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2003
517(075.8)
1673-1
341

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/ . . -. , 2003. .2: -
. 88 .

1-
2- . -
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c
, 2003

c . ., 2003

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
. ; . -
. ; ; -
.
. , . -
.
7.2. (Analysis Situs) . . . . 11
; . -
; .
; ; -
;
. () -
. .
. .
.
7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
. -
; . -
. Rn . -
.
. .
7.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
; , -
.
.
. . -
, . -
. -
. -
(). .
GL(n); -
. :
,
.

3
7.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
; . -
, -
. .
. -
. . -
.
. Rn .
Rn .
8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
; ; .
. -
. .
,
.
8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
; .
.
. . -
. -
. ; -
. ; -
.
8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
. -
; . ; "-
". ; -
. .
. -
. ; -
-
. ; -
. ; -
.
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
. .
; -

4
. . -
, .
. .
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
9.1. C r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
C r ; . -
. C r - C r -;
. -
. (
). . -
(); . -
.
. -
.
9.2. Rn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
; .
, , -
. . -
-
. .
9.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
( ). -
; .
. -
. -
. , -
; . .
.
. -
: det; SL(n) SO(n)
; SL(n),
.
10. . . . 70
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
-
. . -
. -
. .
10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . 73

5
. -
. . -
.
10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
10.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
. .
. -
.
10.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
.
. ; .
. .
. -
. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

6


, --
.
, -
, :
1. -

.
2. , -
.
""
, .

, -
. 2001 -
,
.

-, -
-
. . .
. . ,
. . .
. .

7
7.
7.1.
, X ()
() %, x, y X -
%(x, y) R+ := [0, [ :
1. : %(x, y) = %(y, x).
2. : %(x, y) %(x, z) + %(z, y).
3. %(x, x) = 0.
4. : %(x, y) = 0 x = y.
() X
% : X X R+ , 1 3.
. 1. % : R R R+ ,
%(x, y) = |x y|, R.
.
2. % : Rn Rn R+ , %(x, y) =
 n  12
2
, Rn .
P
= |x y| = |xi yi |
i=1
-
Rn .
3. : R R R+ , (x, y) =
= | arctan x arctan y|,
. (arctan() := /2)
, (),
. ,
(X, %), X , % -
X.
, .
X -
, %X
%, .
S (X, %).
x, y S %S (x, y) = %(x, y).
%S : S S R+ S. -
(S, %S )
(X, %). , -
, .
-
, -
,

8
.
X1 , . . . , Xk -
X := X1 . . .Xk ,
x = (x1 , . . . , xk ) y = (y1 , . . . , yk )
 k 1/2
(%Xi (xi , yi ))2
P
%(x, y) := . , -
i=1
Rk X1 , . . . , Xk ,
Xi = R, i {1, . . . , k}.
, E k k,
x E kxk R+
.
N1. : k xk = || kxk x E
. {R, C} E.
N2. : kx + yk kxk + kyk
x, y E.
N3. : kxk = 0 R x = 0 E.
E
k k : E R+ , N 1, N 2, N 3.
. 1. E p
hx, yi, |x| := hx, xi E.
2. p [1, ]. x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) Rn
 n 1/p
|xi |p
P
|x|p := , p [1, [, |x| := max(|x1 |, . . . , |xn |). -
i=1
|x|p Lp - x. -
Lp - ;
.
. hx, yi |x|p |y|q , p1 + 1q = 1.
J
. p = 1 q = -
, ,
p, q ]1, [.
,
ab p1 ap + 1q bq , a, b R+ ( 4.1). ,
n   p  q 
hx, yi X xi yi X 1 xi 1 yi
= + =
|x|p |y|q i=1
|x|p |y|q i
p |x|p q |y|q

1 X p 1 X q 1 1
= xi + y = + = 1. I
p
p(|x|p ) i q(|x|q ) i i
q p q

9
. |x + y|p |x|p + |y|p
x, y Rn p [1, ] , , |x|p -
x Rn Rn .
J , , -
, p ]1, [, x, y -
.
p
q := p1 . p1 + 1q = 1 , ,
n
X X
(|x + y|p )p = (xi + yi )p = (xi + yi )(xi + yi )p1 ,
i=1

zi := (xi + yi )p1 , z := (z1 , . . . , zn ),


:
X
= (xi +yi )zi = hx, zi+hy, zi |x|p |z|q +|y|p |z|q = (|x|p +|y|p )|z|q =
X q 1/q
= (|x|p + |y|p ) (xi + yi )p1 =
X  p1
p
= (|x|p + |y|p ) (xi + yi )p = (|x|p + |y|p )(|x + y|p )p1 .
-
. I
. p [1, ] x Rn
|x| |x|p n1/p |x| .
,
Rn , . . k k k k0
c, c0 R,
kxk c0 kxk0 , kxk0 ckxk x Rn .

Rn . -
|x| := |x|2 , , -
.
-
E
| |, k k, .
, , -
. , -
(E, k k),
E , k k E.

10
,
.
E ,
| |E | |,
.
-
,
%(x, y) = kx yk. Rn -
,
, Rn .
E1 , . . . , El
E = E1 . . .El , -
 l 1/2
|xi |2Ei
P
x = (x1 , . . . , xl ) |x| = .
i=1
, Rl -
E1 , . . . , El ,
Ei = R i {1, . . . , l}.

7.2.
(Analysis Situs)
X .
p X > 0 :
O (p, X) := {x X : %(x, p) < } := - p,
B (p, X) := {x X : %(x, p) } := -
p.
() p -
() p.
. 1. - -
[a < b] R ?
2. R2 - 0 R2 -
Lp -, p {1, 2, }, = 1.
3. - -
R3 ?
4. - -
(R, )? R,
(x, y) = | arctan(x) arctan(y)|.
5. E
- , -
0 E.

11
U X p X,
U - .
p NX (p). -
U X X -
, .
. -
.

.
1. -
.
2.
.
3. , , -
.
4. -
.
5. -
U0 . . . Un . . . , -
V Un . -

. 1. p R,
R+ N (p)?
2. (x, y) := | arctan x arctan y|
( 0.1). -
-
.
.
1. X
X.
2. X
X.
3. X X
X -
X X.
"" .
, p X
S X, ( ) V

12
p S, . .
V N (p) V S 6= .
S
X S ClX S
S, , .
. 1. S
, . . S S.
2. N = ClR N. ClR ]a < b[= [a, b]. ClR Q = ClR R = R. ClR Q = R.
3. S T S T .
S X X,
, . .
ClX S.
. S -
X , X \ S
X.
.
1. X
X.
2. X -
X.
3. X X
. 1.
R R2 .
2. - -
.
3. () S X
() X.
.
() .
A S X
() S ,
() X B, A = B S. J I
S X X,
X, . . ClX S = X.
p X S X, S
p.
S IntX S.
p S S,
p/ ClX (S \ {p}).

13
S X X,
.
p X S,
U S, -
X \S. S
S X FrX S S.
O (p, X), B (p, X), NX , ClX , IntX , FrX , X
, , X
, ,
.
. 1. S X () X
, Fr S S (Fr s S = ).
2. Cl S Fr S X, Int S X.
3. Fr S = (Cl S) \ Int S = (Cl S) Cl(X \ S).
4. ClX S X ,
S; IntX S X , S.
?
5. Cl Cl = Cl; Int Int = Int .
6. Cl(A B) = Cl A Cl B. Int(A B) = (Int A) (Int B).
7. , Cl(A B) = (Cl A) (Cl B)
Int(A B) = (Int A) (Int B)?
8.
R.
9. . S -
X X ,
p X > 0 s S,
%(s, p) < .
10. Qn Rn
n
R .
Rn -
, ,
Cl, Fr, Int.
S
diam S := sup{%(x, y) | x, y S}. S -
, diam S < .
x X S X
%(x, S) := inf{%(x, s) | s S}. %(x, S)
x X :
%(x, S) %(x, z) + %(z, S).

14
, , -
, .
, -, ,
,
.
7.3.
X, Y, Z -
, E F
{R, C}, "" -
" ".
. 1. -
, xn -
X.
2. p X S X
, xn S,
xn p.
n
3. . S -
X , S
, X.
4. xn X X,
:
> 0 m N : k, l N (l k m %(xk , xl ) ).
,
,
.
5.
P xn -
X %(xn , xn+1 ) :
n
a) ;
b) -
.
6. -
. .
,
, . -
.
. Rk .
. S Rk
, .

15
. 1. -
,
( ).
2. ,
(E, | |) :
a) : n E
,
l
X
> 0 m N : k, l N (l k m n )


n=k

( );
b) : E
, (|n | n )n , ;
c) : uk . . . ul 0,
l
( j )
X X
un vn uk sup vn : j {k, . . . , l}
n=k n=k

vk , . . . , vl E;
d) : un -
, , -
vn E -
, un vn .
p S X.
, (x) x,
p S, ((x))xp|S , p -
V NX (p), (x)
x S V. S -
p. x p|S
(x).
. 1. (x)
x S, ((x))xp|S .
2. |x| 109 .
x0|R
3. ex > x100 . X
x|R
R.
f M X
Y.

16
, f (x) a Y x, -
p S, f (x) a,
xp|S
U N (a) (f (x) U )xp|S , . . U NY (a) V NX (p) :
: x S V f (x) U.
a f (x)
x, p S, lim f (x).
xp|S

x p|S f (x) a, lim


xp|S xp|S
((x))xp|S :
x p, , S = Dom f \ {p} S = Dom \ {p};
x % p, X = R, S =] , p [ Dom f S =] , p [ Dom ;
x & p, X = R, S =]p, [ Dom f S =]p, [ Dom .
, ex > x100 , lim sign x = 1.
x x%0
S = N,
n, k, i, j, x, n |N n .
.
f : MX Y
:
a) f (x) a Y ;
xp|S

b) > 0 > 0 x S %X (x, p) < %Y (f (x), a) < ;

c) %Y f (x), f (p) 0.
xp|S

f : Dom f Y, Dom f X.
. 1. -
,
.
.
2. . 2

 -
f (x) = o g(x) , f (x) = O g(x)
xp|S xp|S
f : Dom f E g : Dom g F.
, . 2, . -

f (x) g(x), f g .
xp|S
3. . -
: E- f g , f (x) a,
xp|S
g(x) b, f (x) + g(x) a + b.
xp|S xp|S

17
4. . -
-
: x p|S f (x) ,
g(x) , f (x)g(x) 0.
xp|S
5. . -
: - f E-
G , f (x) a , g(x) b E,
xp|S xp|S
f (x)g(x) ab.
xp|S
6. . -
: -
1
f , f (x) a 6= 0, f (x) a1 .
xp|S xp|S

7.4.
, f : X Y p X,
f (x) f (p). f : X Y ,
xp|X
p X.
.
f : X Y p X ,
f (p) Y -
p :
U NY (f (p)) f 1 (U ) NX (p) .


. 1. f : X Y -
.
2. id : X X .
3. S X.
g : S X, g(x) = x x S, .
S X.
/ . .
4. : -
f : X Y p X, X
U ,
f : U Y p.
5. X = A B. f : X Y -
p A B , f : A Y
f : B Y p. f : X Y
, f : A Y f : B Y
(: f (x) := max(0, sign x)).

