. XI ., . .
, ,
:
1. ,
(francien) Ile-de-France.
2. , ,
.
3.

.
,
,
. ,
,
,
.
: - ( -) .
-
:
.
:
And Frensh she spak ful faire and fetisly,
After the scole of Stratford atte Bowe,
For Frensh of Paris was to hir unknowe2.

- ,
;
.
- ,
X II X III ., (Wace),
.
X IV . - ;
,
, -
Speculum meditantis Mirrowr de lhomme (
[]).

- , -

.
X IV . ,
.

1
.
2 G C h a u c e r . Canterbury Tales. Prologue. 1 2 4 126.

7 . . 193
266. -
-ei, -
e + i: lei < .-. legem ; preie
< .-. preda; veile < .- . veia; s treit < -.
st re ctu m ; leisir < .-. lecere.
- -ei ,
-ei -oi (
loi, proie, voile, etro i t, loisi _ [ w a]).
- 9 .
1
u: f < .-. florem; hure < .-. horam;
honur < .-. honorem; colour < .-. co lorem ; iabur
< .-. l a l w e m .
, ( eu); fleur,
heure, co ule ur, labeur.
- +
- u: munt < .- . m o n te m ; frunt ' < .-.
fr ontem; round < .-. rot ondum > rotondu.

ga.
: c a m b re < .-. ca m e r a m ; ca ch ie r < .- . c a p ti a -
; g a rd in < , g a rd in .
3
[tfa] ( c h a ) , ga [d a] ( j a ): ch a m b re , ch asser, ja rd in .
[tf] ( ch ) [ t s ] ,
: cach ie r < .- . ca pti-
are, lanch ier < .-. l a n cia re .
, w-,
w- , : w e r r e < .
w e rr a ; wage < , w a d i ; w ard e r < , w a r t e n ; W i l
lia m < . W i li h e l m .
w- gu-: gue rre , gage, g ua rde r, G uillaum e.
+ ,
+ ,
- a u : chaunce , d aun ce , co maunder
, b raunch e . ;
, X I V ., ,
[], [ n t j ] , [ m b j : st ra n g e , bra nch e, c h a m b re .

267.
, ,
-
.
.
-. ,
viage ' - veiage;
voyage. -
carite (.
caritatem);
charite.
, catch chase.
captiare,

: catch , chase ,
.

194
268.
, : [tj]
[J], ch ;
[1] [],
g, j . oi [wa]
. ,
,
, .

269.
.
,
.



.

270.
:
(. . )
.
.
( ,
59) ,
.

, ,
, -
. ,
, ,
, . . era
.
, -,
,
.
, ,
.
,
; ,
.
7* 195
, ,
.
, ,

( 292). ,

,
. ,
;
, ,
, .

.

271. ,
, . , cepte > kepte (
), fedde > fedde (
feden ), wisdom > wisdom
(. wis ).

( ).
,
: Id, nd, mb: binden , wende
( wenen ), herde (
).

, ,
st, msesta, masta
, laesta , eastan > esten . .
, st
: maest, mast, laest, est. ,
breost > brest , bla est> blast ,
fyst > fist, dust > dust , . .
.

: laferce > laferce > larke
, hali 3dae3 > haliday , superne> sutherne
,.

272. X I I I . .
-

,
196
. , , .
X I I ., X I I I .
. ? Q,
, ; ,
; Q Q .
: caru > ; talu > tale
, macian > maken , nama > name , werian >
w^ren , stelan > stolen , speken > sp^can ,
hopian > hppen , smocian > smpken .
i ;
, . . i > , > , : w ikes >
wekes , yfel > ifel > evel , dures > d o r e s .
;
- .

: .

. ,
,
; , , .- . hwael ,
hwalas : : hwal (
) : hwales ( ).
; whale
[weil], w hales [weilzj
. , ,
, : . - . heofon ,
heofones : h^ven
( ), hevnes ( ).

[ h e v n ] , heaven ,
; ,
[ h i : v n ].
, , .
, ,
. , .- . gamen
, g am nes > .- . g am e, gam ne, .-. game [geim]
g am m o n ]'] (. b a ckg am m o n ); . - .
sceadu , sceadwe, .-. shade, sh adw e, .- shade
[fei d] () shadow [ ' J*aedou] (); . a. m d
, maedwe > .-. m$de, medwe, .-. mead [ mi:d]
(.) meadow ['m e d o u l .

273.
.

nd, Id, mb ( 59); ,
,
.
. : wild [i:],
[ai]; bewilder
, wilderness [i]; child
[i:] > [ai], children
[i]; hind , behind [i:] > [ai], hindrance
, hinder [i]
197
, , [i] wind ,
, ,
windmill (.
wind [waind] , ).

. .-. , >
many [' ] , ; , > any [ 'e m ]
-, raedi3 , raedse > ready ['redi] .

274. .

. -
: , ;
, . . , - ,
a: man, .
-.
,
Q.
, , , : fa >
fp , ham > hQm , > gpn , rad > rQd ,
snaw > snpw , stan > stQn , ban > bpn ,
> mpre , hat > hpt , cnawan > knpwen .

275.
a: glaed > glad , aeppel > appel , waes > was .
- (West Midland)
: aeppel > eppel, waes > wes.
. 1 ,
: slaepan > sl^pen , laetan > l^ten .
(, ) 1
,
: slepen,
leten.
, ,
-
, , ,
,
, -
.
,
198
2 (
),
, ,
: dsel > dl , sse > .
2 ,
: del, se.

2 7 6 .
. -
i. ;
. ,
, [],
; , fyrst
first , ferst
fyrst
; , hy 11 hill,
hell, hyll. [] > [i] ,
[], [i]
i. []
, ,
.
. ,
, fyr fir -
, f , fuir - -
. [] ui.
- []
, [tii] [],
, fruit , suit .

2 7 7 . , , i, , :
bettre , tellan > tellen , >
, tef) > teth , sinsan > singen , wille ,
writan > writen , tima > time , folc > folk .
: fot ,
> .
X I I I . [] > [].
[];
ui. , gud , buk , fut .
, : sunu > sone
['suno] , full , hu > how , tun > town ,
fit > out .
199

278.
.
( ).
: eald > aid , healf > half , earm > arm
. Id
.
e a ld > e a ld > ld , : healden >
> halden , eald > ^ld , tealde > t^lde .
(
); Id
Q, : aid > aid > Qld, haldan > halden > hol-
den, talde > talde > tplde.
; Id
, : aid > aid,
haldan > halden, talde > talde.
,
,
,
. , ,
,
,
. , ,
eald
aid.
,
,
, aid Qld ( .-.
old).
i- Id . .
: ie > , -
, (, -
) .
(-
) , : ieldra, ldra > iilder
, fiellan, fyllan > fiillen .
- > a: alder, fallen.
, -
: elder, fellen.
h +
.
eah > eh, eih, : seah > seh, seigh ,
eahta > eighte ; eah > ah, auh,
: saugh, aghte, aughte. i-
h h +
ie, i, : mieht, miht ;
,
2 00
i: meht, miht.
might, might [mait]
(. 506).

2 7 9 .
. : beam > ; stream > strfm ;
hleapan > l^pen ; east > $st ; leaf > l^f ;
feawe > ffwe ; dead > d|d ; deap > d|th
; bread > brfd .
ye, y a , :
dead > dyed, dyad .
ye: deop > dyep . ,
, .

2 8 0 . ,
- -
X I V . ( );
X I I . . : heorte > horte, herte
, steorra > storre, sterre , steorfan > storven, sterven
.
i- ie > i,
, io > ,
io > i ;
> . , fyrre > fiirre, firre, ferre
; yrre > iirre, irre, erre .
,
,
, , : seofon >
soven, seven ; heofon > hoven, heven .

2 8 1 . eoh t ig h t
; ight : knight
; tighten ; .-. knight [nait], fight [fait]
(. 506).

2 8 2 .
( ), : deop > dep, deep ,
deor > der, deer , ceosan > chesen , seoc > sek,
seek .
io, i
, ; , ,
> , : siolfo r > seolfor > selver .

2 8 3 . . ie, i,
-
i, ii: 3 ietan > yiten, yiiten , 3i e l d a n > y i l -
den, yulden , .-.
: yeten, yelden. yiven, given
201
-
. ,
,
: sceacan > shaken , sceolde >
sholde .

284.
. , ,
( []),
, , - > - :
bindan > binden, tel 1an > tellen . .; sunu > su-
;
-as > -es: stanas > stpnes .

.
X I I I .,
, , ,,
. , ,
i, : askid
, bundin , - -u: fadur ,
stonus .

285. ,
( ,
), i
i, [tj*], :
cild > child , wrecca > wrecche , hwilc >
which , aelc > ch , bisecan > bisechen ,
tsecan > t^chen , streccan > strecchen ,
1 > lacchen , > r^chen ,
cirice > chirche , ic > ich , cycen > kichen ,
switch > swich, such ( < *swilic).


. ,
. : kirk
, mikel , birk , ik .
[] seken , pinken
, penken , rekken , wirken
(.-. sec(e)an, pync(e)an, penc(e)an, recc(e)an, wyrc(e)an)
2 3-
secst, seep, pencst, pyncp
. ., .
202
286. [sc] [J]: scip >
ship , sceal > shal , scfnan > shinen .

[] [tf], [sk] [J], : seken
bisechen ; picken pitchen ;
bank , bench ; scateren
shateren . skirt
shirt , screchen , shreken
[sk].

287.
[da], : bryca > bridge , h r y c a >
ridge , , > edge , , > midge
, secaan > seggen , bycaan > biggen ;
senaean > sengen, singen henae >
hinge .
seggen, leggen seien, sayen,
leyen, layen,
seide, saide (<saeade), leide, layde (<*laeade).

288. f ,
: faeder > vader , faet > vat , fox > vox ,
fla e sc > v l^ s h , freond > vrend , fyrst > viirst, verst
, for > vor , , finger > vinger , fela >
v^le .
s -
, : syn ne>zen n e , s e c a a n >
ziggen , swerian > zw^rien , seolfor > zelver
,1 seofon > zeven .

289. v
, : hafoc ,
hafces > havkes > haukes (
hauk); nafoaar > navgar > nauger2.

1 , -,
- .
2 -
: a nauger > an a u g er .

(- m eta n a ly sis).
,
, -. , , . -a. efete
. -a. ewte, newte (an ew te > a n e w t e ), .-. newt.
. -a. ekename , .-. n ick n am e .
.- . ( . ) .- . apron (
napron > an ap ro n).
,
-s, ,

. , . -a. aelmesse (

203
, : hlaefd 1 > lavdi > lady
, heafdes ( heafod ) >
h^vdes > h^des h^d; hla-
ford > lpverd > lprd , ; laferce > lavrke > larke
.
v : a e fre > ^ v e r, , pfer > pver, Qr .

290. h- ,
hi-, hn-, hr-, : hlaford > lprd , ,
hnutu > nute , hrin 3 > r i n g .
, hn-, hi-, hr-
, 1 ,
.

291.
maken : makede > makde >
made; maked > makd > mad.
take(n) : taken > takn > tan.

292.
,
, , ( 278),
.
.
[j]
[]
.

293.
i, , , -,
, . .
,

w. ,
:
1. i:
83 > a i , ay, : > dai, day , mae3 > m a i , may
, 1 > lai, lay , fae3er > fair, fayr
.

. a l im o s in a , eleem osy ne ) .- . almes > .- .


alms; .- . rich esse ( . richesse) .- . rich es; .- .
.-. b urie l, .-. burial (
funeral, );
. ch e rise (cerise) .- . .- . c h e rr y .

204
> ei, , : v/ > wei, wey , se^l > sei 1 ",
> rein ,
> ei, , : > grei, grey , > hei .
2. w:
> aw, : 1 > drawen , > gnawen
, sa 3u > sawe , .
> ow ( ), : > Qwen
.

,
,
, , (. 49).
[j] [ ]
,
.
: 1) ,

; 2) 1
,
.
3. :
i + 3 > I , : i3el > II , ti 3ele > tile ; si 3pe >
sithe .
: sti 3en > stien .
y + 3 > ( - ),
: > ; > bieth ;
- - + >
iii: riiie, biiieth; : y + 3 > e i : reye, beieth.
> ( - ),
: dry3e > d r i e ; -
- y + 3 > G i , u: druie, driie,
y + 3 > e i : dreie.
+ h > eih > ih, : heah > heih > high ; n e a h >
neih > nigh .
-f , h > ei > , : 1 > leien > lien ; peoh>
thigh .
4. :
+ > ( ou, ow), : fu3ol > foul *.
u + 3 > G ( ou, ow), : > bowen
, .
, w
() I :
1 > lw, : 3al 3e > g a l w e ,
> rw, : > morwen ; bor 3 ian > borwen
; fol 3ian > folwen .
205

2 9 4 . ,
h,
:
a - f h > a u h , a u g h , : naht (<*n aw iht) > naught ;
rahte > raughte .
a H - h > ough ( ), :
dah > dough ; a + h >
> ag h : dagh.
o + h < o u g h , : brohte > broughte , troh >
trough .
o + h > 6 u g h , u g h , : ploh > plough , boh > bough
, > inough .
ough ,
,
(. 243).
(. 494) ,
.

2 9 5 . ,
[], . . - -,
X I I I [t j] , [ l t j ] , [ntj4].
, , .-a. mycel
['miitjel] > ['m u tjel]; .-a. swylc [swflltJ]>
> [swultj] > [swutj4]; .-. ['kiitjan] > ['kutJen];
clyccan cliichen > cluchen; crycc >
criicche > crucche; 1 > ciiggel > cuggel; blyscan
> bliishen > blushen; rysce > rush > rush;
frysce > thriishe > thrushe.
, much, such, crutch, thrush, X V
.

2 9 6 .
. ,
,
:
.
[],
, , -.
, , []
;
[iu] []. , , nature
[natiir], [natiur] [nateur]. []
,
206
eow;
ew.
[],
.
ew () ,
ew . ,
hewe , (.-. heow, hiw)
hue due ;
trewe ('.-. treowe)
trewthe (.-. treowp) true, truth.
clewe (.-. cliwe, cleowe)
: clew clue
( . .),

. rewen (.-. hreowan)
ruen, reuthe
ruth (. ruthless
).
,
ew; ,
crue ( , ,
, . crue,
croistre, croitre ) crew.
mue ( . mue) mew;
.-. ( . pui) pew.
.-. nuell , '
( . newel), newel.
[] ( )
. boeuf [bof] ,
beef [be:f]. people (-
[:pi]) , -,
[].

297.
[], [], [2], [], [].
[], . .
,
. [in], [], [on], [Hn].
,
,
. [in], [Tm] ( in,
im) in, im: instance , ,
simple .
[], [ ] , em: offence
, assent , mention , sense ,
entren , member , tempest , resemblen
. [] aun: abandon
, mansion ; chaunce , chaunge ,
207
comaunden , dauncen , graunten
. [on] [u:n] ( oun, own): round
, fount , noun , renown ,
sound , count , counsel .
[] - .

298.
, ,

. ,
:
1. , . .
.
2. ei, .
.
3.
;
.
4. [v] [z]
(. 301).
5. , , .
, X I I I XIV .,
.

( 479).

299.
.

, -,
. oi
,
.
, : point,
joint, poise. ,
, -
. . , toy (.
. Zeug , ) buoy
, boy
.
oi .
203
300. ,
, .

,
, . . , .
,

,

.

, .

301. [f] [v]


, ,
:
(. ).68
.
, X I I I X I V .
[ v ] ,
,
v (. 240). , ,
: v ain , , v a lu e , veyne ,
vengeaunce , v erray , vic e , v i r t u e .
, [v]
. , ,
-, - ,
-. - ,
.
, , [ v ] .
, [ v ]
( , , -
):

he was an esy man to yiv e penaunce



(C anterb ury Tales)
men mote y iv e silv er to the poure freres

(ib id .)
to yeve and lene him of his owne good

( i b i d .)

1- :
I h a v e , God w oot, a large feeld to ere
, , (.
)
( i b i d .)

,
[f] [v] , :
,
: [f] [v]
. , [f]
, , . .
[ v ] , parfit , counterf ete
, , cofre . .
,
:

209
, f
, , ,
: ff] [ v ] .

302 . ,

. -, ,
,
. [v]
-
, ,
-
.

,
.

303.
- . ,
,
.
, ,
i: kin (.-a. cynn); fir (.-a. fyr); litel
(.-. lytel).
(-
) . , .-.
merie, .-. ,
berien (
). ,
,
- i, : dreye
(.-. dryse), kesseri (.-. cyssan), fest
(.-. fyst).
. ie, ,
,
, : sheld , shelden (.-. .
scield, scieldan, , sceld, sceldan).
. hieran , , heran
heren. . 3ieldan , .
3eldan yelden (),
ilden ().
.
Id
, - ,
Q, : g\d , hplden .

.
: ld, h^lden.
210
, eah
- , !, :
(.-. ); hye (.-. heah).
: eye, heye.
:

, . . [], [ai]
( , 479), , . .
eye.
,
: high [hai].

304. ( 98),
; ,
, ,
-i -, - -.
, - -
.
.
X I X I I I . ,
, .

;
, . .
, ,
.
305.
,
. ,

.
( 249) ,

, ,
. -
,
,
. , ,
,
.
, ,
. , ,
211
sunu,
sunr. sun-,
, ,
- - .
-
sunu [] (.-. sune).
.

306.
X I X II .

.
-, . .
. X II .
: -es

stQn
dor -es ( .- . -as)

stpn.
-es. X I I . -es
,

. , , name
: names,
,
names; tunge :
tunges; , ,
tunges.
,

: men, fet .

307.
.
,

; , ,
,
-: name ,
tunge , .
:
stanas, stana,
stanum, stanas, :
stones, stone, stonen,
stones. ,

,
212

.
-
-es.
.
308. ,
,
.


. , ,
- -as
( )
.
. ,
,
,
.
.

:
.
-as
-es .
-as

, -es

- .


.
,
-es
.
,
, .
309.
: .

:

. . . .
. m uru s muri miirs rniir
, muru m muros rniir miirs
;
. filia filiae f i lie filles
, filia m filias filie filles

213

; ,

. ,
X I V ., - X I I . ,
-
-s (mur miirs), . .
,
. ,
-


. , ,
, ,
.

310.
, ,
.


,
. ,
.

. . . .

., . stpn stpnes dor d^re, d$res


. stpnes stpne, stpnes d^res d$re, dQres
. stpn(e) stpnes dpr(e) d^re, dQres

. . . .

., . name namen eye eyen


. name namen(e) eye eyen(e)
. name namen eye eyen

, , . .
. ,
, , ,
, ,
.
214

(- , -)
;
- ,
-.
-
,
, : ar, synn.
, : hond ,
might , cow .

:

. . . .

., caren tunge tungen


. care caren(e) tunge tungen(e)
. care caren tunge tungen

-
,
-es,
: child ei .
cildru ;
children eiren.
,


( 100), :

., . man fot toth gos mus


. mannes fotes tothes gose muse
. manne, man fote, fot tothe, toth gose, gos muse, mils

., . men fet teth ges mis


. manne, men fote, fet tothe, teth gose, ges muse, mis
. mannen, men foten, fet tothen,teth gose, ges muse, mis

boc, bok ;
boken, bokes. burh
,
.
byri 3 > buri, biri,
215
bery (. 276)
,
, : Canterbury <
< .-. Cantwarabyris, Cantwaraburs;
Atterbur < .-. aet .


,
,
.
-es stpn dor
; -es
(.-. -as)
stpn; , ,

311. X IV . (, ),
,
.

. .

.. ., ., stpn care dor stpnes cares dpres


. stpnes cares dpres stpnes cares dpres

, -f, -th,
, : l i f ,
lives, lives; path ,
pathes ( []), pathes.
,

, :

. . . .

., ., . man men fot fet


. mannes mennes fotes fetes

,
.

: thing , ,
hors , shep , swin , der .

: winter
, , moneth , night . ,
, -es ;
thinges, yeres, monthes.
216
,
,
-: oxen; eye, eyen,
yen; fo ton; to ton.
sceoh ,
,
-n: shoshon. -
brother brethren, doghter
, doghtren
suster sustren.

312.
. to, ,
, of.
.
to ,
, .-. eode to his huse ,
:
,
.
of ,
, , .-. he dyde helm of hafelan
; byrelas sealdon win of wunder-fatum
,
: , :
the droghte of Marche , ,
langagis of Norphumbres .
wip,
, , , : 3cfeaht wip pone here
,
: spoken with tonge .

: to +
,
of + ,
wip +
. (. 330 332).
,
,
, ,
, , ,
, .
, -, :
,

,
.
217
313.

(
) .
.
,
, .
, ,
,
, ,
,
:
, ,
,
[], .

. . . . *,
,
. . . ,
( , , )
,
.
.
, ,
.
. . .
,
, , . .
,
,
.
,
, .
, : , ,
. .
.

,
,
.


314.
- :

1 . 2 .

. I, ich thow he he, she hit, it


. the him hir, her hit, it

1 .: . . .
.
, , 2, 1951.

218

1 . 2 . 3 .
. we hi, they
. us yow hem, them


:
1. .
2.
( , . ).
3.
;
(him,
hir, hem), (hit); me, the,
us, yow
.
4. 3-
they
hie; (
) , .
5. h hit , ,
,
.
6. she, ,

seo, heo.
, ,
.

315. :

1 . 2 . 3 . 1 . 2 . 3 .
. . .
min, mi thin, thl his hir, her his our your hire, their

min, thin ,
h,
: myn elbowe , myn herte ,
thyn ooth , thy ire ,
: hoolly to be thyn .
,
, : myn be the
travail, and thyn be the glorie ,
. ,
,
my, thy: blisse , thy vengeaunce
* thy child . ,
219
min, thin my, thy
, .
sume of urum, sume of
eowrum -:
ouren, youren,
ourn, yourn; hisn, hern, theirn.

-s,
, , , : the
body is the housebondes ; X IV .
: pis lond salle be yours
.

316.
of
,
a, any, every , : a frend of his
; hors of his ; old
felov of youres ; eny neghe-
bour of myne - ; every knight of
his .

317.
se, seo ,
, -.
, , pat
.
XIV ., , f a t
.

. pps ( .-. pas,

pes) pat.


$ 1'


. . .

. pat, pet ,
. pes, per pes, per,
. pen, pan per pen, pan, pe pen, pe
. , pe pat, pet, pe peo, pe
220
ps '

. . .
. ]3es 1peos ]3i pcos
. pisses pisse pisses pisse
. pisse pisse pisse pissen
. pesne peos pis peos

X II I .
. , , (.
1200 .) to pan kinge (.-. to
cyninge), mid p a n flode (dp.-a. mid flode), t o
Ancren Riwle of pen epple (dp.-a. of aepple)
mid te word ( , mid pe word;
dp.-a. mid worde). To
.
(X IV .)
.
, pes,

: this (

pis), thise, thes;
that (
paet),
tho, thps.

318.
.
. whp, who what
. wh(3s, whos whps, whos
. whpm, whom what

hwy>why

.

319.
( ) self
himself, herself
themselves. herself
:
.
self ,
221
,
,
: my
self, thyself, ourself, yourself.
.
myselven, himselven, , -,
.
,
.

320. paet,


(. 107, 112),
that,
. : of smale
houndes hadde she, that she fedde with rosted flessh
, '.
( X IV .)
, : which,
whiche who (
whom) , . : this mayde, of which I wol
this tale expresse ,
'; who hath no wyf, he is no cokewold ,
'.

321.
3ehwa 3ehwilc .
^ , selc
, swilc se ilea ; sum
- -; "
either, ech, swich, that ilke,
som, any, noon . ,

the same .

322.
.

222
, .
, ,

,

( 30, ).

.

-. ,
- [],
:

., ., ., . god gode

., ., ., . gode gode

:
-,
.
, -, : newe
, trewe .

323.
-(e)r, -est (.-. --, -ost),
:
gr^t * gretter grettest
glad gladder gladdest
fayr * fayrer fayrest

324.
:

pld elder eldest


long lenger lengest
strong strenger strengest

325.
1, :

god * bettre best


evil * werse werst
muchel mpre mpst, mijst
litel lasse lst
223
326.
more profitable, most faithful.
. ,
,
, more most
.

(. 537).
, ,
: and for to make yow the more mery,
I wol my-selven gladly with yow ryde
, ; and whan ye
han examined your conseil as I have seyd, and which partie is
the bettre and more profitable, and hast approved it by manye
wyse folk and olde; thanne shal thou considere . . .
, ,
,
, . . . ; for more solempne
in every mannes sight this feste was, and gretter of costage,
than was the revel of hir mariage
,
; considere whiche of hem been moost
feithful , ; and she the
mooste servysable of alle ;
Nature held on hir honde a formel egle, of shap the gentileste
that ever she among hir werkes fonde, the most benigne and the
goodlieste ,
, ,
.

327.
: 1 (.-. ). 2 two (.-. twa,
). Q>6
w (. whp>who).
tweie(n) (
twesen).
3 thre (.-. ,
). 4 fower, four (.-. feower).
. 5 five
( fife,
f if . . fif). 6 six (.-. siex, six).
7 seven (.-. seofon). 8 eighte (.-. eahta). 9 ,
nin, nfne, nyne (dp.-a. ni 3on) 10 ten (dp.-a. tien, ten
224
). 11 enleven, elleven (.-. endleofan).
12 twelf, twelve (.-. twelf). 13 thirtene (dp.-a. prittiene).
14 fourtene (dp.-a. feowertiene). 15 fiftene (dp.-a. flftiene
). 16
sixtene (dp.-a. sixtiene). 17 seventene (.-. seofontiene). 18
eightetene, eightene (.-. eahtatiene). 19 nisentene, nintene
(dp.-a. ni 3ontiene). 20 twenty (dp.-a. tw en ti3<*tw e3enti3).
3 0 thritti, thirty ( r, dp.-a. pritti)- 40 fourty
(dp.-a. feowertis). 50 fifty (dp.-a. fifti 3). 6 0 sixty (dp.-a.
sixti3). 7 0 seventy (dp.-a. hundseofontis). ,
, h u n d -
. 8 0 eighty (.-. hund-
eahtatis). 9 0 ninty (.-. hundni 3onti 3). 100 hundred (.-.
hundred, hund). 1 000 thousand (dp.-a. fmsend).
29, 73 : nine
and twenty, thre and seventy.
,
,
millioun
*.

328. , ,
:
1 first ( .-. fyrest *, ,
.-. forma ). 2 second ( .
second; .-. ). 3
thirde (.-. pridda, * pirda
). 4 fourthe (.-. feower^a). 5 fifte (.-.
fifta). 6 sixte (.-. sixta). 7 sevethe, seventhe (.-. seofoQa;
.-. -n -
seven). 8 eighte (.-. eahtofto). 9 nlnthe (.-. ;
- - nin). 1 0 tenthe
(.-. teopa; - -
ten)1. eleventhe (.-. endleofta). 12 twelfth (.-a. twelf-
ta). 13 19
-tenthe;
(.-. teofa). 20 90

-tith e<d p .-a. -ti^o^a.

1 .- . te o{ja > cp .-a . tith e > .-a . tith e [ taidj *.

8 . . 225

329.
. ,
.

( 122).
,
.
Q ( 274),
gn;

.
, Qn ,
, - Q,
.
, .


.

330.
,

,
. ( ,

).


. ,
, .

331.
: ,
.
, : why-
lom, as olde stories tellen us, ther was a duk that highte Teseus;
of Athenes he was lord and governour ,
, , ;
; .
: this mayde was of age twelf yer and tweye
; syns I twelf
yer was of age .

. ,
226
, :
Aprille with his shoures soote the droghte of March hath perced
to the rote
;
, : he nevere yet no vileynye
ne sayde in al his lyf unto no maner wight
.

, : now go
your wey ; and as he prikede north
and est ; sche wep both
eve and morwe ; it was almost
a spanne brood ; they were
not on ynche asonder
. . ;
that from this toun ne stant but myles thre
; whan he endu
red hadde a yeer or two in this cruel torment ,
; that in my
chamber longe tyme hath i-be
; that slepen al the night with open ye
; it was me told er ye comher
two houres ,
; . : and if I myght excuse hit any
wise - ; the
somer passeth, and the nightes longe encrescen double wise the
peynes stronge both of the lover and the prisoner ,

, .
,
, ,
, : he yaf the lord .. . sum maner
honest thing . . . - .


(. 383).

to, :
I shal it never telle to child ne wyf
, ; that noman telle his conseil to his
wyf ;
and they to his comaundement obeye
.

332.
, ,
: in his hertes botme gan to striken of hire his fixe
and deepe impressioun
8* 227
; in hope to stonden in
his lady grace ()
; myn owen herte sothfaste suffisaunce
.

of,

, : the droghte of Marche ;
from every shires ende of Engelond
.
-
, , : he shal wel bee
oon of the gretest men of my contree , ,
; :
whereas he saugh upon a daunce go of ladyes four and twenty
and yit mo ,
; of maystres hadde he moo than thryes ten
, .

333. ,
( 314, 318),
.

, ,
: at Alisaundre he was, whan it was wonne
, ; Art thou nat he, quod
she. ? .

334.
: he lefte hir lye, and on his weye
is went (.: )
.

: youre humanitee assureth us and yeveth us hardi-
nesse
; fortune hath given us this adversitee
; my mooder yaf it me .
, :
another nonne with hir hadde she
; so hadde 1 spoken with hem everichon
(.: ).

335. ^
, , ,
.
228
on
, ( )

-. , aflote
1023 .
:
1. aswowne:
. . . t i l he cam to the selle up-on the floor; and ther aswowne he
lay . . . ;
; yet aswowne he lay . . .
; and with that word she fil aswowne anon
.
2. afered:
of his visage children were aferd
(.: ); for soore afered of
his deeth was he ; royal he was,
he was namoore aferd , .
3. aslepe:
tomorwe at nyght, whan folk ben alle aslepe ,
; for she was falle aslepe a lite
wight ; thy litel witte was thilke
tyme aslepe ; the nyght
is wasted and he felle aslepe , 1.
4. awepe:
and she began to breste awepe anon
.
5. alyve:
for he was yet in memorie and alyve
; no man hath swich that in this world alyve is
( ), ;
and yet more-over, thogh alle tho that ever lived were now alyve
. . . , , - ,
. . . ; . . . t h a t al the folk that is - l i v e . ...
, . . . .

336. ,
-
. ,
,
.

, ,
,
.

1 . J e s p e r s e n A M odem E ng lis h
G r a m m a r . P a r t VI. (Copenhagen, 1942, p. 127 128.)

229


.

337. ,
(, , -
), .
,
, ,
. ,
.

338.
.
-,
-on - []. IV V

,
, . .
, .
,
(II, III ).
.
- -.

.
.
, , X IV .

339.
:
. .
. . . .

/
writen wrgt writen writen
riden rgd riden riden

I I
chosen ch^s chpsen chpsen
230
I l l
a) drinken drank dronken dronken
singen sang songen songen
winnen wan wonnen wonnen
binden bpnd bounden bounden
b) helpen halp holpen holpen
) kerven carf corven corven
fighten fa(u)ght foughten foughten
IV
b^ren bar b^ren, bar bpren
stolen stal stolen, stal stolen
spoken spak spoken sppken
V
g^ten gat g?ten, gat g^ten
VI
shaken shok shoken shaken
drawen drough, drew drowen, dre- drawen
wen
V II
fallen fell fellen fallen
knowen knew knewen knowen
hplden held helden hplden
wepen wep wepen wepen
VI dp.-a. drasan droh dr63o n -
drasen slean ' sloh slo 3on slaesen
drawen droh
(drow) drowe(n) drawen; slen sloh (slow) slowe(n) slain.


V II .- cnawan , cneow cneowon
cnawen, .- . knowen knew knfewen knowen.


(. 346, 347).

340. ,
IV V
.
, V
, IV , . .
.
sp(r)ecan , wefan
, wrecan , tredan ;
V, IV .
231

sp(r)ecan sp(r)aec sp(r)aecon sp(r)ecen


wef an waef waef on wefen
wrecan wraec wraecon wrecen
tredan traed traedon treden

spoken spak spoken spQken


w^ven waf w^ven w^ven
wr^ken wrak wr^ken wr^ken, wrQken
tr^den trad tr^den treden, trpden

beodan
bead budon boden (II ; .
bieten) biddan baed baedon beden (V
, ; . bitten).
beden b^d bpden
bQden, bidden bad b^den b^den;
bidden.
bidden
, , a beden ,
.
.
bidden
beden . X IV .
:
bidden I , / b^den b^den
beden / ( bpden bpden

II :
fleah
fleah .
,
.

341- ,
( 133),
:

1) III KJI. yelden yald yolden yolden


yelpen yalp yolpen yolpen
V . yiven, yaf, gaf y?ven, yiven, given
given g^ven
yeten, yat, gat y?ten, yeten, geten,
geten g?ten goten
2) V . liggen, lien lay leien leien
sitten sat s^ten s^ten
232
VI . sworen swor sworen sworen
h$ven hof hoven hoven
laughen lough loughen laughen
stepen stop, stap stopen stopen
shapen shop shopen shapen
II . flen fleigh flowen flowen
V . sen seigh, sawen seyen, se
saugh
VI . sl?n slew slewen slain
VII . fangen feng, fong fengen, fangen
fongen
hangen heng hengen hangen
II . luken, lo- l?k lQken lQken
ken
shoven shof, shef shpven shQven
III . bersten bars! borsten borsten
breden braid
threshen thrash throshen throshen
runnen ran runnen runnen
IV . comen com, cam comen, ca- comen
men
nimen nom, nam nomen, na nomen
men
VI . standan stod stoden standen

liggen ['1]
.-. , lien
.

: 1 : gripen , II : ,
eleven, flen, VII : wepen, slepen, walken, dreden, r$den.

