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D. V. Anosov, Geodesic flows on closed Riemannian


manifolds of negative curvature, Trudy Mat. Inst.
Steklov., 1967, Volume 90, 3210

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, <& ,
()- . , 6 ,
, 12.
13. ()-

@ , .
12, ,

, 6*, ,
fe 1
, @
. , .
()- ,

1 m
* S W ,
.

27
, \ & ( 23.2).

, /-.
6, 12 13 .
14 ( ) . ()--
{*} :
1 1 m
W ^" a W
1
: W^-^W^" , {*} {}
, ;
*, ' .
5.1. , ()-,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
, . . w = f (w) = cp (w)f (w),
(w) . (

(w).) ,
(), -
.
, ,
m
* & W .
15. ()-
m
, @* & W .
, , ,
.
, , ,
- [69]. 7
. 6, , '
. (
, /- , ,
.
2 m
L (W )
, @* ',
. ,
, .
, ,
, ; . , . 2.)
6
, , 12
.
3,
, ()-
*, ' , ,
/("-. *, *

[66], ,
* ' I P [67].
[65]

. &
[38]. - ( ^> 2)
* '
. [6]. ,
( , , . )
28
& &
.
n
V

*, @
( = 2) ( ^> 2).
n
. V
25",
n rt 2n x 2 1
V 58 W ~~ SB "" .

2$ ( , ,
, ,
) ( 1)-
1
( ) " """*,
n x
, $ , $ft ~ ,
, . .
(
). (, ),
v """ , v
1

n x
, $i ~

1 2 1
31 " cz SEB "" . 58* Si 2
2 1
, SB "' 9i 9 . 2
2 1
""" 9 .
,
.
2_1 2n x
5 -> W ~~
1- 1 2 1
, " ^
n x 2n l
N ~ cz W ~ *. ',
(, ) (v, ).
n
~ V
n 4 n ft
a 3 S " 8$ -*K , ,
n x 2n x n
N ~~ W ~ -+V . ,
n
~~ V -
n
( , V , ,
n x n
; 15), N ~ -*V ,
n x n
$ft ~~ ->V .
1900 .
n
V (.
III [3]). [65]
, (
> 2) , -,
.
*, & .

f
@ , ,
, ,
, .
,
. G
g (t) ; ,
g (t) 9

1
{h:hG, lim g"- (t)hg() = 1},
t 00

29
1 .
. ,
, -
.
15 ( ) , -

. ,

: ,
. ,
,

, ,
, ,
.

, ,
, , -
.
, , ,
[87, 88] .
II
6.
,
13, 8 9. ()-
()-, 2, ,
, ,
()-, ()-
()- ( ).
()-. ,
()- {*},

w = f(w). (6.1)

: ,
.
1 ()-: ()- {*},
(6.1), ()- {S*},
w=g(w), (6.2)
1
g (w) ( )
f (w). 1
{S*}
{*}.
8 (6.1).

.
, 2 3
(6.1). 13.1.

(6.1) I .

w = w (t) == w (t + T) C\ (6.3)
dw
JP f (w (t)). ,
L (6.1).
,
()- . ()-,
, (6.2),
Il f - < e i , (6.4)
8i , a f
31
()- (6.1). ,
()- (6.1). ,
,

(6.1) ( ,
(6.2)) , t

' g--f&V))\<** (6-5)


8 . ,
2

(6.1);
1 8.
13.1 (6.3),
1
S , [0, ]
1 m
. S - * W
1
(6.3). / 5 ,
m
w (t) L W
dm (t)/dt, f (w (t)).
4,
(6.2) L .
m
w W (m 1)-
(w), {*}, . .
. ,
w ,
. , .
(. . )
. (w),
m
W ,
RS. (w)
x
( 1)- Vw~ .
(w) (6.1) ,

1
!)%~ - (6.6)
,
1
( 1)- ,
w f (w).
1
, 1" ; .
1 8
VS^^XQYL (6.7)
, , , w
1
(6.1) Vw" , .
w L, (6.1),
x
Vw~ , (6.7), .
13.1
l l
Xw Y X Y
w w w

V^-^X^eYl (6.8)
l
% X Y Y
w w w

. ,
, w (6.6).
, , w L
32
X Y , ,
w w
l
X Y w (6.1).
w w


.
,
, , -,
, .
,
,
l
X , Y - w w

X, w w> Z , Rwi X , Y
w w W: V w . (6.9)

X Y C,
w w
1
; , 1" (6.7)
m
(6.8). W ,

*= x,s>= 7^,3= zi,
m m
w w w EE Wm
w EE W

K= U RS, = U ki,9= U = vs~\


m m m m
w^W W W w EE W w(=W
a

(6.9) w,
w.
(6.7) (6.8) = g) 58 = g).

,>,8,, t ,
I x; rj ; \ ; \ :; \ ; v
, ( ,
w
) (w, I)
(w, )\ (w rj) (w, ); (w ) (w, ); (w, ); {w, I) (w, x);
t 9

(p, ]) (w, y)\ (w, ) (w, v).


3> ,
m l m 1
W x R W R : (w, z),
1
z^R , (w f(w)z)3. , f (w)
t

, f
, ;
, /. - 3
,
, :
(?, f (w)z) m + 1 m w
m
W z.
3 ,
Z z w

Z . Z w cz Rw
w

, - , -
;
3 . -, XC 33
/ () R w

f (w).

m
, . W
(U , ), U , : / ^
x a

m
->R m-
( m )
k l
. n~ (/ )

- k -
(),... , (), U a

X ( ).
w

(, ) m + k , m
(/ , ) ,

(), a k ,

<* (),
?

I Xw el (),.. . , % (). ,
, k ^ ( | ) .

SR ( m )
1
^ ((). (^ (/ ), *),
W a

|(, I) =( (), q>* ()). fW

1
(, SR ('" (/) i])^),
|(, ) = ( (), < w ())).


1
^ ( ^ = ( ,< (<.-

6 Xi, / U , * > (g) = (g, . . . , S ) , q e () - . . . , ),

j=l /si
() \ (), . . . , \ ():
k

" = ^()*(),
,

1
, (<* J"

() = \\a*f ()||, , j = 1,'. . . , k:


<JZ) = A W< (6)i w (6.10)


* (w)
^ ( ) , . . . ,^().
( ?),
(, )
, , -
34
k g , . . . , 1% m + k
*,..., Wm, Ii, - , Ii-
SR, * (),..., ^()

, , . () = ^ (,

() ).
RS ,
:
m
([/, <) W . ,


SR, RS
.
, SR m \ (),...
00
. .., em(w) .
SR , SR
.
, . . g)
( ) SR.
, , ,
, Y , ,
W

,
(6.1) .
, , $
. , X w

Xw, .

2(W)X , W ...J(W)X W (6.11)


00
- ,
^(1) n~ (U ). -
k x
a

- : k%-+Xw,
, ,
;

{el (),. . . , el ()} = {net (), . . . , zCel ()}. (6.12)


q>^ ( | ) = ?,(1),
()
. . , g)
SR, . . : SR, g) cz SR
.
,
, - SR;
) . , = V , (6.7)
(6.8). , (6.7) (6.8), ,
35 SR .

1
CZ Rw i Y"w ^ Rw i

^ c z RS i Y^w ci Rw w c z Rw
3* 35

(), % i
(), x (), '), \x ()
.
, :
x,x:3^3t; (6.13)

e\\(w)i ...,e%(w) X , (), . . . , e^iw)


w

&
m
& = S " ()?(), (6.14)
% ()
* = | (/ = 1,. . . , m; / = 1, , ). (6.15)
(6.13) / : 3 : 81

(x, X) ( ) : - > & , {6.16)
( , /) ( , / ) :?)3 (6.17)
,
( (, ) (, , /) ).
, (6. 7) (6.8),
, = (, ) (X = (, ).
Rw
= () + / () 2,
( = () g + ()] + / () g ,

= () + () | + / () ,

o)-([xJ)Q j - ( x , , / ^ j = ( , \/)^] j. (6.18)

.(6.16)

< = (*) ( ] = (, ) ^

- -
. ,
, ) 3
, |, .
) ; , .

36
(, X, /): 3 SR
/ ... ^ ... ,
1 ... % i f J
m m

, ei(w), . . ., e (w), m


(w), . . ., e (w) X ; e (w), . . ., Y ; e (w) Z ,
k w k+1
l
w m w

k " ,
/ 3)
3,
=(!),
' ,
, .
, SR ()- , ) ',
SR .
, ,
. (w, l) :
w = w (t), I = l (f), d/dt (w, )
.
d (w, g). (w, I)
Rfa\y ,
(Ua, ) , d\dt (w, I)

wl...,w* mi I?,..-, l- (6.19)


d/dt (w, I) (w, | ) , (w, I)

, (6.19);
(dw, dl) d (w,. I). ,
I dl, ,
, ;
" (w, |) (dw, dl). ,
(6.10),
d< (I) = (dA a (w)) <p* (g) + AfW a (w) d \
w (g).
, -
dl dw.
, dw = 0 I = 0. , (dw, dl)
l
R . w

. X
w

, ,
X , :
w

j:XcR&i) . /(6) = (0,).


m
: > W
= d ( n) : R^i) Rw ,
k

(dw, dl) (dw, 0). ,



k
0 X - R%+)
w - 0, (6.20)
37
/?<U) = ^ g =
, 35
m
W -*X, w-*(w, 0)

i : c < o ) /() (, 0),


R(w, 0) ^ttJ jXWl

. Mutatis mutandis
5), 8t, 2*.
.