18
.
f : X Y p X, g : Y Z
q = f (p), g f : X Z p.
. -
f, u, v : X R , f (x) [u(x), v(x)], u v -
p X v(p) = u(p), f
p.
.
f : X Y p X ,
> 0 > 0,
%X (x, p) < %Y (f (x), f (p)) < .
.
f = (f1 , . . . , fk ) : X Y = Y1 . . . Yk p X
, fi : X Yi
p.
. X = X1 . . . Xk
. i : X Xi ,
i (x1 , . . . , xk ) = xi , .
i- .
J i . I
Rn R i-
i- xi , yi ,
ti . , i- xi
p = (p1 , . . . , pn ) Rn pi , . . i- . -
, x = (x1 , . . . , xn )
Rn
(x(p) = p).
C i- Cn -
zi .
. 0. %(x, S) x S
x .
1. P (x1 , . . . , xn ) n ,
E, -
P : Rn E. , l : Rn E
.
2. E -
:
| |E : E R+ ;
+ : E E E,
+(x, y) := x + y;

19
: E E,
(, x) := x.
3. :
h , i : Rk Rk R;
: R3 R3 R3 ;
: Mk,l Ml,m Mk,m ;
det : Mn,n R.
Mn,k n k -
. a Mn,k
a1 , . . . , ak Rn . (n k)-
(Rn )k = Rnk .
.
f : X Y :
(a) f ;
(b) f 1 (V ) Y V
X;
(c) f 1 (S) Y S
X.
J (a) (b). U Y, f 1 (U ) -

.
(b) (c). Z Y, -
(Y \ Z) Y. (b) f 1 (Y \ Z)
X. f 1 (Y \ Z) = X \ f 1 (Z), f 1 (Z) X.
: (c) (b) (a). I
. , -
,
X, X.
. , -
,
,
X, X
J 0. M = {x X : i (x), i I} Mi = {x X : i (x)}, i I,
i (x) : iT I .
M = Mi .
iI
1. i (x) = (fi (x) < gi (x)), i {1, . . . , k}, fi , gi -
 X. Mi := {x X : i (x)} =
= {x X : h(x) := fi (x) gi (x) < 0} = h1 (] , 0[) X,
] , 0[ R. , M X,

20
Mi .
2. I , fi gi -
 X, i I.
i (x) = fi (x) gi (x) ,

Mi := {x X : i (x)} = {x X : h(x) := fi (x) gi (x) 0} =
= h1 (] , 0]) X, ] , 0] R.
i (x) = fi (x) = gi (x) ,

Mi := {x X : i (x)} = {x X : h(x) := fi (x) gi (x) = 0} =
= h1 {0} X, {0} R.


, M X,
Mi . I
. 1. n- S n := {z Rn+1 : |z| =
1} n- B n := {x Rn : |x| 1}
Rn+1 Rn , .
2. GL(n) n n- -
L(n) := Mn,n .
3. O(n) n n-
L(n).
f : X Y X -
Y , -
> 0 , %X (x, x0 ) < :
%Y f (x), f (x0 ) < ( -


).
. 1.
.
2. f (x) = x2 : R R ,
.
3. f : X Y , 
h : R+ R, h(t) 0 %Y f (x), f (z) h %X (x, z)
t&0
x, z X. -
f .
f X -
Y ,
c < , 
%Y f (x), f (z) c%X (x, z) x, z X.
c, -
, lip(f )

21
f.
a : E F -
a kak.
. 1. -
.

2. f (x) = x : R+ R+ ,
.
3. f T R,

lip(f ) = sup{|f 0 (t)| : t T }.



%Y f (x),f (z)
4. lip(f ) = sup{ %X (x,z) : x, z X, x 6= z}. -
,
.
5.
?
6. %(x, S) ,
S X, , S X.
, -
lip() .
.
: X X -
, . .
p X, p = (p).
J x0 - X, x1 := (x0 ), . . . ,
xn := (xn1 ), . . . c = lip().

%(xn , xn+1 ) = % (xn1 ), (xn ) c%(xn1 , xn ) . . . cn %(x0 , x1 ).




c < 1,
%(xn , xn+1 ) %(x1c
0 ,x1 )
P
< . , xn
n
. X , xn
p X.

(p) = lim (xn ) = lim xn+1 = lim xn = p. I


n n n

"". : R R,
(x) = x arctan x 2, , -
.

22
f : X Y
,
g : Y X, g f := idX , f g = idY . ,
, -
.
X Y -
, f : X Y .
. 1. f : T R
T, f : T f (T )
, f (T )
, T.
2. z : [0, 2[ S 1 , z(t) = eit ,
, -
1 C.
3. : ) , ) , )
R2 , ) R3 .
4. Rn Rn -
.
5.
:
a) f ;
b) f ;
c) f .
, X Y -
, - ,
, .
A ,
, X A , ,
Y , X, A .
, .
X ,
, . . p, q X
: [a, b] X, (a) = p
(b) = q.
. 1. -
, , -
.
2. X p q, -
q r, p r X ,
,

23
X .
3. Rn \ {0} S n1 n 2.
4. .
5. -
.
6. -
. ( -
L X
X,
.)
7.
, . -
.
8. -
, ? ,
R2 , .
. S Z -
Rn , Rn\S Rn\Z -
(
). , S k- ,
. S S n1 ,
(
).
. GL(n) -
: GL+ (n) := {x L(n) : det x > 0}
GL (n) := {x L(n) : det x < 0}.
J e1 , . . . , en Rn . -
e() ,
e1 , i- ei i > 1.

.
1) a GL(n) -
a0 , . . . , ak GL(n), a0 = a, ak = e(), ai
ai1 .
2) b a GL(n) ,
[a, b] GL(n).
3) 6= 0, [e(), e(sign )] GL(n).
4) a b GL(n),
sign det a = sign det b. I
(n n)- A

24
A1 , . . . , An Rn , GL(n)
Rn . a, b GL(n)
, -
GL(n)
.
. a b -
Rn ,
sign (det a) = sign(det b).
. 1.
. (
GL(n) O(n).)
2. U (n) (n n)- .

7.5.
, = (Ui X : i I)
S
S S, S Ui .
iI
, (
Ui ) X.
.
R .
J = (Ui : i I) T0 = [a, b].
S T0 -,
Ui1 , . . . , Uik , S. -
. -
, T0 .
, T0 . [a, c]
[c, b] (c = a+b 2 ) ,
. T1 -
T0 , . . . , Tn Tn1 , . . . .
, p,
. Ui ,
p. Ui ,
Tn 2n |b a|, n,
Tn Ui . , Tn .
I
. 1. -
.
2. , , ,
?

25
X ,
.
.
. -

.
J f : K R
K h := sup f (K). , h f (K).
, . y0 < y1 < . . . yn < . . . -
, h. n -
Un := {x K : f (x) < yn }. ,
U0 U1 . . . Un Un+1 . . . . , Un K -
. ,
x K Un , f (x) < h
yn , f (x) < yn .
, Un -
K Un , -
K. , f (x) < yn x K ,
yn sup f (K) = h !
. (
K?) I
. 1. R-
.
2. .
1. .
J Z K
(Ui Z : i I) . -
, i I
K Vi , Ui = Vi Z.
A := K \ Z Ai := Vi A. A K, Z
. , Ai K. (Ai : i I) -
K
Ai1 , . . . , Ain , K. Z Ai = Z Vi = Ui i I,
Ui1 , . . . , Uin Z. I
2. K -
H .
J p H \ K. x K -
Ux Vx x p -
. (Ux : x K) H -
K. , x1 , . . . , xn K,

26
K Uxi =: U. , V := Vxi -
i i
U, , , K. V
p, p
/ Cl K. I
3. .
J f : K X K,
(Ui : i I) f (K)
X.
(Vi := F 1 (Ui ) : i I) K
Vi1 , . . . , Vin . ,
Ui1 , . . . , Uin f (K). I
. -
K H, -
.
J g : H K f Z
K. Z (?),
g 1 (Z) = f (Z) H (?) (?).
g .
I
"". z : [0, 2[ S 1 , -
z(t) = eit , , .
. -
-
.
J f : K M > 0. f
,
  
x K (x) > 0 : y K %(y, x) < (x) % f (y), f (x) < . ()
2
x K U (x) := O(x)/2 (x).
(U (x) : x K)  K
:= U (x1 ), . . . , U (xn ) , K.
x, y K , %(y, x) < :=
:= min( (x21 ) , . . . , (x2n ) ). x U (xi ) -
(x2 i ) . , %(xi , x) < (x2 i ) , %(y, xi ) %(y, x) + %(x, xi ) <
< + (x2 i ) < (xi ).  () 
% f (y), f (x) % f (y), f (xi ) + % f (xi ), f (x) < 2 + 2 . I
(). -
, -
,
.

27
J . xn S -
x1 (S) := {n N : xn S}.
1. xn
K , . . p K,
U -
( x1 (U ) ).
/ , .
p K U (p), -
N (p) := x1 (U (p)) .
(U (p) : p K) K. ,
U (p1 ), . . . , U (pn ), K. , -
N (p1 ), . . . , N (pn ) ! .
2. p xn
M. ,
.
/ U0 . . . Un . . . p
Vn := x1 Un . k N Vk ,
, nk > k.
, k nk , xnk p, xnk Uk . .
. M ,
-
.
(a) > 0 M -
S. (S M - -,
- M.)
/ x0 M U0 = O (x0 ). U0 6= M,
- x1 M \ U0
U1 := U0 O (x1 ). . . . Uk 6= M, -
xk+1 M \ Uk Uk+1 := Uk O (xk+1 ) . . . . -
, xk ,
. -
.
, S = {x0 , . . . , xn },
- Un M. .
M.
(b) > 0, O (x),
x M, U .
/ , , -
, 1, 1/2, . . . , 1/n, . . . . , -
n > 0 xn , O1/n (xn ) -

28
.
xnk , -
p M. - U
. O2 (p) , U. xnk p,
1/nk , k, xnk O (p),
:= 1/nk < . , O (xnk ) O2 (p) U , . .
! .
> 0 . (a) -
p1 , . . . , pk M, - V1 , . . . , Vk
M. , Vi
Ui . I
. K L .
J X, Y , Z = X Y
zn = (xn , yn ) - Z. ,
xn xnk , -
p X, yn ynki ,
q Y.
xnki p, -
znki (p, q). I
Rk . S Rk
, -
.
J 2 -
2 .
. S -
Rn . , S
Q = [a, b]k .
, Q .
S Q Rk (?), S Q (?)
(?). I
. Rn .
J , 0| | Rn -
() | |.
e1 , . . . , en Rn .
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) Rn
0 0
! 12
0 0
X X X
2
|x| = xi ei |ei ||xi | c|x|, c = |ei | ,

. . -.