342.
.
I ,
- i - (styrian), II
(lufian, macian) -i - ,
stiren, loven, maken.
-i a n > -ie n -i, :
lovi. II ,
(lufode, macode, lufod,
macod) -e [] (lovede, makede, loved, maked)
. III
seggen, libben, habben
233
seien, liven, haven,
, 2 3-
.

343. XIV .
1, n, f (v) -d -t;
-rd, -nd, -Id
-rte, -nte, -lte
-rt, -nt, -It. , , II
leornian leornode leornod , bereafian -
fode bereafod , losian losode losod , ,
I daelan daelde daeled ,
felan felde feled , maenan maende maened
, laefan laefde laefed , hlaenan hlaende
hlaened , 3 yrdan 3yrde 3 yrd , 1-
dan 3ylde 3yld , by 1dan bylde by Id ,
bendan bende bend , rendan rende rend *,
send an sende send , scendan scende scend
, spendan spende spend , wendan wen-
de wend
lernen lernte lernt; spellen spelte spelt; ber^ven
berefte (berafte) bereft (beraft); losen loste lost; d^len dlte
(dalte) delt (dalt); felen felte felt; m^nen mente ment;
leven lefte (lafte) left (laft); l^nen lente lent; girden gir-
te girt; gilden gilte gilt; bilden bilte bilt; benden ben-
t e bent; renden rente rent; senden sente sent; shenden
shente shent; spenden spente spent; wenden wente went.

344.
.
III
( ): biernan barn burnen burnen (
).
I ( ) baernan baernde baerned
(, ).
; ,
. ,
, .
XIV . burnen,
. , ,
.

ingen rang rungen
rungen III ,
ng i.

345. I
:
234
sellen splde spld
tellen tplde tpld
r^cchen raughte raught
strecchen straughte straught
byen boughte bought
thenken, thinken thoughte thought
werken vvroughte wrought
bringen broughte brought
recchen roughte rought
seken, sechen soughte sought
t^chen taughte taught
lacchen laughte laught

346. ,
, , : ca lle n,
w a n te n , gessen; taken ( . taka) VI
(
) t a k e n tok token taken .
th riv en . {Irifa I
: th r iv e n thr f th r iv e n thriven.
dwellen dwelte dwelt , (
. dvelja) felen.
clafiian clafiode c l a f o d
cl^th e n lathed cloth ed;
cladde clad (
klaedde klaefia ).
ridden ( redden, rudden)
hreddan (. . retten )
ryfija .
f 1ingen ( flengja
) I I I () ,
singen. slingen ( . slongva) ,
flingen, II I
-ingen.
run .
( ) : ie rn an arn urnon urnen.
: renna rann runnom runnen.
X I V . : rennen rann runnen runnen.
; ,
burnen.

347. , ,
, : , -
gendren , punishen . . striv en
, ( . estriv e r , ,
strid) I
striv e n strpf striv en st riven.
c a t c h e n ( . ca ch ier) c a tch e n
cau gh te ca u g h t l a cch e n laughte
laught ( . - . laecc(e)an laeh te laeht) .

235
spoilen , ( .- . ( d e ) s p o l i e r , -
1
. depouil ) sp oilte
spoilt spillen sp ilte spilt
,
; . -a. quitten quitte quitt ( . q uitter);
. -a. costen ( .- . co st er; . ).

348.
.
,
(. 284)
-an, -on, - ,
.
, -,
,
. -
,
.
, ^

2 3-
.

349.
.


-eth ( .-. -).
-
( ,
,
-on, -
-); ,
-
- (. 352).

-es,
.
2 3- .

. .
-ende -ande
. XIV .
-ende, X IV .
-inge ( ;
. 360). -- -ende
236
-(- -i-.
-inde X IV . ,
, -inge.

.

.- - ( -),
, ,
-.
.

350.
XIV .
, .

binden


- -

. . 1 . binde )
2 . blndest |I binde bind
3 . bindeth, bint J
(. bindes) ) bpnd
. . binden binden 2 . bin- bounden, bounden
(. bindes, de(th) bpnd
. bindeth)

binden bindinge bounden


(. bln-
dande)

dflen

(. d^Ies)
. . d^len d^len 2 . d^le(th) delten delten
(. dles,
. d^leth)
237

d^len d^linge delt


(. d^lande)

haven, han

. . 1 have \ hadde 'j


2 . hast > have have haddest > hadde
3 . hath J hadde J
(. has)

. . han han 2 . have(th) hadden hadden


(. has,
. hath)

haven, han havinge had


(. havande) '

,
v .

, : ne hath > nath,
hadde > nadde.

351.
to -
, , ;
to seene, to donne,
to seyne ( )
to seen, to doon, to seyen.
to for to,
for to tellen.

352. - *
, ,
.
.
238

( = . . .)


(,
-
.)



1) . . 1 . WQt wiste \
2 . wpst \ wite wite wistest > wiste
3 . wpt I wiste I
. . witen, wpt witen 2 . wite(th) wisten wisten


witen witende witen


2) . . 1 . ouh oughte
2 . owest > owe oughtest oughte
3 . ouh, oweth oughte
. . owen owen oughten oughten

owen

3) . . 1 . deh, dow \ doughte j


2 . > dowe doughtest > doughte
3 . deh, dow I doughte i
. . dowen dowen doughten doughtei

dowen
4) . . 1 . an, on \ ouhte
2 . > unne ouhtest ouhte
3 . an, on ' ouhte
. . unnen unnen ouh ten ouhten
5) . . 1 . can, con couthe, coude
couthe,
2 . canst, const cunne couthest, coude
coude
. can, con couthe, coude
. . cunnen, can cunnen couthen, couthen,
couden couden

cunnen couth
6) . . 1 . tharf.thar \ thurfte
2 . tharst > thurve thurftest ) thurfte
3 . tharf, thar I thurfte
. . thurven thurven thurften
239
7) . . 1 . dar dorste, durste \ , .
2 . darst durre dorstest, durstest > ,ors,e*
3 . dar dorste. durste
dorste, J durste
. . durren durren dorsten, dursten dorsten,
dursten

durren
8) . . 1 . shal sholde
2 . shalt shule sholdest sholde
3 . shal sholde
. . shulen shulen sholden sholden

9) . . 11.. man
man \
2 . - mune
3 man 1
. . munen munen

10) . . 1 . may mighte 4

.
2 . mayst
. may
. mowen
} mowe

mowen
mightest >
mighte
mighten
J
mighte

mighten

mowen
11) . . 1 . mot \ moste
2 . most > mote mostest moste
. mot ' moste
. . moten mosten mosten


ben gpn

353. ,
.

ben

. . 1 . am \ was
2 . art be wr(e) w^re
3 . is ) was
. (. , w^ren w|ren
. ^ )
240


. . 2 . ben beinge
. . 2 . beth beand


, : ne am > nam, ne i s >
> nis, ne was > nas, ne w^re > n^re.

gpn 1


- -
-

. . 1 . gp (ga) | yede, wente ^


2 . gpst (gas) > gp gp (ga) yedest, wentest > yede, wente
3 . gpth (gas) * (ga) yede, wente >
. . gon (gas) gpn gpth yeden, wenten yeden, wenten
(. gpth) (gan) (gath)

gpn (gan) gpinge (gande) gp(n) (gan)

yede .- . seeode; wente


wenden.

don willen

354.
.
ddn


- -
-

. . 1 . do \ dide(dude, dedeh
2 . dost (. dos) > do do didest >dide
3 . doth (. dos)' dide i
. . don (. dos, don 2 . doth diden diden
. doth)

1 .

241

don doinge don


(. doande)

willen

. . 1 . wil, wol wolde \


wille,
2 . wilt, wolt | woldest > wolde
wolle
3 . wil, wol wolde )
. . willen willen, wollen wolden wolden
(. willeth,
. willes)

wold

355. - ,
( 153),
-.
, ,
,
. : ... and
French she spak ful fa ire and fetisly after the scole of S tr a tf o rd a t te Bowe,
for F r e n ch of P a r i s w as to hir unknowe *... -
, ,
. ,
( ),
. ,
, : ...an d after soper pleyen he
big an, and spak of m irth e amonges othere thinges, whan th a t he hadde maad
our rekeninges; and seyde t h u s ... ... ;
, ,
. . . .
. .
: M etellius, the foule ch erl, the swyn, that with a staf birafte
his wyf hir lyf, for she drank w yn, thogh I hadde been his wyf, he sholde
nat han daunted me for drinke , , ,
, ,
; and ther-u pon the wyn w as fet anon; we dronken, and to reste

1 -
, : y-fa lle , y -c o m e , -brought, y -c la d .
.

242
wente echon, w ith-o uten any longer t ary in g e
; , .
,
.
: in kinges h abit wen te
hir sones two, as heires of hir fadres regnes alle, and H erm a nn e , and Thy-
m alao her names were, as Persiens hem ealle
, , -
, ; for he was late -come from
his v iag e, and wente for to doon his pilgry mage
; of stud ie took he most
cure and most hede (.:
).
, ,
,
: and whan this w orth y duk hath thus
y-don, he took his host, and hoom he rood anon
, .
rood
: and w han
he rood, men myghte his brydel here gynglen in a w histling wind as clere
and eek as loude as doth the chapel belle (: )
, ,
, .

3 5 6 . ,
, .
, ,
.

,
(
). , , ,
, .
. . ,
, .

3 5 7 .
: lordinges, right thus, as ye have under-
stonde, bar I stifly mine olde housbondes on honde ,
, ,
; but al thing, which that shyneth as the gold nis
nat gold, as that I have herd it told ,
, , ( ) ; I hadde
unnethe that word y-sayd right thus as I have told hit yow, that
sodeynly... , ,
, ... . I shal doon diligence that Pala-

1 . . .
. , 1955, 1, 2.

243
, that is thyn owne knight, shal have his lady, as thou hast
him hight , ,
, ,
; the mone, whan it was night, ful brighte shoon, and Abso-
lon his giterne hath -take, for paramours, he thoghte for to wake,
and forth he gooth, jolif and amorous, til he cam to the carpen-
teres hous a litel after cokkes hadde y-crowe ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
; ...the holy blisful martir for to seke that
hem hath holpen whan that they were seke ...
, , .
. ,

: and whan this worthy duk hath thus y-don,
he took his host, and hoom he rood anon
,
.

,

. ,

.
,
,
, .

358.
: ful thredbare was his overest courtepy, for
he had geten him yet no benefice, ne was so worldly for to have
office ,
,
; and whan that he had herd Arcites tale,
as he were wood, with face deed and pale, he sterte him up
, ,
; but sovereynly dame Per-
telote shrighte, ful louder than dide Hasdrubales wyf, whan that
hir housbond hadde lost his lyf, and that the Romans hadde brent
Carthage () ,
, ,
, .

() (. 159),
: the domes alle, that from the tyme of King William
were falle , (. . )
.
244

3 5 9 .
,
.
. ,
. ,
, , . .
.
, ,
: singynge he was, or floytinge,
al the day . -,
been
, . (. al this ground
on which we been ryding , ).

3 6 0 .
.
: 1)
-ende; 2)
on - i n s
is on huntinse , .
,
:
is on huntinge ,
, is a-huntinge ,

, is huntinge.
, ,
-ende -inge,
.
,

-ende
- i ns .

-, : we han ben waytinge al this
fourtenight . -
,
,
.

3 6 1 . ,
(. 154), -


245
, .

. shal
wil (wol)

, : ther-as the knightes weren in prisoun,
of whiche I tolde yow, and tellen shal ,
, ; but I
was hurt right now thurgh-out myn ye in-to myn herte, that wol
my bane be ,
.
, , ,
.
, shal,
,
: the cherl shal have his thral; this I awarde
, ; ther shal
no deth me from my lady twinne!
!
wil
: and I wol love
hire mawgree al thy might
; What? trowe ye, the whyles I may preche, and
winne gold and silver for I teche, that I wol live in povert wil
fully? ? ,
,
?
,
,
shal wil (wol)
,
.

362.
,
. ,

, : and slepen wollen til the sonne
shyne , ; though it happen
me rehercen eft ; er it
were day, as was hir wone to do, she was arisen
, , .
-

, : but if thou wene I be thus syk
246
for drede, it is not so ,
, .
,
,
, ,
, .

,
, wolde + ;
ben, ,
.
, ,

wolde-f .

: so that I wiste I sholde you
nat greve, I wolde demen that ye tellen sholde a tale
, , ,
; she wolde wepe if that she saw a mous caught
in a trappe, if it were deed or bledde ,
, ,
; nere thou our brother, sholdestou
nat thryve ,
; but it were al to long for to devyse the grete clamour
; if it nere
to long to here, I wolde han told you fully the manere, how
wonnen was the regne ,
, ;
if 1 might escapen from prisoun, than hadde 1 been in joye and
parfit hele ,
; 1 wolde han trusted, douteless,
that if that I thurgh my disaventure, had loved other him or
Achilles, Ector, or any mannes creature, ye nolde han had no
mercy ne mesure on me , ,
, , ,
- , ,
.

: Allas! that ever knew 1 Perotheus! For el-
les hadde 1 dwelled with Theseus y-fetered in his prisoun ever-mo.
Than hadde I been in blisse, and not in wo. Only the sighte of
hir, whom that I serve, though that I never hir grace may de
serve, wolde han suffised right ynough for me !
! ,
. , .
, ,
,
.
247

3 6 3 .
. weorf>an,

, ,
.
+
,
.
, , , ,
.

, ,
;
, ,
.
3 6 4 .
: the castel-yate
on my right hond, which that so wel corven was that never swich
another was ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
. of Grekes, by oon general assent, than semed me ther was
a parlement at Athenes, up-on certeyn poynts and cas; among the
whiche poynts y-spoken was to have with certeyn contrees alliaunce
, , ,
, ;
(. . )
.
,
, . . : Satan,
envious sin thilke day that thou were chased from our heritage!
, ,
!
, , ,
, .
. : thise wordes al with gold y-writen were. Whan this
was rad, than seyde this olde man
. , .
+ ,
, ;
,
,
.
248
365.
:
,
-
, ,
. , ,
,
:
I may you devyse how that I may be holpe
, (
helpan
); ne hadde he ben holpen by the
stede of bras ; the embassatours ben
answerde for fynal (
andswarian
). ,
.

-
, : he tolde Felyce all his wylle
and lyfe, and how he was bedyn riche wyfe
, .

.

366.
,
- (. 162),
fayr fayre, bright
brighte, high hye, fast
faste. -,
, newe
newe.

-1,
special specially, thrifty
thriftily.

367. ,
, ,
,
:
gretly gretter grettest

,
249

( 164):
longe lenger lengest

3 6 8 . ,
:

much mp, mpre mQst


litel lasse l^st
wel bet, bettre best
evile wers, werse werst

3 6 9 .
more most (.
, 326). ,
: al mighten tho same thinges
betere and more plentivously ben couth in the mouthe of the
people that knoweth al this
,
; and it is short for it sholde be coud the more
lightly, and for to withholden it the more esily in herte
(),
; lat us see the whiche of hem han
spoken most resonably ,
; he that most curteisly comaundeth, to him men
most obeyen ,
.

3 7 0 .
, .
,

, : anes (
); elles
(
* a l j a - , . . aljis ). (.
, : ,
).
-s, ,

. , , fanon
thane(n), thene(n);
-s thenes, thens (.-. thence).
.-. hwanon? ? .-a. whannes,
whennes, whens, .-. whence; .- . heonan .-.
hennes, hens, .-. hence. .-. siffa n ( s if fan)
.-. sithens, sins, .-. since; .-. neade .-.
250
nedes, .-. needs; .-. ealne wes , *,
- .- . alway, always, .-. always; .-. twlwa
.-. twies, .-. twice; .-. f)riwa .-. thries,
.-. thrice.

371.
,
.
.
. , , -
,
.
:
certeinly, certes, sikerly , forsothe .
Certeinly , , :
and certeinly he was a good felawe , ,
; but certeinly no word ne writeth he ,
, ; at the laste certeinly they
dye , , .
Sikerly : but sikerly
she hadde a fair forhead , ,
; now sikerly this is a smal requeste ,
.
,

, .

372. ,
,
. ,
. . . 2, XI X II .
, , X III
X IV ., .
X IV . .

,
, .

1 . . . . . ., 1947,
. 72 5 744.
2 . . . .
, 1947.

251
,
,
.

. ,
, : fro the tyme that he
first began to ryden out, he loved chivalrye ,
, ;
. . .that we pleye a pilgrimage, or goon out of the weye . . .
, ; I
out on the ministres, quod he , ;
for it was trussed up in his walet
; who spryngeth up for joye but Arcite?
, ?; to maken up the lystes roially
- ; cometh up, ye wives,
offreth of youre wolle! , ,
!


-.
, : out,
over, in, on.
,
( ,
-).
,
:
,
,
, ,

3 7 3 .

, , ,
. ,
undernethe ,
: and undernethe hir feet she hadde a mone
( ), beside ,
, : under a tree beside a welle
.

1
. .
( ., 1949).
.

252
,
-s (
). ,
, onmiddan
amidde, amiddes;
amonge, amonges.
:

.
-
(. 330 334).

3 7 4 .

. ;
, ,
,
. , , X IV .
.
but, butan
, , , ,
butan ( *be-utan).

, panne , peahpe , forpsempe .
ponne whan (.-. hwanne).
peahpe thogh,
X II . ,
forpaempe
for.
,
. ,
because,
be cause.


.
.

3 7 5 . , -
, .
: ! ! , a ha! !,
alas! ! ( ), f ! (
, !), ha! ha! (
253
), 1! ( !), oh! !, owh! !,
wo! ! , welawey! !
, ,
: and therwithal he bleynte and cryde, A!
: !; a! good Sire
Hoost! I have y-wedded bee. Ax! ! !;
A ha! quod Pandar, here biginneth game! !
, !; And seyde, Fy, alias,
what have I do? : , , ? ;
And seyde, Now, fy on the Grekes alle! :
!; ! ha! the fox! and after him they ran.
, ! .; Lo, here your ende,
of that I shal devyse. , ,
,; Lo! swich it is a millere to be fals!
!; Lo! here he sit, the lechour, in the
tree! , , , ! deere
cosyn Palamon, quod he. ,
. ; mercy, deere fader!, quod this mayde; ,
! .; Ful ofte he seith A llas!,
and Weylawey. : ! .

. , ,
, .
,
.

376.
( E a s t Midland),
; - ( W e s t Midland)
- . . 25 6.
-
:

/ .

1. a: saet > sa t , aet > at *.


, :
faeder > fader > fader .

1 :
.. W 1 d. A H isto ry of Modern Collo quial E n g lis h . Oxford , 1953, . 2 7 54;
R . M o r r i s . Specimens of E a r l y E n g lis h . P a r t I. O x fo rd , 1953, . X L
XLV.

254
2 . 1,
, , :
s p t c > sp ec > speche ; s d > s e d > s e d .
2 q: t c ( e ) a n > t^ ch en ,
1 1
d l > d l , } > ^ .
3. i ( i, ): > bridge
, s y n n > s m n e ; .- . ( i, ): f y r > fir ,
3 e m y n d > m i n d .
4. : > e r t h e , .- .
: > ^ .
5. +
: > arm , h e a r d > hard ; 11
all: 11> all .
6 . () eald a l d > p l d : ( e ) a l d >
ld , h ( e ) a l d a n > h p l d e n , t ( e ) a l d e > tplde .
7. () ie
; -
;
;
: e rm the , heren (.-. . ie rm ^ u ,
hleran).

//.

8. 3-
-, -eth: he knoweth;
-
-es.
9.
-en: we knowen.
10.
-, -eth: knoweth.
11. -end(e): bindend(e).
-
-and. X IV .
-inge, -ynge.
12.
3- she (sche,
scho).

13. 3-
he ( ), p e i,
t h e i ( ). hem ,
X V . p eim , them ( ).
3-
here. X I V .
])eir, their ( ),
X V .
14.
are, aren, ben.
15. -, i- ;
-, knowen.

255
-
-

. , ;
u, ui ( - ); XIV .
.
-us, -ud -es, -ed.

/.

1. a: s ae t> sat.
2 1
. . >.
2
l & r a n > lren.
3. : stan ;
XIV ., ai: laird .
4. , i, ( !, : hy 11>
hill, f y r > fir).
5. : e o r j } e > e r t h e .
6 . +
a: h e a r d > h a r d .
7. () Id a: aid,
halden.
8. () ie, , : e rm th e ,
.
9. : ai>a,
oi>o. _
10. ii.

//.
11 . 3-
-es, , he knawes; -es
2
-
1
, -
: thou knawes, we, ye, they knawes, I knawes.
12. -ande (
): bindande.
13.
3- sho.
14. 3- th ai,
t h a im , th a ir ( ).
15.
.
16. i- .


1. ( , , ).
X ( V . .
: c w a e d > c w e t h ; cu ad.

256
2. 1 braef>b rth .
2
: ta ecean> techen.
3. ;
, u, ui,
( ), : > , h y d a n >
> h u y d a n ; f y r > fui .
4. , ,
[], [] [ii], [fi] ( , , , ). , f e o r d a >
fiirthe ; b r ^ o s t > b r u s t . , ,
.
5. +
, : 3 e a r d > y e r d ; X III .
- ,
: harm .
6
. eald ld ( e a l d ,
aeld, eld), : h e a l d a n > h q l d e n ; w e a l d a n > w q l d e n ,
XII ., X III .,
ld: hplden, wplden.
7. ie,
i, , .
. , ,
hle ran, hlr an, hyran hlren h uire n; s c i e l d ,
scild, scyld s(c)hiId s(c)hiild.
- ,
.

//.
8
. 3-
-ef, -if, -f (-eth, -ith, -th).
9.
-ef, -if (-eth, -ith).
10.
-ef, -if (-eth, ith).
11. -inde. -inge
, - .
12.
3- ha, he, heo, hue; she, sche .
13. 3-
hi, heo, ha; heom, he, ham ;
here, heore, hore.
14.
ben b e o f , b e f , b u f .
15. i-, - ( .- . $-) .
- .
16. II ,
-ian, -i, -,
: loki, loky ( .- . locia n). -
.

( -)

/.
1. , : saet > s e t , w a e s > w e s ;
- .
2
. () 1,
, .

9 . . 257
2,
, .
ie, : cliene .
$.
3. , ,
5
, , : s y n n e > s e n n e , zenne , m y r i > m e r i e ,
f y r > f e r .
4. iy, ,
io, , . , ie
.
5. (eall, e a rm , eard )
( , , ), -
.
6. eald eld (: , , ).
7. , ia, .
, ,
.
8 . s- f-
, : s y n n e > z e n n e , f o r > v o r .

//.

9 . 3-
-{), - i ^ ( - e t h , -ith ).
10.
- (-e th ).
11.
- e t (-eth).
12. -inde, X I V .
-inge.
13. 3-
hi. she .
14. 3- hi,
heo, ha . . {)- .
15.
bie|>.
16. i-, - ; -
.
17. -ie , -i, -.

377.
.

-(),
.
-eth.
3-
-eth.
-(e)s
. ,
258
, , ,
-e(s): nede has peer
; ther is a lawe that says thus ,
.

- ( ), - (
).

378.
.
-

.

,
.

, - .

.

, ,
X II X III
.


379 .

. .

. -
- ,
- ,
, .

.
,
, ,
.
.
. , -
,

1 .
: . E i n e n k e l . H is t o ri s c h e S y n t a x (Grundrift der
g erm anisch en P h ilo lo g ie . Bd . I, G es chich te der englischen S p rach e ); E . E i n e n-
k e l . Streifziige durch die m itte le n g lisch e S y n t a x , 1887.

9* 259
, ,
.
.

380. -
, -,
.

. , ,
.

381. , ,
, ,
. : kyng listned sawe
; smale foules maken melodye
; he did aperte fo lie
; so hadde I spoken with hem everychon
; this was a fals cherl and a fals justise!
; that was yelow, and
glytered as the sonne ()
.

382. .
: com neer, and taak
youre lady by the hond
; I speke in prose ; so hadde I spoken
with hem everychon .
: ne mei him
naman eal sw7a wel demen ne swarihte
; eal sceal beon #er &enne cu#
; i ne can ne i ne mai tellen
alle pe wunder ne alle pe pines
.
(): ich am elder pen
ich wes , ; ful worthy was he in his lordes werre
; for Januarie
was bicome hir knight ; I was of
hir felawshipe anon .
260

383. , ,
,
.
,
.

.
: blisse ne mei wiht under -
stonden ;
hadde he, and servaunts namo ,
; seken lond and see for your winninges
.
: me thinketh
it acordaunt to resoun, to telle you al the condicioun of ech of hem

; wo was his cook, but-if his sauce were poynaunt and
sharp , ;
now have I told you shortly, in a clause, th estat, th array, the
nombre, and eek the cause . . .
, , ,
: and | king
Vortiger of hire come was war
; and to Hengest and his cnihtes he 3ef riche 3eftes
; and at
knight that wol 1 first biginne .

384.
, (, ,
. .),
. : smale fowles maken
melodye ; and let me tellen al
my tale, I preye ,
; this gentil duk doun from his courser sterte
; he nas but seven yer old
; ful worthy was he in his lordes werre
; swelleth the brest
of Arcite .

385.
:
,
261
. : I repente fulle sore
; his deope wounden bledep fast
*; at night were come in-to that hostelrye wel
nyne and twenty in a companye
; for he was late -come
trom his viage ; as
he was wont from yeer to yeer .

386.
,
, : here in the temple
of the goddesse Clemence we han ben waytinge al this fourtenight
;
how asseged was Ipolita, the faire hardy quene of Scithia
, ; the
bisy larke, messager of day, salueth in hir song the morwe gray
, ,
.

387. : herkneth to me, gode men, wiues, maydnes,


and alle men, of a tale, pat ich you wile telle ,
, , , () ,
; child seyd: Justise, held pi moupe
: , .

388.
: and sikerly she was of greet disport , ,
; but certainly no word ne writeth he
, , . .
: Criseyde, at shorte wordes for to telle,
welcomed him , , .


389.

.

.
,
.
262
390.
.

.
King Horn ( X I I I .)
, ,
.
, ,
, :
so priketh hem nature ; so hadde I
spoken with hem everychon
; wel coude he sitte on hors
.

391.
.
,
, ,
. (Richard
Rolle de Hampole, X IV .),
.
:
and in his armes he hem alle up hente
; she hir love him graunted
; : and of this cry they nolde
never stenten, til they the reynes of his brydel henten
, .

392. ,
- ,
.
,
, ,
, : heir male
, court martial , knight errant
, cousin german .

393.
.

:
,
, ,
.

:
263
Whan that Aprille with his schoures sote
The droughte of Marche hath perced to the rote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flo u r ...


,

Aprille
the droughte every veyne
- , .
,
: , the droughte,
hath perced, , every veyne,
, .
the flour
.
,
, . .
;
.

394.

. ,
, ; ,
,
; ,
, .
-
.

395.
.
:
( )
,
. ,


.
, -
264
.

. : sharpe
speres stronge , fresshe floures
, monthes glade .
, ,
-
, . :

In May, that mother of monthes glade,


That fresshe floures, blewe, and whyte, and rede,
Ben quike agayn, that winter dede made.

, ,
, , , ,
.
,
, . . .

396.

. ,
,
,
.

397.
-
. ,
. , ,
,

,
, . ,
-

,
. , ,
,
:
his schoures sote ; straunge strondes
.
266
,

398,
to,
( 193),
(-);
to, , ,
,
.
to
beginnen , longen wishen
. ., : than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages
; she gan so sore
longe to seen her suster
.
, , to,
: but atte laste speken she began , ,
; playen he bygan .

to: she moste by hire leve come soupen in his hous with hym
at eve ; thow shalt this
nyght somtyme, in som manere, com speken with thi lady prively
-
.

399.
to to: and wyteth wele, that bothe too ben vices,
mystrusten alle or ellis alle leve ,
, ; to ben
slayn it were a gretter joye to me, than kyng of Grece be and
Troye ,
.

400.
to: the cradil at hire beddes feet is set to
, ; and yaf hym to the queen,
al at hir wille to chese whethir sche wolde him save or spille
, , ,
.

401.
fo r to, : and specially, from
every shires ende of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende, the hooly
blisful martir for to seeke ,
, ,
. , ,
, : right as the Friday, soothly
for to telle, now it shyneth, now it reyneth faste
267
, () , ,
. for to
, ,
: that for to hunten is so desirous
; Palamon bigan to Venus temple for to gon -
(.: ) .
, :
, to for to.

402. , . . X I I X III .,

, 1.
hQten , leten ,
maken , ,
: sen , heren . :
& hehte pane due stronge: in sup londe
; and hehte hine bringe:
his maei to pon kinge
; he lette seil and pane maest: lipen mid upen
; heo makede him sune3en on
hire - ; pu iseie pine deor-
wurpe s u n e ... arisen to blissfulle Hue ,
... ; oper 3 if pu
iherdest peoues breken pine woawes ,
.

403. X IV . ,
, . , ,
, sen , heren ,
maken ,
, maken: causen
, , compellen , constreynen
. . : this prison caused me not for to
crye ; and if so be that
the lawe compelle you to swere ,
; it constreyneth me to doon you grace
.
, ,
,
, . ,
, : but deeth,
that wol nat suffre vs dwellen heer ,

1. . . .
.

268
, ../; ...a n d that he wole
graunte hem to arysen out of hir synnes ...
; thanne lat vs considere also of the con-
seillyng of hem that conseilleden you to taken sodeyn vengeaunce,
wheither it acorde to resoun? ,

?

,
: pei meyntenen pes anticristic prelatis to robbe here te-
nauntis , -
; pei. . . chargen men to studie hem
(); for poetes feyne mony nowble men
to haue ben geten by Iupiter ,
; B e d e ... provethe
V II yere to faile from the nombre rehersede ,
7 .
, . . , X I I X I I I .
,
X IV .
,
.

404. +
, : the worste kynde of infortune is th is,
a man to have ben in prosperite and it remembren when it passed
is ,
, .

405.
,
.
,
. : high on hors he sat, uppon
his heed a Flaundrish bever hat ,
; b if el that Chaunteclere in al
his pride, his seven wives walkyng by his side, cast up his eighen
to the brighte sonne ,
, ,
; service doon, they soupen al by day
, .


406.
- i n j, -u n j .
,
.
269

, : Do come, he
sayde, my mynstrales and gestours, for to telle tales anoon in my
armynge , , ,

( ) ; and in his harpyng, whan that he hadde
sunge, his eyghen twynkeled in his heed aright
( ),
, ; for with her stroge-
lynge wel and mightily the theef fel over boord
, , .
,
: than schal we alle have ynogh to
done in liftyng up his hevy dronken cors
,
I slough Samson in schakyng the piler
(, ) . ,
, ,
: heygh la b o u r... was at
the service and the fyr makyng .. .
; sir Thopas fel in love longynge
.

407.
, . -
, ,
, .
: neschulen habben no best bute kat o n e
, ; nexst fleshe
neschal non werien no linnene clop
; nefunden he non pat dede
hem sham , ; he nolde
no raunsoun .
noght, nought
noght, not, nat,
, ne: mynde of man may
not ben comprehended .
, , noght ,
: his arwes drouped noght with fetheres lowe
() ; scho es noghte with thaym,
pat will noghte wyrke () ,
; pay do noghte all (:
); pat bep nought ymedled wip oper naciouns
; he forgot it naught (
) ; allebeit I be not worth ; he
270
yaf nat of that text a pulled hen, that seith, that hunters been
nat holy men ,
, .
, nawiht
not, nat
,
,
.

408. , . .
,
,
,
, : . ,
:
,
; , -,
.
, ,
, , ,
,
.
:
,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
.

409.
, sise niman
, fri|) niman , fon to rice
. , -
, .

. ,
+ : smale fowles maken melodye
, . . ; y-falle in felawshipe
. . ; made forward
, . . ; to take our wey , . .
; in hope to stonden in his lady grace
() , . . ; songes
make , . . ; make himselven wood
271
, . . ; make avaunt
, . . , ; to h a v e ... aqueyn-
taunce . . . , . . -; to
have off , . . ; of studie took
he most care and most hede
, . .
; heeld opinioun , . . ; of
nyce conscience took he no keep
, . . ; he . . . hadde the hyer hond .:
, . . , ; he coude
in litel thing han suffisaunce ,
. . ; to take ensaumple
, . . ; greet chere made our hoste us eve-
richon ,
. . .

410.
, .

411.
. ,
.
and,
: under the sonne he loketh, and anon he was war of
Arcite and Palamon ,
; thus endeth Palamon and Emelye; and God
save al this faire companye!
; !
but: he herde it wel, but he ne spak
right noght , .
or: go forth thy way, or I wol caste a ston
, ; cherisse thy wyf, or
thou shalt never thee ,
.

: at sessiouns there was he lord and sire; ful ofte tyme he
was knight of the shire
; ; a shirreve hadde
ha been and a contour; was no-wher such a worthy vavasour
;
.
272

412.
. : who so that troweth nat this, a beest he is
, ; for what man that is entred in
a pley, he nedes moot unto the pley assente
, .

(
): but greet harm was it, as it thoughte me, that on his shine
a mormal hadde he ,
, , .

413.
.
: the sothe is this, the cut fil to the knight
, .

414.
, , ,
. . : me thinketh it acordaunt to resoun to
telle you al the condicioun of ech of hem, so as it semed me, and
whiche they weren, and of what degree, and eek in what array
that they were inne
, ,
* ,
; he wiste that a man was repen-
taunt , .

415.
. : a clerk ther was of Oxenford also, that
un-to logik hadde longe -go ,
; a sergeant of the lawe,
war and wys, that often hadde been at the parvys, ther was also,
ful riche of excellence ,
(. .
), ,
; with him ther was a Plowman, was his brother,
that hadde y-lad of dung ful many a fother ,
() , .
273

416.
. : but natheles, whyl I have
tyme and space, er that I ferther in this tale pace, rne thinketh
it acordaunt to resoun, to telle yow al the condicioun of ech of
hem , ,
,
; at Alisaundre he was,
whan it was wonne ,
; now draweth cut, er that we ferrer twinne
, .