< = / () ( = /()) (6.21)


{*} St. ,
m
(/ ,) W ,

w - w = / ()
( , (6.21) =f < w

w /).
, , (cof,...,
(m), - / .

( )
- f , , f , ,
w w

; ,
(w, ) = (f (w), (/) ),
( ,
(6.21) = f (o w = /).
w

Horn (X RS)
W9

Xw RS\
km - .

(, ) = U (X , RS), w

(X , RS) w. Horn (X, 91)


w

. :
( ) :
w x (w) , ,
m + km , (w, % (w)).
, x, i (, 3), (), R)
. , ,
, ,
(6.1). (6.1)
Df, , ,

38
, D () D X ()
f f
.
D % (), f
1
. ("VT (/ ),

R%
( ) \ (),..., (w) (
1
). ( (/), |>*) X -
X (6.12),
w

: X -> X
w w
00
( ) (6.11). (6.14) (6.15),
DfK()

D ef(w) = -^ef^w)
f \tsm0 (i = 1 *). (6.22)


ef(w9 i)=T*nefiw) (j = 1 , . . . , k).
k
, ef (, f) X t T w9 (,

f
~ef(w, t) = f (T w)
w ef(w t), 9

f k
(, t). et (T w) X t T w
{ef (, t)}:
k
ef (fw) = S (, /) ? (, 0 (i =
1,. . . , ). (6.23)
f
ef (T* w) (T )
? ( ^ ) '
(et (f ), e (, t)) = (? ('), (, 0) (* = 1, . . ),
, (6.23),

S ( (, ), 0) **/ (', 0 = (et (T*w), el (w, t)) (i h = 1 , . . . , ). (6.24)


9

/=1

i #
,
k - ef (, t):
25
et\\(ef(w t) e(w,t))\\4=0.
9 9 (- )
(, ) (6.24),
(, t)

(ef (, t), el (wjt)) Cet ('), el (, /)), (6.26)
( (6.25)) .
(6.26) (, t)
t, (, ),
x j(w 1). (6.22) (6.23) , D ef ()
9 f

.
39

/ () ,
v
(D/) x (), (Dff X (), v = 1,..., .
.
(6.1), (, ()) (, 81)

-|-(,()) = (f(w),D %(w)). f

,
D/x , (/, Df ).
00
( )
(, 31) ()*, 3t)
,
I X () X () | < 8 , 8 \Dfii () Dpi () 8 ,
3

J X () () | < Bs, I f 3 ' D


8

( 8
3 3

). , > 0 3

X, (6.27).
, . -
m
- W ,
(/ , ). ()} ,

m
{Ua} W (
00
).
X () = () X ().

() (, 9t) :

1) 5 ( ) (. . ,

0) / ;

2) ()

(6.1) ^ ();

3) 2 () = ().

,
(, 9t),

1) 5 ( ) : ;
00
2) ;
3)
I* | < , I D x D x I < . f a f a

(, 2

, x.) , ,
.
m
U . R , f (w), y

F (w), ,
1) 5 OF) U;
2) F (w) w U
Df F (w) (6.1) ( w U,
m
W ), now. > 0
F,
1) 5 (F) U ( , , F (w) = F (w) = 0
wU);
2) FO;
3) wEzU
IF () - P () | < , \D F ()- D F () | < .
f f (6.28)
40

. -
00
() , () , () =
> 1 () = 1 /*<--.

m
I =^K(\w'\)dw', . . s I = \K^)dw'.

, , ,
m
R . , F C
3 (F) -
S(F):
S (F) cz U (S (F)),
s

a
(S(F))aU,
z

S (F)cz U.
,
(6.28).
(6.28). w:U\Uj(S (F)),
DfF () =Df F (w) = 0. , w U (S(F)). t

T*w,

. .
eTlDfP (w) = \ D f (w) ( 1 ^ 1 ) F (w') dw'.

Df ,
{w)
7
(6.1) , ,
; (6.1)
', Dfw

ih = l[DwKp^)]FW)drf.

m
e ID F
f (w) + h

= $ [D, ( ' - ^ ) + D f m ( l i = l l ) ] F (W) dw'.

, ,
1
1
(grad. ( l ^ ) , / ) + ( g r a c i a - ^ - ) . / (/)).
(.,.) ,
' grad ,
. ,
41
grad /C (&= - - g r a d ^ ( ^ ) ,

m
B ID F f () + h - [ ( g r a d ^ t f ( ^ 8= ^ ) , / (w')-f(w)) F (w') <

/ F (/), 2

/ 2 = J ( g r a d ^ l i ^ l ) , f (*') - / )

m
ID P f (w) + h () =
1
= J (grad^tf ( f c i ^ ) , f (') - f (t)) (F (a;') - F (w)) dw'. (6.29;
Ho
8


1
8

| w' 1

, w U (S Z (F)) | ' | <


| / ) - / | < 8 ,
, , ,
| ? ^ ( ) ,
() 0 8 - ^ 0 . , ,
(6.29),
\ AsQ () dm' = ACQ () ( \w w' I
8
),
L
\w 1<
. .
[ 8 / D () + 1 I F
m
f 2 |<(8
). (6.30)
7
( ) w w t/ (.S (i )). e

/ . 2

g r a d ^ ^ ^ - ) , f (W) - / ()) = div [* ( 1 ^ 1 ) (/ (') - / )


1

./C(i2^J)div/('),
TO

, ,
, .

(, , , 1)
div /(). ,

/ = / div f(w) + o ( ). (6.31)
42
/ 1

'|
) F (w') w w'\)D ^F(w').
= D
f (W) [/ f(

h(t) = \4 \K{ ^f^)F T w')[ dw'


f
]
{
t


m m
JJ (LEZ^LI) D f F (w') dw' - e ID F f (a,) I < (e ),
,
' i = ' s (0) - e / D f () + (e ).
m
f
m
(6.32J

I (t) 3 , '
w ;

dt
dw".
dw"


^ (6.21),

, . .

,

dt d e t I ^dw"
Sl = - div / (~* w") det dw"

/ (0) =
3 \F(w)div/(w")dw".

,
m m
/ (0) = e IF
3 (w) div f (w) + (e ). (6.33)
(6.30)(6.33),
m m m
e ID F f (w) = B JD F f (w) + (e ),
.

7. , ( )


m
W . ,
.
. ,
,
,
X , YwiiZwB
w

90.
43
1
(): ( )
()- ()-.
1,
,
, .
,
.

D/ (w) (w) (6.1)
m
. (w, ) , w W
. Df$ (6.1)
(6.21):
D (,f ) = (T* w, f ' ) I* = .
Df(p .
, , ( )
, r\Yi

2
U(I, w) = 17*1 fdt, Vft, )=\\\ | dt,

> 0 ( . ). ,
U, V X w

Y , w.
d
dt 1
0

s 2 T+ 12
T g|Vs = | f ^ | + |7 ^ g

/ = 0 ,
2 T
(g, w) = - U | + | T g p ,
, ()
Df/ (g, )< - fll J g p < _ a i/
2 (g t ) (g e ^ ; ^ a 2 > 0 ) .

(], ) > 8 (T|, W) (TJ F i ; a > 0).


3

, , , t Zl

D W(M = 0
f (JEU),
f
f I = const-f (').
= I + ] + ,
t]Fi, eZ. 6", 1/,

f/ (,)= / (, ), 7 (,)= V (ri, ;), (,)= (, ).
Ha ,
.
44
,
V {w, ), (w, ) DfV (w, ),

00
V (w, ) ,
max 1P ', 0) V (, 0, | < ,

max J D f P (, ) D V (t/o, ) | <


f 8, (7.1)
lKi
8 .
, V (w,)
( ) V (w, )
00
, V V
(7.1). ,
;
V (, ) = V (, ) + I | .
2

(7.1) V {w,) ,
V (, ) > V (, 0 ) 8 J0 | 2
> 8 I | , 2

V (w,) . , , | | ^ 1
IV(, ) V (, 0 ) | < V (, ) V (, ) | + 81 | < 2&]

|0,1?(, ) D , V ( w , CD)|<|D,l?(taj,>) DfV(w,<)\ + 8 | D f | c | 2


| <

2
< e ( l + max | D | ( o | | ) , f
v 1
|I<1
a V" ,
V (w, 0 )
. .
,
V (w, 0 ) ( )
V (W,<) . -
m
W (/ , < ). ,
t

- (w)}, {1/ }
m
W , V
(, ) = 2 1 / ( , 0 ) ,

Va. (W, 0)"= # (W) V (, () .