29
E Rn , -;
S := S n1 := {x E : |x| = 1} Rn , -
(n 1)- ; j : Rn E
(j(x) = x x Rn ); 0S := j(S) -
E, . . ,
, -: %(x, y) =0 |y x|.
j : Rn E , -
Rn . -
S Rn , -
. , 0| | :0 S R
:= . x 6= 0 Rn
0
x x |x|
S =0 S 0 = .
|x| |x| |x|
0
> 0 (?), |x| 1 |x| x Rn . I
. 0. Z0
. . . Zn . . . K .
( .)
1.
Rn n- .
2. E
[0, 1]. f E
kf k := sup{|f (t)| : t [0, 1]}. -
E .
. V -
, 0 V
.

8.

, "" -
" f : X E," X Rn , E
| |.

30
8.1.
, f : U E ( -
) p X ( ) v Rn ,
(t) := f (p + tv) t -
0 R. 0 (0) E -
f ( ) v p
v f (p). , v f (p) = lim f (p+tv)f
t
(p)
E.
t0
. 0. f v
p + tv ,
( ) := f (p + v) R t.
v f (p + tv) = 0 (t).
1. - f : T E, T R
p T, v = 1 R, v f (p) = f 0 (p).
2. f g, v
p, v p,

v (f + g) p = v f (p) + v g(p).

3. f g f g,
v p, v p,
v f g(p) = ( v f (p))g(p) + f (p) v g(p).
4. .
f = (f1 , . . . , fl ) : X E = E1 . . . El
v p ,
fi : X Ei v p.

v f (p) = v f1 (p), . . . , v fl (p) .
, f -
v, Dom v f . , -
x Dom v f v f (x),
v f f v.
e1 , e2 , . . . , en Rn . -
f i- ei i- -
f Di f.
Df := (D1 f, . . . , Dn f ) f -
f . Rk -
n k n ; i, j-
Df Dj fi .
f : XRn Rn .

31
Rn -
x1 , . . . , xn , Di f xfi , Df fx ,
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) .
.

f (x) f (x + te1 ) f (x) f (x1 + t, x2 , . . . ) f (x1 , x2 , . . . )


= lim = lim
x1 t0 t t0 t
, ,
f (x1 , . . . xn ) x1 , . . . xn ,
x = (x1 , . . . xn ), , , . . -
f (x) x1 .
. :
xy xy
= yxy1 , = xy ln x .
x y

.
A : Rn E Ahvi = a1 x1 +. . .+an xn , ai = Ahei i,
DA = A x = a := (a1 , . . . , an ), . . -

.
, p ( ) -
f X, f (x) f (p) x X (
f (x) > f (p) x X \ {p}).
, p ( ) -
f X,  p
U , f (x) f (p) f (x) > f (p) x X U \ {p}. -
, , -
.
-
.
( ).
p f X Rn
v f,
v f (p) = 0 E. , p
, E.
(). -
U Rn p
f, c, s R+ ,
x U |Di f (x)| c(|x p|1 )s

32
i {1, . . . , n}.
c c
x U |f (x) f (p)| (|x p|1 )s+1 ( n|x p|)s+1 .
s+1 s+1
J , p = 0 Rn .
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) U, p0 := p, p1 := p0 + x1 e1 , . . . ,
pn := pn1 + xn en = x, i (t) := f (pi1 + tei ).
[pi1 , pi ] U i {1, . . . , n},
Zxi Zxi
pi xi 0

f = i = i (t)dt = Di f (pi1 + tei )dt
pi1 0
0 0

Zxi Z|xi |
c|pi1 + tei |1 dt c (|pi1 |1 + t)s dt =
s

0 0
c c
(|pi1 |1 + |xi |)s+1 |pi1 |s+1 |pi |s+1 |pi1 |s+1
 
= 1 = 1 1 .
s+1 s+1
,
n p
x X i c s+1 s+1

f
pi1 s + 1 |pn |1 |p0 |1
f =
p
i=1
c c
= |x|s+1 = |x p|s+1
1 .I
s+1 1 s+1
. -
U Rn -
f , f U.
. x2 y f : R2 R,
x4 +y 2 x + y2 > 0
2
f (x, y) = ,
0 (x, y) = (0, 0)
R2 . ,
x y.
(0, 0).
1. U Rn
f c.
p q U ([p, q] U ),

|f (q) f (p)| c|q p|1 c n|q p|.
2. V Rn -
f , V f

33
.
3. L = {(x, y) R2 : x 0, y = 0} = ( )
U = R2 \ L. (x, y) U (1,0)
(x, y) (x, y) [, ].
a) .
. x > 0, (x, y) = arctan xy ; y > 0,
(x, y) = 2 arctan xy ; y < 0, (x, y) = 2 arctan xy .
b) U 0 := {(x, y) U :
x + y 2 > 1}, .
2

f
.
8.2.
, f : U E , U Rn
p U f D(p), :
1) U p (U NRn (p));
2) A : Rn E,
f (x) = f (p) + Ahx pi + (x), (x) = o(|x p|).
xp

A f
p df (p). df (p)
v df (p)hvi df (p)v. f -
,
Dom f.
1. f : Rn E -
, df (p) p Rn
Rn E.
2. A : Rn E ;
x Rn , . .
dA(x)v = Av v Rn .
3. :
f g p
f D(p), g D(p) df (p) = dg(p).
0 ( "o-"). : X E 
, p X. (x) = o (x p)k ,
xp
k N ,
(x) = (x)|x p|k , , p
.
J . I

34
. , , -
.
. f D(p), -
f v f (p) v Rn .

v1

n
X  .
v f (p) = df (p)v = Di f (p)vi = D1 f (p), . . . , Dn f (p) .. =
i=1 vn
= Df (p) v.
J 0, f
f (x) = f (p) + df (p)hx pi + (x)|x p|, ,
p .
v Rn

f (p + tv) f (p)
df (p)hvi = |v||(p + tv)| 0.
t xp
P P
, v f (p) = df (p)hvi = df (p)h vi ei i = vi df (p)hei i =
P P i i
= vi ei f (p) = vi Di f (p) = Df (p) v. I
i i
. : f D(p)
A1 , A2 f p, A1 = A2 .
. f D(p),

n
X f
df (p) = (p)dxi ,
i=1
xi
dx1 , . . . , dxn x1 , . . . , xn
Rn .
J i- xi xi : Rn R,
v = (v1 , . . . , vn ) Rn i- vi . -
( .1.2):
n
X n
X
v Rn df (p)v = Di f (p)vi = Di f (p)dxi (p)v,
i=1 i=1
n
P
. . df (p) Di f (p)dxi (p) . ,
i=1
dxi (p) : Rn R p
(p) . I

35
. -
U p -
f p, f D(p).
J P v = (v1 , . . . , vn ) Rn

x Dom f Ahvi := Di f (p)vi (x) := f (x) f (p)+Ahxpi .
i
> 0. Di (x) = Di f (x) Di f (p) i {1, . . . , n},
p -
. , U p,

/ n. -
8.1, |(x) (p)| |x p| x U. ,
= o |x p| . , A -
xp
f. I
.
 x2 y f : R2 R,
2 2
x +y >0
f (x, y) = x2 +y2 , -
0 (x, y) = (0, 0)
R2 . (0, 0) (?).
a = (a1 , . . . , an ), ai E
1/2
|ai |2 , v Rn -
P
|a| :=
i
|a v| |a||v|. -
A : Rn E |A| := |DA|. , |df (x)| = |Df (x)|.

 . f D(p),
f (x) f (p) = O |x p| .
xp

J > 0 f (x)f (p) = Df (p)(xp)+(x) Df (p)||xp|+|(x)
!
(x) 
Df (p) + |x p| Df (p) + |x p|. I
|x p| xp

. -
f = (f1 , . . . , fl ) : U E = E1 , . . . El
p , fi : U Ei
p. df (p) = df1 (p), . . . , dfl (p) .
J 0 -
. I
.
f, g : X E p, -
.
d(f + g)(p) = df (p) + dg(p), d(f + g)(p) = df (p) + dg(p).

36
.
f g f, g D(p) p

df g(p) = df (p)g(p) + f (p)dg(p), Df g(p) = Df (p)g(p) + f (p)Dg(p).



J f (x)g(x) = f (p) + df(p)hx pi + (x)|x p| g(p) + dg(p)hx  pi+
 
+(x)|x p| = f (p)g(p) + df (p)hx pi g(p) + f (p)dg(p)hx pi + (x),
 
(x) = { f (p) + df (p)hx pi (x) + (x) g(p) + dg(p)hx pi +
+(x)(x)|x p|}|x p|.
, - 
p , (x) = o |x p| . ,
xp
df (p)hvig(p) + f (p)dg(p)hvi
v Rn f g(x). -
v Rn 
Df g(p) v = df g(p)hvi = df (p)hvig(p) + f (p)dg(p)hvi = Df (p) v g(p)+
+f (p)Dg(p)v = Df (p)g(p) v+f (p)Dg(p)v = Df (p)g(p)+f (p)Dg(p)
v. , Df g(p) Df (p)g(p) + f (p)Dg(p) . I
(K).
f : XRn Rl p, -
g : YRl E q = f (p), 
g f p,  d(g f )(p) = dg f (p) df (p)
, , D(g f )(p) = Dg f (p) Df (p).
J 1. , Dom g f := X f 1 (Y ) N (p).
f g p q = f (p), -
X Y p q .
g q, ,
, f 1 (Y ) N (p). ,
X f 1 (Y ) p.
2. 0 , -
f (x) = f (p)Ahx pi + (x)|x p|,
g(y) = g(q) + Bhy qi + (y)|y q|, a = df (p), B = dg(q), (x), (y)
, p, q
.
 
g f (x) = g(q) + Bhf (x) qi + f (x)  |f (x) q| = g(f (p))+
+BhAhx pii + Bh(x)i|x  p| + f (x) |f  (x) f (p)| = g f (p)+
+B Ahx pi + B (x) |x p| + f (x) |f (x) f (p)|.
B A , ,
o-
|x p| x p.

37
 
3. B (x) |x p| = o |x p| , B (x) -
p .
4. f
p, 
f (x) f (p) = O |x p| .
xp

f (x) = o(1),
xp

f (x) |f (x) f (p)|k = o(|x p|k .



xp
 
, g f (x) g f (p) + B Ahx pi = o |x p| , . . d(g f )(p) =
= dg(q)df (p). v Rn
D(g f )(p) v = d(g f )(p)hvi =
= dg(q) df (p)hvi = dg(q)hdf (p)hvii = Dg(q) Df (p) v. ,
D(g f )(p) = Dg(q) Df (p). I

(). f : U V g : V U -
U V Rn f
p U. g
q = f (p) , ()
df (p) : Rn Rn ,
g q, V .