417.
there where there(as) where(as), :
and forth he wente, shortly for to telle, ther as Mercurie sorted
him to dwelle , , (),
; that other wher him
list may ryde or go , ,
; and with that word Arcite gan espye wher-as this lady
romed to and fro (),
.

418. :
and nyste wher she was, for it was derk ,
, ; ne at this tale I saugh no man
him greve, but it were only Osewold the Reve, by-cause he was
of carpenteres craft , -
, ,
; the reule of seint Maure or of
seint Beneit, by-cause that it was old and som-del streit, this ilke
monk let olde thinges pace, and held after the newe world the space
,
,

.

419. : and ring this


folkes werk by note, that al the world may of it here
, ; and for
274
the peple sholde seen him alle, whan it was day, he broghte him
to the halle ,
, () .

420. that,
.
: but doun on knees she sat anoon, and weep, that pitee
was to here
(), ; our hertes wern so even
a payre, that never was that oon contrayre to that other, for no
wo ,
- .

421.
. : she was so charitable and so pitous, she wolde
wepe if that she sawe a mous caught in a trappe, if it were dead
or bledde ,
, , ,
; but sore weep
she if oon of hem were deed, or if men smoot it with a yerde
smerte , ()
; and if vouche-sauf
that it be so, tel me anon, with-outen wordes mo, and I wol erly
shapen me ther-fore , ,
, ,
.

422.
though though that, : thogh thou heere
walke, thy spirit is in helle ,
; and though that he were worthy, he was wys, and of his
port as meke as is a mayde ,
, , .
,
: but al be that he was a philosophre, yet hadde he but litel
gold in cofre () ,
.
275

423. , ,
than (
) as (
as ): she was
ful more blisful on to see than is the newe pere-jonette tree
, ()
; me thoughte I saw an egle sore, but that hit semed moche
more than I had any egle seyn , ,
, ,
- ; whit was his berd as is a dayesye
, () ; to Januarie he gaf
agayn his sighte, and made him see, as wel as ever he mighte
* ,
.
,
, , ,
: for as myn auctour seyde, so seye I
(. . , ),
.

424.
as, : right on this same, as I
have seyd, was hoolly al my love leyd ,
, ; but ther may no man,
as men may wel see, bequethe his heir his vertuous noblesse
, ,
.
V.

XV

425. XV .
, .
.

,
- .
. . (. . Wyld).
, XV .
: 1)
, 2)
, 3)
,

: 1) , 2)
, 3) .

XV . (Thomas Occleve -
cleve, 1370 1450), ,

1 . . W 1 d. A H istory of Modern Colloquial E n g lis h . O xfo rd , 1953, p. 64.

277
( V).
X V .
.
, ,
.
XV . , ,
(Osbern Bokenam, . 1393 .; Legends
of the Saints 1440 .)
( - );
(Margaret Paston, 1400 1470), ,
(Cel) (
- ).
,
,
. (John
Lydgate, 1370 1451),
, -
(Sir John Fortescue, 1394 1476)
- ;
(John Capgrave, 1393 1464)
- .
(John Shillingford),
, 1447 1450 .,
(-)
.

426.
XV .

(1455 1485 .).

.
(Bosworth),
I I I .
.

,
, . .
.
,
: .
(Johan
nes Gutenberg) 1438 .
, ,
. , ,
(William Caxton,
1422 1491).
The Recuyeil of the Histories of Troye
. 1476 ., ,
, 1477 .
279
. ( X V .)
The Dictes and Sayinge of the
Philosophers.
,
.

,
, ,

.
, , ,
.
, .
, ;
, , , ,
( i),
, - .

, ,
.
, ,
, ,
IV ( 1461 1483), ,
,
, ,
,
- .

427.
.
, ,
,
.

,
,
.
, . , , .
make, cat, water,
watch, any.

428. XVI .
. ,
,
.

,

1 . . W 1 d. A H ist o ry of Modern Collo quial E n g lis h . O x fo rd , 1953, p. 88.


281
.
, ( 432),
.

. ,
, (The
Governour, 1531 .) : Hit shall be expedient that a noble
mannes sonne, in his infancie, haue with hym continually only
suche as may accustome hym by litle and lytl to speake pure and
elegant latin. Semblably the nourises1 and other women aboute
hym, if it be possible, to do the same; or, at the leste way, that
they speke none englishe but that which is cleane, polite, perfectly
and articulately pronounced, omittinge no lettre or sillable, as
folisshe2 women often times do of a wantonnesse, wherby diuers
noble men and gentilmennes chyldren (as I do at this daye
knowe), haue attained corrupte and foule pronuntiation. 3
The Arte of English Poesie (1580),
Puttenham, the usual speach
of the Court, and that of London and the shires lying about Lon
don within IX myles and not much aboue. 4
,
,
.

429.

, .
, , ,
bisie besie ' ( -
, ); than then , whan when
; geve give ( -
, ; g
; . 251); fader father , moder mother
( ,
[d > 0]
( 512); service sarvice , ,
derk dark (
,
> , 478). :

- -s: housen houses , shoon shoes

1 nurses
2 foolish
3 The Boke named Th e Governour devised by Sir T h o m a s E ly o t , K n i g h t ,
Book I, Ch. V, L ondon, D en t, p. 22-23 ( H. . W 1 d, A H isto ry
of Modern Colloquial E nglis h. O x f o r d , 1953, p. 104.
4H. C. W 1 d, . ., p. 103.

282
9,*/~eef~<r I /**"
/**/?

W
G7&B*r
& U fjJ h J b '

; 3-

-s,
-th, . .

430. ,
;
-
(H en ry M a ch y n), X V I .
. , ,
v w; w a lu w (v a l u e ), w elv et ( velv e t),
v o m a n (w om an ), V e stm y n ste r ( W e s tm in s t e r) , V o sse ter ( W o r ce ste r).
h , alff ( h a l f ) , ard (hard),
ede (head ); , h ,
, : hanswered (answered ),
h e rth (ea rth ). -ing -, : sta n d y n
(sta nding), sy tty n (sittin g ).
431. ,
, XVI .
,
. XV .,
,
Morte Arthur (Malory, Sir
Thomas, 1470 .),
, XVI .
.
The Faerie
Queene (Spenser, Edmund, 1552 1599),
80 90- ;
(1564 1616).
(Marlowe, Christopher, 1564 1593),
(Jonson, Benjamin, 1573 1637),
(Massinger, Philip, 1583 1640),
(Beaumont, Francis, 1584 1616), (Fletcher, John,
1579 1625) . ,
,
I ( 1558 1603),
(Early Modern
English).


432. ,
,
, , .
,
: 1
) ,
-- --,
( - --); 2 )
; 3) ,
, 4) (L o t h i a n ),
, - --, .
,
(, , ), () .
I X ., -,
, . 1018 .
.
.
(1 018 . ) ,

III (10 57 1093),
,

.
, X I I .,
,
. ,
,
,

.

284
1
:
1. 11. 21 . 31.
2. 12. 22. 32 .
3. 13. 23 . 33.
4. 14. 24. 34 .
5 15. 25. 35 .
6. 16. 26 . 36 .
7. 17. 27. 37.
8. 18. 28. 38 .
9. 19. 29 . 39.
10. 20. 30 . 40.
X I I I . .
I

. 1305 .
.
, , ( R o
bert Bru c e ) .
1314 . ,
. 1328 .
.
.
.
,
S co ts,
. ( B a r b o u r , J o h n ) ,
(. 1375 .); X V . The Kjn ges Q uhair
( ) I ( 1 3 9 4 1437).

433.
.
.
ch
[X], : toc h t , n ic h t ; quh, qwh hw,
: quhat , quhow , 3 gh
,
but: but bot . :
-d
-d ( = -ed); , - t , -yt,
l y w y t .
.
1603 . (
VI I)
.

.
( R o b e rt Bu rn s, 1 7 5 9 1796).

434. X V II X V III . -
,
.
X V II .,
1660 , X V III .

.

435. X V II .
.
X V II . .

.
1584 .,
,
286
. X V II .
.
,
.
, X V I .,
.

. , 1620 .
Mayflower
, .
,

.
.

436.
,
1649 .

.
XV II ., . . (1660 .).

.

.
,
1611 . ( Authorized Version)
.
I.
, .


.
, ,

,
,
.
(John Bunyan, 1628 1688, The Pilgrim s
Progress, 1678 ., 1684 .)
, ,
, .

.

437. II

- -
287
, .
, II
,
.
(, , ,
.) .
,
Thomas Sprat History of the
Royal Society (1667).
, ,
,
;
, .
-
.

( 466).
X V II .
(Samuel Pepys, 1633 1703;
1660 1669 .).

;
(John Ray), 1674 . Collection of
English words not generally used.

438. X V II .,


.

(John Evelyn, 1620 1706),
1665 . (John Dry-
den, 1631 1700) (Richard Bentley, 1662 1742).
(Joseph Addison, 1672 1719)
(Richard Steele, 1672 1729),
(The Spectator, 1711 1714),
, .

:
,
.
The Humble Petition
of Who and Which, 78 30
1711 ., : We are des
cended of ancient families, and kept up our dignity and honour
many years, till the jacksprat t h a t supplanted us.
,
,
288
that,
- . ,
who which
: paet,
se,
( ), hwa hwilc
; who which
.
135 4 1711 .
On the Conciseness of the English in Common Discourse'

,
, : mob ( . mobile),
incog ( incognito) . .
285 26 1712 . ,
, : clearness and
perspicuity were only to be consulted, the poet would have no
thing else to do but to clothe his thoughts in the most plain and
natural expressions. But since it often happens, that the most
obvious phrases, and those which are used in ordinary conversa
tion, become too familiar to the ear, and contract a kind of
meanness by passing through the mouths of the vulgar; a poet
should take particular care to guard himself against idiomatic ways
of speaking.

439. , XVI
X V II .
. , X V III .,
,

(correctness) X V III . ,
(Alexander Pope, 1688 1744),
1725 .,
.

440. X V II X V III .
,
.
1621 . (Alexan
der Gill) Logonomia Anglica (. e. ).


.
,
, ,
.

(Charles Butler), (English Gram-
10 . . 289
), 1634 .
.
, : Wee hav in our language many syl
lables which having gotten a nu pronunciation, doo yet retain
their old orthography, so that their letters doo not now rightly
express their sound... the which errour if we will correct... the
question will be whether we should conform our writing to the
nu sound, or reform our sound and return to the old 1.
Gram-
matica Linguae Anglicanae (1653 .) (John W al
lis).

.

(Christopher Cooper), 1685 ., . .
, Grammatica Anglicana.

,
; , ,
, : heart
' hart '; a notion an ocean ;
a r e a i r ere heir . .

X V III .
(Practical Phonographer), 1701 .
English speech . . . as it is commonly used in England,
particularly in London, the Universities or at Court.
17*24 . Rules for True
Spelling and Writing English.

, .
441. X V III .

.

(Lord Chesterfield, 1694 1773) : The common people
of every country speak their own language very ill; the people
of fashion (as they are called) speak it better, but not always
correctly, because they are not always people of letters. Those
who speak their own language most accurately are those who have
learning and are at the same time in the polite world; at least
their language will be reckoned the standard of the language of
that country. 2 , ,

1 . . W 1 d. A H isto ry of Modern Co llo q u ial E n g lis h . O xfo rd , 1953,


p. 169.
2 Lord Cheste rfield s L e tte r s, L e tt e r 103; H. . W 1 d,
. ., . 19-20.

290

.

(Samuel
Johnson, 1709 1784; 1755 .).
: Most of the writers of English
Grammars have given long tables of words pronounced otherwise
than they are written, and seem not sufficiently to have consid
ered that of English, as of all living tongues, there is a double
pronunciation, one cursory and colloquial, the other regular and
solemn. The cursory pronunciation is always vague and uncertain,
being made different in different mouths, by negligence, unskil
fulness and affectation. The solemn pronunciation, though by no
means immutable and permanent, is yet always less remote from
the orthography, and less liable to capricious innovation. They
have generally formed their tables according to the cursory speech
of those with whom they happened to converse; and concluding
that the whole nation combines to vitiate language in one man
ner, have often established the jargon of the lowest people, as
the model of speech... For pronunciation the best general rule is,
to consider those th e most elegant speakers who deviate least
from the written words.
,
.
X V III .
,

,

.


442. X V II .
. X V II, X V III
X IX . , ,
-
. -
,

.

,
.
- , ,
, (Cornish),
X V III .
* 291
( ) X IX .
(
, Welsh) . 1893 .
; National
Welsh Eisteddfod .
1961 ., 656 .
3 , 26 .
-.
( ),
(Manx), :
.
- , 1961 .,
76,6 . 3 ,
1,1 . .
,
X V II .,
X V II X V III . X IX .
. 1893 .
,
, . .
-
1916 . 1922 .
. 1937 .
(Eire), 1949 .
. ( )
- ,
(Northern Ireland)
.
300 000
1926 . 666 000 1936 .,
.

443. X V III X IX .,

,
.
X V III . ,
,
.
, ( 1947 .)
, , ,
.

.
(1756 1763)
, .

. X IX . -
292
,
. X IX .
.
X X ., - ,
.


.
. ,
. -
,
,
. -
, Afrikaans,

. 1961 . -
-
.
1964 .,
270 , 195 ,
54 , 8
11 .

444.
, , ,

L

2.
,
,
.
X X .
,
, .

(Mencken, Henry Louis, 1880
1948). ,

1
: . P a r t r i d g e and L. W. C l a r k . B r itish and
A m e r ic a n Eng lis h since 1900. London, 1951; . . . . -
. . . , 1961.
2 .: . . .
. . ., 1963.

293

, 1919 .
1 .

, .
( X V II .)

( , , ).
,
, -
, ,
(New England) 6 : , , -
, , -.
X V I11 .
,
. ,
,
,
,
,
X IX . .
1776 .
,
,
.


,
,
.

445.

:
. 1)
; firm, hurt, learn [fo:rm], [ho:rt],
[1:]. []
;
2) [:] s, f, ft [ae];
class, fast, grasp, ask, laugh, path [klaes], [faest],
[graesp], [aesk], [laef], [].
father, ['f:];
3) [] [] (,
[]): lot [lat], pot [pat], psychology [sai'katedsi] . .

1 . L. Mencken. The A m e r ic a n L a n g u a g e . N. Y . , 1919.

294
. ,
,
. , ,
-our ( )
-or: honor, labor, ardor
. . centre, theatre
center, theater. ,
: thru through, tho
though, defense defence.
catalog ( catalogue),
prolog ( prologue), program ( programme)
. :
,
.

446. .
gotten
get (
got). X V III .,
.

.
, , :
I suggest that he go ( I suggest that he may go
that he should go).
(
)
will
, shall
.

I been, I taken, I seen, . e.
have. , ,
have:
[haev > hov > 9v > v], ,
,
.

447.
.
, ,
: sick ( *
ill); guess (
); fall
( autumn).

,
- .
295
, , ,
: caucus -
, graft .
:

lift elevator underground subway


sweets candy pavement sidewalk
behind back of shop store
- postman letter-car
rier

, ,
, : corn .
, . , bug . , . .
,
,
,
,
.
: ranch ,
adobe , cinch
.
: squaw , succotash
, mugwump ,
, Chatauqua ( )
.
: banjo (
), pickaninny
( pequeno ).

448.
; , ,
, .
. . 1 :
1) , 2) , 3) (general).*
.

;
.

449. ,
, :
1. [] ,

1 G. Ph . p. The E nglis h L a n g u a g e in A m e r ic a . Vol. 1, N .-Y .,


1925, p. 35.

2S6
: form [fo:m], first [foist], turn [torn], fir [fo:].

.
2. ff, ss, sk, st, sp, th,
[a:]: chaff [tfaf], pass [pa:s], ask [a:sk], fast [fast], grasp
[grasp], path [pa0], dance [dans].
.
3.
[]: hot [hot], stop [stop], rock [].
.
4. , [:]; port [po:t], court
[:t ] , course [ko:s],
.
5. duty, tune, new [ju :]
[u:]: ['du:ti], [turn],
[:]. -
.
6. stone, home, whole
.
stun, hum, hull.
7. , [],
, [].
idear idea, Hanner
Hannah.
450. :
1. [] (
- ).
2. ff, ss, sk, st, sp, th, []:
chaff [tfaef], pass [paes], ask [aesk], fast [faest], grasp [graesp],
dance [daensj.

.
3.
[a]: hot [hat], stop [stap], rock [rak]
.
4. duty, tune, new [ju:]: f'djuiti],
[tju:n], [nju:].
.
5.
, [] []
down, town [] []
hear, deer, dear, ear.
6.
, first, soft, land.
451. :
1. [] : farm
[farm ], first [foirst], turn [toirn].
297
,
.
2. f f , ss, sk, sp, th, []
, ;
[:]
.
3. hot, stop, rock []
,
.
4. wa [wa],
water, watch.
5. duty, tune, new
['dju:ti, tju:n, nju:] ['du:ti, tu:n, nu:].
6. ,
.
, *,
,
,
, .
, 2,
.

452.

,
.
, ,
,
3. ,
,

. ,
,
.

453.
.
[ai] []

1 G. P h . p. The E n g lis h L a n g u a g e in A m e r ic a . V ol. I, N. Y . ,


1925, p. 35.
2 T , . 35.
3 ,
, ;
,
,
.

298
[] [], : height [hAit], out [eut].
[1, m, ] ,
: film ['filom], known [']. []
.
,
, , , dunch
, frazil , lund
. .

454.
.
[i:] [ii] [01], : sweets
[sw9its], been [biin]. [:]
[iu] [], : boot [biut], [baut].

. stock
;
: stock-holder , stock-house
.; station
. .
: , boomerang
dingo, , ,
, waddy , cooboo , malee
1.

455.
. ,


.
:
1) Pidgin-English , 2) Beach-
la-Mar 3) Kroo-English .
Pidgin-English
Business English ( );
Pidgin Pigeon
pigeon .
Pidgin English X V III .

, , .
, 12 1914 .,
(

1
: S. J . a k e r . The A u s tr a li a n L a n g u a g e . Syd ney, 1945.

299
), ,
, ,
, Pidgin English.
Pidgin English
.
Beach-la-Mar ,
.
Kroo-English
.
.
.

. --
all.
-- belong, : wife
belong you . .

by and by, : brother belong-a-me by and by he
dead .



456. XV . ,
. .


.

.
, , (Petrarca,
Francesco 1304 1374) (Boccaccio, Giovanni, 1313
1375).
, .

. ,
, ,

.
.
XVI .
: Mop (More, Thomas,
1478 1535), ( 1516 .
) (Erasmus,
Desiderius, 1466 1536), ,
.
.
300
,
, .
, .
,
,
.
XV .,
.
.

.
,
, 1492 .
. 1497 .
.
, ,
.

4 5 7 .
.
,
,
, , ,

,
;

.

,
:
, ,
,
,
, . .
,


, .
, ,
,

.

4 5 8 .
. , :
finale , fresco , violin , cornice ,
301
umbrella *, bandit *, volcano *, balcony
, gondola *, grotto *, motto *, ,
rivulet *.
, ,
: armada * (), renegade *,
desperado *, negro *, sherry *, alcove *,
pavan (), saraband * (), tornado
*, mosquito *, *.

459.
. ,
,
.

. :
1. -ate,
( -atum) I
-are: aggravate *, alleviate *, abbreviate
*, exaggerate *, frustrate
*, narrate *, emancipate *, vacate
*, locate *, separate , irritate
*, lubricate *, extricate *.
2. -ute,
( -utum) III
-uere: constitute , attribute *,
contribute *, pollute *;
sequi,
secutum, : persecute *,
execute *, prosecute *.
3. ,
III : dismiss
*, collect , affect *, contradict
*, assert *, correct *, collapse
*.
4. ,
III , : permit *
permittere ( permissus,
. permission); admit * admittere (
admissus, . admission); compel
* compellere (
compulsus, . compulsion); expel *
* expellere ( expulsus, .
expulsion); impel impellere (
impulsus, . impulse); deduce
* deducere (
302
deductus, . deduction deduct ); induce
inducere (
inductus, . induction); produce
producere ( productus, .
production, product); introduce , reproduce
; conclude concludere
( conclusus, . conclusion);
include , . inclusion; exclude , . exclu
sion; preclude ; allude (
alludere ( allusus, . allusion);
incur incurrere (
incursus, . incursion).
5. ,
-ant ( I )
-ent ( II, III IV ): arrogant
, reluctant , evident , trans
parent , lenient , expedient
, obedient , resplendent ,
patient ; : accident
, incident , Occident , orient
, crescent .
5. ,
-ior.
: superior , inferior ,
exterior , interior , senior , junior
; . minor , ,
.
,

( mots savants, . 256). ,
-tion
.

460. ,
, ,
, X I I I X IV .,
, .
- .
. 304 305.

. , ,
traditio ( )
: ,
, , ;
. .
, .
factum ,
(.
303
feat),
.
defectum .

, , VII .,
. monasterium ( .
monastSrion) mynster, .-.
.-. minster; XV . .-. monastery.
- - -
-

factum fait feat fact


fragilem fraile frail fragile
securum seure sure secure

traditionem traison treason tradition

pauperum s povre poor '
poor pauper
defectum defait defeat
defeat defect
maior maire mayor
mayor major
radius (radium) rai ray
ray radius
abbreviare abreger abridge
- abbreviate
( (
, ) , )
redemptionem ranson ransom redemption

absolvere assoldre assoil absolve

aggravare (ag- aggrever aggrieve aggravate
gravatum)
allocare (alloca- allouer allow allocate
tum)
appretiare apreiser appraise appreciate
,
balsamum basme balm balsam
blasphemare blasmer blame blaspheme
castigare (casti- chastier chasten
castigate
gatum)
colligere (collec- coillir cull
collect
tum) (, (,
) )
collocare (collo- coucher couch collocate
catum)
dignitatem deintee dainty dignity

dainties

304
-


extraneus (ex- strange strange , extraneous


traneum) * ,
*
potionem poison poison potion
prosecutum (pro- porsuir pursue prosecute
sequi) * * ( )
rationem resoun reason , ratio
( )
separare (sepa- sevrer sever separate
ratum) *
senior(em) sire sir * senior
vocalem vouel vowel * vocal *
strictum streit strait * strict *

461.

.
, ,
:
,
. , , .-. dette *
( . dette) debt,
. debitum. .-. doute
*, * ( . doute) doubt,
dubito. .-. aventure
. aventure adventure
, (. adventura). .-.
parfit * ( . parfait) per
fect . perfectus,
. .-. vitailles * ( .
vitailles) : victuals
[vitlz].

,
X V XVI .,

.

. , , avancen
* avantage ad
305
vance, advantage,
ad-,
avancer, avantage avant
ab ante.

462.
,
(Ascham, Roger, 1515 1568),
,
(The Schoolmaster), -
(Wilson, Thomas, 1525 1581);
.

(Toxophilus, 1545 .): that will write well in any tongue,
must follow this counsel of Aristotle, to speak as the common
people do, to think as wise men do: as so should every man
understand him, and the judgement of wise men allow him.
Many English writers have not done so, but using strange words,
as Latin, French and Italian, do make all things dark and hard. 1
, ,
,

.

463.
.
.
. :
epoch *, anarchy *, aristocracy ,
democracy * .

464. ,
,
XVI .
.
.

, . . ,
- ,
.
.

1 The Eng lis h W o rk s of Ro ger A sch am . L d . , 1815, p. 55.

306
1. :
read-able , talk-ative , eat-able
, wondr-ous , hindr-ance ,
dis-belief , en-dear .
2. :
merci-ful , duke-dom , false-hood 1,
use-ful , use-less , quarrel-some
, be-cause , under-value .


XVII

465. X V II .
, ,
, .

. ,

, , .
, .
:
1. - : canoe , hammock
, maize , potato , tobacco ,
mahogany , cannibal , colibri .
2. -: caoutchouc , cayman
( ), jaguar , tapir , buccaneer
( ), condor , puma
, guano , pampas .

466.
.
- , : ball ,
ballet f'baelei] , beau [bouj , billet-doux ['bili-du:]
, bizarre , cajole , caprice
[ko'pri:s] , caress , chagrin f' Jaegrin] ,
coquette , intrigue [in'tri:g] .
, : grotesque
, gazette , miniature , naive
[na:'i:v] , raillery , reprimand ,
ridicule , serenade , suite ,
().

. , (
), ,
: grimace, intrigue, serenade.
: intrigue,
caprice, fatigue, naive, magazine , marine ,
307
quarantine *, ravine , chemise ,
police [i:].
beau [bou] , chateau [Ja'tou] ,
trousseau [tru:'sou] -eau
[].
ch [J]
chagrin, chemise.
t ballet , trait
[trei] , bouquet [bu'kei] , buffet [bu'fei]
(. buffet ['bAfit] ).
s corps (
[ :], [ko:z]), pas
[:] ( ); apropos ['] ,
, debris ['deibri:] .

XVIII X X

467. X V III X X .
.
,
; , ,
, - . ,
: kindergarten (
, ) w a l t z (
X I X .); :
bungalow , dinghy ; :
coolie kowtow ; :
caravan ; : giaour .

,

, : telegraph,
telephone, microscope, oxygen , hydrogen .
,
, : borzoi , samo
var , czar, tsar (
Caesar), verst , knout .

468. ,
,
.

, , , ,
;
,
.
soviet, bolshevik, bol
308
shevism, udarnik, kolkhoz .


, , , sputnik, synchrophasotron
.
469. X X .
. 1913 .
Society for Pure English. :
1) ,
, . .
;
2)
, ; 3)
. Society for Pure
English ,
.

470.
, . . ,
.

- .


.
, , :
-

physics physique Physik .
biology biologie Biologie
zoology zoologie Zoologie
botany botanique Bctanik
arithmetic arithmetique Arithmetik -

geometry geometrie Geometrie


algebra algebre Algebra .
philosophy philosophie Philosophie .
medicine medicine Medizin .
democracy democratic Demokratie - .
1x1
|
aristocracy aristocratie Aristokratie

monarchy monarchic Monarchie
republic republique Republik - .

309
-

socialism socialisme Sozialismus . 1


communism communisme Kommunis-
mus
progress progres Progress
reaction reaction Reaktion


(, . [c^i'omitri], .
[^eome'trij, . [geome'tri:]), , ,
2 .

471.
. ,
,
, ( -).

,
, : answer, work,
walk, look, point, smell, love, hate, accord, rest.

, .

, . .
,

(conversion).
, . . ,
.
,
, , , : act, advantage, ef
fect, air, mention, note, hand, figure, finger.


. , ,
, , ,
-tio n ,
,
-tio n , : mention, motion, sanction, petition.

1 - .
2 : . . .
.
. . ., 1956; . . .
. - , 19 64 .

310
, -
,
,
, . . . ,
:
will you pleasure me? ?;
this day shall gentle his condition
; he lessoned us to weep ; they . . .
that . . . askance their eyes . . . . . . .

,
.

472. .


( -),
, heafod
beheafdian .
heed beheeden.
:
head behead, . .
.
,
-
( -)
. -,
X IV .,
. , , .-. -
casen, enchanten, encirclen, encouragen, ensuren, envenomen,
.-. encase, enchant, encircle, encourage, ensure, envenom.
,
.
,
. ,
,

. , ,
befool belittle , .

473.
,
( 408 .), .

, ,
311
,
. ,
: shall I have the thought
, . . ; have in
mind where we must meet , . . ; you
have too much respect upon the world
, . . (
); keep me company, .: ,
. . ; nor do I now make moan,
, . . ; how to get clear
of all the debts , . .
; and out of doubt you do me now more wrong in making
question of my uttermost than if you had made waste of all I have
, , ,
, ,
, ; . . , ,
,
, ,
.

: do wrong = ; make question =
; make waste = .
. : in what particular thought to work I
know not, .: ,
. . ; we do it wrong
, . . ; . . . and of the
truth herein this present object made probation, .:
, . .
; to give these
mourning duties, .: , . .
; to do obsequious sorrow, .:
, . . ; take it to heart
; let the world take note, .:
, . . ; I must hold my
tongue, .: , . .
; but answer made it none, .:
() , . . ; give it an un
derstanding, but no tongue, .: ,
, . . , ; give every man thine ear,
but few thy voice, .: ,
, . . , ;
the winds give benefit , . .
; he . . . may give his saying deed
, . .
; what loss your honour may sustain
, . . ;
do I take my leave , . . ;
he hath, my lord, of late made many tenders of his affection to
312
jne , ,
, . .
; and hath given countenance to his speech
, . . .

[]

474. []
. [] X IV .
; ,
. X V .
.
[] ;
X IV .,
( 1375 .).
[] ,
,
: tables, hats, windows, books, 3-

: likes, sits, begs, shines, seems, needs
-ed: lived, filled,
stopped, walked.
[] ,
[i] [saz], [zaz], [Joz], [tJa z ], [dsoz], [tod], [dad],
, : asses, houses, washes, watches,
judges, wanted, loaded.
[] [i]
(
) -ed, : learned , wicked ,
ragged , crooked , rugged ,
dogged , blessed .

475. [] :
,
;
-, .
,
.
house, stone, wrote (.-. hous, ston, wrot).
[] ,
-we, : morwe , sorwe , narwe *

313
, : morw, sorw, narw; XVI .
w [ou]: morrow,
sorrow, narrow.

476. []
;

,
: answer , love . .

477.
, : chapiter >
chapter ; hydropisie > hydropsy, dropsy ; cour
tesy > curtsey, curtsy ['k9:tsi] , courtesy ['ka:tisi]
; phantasie > fancy ;
phantasy, fantasy
; medicine ['medsin] , ; colonel ['1-
nal > ':1] , business [ 'biznis] ;
busyness ['bizinis] ; paraly-
sie > palsy [ 'po:lzi] ; damisel > damsel ; crime-
sin > crimson ; dirige > dirge (
. dirige ); cop
pice > copse .

or

478. > .
X IV ., X V .
,
;
ear; ,
.
, , :
f e r r e > f a r , sterre > star , werre > war ,
merren > mar , ter > tar ; R:
er > ar; herte > heart [hart] , herthe > hearth [har0] ;
h e r k e n > h a r k , heark [hark] ; ferm > farm ,
dernen > darn , bern > barn ; sterven > starve
; hervest > harvest ; ferthing > far
thing ( ); kerven > carve ; merveil >
marvel , ; dwergh > dwarf (. .
Zwerg). clerk, sergeant Derby,
Berkeley, Berkshire, Hertford er > ar
.
314
,
, : certain, servant,
perfect, universal, university, learn, earnest, stern, mercy, mer
chant . person
: parson
person , ( ,
, [:]).
clerk Derby [:].

[:]
[:], : varsity univer
sity; dezarve deserve; parfectly perfectly; sartain
certain; varmint vermin; sarvant servant;
karchar kerchief.

479. ,

, (the Great Vowel Shift),
XV .
,
, [i:] [:] -
: [i: > ai], [u: > ]. ;
,
, .

:
ai i: i: u:
t r i
e: e: ei OU o:
t t t1
T 1
e: a: :

480.
. .
(. Sweet, 1845 1912) . (. Jes-
persen, 1860 1943) ,
X V III .,
XVI X V II
. . 1
:

1 . J e s p e r s e n . A Modem Engl i sh G r a m ma r . P a r t I. L o ndo n, 1933


p. 232.

31*

( X I V .) ( X V I .)

abate a'ba:t ' 9'beit


foul fu:l foul faul
- bite bi:t beit bait

. . .
,
,
, XVI .

.

481.
;
: > ei
: > : > i: : > ou
: > i: : > :
i: > ai : >

XVI . [:] ( .-. [:])


[i:] ( .-. [:]) speak, beat, mean
meek, meet, keen. X V II . [:]
[:]) [i:],
.

1. take 'ta:ko teik


name 'naimo neim
grave 'gra:V9 greiv
sane 'san9 sein
2. beat 'be:t9 be:t > bi:t
clean ' kle:n ' kle:n > kli:n
speak 'spe:k9 spe:k > spi:k
lead 'le:d9 le:d > 1i:d
3. meet 'me:t9 mi:t
sleep sle:p sli:p
keen 'ke:n9 ki:n
see se: si:
be be: bi:
field f e: Id firld
chief tfe:f tfi:f
receive re'se:v9 ri'si:v
seize 'se:z9 si:z
4. like 'li:k9 laik
time ' 4i:m 9 taim
rise 'ri:z9 raiz
side 'si:d9 said
316

5. boat * bo:t bout


load lo:d loud
moan * ' moun
go : gou
6. tool * tori tu: 1
moon mum
food fo:d fu:d
do * do: du:
7. house hu :s haus
noun nu:n naun

how hu: hau
down * du:n daun

482. ,
[:] ( .-. ) [:].
XVI .
,
[:],
[i:] .
, X V II .
[i:],
,
[i:].
,
. ., , sea see ;
heal heel , ; meat meet
. . [:],
[i:],
ie, : field, fiend, chief; ei, :
deceive, receive, seize.
[:] ( .-. )
[]. XVI .
.
[:] ( .-. ) [:].
.

483. ,
, :
. ,

, .

484. [:],
[:], ,
a: hwa , , strac
; .-a. whQ, Qn, strpk. [:]
317
[:]
[:], strok [ > ]
(. 500).

485. ,
, ,
.
.

[: > ei], , []
. ,
1. [:]
, -, , ,
.
. , [:]

. ,
,
. , fa:)
, :
lak . lac ; table . table . .
lac,
table . . . ,
[:] [ei]
,
, , .-. [:] .
, ,

, [: > ei] ,
,
.
[:] [ei] , ,
,
: [: > : > : > : > e i].
, -,
[:] .
[i: > ai]
[: > ].
: [i: > ii: > ei > ei > aei > ail; [u: > uu > ou > ou > au).

486. ,
, ,
, , , . . ,
,
. :

1 , ,
: [] [ ]. . .
. . 4-. ., 1953, . 41, 4647.