, V . a

Va. / ,


.
?, ' /.
6.
U, V, W,
., , ,
,
, V, W. ,
,
I J = U{, ) + V ( 0 , ) + W ( 0 , ).
2

45
m
W , , SR.
D ,
I \
= |xg|, h i = | | .
I I

, ,
. , (/ , )

, 6,
11| 2

. ,
(6.1), .
, ,
2
| g | .
, - ,, el (), . ..,
el (w), (U , ) (. 6), -
a
2
[ | . (1/, -),
\ (),..., el (),
2
I 11 . ,
{ef ()} - (. . ^? () Rw
1
), ^ ()"
(U U). a

)
2
I %11 I /] | (
2

, ,
2
(6.1)) | |
2
|ri| . ,
, ().
7 I ] \, || = | | | ] | =
= i kni-

. , (
2 3

), f Rw,

l
I = %,, Y . , w

, ;

() = {: RS, U (, w) > V (, w), U (, w) > W (, W)},

L (w) = {: RS, V (, w)>U (, w), V (, w) > W (, w)},


I (w) = {: G RS, W (, ) > U (, w W (, w) > V (, w)}.

k
X cz , YlczL (w), Zl cz I (w),
w (7.3)
D U^aU,
f < | | < 3 / w e K W
2
(7.4)
46
2
DfV > aV 9 < | 1 < L (), (7.5)
2
\D W\^Q,laW,
f | C | < 3W / H , (7.6)

| | f * | < - f l [ f 61 g e X * ,
( 7 J )
! ' | | > | ' 1 | ,

1
T'g , %" . , )
2
( 7 . 2 ) ( 7 . 7 ) , | |
2
|)| ,
I % | I | , | | | | | .
2 2 2 2


1
, ( ) ()-
()-. , || g f\\Ci
, (7.4) (7.5) Df D ( , g

, a), a (7.6)
, 0,1 0 , 2 . ,
, D Df + Dg-f
g

(, )
\D ^f<b(w,w)\<M\\g-f\\ \<*\\
e Cl

M , .
,
{S'} ( (6.2)), {5'}. ,
t > 0
i
$-*K(o>)c:JC(S-a>), ^*L(w)czL{S w). (7.8)
,
U (, w) > V (, a), U (, w) > W (, w),
t> 0
-
t/ (>,. 5~) > (S ', S-ffi>),
f
/ (S~* , S~ w) > IF (S~'co, S~*),

F (, at) > / (, t), 7 (, ) > IT (, ),
f ^> 0
f
V(S'co, S w) > { (3*, S'a/),
(7.9)
V (S'co, S'a) > F (S'co, S'ai).

, , . t = 0 - - ^ 1 ,
- j ^ ^ 1. , -
(7.9) , , U = V,


U \
( ~ DgV ^-aVU- aUV 2aU .
:==
&[--) yl ^ yl =

(7.7) , s > t > 0


s
5" (S w) c=S~' (S ),
s f

S s ( ? 0 )
S L (S~ w) cz S'L (ST*w).
47

RS


l
X Y . (7.3),
w w

s
$->X* > czb~K(S w),
s w

l
S Y -s Ts L(S- w),
s
s w
s s

(7.10) , s > t > 0


S
ST X% ^ / (S'ai),
W

s * - * ,
, t J > 0
L
aS^/C (S'a;), Y G S'L (S^'a;), W

. .
F
S X (S'a;), W S~'FL L (S-') (t > 0).
, (7.3) (7.8) , t > 0
-* () G (5~, S'Fi S'L () L (S'a;),

, /, < ,
S^Ja/C(S'a),. S'P,c:L(SW). . (7.11)

(7.11), (7.4) (7.5) , IX , W T I K ^ , t


4" U (S% S'a;) < - all (S% S'a;),

( ^ s ' a ; ) > a V ( S 4 S'a;),


. e.
|s'i| <3e^|g|
2 2
t>o, |3'>4-1

' < >
3
|S'n| <3^hr r < 0 , iS^I^-i-^hTi n H^>0.j P

L
, X Y W W

Z , W

g (), X ( S Z i S' =
W

= const-g (S'a;), 0, ). k+ I + 1 = m,
R = X @Y
W Z . , {S'}
W W

().
1
{7 '}
(6.21). 9 ) $ ,
(x, X, /),
l
( (), (), / ()): X* Y Z^~> w

(. (6.18) (6.18) ).
1
7 ': Rw->Rjt w

(x, X, ff'r (x, X, /): XW YL Z * Zj; v

48
X, g), 3
{*}, -
,
N
/ (t, w) 0
t i t 1 i
(H(T w)A(T w),f(T w))- f (%(w),X(w),f(w))=\ 0 Q(t,w)
V 0 0 1,
(7.12)
1 (, ,
/ (w) / (')), P (t, w) Q (t, w),
l k l
X Y X t Y t , (
w w T w T w
f
T ) ).
, .
(6.18):

= (D , D X, Df f)^j
f f + (x, Kf)(j j . (7.13)

, ,
, , ,
(6.1). , 6
Df%.
D/x I ( DfX, 6,
32 -> 91 , ,
Horn (,91)!) | ( g !).
, (7.13) , ,
. , .
, .
(7.13) (6.21),

D 74
I) = ( , /) - 4 f (* , f)-(D,x, D K ff(^j-
f ( )

,
f f =Dff
w , ,
t

; , (7.14)
. , ,
(7.12). (7.14) (7.12),
g, \ . ,

= A(w)l, (7.15)
= (;) (7.16)
= 0, (7.17)

/A(w) 0 \
l
J 0 B{w) )=((>), l(w), f{w))- [f (w)(*(w),X(w))D,(*{w),X
w (w))].
\ 0 0 / (7.18)
(7.15)(7.17) .
| \ ,
(, I) = (/, I ) , (,) = ( / , .
. -, 49
, ,
, (7.14) (7.18),
(7.15), (7.16) (7.18) (6.1)
.
(7.15) ( (7.16)) . ,
,
.
Al I, (f, Al) I
R?wX) (. ,
(6.20)). , .

I I , ,
I ( (f, Al)),
- .
. , *
.
(6.2)
L : w = w (t),
, (S),
, -
(6.2) ( (t)). ,
1, 8 13.1, (S)
.
L T* m
(6.1) g (w) = f (w) ( , 8)

(5), , (7.15) & (7.16),


( () & () ,
() ()),
. 1
L - T* w , ,
0

L ,
(6.2), (6.1), .
(S) (7.15) & (7.16)
, , (7.15) & (7.16)
(S). , (S>
(7.15) & (7.16) (e ), s
t 3

(6.1) (6.2) (. (6.4)),


.
, 13.1 L
1
(6.1), Vw' ,
, (6.7), (6.8), , ,.
f (w) = g (w). , (7.15) & (7.16)
(S) ,
(S) (7.15) & (7.16)
( ), L ,
2 2

(6.1) (. (6.5)), ( ),
3 3

(. (6.27)),
. , ,
( ,
2 , , , -
2

; ), '
3

. , (7.15),
(7.16), ,
(6.1). ;
(6.1), [ L: w = (t},.
(7.15) (7.16) (6.1),

50
w = ^w(t). (7.19)

(7.15) & (7.19), (7.15) & (6.1),


.
. ,
(S) & (7.19) (7.15) & (7.16) & (6.1) *
23.
(5) & (7.19) (7.15) &
(7.16) & (6.1) , , () + ( ) + ( ).
2 3

(
) (5) & (7.19)

= ?, (7.20)
] = (w) ],
. . , w (7.19),
(6.1). ,
(7.20).
/ i \jm 1
^() -* - (7.21)
(5), t = 0 v (tS (0)),
v' U(w (f)) (
(S), . .
L, );
((0)) -* (w (t)), (7.22)
v '. ( ,
, (7.22)
, ,
, , .)
, t (7.22)
(7.21). ,
, (7.20) w (7.19),
(6.1). (7.15) & (7.16) (, (7.15) &
.(7.16) & (6.1)) V^'^ V\ , 0)

^ . , , , (7.20)
(7.15) & (7.16) & (6.1).

, dw (t)
dt w {t) = w
(7.15) & (6.1)
w = f , t = (w)? (7.23)
(7.15) & (6.1) (7.23)
(/(), I) ( / , (w)t).
R^,\). : (. (6.20))
/ f , (/, )
1
( A ) ^- * / ;" f
R%\), jX w

4* 51
= ^. , ,
: ,
1 1
/, " /? -,
, -
1 1
/ / .
a priori f ( f) 9

, ,
m-
1
^ ( w R%), . .
, R( Wt

, ,
5)

R%, = 0.
(6.20)

+ 7 2 4
^, * = ( - )
-
; I Riw D R(w, ^)
y Rw

R%,z),
w Rw
(,-(,>)). (7.25)
^
w.) w ( ). ,
i (
1
). , f
1
/ R^ %) (/, g)
(/, | + ( , , / ) - ( , | , / ) ) = = ( / , g + (, g , / - f ) ) .
, (/, A g) (/, g),
,
g = g + (, g, / - / ) , (7.26)
g . ( ,
g).
(, g, w) g, w , (7.24)
;
X , ,
w


.
, (7.15) & (6.1) (7.23),
X. ,
, (. . ,


C ). ,
: , -
( 3
).
, (, <,W) - .
SR (w, ) Rf^ a)i

, (6.20):
32
2
> Rw R {w, ) ~~ Rw >
0
(7.27)
/(0 = (0, ), n (, () = .
x : 3 er SR, (, g) (, () g),

(7 28
CScCwb- - >


(7.25) RfX, R^^D
, P ^ (Wj )}

, . . -
(/ + 1 )- jR; ( / + 1)-
, , }X . W
l+1 Ul
jE , E (I + 1)-
1 1 1
RS, X ; = ^
w

| . , ^ Y 0 Zi, (
1 1 l
w

/ (), Z , ) w

f - / ,
7 () ZI, 'w = Y Z . 1
w w

, ,
(, (, I,))= P , v (w (w, (, () , )),
, , ,
I; ,
.
1
, Rw X ^ w

P , ^) P . ^(, ) = (, | ) .
w w (>

(7.28) (, |)
(, ^) + ()|), (7.29)
, (, () ). ( ,
(7.29) .) (, ) (7.29;
1
(0, ), & , . .
x I = ^ + (0> ) X .
,
I = p (C ). w
,
P(Wi ) (, () = (, P w (C ')).