1 1
dg(q) = df g(q) Dg(q) = Df g(q) .
J g D(q), g q, V
. f g = idV , Df (g(q)) Dg(q) = 1 Mn,n
, , Dg(q) = (Df (g(q)))1 . -
dg(q) df (g(q)) .
A := df (p) B : Rn Rn A -
. f D(p), x U
f (x) = f (p)+Ahxpi+(x)|xp| xp = Bhf (x)f (p)iBh(x)i|xp|,
p .
, y V
g(y) g(q) = Bhy qi + (y)|g(y) g(q)|, (1)
(y) := Bh(g(y))i, , ,
|g(y) g(q)| |Bhy qi| + |(y)||g(y) g(q)|. (2)
q -
, W q, y W

38
|(y)| < 1. y (2)
|Bhy qi| |B| 
|g(y) g(q)| |y q| = O |y q| .
1 |(y)| 1 |(y)| xp

, (y)|g(y)g(q)| = o(|y q|).


xp
(1) B g
q. I
. 1. f D(p). :
) df (p) ;
) Df (p) ;
) () Df (p) ;
) det(Df (p)) 6= 0.
2. ( 7.4), -
g q ,
f : U V .
.
-. f : XRn R -
p, Rn ,

df (p)v = h, vi v Rn .
f p -
grad f (p) f (p).
n
.  R
grad f (p) = D1 f (p), . . . , Dn f (p) .
. 1. -
f p , -
p: Sh = {x Rn : f (x) = h}
h f, h = f (p),
grad f (p) x p x p|Sh .
2. -
f (p)
: u = |f (p)| , -
, v Rn -
| v f (p)| | u f (p)|.
J := grad f (p) c(a, b) :=
a, b Rn . , c(a, b) = 0, |a||b| = 0.
a) , 6= 0 6= x p. f D(p),
f (x) f (p) h, x pi = (x)|x p|,

39
p . -
, x Sh ,
h, x pi (x)
c(, x p) = = 0.
|||x p| || xp|Sh

b) | v f (p)| = |df (p)v| = |h, vi| || = h, ui = df (p)u = u f (p). I


w Rn ,
U : R,
grad U (x) = w(x) x X. -
w.
. 0. U (x) = c|x|1 : R3 \ {0} R
w(x) = c |x|x 3 ,
( ).
1. , , w
.
a) U w , ,

q m p q,
mU , , ,

p
. . x : [a, b]
, x(a) = p, x(b) = q.
b) w
.
w = (w1 , . . . , wn )
Rn , ,
x i, j {1 . . . , n}
Di wj (x) = Dj wi (x) ( 8.3, ). -
, -
w ( 12.3).

8.3.
8.3.1.
f p Rn , -
, f p,
f D 1 (p). k 2 , f -
k p, f D k (p), :
I. f -
p.
II. f k1
p.

40
f D k (p) k, , f -
p, f D (p).
f D 0 (p) .
. 1. D 1 (p) D 2 (p) . . . D (p) = k1 D k (p).
T

2. :
f = (f1 , . . . , fl ) : X E = E1 . . .El k
p X ,
fi : X Ei k p.
3. f : X E k 2 p Rn
f p,
( Df = (D1 f, . . . , Dn f ))
k 1 .
4. k
p k .
5. k k -
: f : XRm Rn g : YRn E -
k p X q = f (p) Y, g f D k (p).
6. f : U V g : V U -
Rn , f D k (p),
df (p) : Rn Rn .
g D k (q = f (p)).
5 6 ,
[7, 4.2].
. f -
p Rn ,

Di Djf (p) = Dj Dif (p) i, j {1, . . . , n}.

J , f
x y, p := (xp , yp ) = (0, 0), f (p) = 0 = f (p) x = f (p)
y .
g(x, y) :=
:= f (x + xp , y + yp ) f (p) + f (p)
x x + f (p) 
y y , -

(0, 0) , f p.
f (x, y) -
p = (0, 0),

f
x (x, y) = a1 x + b1 y + 1 (x, y),
f (1)
y (x, y) = a2 x + b2 y + 2 (x, y),

41
f f
a1 , b1 a2 , b2 x y
p 
p, i (x, y) = o x2 + y 2 , i {1, 2}.
(x,y)(0,0)
a2 = b1 .
> 0 U r p
0, U f |i (x, y)| < x2 + y 2
(x, y) U.
s > 0 , (0, 0), (s, 0),
(s, s) (0, s) U.
(1)
(s,0) (s,s) (0,s) (0,0)
0 = f + f + f + f =

(0,0) (s,0) (s,s) (0,s)
Z s Z s Z s Z s
f f f f
= (x, 0)dx + (s, y)dy (x, s)dx (0, y)dy =
0 x 0 y 0 x 0 y
2 2 2 2
s s s s
+ a2 s2 + b2 (a1 + b1 s2 + b2 )+
= a1
2 2 2 2
Z s Z s Z s Z s
+ 1 (x, 0)dx + 2 (s, y)dy 1 (x, s)dx 2 (0, y)dy.
0 0 0 0
, R
s Rs Rs Rs
|a2 b1 |s2 0 1 (x, 0)dx+ 0 2 (s, y)dy 0 1 (x, s)dx 0 2 (0, y)dy

Rs
4 0 s2 + s2 dx. , |a2 b1 | 8 > 0. I
2 2
y )
"". f (x, y) = xy(x 2 2
x2 +y 2 , x + y > 0,
f (0, 0) = 0. R2 f
; -
R2 \ {0} .
   

f 6= f . .

xy (0,0) yx (0,0)

?
. f D 2 (p), u v f (p) = v u f (p) =
= ui vj Di Dj f (p) u, v Rn .
P
i,j

v , f
v Rn v f (,
). ,
0v f := f, 1v f := v f, . . . kv f := k1
v v f, . . . .

42
, i {1, . . . n}, k N f
Dik f := kei f.
k > 0 f
Di1 (. . . (Dik f )) := (Di1 . . . Dik )f.
8.3.2.
n
= (1 , ..., n ) Nn . -

|| := 1 + ... + n := ;
! := 1 ! . . . n ! 1 !, . . . , n !;
D := D11 ... Dnn ;
x := x1 1 . . . xnn , x = (x1 , . . . , xn ). x = (x1 , . . . , xn )
, x . x = (x1 , . . . , xn )
Rn , x
. ||
x1 , . . . , xn .
.
f k p,
k -

Df (p) := D11 . . . Dnn )f |p = D11 . . . (Dnnf (p) ,


k.
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) -
Rn , n.
!
. D x = ()! x ,
- , D x = 0
. :
D x x=0Rn = !, .

. 1. .
A(x) = a x B(x) = b x (a = b Nn )
P P

, A(x) = B(x) x Rn , . . -
, A B, . (
, -
, , ,
.)
J D
0 Rn . I

43
"-
" " ".
2. .
X k!
(x1 + x2 + . . . + xn )k = Ck x , Ck = .
!
||=k

J D
|| = k. I
a D ,
P
3. D = (D1 , . . . , Dn ). A := A(D) :=
||m
, -

m.
,
a Df.
P
f n
||m
. 0.
0.
1. v = (v1 , . . . , vn ) Rn .
Pn
vi Di v -
i=1
, f (x)
Pn
vi Di f (x) = df (x)v = v f (x) ( 8.2).
i=1
2. D12 +. . .+Dn2 -
.
.
P -
a D B = b D -
P
(). A =

,
k l , f , -
(k + l) x,

(A B)f |x = A(Bf )|x .

J
X
a b D+ f,

(A B)f =
,

44

X XX X
A(Bf ) = a D (Bf ) = a b D (D f ) = a b D+ f. I
,

8.3.3.
f D k (p). kv f (p) v -
k- f p
dkf (p). v Rn -
dkf (p)hvi. , k- -
f p dkf (p) : Rn E,
D k (p) dkf (p)hvi = kv f (p).
.
f k x Rn ,
v = (v1 , . . . , vn )
X k!
dkf (x)hvi = Df (x)v
!
||=k

, ,
X k!
dkf (x) = Df (x)(dx) ,
!
||=k

dx = (dx1 , . . . , dxn ) -
Rn .
P n k
J dkf (x)hvi := kv f (x) =
P k! 
vi Di f |x = ! v D f |x .
i=1 ||=k

P k! dxi hvi = vi , -
dkf (x) ! (D
f (x))(dx)
v -
||=k
. , . I
. k- dk f (p) -
k .
, f p -
. f
p.
. f D 2 (p),
d f (p)hvi = Di Dj f (p)vi vj v Rn .
2
P
i,j
(hi,j := Di Dj f (p) : i, j {1, . . . n})
f p.

45
8.4.

P f D (p),
k
().
, , A(v) = a v
||k
k v = (v1 , ..., vn ) ,
f (x) = A(x p) + (x), (x) = o(|x p|k )
xp

( k f p).

a = D !
f (p)
.
J . A(v) B(v) , -
C(v) = A(v) B(v). C(v) = o(|v|k ).
xp
v Rn P (t) := C(tv), t R.
P (t) t k, P (t) = o(tk ),
t0
. . P (t) t. -
, P (t)
. C(v) = P (1) = 0
v. A = B ( 8.3).
P Df (p)
. g(x) := f (x) ! (x p) -
||k
k p, D g(p) = 0, || k.
> 0. || = k 1, D g D(p), D g(p) = 0
dD g(p) = 0. , D g(x) = o(|x p|). , -
xp
U p, |D g(x)|E |x p|1
x U k 1. ,
, k 2 x U -
|D g(x)| 2 |x p|21 .. |D0 g(x)|E k!

|x p|k1 x U. . .
k
g(x) = o(|x p| ). I
xp
A, , k- -
f p.
, -
:
X D k
X djf (p)hvi
A(v) = v = .
! j=0
j!
||k
j
d f (p)hxpi
j (x) := j! =
P Df (p)
= ! (x p) , j = {0, . . . }
||=j

46
f p. .
. f -
k [p, x] Rn ,
k1 Z0
X djf (p)hx pi dkf (x( ))hx pi
f (x) = d(1 )k ,
j=0
j! k!
1

x( ) = p + (x p).
J (t) := f (x(t)) v := x p. (t)
t k [0, 1]
( 5.3)
k1 Z0
X Dj (0)tj tk
(t) = Dk (t( ))d(1 )k , t( ) = 0 + (t 0) = t.
j=0
j! k!
1
()

D(t) = v f (p+tv) , Dj (t) =


= jv f (p+tv) := dj f (p+tv)hvi.
() t = 1, .
I
.
f k [p, x] Rn
k
S,
k1
X djf (p)hx pi
S |x p|k1 + .

f (x)

j=0
j! k!

, v := x p u := (|v1 |, . . . , |vn |.
J r
P R0 P u
v k
r = D f (x(t))d(1 t) ! S =


||=k !
1 ||=k
k
|vi | S = |v|k1 S. I
P
=
||=k

, f g  p k,
p f (x)g(x) = o |xp|k . ,
k p k-
k.
. 1. :
a) f (x, y, z) = x2 y 4 z 8 0 R3 ;

47
b) f (z) = z1 : C \ {0} C 1 C;
c) ez : C C p C?
2. f
p , f p.
3. k :
f g p k
g D k (p), f D k (p) dkf (p) = dk g(p)? (. [7], 4.3)
4. .
p f A, g
B k. h = f + g,
h A + B p k;
h = f g, h AB
p k. (. 4.3.)
. h = g f
f : XRn Rs A p X,
g : YRs E B q = f (p) Y
k, h B A p
k.
J k = 0, f g p q. ,
g f B A , p,
o- x p.
k 1. , -
f (x) = A(x) + (x)|x p|k ,
g(y) = B(y) + (y)|y q|k , ,
p q, , .
g f (x)) B(A(x) = B f (x) B A(x) + f (x) |f (x) f (p)|k .
   