318

ei wey ei make
i: time i: see
e: seen e: sea
ai sayde ai time
ou bowe ou go
u: hous u: moon
au drawen au house


,
. , , [i:]
see ,
[:],
time , -
[i:].

487. (
)
.

.
. . ,
1.
,
, ,
( )
,
.
.

. , , .
(A. Martinet)
.
, . .
.

(. 270273)
:
. ,

[i] [u], [i] [i:] , I ] [:]
,
,

1 W. H o r n . Laut und Leben. Englische Lautgeschichte der neueren


Zeit (1400 1950). Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von M. Lehnert, Bd. I ,
Berlin, 1954, S. 3 8 2 - 4 2 6 .

319
.
[i:] [:]
:
. ,
, ,
1.

, ,
.

.
. - 2.
[] ( 474 .). ,

, -
:
;
tatte, tate tat ( t ,
. . .) tat,
tate tat tat.


;
- .

, , ,
.
: [ai, ei, ou, ].
, ;

, .

488. ,
, .

, ,
.
:

1 A. M a r t i n e t . Economie des changements phonetiques. Traite de


phonologie diachronique. Berne, 1955, p. 248256.
2 . . . .
, . I X , 1959,
. 95 104.

320

- - -

1. fate fa:t feit fare 'f : fear 1


2. a. beat be:t bi:t fear fe:r f I9r
. bear be:r
3. steep ste:p sti : steer ste:r Stl9r
4. time ti:m taim tire 'ti : taiar
5. boat bo:t bout boar bo:r bo:r
6. moon mo:n mu:n moor mo:r muar
7. house hu:s haus power ':
, tire power,

:
ltai9r > ta9r > ta r ; pau9r > 1 > po:r 1.

[], [] [].

489. ,
,
. , [:]
, ,
droop (.-a. droupen), room ,
(.-a. roum).
[:]. group soup
[:], , ,
,
[: > ] . .
accoutre , route , coup [ku:] ,
. [:] wound
, .
[i:] ,
, [i: > ai] :
machine , police . (. 466). []
,
[: > ei], : vase, promenade, charade . .
[:]
[i:]. []
, [: > i:].

[d] [0], : bread (.-. bread >

' 1 [fear ] , []
, .

11 . . .321
> cp.-a. br^d); dead (.-. dead > .-. d^d); dread
(.-. dried > .-. dr^d); head (.-. heafod >
> .-. h?d, . 289); lead (.-. lead > .-. ld),
spread () (.-. sprsedan > .-. spr^den);
thread (.-. f)riSd > . a. thr^d); tread (.-. tredan >
> .-. tr^den); red ' (.-. read > .-. r^d); breath
(dp.-. > .-. br^th); death (.-.
dead > .-. d^th); [t] fret (.-. fretan
, *fer-etan, .-. fr^ten); ate [et]
(.-. aet > .-. t), eat; let
(.-. laetan > .-. l^ten; (.-.
let > .-. let); sweat [swet] (.-. swaetan > .-.
sw^ten); threat (-. preat > .-. thr^t);
threaten [Gretn] ; get [get] ,
(.-. 3 ietan, .-. y^ten, g^ten, . 251); lend
(.-. laenan > .-. l^nen, . 511).
[s] less (.-. laes); lest
(.-. ) laes , .-. leste).
[:] [f] deaf (.-.
deaf > .-. d^f). [ :] []
friend (.-. freond).

,
(: > : > i:]: knead , lead , mead , plead
, read , heath , ,
, sheath , wreath , beneath, under
neath .
[i:] [i]: sick
(.-. seke) breeches ['britfiz] (.-. breches).

[] []

490. [] []
,
. [],
, [w].
, hat, cat, ladder
[].
[] X II . []; , XVI .,
[] [].
, [] [w],
, ( 498) [wa]
[wo].
322

491. [ai] [ei]


[aei]: day, way . .
[aei] [ei]: [dei], [wei].
[ei] [ei] .-. |:].

: ail * ale *; fain * feign
fane ; lain II lie
lane ; maid m a d e *; pail
pale *; plain *, * plane ,
; sail , sale ; tail
tale ; veil * vale *.
( eu, ew)
iu [ju:], d e w > [ d ju :] .
,
iu: pure, na
ture . .

.-. q u .-a. Q. :
grown II grow * groan *;
know * *, ; mown moan
; row , ; rowed * road
"*, rode ; soul sole .

[:] [:]

492. XVI .
: [] [:].
[]
,
, .
: 1) []
[], 2) [] [au].
1) [] []. , []
[], ,
, : [ > > : > ].
:
[], []. ,
, (. 445)
[] ,
[].
[] . [0]: bath *,
path , lath ; [0]: father *, lather
, rather , baths, paths, laths.
aftermath [].
11* 323
father
[].
[s]: brass , , class , glass
, , grass , pass .
[s]
[]: lass \, mass , mass *, cuirass
. alas [] [].
ss , []: passenger,
passage, classic.
[st]: cast , caste , fast , last
, mast , past , vast ,
ghastly , aghast , disaster , nasty
, pasture .
[]: mastiff , elastic
, plastic , pilaster .
[sk]: ask , bask ,
cask , flask , mask , basket ,
casket . [] []
masculine masquerade .
[sp]: clasp , gasp , grasp
, hasp , rasp .
2) [] [].
[] , []
1 + , ( 493),
[],
[:]. , lm: alms ,
balm , calm , palm , ,
psalm .

[] I

493. -, XV . al
. , 1
,
,
. , XVI . all ,
call , tall , talk , walk 1
[aul, kaul, taul, taulk, waulk].

[au] [:]

494. XVI . [ ] ,
, [ :], aw
, : c a u s e [kauz > k o :z ] ,
au tu m n [ 'a u t a m > 'a : t a m ] , p aw [p au > :] , d aw n

324
[daun > do:n] . , [au]
[] [1], , :
all, call, tall, talk, walk.

495. If, lv [a]: calf , half


, (in) behalf , calve , halve
.
[], [1] :
salve , , valve ;
Ralph [raelf, raf, reif].
[]
+ + .
:
[]: cant , decanter , rant , scant,
scanty , p a n t, grand , an
cestor .
[a:]: plant , , enchant , advan
tage , command , branch ,
chance , example , sample .
[:]: gaunt , haunt , taunt .
[nd3] [ei]: change ,
strange , danger , manger .
X V III X I X .
, ,
. -,
,
. .
,
.

496. [:] []

[]: .-a. clpth ( .-. clad,
. . Kleid), .-. cloth [k b:0, k b 0 ].
clothes clothe
.
[:] [] froth , cross ,
*, , loss , toss , cost ,
frost . .-. gpn ( gpn )
[]: []; .-. hpt ( .-.
hat) hot [hot]; .-. spry ( .-. sari3)
sorry. shpn (
shinen ) shone [Jon]. sausage [:]
[].
[:] [] [k]: book , cook
* . . 325
, , hook , look , ,
brook , crook , shook , took ,
: good ,
stood , hood , foot , , wool , soot
( brood , food , mood ,
, rood ).
blood, flood, mother . . 500.
[:] [u]: broom ,
room , (
[:] , . 489).

[:]

497. XVI .
[:].
[] [].
[:] :
1) i - f r , fir [fa:] , sir
[sa:] , dirt [da:t] , mirth [ma:0] , firm [fa:m]
, first [fa:st] , thirst [0a:st] ;
2) e - f r , her [ha:] , cer
tain [sa:tn] , serve [sa:v] , berth [ba:0|
;
3) u - f r , fur [fa:] ,
curt [ka:t) , curtain [ka:tn[ , burn [ba:n]
, hurt [ha:t] , further ['fa:Sa] ;
4) + w, worm
|wa:m] , word [wa:d] , worse [wa:s] ;
5) + r , learn [1:] ,
heard [ha:d] .
+ r ,
,
[ > ] (. ) , [:]. -
,
,
. , certain, perfect
[:];
.

XVII

[] [] [w]

498. []
[w]. XV II . [wa] [wa]:
[].
326
: was [wdz] , wash [wdJ] , wasp [wasp]
oca , swamp [swomp] , watch [wotf] , swan
[swon] , wanton ['wanton] , wand [wand]
, swallow ['swalou] , warrant ['waront]
, wander ['wandoj , Warwick ['warik] ;
[kw] ( qu): squash [skwaj]
, quality ['kwaliti] , qualify ['kwaiifai]
, quarrel ['kwarol] , quarry ['kwari]
, , quandary [kwan'deori, 'kwandori]
; quadrangle ['kwadraeggl] .
[a:]: war [wa:] , warm [wa:m]
, warn [wa:n] , warp [wa:p] , ward
[wa:d] , water ['wa:ta] , swart [swa:t] ,
quarter ['kwa:ta] , dwarf [dwa:f] , wharf [wa:f]
.
[wa > wa] ,
[] [k, , ].
[] [se]: wag ,
whack [waek] , wax [waeks] , , twang [twaeij]
, swagger ['swaega] , quack
[kwaek] , quagmire ['kwaegmaia] .
waft , quaff , qualm
[] [:];
[waft], [kwaf], [kwam].

[] []

499. X V II . [] [].
u: but [but > bAt] , cut [kut > kAtJ
, hunt [hunt > hAnt] , blunt [blunt > blAntj
, stump [stump > stAmp] , luck [luk > 1] ,
sun [sun > SAn] .
: come [ > ] ,
some [sum > sAm] , love [luv > 1v] , dove
[ d u v > dAV] , son [sun > SAn] , won [wun > WAn]
win .
ou: rough
[ru:% > ruf > rAf], enough [e'nu:% > 1'nuf > I'nAf],
tough [ t u : % > tuf > tAf], young , couple ,
double , trouble .

500. [] ,
[:].
: [: > :
> > ] . [}
X V II .
11** 327
[:], [],
.
: month , .-. moneth;
['mo:n0 > mu:n0 > 0 > 0 ]; Monday
, done do ,
other , mother , brother .
: blood , [ b l o : d > b l u : d >
> blud > blAd] flood [f 1:d > flu:d > flud > flAd].

501. [u]
: bull [bul] , bull ,
bully ['bull] , bullet ['bulit] , bulletin ['bulitinj
, bullion ['buljan] , bulrush ['bulrAJ] ,
bulwark ['bulwok] , butcher ['butfa] , bush
[buj] , pull [pul] , , pulley ['puli] ,
pulpit ['pulpit] , push [puj] ,
put [put] , puss [pus] , pudding ['pudirj] ,
full [ful] , wolf [wulf] .
,
, [] []: bulb [1] , ,
pulse [pAls] , pulp [1] , pulmonary ['1]
, fulminate ['Lvlmineit] .
[],
[:] [] ( 496). , -,
bosom ['buzam] cushion ['kujan] .
[ > ]
.

[:] [i:]

502. X V II .
. [:], [:],
[i:].
[:] [:] [i:].
(. 482).
: beat [bi:t] , sea [si:] , meat [mi:t]
, streak [stri:k] , lead [ 1i:d] , read [ri:d]
, seat [si:t] .
great break [:]
( [ei]);
.

503. X V II .
[:] [ei]. XVI . ale ail,
Dane deign : ale Dane, ,
328
[:], ail deign [ei]. X V II .
, [ei].
says, saith, said []: [sez, se0, sed],
, ,
.
[:] []:
stone, oak, most, , slow, snow, low,
, [].

504. ,

,
.
: [i] [].
- -
.
:
1. :
[i]: wishes ['wijiz] , ended ['endid] ,
illness ['llnis] , village ['vilidj] , mountain
['mauntin] .
[]: patience ['peijans] , remnant ['remnant]
, purpose ['p9:pas] .
2. :
[i]: begin [bi'gin] , return [ri'ta:n] ().
[]: admire [ad'maia] , announce [a'nauns]
, command [ka'mand] .

505. , ,
.
, ,
, , : doorstep ['do:step] ,
hatband ['haetbaend] .
. .
: dialogue ['daiabg] ,
syntax ['sintaeks] , chaos ['keios] , phenomenon
['] .
, [ou]: window
['windou] , sorrow ['sorou] , yellow ['jelou]
, fellow ['felou] , . [ou] []
; . ,
: winder ['winda], feller ['feb].
32

[]

506. [%],
gh, : 1) t, 2)
.
1) [ ] t ;
. : light [li^ t> 1i:t ] , bright
[b rix t> b ri: t] , night [m x t > n i:t ] ; brought
[brouxt>bro:t] , fought [fou%t>fo:t] , caught
[kau% t>ko:t] .
[i:], light,
[i: > ai]
, gh
. gh
, delight
( . del it) light.
, sprightly
sprite (spirit).
brought, caught [ou], []
[:].
[%] t
.
2) [%] [f],
rough , enough , cough
, laugh , tough , slough
, trough , draught , ,
(draughts ); draft
, . dwergh
[> dwarf. ,
[% > , gh
[f].
[%] , :
bough , dough , though , through .
, laughter [f],
[%] t. ,
laugh.

[I] k, m, f, v

507. [1]
, f, v. , talk ,
walk , chalk , yolk , folk , palm
, , calm , calf (
calves), half ( halves)
: [to:k, wo:k, tjS :k , jouk, fouk, pa:m, ka:m,
kaf, ka:vz, ha:f, havz].
330
[1] yolk
[1]
, , .
[1] v ,
, :
dissolve, resolve, valve.
[1] d should would,
.
, [1]

[1], , [1] ,
.
; [1]


X I V XV . , fault (.-. fa u te < cm . -.
fa u te O a m . falta fallo ); falcon ' (.-.
\<.-. faucon < . falco); realm
(.-. reaum< .- . < . regal imen).
, 1
, ,
, .

[w]

508. ,
, -
[w].
one. ,
.
. XVI .
wone, [w].
-, .
[o :n > w o :n > w u :n > w u n > w A n ]. X V II .
[wAn] ; X V III .
.
once [wAns] (.-. ones); . nothing.
[w] woof (.-. oof<dp.-a.
owef). [w] , ,
weave web.
[w]
answer ['a:nso], conquer, conqueror [', '],
liquor ['], Southwark ['sActek], Berwick ['berik], Chiswick
['tjizik], Greenwich ['grinidj], Norwich ['noridj].
. it'll (it will), itd (it would). I'll, you ll, hell,
shell, well.
331
[w] conquest ['kogkwist], for
ward I'foiwad] -ward,
toward(s), [ 'to:d(z)] [tu'wo:d(z)];
languid ['laeijgwid] language ['laeggwidjj.
[w] + w-j-
, sword [so:d],
two [tu:]; . who, whom, whose [hu:, hu:m, hu:z].
whole [houl] (.-. hal > c p .-a . hpl) w
who
, [w] .
, :
whole hole (.-. holu> .- . hple).

509.
.

: , ,
.
, -, ,
1.
[s]
[ks], [z] [gz].
[f]
[tj], [v] [d3).
1. [ s > z ] .
: dessert
[di'zo:t] , resemble ( -), possess
[po'zes] , observe [9b'zo:v] , dissolve
[di'zolv] , ().

[s]: dissect , dissemble , dissent
. discern
[di'zo:n] [di'so:n].
2. [k s>g z].
(
, ,
): exhibit [ig'zibit] exhibition [.eksi'bijon]
; exhort [ig'zo:t] exhortation hekso^teijon]
; executor [ig'zekjuto] execute
['eksikju:t] , ; luxurious [lAg'juorios]
luxury [ ' lAkJT] ; anxiety [aeg'zaioti]
anxious ['aegkjos] (
(3l . 514, 515).

1.
( 19).

332
3. [f] [v]
: of [ov] off [:f].
4. [tj> d 3 ] : .-.
knowleche>tt.-a. knowledge ; .-. partriche>tt.-a.
partridge ; :
Greenwich ['gnnid3], Norwich ['norid3] . .

.
, ,
the, this, that, then, there, though . .,
, , ,
.

510. ,
, .
:
[mb] [ ] .
[] : lamb *, dumb ,
climb , comb , tomb , plumb *,
bomb . [] b
; m b
, [m],
[] , : thumb *
(.-. f>uma), limb (.-. lim), numb
(.-. numen, niman ), crumb
(.-. cruma).
[mn] [ ] ,
damn , condemn ,
hymn *, co lu m n *, solem n , autumn
.
[In] [1]
miln > 1 (.-. myln< . molinum).
kiln * [] :
[kiln ] .

. :
[stl] [si]: castle , whistle
, rustle , bustle ;
[stn] [sn]: glisten , fasten (.
, ,
); [ftn] [fn]: often , soften *;

1 . , [kil]
, .

333
[stm] [sm]: Christmas * ['krismas],
postman * ['pousmon]; [ktl] [kl]: exactly
[ig'zaekli], directly [di'rekli]; [ktn]
[kn]: exactness [ig'zaeknis]; [ski] [si]
muscle [mAsl].
[nd3], [ld3] [], [I3],
strange [strein(d)3], danger
['dein(d) 39], divulge [dai'vAl(d)3]; [d]
[dnz], [nds], [ndm], [ndk] . .:
Wednesday ['wenzdi], handsome ['hsensom],
grandmother ['], grandfather
['grsenfaiOo], landscape [Taenskeip], handkerchief
['hseijkotjif] (
[ndk > nk > gk]). [d]
( spelling
pronunciation).
[n tj], [ltj] [n j], [1J]: French
[fren(t)J]; branch [bra:n(t)J]; milch
( ) [mil(t)J].

511. , , ,
,
. , ,
-, -d: soun > sound (. son);
poune > pound; boun ( , ;
. buinn) > bound; astoune opaa>astound; expoune
> expound; hine > hind; lene
> lend.
,
-, -t, : peasant
, pheasant , tyrant (. paysan,
faisan, tyran).
. ,
,
. , -nd , ,
land, hand, band, bond, kind, mend, rend, send, spend,
tend, expand, wind.
-nt,
: crescent, orient, Occident, patient.
[mt], [ms]
[];
, empty (.-.
e m t i < .-. semetti 3), glimpse (.-. glimse), consumption
, .
t ,
-s, : amonges > amongst , amid-
des > amidst , a g a in es> against , whiles > whilst
.
334
[d] [] []

512. [d] [] [3]:


fader > father; moder * > mother; gadere *
> gather; togedere > together; weder > weather;
hider > hither; thider > thither; whider >
whither. -, [t] [0]
[] autour > author (cm,-.
autour < . auctorem).

[j]

513.
[j] [s], [z], [t], [d ].
,
.

514. [sj > J]: Asia ['eijo] , Russia


[ Jo] , fuchsia ['fju:Jo] , pension ['penjon]
, session ['sejon] , digression [dai'grejon]
( ), ancient ['einjont] , social
f'soujol] , musician [mju:'ziJon] , politi
cian ^poli'tijon] , vicious ['vijos] , ocean
['oujon] , conscious ['konjos] , species
['spi: Ji:z] ().
- t i - . ,
,
[sj]
. [sj > J] - t i -
[J]: nation ['neijon] , revolution
^revo'lurjon] , population ^popju'leijon]
- t i o n [-Jon]; ratio ['reijiou]
(), patient ['peijont] , ,
militia [m i'lijo] , partial ['pcujol] ,
, initiative [I'nijiotiv] .
- x i - - -;
[ksj > k j] [ksju > k j u
> k Ja ]: connexion ( connection) [ko'nekjon] ,
, anxious ['serjkjos] , luxury ['lAkJori]
.

[sj] ([si])
: halcyon [ 'haelsian]
, axiom ['aeksiom] , peninsula [ pi'ninsjula]
, insulate ['insjuleit] (
).
335
issue , , ,
tissue
['isju:] ['tisju:], ,
[ 'i ju : ] [' 11J : ] .
[sj] ,
: suit [sju:t] ,
, , ; assume [o'sjuim]
(). [sj] [J]
: sure [Juo] (
) sugar ['Jug 9] .

515. [zj > 3]


: collision ['] , precision [prTsijan]
, osier [' 0U39] .
[zju] [3U > ]: measure ['] ,
, treasure [] , azure [ ' 39] ['ei 39]
, usual ['jm juol] .
[zj]: Parisian
[po'rizion], Caucasian [ko:'keiz] 9n], [:' 13], gymnasium
[d3im'neizi 9m] , .

luxurious [1'ias]; [zj]
: presume [prfzju:m] , resume
[ri'zju:m] .

5 1 6 . [tj > t j] : question ['kwestjan]


, , righteous ['raitjas] .
[tju] [tju > t J a ] : nature ['neitjo]
, culture [ kAltJo]
-ture; fortune ['fo :tJ] , , century ['sentJan]
.

[tju], ,
[ t j u ] : virtue ['vo:tju:]
[ V9:tju:] , actual ['aektju9l] ['aektjuol]
, , statue ['stsetju:] ['staetju:] .
[tj]
: tune [tju:n] , student ['stju :d9nt] *.

517. [dj > d3] [tj > t j] :


soldier ['sould39] , verdure ['V9:d39] .
, , [dj] ,
[d3]: tedious
[ ' ti: djos] , educate ['edjukeit] .

518. [zj > 3]


[ 3].
,
336
[sj > J] , [tj > tf], [dj > d3]
,
- ,
[ J ] , [tj] [d3].
[ 3] ,
(. 466).

519. [j]
,
. [j] ,
. , [j]
[], [ 1].
crew * () (.-. creu)
[kriu > krju > kru:]; grew *, threw ,
fruit [fru:t] , rude [ru:d] , rule [ru: 1] ,
, crude [kru:d] , , bruise [bru:zJ
, peruse [pe'ruiz] .
[1] . [1]
, [ 1j ] [lu]: blue
[:] , flute [flu:t] , sluice [slu:s] , plural
['pluoral] .
, [1] ,
. . [ 1]
, [ji ;
: [lu:] [lju:]. [lu:] , ,
.
[1] : luminous , lute
, lunar . [1] : revolu
tion , salute .
[j] [ t j] , [d3] : chew [tju :]
[tjju :], jubilee ['d 3u:bili] , jejune [d3i'd 3u:n] ,
.
[j]
, [t], [d], [n], [s].
[j] [t], [d], [] :
new [nu:] , dew [du:] , tune [tu:n] (. 449).

520. [j]
,
, ,
. ,
, . ,
X V II ., -,

,
[j], ,
[i] [j]. ,
, , X V II .,
337
,
.
, -,
, [] [] [w],
[ > ] .

,
,
.

521.
. , [] []
[], : knave
[neiv] , knight [nait] , knee fni:) , know
[nou] , knit [nit] , knell [nel] ;
gnat [naet] , gnarled [na:ld] , gnash [naej]
, gnaw [:] ; : gnosis
[nousis] , gnomic ['noumik] .
, [] []
, : acknowledge [ok'nolic^]
, diagnosis [daio'gnousis] .
[w] []: write [rait] , wrong []
, wretch [retf] .
[hw] [],
wh, [w].
which witch
, whether weather .
wh [hw] [].
[h] , : fore
head ['forid] , shepherd [ ' Jepad] ; . perhaps
[praeps] [po'haeps] ;
: Chatham ['tfaetam], Nottingham ['notnjom], Brougham
[bru:m].

522. [] []
; []:
nation ['neijon > 'neijn] , passion ['paejan > 'paej ]
. .

,
1 2, : literature ['litorotfo], ['lit-
ritfa] , laboratory, ['laebaratari], ['laebaratri], ['laeb-
ratri] , [lo'borotri], interesting ['intorostigl,
['intristiij] .
338

523. ,
, . .
, ,
. X V II . ,
fault vault
faut, vaut,
1 falta,
volta, , , [1].
nephew ( . neveu)
neuew.
nepotem ( nepos),

nephew.
['nevju:] ['nefju:].

,
(eye-words),
,
5 6. phthisis
( ).
['0aisis], ['fOaisis], ['taisis], ['0isis], ['f0isis], ['tisis].
contumely (
), ['kontjuimli],
[ 'kont jtrmi: li ], ['kontju:mili], [ kan't ju:m ill], fkan'tju: mil J.

524. XVI .

. , XVI .
. , .
1
. . 2 ,
, XVI .,
. ,
, ,
,
.
-
. , .
-

1 F Kluge. Geschichte der englischen Sprache (Grundrifl der germa-


nischen Philologie, herausgegeben von H. Paul. Band 1 Strafiburg, 1891).
2 R. Hu chon. Histoire de la langue anglaise. Vol. 1. Paris 1923, p. X.
339
, . . XV X V II . .
, . .

, ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
,
.

525. XV XVI .
,
. ,
eyen fon
eyes foes,
.

[f] [0]
. , ,
roof ( roofs)
-oof; belief beliefs, death deaths,
hearth hearths.
,
: wife wives, life lives, half halves, wolf wolves
-If; bath baths, path paths, youth youths.

, : wharf wharves,
wharfs; scarf scarves, scarfs; truth truths [-9z], [-0s].
staff (.-. stsef, stafas,
cp.-a. staf staves) : staff
staffs , , stave staves (
)
.
[ f ] [v]
handkerchief ,
kerchief :

1 . n k a. On the Syntax of the English Verb from Caxton to Dry-


den (Travaux du cercle linguistique de Prague, 3). Prague, 1930.
340
handkerchiefs hand-
kerchieves.

: oxen, child children,
man men,woman women, foot feet,goose geese, tooth teeth,
mouse mice, louse lice, dormouse dormice;
brethren brother ( brothers)
kine cow ( cows).
sheep sheep,
deer deer, swine swine; fruit, fish
, trout , salmon , cod ,
-s .

526. , -,
.
(ox, goose, mouse, louse, dormouse, sheep, deer, trout).

, ( ,
, . .). ,

.
, (man, woman,
child), , , -
, .

,
: twelvemonth (.-. twelf mona|)); fortnight
(.-. feowertyne niht); sennight (.) (.-
seofon niht).

527. ,
X IV .,
.
: ,
,
of +
: , , every shires ende
the end of every shire.
, - s ,
friends was a happy life, ,
,
.

.
528.
.
341

1680 . ,
, .

.

, 1780 .
, ,
,
,
.

529.
.


thou.
, thou
, , ,
, . -
thou

.
XVI .
you. (Ascham,
Roger, 1515 1568) (Lyly, John, 1554? 1606)
you XVII
, .
XVI
hit it. XVI . hit
.

530.
his ( )
XVII . its, -, XVII .
. XVII .
its his.

hir (.-. hire) her.
; ,
. XV .
her hir.
342
mine thine
: 1)
, this islands mine, a cloak as long as
thine; 2) ,
, mine eyes, mine enemies, thine
eyes, thine ear.
mine thine
.


531.

(. 319) - .

532.
: 1) :
this (.-. this, pis);
these (.-. these, thise,
this); 2) that (.-. that,
paet), those (.-. thps .-. pas).

533.
:
1) who (.-. who < .-. hwa); whose (.-. whos, .- .
hwaes; whom (.-. whom, .-. hwaem);
2) what (cp.-a. what, .-. hwaet);
3) which (cp.-a. which, dp.-a. hwilc).

534. that ilke


.
either (
, ), each
, such , some - , any -
,
. ,
somebody - , anybody -
nobody ,
343
( somebody
somebodys . .),
: something - , anything - nothing
.

-
535.
-,

( 322).
.

(. 590 .).


536. ,
, .
, ( 326),
,
more most.

:
,
more most
.
X V XVI . -

. , ,
long, lenger, lengst
long, longer, longest.

elder eldest
old, older oldest.
,
, old
.
,
( 325),
.

537.
+ - most +
-est, : I am more better than
344
Prospero; the Duke of Milan and his more braver daughter could
control thee; a walled town is more worthier than a village; your
wisdom should show itself more richer to signify this to the
doctor; these kind of knaves I know, which in this plainness
harbour more craft and more corrupter ends than twenty silly-
ducking observants; it hath been the longest night that eer I
watchd and the most heaviest; in the calmest and most stillest
night; the most boldest and best hearts of Rome; this was the
most unkindest cut of all; that I love thee best, most best,
believe it; to take the basest and most poorest shape; you his
mistress, only for the most worthiest fit; your lordship is the
most patient man in loss, the most coldest that ever turned
up ace.
,
more most
.

538. -
- ,
.

1 .- . on > un > [wAn] ( one); 2 two > twu >


> [tu :] ( two); 3 t h r e > [ 0 r i : ] ( three);
4 four > [fo:] (four); 5 five > [faiv] (five); 6 six; 7 seven;
8 e i g h t e > [ e it ] (eight); 9 n fn >[n am ] (nine); 10 ten;
11 elleven > eleven; 12 twelve; 13 thirteen > ['Ooi'tiin]
(thirteen); 14 fourteen; 15 fifteen; 16 sixteen; 17 seventeen;
18 eightetene>eighteen; 19 nineteen; 20 twenty; 30 thirty >
I'0a:ti] (thirty); 4 0 forty; 50 fifty; 60 sixty; 70 seventy; 8 0
eighty; 90 ninety; 100 hundred; 1000 thousand; 1,000,000
million.

1 first > [foist] (first); 2 second > [seknd] (second); 3


third > [0o:d] (third); 4 fourth; 5 fift > fifth (-th
); 6 sixt > sixth ( ); 7 seventh;
8 eighth > [eit0]; 9 ninth; 10 tenth; 11 eleventh; 12
twelfth; 13 19 teenth; 20 9 0 tieth [-tn0]; 100 hundredth;
1000 thousandth; 1,000,000 millionth.
345

539.
, ( 335), .
, ,
.
, , .
,
-: -cold, afeard, afoot, afraid,
alike, alive, amiss, ashamed, asleep, awake.
. , acold
: Toms a-cold.
:
be not afeard; then never trust me, if I be afeard; the matter
being afoot, keep your instruction; before the games afoot thou
still lettst slip; you are afraid, if you see the bear loose, are
you not? I will sing that they shall hear I am not afraid; many
wearing rapiers are afraid of goose-quills his sons alive; I pray
you, tell me, is my boy, God rest his soul! alive or dead?
are you not ashamed? I am much ashamed of my exchange; I was
fast asleep; I ll watch Titania when she is asleep; the master and
the boatswain, being awake, enforce them to this place; I have
been up this hour, awake all night.

540.
.
- 1-
,

.

541.
-eth 3-
-s,
.
. ,
3- 2- ,
-s ( -st).
, 3-
3- is be. XV .
3- -s
.
346
-s
*th, -, -
. , ,
:
m a r c ellu s . ! Farewell, honest soldier:
Who hath relieved you?
fr a n c is c o . Bernardo has my place.
B, XVII . -th -s
.
-th . ,
hath doth,
-s. ,
:
Too well 1 see and rue the dire event,
That with sad overthrow and foul defeat
Hath lost us heaven, and all this mighty host.

Our better part remains


To work in close design, by fraud or guile
What force effected not: that he no less
At length from us may find, who overcomes
By force, hath overcome but half his foe.
542. 2- -st,
thou, X V II .
.

:
And chiefly thou spirit, that dost prefer
Before all temples th upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for thou knowst; thou from the first
Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread
Dove-like satst brooding on the vast abyss
And madst it pregnant.

. , , (Congreve,
William) :
bellm o u r . Dear Frank, thou art the truest friend in the world.
bellm o u r . How canst thou be ungrateful to that creature?
bellm o u r . Prithee, how dost thou love?
bellm o u r . No, faith, Frank, you wrong her: she has been just
to you.
,

you ,
347
thou -st.
,
-
. ,
-st
,
-st,
. -,
-
, , ,
.
, 2-
,
,

2- .

543.
.

:
1) , 2) 1 3-
, 3)
( 2- ) 4)
.
:
1) , 2) , 3)
.

. 350 351.

544.
:
I : (a)bide, shine, strike, V sit, VI : wake,
stand, VII : hold.
strike (- . strpk)
[:] [: > > ] (struck),
brother, blood . ( 500).

545. bidden, beden ( 340)


bid, bade, bidden;
,
bid bade.
forbid forbid, forbade, forbidden.
to spit, spat, spat, -,
348
: .-. spittan
.-. spaetan.
slen
slay
slain.

546. , ,
VI VII ,

(. 339). ,
,
, shok, tok,
knew, fell. ,
.
,
.

, , ,
, . . .
, II III
bind, bound, bound , ,
,
,
.
,
, , ,
,
, ,
. , bind, bound,
bound bite, bit, bit(ten)
bear, bore, born(e); tear, tore, torn; speak, spoke, spoken.
, ,
,
,
. ,
bind, bound bound sit, sat,
sat; hold, held, held; shine, shone, shone; stand, stood, stood.

547. , ,
X V I I X V III .

; , , wrote
writ; rode rid;
sang sung; began begun.
(sung, begun)
, X IX .,
. ,
,
349

. .
. . . .

writen wrpt writen writen

risen rps risen risen


smiten smpt smiten smiten
riden rpd riden riden
blten bpt biten biten

shinen shpn shinen shinen

sheten sh^t shpten shpten

chosen ch^s chpsen chpsen


fresen fr^s frpsen frpsen

blnden bpnd bounden bounden


finden fpnd founden founden
drinken drank drunken drunken

singen sang sungen sungen


beginnen begann begunnen begunnen
winnen wan wunnen wunnen

spinnen span spunnen spunnen





write wrote written
. .
rise rose risen
smite smote smitten
ride rode ridden
bite bit bitten
. .
shine shone1 shone 1
. .
I I
shoot2 shot shot
. .
choose2 chose chosen
freeze froze frozen
I I I
bind bound bound
find found found
drink drank drunk
. .
sing sang sung
begin began begun
win won won
. .
spin spun spun
IV
^ bar b^ren bpren bear bore born(e)

,
t^ren tar t^ren tpren tear tore torn
stolen stal stolen stplen steal stole stolen
V
s itten sat sften s|ten sit sat sat3
. ,
g^ten gat g^ten g^ten get got got
(gotten) IV .
VI
taken tok token taken take took taken
.
. ,
shaken shok shoken shaken shake shook shaken
awaken awok awoken awaken awake awoke4 awoke4
V II
fallen fell fellen fallen fall fell fallen
knowen knew knewen knowen know knew known
growen grew grewen growen grow grew grown
hplden held helden hplden hold held h eld5

1 . . . . . [:]
[ ] .
2 s h o o t , ch o ose [:], , c e o s a n , s c e o t a n c e o sa n , sceo ta n .
3 . . .
4 ; .- . [:] [:].
5 .
G o o d f r e n d f o r It s v s s a k e f o r blare
T O D i c e T I E D V S T EN CLO ASED hEARL
B '. E S E BE. ? M AN Y SPARES THES S TO N ES
AND C V K S T BE HE. Y M O V E S MY BONES
--

spin spun span.