= (, , ),
g.
, , ,
(, ) .
(7.15), , (7.15) & (6.1), {P (t, )}
(7.23) ,
, . L ,
L
H L.
53
, L: w = w (t)
(w (t) = w (t + T)) ( ,
t < t < , , ,
), 13.1 .
, L . L
,
L ( dim W > 3).
L ,,
[, ] , L ,
, L ,
m
w:L -* W , t *w{t) (7.30)
L ]
3 w , L
1
(7.30) 36 > W . L
m
w, w\ . ., W .
w = w (t)
f(w). (7.23) (7.15) &
(6.1) , w
m
W , L, f .
(7.23) P (t, w),
w = f (), ] = (w)
Q (t, w). (t) (7.23)
I (0) = X 1(f) = P (t, w) I (0). ,
w
L L
{P (t,w)} {Q (t, w)} 3 ? . -
(7.15) & (6.1) (7.16) & (6.1)
P (t, w) Q (t, w).
,
.
(7.3) (7.5) ,

\1\^-\*1\, - | - | f |> |7*,|


npn^>0, (7.7)

. , ,
, , = 1. ,
|/>(*, )|<-\ | Q ( * , > ) | < ^ * > 0 . (7.31)
, L (6.5)
, 2

(7.32)
-^\Q(t,w)r\\>a\Q(t,w)-(\\ * > 0 .

, , = 1; (7.32) ,
\P(t,w)\<^e-', ]Q(_*,t)|<e-< >0. (7;33)

, , (7.32). -
,

54
l x, WU* 2
| i |

g" = (? =1)

,
2
/ 1 S | = i(D g) , ") + 2 (gr, 0,6").
f

Dfg*(w) Dfgfj (w)


a
gf (w) (6.1), D/g
f

(7.15), =
2
= ^ . ] D ^ | | ,

D 11| - D , \ l f = ( ( D r g - D ^ ) r , I ; + 2 \ ? 6" -
?

f
e
W),
,

(7.34)
, ,
.

,
I D - D g* |< I / - [|<
f %1 (7.35)

,
. , (7.26) ,

!D "-D/*|<C'|6|e,,
? (7.36)
,
. (7.34) (7.36) ,
\D \t\\-D \l\*<\C"\t\s ,
f f 2 (7.37)

" . (7.7) ( = 1) ,
f|61* = 2 | g | D , l E | < - 2 | E | ,

(7.32).
55
8.
m 00
h:M-+W , (w, )
h (w, ) :
(, 0)=, (8-1)
(, 0) = 1
(8.2)
(ft (, 0 ) , )= J CD J I CD 1, (8-3)

m
h(w, -):K-+W , (-+h(w, CD) (8.4)
| CD ] < 1 R [
m
W .
(8.3) (8.4) , ,
. (8.2) K = dho' dh : Rw
h 0)

h ( #(S[ )
0

(, 0)), / : i ? - > ^ )
t0 W
, 6 . (8.2) -
dh

, ~ = . (,
/;

R%,
m
W .) , h , ,
, -
m
W . (, CD)
>
(1), (0 >

(0) = (0) = CD.


.

X\(W)={X:XX WI |*|<},
l
Yi(w) = {t/:yY W4 \y\<&h
l k
V?~ (w) = X (w)xYl(w),
b

X = ()=, & = U
s Yi(w)a9,
w w
8 = 35 0
UV?' (W) C = = $ s>.
8 =
1

, 33$ (, ) = (, x, z/), ^^, yYl*


|*|. \y\<.
(8.2) ,
1
A op I V ? - ()
-, ^
1
() = /1|( "" ())
,
/. 11$() , .
l l
() % Y Y .
5 w w

, (6.7) (6.8).
() , m
(6.1) . () 5

. , , - 2 3

56
, (6.4), (6.5) (6.27) & (w)
(6.2)
L.
L w = w (t),
(6.5), w (0) =w . I L,
0

w (t), \t\ ^ . 9( = $ $1
m
2*8 W / . , 33s
1
V" (w ) / . Q

8. 1. > 0 (, , 0

, , = I) ^>0,
0 3

< :
0

) (6.7), . . , = (, ).
(6.1), t = 0
w .
0

m
9Ss W,

ji(i)= I W 4 )
2
-g- ^- w . 0
1
) % (6.27), V^
(6.8), m. . (x = (%, 1). = (, ), L 2 2

(6.5),

m
SS W ,

7
(53 )= U ((/)) 5 5

-|- - w . Q

, 5

L.
.
/, .
h\i\%l = H,
h (w ,
0 0 | { > : | O | < 1, G C = 4


= ( (w ) [) + / , VST*, ,
0

.
1
_
1
(mir

8 - ; ; ' ^
, ( H
0 2

1- w ). 0

57
-
(U , < ). s ,
a 0 2

, 7,
, . / .

,
g), .

) = ) = (t,x u ... , ,

.. |*|<&\\ = + ... + 4 < , = /j/ + .-.+ < *



W = H(, f) = h( (t), p. ( (0) ).

, . . $^'^
m 1
h(w(t), p[w(t))v)V.'w(t)) 9 (8.5)

(f), (> (t)) v) - ^ L + . (w (t), il (w{t)) v) v. (8.6)
; L (6) fx=(x, X),

, , , = (x, X)
.:
/ ,. dw(t)
W
?( W 5

{ ,
). ,

dt < (c, X) +
2 2

, w (t) = V ji = 0

= (x, X), , = 0. (8.5) 2 2

(8.6) ,

= (F (w (t)), -^P) d
+0(v) + (x, ) ( ). 2 2 0 (8.7)

(t>) ,
\0 (v) | < ; C\v\,
v (I v I ^ ) (,
0 0 0

( / , ) ,

m
W > ,
Wo, ). , = H (v, t),
p (, w ) = 0(v) + 0 (0.
0 (8.8)

Hi (l*. f) ' (, ) ->.h ( , ( ) + / ) . 0 0

8

(W , a [X (W0) U + /) = l m + ( ) R + (),
w0

., w = (, /)#! (, ),
| | + | | = ((, ) . (8.10)
(8.7) (8.10) ,
1 1
agi, fY H^ H(v t) _
y

= (P >o), /Wp + () + (/) + C (x, ) 6 (t>). 2 2

Uo
(0)-fi(o;o)l<(Ci + C ) l < | A f

< Q (/) + 2s 2

{ Q ()
, , ,
Q (), ,
),
aft*. h^H^Hjv, t) _
d(v, t)
= 1 ( ) + (t) + (v) + C (x, %) e [ (y) + (e ) + (t)l
2 2 2

e = e (x, X) , , , < ^ 1 .
2 2 2 2

. ,
l
a (a, f)~ H^H (,
.( | * | , | * / | < 9.
(8.11) , / , -
. ,
0

33g
1
VS^QR ,
2
2
+ 2
+ |] <4- . 2
(8.12)
. ,
(fx, /), ,

, , (p, Jy^H^H ,
1
, . , -
2 2
( , ) - w -g--
0 0

'R% , (7.2) , 0

(p-, f)~\
<4 (co=x + %\ + /) 2
1
(8.12) V^" (
.)
, .
, , ,
0

Q (), (8.11). -
-
.
1 1 1
%\ Vi ' 0 R (x, , f)>
(I, -); ,
1
(, / H < (). ,
, \\ <

.


| | = + ||* + * .
2

(8.11) , | \ <C^i
I () 1 1 < Q ( I a J ) + 8 > #
2 (*.<3>
(1 ). () = Q ().
, , , q>-
. , , 2

- ,,
2

. . \\, \'\ < ; ! 2

() (').

, (8.13) (0) = 0 ,
() = + (),

\$()\<(\\) + 0( )\\, 2

\^ ()\<&(\\)
+ 0( ).2

\\, \'\ <^ , ^ () = (


2

' = t|5 (i) |) (),

I ' J = I i)? ( , (' ) | <J


u

f
< [ Q ( ) + 0(s )]\u 2 2 u \^
1 1
Q ( ) < ( ) < - - , ! = 0.
2 2

, 93s ]/"3 - :
\, \\, | * | < ,
2 2
+ \\* + < 3 . 2

, | %i
, \ ] / ] 3 .
0 2

, (S) (8.12). ,
, ,
, ,

\ \.