,
o- |x p|k x p.
1. V 1 q. -
B, ,
, ,
V c R.
, y0 , y1 V
|B(y0 ) B(y1 )| c|y0 y1 |1 .
f A p,
U, x U f (x), A(x) V ,
,
|B f (x) B A(x) | c|f (x) A(x)|1 = c|(x)|1 |x p|k1 = o |x p|k ,
  
xp

48
= o(1).
xp
2. k 1, f
 p ,
, f (x) f (p) = O |x p| . (f (x)) = o(1),
xp xp

f (x) |f (x) f (p)|k = o |x p|k . I


 
xp

. f -
p ,

df (p)v = 0 v Rn . :
1. Hv := d2 f (p)hvi f p -
() , p
() f ;
2. v w, Hv > 0, Hw < 0,
p f.
J 2. v (t) := f (p + tv). D2 v (0) = 2v f (p) = Hv > 0.
{x = p + tv : t R}, p -
v, f
p. , p f. -
Hw < 0, p  .
1. , Hv > 0 v 6= 0. v
, p v
f p. , p
 f -
! (. ) .
S n1 , Hv , , -
, c := min(Hv : |v| = 1) > 0.
Hv c|v|2 v Rn , Hv 2.
:= f (x) (f (p) + 21 H(x p)).
= o(|x p|2 . , U
xp
p, |(x)| < c|x p|2 x U \ {p}. ,
x f (x) f (p) = H(x p) + (x) > c|x p|2 |(x)| > 0. I
P
. 1. Hv = hi,j vi vj -
, :
a) (, )
;
b) (hi,j ) ;
c) (hi,j ) .

49
. 1. ,
R2
, -
R2 \ {0}, (0,0).
/ (t) := exp (t2 1)1 , |t| < 1, (t) = 0, |t| 1.


: R R (?), -
] 1, 1[ .
2
Pk
  R ,
2 y2x2
y = kx . (x, y) := x2 , x 6= 0, (x, y) = 0,
x = 0.
1) U,
P1 P3 ;
2) P2 \ {(0, 0)} e1 ;
3) R2 \ U ;
4) R2 \ {(0, 0)};
5) ,
- f . 3 4,
v f , v R2 ..
2. f : R2 R, -
, ,
p = (0, 0) df (p) , -
, f -
, p,
, (0, 0)
. 
: f (x, y) = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 2e (x, y) ,
.

9.
9.1. C r
U Rm . ,
f : U E Rk U C r ,
U
f r .
X Y Rk Rl
. , f : X Y -
C r , f C r ,
f : U Rl C r , U Rk
. C r -.

50
C 0 , D0 f := f . -
C r r 1 r- r
. f C r r,
f f C .
. 1. C 0 D 1 C 1 D 2 . . . C = D .
2. f (x) = |x|7 , . .
sup{r : f C r }?
3. C r : -
f = (f1 , . . . , fl ) : X Rl C r
, fi : X R C r -.
4. , , C r -
r
C -.
5. f : U E C r1
, U
,
Df : U E n C r1 .
.
f : U V g : V U
Rn , f -
C r1 , df (x) : Rn Rn
x U . g C r .
J , -
, g q V
Dg(q) = (Df (g(q)))1 . z GL(n)
(z) := z 1 .

Dg = (Df g).
g : V U C 0 ; -
2
Df : U L(n) = Rn C r1 ;

: GL(n) GL(n) C (?). , Dg C 0 ,
g C 1 . ., , Dg C r1 g C r . I
f : X Y C r C r --
( C r ),
g : Y X C r , g f = idX , f g = idY .
C r r 1 C r ,
r- , r = 0, ,
.
, X Y C r -,

X =r Y , C r - f : X Y .
C

51
: X Y C r -,
: X (X) C r -.
. 1. ; , -
C r -; C r - C r --
.
2. : S T C r - C r -.
3. a : Rk Rn
C -.
4. C -.
5. C -.
.
6. ,
.


. f : T R -
T, f (T ) -
T , f : T f (T )
. J 3.2. I
. : K H -
K -
H. (K) H ,
: K (K) . J 7.5. I

. : U Rn -
U Rn
Rn , (U ) Rn ,
: U (U ) .
. 1. .
g : X Y X, Y Rn
X Y ,
.
2.  X Rk
IntRk X 6= , -
X Rl l < k.
3. X Rk Y Rn ,
k 6= n, .
4. , .. -
.

52
. U
E : U E -
, ( id) .
1. (U ) E.
2. : U (U ) 
.
J f (x) := (x) x f.
< 1.
1. , q (U )
-, (U ).
q (U ), p U ,
q = (p), B -, U, =
(1 ) r - - O q.
B x r = (x)
x = r f (x), ..
g = r f.
g . ,
g .
, g B . x B , ..
|x p| , |g(x) p| = |r f (x) p| = |r q + (p) f (x) p| =
|r q + p + f (p) f (x) p| |r q| + |f (p) f (x)| + = , . .
g(x) B .
B E ,
, . -
g : B B
(7.4).
2. x, y E :
) |(x) (y)| = |x y + f (x) f (y)| (1 + )|x y| , ,
;
) |x y| = |(x) f (x) ((y) f (y))| |(x) (y)| + |x y|,

1
|x y| |(x) (y)|,
1
, , : U (U ) , -
1
1 .I
.
(). : Rn
r- Rn , -
d(p) p .
p U , :

53
1) (U ) Rn ;
2) : U (U ) r- .
J , d(p) = id : Rn Rn . -
f = id r- ,
p . -
f p,
U, -
x det D(x) > 0, |Di f (x)|1 < 21 i {1, . . . , n}.
, |f (x) f (y)|1 21 |x y|1
x, y U, . . f : U Rn .
V := (U ) Rn ,
: U V .
-
C r -.
. A := d(p) B A -
. d(B ) p = B A = id , -
, p U,
V := B((U )) Rn , := B : U V
C r -. A C -,
(U ), A(V ), , : U (U ), -
C r - A , C r -. I
.
0. . : U Rn
r- Rn U
df (x) x U , -
(U ) Rn , : U (U )
r- .
1. (x) = x + x2 sin x2 , (0) = 0. : R R
, D(0) = 1. f : U f (U ) -
. ?
2. exp : C C ,
C .
2i- . exp- -
?
3. U := R] , [ R2 = C
, V := exp(U ). :
a) V := exp(U ) = C \ {z = x + iy : x 0, y = 0}
;
b) exp : U V C -. -

54
ln :

z = rei , < < , ln z = ln |z| + i;

c) ln : V C
C.

.
1. .
() C r X Rn C r -
= (1 , . . . , k ) : X Rk . 1 (x), . . . , k (x)
x X .
C r - : URk X Rn -
X.
u = (u1 , . . . , uk ) U (u).
. a) X -
Rn w1 , . . . , wk - , P -
X Rk , x = ti wi X
(t1 , . . . , tk ) ,
.
b) : R2+ R2 , (%, ) =
= (% cos , % sin ), R2 .
U R2+ X R2 \ {0} , -
: U X ,
X.
: U = {(%, ) : % > 0, ] , [}, X ="
"= R2 \ L, L := {(x, y) : x 0, y = 0}.
c) Sr2 := {(x, y, z) R3 | x2 + y 2 + z 2 = r2 }
r > 0 0 R3 . p : R2 Sr2 , -
p(, ) = (r cos cos , r cos sin , r sin ), -
Sr2 . U X
R2 Sr2 , p : U X
, -
X.
: X = {(x, y, z) Sr2 | y > 0} " -
", U = {(, ) R2 : ] /2, /2[, [0, [}.
p(, ).
?
2. . ,
p X Rn ( )

55
f = (f1 , . . . , fk ) : X Rk , , f -
p, ,
df (p) : Rn Rk (-
). "
Df (p) ".
. r- -
f = (f1 , . . . , fk ), Rn -
, p k < n,
g = (g1 , . . . , gnk ), := (f, g) : Rn
p.
J Df (p) k -
. , ,
. Rn
x1 , . . . , xk , y1 , . . . , yl x := (x1 , . . . , xk ),
y := (y1 , . . . , yl ).
gi (x, y) := yi , i {1, . . . , n k}, g := (g1 , . . . , gnk )
: Rn , (x, y) =
= (f (x, y), g(x, y)). -
:
 f f   f f


D := = xg yg = x y .
(x, y) x y
0 Ml,k 1 Ml,l

, det D(p) = det fx (p) 6= 0. I


. p
f : Rk Rn ,
f () - f (p), . . f ()
.
J k = n, .
k < n g = (g1 , . . . , gnk ) ,
:= (f, g) : Rn p.
U, V := (U )
Rn - (p).
: Rn Rk , (x, y) = x.
f = , f (U ) = ((U )) = (V ). ,
- -
((O (x, y)) = O (x)). I
. f : Rk
Rn , f () Rk .
3. . ,
X g f1 , . . . , fk ,

56
(y1 , . . . , yk ) : YRk R, -
x X g(x) = (f1 (x), . . . , fk (x)). ,
f1 , . . . , fk X,
.
.
f = (f1 , . . . , fk+1 ), -
Rn , p ,
-
.
J , . , (y1 , . . . , yk ) :
Y R, Y Rk , fk+1 (x) = f1 (x), . . . , fk (x)
x . , X
(f1 (x), . . . , fk (x), fk+1 (x)) , . .
f () . , -
f (p) ,
, . I
. f = (f1 , . . . , fk ) : X Rk (-
) X, g X
f.
4. . x = (x1 , . . . , xk )
y = (y1 , . . . , yl ) X = Rk
Y = Rl ; f (x, y) : Y r-
X Y M -
f (x, y) = 0 Y, z = (p, q) M ,
f
y (p, q) . z z :
1) Mz := M z r-
: U Y , X U ;
2) x U
 1  
f f
(x) = (x, (x)) (x, (x)) .
x y x

J 1) : X Y, ,
(x, y) = (x, f (x, y)).
 x x   
x y 1 0
f f = f f .
x y x y
 
f
, det D(x, y) = det (x, y) (x, y) ()
y

57
 
det D(z) = det fy (z) 6= 0. -
z = (p, q) z ,
:= (z ) X Y, : z
C r -. : z .
,
, . .
: X Y (x, y) = (x, h(x, y)),
h Y. , h C r , h
C r - .
U := {x X : (x, 0) }. x U
(x) = h(x, 0) , Mz = := ( ).
(x, y) Mz , . . f (x, y) = 0 (x, y) z . , (x, y) =
= x, f (x, y) = (x, 0) . , x U (x, y) = ((x, y)) =
= (x, 0) = (x, h(x, 0)) = (x, (x)) Mz .
(x, y) , . . (x, 0) y = (x) = h(x, 0). -
, (x, y) = (x, h(x, 0)) = (x, 0) z . , (x, f (x, y)) =
(x, y) = ((x, 0)) = (x, 0) f (x, y) = 0. ,
(x, y) z M = Mz . , Mz .
j : X X Y 0 (j(x) = (x, 0)),
U = j 1 (), = h j, j C , h C r , U X (
7.4), C r .
2) f (x, (x)) = 0 x U -
"f A ", A : U X Y -
, A(x)  = (x, (x)). f 8.2,
f 
x U D(f A)|x = Df A(x) DA(x) = x (A(x)) y (A(x))
  
1
  
f f
= x (A(x)) + y (A(x)) x (x) = 0.


x (x)
, fy (A(x))
x U.
: z -
, D(x, y)
(x, y) z ( 8.2). A(x) Mz z
x U, () x fy (A(x)) .
I

9.2. Rn
M Rn k- C r ,
p M M W
(W OM (p)), C r - -

58
Rk , Rk+ .
,
, k- k- . ( -
, , , -
.
. -
.) C r1 r-.
0. Rk
Rk+ k- C .
1. Rn

C . ?
2. Rn , , ,
. |x|
C 0 . T . ? (:
.)
3. , , , Rn -
C . -
R3 .
?
C 0 .
4. R3 , .
5. k-
k N.
6.
( ).
7. (-
), , -
.
.
8. R3
R6 ,
C . ( -
.)
9. k- C r -
, C r - Rk ,
Rk+ .
p k- M ,
M, U -
Rk . M
M M.