, ,
,
,
, take
took,
taken.

548.
,
.
.

549.
- .
,
.
, -
,
. ,
, fall.
- , ,
. yfalle;

fallen. ,
, .

-
, bite bitten bit,
bid bidden bid; . get got forget forgotten.
-
.
352

550.
.
I II
,
- d - - - (. 342),
, --
, :
I deme(n) demde demed
II hope(n) hopede hoped
: deem deemed deemed
[di:m di:md di:md]; hope hoped hoped [houp houpt
houpt].
( - -)
-d - - t - : end ended ended ['endid], want wanted wanted
['wontid]. ,
,
.

, I , . .
thinke(n) though te thought, seke(n) soughte
sought. ,
: . .-. reche(n) raughte raught
, .-a. reach reached reached; .-. reche(n)
(reken) roghte roght .-. reck recked recked;
cp.-a. strecche(n) straughte straught .-.
stretch stretched stretched (
straight ); .-. lacche(n)
laughte laught , * .-. latch latched
latched (. 558).

551.
.

, .
I : gripen grip , gliden glide , sliten
si it , w rith en w rith e , spiwan spew .
II : chewen chew , sethen se ethe , reken reek
, eleven c l e a v e , fleten fleet , lien lie
, fleen flee , brewen brew (), rewen rue
, crepen creep , s h o u v e n shove , brouken,
bruken brook , souken suck , bowen bow ,
, lo u k e n lock .
II I : a) clim ben clim b ; 6 ) helpen help , del-
ven delve , swolowen sw allow , melten melt - ,

353
swellen swell , bellen bell , yelden yield ,
, m e l k e n m i l k ; ) werpen w arp , kerv en
c a r v e , st erven sta rv e berken bark ,
s m e r t e n sm a rt , b re i d e n braid , threshen thresh
, rmirnen, mournen mou rn .
V : w eyen weigh , met en m ete , wreken
wreak , kneden knead , freten fret ,
, biquethen bequeath .
VI : f a r e n fare , sh aven sh ave , laden lade
, w aden wade , g n a w e n gnaw , aken ache
, baken bake , washen wash , stepp en step ,
heven heave , laughen laugh , shapen shape
, waken wake , , g ra v e n g ra v e ,
.
VII : l e p e n leap , slepen sleep , fo ld e n fold
, sa lten sa lt , walken walk , spannen span
, wepen weep , fl o w e n flow , l o w e n low
, crowen cr ow ( ), w a xe n w a x .
70.

552.
. ,
, seethe
sodden; ,
( ), ;
sod. cleave
cleft clove,
cleft cloven. II for-
leosan , .-. forlesen
forlorn,
, . climb
clomb. melt
molten,
, : molten lead.

553. , ,

. , I abide,
abode, abode, a b id ed, abided; I
th riv e , throve, th r iv e n , thriv ed ,
th r iv e d ; IV ( V ) w eave ,
w ove, w oven, w eaved, w eaved.
sh ear (IV )
sh eared,
shorn; , ,
sh are , .
IV nim an (
nim en) numb ( .- . numen)
. V
cwedan, .- . quethcn ,
quoth ( .- . cwaeft, .- . quath).

shave ( VI ),
shaved, shaven,
,
354
a shaven chin. lade
laden. heave,
heaved,
hove. (a)wake , ,
, :
woke, woke, woken.
,
,
,
. :
rive rived riven, rived
hew hewed hewn, hewed
mow mowed mown, mowed
sow sowed sown, sowed
to crow crowed
crew; crowed.
554. ,
.

-ed ,
, : I knowed I knew; I seed
I saw .
555.

.
.-. hydan hydde hyded ,
, .-. hlden hidde hidd I
. , ,
, ,

( 271),
I bite bit bitten,
;
hide
hidden ( hid).
chide , .-. cidan cfdde elded.

chidden chid.
light, , ,
, lit lit,
I
bite. dig , .-. diggen diggede digged,
,
;
(III .)
dig dug dug sting, win
355
. . (II ) stician
sticode sticod *, , .-. stiken steken,
stick stuck stuck
III sting, win.
(I ) werian werede
wered , .-. weren werede wered,
(wear wore worn)
IV bear tear.

556.

, ,
. , ,
, . .
,
, ,
. , , wear
IV bear
tear, :
wear ,
, bear (.
), tear
.
stick , ,
sting
, (
).

557.
:
,
.
.
, (II ) scea-
wian sceawode sceawod , .- . shewe(n) shewe-
de shewed
shown
VII know, throw, blow . .
show (shew) showed (shewed) shown (shewn);
showed
(shewed). .-. seowian
seowde seowod , .-. sewen sewede sewed,

sewn. I II
strewian strewede strewode strewed strewod, .- .
356
strewen strewed strewed
strewn VII hew.
strew strewed strewn strewed.

558.
; ,
rechen raughte raught ,
reach reached reached;
raught .
rechen (reken) roghte roght
reck recked recked.
strecchen straughte straught
stretch stretched stretched.

straight . lacchen
laughte laught , latch
latched latched.

559.
.
-d -t;
.
cutten cutte cutt , shut-
ten shutte shut , setten sette sett , hur-
ten hurte hurt , ridden ridde rid *,
putten putte put , slitten slitte slit ,
splatten splatte splat
(cut, shut, set, hurt, rid,
put, slit, split;
). spr^den spredde spred sh$-
den shedde shed

.
casten caste cast , thrusten thruste thrust
, , hitten hitte hit *
costen coste cost
.
III .-. bresten brast
brosten brosten , .-. burst, V II l^ten let
leten l^ten , ,

lette.
12 . . 357
-

560. 1. wit ( wot)


, : I wot well where he is; wotst thou whom
thou movest? swift-winged with desire to get a grave, as witting
I no other comfort have.
to know
.
2. owe ,
: I am not worthy of the health I owe; say, from whence
you owe this strange intelligence.
, : who now
the price of his dear blood doth owe.
ought

owe , ,
: the watch ought to offend no man.
ought
, : and said
this other day you ought him a thousand pound.
owe
owed, ,
: the noblest grace she owd;
: since you owed no more to time.
, ,
. ,
,
( 148); (
) ahte,
, ,
.
3. deh, dowen
.
4. an,
.
5. ( could)
. -s 3-
(he )
-
. could
.
6. tharf, thurven
.
7. dar, durren dare
durst,
.
dared .
dare -
358
3-
-s: he dare come he dares to come.
8. shall

. should
,


;
. ,
ought;

,
sceal . should
shall,
.
9. .
10. may ( might)
. might
(
).

; ,
.
-s 3-
- .
11. mot, moste. mote

, : as fair as fair mote be.
moste
.

: .-. { moste
( ) .
must
;
. ,

.

be, , do, will

561 . be
.
are
().
12* 359
be-
, : there be that can rule Naples as well as
he; if thou beest not an ass, I am a youth of fourteen. 2-

(
)
wert wast.
, art, shalt, wilt, -t
(thou) wer(e);
1 3-
was. . : thou wert born a fool; I think thou never
wast where grace was said.
(I) was, (he) was
(I) were, (he) were
;
(I) was, (he) was
(I) were, (he) were.
be, ,

. (we) was, (you) was,
(they) was,
,

.

5 6 2 . do ,
; , dost, does, doth,
done : .-. [:]
[ : > > ] .
did
.

5 6 3 . go
went . yede

5 6 4 . will, would
.
will , would

. would
will,
.

1 wend,
w e n t, wend o n e s w ay
.

60

5 6 5 . ,
, .
,
: if I have too austerely punished you, your compensation
makes amends; nay, twill be this hour ere I have done weeping;
ears have not yet drunk a hundred words of that tongues utte
ring; ere I could make a prologue to my brains they had begun
the play; in my school-days, when I had lost one shaft, I shot
his fellow of the self-same flight the self-same way.

be,
: the deep of night is crept upon our talk; whither are
they vanished? this gentleman is happily arrived.
.

5 6 6 . ,
-, .
, ( 153),
-

.
. , XVI .
.

,
( be
); ,
, ,
(, ,
,
, ,
, , ).
,
( X I X .) ,


, .

5 6 7 .
, ,
. , ,
: your mind is
361
tossing on the ocean. , ,
, ,
, :
, , .

: my lord, as I was sewing in my closet, lord Hamlet . ..
he comes before me.
: I wonder
that you will still be talking. :
, .
will ,
, .
.
,
,
,
. :
o liv er . Now, sir, what make you here?
o rlan d o . Nothing: I am not taught to make anything.
o l iv e r . What mar you then, sir?
o rlan d o . Marry, sir, I am helping you to mar that which God
made, a poor unworthy brother of yours, with idleness.

:
Now, sir, what are you doing here?

X V II X V III . ,
:
b l u f f e . This sword, I think, I was telling you of, Mr. Sharp
e r , this sword I ll maintain to be the best divine,
anatomist, lawyer, or casuist in Europe.

always
, :
b r is k . Careless, this is your trick; youre always spoiling
company by leaving it.
c a r eless . And thou art always spoiling company by coming
intot.
568. ,
, ,

:
b e l l m o u r . How now, George, where hast thou been snarling
odious truths, and entertaining company like a phys
ician, with discourse of their diseases and infirmities?
362
What fine lady hast thou been putting out of conceit
with herself, and persuading that the face she had
been making all the morning was none of her own?
for I know thou art as unmannerly and as unwel
come to a woman as a looking-glass after the
small-pox.

h e a r t w e l l . I confess I have not been sneering fulsome lies and


nauseous flattery, fawning upon a little tawdry
whore that will fawn upon me again, and entertain
any puppy that comes, like a tumbler, with the same
tricks over and over.

569. X I X .
.
,
. X IX .

. (Wordsworth, William, 1770 1850)

Written in March (1802),
,
:

The cock is crowing,


The stream is flowing

The cattle are grazing,


Their heads never raising

Small clouds are sailing,


Blue sky prevailing;
The rain is over and gone!



. , ,

.

570. X IX .
. ,
,
.
, ,
:
, .
363

X I X .: We are always being complained
of and guarded against (Dickens). Twelve months ago the effects
of the coal strike were still being felt ( )1.


571.

, ,
.
,
,
should would,
.

,
,
.
, ,
: but if my father had not scanted me . ..
yourself, renowned prince, then stood as fair as any comer; a moiety
competent was gaged by our king, which had returned to the in
heritance of Fortinbras, had he been vanquisher; 4were as easy for
you to laugh and leap, and say you are merry, because you are
not sad.

: Had I such venture forth, the
better part of my affections would be with my hopes abroad;
I should be still plucking the grass to know where sits the wind;
peering in maps for ports, and piers, and roads, and every object
that might make me fear misfortune to my ventures, out of doubt
would make me sad.

572.
( 1 3- ) ,
: sit we down; judge me the world; the worm of con
science still begnaw thy soul.

let: let us once again assail your ears,
that are so fortified against our story, what we two nights have seen.

573. X V II .

1 . P o u t s m a . A G ra m m a r of L a t e Modern
E n g lis h . P a r t II, S ectio n II. G roningen, Noordhoff, 1914, p. 520.

364
, : 11 tell you, I would have
mirth continued this day at any rate; though patience purchase
folly, and attention be paid with noise.


should would (),
: Hannibal was a very pretty fellow in these days, it must be
granted; but alas, sir, were he alive now, he would be nothing,
nothing in the earth.

5 7 4 . X V II .,


. ,
(Wycherley, William, 1640 1716)
: look upon em, when I cannot help
em, were cruelty, not pity; no, I must not give him that: so I had
been served if I had given him this; come away, sister, we had
been gone, if it had not been for you.

: If I did, nobody would believe me; and if we
should meet with Horner, he would be sure to take acquaintance
with us.

do

5 7 5 .
do . ,
,
,
.
XVI X V II .
do + . ,
,
, :
Sometimes from her eyes I did receive fair speechless messages;
if you do meet Horatio and Marcellus, the rivals of my watch,
bid them make haste.
: Why, do you not
perceive the jest?

do: Now, sir! what make you here? but what said Jaques?
in sooth I know not why I am so sad; call you this gamut? tut,
I like it not.
, do
,
.
365
576. X V II .
. ,
(Milton, John), (, , 1644 .) do
; (Samuel Pepys),
1660 1669 ., do ,
(John Evelyn;
1642 1706 .)
.
(John Dryden, 1631 1700) do
.
do ,
, XVII .
do 30
; (
) 20 , (John
Farquhar, 1678 1707)
do.

. , ,
(David Hume, 1711 1776; Inquiry Concerning Human
Understanding, 1748) do
.

577. , ,
.
-ing.

, : The best ward of my hon
our is rewarding my dependents; the fair reverence of your high
ness curbs me from giving reins and spurs to my free speech.

,
: Leave wringing of your hands: peace!
sit you down, and let me wring your heart; so find we profit by
losing of our prayers; did my father strike this gentleman for
chiding of his fool?

, ,
-ing,
, .
,
.
: I hear of a fellow, too, committed just now for stealing
of his horses; : Addison,
blushing, began reading of his verses. (
366
,
X V III .).

5 7 8 .
.
: Twill weep for having
wearied you; : And, after having whispered a space
certain sad words with hollow voice and face, she to the virgin
said.
, , ;
She begged the favour of being shown to her room1,

5 7 9 . ,
,
.


:
,
;
( of),
.

.

,
.

5 8 0 . ,

, , -1

.
,
.
-,
,
-, .
,
, , :
fast , loud , hard

1 ,
. P o u t s m a A G ra m m a r of L a t e Modern E n g l is h , P a r t II, S e cti o n 2.
Groningen, Noordhoff, 1914, p. 469, 484.

367
to work hard .
, ,
-1.


.

581.

. certainly, certes, per
chance, verily, ,
,
: indeed, surely, perhaps, maybe, likely, haply, happily
( = perhaps), belike.

, . , ,
,

XVI . X IV .
, , : Cer
tainly, sir, I can; but Antonio is certainly undone; for, certes,
these are people of the island; he did believe he was indeed the
duke; verily, I speak it in the freedom of my knowledge; per
chance, you think too much of so much pains? perhaps some mer
chant hath invited him; haply your eye shall light upon some
toy ( = perhaps); happily you something know ( = perhaps); be
like, boy, then, you are in love; and surely it is a sleeping lan
guage.
,
(, belike, haply)
.
: , pre
sumably, allegedly, avowedly,
.
, -,

.

582.
.
.

: may I not go
368
out ere he come? whos there? come in: the wish deserves a wel
come; let us come in, that we may bind him fast; my chief care
is to come fairly off from the great debts I owe; the sword goes
up again; why then do I put up that womanly defence, to say
I have done no harm? nor am I yeti persuaded to put up in peace
what already I have foolishly suffered.
,
put up

. , put up
: , . . .

.

,
, ,
. , , put up
: 1)
, 2) (), 3) ,
4) (, ), 5)
, 6) , 7) (
) .
,

,

,
. ., ,
: go up ascend, go down descend, go on continue, come
in enter.

5 8 3 .
,
, .
, , only , even , even
: tell him my name is Brook, only for a jest; the miserable
have no other medicine but only hope; I do know of these, that
therefore only are reputed wise for saying nothing.

. ,
, , ,
,
,
: even for our
kitchens we kill the fowl of season; he shall render every glory up,
369
yea, even the slightest worship of his time; those lines that I be
fore have writ do lie, even those that said I could not love you
dearer ( even , ); even for that
I thank you; his words are a very fantastical banquet, just so
many strange dishes ( just , );
4was just the difference betwixt the constant red and mingled da
mask; my mother told me just how he would woo as if she sat
ins heart; you have simply misused our sex; I were simply the
most active fellow in Europe.
, just simply,
.
. i
,
.

5 8 4 .
. ,
of
: I am expected of
my friends; it better fits my blood to be disdained of all than
to fashion a carriage to rob love from any; I have been told so
of many; I was taught of your daughter the difference.
by
, : she sent for you by Dro-
mio home to dinner; the commons send you word by me; she
soon shall know of us, by some of ours.
, :
As school-maids change their names by vain, though apt affection
I do it not in evil disposition, but from Lord Angelo by special
charge.

,
: the time twixt six and nowmust by us be spent most
preciously; this blue-eyd hag . . . here was left by the sailors.
of by
.
of by.

with,
: I ll smother thee with kisses;
...w h o m I left cooling of the air with sighs; to be in love,
where scorn is bought with groans, coy looks with heart-sore sighs.

5 8 5 .
+ +
, ,
370
. :
in spite of pope or dignities of church, here by the cheeks I ll
drag thee up and down ( ,
); And
now, instead of bullets wrappd in fire, to make a shaking fever
in your walls, they shoot but calm words folded up in smoke.

, in accordance with, in
addition to, with reference to.

5 8 6 .
.
. that
when, since, after . ,
+ + ,
, , : as long as, as soon as.

5 8 7 .
.
: ah! ! , ah
ha! ! , alas! ! , avaunt!! , ay! ! , fie! ! , ha!
! , ho! ! , la! , lo! , !, oh!, pooh! ,
well-a-day! .
, ,
: ah! do not tear yourself away from me! ah ha! my
mistresses, which of you all will now deny to dance? alas! this
parting strikes poor lovers dumb; avaunt! and quit my sight! ay
me! how weak a thing the heart of woman is; fie, what a spend
thrift he is of his tongue! ha! let me see! ho, open the door; la
you, an you speak ill of the devil, how he takes it at heart; lo,
where he comes! affection! pooh! you speak like a green girl,
unsifted in such perilous circumstance; ah, well-a-day, hes dead.
,

.
.

5 8 8 .

.
371
. ,
, ,
,
.

.

.

5 8 9 .

, .

5 9 0 .
.
.

.
,
.
-
.


this that
.

.
-

.

5 9 1 .
.
,
who who
( ).
. ,
it you ;
who
372
who
. , ,
( 529),
:
between you and I.

5 9 2 .
.
,
.

, , : with mirth and laughter
let old wrinkles come; silence is only commendable in a neats
tongue dried and a maid not vendible; it shows a will most
incorrect to heaven, a heart unfortified, a mind impatient, an
understanding simple and unschooled.
,
this that:
(. 590).

.
I, he, she, we, they (
who):
,
.

,
, .

5 9 3 .

.
,
, ,

, ,
: the always-wind-obeying deep; the neer-yet-beaten
horse of Parthia; a jewel in a ten-times-barred-up chest; a world-
without-end bargain.

, ,

.
373
,
, , : I should be
still plucking the grass to know where sits the wind; you have
often begun to tell me what I am; the merit of service is seldom
attributed to the true and exact performer.
,

,
: Therefore our sometime sister, now
our queen, the imperial jointress of this warlike state, have we,
as twere with a defeated joy, with one suspicious and one drop
ping eye, with mirth in funeral and with dirge in marriage, in
equal scale weighing delight and dole, taken to wife.

594.

,
. :
that cannot be so neither; love no man in good earnest; nor no
further in sport neither; yet 4was not a crown neither.
X V II .,

. ,

: I have found nothing but what has been to my loss,
as I may say, and as you were saying, sir.
:
Lord Froth wont dance at your wedding to-morrow, nor, the
deuce take me, I wont write your epithalamium and see what
a condition youre like to be brought to; I m his friend, I wont
wrong him neither.

. ,

-: Wot I like in
that ere style of writin , said the elder Mr. Weller, is, that
there aint no callin names in it, no Wenuses, nor nothin o
that kind; That aint no part of the present consideration,
Sammy/' replied Mr. Weller.

595.
for to
.
374
, : which for to prevent, I have thus set
it down; that these pirates .. . had not oerboard thrown me for
to seek my mother.
, : forbid the
sea for to obey the moon; here lacks but your mother for to
say amen.
for to
.

5 9 6 . X V XVI .
. ,
, (Pecock, Reginald) The Repression
of Over Much Blaming of the Clergy (1457)
,
, : allowith ech of thilke weies to be
take and doon . . . ,
; this opinioun thei wenen to begroundid
, ; but for that he
knowith me admytte and allowe the writingis of Doctoures,
therefore he makith agens me this assaut
, ,
; he presupposiththe gouer-
nauncis . . . to be before knowen of the same men
, .. .
; and trustist thi self to be a leder of blynd men
, .
X V II X V I I I .
,
.
,
. , (Swift, Jonathan): and the Empe-
rour was so much delighted that he ordered this entertainment to
be repeated several days; . . . of destroying the Big-Endian exiles,
and compelling that people to break the smaller end of their
eggs; : was she so persecuted in favour of a very
disagreeable man, one Solmes, as to induce her to throw herself
into my protection?
X IX X X .
.
.

5 9 7 .
. happen,
seem, think, like, lack, need, remember, ought ., XIV .
,
375
XV . ; XVI .
,
.

, , : it likes me well
; here, if it like your honour ,
.
, : for several virtues have I likd sev
eral women; I do not like this tune; I do not like this fooling.

like ,
. need.

: so much as it needs
, it shall not need .
: you need my help; we need it not.
.

, it is informed me, it was
sent for me I am informed, I was sent for.

5 9 8 .
, ( 428),
.

.
. -

,
, ( ) .
.
,
.
.

I.

1 . [:] , . .
( 479 .). , house, out, down,
m o u th , crow d , now [hu:s], [u:t],
0
[ du :n], [ m u : ], [ k r u : d], [nu:].
2. [ :]
[ e i ] ;
s to n e, bone, w hole, road
st a n e , b an e , h a il , ra id.

376
3. dance, g la n ce , ch a n ce . .
[:]: [dae:ns], [glae:ns], [ tjae :n s ] . .
4. [] .
5.
[%], gh, n a u g h t,
sought, bro ug h t.

II.

1. [:]
, . . ;
[ou] [].
2. [ :]
[eij (
).
3. [ : ] ,
[:] , [i:].
1 1
speak, heal, deal [spi:k], [hi: ], [ di: ]
1
[ s p e : k ] , [he: ], [ d e : l j .
4. [:] [ ] [f],
calm , palm, calf, half;
[:], dance, ch a n ce , ask, past.
5. , , []
[] (. 499 .).
[] [] [].
6 . [] []. ,
h a t , c a t , hand . . [ h a t ] , [ k a t ] , [hand].
7 . (
) [ ] .
8 . [h] .
9. [1]
.

III.

1. [:] ,
[ : ] , [i:j.
2. [] [].
3. [h] .

IV.

1
. [:] ,
[:] , [i:].
2. [] [].
3. [] [].
4. [h] .

V.

1. [] [].
2. [h] ; ,
,
.

377
VI.

1. [:] ,
[ :] , [i:J.
2. [h] ; ,
,
.
3. s-, f-, t h -
, . . [z], [v ] , [ 0 ];
th r - [ 0 -] [dr].
[)] [].


. , , ,
: ingle , keek
, synd , lownd , elding , fuddle ,
gam e , yuckel .
X V I I X X .
.
,
(1 759 1796).

( . Fie ld in g , 1707 1754).

( W . . T h a c k e ra y , 1811 1863).

599. (Tennyson, Alfred, 1809 1892)


,
(Northern F a r m e r , T he N o r th
ern Cobbler , Owd R o a ).

(Th. H a rd y , 1840 1928).

Th e N orthern Cobb
le r ( ).

I
W a a i t till our S a ll y cooms in, fur thou mun a s i g h t s 1 to tell .
E h , but I be maain glad to seea tha sa e a rt y an w ell.
Cast a w a ay on a disolut land w i a v a r t i c a l s o o n 2!
S tra n g e fur to goa fur to think w h at sa ailo rs a seean a n -a doon;
S u m m a t to drink s a ot? I a now t but A d a m s wine:
W h a t s the eat o this lit tl e ill-side to the eat o the line?

II

W h a t s i tha b o t t le a-stan d in g theer? I ll tell t h a . Gin.


B u t if thou w a n ts thy grog, th a mun goa fur it down to the inn.
N aa y fur I be m a ain g lad , but thaw tho w as iver sa dry,
Thou g it s naw gin f r o the b o t t le theer, a n I ll tell tha w hy.

1 The vowels ai , pronounced s e p a ra t e ly though in the cl osest co n ju n ctio n ,


best render the sound of the long i and in this d ia l e c t . B u t since such
words as c r a i i n , d a i i n , w h ai, ai ( 1), e t c ., look aw kward e x ce p t in a page
of exp ress phonetics, I h ave thought it b e tte r to leave the sim p le i and y,
and to tru st t h a t my re aders will g iv e them the bro ader p ro n u n c ia tio n .
2 The oo short, as in w o o d . ( ).

378
:

I
W a i t till our S ally comes in, for you must have sights to tell.
E h , but I am very glad to see you so h earty and well.
Cast aw ay on a d eso late land with a v e rt i c a l sun!
Stra ng e to think w h a t sailors have seen and have done;
Som eth ing to drink so hot? I h ave nothing but A d a m s wine:
W h a t s the heat on this l ittle hill-side to the h eat on the line?

II

W h a t s in the b o ttle standing there? I ll tell you. Gin.


B u t if you w an t your grog, you must go for it down to the inn.
Nay for I am very g lad , but though you were ever so dry,
Y o u get no gin from the b o ttle there, and I ll tell you why.

600. , ,
:
1. [ei] [a i],
a a i: w a a it (I, 1), maain (I, 2; II, 3), a w a ay (I, 3),
saailo rs (I, 4).
2. [i:] [ e : ] ,
, , seea (I, 2), seean (I, 4), eat ( = heat) (I, 5).
3. [ou] [:],
(goa, I, 4; II, 2), [ei] (sa = so, I, 5; II, 3).
4. [] [],
(cooms, I, 1), soon ( = sun) (1, 3); doon (1, 4).
5. h ( e arty I, 2; ot I, 5; eat I, 6 ;
a ( = have) (I, 1; I, 4; I, 5).
:
1. .
must (I, 1).
maain ( = main)
very (I, 2; II, 3).
goa ( = go) fur to go fur to think
( I, 4); st range fur to goa fur to think
. nowt ( 1 , 5).
2. .
thou (I, 1; I I , 2: I I , 3, II, 4) tha ( I I , 2;
II, 3), tha ( I, 2; I I , 1). 2 -
mun ( I , 1), w an ts (II, 2), was (II , 3), gits (II, 4).
fur to ( = for to).

, .

601.
.
- IX .,
, -
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
IX . X X .
,
,
.

, .

602.

, , ,
.
380
, , ,
.

, ,
, ,

, , , ,
. , ,
,

, .

,
, , ,
.
, ,
.

603. ,
, .

. -,
,

. , , ,
,
: ,
v f.
604. ,
, .
,

, ,
.
:
. ,

,
11, d, ve . .

:
, ,
,
.
605.
,
.
381

,
,
.
,

, . .
. , ,
have ,
be
shall will

.
,
. ,
, - ,
,
. , elder eldest

old (.-. eald). ,

,
old
.
,
,

. , ,

see (saw, seen), come (came, come), run (ran, run), sit
(sat, sat).
, . .
( )
,

. ., , -
enough (.-. ), aware (.-. sewaer),
-1- sparkle, fumble, nestle.

606.
.
.
,
se
;

.
;
382
,
, .

.
m icle
mare ( ) maest

, , ,
.

, . . ,
,
,
.
, , in addition to, in
accordance with, by way of, in view of, on behalf of,
as soon as, in case (that), as long as.

, ,
behind back of
.

607. ,
,

, , .

,
,
, : blueish, loathsome, agreeable,
responsible, careless.
,
, ,
, : .-. ceald, hat, 3od;
long, sceort, brad, wld; .-. cold, hot, good, long, short, broad,
wide, .-. large, tense, pure, queer, nice.

, ,
, .

, .
, ,
, .

.
, : The sepulchre hath oped his ponderous and
marble jaws; you secret, black and midnight hags; the smug and
silver Trent.
383
: its hoarse and iron tongue; in arbi
trary and chance arrangements; past the massive stone outer walls;
City young men returned home1.

.

608. ,
.
, :
,
, .

: .

.
( )


.

609. ,

,
. ,

, ,
,
, (
) ,
.

,
-
.
, ,

. ,
,
,
.

1 . J e s p e r s e n A Modern English
G r a m m a r . P a r t II, p. 314.
1

25, 26, 31, 32, 50, 129, 130, 32, 34, 153, 355, 566, 604
148 32, 359, 360, 5 6 6 570
195, 405 32
15, 20 566, 567
13, 14 32, 33, 148
14 65, 292, 293,
14, 46 497
14, 46 32, 148, 154, 604
154, 361, 560 , 564
15 9 -- 1 6 1 , 312, 313, 326, 331, 332, 560 , 564
334, 359, 360, 361, 3 6 3 , 369, 53 7, 32, 143, 144, 146, 147,
560, 566, 567, 571, 5 7 3 - -575, 578, 154, 172, 348, 350
604--6 0 6 356, 357 ,
26, 6 2 , 98,, 100 , 133, 146, 360, 568
147, 289, 304,, 310, 312, 315, 3 17 , 32, 34, 129, 132, 135,
340, 3 41, 342, 349, 370, 506, 508, 143, 144, 146, 154, 155, 172, 291,
525, 544, 545, 556, 557, 559 338, 350, 362, 5 4 3 - 5 4 8
(
454 ) 155, 159, 3 5 6 358, 362
4 4 4 452, 478
16 (
453
1), 34 ( 1)
- 234, 235,
2 65, 266, 309 91, 94, 98, 477,
52 2
122, 289 ( 58, 62, 65, 9 1 ,
1), 329 , 606 291, 5 0 6 - 5 0 8 , 510
172, 188, 310, 317,
322, 606 406, 5 7 7 579
22, 24, 52, 54, 60, 62, 2 6 2 264, 464
65, 136, 520 455
3 1 35, 7 7 79, 1 2 9 - 1 6 1 , 2 0 4 ,
198, 597 3 3 7 - 3 6 5 , 5 4 0 - 5 7 9 , 604, 605, 608

184, 388 358, 36 1, 363,
. 560, 564, 57 1, 57 3, 575, 576
138

385
231
177 47, 48, 69, 172,
559 246
358, 565 237, 241, 242, 246, 247,
149, 150, 337, 353, 25 1, 272, 2 74 278, 280, 284, 285,
354, 5 6 1 - 5 6 4 293, 294, 305, 306, 310, 322, 342,
471 349, 350, 353 ( 1), 376, 433
194, 198 474, 506, 541
- 31, 148, (-)
337, 349, 352, 560 47, 48, 52, 56, 69, 233, 246, 278,
26, 3 1 33, 129 134, 172, 2-80
337-341, 543-549, 551-556 237, 238, 240, 242,
24 6, 247, 2 74, 275, 2 7 8 , 285, 294,
346 559 305, 306 , 310, 311, 342, 349, 350 ,
31, 34, 35, 135 142, 172, 376, 541
337, 3 4 2 - 3 5 0 , 5 5 0 - 5 5 9 2 4 7 , 428
79 - () 238,
557 242, 247, 27 5 , 276, 2 7 8 2 8 0 , 288,
293, 303, 376
347, 559 - 238, 275, 278, 280,
2 3 , 49, 5 2 59, 63, 67, 69, 283, 293, 295, 376
2 7 0 - 2 8 4 , 2 9 3 - 2 9 7 , 303, 4 7 4 - 5 0 5 , 237, 238, 242, 246, 247,
522 274, 275, 278, 288, 294, 303, 307,
4 9 , 2 7 0 277, 293, 298, 310, 338, 342, 3 4 9, 350
475, 4 8 6 - 4 8 8 , 49 2 , 4 9 4 - 4 9 8 243, 244, 502, 506, 521
49, 51, 293 49, 52, 53, 5 5 , 6 7 , 2 4 3 , 2 4 4 ,
275 270, 2 7 8 2 8 3 , 2 9 2 , 2 93, 294, 296,
49, 270, 2 7 2 277, 298, 298, 299, 479, 486, 491, 493, 494
4 8 7 ,4 9 0 , 4 9 8 - 5 0 1 52, 53, 479, 483, 487,
293, 508 502
269, 284, 304, 305, 307,
313, 348, 504, 505 383
49 127, 179, 331, 3 3 4 , 3 8 3
2 72 , 2 7 5 , 279 331, 334, 383
49, 51, 293 128, 179, 331, 334, 365, 383
272 267, 460, 461, 478
49
2 9 6 , 297
8 , 19, 24, 2 6 28 , 33, 80, 248 , 261 , 457, 469,
35 , 44 602
311, 605 463, 467, 470
447, 458
, . 458
61 , 243 245, 27 6, 277, 284, 83
29 4 , 296 , 2 9 7, 301 , 30 3 , 426, 427, 8 1 , 82, 2 61, 45 9 462,
46 1, 47 8, 479 , 482, 499, 5 0 0, 50 6, 470
514, 523, 527 46 7, 468
2 50, 25 1 , 254
47, 233, 234 , 246, 2 47 , 25 1, 25 2 2 6 1 , 267, 327,
42 5 , 42 8, 437, 59 4, 59 8 600 3 28 , 375, 46 1 , 466, 4 89, 491, 518,
- 2 3 8 , 246, 523
247, 27 4, 276, 278 , 2 93 , 303, 376 4 4 7, 465, 467
- 246, 247, 19, 2 0 , 34 , 102, 129, 338
2 74 , 275, 2 78, 28 0, 28 4, 29 3, 295
47, 48, 69, 24 6, 275, 147
276 147, 160, 3 6 3 365,
23 5 , 2 3 6 , 2 38, 239 , 5 70 , 58 4, 5 97
242, 246, 247, 27 8 , 42 5 429 2 06 , 593
47, 48, 52, 69, 246, 8 , 12
278 -