,
0 2

2 < , 2Q (2 ) <
0 x 0 4". 20 ( ) <2 .
60
, | | ^ , 0 19

= (),
I |< (I 2 I) + 20 ( ) | |.
(8.15) 2

., % = ; 2 =
( )

=^ ( U ).
2 2


->(- ). 2 2 (8.16)
, | \ <^ (2| \) + 20 ( ) \\;
2 2 2

, \ \^ (2\\) + 20 ( )| |
2 2

\ 1 < I I + (21 I ) + 2 0 ( ) | | =
2 2

= I I + 2 I I [Q (2 I I) + ( )] < 2 | | < 2 < , 2 0 x

. . w / ^. ,
2

(86) | | <^ (21 |) :


I ( ) \ <^ ( \ \ ) + ( ) I -
2 2 2 | < (2 I \) + 2 (s ) | |.
2 2

, (8.16) ,
] |? ( ) |> ( u ) | = | |) ( )
2 2 ( ^ $ \ <^

< [Q (2 I () + 0 ( )1 I 1 2 2 2 <4" I "2 "21


9 l/~2~
0
(8.15) , ^
| " i | < | " | + | ^ - % | < ^ + o(^A)+20 (e )^^.
2

, 0 2

(8.12)
8
+ [* + ' < * -
\\, \\, \t\ < , . . 23$.
. 8.1 .
.
8.2. Wi(t) w (t), 2

< ; t < , t <


,
d d
dt I ' dt

.
.
( 5

, ). , ,
>w (0) n (wi (0)).
2 8

, 0
[, 6], [, ), ( , ] (, ) (,
0), s(t),
,
1) s (0) = 0; w (t) (w (s (t))) t
2 A. 5 1

2) A' (. . -
, -
61
, ), ,.
(t) , ,,

<5(0,=0; a ^ ( i ) G l l 8 ( i ( 6 ( / ) ) ) / ' , A' cz o ( \ ) = s p | \

(0) ( (0)), ,
2 5

[, ] [ , ] ,
Wi (f) w (t) < t < < t < .
2

{S'} , (6.2) g,
(6.4) , ,
. ,
1
{S } {S } <& t

{St} {S*}
{*}\ ,
1
{S } {S }
t
f 1
{5 } { },
(6.2) (6.1).
1
, S , *

.
,
, , ,
1
{ }
{S } $ 5 . {S }
t t
1
{ } L: = (t),
(6.5). ,
.
{SJ, { 2 } z r

, . (). '

8.2 (t) = T*,w (t) = S V . 2

s, , ',
r
= (, w ), s = s (t,w,w'). , 2 (, x,y) f

(&) (w ,x y ), :
t t) t

-=/z (, K(w)x-\-X(w)y ;

s
= T
<*' - ^

h(wt, 7i(w )x t t + X(w )yt) t = S* tuf.

, {2 }
t

, 2^ (, , )

tA(w, , ) = (, (, () x + X (w) ). }

, , , ( , ), . . ,
{2^};
. {2^}

. {2j} ,
2 , (
t

,
* 9).
{2^} ,
:
1) 2 (, , ) t A (w, , ).

62
2) {2*}
() 2* = S* ().
3)

= * 0 :3 0 ) - ^ 5 5 ; (;,*, ) = w
() {2 J (
f
) {T }, , ,
.
{2*} (w,x,y) @,
, 2), 3) .
(, ,) :
2') (x, X) (w, , )
g (h'w, () x + X () y)), . e.
A (, x (w) x + X () y)=g(h (, K(W)X+X (W) y)). (8.17>
l
3') n = n 0 7t (w,x y) a *
k
9

, / (pi), . .
w = v(w,x, y)f(w),
v ( ,
3^
3') , {2 } , 4

, vD . 1 f

(8.17)
(, () x + X () ) = (, (w)x + X () y)vf (w) +
- f A* (w, K(W)X + X () y) (vD x ()-x + vD X ()-y) + f f

+ Au (, x () y) ( (w)x + X ()*/),
(8.17) ,

M(w,x,y)^y^j = g(h (w, %(w)x + X (w) y)) 9 (8.18>

M (w, x, y) = ( M lf M , M ),
2 s

= A (w?, x () X + tt X () y) x (),
M = A (w, K(W) x + 2 w X () y) X (),
M = A^j (w, x () x + () y)f ()
3 +
+ Ao> (w, %(w) x + X () r/) 'JD *c (w)-x + D X() f F y)..
( , :
)
A (w, () x + X () ) = (w, 0) - f (?, , ) = 1 + (;, :, ),
w m

f x (w, 0, 0) = 0;
(w, , (w) + () =
= (, 0) + - ^
(w, () = - (x* + %) + / (, :, ) =
2

= Um )| -(* + ^ ) + /2(>. J f , ) =

'0=0

! 1 2 1
==** + + + ^ ( - ' ) = * + ^ (a-', *, ) 6&
h 0, 0) = , f 2x (, , 0) = , f w (, , 0) = .

= x () +
/ 3 (, , ),
= () + ft (, x, ),
2

: / (, , 0) = 0, / (, , 0) = ;
3 4

= / + >/(). + D X(w)-y
3 f + / (, , ),
5

h (w, , 0) = , f (, , 0) = , f bx by (, , 0) = .
(8.18)

M(w 9 , )\ = g (h (, () + () )) 1 (, , ). 3

. :
g (A (, () x + () )) Af (, , */) = 8

= g ( (, () x + X (w) )) - / ( (, () + () #)) +
+ / ( (, () + () y))f(w)
D 7i(w)-x D X(w)-y / (, x, y).
f f 5

/
/ 0) =
= g(h (, () + () )) f (h (, () + () #))
(6.4)
|/ |> I M . \M<o(*

( , ,
(, x, ) 5 + $s). ,
/ ( (, () + () )) = / ( (, 0)) +
+ / ( (, 0)) (, 0) ( () + () ) + / (, , ) =
7

= / + / () ( () + () /) + / (, , ), 7

U (, 0, 0) = 0, f 7x (, 0, 0) = 0, f ly (, 0, 0) = 0.
g 3 = /^()(() + X(w)y) >, ()- DfX ()-/ +
+ / 7 (, X, /) + / (, , ) / (, X, #).
5

1 =( (), X , / ) " 1
[/ () ( (), (;)) -

- (Pf*{w), DfX (w))] + ) + /, (w, x, ),


/ g
8

f (w, , 0) = , , (, 0, 0) = , /
s 8 (, 0, 0) = ,
/
9

|/, (w, x, )\, I / (a, x, )\, |/ 9 9 (w, x, )\ < ( ). 6l

, (7.18) ,

x A () x + a (, x, y),
y - 5 y + b(w, x y), t (8.19)
v = 1 + (, x, y),
w = vf ().
(8.19) ,
. , ,
(, , ) ,
(, , ), :
I (, , )\< (I x I + I I) + ( ), (8.20) 8l

I (, , )\, \ (, x, )\< Q (| | + | |) + ( ).

{2j} {S }, t

, :
1) S (w, x, ) t S ( (, , #)).
t

2)

( , ):3 ->^ 5 8

() {5 } ()

f
{S }, , ,
.
3) J I Q S , = * .
, , {St},
, (8.19) v.

x = A () + (,,#),
=*B{w)y + b(w,x,y), (8.21)
= / -
, , , (8.19),
(8.20).
8. 1.
$), ,
, , ( )
. , (8. 21),
(8. 20) ,
. ,
,

= () = D () Tj

( ).
(8.21)
() I + D C(w)-1
f = A (w) C(w)l + a (, () I, D () |),
. .
| = () + (, |,]),

1
() = - (w) [ () () D ()1, f

(, , l) = - () (, () , D () ]).
1

,
X , X . (,
w w

, , . 7.)
l
X inY y , (8.20)
w w

5 . -. 65
b . ,
k k
(t)tEX Ki04Kzx(t+dt)X adt
w{i) w{Udt)
k
X Axt
w (i)t

X t) w( w(Udty , , (8.19;
X

. g

1
= " () [A(w)C(w) I -vD C{w)-l } + a (, () g, D () T J ) ] ,
v = 1 +c (, () g, D () r\)] .
(8.20) ,
?s .
{S } {2f}, .
t y

),
.
a (, , ) (, , ) ? s ? ,
, b .
,
;
, .
b ,
-- < max (\\, (/|,
. , ,
, ? 5 , 3: 5 )\ \ 2

, 2 , 2
0 0
, . ,
i 1
() = 1 0 < <* -J, () - < < 1 () = 0
> 1.
(, ,) = (, , ) ( (
5 (, ,) = (, , )
20

, | | ^ | | | & | ^ | | ,
.

| \, ' \\

. 8 _ ^ 2 5 ,
2

. 6,
\*\, I M < o() + ( ),

< (8.22)
, | , | 6 | < Q ( ) + ^ i - 0( ).
y

,
(6.1) ! : =
4

= w(t), (6.5). L,
= (/ ), ' (). 8.2 (*)= (-* ),
0 5 0

w (t) = T* w\ {SJ * 3>5\


2

:
1) h (, % () + % () /) = ', S (, , ) f

t , , 8.2.
66
2) {2 } (

1)^ = ^ (x, ).
3)
= *% ht : $ ->
() {2*} (
) L.
(, , ) & {2/},
:
~h (, c () x + X () ) = f(h (, () x + (w) )), (8.23)
= v (, , ) / (), (8.24)
, , / = ,
.
,
.
. (8.23) (8 24) ,