59
. 0. .
1. [a < b] = {a, b}.
2. k- Rn k--
C .
3. S k = .
4. (). -
M 0 M C r -
C r , M 0 = M 0 M.
5. (). -
: M X k- M C r C r --
, X k- C r , X = ( M ).
6. f C r - f : U Rl Rk
U k- C r - .
/ : (x) := (x, f (x)) : U f (x, y) := x : U
, C r , C , U k- C - -
. .
.

Rk+ = F := F rRk Rk+ = {x Rk : x1 = 0}.

J Rk+ \ F Rk+ , Rk ,
Rk+ F.
p F. , p / Rk+ , . . p -
W Rk+ ,
Rk . , W
Rk . , W Rk+ ,
p F . , p Rk+ . I
. k-
M C r (k1)- C r .
J p M, M W
C r - : W Rk+ . V := W M. -
V = W, -
V = Rk+ = F.
Cr
, F = Rk1 V M. I
C
, -
:

f1 (z) = . . . = fk (z) = 0; (I)

h(z) 0, f1 (z) = . . . = fk (z) = 0, (II)

60
h, f1 , . . . , fk r- , -
Rn .
p (I) , p
f = (f1 , . . . , fk ).
I . M
(I) (n k)- -
.
p (II) ,
h(p) > 0, , h(p) = 0. p -
, p
f = (f1 , . . . , fk ). p ,
p f = (h, f1 , . . . , fk ).
II . M
(II) (n k)- ,

h(z) = f1 (z) = = fk (z) = 0. (III)


-
: q := n k, X := Rq , x := (x1 , . . . , xq ) X, Y := Rk ,
y Y, E := {(x, y) X Y : y = 0} = X {0}, f := (f1 , . . . , fk ) :
Y, E+ := {(x, y) X Y : x1 0, y = 0}, F := {(x, y) X Y :
x1 = 0, y = 0} = E+ .
I II f (z) = 0 h(z) 0, f (z) = 0,
z , E E+
I II.
J I. S I p M. -
9.1, g,
q r- :=
(g, f ) : Rn p. -
det 0 (p) 6= 0.
U p, V := (U ) Rn ,
: U V r- .
: V U , S 0 := S U, E 0 :=
E V. ,
S 0 E 0 , . , S 0
= E 0 . : U V
Cr
,
x U. , S 0 = M U. ,
S 0 M , E 0 E , , E 0 C r -
Rq . I

61
J II. S II, T
p M .
1. , p , . . p M 0 := M 0 ,
0 := {z : h(z) > 0}. M 0 -
I,
0 , , I, p M 0 -
W, C r - Rq .
M 0 M, W M.
2. , p II, . .
p M T. 9.1, -
g r- ,
:= (h, g, f ) : X Y p.
det 0 (p) 6= 0.
U p, V := (U ) X Y,
: U V r- .
: V U , S 0 := S U, T 0 := T U.
, E 0 := E+ V, F 0 := F V.
,
S 0 , T 0 E 0 , F 0 , . E 0
q- E+ , , , E 0
q- C , F 0 = E 0 . S 0
q- C r -, T 0 = S 0 .
: U V -
, x U. , S 0 = M U
M. S 0 C r - V, V C r - -
Rq , , , p
M , C r -
Rq .
. 1 , M q- -
C r . , .1 , -
II M.
p T 0 = S 0 . 2 ,
M. I
I II
, , -
, .
. f = (f1 , . . . , fn ) : Rn
Rk p
, Df (p) .
p U,

62
f : U Rn , , ,
M:=f (U ) k- .
J Df (p) k -
. , ,
= (f1 , . . . , fk ) : Rk .
k k- D(p)
p U, V = (U ) -
Rk , : U V .
: V U : Rn Rk ,
(x1 , . . . , xk , . . . , xn ) = (x1 . . . , xk ).
u (u) = (f (u)), u U u = ((u)) = ((f (u))). ,
x M := f (U ) x = f (u), u U,
x = f (u) = f (((f (u)))) = f (((x))). , -
f : U M : M U .
I
. z : T =]0, 2[ C,
z(t) = cos t + 2i sin 2t, , C ,
Dz(t) 6= 0 t. o C 0 -,
z(T ) ("")
T.
. 1. k-
M Rn Rn , -
M
I II, n k .
2. Rn ( -
). F r (n 1)-
, n- . C 0
.

9.3.
. v Rn
M Rn p M
v Tp M , () : TR M
,
0 (t) (0)
p = (0), v = + (0) := lim .
t&0 t
( T 0 R -
: 0 Cl(T ]0, [).) Tp M -
M p

63
( ) M p,
Kp M := p + Tp M .
, , -
. -
-
. , , -
. ., .
. 1. 0 Rn -
M Rn p M.
2. ]p, q[ Rn
xn X, p X, v = q p -
X p.
3. v X p X
,
xn X \ {p}, p, v
xn p n |vvnn | |v|
v
.
n
4.
?
.
T1. Tp M
0 Rn . , Tp M -
Rn Tp M , -
0. (, p, -
{p + tv : t R+ } = p + R+ v, p, v Rn .)
T2. : p S M , Tp S Tp M .
T3. : U M M p,
Tp U = Tp M.
T4. M p,
Tp M = M p, Kp M = M.
J , p = 0 Rn .
1. , Tp M 0.
, v Tp M 0 v Tp M. v = 0,
. v (Tp M ) \ {0}, > 0 x : T M
, x(0) = 0, x0+ (0) = v. S := 1 T y : S M
, y(s) := x(s) s S.
y(s) x(s) x(s)
= = v
s s s s&0
y(0) = p, v Tp M.

64
. v Cl Tp M. -
v Tp M, -
n vn Tp M, |vn v| < 2n . xn :
Tn M , xn (0) = p, (xn )0+ (0) = vn .
T0 0, x0t(t) v0 ,
t&0
x0 (t0 ) 0
t0 T0 ]0, [, t0 v0 < 2 .

, T1
0,
x1 (t) t0 x1 (t1 )
v1 , t1 T1 ]0, 2 [, t1 v1 < 21 .


t t&0
,
tn , : tn ]0, tn1
xn (tn ) n
[, v < 2 .

2 tn n
x : T M , T := {0, t0 , . . . , tn , . . . },
x(0) = 0 = p, x(tn ) = xn (tn ). x(t
n)
tn v =


= xnt(tn n ) vn + vn v < 21n , x0+ (0) = v v Tp M.

2. .
3. , Tp M Tp (M U ). v Tp M x : T M
, x(0) = 0, x0+ (0) = v. x(t) 0,
t&0
> 0 : x(t) U t T 0 := T ]0, [. u : T 0 M
U , u(t) = x(t) t T 0 . , u(0) =
p, u0+ (0) = v. , v Tp (M U ).
4. M p = 0. , M Tp M.
. v Tp M x : T M
, x(0) = 0, x0+ (0) = v. -
v x(t)t , t > 0. x(t) M,
x(t)
M 0, t M. , v M, M
. I
X Rn , Y Rs : X Y
. d(p) :
Tp X T(p) Y p . -
: X Rs -
X X v Tp X
d(p)v := d(p)v.

. , . ., -, -
d(p) Tp X T(p) Y , -, -
.

65
J ,
(x) (p) = d(p)hx pi + (x), (x) = o(x p).
xp

v Tp X, w := d(p)hvi x : T X ,
x(0) = p, x0+ (0) = v. y : T Y
y(t) := (x(t)). y(0) = q := (p), y(t)y(0) t = (x(t))(x(0))
t =
(x(t))(x(0)) x(t)x(0) (x(t))
= t = d(p)h t i+ t d(p)hvi + 0 = w. -
t&0
0
, y+ (0) = w. w Tq Y, -
y , w := d(p)hvi
. I
. 1. -

: : X Y, X Rn , Y Rs , -
, p X d(p) :
Tp X T(p) Y
p : Rn Rs .
2. -
.
3. -
:

d( ) p = d((p)) d(p).

4. : X Y ,
d(p) : Tp X T(p) Y p X
.
. 1. , -
, .
2. U
Rk X Rn , u U
v Rk v (u) T(u) X, ,
Di (u) X (u).
. X Rn k- -
, -
v1 , . . . , vk Rn , X = {x =
P
ti vi : t1 0},
. . X Rk+ .
()
k- () k- -
()

66
.
M k- Rn .
1. p M \ M, Tp M k- -
Rn .
2. p M , Tp M k- -
Rn ,
M p: Tp M = Tp M
J p M, : U V
, U M p, V
Rk , Rk+ . q = (p) : V U
.
T 3. T 4.
1. p M \ M, V Rk . Tq V = Tq Rk = Rk .
d(p) : Tq V Tp U -
, Tp U k- Rn . ,
T 3.
Tp M = Tp U.
9.2
2. p M, V Rk+ . q V = V
T 3. T 3. T 4.
Rk+ . Tq V = Tq Rk+ .
, Tq V = Tq Rk+ =
Rk+ .
d(p) : Tq V Tp U
d(p) : Tq V Tp U , Tp U k-
Rn , Tp U . ,
Tp U = Tp M, Tp U = Tp M. I
.
1. .
S (I) 9.2
p S . -
Tp S

df1 (p)v = . . . = dfk (p)v = 0, v Rn , (T)
Kp S
df1 (p)hx pi = . . . = dfk (p)hx pi = 0, x Rn .
J V (T ). -
fi (S) = {0}, v Tp S dfi (p)v
Tfi (p) {0} = {0}. , Tp S V.
p (I),
(T) k , , V (n k)-
Rn . M