386
22, 136, 142, 146, 520 604
292 297 129, 143, 144, 146,
270 284, 376, 474 505, 147, 149, 156, 350, 35 2 354
522 523 143, 144, 146, 157,
2 8 5 291, 376, 506 521 350, 352 354
129, 143, 1 4 4 , 1 4 6 ,
470 147, 158, 161, 214, 222, 3 5 0 , 3 5 2
33 , 129, 133, 135, 140, 354, 362, 548, 571 574
144 ( 1),- 193, 194, 338, 339, 560, 564
350, 351, 362, 398 404, 471, 472, 78, 162 168, 205, 220, 318,
476, 540, 543, 567, 595, 596 3 6 6 - 3 7 0 , 373, 38 5, 580
194, 4 0 2 404, 304,
59 6 313
467, 470
there is 192
183, 387
356 126, 127, 181, 33 1,
335, 336, 539 385, 400, 593
198
33, 129, 131 60 , 9 1 , 288,
134, 339, 543 546 311, 509
35, 135 142, 491
342 345, 550 126, 180, 188, 203, 206,
26, 33 315, 3 3 2, 384, 392
571, 573, 574 2 43 245, 4 2 6 , 427, 4 40,
445, 461, 4 7 5 , 47 8, 506, 510, 514, 523
270, 408, 520 2 84,
408, 473 30 4 , 305, 307, 313, 348, 504
571 574 3 0 4 , 305, 313
27 29, 9 0 98,
32, 142 100 102, 115 118, 304, 310
27, 28, 305
' 158, 193, 213, 21 4, 560 27, 28, 9 0 , 100
35, 142
605 360,
425 431, 434 4 0 6 , 577
441 4 7 4
143 146, 204, 350, 476
3 5 2 354, 540 542 535, 540, 546
461 2 9 0 , 5 0 6 , 5 1 0 , 521
146, 148 151, 196, 350,
353, 407, 594
171, 375, 587
78, 104, 197 199, 204
319, 531 144 ( 1),
108, 318, 384, 193, 351 398
533 592 105, 107, 108,
105, 250, 314, 319, 381, 124, 314, 315, 317, 529, 534
529, 542, 592 128, 198, 317
110, 122, 321, 534 127, 198, 200, 317
109, 203, 3 21,5 34 125, 314, 317, 318,
112, 215, 216, 320 330, 333, 529
111, 321, 4 0 7 , 5 3 4 314, 318, 3 3 0 , 3 3 4 , 5 2 9
106, 250, 3 1 4 106, 198, 199, 317,
316, 384, 530 318
107, 172, 203, 317, 127
381, 384, 532, 590, 592 113, 124, 127,
63, 327, 328, 344, 346 322, 330
371, 388, 581 27 , 89, 124,
278, 283 127, 308, 312, 330, 5 2 7 , 528

387

128, 198, 202, 306, 158, 224, 36 2 , 421
310 158, 225, 362, 422
127, 198, 2 0 0 , 2 0 2 , 3 1 2 576
125, 306, 310 222, 419
330, 331 585, 606
126, 198 2 0 1 , 306,
310, 315, 330, 332, 370, 373, 527, 24, 130, 133, 144, 348
528 49, 52, 65, 270,
127 278
49, 65 78, 262, 2 6 4, 335, 3 3 8 , 3 5 5 ,
53, 133 372, 472
61 30, 7 6 79, 121,
126, 199, 31 6, 332 195, 200, 203, 3 2 2 326, 366, 384,
16 19, 21 395, 5 3 5 - 5 3 7 , 605, 607
5 4 , 65, 100, 117 195, 203
56, 2 8 0 , 2 8 2 182, 189, 386
i55, 121, 133, 205, 397, 590, 592
136, 137, 140, 142, 144, 165, 270,
2 80, 285 , 306, 310, 311, 324, 348, 31, 33, 120, 129, 130,
367, 520, 536 135 137, 140, 144, 195, 2 9 1 , 3 3 8 ,
h 57 339, 343, 349, 350, 543, 549
31, 34 120, 143 146. 148 150,
28 9 ( 1 ) 195, 349, 350, 405
15, 48, 247,
42 5, 431, 436, 437
125, 175, 193, 204, 331, 269,
333, 365, 381, 390, 399, 404 284, 504
1 1 2 , 2 1 0 22 7, 41 2 423 75, 87, 203,
185 189, 331, 389 393, 306, 307, 310, 322
60 4 113, 203
187 105, 107, 317 , 320
186, 390 , .
186
187, 391
168, 372, 582 303, 479 488, 500,
194 5 0 2 , 506
125, 178, 315,
331 333 27
126 128, 1 6 9 , 2 0 2 , 3 1 2 , 3 1 6 , 447, 582
33 1 333, 373, 584, 585 176 178, 2 04 , 20 5, 382, 391
230, 250, 251,
190 304, 305, 314, 349
22 8, 424 310, 317
575 105 108, 314,
158, 21 9, 3 6 2 , 416 317, 318, 529
158, 213, 214, 414 30, 230,
220, 417 395, 535
191 30, 114 118, 322
227 30, 119, 121, 322
423 120
190 230, 304,
215, 2 1 6 , 415 305, 527, 528
5 75, 5 76 29, 100, 310, 311
211, 412 -es 29, 102, 310
217 - 29, 101
221, 418 29, 9 0 9 8 , 172, 3 0 6 , 3 1 0 ,
212, 413 311
223, 420 29, 99, 172, 306, 307, 310,
226, 423 311

388
122 , 123
70, 71, 80 84, 76, 163, 248,
2 4 8 - 2 6 4 , 267, 4 5 5 470, 602 2 63 , 459
579 74, 75, 248,
579 2 6 2 , 263
471 2 7 29, 74, 75 , 78 ,
7 2 79, 162, 163, 79, 8 6 - 1 0 3 , 197, 198, 2 0 1 - 2 0 4 ,
248, 262, 263, 366, 370, 459, 472, 3 0 4 - 3 1 3 , 5 2 5 - 5 2 8 , 60 5, 607
580
248 488
7 2
79, 84, 374, 602 20 , 2 1 , 64, 2 60 , 466
33, 132
158, 187, 59, 62, 91, 270,
2 1 0 227, 362, 4 1 2 423 2 72, 2 7 3 , 506
209, 411 , .
605 197 199, 201, 202, 207,
51, 6 0 63, 68 , 2 85 293, 396, 591
506-521 362, 5 71 , 573, 574
203, 204, 207, 322, 395, 408, 409,
535, 588, 590 473
270, 271, 327,
489, 496, 503 4 9 69, 2 6 9 303,
1 1 2 , 209, 411 4 7 4 - 5 2 3 , 603
586, 606 66 68 ,
210, 213, 220 2 9 8 303, 48 6, 487
170, 25 0, 374, 586, 608 231, 234, 2 3 5, 243,
170, 210, 213, 218, 252, 2 6 5 - 2 6 8 , 3 09
214, 218, 219, 2 21 226, 416, 417, 232, 243,
420, 422, 423 2 5 2 264, 296, 297, 299, 302 , 308,
170, 209, 411 309, 379 , 514
147, 152, 305,
344, 348 351, 5 4 0 542, 5 5 1 559 85, 335, 37 1 , 3 7 2 , 5 83 , 608
149, 150, 353 , 354, 8 5 , 583
561-564 20 3, 215
- 148, 352, 1 48 151, 196, 35 0,
560 353, 407
144, 145, 3 38 341, 398
5 4 3 549 , .
146, 3 42 343, 3 4 5 347, 60, 91, 3 11,
550 5 25

164, 165, 36 7 369 , 580, 122, 327, 538
606 123, 328, 538
121, 3 2 3 326,
5 36 , 537, 6 0 5, 605 129, 143 146, 204,
2 7 , 28, 350, 3 5 2 - 3 5 4 , 540, 54 2 , 546
305 105, 107, 108, 314,
58, 65, 133, 145 315, 317, 320, 5 3 2, 590
29 6 113, 322, 535
194 88 , 289 (
121, 149, 166, 172, 1), 308 , 525 , 5 2 6 , 528
325, 353, 368, 536 174 184, 381
388
77, 459
162, 163, 3 6 6 , 580 21, 22

13 . .

1 . .
2 .
3. :

1 , 15 0
2 b 16 P
3 17 q
4 d 18
5 19 s
6 f 20 t
7 3> g 21 i>, 3
8 h 22 u
9 i 23 V
10 j 24 w
11 k 25 X
12 1 26
13 m 27 z
14 n

4. , , .
,
.
(m a n (n ), mon(n ), 1, 1).
5. ,
, []
[ ]; -,
, : know(en), begin(nen),
g iv e(n).
6 . - (, , )
, : (), cr ow (e),
e i g h t ( e ) , fast(e) , , :
h o m (e ), hous(e), nin (e).
7. ,
: rnan(n), dear(r), 1( ), 3 i(e)fu.

390
I a 316, 329, . an ahwaefjer 78, . . or
II a 375 ail 49 1, 503
a 78 I air 253, 440
97 II air 471
abandon 297 alas 375, 492, 587
a b ate 480 S i c 109, . . Qch, e a c h
a b b reviate 459, 461 a l c o v e 458
aberan 78 aid, cm. eald
(a)bide 544, 553, . . bldan ale 491, 503, . . ealu
abridge 461 algebra 470
ab solve 461 a l i k e 539
ab ys^ia n 78 a liv e 5 3 9 , . . a ly v e
ac 170, 209, 374 all 69, 376, 455, 493, 494
ac 100, . . oak alle ged ly 581
accident 459 a l l e v i a te 459
acco rd 471 a l l o c a t e 461
accoutre 489 allow 461, 596
ache 551 allu de 459
acknowledge 521 alms 28 9 ( 1), 492
a-co ld 539 a lw ay s 37 0, 567
acquit 253 a l y v e 335, . . aliv e
a ct 471 a m azem ent 263
a ct ual 516 am erian 139
a d m ira b le 263 amidde(s) 373, . . amidst
ad m ire 504 amid st 511, . . amidde(s)
ad mit 459 am iss 539
ado 250 a m i t y 253
adobe 447 amonge(s) 373, . . am ongst
advance 461 am on gst 511, . . amonge(s)
I ad van ta g e 461, 495 an 352, 560, . . unnan
II a d v a n tag e 471 an 122, 370, 606, . . n, one, a I
ad ventu re 461 a n a r c h y 463
afeard 539, . . afered an cesto r 495
S f e n tl d 79 a n c i e n t 514
a f e r e d 335, . . a f e a r d and 170, 209, 411
affect 459 andswarian 365, . . answer II
afierran 55, 57 anes 370, . . once
aflote 335 S n i 3 110, . any
afoot 539 S n l i c 76, . . only
afraid 539 announce 504
a fter 586, . . aefter I answer 476, 508, . . ondswaru
aefter 169, . . after II a n s w e r 430, 47 1, 473, 476, 508, cm.
a fterm a th 492 . andsw arian
aefterra 123, . . aefter a n x i e t y 509
148, . . ?w e(n) I, ought an xio u s 509, 514
102, 103, 249, . . ei any 273, 316, 321, 427, 534, . .
a g g r a v a te 459, 461 Sni3
a g g rie v e 461 a n y b o d y 534
aghast 492 a n y t h in g 534
S 3 h w S r 78 apos tle 82
3 hwae^er 78, . . either appel 275
ae3hwilc 78 ap praise 461
a greeab le 607 a p p r e c ia t e 461
agre em ent 263 apron 289 ( 1)
109, . . ae3hwaef)er, eith er ap ro pos 466
. . . 170 ar 310
ah 587 s r 121, 170, 219, . . $r, ere
a ha 375 ardour 445
ah ha 587 arlsan 78, 131
ah w S r 78 a r i s t o c r a c y 463, 470

13* 3Si
a ri t h m e ti c 4 70 ball 466
arleas 76 B a l l a n t r a e 83
arm 376, . . earm I b a llet 466
arm ad a 458 Bally sh a n n o n 83
a rm y 253 b a lm 461, 492
arr ogance 263 b als am 461
a rro g an t 459 ban 91, 91 ( 2), . . bon(e)
art 253 band 511
r f ) m f ) e 219 bandit 458
as 423 , 424 banjo 44 7
asce 49 bank 286
ascend 582 banner 253
ascian 63, . . ask(en) b r 50
ash am ed 539 bark 5 5 1 , . . beorcan
A sia 514 barn 478
ask(en) 284, 445, 44 9, 450, 4 9 2 , 598, baron 253, 261
. . ascian baroness 26 3
asleep 539, . aslepe bask 492
aslepe 33 5, . . asleep basket 492
as long as 58 6, 606 basta rd 263, 492
ass 474 b ath 492, 5 25
assent 297 b a tt le 253
assert 459 I be 440, 446, 454, 4 81, 4 98, 54 1, 561,
assoil 461 56 5, 566, 600, 605, . . beon
as soon as 58 6 , 606 wesan. ben
assume 514 II be 78, 169, 37 4, . . by
a-sweb ban 138 beado-m ece 84
a -sw owne 335 beado-rinc 84
at 250, 376, . . set beads 255
set 169, 202, . . at beadu 96
A tte r b u ry 310 beald 163
a t t r i b u t e 459 b eald lice 163
af> 249 bealu 93
75 beam 49, . . bm
6 3
^ e lw u lf in 75 I bear 488, 502
a u th o r 512 II bear 16, 502, 543, 54 6, 55 5, 556,
au tu m n 255, 447, 494 , 510 . . beran, brjren
av engen 243 b e am 91, 91 ( 2)
a v au n t 409, 587 bearu 93
Avon 83 4 beat 481, 488, 502, . . beatan
a v o w e d ly 581 b ea ta n 131, . . beat
a w a ca n 78, . . awake I beau 466
I awake 5 4 3, 553, . . aw acan because 374 , 418, 464
II aw ake 539 beck 250
aware 605 bed 92
a w ay 600 beden 340, . . beodan
a- wepe 335 beef 25 4, 296
aex 95 befool 472
a x i o m 514 beforan 169
a y 587 beg 474
azure 515 78
122
ba, . 3
b e eotan 69
b a can 131, . . bake begin(nen) 243, 254, 398, 504, 543,
baecere 103 3
54 7, . . o n innan
baecestre 75 behalf 495 (in behalf)
b a cillu s 244 behead 47 2, . . beheafdian
back of 447, 606 beheafdian 78, . . behead
b a k e 5 5 1 , . bacan behind 2 73, 4 47, 606
b a lco n y 458 behon 78

392
belief 525 b ille t-do u x 466
bellfan 50, 131 bin 83
belike 581 bindan 49, 59, 62, 131, 144. 153, 172,
b elittle 472 249, . . bind(en)
bell 551, . . bellan blnd(en), 271, 284, 339, 350, 376, 543,
bellan 131, . . bell 546, . . bindan
belong 455 biology 470
b$m 279, . . beam birk 285
ben 27 5, 353, 358, 359, 3 62 , 363, 364, b iscep u n 82 3
376, . . beon, wesan, be biscop 261, . . bishop
bench 286 biscophad 82
bendan 49, 139, . . benden bisechen 285, 286
benden 343, . . bendan bishop 82, . . biscop
beneath 489 bisie 429, . . b y s i3
beniman 78 bitan 131, 249, . . bite II
benorfjan 169 I bite 97
beodan 49, 50, 129, 130, . . beden II bite 480, 54 3, 546 , 549, 55 5, . .
beon 149, 154, 159, 160, 172, 178, 360, bitan
. . ben, w esan, be biza rre 466
beor 75 blaec 115, 121
b e o r c a n 131, . b a r k blam e 461
255 blaspheme 461
131 blast 271
bequea th 551, . . cwefjan blawan 131, . . blow
beran 24, 49, 50, 69, 129, 249, . . blessed 474, . bletsian
b^ren, bear II bletsi an 77, . . blessed
b ereave 75, . . ber^ven bllcan 131
bereav em ent 263 b li c c e t ta n 77
b^ren 339, 376, . . beran , bear II blld-heort 79
b e r^ v en 343, . . be re a v e blod 77, . . blood
berian 139 bloma 23, . bloom
berien 303 blondan 131
B e r k e le y 478 blood 500, 605, . . blod
B e rkshire 478 bloom 605, . . bloma
berstan 133, . . burst, bersten blow 557, . . blawan
bersten 341, . . burst, berstan blowan 131
berth 497 blue 519
Ber w ick 5 08 blueish 607
b esettan 78 blunt 499
beside 373 blushen 295
b esm lta n 131 boar 488
best 325, . . 3 od, betst boat 481, 488
besu^an 169 boc 100 , . . bok, book
b e t, cm. b ettre bocere 92
bete ra 121 bok 277 , 310, . . boc, book
betst 121 bolshevik 468
better 537, . . good, betera bolshevism 468
bettre 277, 325, . . god, better bomb 510
bejjencan 78 bond 511
bewepan 78 bpn(e) 274, 598, . . ban
bewilder 273 book 474, 496, . . boc, bok
bewilderment 263 boomerang 454
bl 78, . . by boot 454
bid 545, 549, . . b id dan , bidden borwen 293
bldan 49, 131, 249, . . abide borzoi 467
biddan 49, 133, . . bidden, bid bosom 501
bidden 340, . . biddan, bid botany 470
biernan 133, . . burn(en) bough 294, 506
biggen, cm. byen bound 511
bilden 343, . . byldan b o u q u et 466

393
bowe 486 87, 100, 310
bow(en) 293, 551, . . b u r h , .
boy 299 b u r i a l 2 63, 289 ( ) 1
brad 75, . . broad b u r n (e n) 344, 346, 497, . . bi*
brsedu 75, 99 ernan
b r a i d 5 5 1 , . . b r e j d a n , breden b u r s t 559, cm. b e r s t a n , b ersten
b r a n c h 495, 5 1 0 b u s h 501
b r a s s 492 b u s i n e s s 477
b r e a d 489, . . b r^d b u s t l e 510
break 502, . . brecan but 374, 411, 433, 499, . . butan
b r e a t h 489, . . b r ^ t h butan 169, . . but
brecan 131, . . break b u tch e r 2 53, 501
br$d 279, . . bread by 584, . . be II, bi
breden 341, . . b re sd a n , braid b y and by 455
b r e e c h e s 489, . . b r o c , , ()
b re 3dan 133, . . breden, braid () 137, . . byen
breow an 131, . . b r e w byen 287, 293, 345, . . ()
brest 271, 376 b y l d a n 139, . . bilden
br^th 376, . . breath byria n 139
b r e w 5 5 1 , . . breow an byrne 103
b r i d g e 61, 243, 2 8 7, 376, . . 3
b y s i 76, . . bisie
B r i d p o r t 82 by w ay of 606
bright 3 66 , 506
brighte 366 cabin et 263
3
b r i n an 62, 137, . . bring(en) Caith ness 250
b ring(en) 243, 2 9 4 , 3 4 5 , 355 ( ) 1 cajole 466
506, 598, . . b r i n j a n c a l f 254, 495, 507, 598, . . c e a l f
broad 607, . . brad c a l l ( e n ) 250, 346, 493, 494
broc 100 , . . breeches c a l m 492, 507, 598
99 c a l v e 495
brood 496 can 560, . . cunnan, cunnen
I brook 496 candy 447
II brook 551, . . brucan c a n n i b a l 465
broom 496 canoe 465
b ro th er 16, 311, 500, 525, . . cant 495
brojjor Can te rbu ry 310
brotherhood 248 caou tc h ouc 465
brofjor 23, 90, 101, . . b ro th er ca p rice 466
Bro u g h a m 521 ca r a v a n 467
bru can 133, . . brook ca r e 272, 310, 311, . . caru
bruise 519 careful 6 0 7, . . carful
bryce 118 ca ress 466
51, 95, . . bridge carful 76, . . careful
bu . c a r it e , cm. ch a ri te
b uccan eer 465 Ca rnarvo n 83
I buffet 466 c a r r i a g e 263
II buffet 466 caru 49, 94, . . ca re
bug 447 ca r v e 478, 551 , . . c e o rfan , ker-
49, 133, . . bow(en) ven
bulb 501 cask 492
I bull 501 cask et 492
II bull 501 ca ste 492
bullet 501 cast(en) 25 0, 492, 559
bulletin 501 c a s t i g a t e 461
bullion 501 ca stle 253, 5 1 0
bully 501 c a t 427, 490, 5 98
bulrush 501 ca t a lo g u e 445
bulwark 501 ca tch (e n ) 267, 347, 5 06
bungalow 467 C a u ca sia n 515
buoy 299 caucus 447

394
cause 374 , 494 1 77, . . c l ^ n e , c l e a n
causen 403 cljensian 77
ca y m a n 465 clasp 492
c e a h h e t ta n 77 class 445, 492
cealf 10 2 , . . c a l f cl a ssic 492
ceaster 53 cl ean 4 8 1 , . . claBne, cl ^ ne
ce la n 139 cl e av e 551, 552, . cleo fan ,
ce n tre 445 eleven
ce n tu ry 516 clqne 3 7 6 , . . claene, clean
ceorf an 131, . . kerven, carve cl eofa n 131, . . eleven , clea v e
ceorl 87 clerk 82, 478.
c e o s a n 49, 129, 144, . . c h e s e n , eleven 341, . . cleofa n , cle a v e
choose clew 296
c e o w a n 131, . . c h e w cllfan 131
c l i m b 510, 551, 552, . . c l l m b a n
c e p a n 49, 62, 136, . . kepen,
c llm b an 59, 131, . . cl im b
keep
131
c e r r a n 69
clip ian 56, 70
c e r t a i n 478, 497
c l o is t e r 253
c e r t a i n l y 371, 38 8, 5 8 1 , . . cer clo th 496
tain 9
c l the(n) 346, 3 55 ( ), 4961
ce r te s 371, 581 cl uch en 295
ch aff 449, 450 clue 29 6
ch a grin 466 clynn an 139
c h a ir 243, 256 c n a w a n 49, 129, 132, 243 , 274, cm.
ch alk 507 . k n 9W (e n)
ch a m b re 243, 2 56 cn edan 131, . . knead
ch a n ce 495, 598, . . ch aunce cneow 93, . . knee
ch ange 253, 2 97 , 495 cn y ssan 22, 136
ch a o s 505 cod 525
ch a pe l 253 cofre 301
c h a p t e r 477 c o h h e tta n 77
ch a ra d e 489 C o lchester 82
chargen 403 cold 607
c h a r i te 267 c o lib ry 465
chase 267 co lla p se 459
ch a ste n 461 co l le c t 459, 461
Ch a tau q u a 447 co llision 51 5
ch ate au 466 c o l lo c a t e 461
C h a th a m 521 colonel 477
ch a u n ce 297, . . ch ance co lou r 253
ch emise 466 colum n 253, 510
chere 409 com aunden 297 , . . comm and
ch e rry 28 9 ( I) co mb 510
c h e s e n 28 1, 339 , . . c e o s a n , c h o o s e co me( n) 243, 341, 355 ( 1) 499,
Chester 82 58 2, 600, 605, . . cuman
c h e w 519, 5 51 , . . c e o w a n com m and 495, 50 4 , . . c o m a u n
c h i d e 555 den
chief 2 4 3 , 481, 482 co m m encen 254
child 2 4 3 , 27 3, 285, 310, 525, 526, co m m un ism 470
605, . . cild co mpel (len ) 403, 459, 596
ch ir ch e 285 con clu d e 459
Chisw ick 508 condemn(en) 2 53 , 510
choose 5 43, 60 5, . . ceosan , chesen co ndor 465
C h ristm as 510 co n nectio n 514
cild 59, 61, 102, . . child co n n e x i o n 5 1 4
c ild cm. c ild conquer 508
cild h a d 75 conqueror 508
ci nch 447 con quest 508
c i r c l e t 2 63 co n scien ce 253

395
conscious 51 4 cu nn an 148, 177, . . cu nnen, can
co nseillen 403 cunnen 274, 352, . . cu nn an, can
co n s ti t u t e 459 c u rt 497
co n str ey nen 403 c u r t a in 497
co n sum ptio n 511 cu rt s y 477
co n tin u e 582 cushion 501
c o n t r a d i c t 4 59 cu t 499, 559
co n tr ib u te 459 cufj 55, 249
co n tu m ely 523 cwelan 131, 138
co o bo o 454 cw ellan 137, 138, . . quellen
cook 496 cw en 87, 97, . . queen
co o lie 467 cwene 99
copse 477 cwefjan 129, 249, 376, . . be
co q uette 466 queath, quoth
corn 16, 447 cw ic -s eolfo r 79
co rn ice 458 cwucu 56, 118
coro n et 263 c y n in g 75, 87, 103, 249, . . king
corp s 466 cyn(n) 92, 2 4 9, 376, . . kin
co rr e ct 459 cyfjan 55
cost(e n ) 347, 4 9 6 , 559 c z a r 467
I couch 243
II couch 461 d d 49, 103, . . deed
cough 506 3
dae 49 , 51, 60, 90, 91, 249, . .
counsel 297 day
cou nt 297 d a in ty 253, 461
co u n te rf e te 301 daisy 79
co u ntess 263 d l 97, . . dl
coup 489 d l a n 69, . . dlen, deal
couple 499 damb 510
coura ge 243, 260, 263 damsel 477
course 449 dance 449, 450, 598, . . dauncen
co u rt 2 5 3, 449 Dane 50 3, . . Dene
co u rt m a r t ia l 392 danger 495, 510
co u rte sy 477 dar, c m . durren
cousin g e rm a n 392 dare 560, . . durren, dear(r)
co v ere n 2 5 3 dark 429
cow 24 3, 244, 310, 525, . . darn 478
co w ard 26 3 dauncen 2 97 , . . dance
c r a w a n 131, . . crow dawn 494
creep 5 5 1 , . . cre o p a n , cre p en day 2 93 , 491, . . dae 3
creop an 131, . . cr epen , creep dead 6 9, 279, 489, . . dd
c re p en 341, . . c re o p a n , creep d eadlic 76
cr e s c e n t 459, 511 deaf 489
crew 2 9 6 , 5 1 9 deal 598, . . d ^ l a n , d^len
crim so n 4 77 dear 450
croo k 496 dear(r) 148, . . durren, dare
cr ooked 474 death 489, 525, . . deaf), d$th
cr oss 496 deaf) 49, . . dth, death
cr ow 55 1, 553 , . . cr a w a n debris 466
cr o w (e ) 244 debt 461
crow d 5 98 d e c a n t e r 495
cr ude 519 deceive 482
cr um b 510 dqd 27 9 , . . dead
c r u t c h 295 deduce 459
cO 100, . . cow deed 605, . . d d
cu ggel 295 deem 550, . . deman
c u irass 492 deep 281
cull 461 deer 281, 450, 525, 526, 6 0 5 , . .
c u ltu re 516 deor, der
c u m a n 133, 144, 153, . . co m e(n) defeat 461

396
defect 461 do s o r r o w 473
defence 445 do w r o n g 473
deign 5 03 d o g g e d 474
d$l 275, 3 7 6, . . d s l d o g h t e r 3 11, . . d o h t o r
d ^ l e n 343, 350, . . d s l a n , deal d ohtor 87, 101, . . doghter
d e l f a n 131, . . d e l v e dom 55, 249, . . doom
d e l i g h t 5 06 don 150, 354, . . do
d e l v e 5 51, . . d e l f a n doom 75, . . dom
dema 99 d oorste p 505
deman 49, 55, 136, . . deem dor 91, 306, 310, 311
demend 75 dore 272, . . duru
d e m o crac y 463 , 470 d ormouse 525, 526
Dene 9 7 , . . Dane dorn 7 6
dennan 139 double 499
deop 279 doubt 461
deope 162 dough 294, 506
deor 9 1 , . . der, deer dove 499
3
d e o r li n 75 dowen 352, 5 60, . . dusan
der 311, . . deor, deer down 83, 24 3, 2 44 , 450, 481, 598
Der by 250, 478 d r s f a n 49, 139
derian 139 draft 506
derne 69 3
d r a an 131, . . draw(en)
descend 58 2 d rau gh t 506
deserve 478 d ra u g h ts 506
desiren 256 draw(en) 293, 339, 486, . . d r a an3
d esperado 458 dread 4 89
dessert 509 dr^den 3 4 1, . . o n d r ^ d a n
d$th 279, . . d e a f , death dre nc(e)an 138
devil 82 dreosan 131
dew 49 1, 519 d reye cm. drle
djad, . . dead drle 293, 303
dia gnosi s 521 drlfan 131
d ialogue 505 drincan 120, 129, 138, 172, . .
die 254 drink(e n)
dig 555 3
d r i n an 172
d i g n i t e e 2 56, . . d i g n i t y drink(en) 243, 339, 543, . . drin-
d ig nity 4 61 , . . dig nitee can
digression 514 droop 489
din gh y 467 druh 100
dingo 454 d ru nkard 263
dinner 253 3
dry (e)an 139
d ir e ctly 510 d ry n c 97
dirge 477 due 296
d irt 497 dufan 133
d is ap point 264 3
d u an 148, . . dowen
disaster 492 dukedom 46 4
disbelief 464 dulla rd 263
disburden 264 dumb 510
discern 509 D u m b a rto n 83
disdain 264 Du m fries 83
dismiss 459 dun 83
disown 264 dunch 453
dissect 509 D u ned in 83
dissemble 509 dun3 100
dissent 509 1
durren 352, . dear(r), dare
disso lve 507, 509 duru 98, . . d5re
distrust 2 64 dust 62 , 271
divulge 510 d uty 4 4 9 451
do 481, 5 0 0 , 5 4 1 , 562, 575, 576, 600, dwarf 478, 498, 506
. . don dwellen 346

397
d y n n a n 139 elles 370
d y r n i h t e 76 elleven 327, . . endlefan, eleven
d y s i 3 76 em a n cip a te 459
embed 264
$ 2 5 5 , . . em p ty 511
5 8 , 100, 2 5 5 , 2 6 1 , . . q encage 264
e a c h 5 3 4 , . . s i c , qcIi encase 472
eadi 3 6 4 , 116 en ch an t 472, 495
6 9 , 8 7, 9 9 , 103, 172, . . e y e e n cir cle 264, 472
e a h t a 5 2 , 12 2, . . e i g h t ( e ) e nco urag e 472
e a h t a t e o d a 123 end 504, 550, . . endian
eah tatlen e 12 2 , . . e i g h t e t e n e , ende 87, 92
eighteen en dear 2 64, 464
e a h t o f ) a 123, . . e i g h t e , e i g h t h endian 141, . . end
e a l d 5 2 , 5 7 , 6 9 , 7 5, 121, 2 7 8 , . . en dlefan 122 , . . elleven, eleven
9 ld endlefta 123, . .eleventh(e)
e a l u 10 0 , . . a l e engendren 347
e a r d i a n 141 3
E n laland 79
ear(e) 99, 450 1 97
I e a r m 5 2 , 7 0, 9 1 , . . a r m 3
E n lisc 76
II e a r m 5 5 , 7 0 , 121 enough 499, 506, 605, . . inough
e a r m i n 3 75 ensure 472
earne st 478 e n tr a n ce 263
e a r th 430, . . , er th e entren 297
ease 253 envenom 472
e a s t r o n 82 eofor 56
eat 489, . . etan E o fo r w icce a ste r 64
e a t a b le 464 70, 99, . . erthe, earth
e a j i e 165 eorl 87, 91
9 5 , . . e d g e 76
$ c h 2 8 5 , 3 2 1 , . . S i c , e a c h eower 105, 106, . . , your
ed ge 2 8 7 , . . epoch 463
ed u cate 517 qr 416, . S r , ere
e f e n j b r o w i a n 79 ere 69
e f f e c t 471 ere 440, . . S r , $r
efn 6 2 , . . e v e n erian 139
e f s t a n 5 5 , 139 e rm th e 376, . . iermjiu
e f t 162 erth e 376, . . , earth
, . . Esk 83
eg g 2 5 0 ? st 271, 279
ei 3 1 0 , . . qsten 271
e ig h t(e ) 278, 32 7 , 53 8 , . . e a h ta etan 24, 131, . eat
e i g h t e 3 2 8 , . . e a h t o f j a , e i g h t h
E v a n 83
eig h teen 538, . . eah tatlen e,
evel c m . evil
eigh te ten e
even 583, . . efn
e i g h t e t e n e 3 2 7 , . . e a h t a t l e n e ,
Qver 289
eig h teen
every 316
e i g h t h 5 3 8 , . . e a h t o j i a , e i g h t e
ev id ent 459
eig h ty 327, 538, . . hund-
vil 272, 325, . . yfel
eah tat i3
e i t h e r 3 2 1 , 5 3 4 , . . S 3 hw a e f je r , eville 368, . . yfele
S3{jer e x a c t l y 510
e l a s t i c 49 2 e xa ctness 510
e l d e r 2 7 8 , 3 2 4 , 5 3 6 , 6 0 5 , . . 9I d , e xa g g e rate 459
ield ra e xa m p le 495
eld est 324, 5 3 6 , 605, . . ld, ield - excl ude 459
?st exclusion 459
e le v a to r 447 E xe 83
ele v e n 538, . . e n d le f a n , e lle v e n execu te 459, 509
e l e v e n t h ( e ) 3 2 8 , 5 3 8 , . . e n d l e f t a e x e c u to r 509