M(w x,y)l
9 =
\v-lj
=f ( (, () x + X () ))- 3 (, , ) (8.25)

M = ( 19 , ),
2 3

M-L = A w (, () + () #) (),
2 = (, () + () /) 1 (),
1 = (, () + () ) f () +
+ , (, () + () /) (Z) ^ () -x + DfX () #).
, ,
= l m + /i (, , #), p

* = 1 , + / (, *, ),
2

/ (, 0, 0) - 0, / (, 0, 0) = 0, f 2 2x (, 0, 0) = 0, f 2y (, 0, 0) - 0.
,
= () + / (, , #), = () + f (, , ),
3 2 4

/ (, 0, 0) = 0, h (, 0, 0) = 0,
3

= / () + Z) x H - x + D f i ()./ + / (, , ),
3 ? 5

/ (, 0, 0) = 0, f (, 0, 0) - 0, (, 0, 0) = 0.
5 5x
, (8.25),
M = ( (), (), / ()) + / (, , ) + / (), 7

/ (, 0, 0) = 0,

/ () = ( () (), () (), 7 () / ()),


7

5 * 67
(6.5) (6.27), (*) + (*). (8.25)
/ ( (, x (w) + % (w) )) =
= / + / (* * + (0 ) + fs )>
/ (, 0, 0) = 0, / (, 0, 0) - 0,
(, , 0) - 0.
(8.25) :
( ; )
1)(*>-?* ' ) +
+ / H f + /s (, f/) (. )
(6.5) (6.27), ,
Df. Dj% Df%
\Dj7t-Dpc I < \Dfx - Dp\ + |D,x DfK | < (x) e, + (e )- 3

, (8.25)

I/. ( , ) - (/ (), D % (w))] ( * ) + > (, f ).


I / , (, 0, 0) I < ( ), 2

I /. (, x, )\ I 9 (, )\<(, X) + (%) + Q (\ \ + \ \).


2

, (, )
(7.18) , {2*}
(8.19), w = v f (w)
w = vf (). , 9

(w, , ) 9

(w, , )
9

:
\a(w )\<(\\
9 9 + \\) +()(%) + ( )(\\ + \ \), 3

(8.26)
\ (w x y)
y|,| (,*,)|<Q(|\
9 + [|) + ( ) + ( ). 3

7, ,
, A (w)
(w) x = A (w) x + (, x, f(w)f (w))
(w) .
(8.20) By By,
; b
. a, b (8.26),
(6.5)
1<0( )(+). 2


x= (w)x + a{w,,),

y = B(w)y+b(w, ,) 9

t?= 1 +c{w,x,y), (8.27)


w = vf(w).

{2,} {S }, , t

, (8.27) v.
68
x = (w) x + a (w, x, y)>
y =B(w)y + b(w x, y), 1 (S.28)
w = / (w).
a & - (8.26),
(. 8.1).
, {Si},
,
L
) . , .
b
\\, ] & | < () + 0 ( 8 ) + ( 8 ) ,
2 3 { 8 2 9 )

\ \,
\ \, I I, I & I < Q () + -i- ( ) + ( ),
2 3

a, b ,

j ( ).
S t

-^ (t,w) + p (t, w, , ),
-+ Q(t,w) + q [t, w, x, y), (8.30)
w -
( L)
-* P (t, w) x + p (t,,x, y),
J
y->Q.{t,w)y q r (t,,x, y), (8.31)
w (s) (t + s),
P, Q, P, Q , 7. , P, Q, P, Q
(7,31) (7.32) ( , , L
(6.5) ) . 2

p, q.
8.3. (8.21) (8.28)
I i, I b | < 8 , I \, \\ |> I I < . (8.32) 0 % 0

(8.30) (8.31) 0 < t < 1


\p\q\<t*\ \\\\\<^> (8.33)
8 <J / , <^ mA ; m ,
0 0

a, b 8 .
t 0 0

. S (w, x, ) t

( (,), (/, ,*, ), {t,w, , )),


( (t), x (/), (t))
(8.21) (8.30). (t) Q (t,w) . ) (*) =
y
= (0 Q (^ ) #
f) (t) = ( (0)| (0 + (> (0, 2 (0, (0); (0) = 0.

i
1
r\(t)= Q (t,)jj QT (t, ) b {w ( T ) , X (T), y (r))dr =
0
t
= J Q (t - x, w (T)) b (w (T), 3C ( T ) , y ()) dT,

69
Q (t,w) = Q(t t, w ( T ) ) Q ( T , W).
| | ( 0 | < * max | Q ( T , OJ)[ sup \b(w, x, y) |</nife , 0

0<<1 (W, x, y)

\ . I (t) = x (f) P (t, w)x


, | P (, w) | < 1 > 0 | g | < .
(8.28) (8.31),
L (6.5)
, 0 < < 1 - | (t,w)\ < 1,
2

I Q ^ 1 < L,

, -
W , (w) (8.28) .
1

, , ,

_d_ / \ / (w (/))
0 \ \
=


\~) \ 0 Biw(t)))\-y y ) x y

[a (w (t), x (f), (t)) Oy (w (t), x (t), y (t))\ / x \


x y

\b (w (t), x (t), y (t)) b, (w (t), x (t), y (t))) [ y y )


x x y

, 0 ^ t ^ 1
. (8.34)
, . 2 0 %

, ),

( \ ( X \_fP 0\ = y

\ qyj \ ~1 \ Q] '
(8.28) (8.31)
(. , g |).
.
8.2. w' (w), w' = h\iw,
w = (w, x, ) () Ys (w).
t ()
2; = S (t,
S w") (tS)

-J- s (/,,') - 1 + c(SfS).

9 .
9.1 ( ).
< ^ , e<min(JL, ) ( 9 )

(8.30) (, , (8.31)) p q
0 < t < 1 (8.33). / S t

De ( 3)5) :

70
1. ^ , S t ^ 3?s (
)s) // t> , // w t .

2 . Towca S t 3)& (

$) t > 5 ^ 3E % [
S (*) S

S & 3 ) 5 ] * / ^> 0. ( + -
( (k - f ^ ) ,
= (, ;), (, )
/ , | | ^ , [ * | < ; .
3. Tbwea > ^ S t )s (

SPe) >* -* + S * ( * j $s [ S * ( j
5

\ J \ \ J
>8 ) ^ ; 0. ( + 1)--
31 ( (I + \)- 31 ),
= | (, ),
(, /) w , | tf> | ^ ,

L L
(8.30)' ). (8.31) X )
L ,
-
|) .
,
,
L.
, ,
{S } $ 5 %
L

.

. S t

).
9.2.
, < 0 , 1 (9.2)

(8.30) p q 0<^< (8.33).


= (, ), (, )
+:
, ( 5 )
St.
= | (, ), (, ) ty ,
+
( 31 )
S . t

. ,
, (, ).
+
$ = < (, ) ,
Q (t, w) (, x)+q (t,,, (, x)) = < (', (,)x + p (t,,, < (, )))
(9.3)
t, , . {S } , (9.3)
t

t , = [0,1].
71
(9.3)
1
(w, x) = Q " (, w) ( , 1
w) x + p (t,,, (, ;)))
Q - (/,) (, , (, *)).
1

,
, ,
.

= / (, ) f (, )

1 f
(Z f) (, x) = Q" (*,)/ (T w, P (t,w)x + (/,,x, / (, ))) -
t

1
-Q- (t,w)q(t,w,xJ(w,x)). (9.4)
D , / (, ),


|<, ||/||<. ^5)
D
f

I / (, x')- (, x) I < \ - 1. 1
(9.6)
Z) ,
e

| / | | . ,
Zu 0 ^ t ^ 1, D , c

.
, D B D , , , Ct

D, , . / De, , (9.4), (7.31), (9.5), (8.33) (9.2) ,


| * / | < I Q' 1 I / I + I Q" ] | f | < r t + = <r* (1 + t) < rVe = 8
1 1

(9.4) ,
f 1
(Ztf) = Q- (T w, + p) ( (/,)+ % + J> f ) -
x y x Q- + q f ),
y x (9.7)

p = (/, , , / (, ;)), = (t, , , / (, * ) ) ,

A r = Pi/ (*, , x, f (, :)),


= <7* & , : , / (, *)), ^ = q (t, , x, / (w, )). y

0 < t < 1 (7.31), (8.33), (9.5) (9.2) ,


I (Ztf)x\< er* (* + / + /. ) + * (* + /. ) =
= * [<< + tA + + t + < << [er* + 1,3 *] < <'< =
( + 1,3/ < t < sh t).
, f, g D t>

W-%g\<^\f-g\. (9.8)

1
(*/) (, *) (#) (, x) = Q- (,) [/ (Vw, P (t, w)x +
f
+ p (t,,x, f (, x))) g (T w, P(t w)x t + p (t, , x, g (, x)))]
1
Q" ^ ) [q (t, , x, / (, x)) (t, , * , g (, x))l
, (8.33),
72
Ii / fil-

f
[/ (fw, P(t,w)x + p (t, , x, f (, x)))- f (T w, P (t, w)x +
+ P {U w, x, g (w, x)))] + [/ (fw, P (t,)x + p (t, w, x, g (, x)))
g (fw, P (t,w) x + p (t, , x, g (w, x)))].
| / g |,
( 9 . 5 ) (8.33) - / /
(9.2), ,
II Ztf ZtgKe-' (A4lf-g\\ + \\f-g\) + e-ttA | | / - g | | <
5
< er* (1 + 0 , 1 1 t) f / - g e-' 1 f - g l
(9.8) , 0 < t <^ 1 , B D , S