67
(I) (n k)- ,
Tp M (nk)- Rn . -
Tp M Tp S V, Tp M = Tp S = V.
-
. I
. S
(II) 9.2. , Tp S
Kp S , p
p .
2. , v, w Rn , vw,
hw, vi = 0. , w Rn
M Rn p M , wTp M , wv
v Tp M. (Tp M ) ,
M p, ().
. 1. (Tp M )
, M
k- Rn , (Tp M ) (nk)--
Rn .
2. M S Rn , (Tp M ) (Tp S)
. p - S,
(I) 9.2.
f1 (p), . . . , fk (p) S p, p
,
(Tp S) .
J fi (S) = {0}, v Tp S
dfi (p)v Tfi (p) {0} = {0} , , h fi (p), vi = dfi (p)v = 0, . .
fi (p) (Tp S) i {1, . . . , k}.
, p f1 , . . . , fk -
. , p (I).
M
S , Tp S = Tp (
T3). M (n k)- -
(Tp M ) k- , -
f1 (p), . . . , fk (p). I
3.
h , -
Rn .
. p -
h M ( -

68
x M ), h(p)Tp M, p M.
J , p M \ M -
h. Tp M , h(M )
Y := [h(p), [. , Z := dh(p)hTp M i Thp) Y = R+ . -
Z d1 -
R. , R+ -
, , , h h(p), vi =
dh(p)v = 0 v Tp M. I
-
. h x
(I) 9.2 ( S, I)
f1 , . . . , fk P , -
1 , . . . , k , h(x) = i fi (x).
J M (I).
p f1 , . . . , fk , p
M. p h
M. M (n k)- -
, (Tp M ) k- -
,
f1 (p), . . . , fk (p) ( ), h(p) (
). ,
. I

x, y, v
(n n)-, xij ij-
x, xi i- .
L(n) (n n)-
X X X
hx, yi := xij yij = hxi yi i = xi yi = tr(x y).
i,j i i

1. Dij det := xij det det :


L(n) R Dij det(x) = aij (x) := -
xij x. , -
det D det(x) = det(x) =
= a(x):= , -
d det x v L(n)
d det xhvi = h det(x), vi = tr((a(x)) v).
/ (ei : i {1, . . . , n}) Rn , (eij : i, j

69
{1, . . . , n}) L(n) ( eij , -
(ij)- , ).
1
Dij det x = lim (det(x + teij ) det x) = det(. . . , xj1 , ei , xj+1 , . . . ) =:
t0 t

=: aij (x).
.
2. x
det .
3. := SL(n) := {x L(n) :
det x = 1} (n2 1)- . -
T1 1
.
4. O(n) -
. ? -
T1 O(n) 1 O(n) -
.
/ O(n) := {x L(n) : x x = 1 L(n)}. S -
f : L(n) S , -
f (x) = x x. df (x)v = x v + v x,
f (x+v)(x x+x v +v x) = v v = o(v). x v +v x = s
v0
x O(n) s S (, v = x2 s), . .
df (x) : L(n) S . ,
f (x) = 1 S O(n) (n2 k)-
, k S. -
, T1 O(n) 1 = df (1)v = v + v. .
5. x , 0 L(n),
SO(n) := {x : x x = 1, det x = 1}.
/
h(x) = |x|2 = hx, xi ( det x =
= 1). x ,
h(x) = 2 det x. h(x) = 2x, x = det x = a(x) =
= (x1 ) det x. det x = 1, n = 1 , , x x =
= 1 L(n). x x = 1 ,
x x . , x SO(n).
L(n)
2
= Rn ,
( -
). x SO(n)
|x|2 = tr(x x) = n, . .

70
10.
"" "
f : X E", X Rs , E
| | {R, C}.
:
fn (x) -
f (x) S
(fn (x) f (x) x S),
n
:
1) lim fn (x) lim f (x);
xp|S n xp|S
2) Dfn (x) Df (x);
R n R
3) S fn (x) dx S f (x)dx .
n
, .
1. fn (x) = arctan nx. fn (x) 2 sign x . -

n
1 2. fn ,
f .
2. fn (x) = n1 arctan nx. fn (x) 0 x R.
Dfn (0) = 1 n > 0. 2.
3. (" ".) fn (x) = n sin nx
x [0, /n] fn (x) = 0 x / [0, /n]. fn (x) 0
R 2
x R. 0 fn (x) dx = 2
n N 3.
10.1.
,
fn (x) S f (x)
n ,
> 0 x S m N : n m |f (x) fn (x)| .
, fn (x) -
f (x) x S ( S) n ,
> 0 m N : n m x S |f (x) fn (x)| .
f -
fn fn (x) f (x), -
n|xS,
n , x S x ,
.

71
,
( 1 3).
, n ()

Pk S,
k = n=1 n S .
n .
. -
fn S
,
:

> 0 m N : k, l mx S |fk (x) fl (x)| .

J fn f > 0. , m,
|f (x)fn (x)| 2 x S n m. x
k, l m |fk (x) fl (x)| |fk (x) f (x)| + |f (x) fl (x)|
2 + 2 .
. x S -
fn (x) E .
E , f (x) E. ,
fn f. > 0 m ,
k, l m x S |fk (x) fl (x)| . l ,
|fk (x) f (x)| k m x S. I
F (X, E)
E- , X,
f F (X, E) kf k := sup{|f (x)| : x X}. kf k
- f, kf gk
f g.
F (X, E) -
-.
, -
.
.
.
F := F (X, E).
0. -.
kf k = ||kf k. kf k [0, ].
kf + gk kf k + kgk. kf k = 0 f (x) = 0 F (X, E).

1. fn f kf fn k 0.

72
2. -

> 0 m N : k, l mkfk fl k .
. F (X, E) ( -
).
3. :
n ,
l
X
> 0 m N : k, l m k n k .
k

4. .

( F (X, E).)
, ,
: n F (X, E) -
%n R, kn k %n P n N,
n X. , kn k < ,
.
5. .
X un (x),
, , -
vn (x) , un (x)vn (x) -
X. (: .)
. -
K, ,
, K.
J > 0, gn := f fn Un := {x K : gn < }.
gn , Un -
K. (?) gn , ,
, Un , , -
K. ,
Un1 . . . Unj , K. , Unj -
K, . .
> gnj (x) gn (x) = f (x) fn (x) 0 n nnj x K. I
"
".
10.2.

73
. -
fn F (S, E) ,
1) fn (x) g(x);
n|xS
2) n N fn (x) zn (p Cl S
xp|S
S).
E z,
lim zn = z = lim g(x).
n xp

z = lim lim fn (x) = lim lim fn (x).


xp n n xp

J > 0. 1 ,
m, x S k, l m
|fk (x) fl (x)| . x p|S
|zk zl | . , zn E
E z = lim zn .
n
fn g, zn z, i,

|zi z| 3 , |g(x) fi (x)| 3 x S.


fi (x) zi , p U,
xp|S
|fi (x) zi | 3 x U S. ,

|g(x) z| |g(x) fi (x)| + |fi (x) zi | + |zi z| .

, g(x) z. I
xp|S
1. -
: fn : X E
p X f , f -
p X.
2.
.
3. C(X, E) E-
X, -, .
.
[a < b] -

74
fn f ,
Zx Z x
fn (t) dt f (t) dt.
x[a,b] a
a

J > 0 m ,

|f (t) fn (t)| n m t [a, b].
|b a|
R

x x
Z Zx Z Zx

f (t)dt fn (x)dt = (f (t) fn (x))dt
dt





|b a|
a a a a

n m x [a < b]. I
-
:
(" ".) -
fn (x) := D arctan nx = n2 +x
n
2
R
[, ], fn (t)dt = n N.

. f0 , . . . , fn , . . .

X Rs , :
1) Dfn X
g;
2) p X, fn (p)
E.
X fn
f, Df (x) = g(x) x X.
J , X .
k, l N fk,l := fk fl ,
sk,l := kDfk Dfl k = kDfk,l k, = 1 + diam X.
a) , x, y X
|fk,l (x) fk,l (y)| sk,l |x y|.
b) , > 0
m , k, l > m

sk,l 2 |fk,l (p)| 2 .

75
c) k, l > m x X a) b)


|fk,l (x)| = |fk,l (x) fk,l (p) + fk,l (p)| sk,l |x p| + sk,l + + .
2 2 2 2
, X fn -
-
f.
d) q X.
fn q, fn (x) =
= fn (q) + Dfn (q) (x q) + n (x)|x q|, n ,
q .
,
f (x) f (q) g(q) (x q)
(x) = , (q) = 0.
|x q|
fn (x) f (x), Dfn (q) g(q), n (x) (x).
, n -
. > 0. a)
b), k, l > m x X
|fk,l (x) fk,l (q) Dfk,l (q) (x q)|
|k (x) l (x)| =
|x q|

(sk,l + sk,l )|x q|


= .
|x q|
, n
q.
f (x) = f (q) + g(q) (x q) + (x)|x q| (q) = 0, f -
q, Df (q) = g(q).
, , |x
s
P
y| := |x y|1 = |xi yi |; |Dfn (x)| := max(|D1 fn (x)|E , . . . , |Ds fn (x)|E . I
i=1

. 0 , . . . , n , . . .

X Rs , :
1) Dn () X;
2) X p, n (p) .
n X, X

76
,
X X
D n = Dn .
nN nN

10.3.
E C.

10.3.1.
. cn E , cn tn
T [0, 1] , ,
.
J > 0 m ,
j
k, j m | cn | . t [0, 1] t0 . . . tn . . . ,
P
kl j
P P
l k m cn tn tk sup{ cn : j {k . . . l}} t [0, 1]. I
k k

n
(n (z) = an z : n N) ,
an E, z = x + iy, x, y R2 = C.

% := sup{r R+ : |an |rn }

,
O% := {z : |z| < %} .
.
. -
z O% ,
Or<% . |z| > %, an (z) .
J |z| > %, |an ||z n | , -
, an z n .
r ]0, %[ s ]r, %[.
% h < : |an |sn h n N. z Or
|z|n  n
n r
 r n
|an z n | = |an |sn
|an |s h .
sn s s
n
rs , , -
, an z n Or .
, |an z n | < . ,
P
z O% Or<% . I

77
an z n
P
. f (z) :=
nN
O% an z n
z = x + iy
!
X
n1 f X f
df (z) = nan z dz, (z) = nan z n1 = i (z).
x y
nN nN

J 1. n (z) := an (x + iy)n :
n (z) n (z)
= an nz n1 , = an nz n1 i.
x y
2. %1 an nz n1 %
an z n .
/ r ]0, %[, s ]r, %[ h R+ , |an |sn h n N.

n  r n1 n  r n1
|an nz n1 | = |an |sn h 0.
s s s s n
, %1 %. . .
3. . 1, 2 -
, nx(z) ny(z) Or<% .
f

f (z) X 1 f (z)
= an nz n1 = .
x i y
df (z) = f (z) f (z)
an nz n1 (dx+idy) = an nz n1 dz. I
P P
x dx+ y dy =
.
.
fy = i fx .
10.3.2.
(, ) -
-
f 2
X
f (t) = a0 /2 + (an cos nt + bn sin nt)
n1

.
1, cos x, sin x, . . . , cos kx, sin kx, . . . -
,

78
(eikx : k Z) . T = [u, u + 2]
R u+2
R
2 := .
T u
. 1. eikt eilt dt = 2k,l k, l Z.
R
T
R 2. ,
(t)(t)dt = 0. ,
T
cos2 ktdt = sin2 ktdt = k > 0, cos2 0dt = 2
R R R
T T T
J 1. , eint 2--
n 6= 0,
2. . 1. . I
-

R f, g,
hf, gi := f gdt.
T
.
n
. f (t) = a20 +
P
(ak cos kt + bk sin kt),
k=1
ak = 1 f (t) cos ktdt, bk = 1 f (t) sin ktdt.
R R
T T
-
.
T f
k N
Z Z
1 1
ak (f ) = f (t) cos ktdt, bk (f ) = f (t) sin ktdt.