398
e x h ib it 509 felen 343, 346
e x h ib it i o n 509 fellen 278
e x h o r t 509 fellow 250, 505
e x h o r t a t i o n 509 3
fe o (e)an 142
ex iste n ce 254 feoh 52
expand 511 feohtan 129, 130, . . fight(en)
exp edient 459 feond 75, . . fiend
expel 459 I feor 121, . . fer(re), far
ex p erience 263 II feor 165
expou nd 511 feorh 103
e xte rio r 459 feorjla 123, . . fourth(e)
ex tra n eou s 461 feower 122 , . . four
e x t r i c a t e 459 feowerteoda 123
e y e 303, 307, 310, 311, 525, . feowertlene 122 , . . fou rtene,
fourteen
3 122
fe o w e rti , . . fo urty, forty
fact 461 3
f e o w e rt i oda 123
faeder 19, 70, 87, 90, 101, 219, 288, feran 139
. . fa der, father ferian 139
fader 284, 376, . . faeder, father fer(re) 280, . . feor, far
fain 491 f^we 279
fair 293, 323, 366 feyne(n) 403, . . feign
faire 366 fie 587
faithful 326 field 243, 481, 482, . . feld
falcon 5 07 fiend 482, . . feond
I fall 447 fierra 121 , . feor
II fall(en) 339, 355 ( 1) 543, flf 62, 122 , . . five
5 46 , 549, 605, . . feallan flfta 123, . . fifte, fifth
fallen in felawshipe 409 fifte 328, . . flfta, fifth
falsehood 464 fifteen 538, . . flftlene, fiftene
fancy 477 fiftene 327, . . flftlene, fifteen
fane 491 fifteoOa 123
fangen 341, . fon fifth 538, . . flfta, fifte
fa n tasy 477 flftlene 122 , . . fiftene, fifteen
far 478 , . . feor, ler(re) flftis 122 , . fifty
faran 50, 129, 249, . fare 123
fare 488, 551, . . faran fifty 327, 538, . fIftig
farm 451, 478 fig ht(en) 280, 339, 506, . . feohtan
fa rthing 478 I figure 253
faeste 162, . . fast(e) II figure 471
fast(e) 366, 445, 449, 450, 492, 580, fill 471, . . fyllan
. . faeste film 453
fasten 510, . . faestnian finale 458
faestnian 141, . . fasten find 543, . . findan
faet 91, 2 88 findan 70, 131, . . find
fate 488 I finger 288
f a t h e r 16, 429, 445, 492, 512, . . II finger 471
faeder, fader fir 449, 497
fatigue 466 fir 243, 276 , 303, 376, . . fyr
fault 50 7, 523 firm 445, 497
fealdan 76, 131, . . fold first 2 76 , 328, 449, 450, 451, 497, 538,
fe a lla n 129, 132, 144, 249, . . . . fyr(e)st (a)
fall(en) fisc 2 49, . . fish
fear 488 fiscere 75, 92
feast 253 fiscoj) 75
feat 460, 461 fish 525, . . fisc
feden 271 fist 271, 303
feign 491, . . feyne(n) five 327, 538, . . f l f
fela 288 flaesc 97, 288
feld 98, . . field flask 492

399
f lean 133 fragile 461
fleet 551, . . fleotan frail 461
flee 551, . . fleon, flen fram 16 9, 202
flen 341, . . fleon, flee F r a n c n a la n d 79
60, 69, 340 frazil 453
fleon 133, 3 40 , . . flen, flee freca 84
fleotan 131, 249 , . . fleet freeze 54 3, . . freosan
f lexible 263 3
fre nan 172
flingen 346 fremman 22
, 55, 136
flood 500 F re n ch 51 0, . . F r e n ci sc
fior 98 F r e n c i s c 76, . . French
flow 551, . . flowan freodom 75
fIowan 131, . . flow 3
fr e o (e)an 142
flute 519 freond 75, 288, . . friend
f(e) 2 7 4 , 31 1, 525 fr eondlic 7 6, 163
folc 78, . . folk freo ndlice 162
folcisc 76 fr eond rS den 75
fold 5 5 1 , . . fealdan freo ndscipe 7 5, . . friendship
3
fol ian 51, . . folwen freosan 131, . . freeze
folk 2 7 7 , 507, . . folc frere 2 5 6 , . . fr i a r
folwen 29 3 , . . f o l ian 3 fresco 458
fon 5 8 , 62, 133, 145, . . fangen fret 4 8 9 , 551
fon to rice 409 friar 253, . . frere
food 481, 4 96, 605 friend 4 89 , . . freond
foot 496, 525, 605, . . fot friendship 253, . . freondscipe
for 169, 288, 351, 374, 376, 418, 419 3
F r i edae 79 3
for 50, 78, 94 fr U n a n 62 , 133
foran 169 fr i p 255
forbi_d 545 frofor 94
fordon 78 frost 496
fore 121 froth 496
forehead 521 fruit 276, 5 1 9 , 525
forget 549 fru s tra te 459
forleosan 50, 131, . . forlorn fuchsia 514
forlorn 552, . . forleosan 3
f u elere 75
form 449 fu lfilment 263
forma 123 full 16, 55, 76, 277, 501
forsoth e 371 fu lm inate 501
fo rtn igh t 526 fumble 605
for to 351, 40 1, 59 5, 600 funeral 26 3 ( 1)
fortune 516 fur 497
3
fo rty 538, . . feow erti , fourty furh 100
forbaem 221 fu rth er 497, . . furpra
forpaBmpe 170, 2 2 1, 374 furpra 121
, . . fore, further
forward (50 8 fy 3 75
forweorpan 78 fy lcian 250
Fosb ro oke 82 fyllan 55, . . fill
F o ssw a y 82 fyr 49, 91 ( 2), . . fir
fot 70, 87, 100, 103, 249, 2 77 , 306, fyr(e)st 121
, 2 88, . . fore
3 10, 3 11 , . . foot fy rest(a ) 123, . . forma
foul 2 93 , 480 fy rhtu 99
fount 29 7 fysan 139
four 3 27, 538 , . . feower fyxen 75
f ourte en 5 38, . . fe o w e rt le n e ,
f o u r ten e 3alan 131
f ourte n e 327, . . f e o w e rtle n e , galwe 2 93
fourteen game 272
fourth(e) 3 28, 37 6, 538, . . feorpa 3amen-wudu 84
3
fo urty 3 2 7 , . . fe o w e rti , forty gam m on 272
fox 75, 288 3an 149, . . g n , go, wendan

400
gard en 257 gild en 343
g a rter 256 3 i n 3 ra 121, . .
gasp 492 g ird en 343
3 a t 100 3 it 105
g a t h e r 512 g i v e ( n ) 2 5 1 , 2 8 3 , 3 4 1 , 4 2 9 , . .
gaunt 495 3iefa n , yiven
g a z e tte 466 g i v e an e a r 4 7 3
105, . . e o w e r , y e , y o u , y o u r g i v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g 4 73
5 1, 91, . . g iv e a ton gu e 473
76 g i v e b e n e f i t 47 3
2 4 9 g i v e c o u n t e n a n c e 473
t 53 g i v e d e ed 4 7 3
3 e b e o r s c i p e 75 g iv e m ourning d u ties 473
3 e f e o n 5 8 , 133 g iv e voice 473
3 e f e r a 78 glad 275, 323
3 e f r i 3 n a n 194 3 l a e d - m 6 d 79
3 e f y l c 78 g lan ce 598
5 e h w a 1 0 9 , 321 g l a s s 4 92
S e h w i l c 1 0 9 , 321 3 l e o 51
3e l e a f a 5 5 3le o -b e a m 84
3 e l e a f l e a s 76 3 l l d a n 13 1 , . . g l i d e
3e l l e f a n 5 5 , 6 9 g l i d e 5 5 1 , . . 3 l l d a n
3 e l i m p a n 131 g l i m p s e 511
3e m y n d 7 8 , . . m i n d glisten 510
3 e n e a h 14 8 , 3 5 2 3 1 f 103
genius 244 131, . . g n a w ( e n )
2 4, 9 1 , . . y o k e g n a r l e d 521
] 7 5 , . . y o u t h g n a s h 521
g e o m e try 470 g n a t 521
3 e o n d 202 g n a w ( e n ) 2 9 3 , 5 2 1 , 5 5 1 , . . -
6 9 , 7 0 , 12 1, , . y o u n g
3eo tan 131 g n o m i c 521
ihtlaecan 77 g n o s i s 521
3 3
esael i 163 g o 4 8 1 , 4 8 6 , 4 9 6 , 5 6 3 , 6 0 0 , . .
3 e s S l i 3 e 163 , w e n d a n , gpn
3 e s a e l i 3 l i c 163 go down 5 8 2
3 e s S l i 3 l i c e 163 g o on 5 8 2
3e s c e a f t 62 go up 5 8 2
3eseon 78 3 od 75
g e s s e n 3 4 6 , . . g u e s s 3 od 4 9 , 5 1 , 1 1 5 , 1 1 9 , 121, 2 4 9 , . .
get(en) 2 5 1 , 2 83, 339, 3 4 1 , 446, 489, god, good
543, 5 4 9 , 600, . . 3ietan g 5 d 2 7 7 , 3 2 2 , 3 2 5 , . . 3 od, g o o d
get c le a r 473 goddess 262, 263
3etrlew e 55 3o d l i c 76
3 e f )e o d e 5 5 , 6 4 3 o d n i s 75
3 e w e r i a n 13 9 3 o d s p e l l 82
3 e w l t a n 131 3o l d 7 6
g h a s tly 492 3o l d s m i 9 79
giao u r 467 gpn 2 7 4 , 3 5 3 , 4 9 6 , . . , g o ,
3 i e f a n 5 1 , 5 3 , 6 9 , 133, . . y i v e n , w end (en )
giv e(n) g o n d o la 458
3i(e)fu 69, 8 7 , 249 g o o d 4 9 6 , 6 0 7 , . . 3 od, god
3 i e l d a n 5 3 , 1 3 3 , 2 5 1 , 2 8 3 , . . g o o s e 5 2 5 , 5 2 6 , 6 0 5 , . . 30 s, go s
y e ld e n , yield 30 s 6 2 , 100, 103, . . g o s , g o o s e
3 i e l p a n 133 g o s 3 1 0 , . . 30 s, g o o s e
3 i e r n a n 1 3 9 , 2 5 1 , . . y e r n e n , 30 s l i n 3 75
yearn governen 253
3 iest 9 7 governm ent 253, 263
3 ie t a n 1 3 3 , . . g e t(e n ) 3 r a f a n 131, . . g r a v e 11
3 if 1 7 0 , 2 1 4 , 2 2 4 , . . if g r a ft 447

401
grand 495 I hand 49, 98, 103, 242, 310, 511, 598
g r a n d f a th e r 510 II hand 471
g ra n d m o th e r 510 handkerchief 510, 525
grasp 449, 450 , 492 handsome 510
grass 492 hangen 3 4 1 , . . hon
grau nte n 297, 403 hap ly 581
I g ra v e 481 happen 597
3
II g ra v e 551, . . rafan h app il y 581
great 502, . . g r^ t hard 376, 430, 580, . . hearde
Greenwich 508, 509 hark 478
139 harm 376
3 re o ta n 131 harness 253
grt 323, . . g reat h a rt 440, . . heort
3 re t a n 62, 136 harv est 255, 478
g r^ tly 367, . . g r t hasp 492
grey 293 h at 474, 490, 598
g ri m a c e 466 h at 75t . . ht
3 rim sian 77 h ata n 49, 129, 132, 147, 194, 249, cm.
3 rindan 131 . h^ten
49, 131, 172, 249, . . hatband 505
grip () hate 471
grip(en) 34 1, 551, . . haetu 75, . . heat
g ro an 491 hauk 289
g ro tesque 466 haunt 495
g r o t t o 458 have (n) 301, 342, 350, 446, 541, 565,
group 489 600, 605, . . habban
grow 491, 519, 543, . . 3 rowan hav e aqueyntau nce 409
3 rowan 131, . . grow have in mind 473
3 ru t 100 hav e offyce 409
guano 465 have respect 473
guess 447, . . gessen h a ve suffisaunce 409
3 uma 84, 99, 103 h a ve the hyer hond 409
- 84 h ave the thought 473
'-b il 84 he 105, 204, 31 4, 592
3 tif)-freca 84 head 472, 489, . . heafod, h|d
3 u ]}-r in c 84 heafod 91 , 249, . . hd, head
3 3
ajj-wi a 84 heal 481, 598, . . haelan
^ -w ine 84 9
heald an 131, . . h ld(en)
3 yden 75 healede 76
3 ylden 49, 76 heal 1 70
g y m n a siu m 515 hear 4 5 0 , 497, . . h ie ran, heren
hearde 162, . . hard
ha 587 h earp e 84
habban 49, 142, 146, 151, 155, 159, heart 440, 478, . . h e orte, herte
160, . . have(n) h earth 478, 525
had 75 h e a rty 600, . . herty
ha! ha! 375 h eat 600, . haetu
hal 55, 75, 76, 249, . . whole heath 489
haelan 49, 55, 139, . . heal II h e ado -li^end 84
halcyon 514 heado-rinc 84
hSlend 75 h eave 551, 553, . . hebban, hq-
haele 100, 103 ven II
half 253, 430, 495, 525, 598 heaven 272, . . heofon, h^ven I
h aliday 271 heawan 131, . . hew
h a l i 76 hebban 133, 142, 172, 2 4 9 , . .
haelu 75 h^ven II, heave
halve 495 hd 289, 430, . . heafod, head
ham m ock 465 heel 481
ham w eard 76 hei 293
han cm. have(n) height 453

402
heir 440 hlowan 131, . . low II
heir m a le 392 hly hhan, c m . hliehhan
helan 131 hlynnan 139
h e ll 508 hnutu 100 , . . nute
helm 91 ho 587
h e lm -b eren d 84 hocede 76
helpan 49, 129, 130, 144, . . hof 60, 91
help(en) 9
h ld(en) 278, 303, 339, 376, 54 3, 544,
he lp (en ) 339, 365, 551, . . he lp a n 54 6, . . healdan
hence 370, . . heonan hold opinioun 409
heo 105, 376 hold tongue 473
heofon 56, . . h^ven I, heaven hole 508
heonan 162, . . hence () 274, 449
heort 56, . . h art hon 58, 133, . . hangen
h e o rt e 52, 70, 99, 172, 249, . . honour 260, 445
herte, heart hood 496
her 315, 497, 530, . . heo, hire hook 496
her 162 hppe(n) 272, 550, . . hopian
here 92 hopian 140, . . hpe(n)
heren 271, 3 0 3 , 376 , 402, 403, . . hors 277, 311
h le ran, hear hpt 274, 449^ 450, 451, 496, 600, 607,
here-rinc 84 . . hat
h erian 139 hpten 402, . . h ata n
herself 319 hous(e) 243, 429, 474, 475, 481, 486,
h erte 280, . . heorte, heart 488, 598, . . hus
H ertfo r d 478 how 243, 244, 277, 433, 481
he rty 248, . . h e a r t y h rlnan 172
I h^ven 280, . . heofon , he a ven 3
h ri n 91, . . ring
II h^ven 341, . . hebban, heave hrissan 139
hew 553, 557 . . heawan 92, . . ridge
hi 31 4, . . hie hue 296
hiden 555, . . hydan hundaellefti 3 122
hider 162, . , hither 3
hundaellefti oda 123
hie 49, 56, 105, 250, . . hi 3 122
h u n d e a h ta t i , . . eigh ty
hTepan 139 3
h u n d e a h t a t i oda 123
hieran 19, 55, 69, 76, 136, 194, c m . 3
h un dn i o n t i3 122 , . . n in ty ,
. heren, hear nin ety
hle rsum 76 h u n d n i3 o n ti 3 o 9 a 123
high 293, 303, 366 hundred 122, 327, 538
hild 95 hundredth 538, . . hundteon-
h il d e - 84 ti3o5a
hil de- rinc 84 3 122
h u n d sio fo n ti , . . sev en ty
hill 276, 376, . . hyll 3
h u n d s i o fo n ti oda 123
h ilt 97
himself 319, 409
3
h u n d t e o n t i oda 123, . . hundredth
I hind 511
3 122
h u n d tw e lfti
II hind 273
35
h u n d tw e lfti o a 123
hunt 499
h in der 263, 273
hunto|j 75
h i n d r a n c e 263, 273, 464
hurt 445, 497, 559
hin g e 287
hus 49, . . hous(e)
hire 105, . . her, heo
his 105, 315, 530 . he husband 250
hit 105, 192, 314, 529, it h usb andry 262
hither 512, . . hider hwa 108, 109, 438, . . who
hitten 55 9 hwaer 78, 162, . . where
h la d a n 131, . . lade hwaet 108, 171, . . what
hlaford 249, . lprd hwaeper 78, 213, 214, . . whether
h lea p a n 131, . . lqpen, leap hweorfan 131
hlie h h a n 22, 49, 55, 133, . . hwider 162, . . whith er
laugh(en) hwil 162

403
hw ilc 108, 28 5, 438, . . w hich introduce 459
hw ilum 162 Inverness 83, 250
hw onan 162, . . w hen ce Inveru rie 83
h w o n n e 162, 170, 219, 374, . . in view of 60 6
w han, when irre 280
3
h y c (e)an 142 i rr it a te 459
hyd 97 Is 76
hydan 3 7 6 , . . hiden isi 76
hydrogen 467 islet 263
hydropsy 477 issue 514
hye 366, . . high it 192, 314, 529, 591 , . . hit
hyll 97, . . hill i t d 508
hym n 510 i t ll 508
h y r l i 75 its 530

jaguar 465
I 314, 591, 592, . . ic jejune 519
ic 105, 249, 285, . . I joint 299
idea 449 joy 243
ides 87, 94 jubilee 519
ieldest 121 , . . eald, eldest I judge 253
ieldra 57, 121, 278, . . eald, elder II judge 474
ieldu 75 jun io r 459
ierm|)u 55, . . e rm the just 583
iernan 63, 133, . . ru nnen, run ju stice 253
if 421, . . 3 if
i g n o ra n ce 263 keen 481
II 293 keep 473, . . ce p an, kepen
ilea 109 keep co m p a n y 473
I ll 508 Kenad re 83
ill 447 kepen 271, 277, . . , keep
illness 504 kerch ief 478
im age 253 kerven 339, . . ceorf an, carv e
impel 459 kessen 303
in 202, 372 kichen 285, 295, . . kitchen
in acco rd an ce w ith 585, 606 K ilbride 83
in ad dition to 585, 606 Kilbrook 83
in case ( th a t) 606 K illie m o re 83
incer 105, 106 K ilm a c o l m 83
incident 459 kiln 510
i nclude 459 kin 303, 376, . . cyn(n )
inclusion 459 king 511
incog 438 kin de rgarten 467
incur 459 king 2 43 , 253, . .
indeed 581, . . in, deed K in gussie 83
induce 459 K ir k b y 250
inferior 459 kitch en 82, . . kichen
inform 597 knave 521
i n i t i a t i v e 514 knead 489, 551, . . cnedan
inneweard 76 knee 521, . . cneow
1
I nnisf ai 83 knell 521
inn ocence 2 6 3 knight 248, 28 0, 3 92, 521
inough 2 94 , . . enough knit 521
in spite of 585 knout 467
insta nce 297 knw (en) 243, 274, 339, 376, 453,
instead of 585 491, 5 21 , 543, 546, 554, 557, 560,
i nsu la te 514 596, . . cnawan
i n tere stin g 522 kno wledge 509
i n te rio r 459 kolkhoz 468
intrig ue 466 kow tow 467

404
la 171, 5 8 7, . . lo l^nen 343
l a b o r a t o r y 522 lenger 324 , 367 . . lon g. 1
labour 2 5 4 , 445 1
121 1
, . .
lac 75 1 75
lacan 131, 132 lenient 459
l a s c c ( e ) a n 137, . . l a c c h e n , la tc h 1 131, . . lle(n) II
l a c c h e n 2 85 , 345, 3 4 7 , . . l e orn in 753
1 (), latc h 1 27 9, . . h le a p a n , leap
lack 597 lqren 376, . . laeran
laedan 138, . . lead lernen 343, . . learn
ladder 490 lesan 131
lade 5 5 1 , 553, . . h ladan lessee 263
lady 289 lest 489 , . . laes(sa), f a
laf 50 l^st 32 5, 36 8, . . 1i t e l , laSst
laefan 49, 139, . . lven l^t(en) 275, 402, 489 , 559, 572 , . .
lak(e) 485 laetan
lamb 102, 510 l e t t e r - c a r r i e r 447
1 npp l^ven 343, . . laefan
land 49, 70, 103, 242, 450, 511 libban 56, 142, 146, . . live(n)
la nd scape 510 lie 76, 91 ( 2)
lane 491 3
l i c (e)an 70, 133, . . lle(n) I
3
l a n sum 76 lief 243
L a n g t o ft 250 I lle(n) 2 93, 341, 491, . . ()
lan guag e 508 II lle(n) 293, 551, . . 1$
languid 50 8 llf(e) 91, 2 5 4 , 31 1, 525
lar 55 , 94 lift 447
laera n 19, 55, 139, . . l^ren I light 2 4 3 , 506
large 2 5 3 , 607 II light 555
lark e 271, 289 like 474, 481, 597
laes 96 lik ely 581
lass 492 lim 56, . . limb
laessa 121 , . . l y t e l , lasse, less lim b 510, . . lim
lasse 326, 368, . . l l t e l , laessa, less lln 76
last 492 L in co ln 82
laSst(a) 121, 2 71 , . . lyte l, l$st linen 76
laetan 131, 132, 194, . . l^t(en) liquor 508
la tch 5 50 , 558, . . laecc(e)an, less 489, . . laessa, lasse
lacchen lltel 3 0 3 , 325, 367, . . lytel
la th 492 l i t e r a t u r e 522
la th e r 492 llf> 250
l a u g h ( e n ) 341, 445, 5 0 6 , 551, . . 1 131, 138
hliehhan live(n) 244, 342, 4 3 3 , 4 7 4 , . . libban
l a u g h ter 506 L la n d a f f 83
law 250 L lan d o v ery 83
layen 287, . . 1 L la n du d no 83
I lead 489 10 375, 587, . . la
II lead 481, 48 9, 502, . . laedan I load 481
leaflet 263 11 load 474
leakage 263 l oath so m e 607
lean 133 lo c a te 459
leap 551, . . h le a p an, l^pen loc ian 376, . . look
learn 44 5, 478, 497, . . lernen lock 551, . . lucan, luken
learned 474 , . . learn lofian 141
leas 5 0 , 76 I 1 70, 75, 7 6, 121, . . long
1 5 5 , . . layen II 1 162, . . longe
5
I f 279 long 324, 53 6 , 607, . . 1 I
legible 263 longe 367, . . long
L e ic e ste r 82 longen 398
leisure 253 I look 496 .
lend 489, 511 II lo ok 4 7 1 , 4 9 6 , . . lo c i a n

405
lrd 289, 290, 376, . . hlaford lee 454
losen 343 I man, . . man(n)
loss 496 II man 352, 560, . . munan
lot 445 M anch est er 82
loud 243, 58 0 manger 495
louse 525, 526, 605, . . lus 5
m an i feald 76
love 243, 476, 499, . . lufu man(n) 4 9 , 87, 100, 2 7 4 , 306 , 310 ,
love(n) 244, 342, 471, 476, . . 3 11 , 5 2 5 , 5 2 6 , 605
lufian mannraeden 75
I low 244, 503 mansion 297
II low 551, . . hlowan many 273
l u b rica te 459 mar 4 78
lucan 49 , 133, . . luken, lock 121, 27 4 , 6 0 6 , . . m i c e l ,
luck 499 mqre
lufian 140, 146, 172, . . love(n) m arine 466
luflic 76, 163 m arria g e 263
lufu 94, . . love m S rs ia n 7 7 , 141
lug gage 263 m arvel 478
luken 341, . . lucan, lock m ascu line 492
luminous 519 mask 492
iunar 519 masquerad e 492
lund 453 I mass 8 2 , 492
lus 100 , . . louse II mass 492
lutan 133 mast 492
lute 519 maest(a) 121 , 606 , micel,
l u x u r i o u s 50 9, 515 m9st
l u x u r y 509, 514 m aste r 82
l y t e l 121, 24 9, . , l l t e l mastiff 492
l y t l e 166, . . l y t e l mawan 131, . . mow
l y t l i n 3 75 may 293, 56 0, . . , mo
wen
m achine 489 maybe 581
m acia n 49, 140, . . make(n) mayor 461
maed 9 6 , . . mead , meadow mead 272, 489, . . maed
57, 148, 177, . . mowen, meadow 2 7 2 , . . maed
may measure 515
magazine 466 meat 481, 502, . mete
m a d d en 62, 87, . . maid 84
]) 100 medicine 470, 477
3
mae ]jhad 75 medu 16, 98
mahogany 465 meet 481, 482, . m eta n
m a i d 491, . . m ae 3 den melodye 409
mail 253 (c o a t of mail) melt 55 1 , 552, . . m eltan
main 600 me lta n 131, . . melt
maize 465 mem ber 297
major 461 mend 5 U
make(n) 272, 291, 342, 402, 403, 427, mqnen 343
486, 491, . . macia n mennisc 76
make answer 473 I mention 297
make a v aun t 409 II men tion 471
make ch ere 409 me (o )lca n 52, 131, . . milk
make forward 409 m erch ant 478
make him selven wood 409 merciful 464
maken mel odye 409 mercy 478
make moan 473 mere 97
make p ro bation 473 merie 303, 376
make questions 473 m e t a n 49, 131, . , mete II
make songes 409 m eta n 79, 139, . . meet
make tenders 473 I mete 97, . . meat
make w aste 473 II mete 551, . . metan

406
mew 296 mot 148. 177, 352, 560, . . must
m e y n te n e n 403 mother 429, 500, 512, . . modor
m l 3 1 5 , . . ic, m in motion 471
micel 121, 249, 295, 606, . . m o tto 458
mu ch el, much m o u nta in 504
m ice le 166 mourn 551, . . murnan
m ice lh ea fd ed e 76 mouse 525, 526, 605, . mus
m icr oscope 467 mouth 598, . .
midde 24 mow 491, 5 5 3, . . mawan
middeweard 76 mowen 352, . . , may
midge 287 much 295, 36 8, . . m i c e l , mu
Mierce 97 chel
might 2 7 8, 3 10 muchel 285, 325, . . micel,
m ilch 510 much
m il it i a 514 mugwump 447
milk 551, . . m e(o )lc an munan 148, . . man II
mill 82, 510 munuc 261, . . monk
m iller 253 murderess 263
m i l l i o n 538, . . m i l l i o u n murnan 133, . . mourn
m i l l i o n t h 538 mus 49, 100, 310, . . mouse
millioun 327, . . million m u scle 510
m i n 105, 10 6 , 3 1 5 , . . ic , m i , m i n e m usi ci an 514
m i n d 3 7 6 , . . 3e m y n d must 560, 600, . mot
mine 530, . . min m u tto n 254
m in iatu re 466 mujj 62, 91, . . mouth
minor 459 myself 319
m in ster 460
mirth 497 nabban 146, 151
misdaed 78 nadde 350, . . naefde
m isllc ia n 78 naefde 146, 151 . . nadde
mist 76 naefne 224
3
m i s t i 76 naht 196, . n a w iht, naught,
I moan 473 not
II moan 481 , 491 naiv e 466
mob 438 nam 353
mod 76, . . mood nama 55, 70, 87, 99, . . name
3
m o d i 76 name 272, 3 06 , 307, 310, 481, . .
modor 70, 87, 9 0 , 101, 249. . nama
m other nan 111, 196, . . noon, none
moiety 253 naeni3 111
mona 99, . . moon naeron 151, . nqre
3
Monandae 79, . . Monday n a rra t e 459
m o n a rch y 470 narrow 475
m o n astery 460 naes 151, . . nas
mona 100 , . . moneth, month nas 353, . . naes
Monday 500, . . Monandae 3 nasty 492
moneth 3 1 1, . . monaJ>, month nat 151
monk 82, . . munuc nath 350, . . have(n)
month 500, . . monaf*, moneth n ation 514, 522
75 natu re 26 0, 29 6 , 516
mood 496, . . mod nauger 289, 289 ( 1)
moon 481, 486 , 488, . . mona naught 294, 598, nawiht,
moor 488 naht
mpre 274, 325, 367, 369, 536, 537, nawiht 196, 407, . . naht,
. m ara, m u ch cl, much noht, not, n aug ht, nought
mo rro w 475, . . morwen ne 196, 350, 353, 407
morwen 293, . . morrow neah 121 , . nigh
mosquito 458 nealaecan 77
9
m st 325, 368, 369, 503, 536, 537, nearra 121
. maest(a), much el, much nearu 96, 118

407
need 474, 597 N o t t in g h a m 521
needs 370 nought 407, . . n aw ih t, noht
Negro 458 noun 297, 481
n em n a n 55 now 244, 598, . . nu
n eota n 131 nu 49, 162, 186, . . now
neowe 70, . . new(e) numb 510, 553, . . n im an , nimen
nephew 5 23 nute 290, . . hnutu
n^re 3 5 3, . . nSron nylle 150
nerian 136 n yste 151
nestle 605
net 92 0 587
new(e) 322, 366, 449, 45 0 , 451, 51 9, oak 503, . . 2c
. . neowe obedient 459
newel 296 o bserv e 509
newt 289 ( 1) Occident 4 59, 511
nice 607 ocean 44 0, 5 1 4
nicknam e 2 8 9 ( 1) ofdune 64
nieten 91 of 169, 312, 316, 332, 509, 579, 584
niggard 263 ofer 169, 20 2, . . pver
nigh 2 9 3 , cm neah off 509, 582, . . of
night 243, 31 1, 433, 506, . . offence 297
niht ofost 55
3
n i on 122 , . . nln(e) ofslean 78
3
n i onteoda 123 oft 16 2, . . often
3
n i o n t!e n e 122 , . . n lntene, often 51 0 , . . oft
nin eteen ofteon 78
3
ni o|)a 123, . . ninth(e) oh 37 5, 585
niht 49, 57, 70, 100, . . night pld 278, 303, 324, 376, 536, 605,
niman 49, 133, 153, . . nimen, . . eald
numb on 20 2 , 335, 360, 372
3
si e nim an 409 pn 327, 329, 484, . . an, one
fri|) niman 409 on behalf of 606
nimen 341, . . n im a n , numb onbindan 78
nln(e) 327, 53 8 , . . n i on 3 once 508, . . anes
nineteen 53 8, . . n i o nt!ene, 3 ondraedan 78, 131, 172, . .
nfntene dr^den
nin ety 538, . . h un dn i o n t i , 3 3 ondswaru 94, . . answer I
nin ty one_508, 538, . . an, pn
nln tene 327, . . 3
n i o n t!e n e , onfon 78, 261
nineteen 3
on innan 6 4 , 131, 24 3, . . be-
nlnth (e) 3 28, 53 8, . . n i o|)a3 gin(nen)
n in ty 327, . . hundni o n t i , 3 3 onlucan 78
nin ety only 583, . . aenlic
nis 151, 353 ontynan 55
no 316, 491 or 411, . . ah w ae^er, ojjjje
noble 253 order 596
nobody 534 o rient 459, 511
noht 196, . . n a w i h t , n a h t, not o rn a m e n t 25 3
nolde 150 osi er 51 5
none 508, 534, . . nan , noon oth er 500, . . 60er
noon 321, . . nan, none 60 er 62, 123, . . other
N orm an 231 olptiaet 21 9
n o r ^ e w e a r d u m 64 o p p e 209, . . or
N o r ^ h y m b r e 97 ought 560, 597, . . , pwen
N orwich 508, 509 our 315, . . ure, we
nosu 98 ourself 319
not 407, . . n a w ih t, n a h t, noht out 243, 277, 372, 453, 582, 598
note 471 over 243, 289, 372, . . ofer
nothing 5 08 , 534 1 pwe(n) 352, 560, . . ,
notion 440 ought

408
II 9
wen 293, 352, . . ; piece 256
owe(n) I pig 254
owh 375 pigeon 455
oxa 249, . . ox(e) p ila ste r 492
o x(e ) 254, 311, 525, 526, 60 5, . . pitch en 286
ox a p la ce 253
O xenaford 79 pla in 491
ox ygen 467 p la n e 491
plant 495
pail 491 p la s t i c 492
p a in te r 253 plead 489
pale 491 ple asu re 253
palm 492, 5 0 7 ,5 9 8 plough 294
palsy 477 plumb 510
p am p as 465 p lu ral 519
pant 495 point 299, 471
parfit 301, . . p erfe c t poise 299
P a r i s ia n 515 poison 461
parson 478 p olice 4 6 6, 489
p a r t ia l 514 p o l i t i c a n 514
p a rtrid g e 509 p ollu te 459
pas 466 pooh 587
pass 449, 450, 492 pool 16
passage 492 poor 461
passenger 492 p op ulatio n 514
passion 522 pork 254
past 492, 598 p ort 449
pastu re 492 P o r ts m o u t h 82
path 14, 311, 445, 449, 492, 525, cm. position 256
. pae{) possess 509
p a tien ce 504 postm an 447, 510
p a ti e n t 459, 5 11 , 514 pot 445
paejj 91, . . path p o t a t o 465
pauper 461 potion 461
pavan 4 58 pound 511
p a v e m en t 447 power 48 8
paw 494 pray 253
peasa nt 511 p ra y e r 255
peninsula 514 preci si on 515
pension 514 pre clud e 459
people 296 present 260
pepper 82 presenten 260
percen 347 p re su m a b ly 581
perch ance 581 presu me 515
perfect 461, 478, 497, . . p a r f i t presu ppose 596
p e rfe c tly 478 p rin ce 253
perhaps 521, 581 princess 263
p erm it 459 p ro b a tio n 4 73
pers ecu te 45 9, 596 produce 4 59
person 478 p ro fita b le 326
peruse 519 p ro g ram m e 445
p e ti ti o n 471 progress 470
pew 296 pro lo gue 445
p heasan t 511 p ro m enade 489
phenomenon 505 proposal 263
philoso phy 470 pro secu te 459, 461
phthisi s 523 proven 403
physics 470 psalm 492
pick a n in n y 447 psy ch ology 445
pick en 286 pudding 501