. ,
t(0,1]. Z f t

t, , .
- tEE ( 0 , 1 ] .
: t, s, t + s G (0, 1 ] Z s

, Zt +S

. , (, )
( 9 . 3 ) .
S , ) = (fw, x (t, , , ), (t, , , )),
t

(9.3)
(t, w, , (, x)) = (fw, x (t, , , (, ))).
t 5,
S = S S , t + s:
t+S t s

, (t + S, W, X, ( w, x)) =
= y (s, fw, x (t, , x, (, x)), y (t, , x, (, x))) =
= y (s, x (,,x , (, )), (fw, x (t,,x, (, x)))) =
+s
= (f w, x (s, fw, x (t, w, x, (, x)), (fw, x (t, w, x, (, x))))) =
+5
= (* , x (s, fw, x (t, , x , (, x)), y (t, , x, (, x)))) =
+s
= (f w, x (t + s, , x, (, x))).
X t

(, ).
9 . 3 . 9.2,
(, x) ty (, #), (, x) (, )
y

.
14P U | | < , , |*|<. (9.9)
. -
. | 8 D , . - E

, > , | | ^ .

,
(, ) (, ).

1
g - W" ,
F |*|. F:$->%
w ^ F ( w

F w ). :
*(r)= sup \F (w,x) F (w,x')\.
w x, x' t

I x - x' | < r
73
F F:$)-*S, XlY%BF , W


5- () = sup I F (, ) F (, x', ) |,
W, , ?',
\-*\^
l
a () =F sup I F (, x, y ) F (, ,)\,
f

w, , /, *
\-'\<
k +l
( (r)
F = sup \F (w,x',y')~F (, x,y)\.
w, x, x' y y y'
x - x' \ < r
y V'\<r

, k, /, k + l
, CDF M ,
= 0. F (, ), ( (r) < F

& ()-*0 ->0; , lim ) = 0, F -


-
(, ). F = F () , /? () = 0-

F(G) ( X F ( G ()), (9.10)
< I) FII + || G II F ( y F || = sup | F | ) , ( 9 1 )

F + G O F + O)G, (9.12)
) () < " F () + ^ (). (9.13)

I f _ / ^
( G ( 7 ( G ) ) J < p ( |G (, *') - G (, *) |),

) F (, x') G (, x') F (w x) G (, | <7 }

< IF (, ') I -1 G (, *') G (, *) | + | F (, ) F (, x) | | G (, *) | #

, (9.10) , G
F, (9.11),
F G | F G | < | F | . | G|.

i () = max (( (), (), ^ (), ^ ()).
PX (9.14) /

< I () < () 0 - > 0 (, g


52?2$)- 2

, L 5!25
, p , q 1 v Xi

yq .
. , (8.28)
. , , ,
L
,
8.
/ . ( ^ ( ) () i ().
| /je

, (9.7). , -= 0,
/()< Ar, (9.15)
. (9.13), (9.10), (8.33), (9.15) (9.2), p=p(t, , x, f (, ))
() < (p () + ( ( )) < Mr + M - Ar < .
7
l
p
(

74
f = fxfw, P (t,w) x + p (t, w, x, f (w, x))) (9.10)
x

^ ( ) < . (). , , || f ||< || fx \\ < .


/ x

, (9.13) (9.15), (9.10) (9.2) ~ = (t, , x , / (w, ))

^ () < i () + ! () < 2 () (9.16)


, q , ^q . (9.11), (8.33), (9.5), (9.16) (9.2)
x y

~ () < () + 2! () < 0,1 *, () + i ()


f

Ijyfx- (9.11),
(9.7),
() < 1Q {||7*II (- + ^ ) + ^ (f i + II ,II + Il hfxII) +

{ 0 1 ( 2 c l ( ) + 1
+ *7 + < ' ' fx ( + i () + t(

+ /, ( (< + 0,1/ + 0,010 + 2i () + 0,l () + ! ()} = /je

= er* {3,3x () + ( ^ + 0,22/) ( ()}<er* [4 ') + ()], fx fje

<' + 0,22/<1 0 < / < 1 . , / *,


r 4c
><*rf>* ( ) < t i ( ) + / (OL (9.17)
n)
f = (S^)"/,
/ ,

/ E D a ()< 4 1() / 7 (9.18)


, / = 0). , / t e D , A (9.17) , G

(9.18).
w, w = , , 0

(, ) .
n
{fx \wo,x)} ( )
( ),
{f k) (w )}, x
n
0i

.
(). i:D ^--> D et EfA

, lim II f")|| = 0.
-*0

f(n k) ,)
( = f(n
(>, l)dl, k) {Wo , 0) + \

.
X
<p(wo,x) = ( , 0 ) + ^(1)%. 0


, (w , ) .
Q

, *(, )
( w) ,

w -> w. ,
n

{(^, )}
{ (Wn , )}. , ,
k

75
*(, x)=lim (f (w ,x). x nk , (, ) -
k-
(, ).
9.4. - (9.2),
d((f} 7 + *)=\y-cp(w,x)\

l m+k
j Y $R
w
l
Y , w

+ l
d((y), ) = \x-y(w,y)\

m+:
^ 3 l X*.

+> 5t +
d (S Q t , 3) ) > e' d , * ) * > 0 ,
(9.19)
+/ +
d [stQ, ) >e***d , ') *<.

.
, tlO, 1].
,
m+k
d [S Q t , W } =\Q(t,w)y + q (t,,x, y) -

( 7 V P (/,): + p (f, , x, y)) |.


(9.3),
f
Q (t, w)y + q ((*,,x y) <p (T , P (*, ) + p (/, , x, y))) =
9

= Q(t,w)(y q> (, x)) + [q (t, w, x y) q (t, , x, (, x))) + 9

+ [ (', P (t,w)x + p (t,,x, (, x)))


- (fw 9 P (*, ) x + p (f, , x, y))l
(7.31), (8.33), (9.2) D , , e

\Q(t w)(y <p(w x))\>e*\y


9 (f (, x) |, 9

I (, , x9y) q (t9 , x, (, x)) | <


< I y (, x) | < 0,1* I y (, x) |,

I {fw, P (t,)x + p (t, , x, (, x)))


-y(fw P(t,w)x
9 + p(t , x y))\<\\f l\\Py\\'\y(w
9 9 x 9 *)-jj|<
< . * . [ (,, ) | < 0 , 0 1 * | # - ( , x) | .

d (S,Q , > ' | / (, x)\-0,lt\y-


q> ( , *) | -

0,01* I y (a, x) I > e. I y (w, x) \,


76
9.1 ,
<
w+fe +/
3R n (
5 n (& $*)
13s * | ) ,
5

.
9.5. (9.1), | x | ^ \ | ,

t > 0.
. ,

* [ 0 , 1]. ^- ))
, -,
(/, w) + p (*, w, , (w, x)).
(7.31), (8.33), (9.1) I | < ,
I P (t, w) X + p (t, W, X, (w, x))
< < H | x | + et<(er* + 0,1*) < .
III

10. 1
1,3, 8 9.
, .
4 6, ()-
, 15, 1, 3, 8 9 ()-
()-.
: -
- .
, ,
.
m
/ = [0,1], [0, ), ( , 0] ( ,), : I -+ W
. t / , (t)
m m
W . v: I^W
, v (t)
, (t), . : v
,
/, : / - > / , / (/) =
= g (I) = I tiof = vog. v
, ,
,
.
> :
(u, ) = inf sup ( (t), v (t)).

,
p (, ) = 0, (, ) = (, ), p (, t>)< (, ) + (*>, ).
, / = [0,1] p (, >) = 0 , = >,

. ( ,)
, .
/ , p'u, s) >.
:
l 1
1) W = R (, , R
), / = [0, ) , (t) = arctg t,

2) W , -
78
(w Wo) , / = ( , ),
lf

v :

: v:

m
: I - W
m
v: I -> W
, .
F: I -> /, F(I) = I uoF = v. ,
/, g: I -> / , /(/) = g(I) I
1
tiof = vog. F = fog" !
1
( g' , , ?.
l
g~ (t) , cz I,
g t.
F , / = const / ' . , f const
uof const vog = uof const ,
g\ = const.
10.1. w(t), 0 < ; t <^ ,
, \ ~^w(t)\
, t -~ w (t)
( ,
w (t)) , -
. w (t) <^
f
{T wi; t > 0}. 3& )s
m
w (t), 0 ^ t < , : 0 > W 8

{V w' t > 0}, w' = wi, | | <^ ,
v t

ho (x, X) w (t).
. 8.1 , w (0)

(w' ), w[=- , | | < . 8.2,
x

wi (t) = Vw' Wz (t) = w (). , = [0, ).


v
S
, = [0, ]. w () (T W w'J.
20
8.1 , w () > --
X S
T T W w [ % | ^ . v

f
w (t) T w
m
, v: [0, ) > W ,
^0

( (t), v (t)) <*
w (t) 7 % i , ,
= wof v (t) = TW ti, /, g: [0, ) [0, )
, [0, ) [0, ).
( ) f\ / (* ) = , U 0

, . , t [0, t ] 0

s
Tz<>w = ^ T (0)w' , | x (t) | < .
x (10.1)
x

t = 0 , t 10, / ] , 0

(10.1), . , .
, . t * t n m

[0, / ] / (10.1). , t+
0

r 3
<*.) W l = T * T V *wl,
79
S
| t j < . , |tj = . (T W* w' ) x


U (*<*)
!|<5

)
--- ^ . ,

s, f g
(f
w(f(t ))U(r ^w )
0 1 p ( ( f t t ^ ) < j .