T T

( 5.2. )
ak (f ), bk (f ) E
f T -
n
. Sn f |x := a02(f ) +
P
(ak (f ) cos kx + bk (f ) sin kx)
k=1
n- f .
. -
f T = [u, u + 2],
n
1
ck (f )eikx , ck (f ) := 2 f (t)eikt dt.
P R
Sn f |x =
k=n T
J

79
n
a0 ak ibk ikx ak +ibk ikx
P 
Sn f |x = 2 + 2 e + 2 e ,
k=1 R
1 ak ibk
k 0 ck := 2 f (t)(cos kt i sin kt)dt = 2
T

1 ak +ibk
R
k > 0 ck := 2 f (t)(cos(kt) i sin(kt))dt = 2 .
T
:
n
(ck eikx + ck eikx ). I
P
Sn f |x = c0 +
k=1
ck (f ) f -
.

, ,
f T, , f
2- f : R E.
. 2--
f T = [u, u + 2]
, [0, 2].
R 2
R
f dt = f dt , ,
T 0
2.
Rv
J n Z : v := 2n T. p = v 2(n1). () f (t)dt =
u
2
R u+2
R Rp
= f (x)dx, f (t)dt = f (x)dx. I
p v 0
, f
f , 2-,
[0, 2], .
. f ,
x R f (x) := lim f (t)
t%x
f+ (x) := lim f (t). , f -
t&x
.
J x R a < x, -
[a, x[ f .
f 0 [a, x[, , -
( 5.3), f 0
Rt Rx
[a, x] f (t) = f (a) + f 0 (s)ds f (s)ds = f (x). I
a s%x a
. f , x R

80
n N
  Z0
f (x) + f+ (x)
2 Sn f |x = (f (x + t) f (x))Dn (t)dt+
2

Z
sin(n + 1/2)t
+ (f (x + t) f+ (x))Dn (t)dt, Dn (t) = .
sin t/2
0

n
X Z n
X
ikx
J a) 2Sn f |x = 2 ck (f )e = f (t) ei(xt)k dt =
n n

Z n
X
= f (t) z k dt, z = ei(xt) .
n

n
z k = (z n+1/2 z (n+1/2 )/(z 1/2 z 1/2 ) =
P

k=n
R
= (sin(n + 12 )(x t))/ sin xt
2 = Dn (x t), 2sn f |x = f (t)Dn (x t)dt.

, Dn -
, 2Sn f |x =
R
t=x+ R R
= f (t)Dn (x t)dt = f (x + )Dn ( )d = f (x + t)Dn (t)dt.

R R P
n
b) Dn (t)
Dn (t)dt = eikt dt = 2. -
k=n
R0 R
Dn (t)dt = 0
Dn (t)dt = . a)

 
f (x) + f+ (x)
2 Sn f |x = 2Sn f |x f (x) f+ (x) =
2
Z Z0 Z
= f (x + t)Dn (t)dt f (x) Dn (t)dt f+ (x) Dn (t)dt =
0

Z0 Z
= (f (x + t) f (x))Dn (t)dt + (f (x + t) f+ (x))Dn (t)dt. I
0
. f ,
, -

81
Sn f |x x R
f+ (x)+f (x)
2 , , -
f , f .
J a) x R. , -
n . ,
[0, ] sin t/2 , sin t/2 t .
> 0. > 0 , -
kf 0 k < 2 ]x, x + ]
f, . . f+ -
[x, x + ].

Z Z

(f (x + t) f+ (x))Dn (t)dt = (f+ (x + t) f+ (x))Dn (t)dt


0 0

Z
kf 0 kt
dt kf 0 k < .
sin t/2 2
0
R
In := (f (x + t) f+ (x))Dn (t)dt.

g(t) := f (x+t)f
sin t/2
(x)
. t [, ], -
f ,
2kf k 0 |f 0 (x+t) sin t/2(f (x+t)f (x))(sin t/2)0 |
|g(t)| sin /2 := C, |g (t)| = sin2 t/2

kf 0 k+kf k
sin2 /2
:= H.
qn := n + 1/2, M ,
f [0, 2], t0 = < . . . < tk =
, ]ti1 , ti [ g ,
ti ], [ . k M
Pk R ti
|In | g(t) sin qn t dt =


i=1 ti1

k ti
= q1n g 0 (t) cos tqn dt
P R
(g (ti ) cos(qn ti ) g+ (ti1 ) cos(qn ti1 ))

i=1 ti1
R
 k 
q1n 2C + Hdt q1n (2CM + H) 2
P
i=1
n > 2(2CM +H) .
-
.

82
b) X - , f -
, r > 0 ,
X , r.
> 0 x X. > 0 ,
< r kf 0 k < 2 . -
a), ,
x X. I
. -
.
2- -
. 1966 , ,
f [0, 2], (,
f ), "-
".
.
-
. 2- f
m
ck eikx ,
P
> 0 (x) =
k=j
|f (x) (x)| x R.
J f -
[0, 2]. , = 2 n , n N, |x y|
|f (x) f (y)| 4 .
p0 = 0, p1 = , . . . , pn = 2 g 2-
, g(pi ) = f (pi ) i {0, . . . , n},
[pi1 , pi ] , . .
g(x) = f (pi ) + f (ppi i)f (pi1 )
pi1 (x pi )x [pi1 , pi ]. kf gk 2 .
g , ,
, k, kg sk (g)k 2 . ,
kf sk (g)k . I
.
f X, -
n
ak xk ,
P
> 0 A(x) =
k=0
|f (x) A(x)| x X. , -
C(X, E),
-.
J , X = [0, 2]
f (0) = 0 = f (2).
g 2- , f

83
X. g ,
m
ck eikx , kg k 2 .
P
(x) =
k=j
(ikx)j
an xn , eikx =
P
j! x C.
jN
, - an xn
, , X. -
A(x) ,
| (x)A(x)| 2 x X , , |f (x)A(x)| x X. I
. 1. f (x) = x2
[, ] 0.

sin nt
= t
P
2. n 2 t ]0, 2[.
n=1
3. f
:
cn (f 0 ) = i n cn (f ) n Z; ak (f 0 ) = kbk (f ), bk (f 0 ) = kak (f );
c0 (f 0 ) = a0 (f 0 ) = 0.
4. cn (g) = cn (g) g
n Z.
. f g
,
Z2 X
f gdt = 2 cn (f )cn (g) =
0 nZ

a0 (f )a0 (g) X
= + (an (f )an (g) + bn (f )bn (g)) .
2
n1

J , Sn f f Sn g g.
f g , (Sn f )(Sn g) f g. -
:
Z2 Z2 Z2 X
f gdt = lim Sn f Sn gdt = lim ck (f )cl (g)ei(k+l)t dt =
n n
0 0 0 k,l{n...n}

X Z2 n
X
= lim ck (f )cl (g) ei(k+l)t dt = lim ck (f )ck (g)2 =
n n
k,l{n...n} 0 k=n

84
X X
= 2 ck (f )ck (g) = 2 ck (f )ck (g).
kZ kZ


. I
. , -
, . -
, .

n4 = 4 90
1
P
. .
n=1
.
S (, )
: [a < b] S, | 0 | = 1.
J f : [x < y] S - ,
g : [x < y] R ,
Rt
g(t) = |f 0 ( )|d, a = g(x), b = g(y). g 0 (t) = |f 0 (t)| > 0,
x
g : [x, y] [a, b] ,
h : [a, b] [x, y] h0 (s) = g0 (h(s))
1 1
= |f 0 (h(s))| .
:= f h : [a < b] S ,
0 0 0 0 1
| (s)| = |f (h(s))h (s)| = f (h(s)) |f 0 (h(s))| = 1. I

. U -
R2 2.
(U ) , (U ) = , U -
1.
J , 0 C U, . .
U Fr U 0 (. I, . 6). Fr U -
. F rU
(-
) z(t) = x(t) + iy(t) : [0, 2] C, |z 0 | = 1,
z(0) = z(2), det(z, z 0 ) > 0. z
U ,
.

2 2
det(z, z 0 )dt = (xy 0 x0 y)dt. -
R R
(. I, . 6), 2(U ) =
0 0
, z 0 z = xx0 + yy 0 + i(xy 0 x0 y). z
z(0) = z(2),
2 2
(xx0 +yy 0 )dt = 21 (x2 +y 2 )0 dt = 0.
R R
0 0

85
z z 0 cn (z 0 ) = i n cn (z) n Z.
, ,
2 2 2
2(U ) = det(z, z 0 )dt = (xy 0 x0 y)dt = i (i(xy 0 x0 y)+
R R R
0 0 0
2
0 0 0 0
R P
+(xx + yy ))dt = i z zdt = 2i cn (z )cn (z) =
0 nZ
0 cn (z 0 ) cn (z 0 )cn (z 0 )
cn (z 0 )cn (z 0 ) =
P P P
= 2i cn (z ) in = 2 n 2
n6=0 n6=0 nZ
2 2
z 0 z 0 dt = |z 0 |2 dt = 2.
R R
=
0 0
""
, (U ) = ,
0
cn (z 0 ) cn n(z ) = cn (z 0 )cn (z 0 ). cn cn 0,
P P
n6=0 nZ
, cn (z 0 ) = 0 n Z \ {1}.
cn (z) = 0 n Z \ {0, 1}. , z(t) = c0 + c1 eit ,
z . I

86

(Abel) (18021829)
(Alexander) (18881971)
(Banach) (18921945)
(Borel) (18711956)
(Brauer) (19011977)
(Weierstrass) (18151897)
(Heine) 18211881)
(Holder) (18591937)
(Hesse) (18111874)
(Dini) (18451918)
(Dirichlet) (18051859)
(Jordan) (18381922)
(Carleson) (1928 )
(Cauchy) (17891857)
(Lagrange) (17361813)
(Laplace) (17491827)
(Lebesgue) (18751941)
(Leibniz) (16461716)
(Lipchitz) (18321903)
; (Minkowski) (18641909)
(Newton) (16431727)
(Parseval) (17551836)
(19081988)
(Taylor) (16851731)
(Fourier) (17681830)
(Euler) (17071783)
(Young William Henry) , 1863 1942.
(Jacobi) , 18041851

87

1. . . -
. .: , 1990.
2. . . .: , 1964.
3. . . . .: , 1998.
. 12.
4. . . . :
- - , 2000. . 2. . 1 2.
5. . . .: , 1976.
6. . .
. .: . - .-. ., 19581960. . 1, 3.
7. . . .
. / . -. , 2003. . 1:
. 112 .

88

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