409
p u ll 501 re a ctio n 470
p u l l e y 501 r e a d 4 8 9 , 5 0 2 , . . ra e d an , rq d e n
p u l m o n a r y 501 r e a d a b l e 2 6 3 , 464
pu lp 501 ready 273
p u l p i t 501 r e a f ia n 75
p u ls e 501 r e a l m 5 07
puma 465 r e a s o n 461
p u n i s h e n 347 r e c c ( e ) a n 2 2 , . . r e c c h e n , r e c k
pure 607 r e c c e le a s 76
purpose 504 r e c c h e n 2 8 5 , 3 4 5 , . . r e c c ( e ) a n ,
p u r s u e 461 reck
pu sh 501 rq(c)chen 285, 294, 345, . .
pu ss 501 raec(e)an, re a ch
p u t 50 1, 5 5 9 r e c e d 91
pu t up 5 8 2 r e c e i v e 4 8 1 , 4 8 2 , . . r e c e v e ( n )
r e c e v e ( n ) 261, . . r e c e iv e
quack 498 reck 550, 558, . . recc(e)an,
quad ran gle 498 recchen
quaff 498 re d 4 8 9
q uagm ire 498 re dden 35
q u a lify 498 r e d e m p t i o n 461
q u a lity 498 r q d e n 3 4 1 , . . raedan, r e a d
qualm 498 redynesse 248
q u an d ary 498 re ek 551, . . r e o c a n
q u a r a n tin e 466 refu sal 263
quarrel 498 re g im e n t 253
q u a r re lso m e 464 re in 293
q u arry 498 relief 243
q u a rte r 498 re lig io n 253
q u e e n 25 3 , . . c w e n re lu c ta n t 459
q u e e r 6 07 rem em ber 597
q u e l l e n 2 43, . . c w e l l a n r e m n a n t 504
qu estion 473, 516 r e n d ( e n ) 3 4 3 , 511
q u itte n 347 renegad e 458
q u o t h 55 3 , . . c w e j j a n rennen c m . runnen
renow n 297
rabbi 244 r e o c a n 172, . . r e e k
rS c(e)an 137, . . rq(c)chen, r e o f l a c 75
reach r e p e n ta n c e 263
rad 5 0 , . . rqd, r o a d reprim and 466
raedan 131, . . rq d e n , re a d re p ro d u c e 459
raeden 75 re p u b lic 470
r a e d i n 3 75 re sem b le(n ) 297, 509
r a d i u s 461 re so lv e 507
ragged 474 re sp le n d e n t 459
ranch 447 r e s p o n s ib le 607
r a i l l e r y 4 65 r e s t 4 7 1 , . . r e s t a n
R a l p h 4 95 r e s t a n 136, . . r e s t
ra n d o m 461 re s ta u r a n t 466
rant 495 resu m e 515
ra era n 138 return 504
rasp 492 r e v o lu t io n 514, 519
r a th e r 492 r i c e 92, 409
ra tio 461, 514 r i c h e s 2 8 9 ( 1)
r a t t l e 605 rid 559, . . rid d en _
r a v i n e 466 r l d a n 5 0 , 131, . . rTde (n)
r a w a n 131 r i d d e n 3 4 6 , . . rid
ra y 461 r l d e ( n ) 2 4 4 , 3 3 9 , 4 9 1 , 5 4 3 , 5 4 7 , . .
reach 550, 558, . ra e c( e )a n , r'ldan
rq(c)chen r i d e n d 103

4 10
ridge 287, . . sawol 94, 172
ridicule 466 say(en) 2 8 7, 3 4 2 , 4 8 6 , 503, . .
rle 293 sec3an
right 243, . . riht scan t 495
rig hteo us 516 scan ty 495
riht 70, . . right scarf 525
rinc 84 scate re n 286
ring 290, . . h r i n 3 sc (e)acan 4 9 , 5 3 , 1 3 1 , . . shake(n)
ringen 344 sc( e)ad an 131, 172, . shed(en)
rin glet 263 sceadu 96 , . . shadow, shade
rlsan 50, 138, 148, , . rise sceam u 94
rise 481, 543, . . rlsan sceaw ian 141, . . show
rive 553 sceld 6 9 , . . sheld
river 253, 261 sceort 5 3 , . . sh ort
riv u le t 458 sce o tan 131, . . shoot
road 491, 598, . . rad , rd sceOOan 133, 139
ro ast 253 s c i e p p a n 6 2 , 7 5 , 133, . . shape(n)
r o c k 449, 450, 451 _ sclnan 131, . . shlne(n)
rpd 274, . . rad, road s cln la c 75
roe 491 scip 6 1 , 8 7 , 9 1 , 103, . . ship
rood 496 sc reche n 286
roof 525 scr lfan 131, . . shrive
room 489, 496 scrift 82
rough 499, 506 scrud 100
round 297 scufan 133 , . . sh ouven, shove
route 489 sculan 5 3 , 148, 154, 161, 2 1 4 , c m .
row 491, . . rowan 11
. sha ( ), should
rowan, 131, . . row s$ 2 7 5 , . . s , sea
royal 25 3 se 107, 109, 112, 172, 2 1 5 , 2 1 6 , 606,
rude 519 . . Jje, the, th a t , she
rue(n) 296, 551 sea 4 8 2 , 4 8 6 , 502, . . s $ , s
rugged 474 se a ltan 131, . . salt
rule 519 searu 56, 93
run 605, . . iernan, runnen seat 502
r u n n e n 341, 346, . . i e r n a n , r u n S e a x e 97
rush 295 sec(e)an 6 2 , 137, . . s^ken,
Rus sia 514 seek II
ru stle 510 3
se c 8 4 , 8 7 , 95
ru th 296 3
sec an 2 2 , 5 1 , 6 2 , 142, 146, 153,
288, . . say(en)
sae 5 8 , 7 0 , 9 7 , . . s$, sea second 328, 538
sail 4 9 1 , . . seil se cu re 461
sailo r 600 sed 376
sa in t 253 see 446, 481, 482, 486, 554, 600, 605,
sale 491 . . seon, sen
salmon 525 I seek, cm. sek
salt 5 5 1 , . . se a lta n II seek 598, . . sec( e)an , ^ k e n
s a l u t e 519 seem 4 7 4 , 597
sa lv e 495 seethe 551, 552, . . seodan
same 321 seggen c m . say(en)
sa m o v a r 467 seize 4 8 1 , 482
sam ple 495 seil 2 9 3 , . . sail
sa n ction 471 se ilea 109
sand 70 sek 2 81, . . seoc, sick
sane 481 s^ken 2 4 3 , 2 8 5 , 2 8 6 , 3 4 5 , 5 5 0 , c m .
saraban d 458 . s e c(e )a n , seek H
Saternesdae 79 3 selest 121 3
, . . od
sau sage 496 self 105, 319
sawan 131, . . so w sellan 2 2 , 5 5 , 137, . sellen
sawe 2 93 sellen 2 4 8 , 3 4 5 , . . sellan

4 11
selra 121 3
, . . od shenden 343
selver 28 2, . . seolfor shep 3 1 1 , . . sheep
sen 2 7 8 , 3 4 1 , 4 0 2 , 4 0 3 , . . sh epherd 2 5 3 , 521
seon, see shepherdess 263
senc(e)an 138 sherry 458
sendan 55, 136, . . send(en) shlne(n) 2 8 6 , 4 7 4 , 4 9 6 , 5 4 3 , 544,
send(en) 3 4 3 , 5 9 7 , . . sendan 5 4 6 , . . sclnan
3
sen ean 49, . . singe(n) ship 24 3, 2 8 6 , . . scip
senior 459, 461 shirt 286
sennight 526 sho(e) 3 1 1 , 429
sense 297 shoem aker 253
sentence 253 shoot 543, . . sc e o tan
seo 107, . . se, she shop 447
seoc 2 49, . . sek, sick short 60 7 , . . sceort
seofon 56, 122, 2 8 8 , . . seven should 5 0 7 , 5 6 0 , 5 7 1 , 5 7 3 , . .
seofonfeald 76 scu la n , sh al(l)
seolfor 56, 2 8 8 , . . selver shouven 3 4 1 , . . scufan, shove
seolh 5 2 , 91 shove 551, . . scufan,
seon 5 2 , 5 8 , 6 9 , 133, 145, 153, 194, shouven
. . sen, see show 5 5 7 , . . sceaw ian
se odan 131, 249, . . se e th e shreken 286
s e p a ra t e 4 5 9 , 461 shriv e 82, . . scrlfan
serenad e 466 shut 559
se rgeant 478 sibb 7 6 , 95
sermon 253 s i b b rS d e n 75
se r v a n t 478 sibbsum 76
serve(n ) 2 6 1 , 497 slcan 131
se r v ice 429 sick 4 4 7 , 4 8 9 , . . seoc, sek
session 514 side 481
set 5 5 9 , . . s e t t a n sidewalk 447
se tt an 2 2 , 5 5 , 139, . . set siege 253
sef>e 11 2 , 2 1 5 , 216 siex 6 9 , 122, . . six
seven 2 8 0 , 3 2 7 , 5 38, . . seofon sie x ta 123, . s i x t e , sixth
seventeen 5 3 8 , . . sio fo n t le n e , siexteoda 123
seventen e 122
si e x tl e n e , . . s ixte n e, six
seventene 3 2 7 , . . siofont ene, 7 teen
seventeen siexti 3 122 , . . six ty
se venth (e ) 3 2 8 , 538, . . siofofja 35
s i e x t i o a 123
se v e nty 3 2 7 , 5 3 8 , . . hund- sife 97
siofo nti 3 3
si e 97, 409
sever 461 si kerly 3 7 1 , 388
sew(en) 557 sim p le 297
shade 2 7 2 , . . sceadu simply 583
shadow 2 7 2 , . . sceadu sin 106
shake(n) 2 8 3 , 339, 4 9 6 , 5 4 3 , 5 4 6 , sincan 131, 138
. . sc(e)acan since 3 7 0 , 5 8 6 , . . s i ^ a n
sh al(l) 2 43 , 2 8 3 , 2 8 6 , 3 5 2, 3 6 1 , 445, sincan 42 , 5 1 , 7 0 , 131, 172, .
5 6 0 , 6 0 5 , . . sc u la n , should sing(en)
shape(n) 3 4 1 , 5 5 1 , . . scieppan sing(en) 4 2 , 277, 339, 5 43, 547,
shater en 286 3
. . sin an
sh ave 5 5 1 , 553 singe(n) 61, 2 8 7 , . . se n (e)an3
she 3 1 4 , 3 7 6 , 4 9 7 , 5 9 2 , . . seo sinnan 131
shear 553 sinne 288, 3 7 6 , . . synn
sheath 489 siofonteoda 123
shed(en) 559, . . scead an siofontlene 122 , . . seventene,
sheep 2 5 4 , 5 2 5 , 5 2 6 , 6 0 5 , . . sev enteen
shep si ofo ^a 123, . . seventh(e)
sheld 3 0 3 , 3 7 6 , . . sceld sir 4 6 1 , 497
sh e ld e n 303 sister 2 5 0 , 2 5 1 , 3 1 1 , . . sweostor
s h e ll 508 slthe 293

412
si ttan 70, 133, 2 4 9 , . . sit(ten ) song 409
sit(ten ) 3 4 1 , 376, 430, 4 7 4, 543, soon 6 0 0 , . . sona
5 4 4 , 5 4 6 , 6 0 5 , . . s i tt a n soot 496
sijjjjan 2 1 9 , . . since soi *3
5 1 , 9 4 , . . sorrow
six 3 2 7 , 5 3 8 , . . siex 3
sor full 76
si xte 3 2 8 , . . s i e x t a , si x th sorrow 4 7 5 , 5 0 5 , . . so r 3
si x te n e 3 2 7, . . s i e x tlen e , s i x sorr y 496
teen so3 249
si xte en 5 3 8 , . . s i e x tl e n e , s i x sofjlice 167
tene soul 491
six th 5 3 8 , . . s i e x t a , six te sound 2 9 7 , 511
s i x ty 327, 5 3 8 , . . s i e x t i 3 soup 489
sk irt 286 S outhw ark 50 8
sky 25 0 so vie t 468
slaepan 6 9 , 131 , 17 2, . . slqp en, sow 5 5 3 , . . saw an
sleep span 551, . . sponnan
slaepleas 76 sp ark le 605
sla y 545, . . sl<jn, slean speak 134, 4 8 1 , 5 4 6 , 598, . .
slean 5 8 , 133, . . slqn, slay sp recan, spoken
sleep 16, 4 8 1 , 5 5 1 , . . slaepan, spear 502, . . spere
sl^pen speche 376
slqn 3 3 9 , 341, . . sl ean, slay special 366
sl^pen 2 7 5 , 3 4 1 , . . slaepan, sp e c ia l l y 3 66
sleep species 514
slidan 131 spoken 2 7 2 , 3 3 9 , 3 4 0 , . . sp r e
slingen 34 6 ca n , speak
slit 551, 5 5 9 , . . slita n sp ellen 343
sl lta n 131, . . slit spend(en) 3 4 3 , 511
slough 506 spere 9 7 , . . spear
slow 244, 503 spew 551
sluice 519 sp illen 347
slup an 133 spin 5 4 3 , 5 4 7 , . . sp in nan
sm a rt 551 spinnan 13 1 , . . spin
3
sm ea (e)an 142 sp in nestre 75
smear 502 sp it 545
smell 471 sp lit 559
sm ite 543 spoilen 347
sm ith 25 3
smpken 272 sponnan 131, . . span
s p o r e t ta n 77
snaw 93, . . snpw
sn l^ a n 129 spowan 131
3
S n o tin aham 79 spread 4 8 9 , . . sp re den
snw 2 4 4 , 2 7 4 , 503, . . snaw sp recan 4 9 , 131, . . spoken,
sp eak
sg 42 3, 600 , . . swa
social 5 14 spreden 5 5 9 , . . sp read
so cialism 470 3
spre n (e)an 138
soft 450 sp rig h tly 506
softe 6 2 , 165 3
s p rin an 131, 138
soften 510 s p ri te 5 06
soldier 517 sp urnan 133
sole 491 sputnik 4 68
solemn 510 sp y rian 139
squash 49 8
som(e) 2 4 3 , 32 1, 4 9 9 , 5 3 4 , . .
squaw 447
sum
so mebody 534 staff 525
something 534 st a n 4 9 , 7 6 , 9 1 , 2 4 9 , 3 7 6 , . .
sona 162, . . soon stn(e)
son(e) 4 2 , 2 4 3 , 2 7 7 , 2 8 4 , 3 0 5 , 4 9 9 , stand an 6 2 , 133, 249, . .
. sunu stan d (e n )

413
stand(en) 18, 3 4 1 , 430, 4 9 6, 5 4 4 , strew 557
5 4 6 , 6 0 5 , . . standan s t r i c t 461
stonden in g r a c e 409 strld an 131
st S n e n 76 st rike 4 8 4 , 544
s t S n i h t e 76 striv e n 347
staeppan, c m . steppan st ro n g 3 2 4 , . . stro n s
s t a r 478, . . ste o rr a , st e rr e 3
s t r o n 7 5 , 121
s ta rv e 4 7 8 , 551, . . steorf an , student 516
sterv en stum p 499
s t a tio n 454 s t y ri a n 136, 146, . . stiren
s t a tu e 516 su bw ay 447
s t a v e 525 su cco tas h 447
steal 5 4 3 , . . st elan, stolen such 2 8 5 , 2 95 , 3 2 1 , 5 3 4 , . .
stede 103 sw ilc
steep 488 suck 551
steer 488 suffre 403
stefn 62 sugar 514
s t e l a n 49, 129, 2 4 9 , . . s t o l e n , I suit 2 7 6 , 514
steal II suit 514
stolen 2 7 2 , 3 3 9 , . . s t e la n , steal su ite 466
stem n c m . stefn sulh 100
steorf an 7 0, 129, 130, . . s t e r sum 110 122 , , . som(e)
ven, s t a rv e sum or 98
steo rra 99, . . s terre, star sun 4 9 9 , . . sunne
step(en) 3 4 1 , 5 51 , . . steppan Sunnandae 793
st epp an 2 2 , 133, . . step(en) sunne 99 , . . sun
stern 478 sunu 2 4 , 42, 8 7 , 9 8 , 103, 2 4 9 , 305 ,
st e rr e 2 8 0, . . steo rra , sta r . . son(e)
sterv en 2 8 0 , . . st e o rfa n, starv e supan 133, 172
s t ic ia n 141, . . stic k s uperio r 459
st ic k 55 5 , 5 5 6 , . . s t ic ia n supper 253
stlen 2 93 , . . s t ^ a n sure 4 6 1 , 514
stiffen 35 su rely 581
3
s t l an 131, 172, . . stlen sustain 473
stin g 5 5 5 , 5 5 6 , . . st in an 3 su sta in a loss 473
stin sa n 131, . . sting s u th ern e 271
stir en 3 42 , . . sty ria n swa 162, 2 1 6 , 2 2 3 , 2 2 6 , . . sp
st ock 454 sw agger 498
st o ck-ho lder 454 I swallow 498
st o ck-ho u se 454 3
II sw allow 5 5 1 , . . sw el an
stpn(e) 2 7 4 , 28 4 , 3 0 6 , 3 07 , 3 1 0 , 311, swamp 498
4 49 , 4 7 5 , 5 0 3 , 5 9 8 , . . st a n swan 498
stop 449, 4 5 0, 4 5 1 , 474 sw art 498
store 447 swa jlaet 170
3
strae dan 172 swajiu 94
s t r a i g h t 550 , 5 88 sw ear 5 0 2 , . . s w erian, sworen
s t r a i t 461 sweat 489
stran g e 461 , 4 9 5, 510 swebban 22
straet 6 9 , . . street sw eets 44 7 , 454
S tr a tf o r d 82 swefan 131, 138
s t re a k 502 swelsan 131, . . swallow
stre a m le t 263 swell 5 5 1 , . . swellan
stre cc h en 2 8 5 , 34 5 , . . stre tch swellan 131, . . swell
stre et 8 2 , . . street sw eltan 131
3
s t r e dan 133 sw eostor 9 0 , 101, . . sister
strq m 279 sworen 3 4 1 , . . sw erian, swear
strenger 3 24 , . . s t re n ra 3 sw erian 133, 2 8 8 , . . sworen,
3
s t r e n ra 121 , . s t r o n 3 swear
3
st r e n u 75 sw ete 117
s t r e t c h 550, 558, . . s t r e c c h e n sweQOan 139

4 14
swice 118 th at 317, 320, 415, 420, 422, 509,
swilc 109, . . such 5 3 2 , 5 8 6 , 5 9 0 , 5 9 2 , . . s e , fj e
sw im m an 131 t h a t i l k e 3 2 1 , 53 4 , . . se il ea
swindan 131 t h e 5 0 9 , . . s e , |
swln(e) 3 1 1 , 52 5 , 605 t h e a t r e 445
swindan 131, 172 th e ir 25 0 , 31 5 , 376
sword 508 t h e m s e l v e s 3 19
sy n ch ro p h a so tro n 468 t h e n 4 2 9 , 5 0 9 , . . J j o n n e
synn 3 1 0, . . sinne t h e n c e 3 7 0 , . . Jlon an
synnfull 76 t h e n k e n 2 8 5 , 3 4 5 , . . O e n c (e ) a n
s y n t a x 505 t h e r e 1 9 2 , 4 1 7 , 5 0 9 , . . ]jaer
t h e r e a s 4 1 7 , . . jlaer
table 4 7 4 , 485 th ey 250, 314, 376, 592
taec(e)an 137, . . tqchen t h i e f 2 4 3 , . . t l e o f
t acen 91 th igh 293
tail 491 t h l n ( e ) 3 1 5 , 5 3 0 , . .
ta ilo r 253 t h i n g 311
take(n) 25 0 , 2 9 1, 3 4 6 , 4 4 6, 4 8 1 , 496, th in k (e n ) 285, 345, 414, 433, 550,
5 4 3 , 5 4 6 , 547 5 9 7 , . . 0 y n c ( e ) a n
take ca re and hede 409
th ird (e) 328, 538, . . "brid da
take ensaum ple 409
th irst 497
take no keep 409
t h i r t e e n 5 3 8 , . . Jln otlen e, thir-
take leave 473
tene
take note 473
take to heart 473 th irten e 32 7 , . . jjr io tle n e ,
take w ay 409 th irteen
tale 2 7 2 , 4 9 1 , . . talu t h i r t y 3 2 7 , 5 3 8 , . . f a l t i x
talk 4 9 3 , 4 9 4, 507 th is 243, 317, 5 0 9 , 532, 590, 592,
t a lk a tiv e 464 . . J) es
tall 49 3, 494 t h i t h e r 5 1 2 , . . Jjid er
talu 103, . . tale t h o g h 3 7 4 , . . t h o u g h
ta p ir 465 th ou 2 4 4 , 3 1 4 , 5 2 9 , 5 4 2 , 6 0 0 , . .
tar 478 fa
taun t 495 th o ug h 25 0 , 422, 445, 5 0 6 , 50 9 , cm .
ta xi 2 4 4 . thogh
I tear 502 t h o u s a n d 3 2 7 , 5 3 8 , . . jj u s e n d
II tear 5 0 2 , 5 4 3 , 5 4 6 , 5 5 5 , 5 56 , c m . th o u san d th 538
. teran thread 489
t ^ c h e n 2 4 3 , 2 8 5, 3 4 5 , 3 7 6 , . . th r e a t 489
taec(e)an th re a te n 489
tedious 517 t h r e ( e ) 16, 2 4 3 , 3 2 7 , 5 3 8 , . .
te le graph 467 fa ie
telephone 467 t h r e s h ( e n ) 3 4 1 , 5 5 1 , . . O ersc a n
tellan 2 2 , 5 5 , 1 2 0 , 137, 146, . . th ric e 370
tellen th r if tily 366
tellen 2 7 7 , 27 8 , 2 8 4 , 3 4 5 , 3 76 , 414 , th rifty 366
. . te llan t h r l v e ( n ) 3 4 6 , 5 53
temrnan 139 t h r o u g h 4 4 5 , 5 0 6 , . . j j u r h
tempest 297 th ro w 5 1 9 , 557
ten 16, 3 2 7, 5 3 8 , . . tlen th ru sh 295
tend 511 th ru s t(e n ) 559
tender 473 th u m b 510
tense 607 th y se lf 319
tenth(e) 3 2 8 , 5 3 8 , . . t e o f a t l e n 1 2 2 , . . te n
I teon 133 t i 3 ol 9 4 , . . t i l e
II teon 5 8, 6 2, 133 t i l e 2 9 3 , . . t i j o l
t e o ^ a 123, . ten th (e), tith e t l m a 2 4 9 , . . t i m e
t eran 7 0, 131, . . tear tim e 277, 481, 486, 488, . .
than 42 3 , . . o n n e tim a
tharf 3 5 2 , 5 60 . . Ourfan tire 488

4 15
tissue 514 tw elve 327, 538, . . twelf
t i t h e 328 ( 1) . . teoa tw elvem on th 526
Tiw esd $3 79 3
t w e n t i 122, . . twenty
to 169, 193, 202, 312, 331, 351, 398, twenti3o9a 123
3 99, 400, 401 tw en ty 327, 538, . . t w en ti 3
t 311 tw ice 370
t o b a cco 465 two 16, 327, 508, 538, . . twe3en
tobre can 78 t y r a n t 511
toft 250
to g e th e r 512
])a 162, 170, 186, 219, 374
tolerab le 2 63
tomb 510 ] ) r 162, 186, 192, 216, 220, . .
tool 481 there
tooth 525, 60 5, . . to]), toth ])<et, cm. se
torn ad o 458 fcaet(te) 170, 213, 214, 222, 223, 438,
toss 496 . . that
toteran 78 I ])e 317, . . se, the, that
toth 277, 310 , . . to]), tooth II ])e 112, 203, 215, 216, 438
to]) 100, . . toth, tooth
)ea h(])e) 170, 225, 250, 374
tough 499, 506
)aw 93
towar d(s) 508
town 277, 450, . . ta n ) 84
toy 299 )e3nian 261
t r a d it io n 461 denc(e)an 62, 137, . . thenken
t r a i t 466 )enden 219
tra n sp a ren t 459 )eo, cm. ])e
tread 489, . . t re d a n , tr^den )eod 55
tre aso n 461 )eof 75, . . thief
tre asu re 515
deon 58, 133
tr e a t m e n t 263
tred a n 129, . . tr^ d e n , tread deow 93
tr^den 340, . . tred a n, tread derscan 133, . . thresh(en)
tre o sa n 131 ])es 107, . . this
treo (w) 93, 249 3
d ic (e)an 139
t re o w 55, 75, cm. tru e ])ider 162, . . thith er
t re o w ]) 75, . . truth ])ief]) 75
trewe cm. true
] 105, 106, . . thin(e)
tro ub le 2 4 3 , 499
])onan 162, . . thence
tro ugh 2 9 4 , 506
tro u s sea u 466 ] ) onne 162, 170, 186, 219, 226, 374, cm.
t ro u t 5 2 5 , 526 . th a n , then
T r o u t b e c k 250 ]) 94
tru e 296, 322 , . . tre o w ]) () 142
t ru s t 596 I r e n e s 75, 82
t ru ste e 263 d reoteoda 123
t r u t h 29 6, 525 , . . treow ])
])rid da 63, 123, cm. third(e)
t ry m m a n 139
] ) n e 122, . . thre(e)
tfln 55 , . . town
tune 449 , 450, 451, 516, 519 drlefeald 76
t u n 3 e 7 0 , 8 7 , . . t u n g e ] )r!otIe n e 122, . . th irte n e , t h i r
tunge 3 0 6 , 307, 310, . . t u n e 3 teen
tu n 3 o l 91 Drlti 122, . . th irty
t u r f 100 ' i tt i 123
t u r n 449, 451 irowere 75
tw a n g 498 )0 105, . . thou
3
t w e en 122, . . tweien, two
)unresd ae 793
tw e ie n 327, . . tw e en, two3 durfan 148, . . tharf
twelf 122, . . twelve
tw elfta 123, . . twelfth ])urh 169, . through
twelfth 3 28 , 538, . . twelfta ])us 186

416
a s e n d 122, . . thousand vocal 461
dwean 58, 133 v o lca n o 458
] l s s ( e ) 222 vowel 461
9 y n c( e ) a n 137, . . th in k (en ) v o yage 267

w a 171, . . wo
udarnik 468 waecnan 133, . . wake
u m b re lla 458 w adan 131, . . wade
unb e arab le 263 w add y 454
uncer 105, 106 w ade 551, . . wadan
uncu)j 78 w aft 498
undaed 78 w ag 498
under 169 w ait(e n ) 257, 600
underfon 64 wake 544, 551, 55 3, . . waecnan
underground 447 W a l a s 76
u n d ern ea th 489, . . u n dernethe w alk 493, 494, 507
u n d er n eth e 373, . . un derneath w alk (e n ) 341, 47 1, 47 4, 551, . .
u n d e rstand able 263 w ealc an
u nd ervalu e 464 wall 82
universal 478 w altz 467
u n ive rsity 478 wand 498
unnan 148, . . an wander 498
unnen c m . an wanhal 78
up 168, 372, 582 w ant(e n) 346, 474, 550, 60 0
are 105, 106, . . our w an to n 498
useful 464, 607 w ar 253, 25 7, 478, 498
useless 464 w ard 498
usen 244 w arm 498
Usk 83 w a rn 498
usual 515 w arp 498, 551, . . weorpan
Qtan 169 w a rr a n t 498
W a r w i c k 498
w ascan 49, 63, 131, . . wash
v a c a t e 459 wash 474 , 498, 551, . . w ascan
vain 301 wasp 498
v ale 491 w aste 473
v alue 301, 430 w atch 427 , 451, 474, 498
v a lv e 495, 507 waeter 49, . . w ate r
vase 489 w a t e r 427, 451, 49 8, . . waeter
v ast 492 I w ax 498
v au lt 523 II w a x 49 8, 551
veal 254 w a y 491, . . wey
veil 491 w e 62, 105, 314, 592
v e lv e t 430 weaken 35
v engeaunce 301 w e a lc a n 131, . . w alk (en)
v erd ure 517 w eald 98
v e rily 581 9
w eald an 131, . . W ld(en)
v erm in 478 wealdend 75
v e rr a y 301 w ealh 103
verst 467 w ear 502, 555, 556, . . werian,
v ery 243 w<jren
vey ne 301 w eath er 5 12 , 521
via ge 267 w eav e 50 8, 55 3, . . wefan,
v ic e 301 w^ven
v ic io u s 514 web 5 0 8
v ic to r y 253 3
w e c 92 , . . wedge
v ic tu a ls 461 3
w ec (e)an 139
v il l a g e 504 wedge 61, . . w ec 3
v io lin 458 w e d la c 75
v ir tu e 301, 516 W ednesd ae 3 79, . . W ednesd ay

417
W ednesd ay 510, . . Wednesdae 3 wide 607
weep 551, . . wepan, wepen wier(e)st 121, 165, . . yfel, yfele,
wefan 131, 340, . . w^ven, weave werst
weigh 551 wiers(a) 121, 165, . . yfel, yfele,
weke 272 werse, worse
wel(l) 166, 368 w lf(e) 60, 87, 525
welawey 375 wifman 62, 87, 100, . . w om an
W e lisc 76 wiht 97, 196
w e ll 508 wild 59, 273,
w e ll-a -d a y 587 wilderness 273
wendan 139, . . wend(en) w illa n 150, 151, 154, 161, . .
wend(en) 343, 353, 563 ( 1), . will(en )
w endan, gpn wille 277
wennan 139 will(en) 354, 361, 362, 446, 564, 567,
w eorpan 131, . . warp 605, . . w illa n
weordan 49, 60, 129, 130, 160, 178, W in ch ester 82
249, 363 wind 24, 219, 273, 511
weordian 141 w in dan 131
w eorjiscipe 75 window 474, 505
wepan 55, 131, . . wepen , weep wine 82
wepen 339, 341, . . w epan, weep w in nan 131, . . win (nen)
w^ren 272, . . w erian, wear win(nen) 3 3 9 , 499, 543, 55 5, . .
w erian 139, . . w ^re n , wear winnan
werken 285, 345, . . w yrc(e )an , win-saed 79
work winter 98, 311
werse 325, 368, . . evil, ev ile, wis 249, 263, 271
w ie rs(a ), worse wisdom 75, 271
werst 325, 368, . . evil, ev ile, wish 504
wier(e)st wish(en) 398, . . wysc(e)an
wesan 131, 149, 151, 159, 160, 178, c m . wit 105
. beon, ben, be w ita 79, 99
W e stm in s te r 430 witan 62, 148, 151, . . wit(en)
WQven 340, . . wefan, weave
witch 521
wey 293, 409, 486, . . way
w ite 92, 103
whack 498
w hale 272
3
w i t e estre 75
wit(en) 352, 414, 560, . . witan
w han 374, 416, . . hw onne, when
w it e n a j e m o t 79
w h ar f 498, 525
w hat 318, 433, 533, . . hwaet w ith 334, 584, . . w i|)
when 429, 586, . . hwonne, whan w ith reference to 585
whence 370, . . hwonan w i]} 169, 312* . . with
where 417, . . h w r wizard 263
whereas 417, . . h w S r wlacu 118
whether 521, . . hwaejjer wloh 100
which 285, 320, 4 3 8 , 5 2 1 , 5 3 3 , . . wo 375, . . wa
hwilc wplden 376, . . weald an
whils t 511 wolf 501, 525
w histle 510 wom an 430, 525, 526, . . wifman
W h i t b y 250 wondrous 464
w h ith e r 512, . . hwider wood 409
who 318, 320, 4 3 8 , 4 8 4 , 508, 533, 591, woof 508
592, . . hwa wool 496, . . wulle
whole 449, 508, 598, . . hal wop 55
whom 533, . . who W o rce s te r 82, 430
whos(e) 318, 508, 533 word 87, 91, 91 ( 2), 497
why 318, . . hwaet work 254, 471, . . w yrc(e)a n ,
whyl 416 werken
wicked 474 work in thought 473
wid-cud 79 worm 497
w id e 162, 164 worpan 172

418
w o r s e 4 9 7 , . . b a d , w i e r s ( a ) , y e 24 3 , 314, 5 2 9 , . . , e o w e r,
w erse y o u , your
would 507, 5 6 4 , 571, 573, . . yearn 251, . . 3 iernan
w illa n , w ill(en ) y e l d e n 2 8 3 , 3 0 3 , 3 4 1 , . . 3 i e l d a n ,
I w ound 489 yield
II w o u n d 4 8 9 y e l l o w 5 05
wrae]) 75 ye lp e n 341, . . 3ielp an
w r a e u 75 yer 24 3 , 311, . . '
w r e a th 489 yet 243
w r e c a n 131, . . w r ^ k e n yeten, cm . get(en)
w re c ch e 285, . . w r e tc h yfel 12 1 , . * evil
w r q k e n 3 t 0 , . . w r e c a n yfele 166, . . evile
w r e o n 13 3 yield 2 5 1 , 5 5 1 , . . 3ieldan, yel
w r e t c h 5 2 1 , . . w r e c c h e den
w r e d d a n 139 y i t e n , cm. g e t ( e n )
w r l t a n 4 9 , 120, 129 , 144, 2 4 3 , . . y iv e n 251, 301, . . 3ie fa n , g iv e (n )
w rlte(n ) ym b 202
w r lte ( n ) 2 4 4 , 277, 339, 475, 521, 543, y o k e 16, . .
547, . . w n t a n yolk 507
w r i t e r e 75 yo u 2 4 4 , 5 2 9 , 5 4 2 , 5 9 1 , . . ,
w r i t h e 551 y o u ll 5 0 8
w r o n g 2 5 0 , 521 y o u n g 4 9 9 , . .
w udu 56, 98 your 315, . . , ow er,
w u lle 76, . . wool y o u ie n 315
w u n d r i a n 141 yours 315, . . ow er
w y l l e n 4 9 , 76 you rself 319
w y r c ( e ) a n 137, . . w e r k e n , w o r k yo u th 5 2 5 , . . ^
w y s c ( e ) a n 6 2 , 139, . . w i s h ( e n ) yd 95

yard 376 zoology 470


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