(10.1) * = t , . . Q

T* (fo)
wt = T T w[ x s(m)
= T T w[, x s(a)
I t|<.
, (f (t )) = Q

= (a) > - j - . ,

((/ (to)),
r e (
V ) > T "

/ g.
10.2. (9.1) (8.30)
g ^t<^\ (8.33). <

^ $ 0 >5, St ^ j ^ t , /
/ - > , - ,

,
Uib | 2 1 < . (10.2)
. S* >$
8 t > 0,
m+ m+/
* j 3R , S, Q &
5 0, Q 3 .
1 +/
, , SR"** Q 1
m+/
= %! (), = % (). 2 G m + f t
3l <
, = (, #) / = (, ). ,
= (, (, )) (10.3)
, . (
I I * 8 0 0

m+5 m+/
, (10.2) 3R f| 3l cz
cz 3 0$5.) ->
5 : ^{w, (, *)).
,
I |5 (, (, )) (, (, * )) | < II i|>* 11 * ll-| *i *21 <
2

< 0,01 |xi %\.


(10.3) .
. ,
m
W -^TH
, = / () = i|) (, (, / ())),
, , .
80
,
lim %i ( ),

%i(w ) (10.3).
0

10.1. , 8 {St} ,
w = / (w) w = g (w). , g = /;
{2^} {St} {2?}
{S?}. {5?}, , Xi (w) = 0, (w) = 0, 2 0, 5? ^
2? 1*^ $ 8 - 5

1. (8.22), b
(8.32)
8 0 = () + ( 1 ), = Q () + j ( 8 )
0 ,

, 8.3, 0 <^ t < 1


(8.33) < m < m . 0

- > 0, (
) ,
<l,mo()<^, mQ()<A..
r
{S }, s x ,

10.2. ,
w->%(w) = h(w,K{w) %i (w) + X(w) X2(w))

^ ,
{'} {S*}, w
P (w, X ) < .
, % {*}
{S*} ,
:
1)

* (W)
{*}
{St}.
2) {S } {2*}.
t

3)

f
{2*} {S }.
, % , ,
. p (w, % (w)) < ;
(8.3), (10.2) (7.2):
2
, % (w) ) < I () (w) + X {w) 2 I < / 2 (I Xi | + |2 ) <
<4*==2<.
, % (w ) =j= X (w ) upnw =^=- -
2 2
m m
, W , , W
6 . -. gl
m
% (W ), m-
m m
, W ; W .
f
, w-L % (w ) = %(Wo)= w . {S w ;t^ 0}
x z B

, , , 2,

{ ; t > 0} { ; / > 0}, (10.4)


f
{S w ; t < ; 0} , 2,
B

{ ; t < 0} { ; < < 0}. (10.5)


, (10.4) ,
4 < (10.5). 10.1
, 3Es$8 w (f),
> m
: $ 5 3 ) s - {* ; < / < } ,

ho (, X) {T*w ;<<<}, 2

h (, X)w(0) = mi (0) = w' w' = | | < .


2 v x

8, w (t) {2?},
, {2/}, eg = /. 10.1,
m
w (f) )~>W >
. . - - w (t) . , w = w[ = 2


= %, J I < . (^ (w ) 2

, % (w ) = % (w ) , .
x 2

10.2.
,
:
Wi w ,
2

(10.4) ,

(10.5), (6.1)
( ) ,

1 1 . 8

{*},
L
, , % Z Y 0 Z .
w W w
+1
* ; , .
+l
M , ,w


+1
, , M w

.
: ()- (6)
(6.2). (6.2)
(6.1)
{2^} {Si} 3 & 5 .
(6.1)
{2?}
{S?}, , {2$ {St}, eg = /. ,
8 i = 0, .

, (8.32)

82
8 , (8.33)
0 0
+/
(9.1). + 1 ',
= (, ) = i|) (, ), ,
{S?}. ,
0 )
s
m+ m+
5? 3R 3 l ' .
,
(,0) = 0,^(,0) = 0,|(,)|<0,1|[,|1;(,/)[<0,1|/|. (11.1)

,
*(<) = 0, ^ (,0) = 0, (11.2)
\\ < |*| < , 0 =
= ().

, (, x, ) , (Pw, yi) = S? (, , )

|*,|<-.'|*| > 0 (11.3)


m
( |^|, (11.1), \x \); (, JC, z/)EE3l "^, t

5
| | < ' ' < 0 .
m+
, (11.3) 0 < ; t < 1, 5K
{St}.
I x I = I (/,)x + p (t, , , (, *)) | <
t

< \ (t,)x I + I p (t, , , (, x)) | <


< ^ | * | + ( | * | + |*1 | * | ) 1 * | <
< r ' I ; I + (* + /) I | < r' ] x I + 0, | I < e-' \ |.
2 5t

{S } {2?}, , t

$ft m+k
( 0 $s), 2 0

^ t-+ + , Q ), +/
8 8 2 Q

/ > .

lwo = { , ): = (, ), | * | < , = , | | < 0}
l
0

1 1
^ ^ = (, ,).
1
. ^ (k + \)-
m
W , (k + 0

Xt 2^ . Q 0

. / 0

(6.1), > |*| < .


71
23& - > W" / 8 $85,
m 7
23 W / . 8.1 -
, , h\i
aSg () . , 0

$85 , , .-
,

Int $8 = { ( , x, ): I t J, I |, \ | < },
6* 8 3
. ha
Int
.
0

^ = {(, x, ): = < (, *),


1
/}.
,
1
gR-^-int^Q^:

\
1 1 1
^ = /^ , ^
7
(fe + 1) - 3$ .
, S? ( , , 0

( , )), [ t , : ^,.
0
1
= ^ 5? (w
0 ly
1
( :)), 2 < t < 0 x . (t, ) ^ .

( , ) 9.3, S? (, , )

(, ) ( ) 8, 5? t
, 5?
1
. , SR^t
7
(k + 1)- SS , ,

dS (wi,x,y(wi,
t x))

, . . k + 1.
(, x, , t) 33,
. 8.1,
St (wi, , (>1, )) :
x (x, t) = (, )x -t p (t, , ( )),

(x, t) = Q (t, wi) ( x) + q (t, x, ( :)),

t + .

/ , fx (x,t)
x Xt(x,t)\ fP(t,W{) + p + Py(fx x

^0 \ 0 1 \^ 0

: * = * (w )\ = pZ(t w , (w )) l9 9 u u

* , g*, <7; (8.21),


, , ,x,
7%/ , . (k + 1)-
0

(x. t)
= I (x,t)\
= \P (t, ffi'i) + + ( I

, + ( , ,

0,11 |/|, \ (t w )x | > \\ .y x


1
, , Mi* {k + 1)- 0
+1
X Q) Z . , M Wu Wu w

/ ( ), , /
0

{%}. , Xi , ,
0

* ~ 0 ,
* (,0) = 0.
S4
11.2 t, w

(k + 1)- -
m f
W , T w.
. t ^> 0. ,

f k +l k +1 m
T \M : w M -+W
w

f
w T w.
, w
1
Mw ,

, 11.2 / * ^
1
tVu .
1 1
w MW - w , ^ w
36 3>, w
1
SIC" , h\w = w'. p (w, w')
,
r
T w 3- - T w cz 5

7
, , 2?$' ( ,
7
11.1). * \ 33s* . ,
9R ( PS) 2? * > 0 ) .
m+

m +
2 ? i e 3 R \ ,

, T*w' * ' ^ .
11.3.
{T'a;, * > 0} w {' , * > 0} 0

-|-, mow M . + x
w Q

. 10.1 ,
w = (w\ x', ') G
w' = rw 0t < 0 , (11.4)
f
h (w , x {w')x' + X (w')y') = w (11.5)

2? 3>-
r
, = (', '), (11.4) (', \ y ) \
1
(11.5) .
1
11.4. ^ ,
1
(6.1),
, {'; t > 0} .
. -
( ) $ ( 5

). , ,
8 5
, ,
r
(,) =(', x ,y')nw=(w", "',")
$)
\x'\ + \x"\ + \y'\ + \y"\ + p(W, "),

m
W . 6' , (,)< '
= _ g
(, ,) < .
1
!^ =(',' ')^% * 9

,
1
{2?}, ^
>
2? '. {2?}
{5?}.
1
, SfSi^
#o,2S' 3),25'_ . = (", x" ")
1
G ^ p (,) , , , "
w' (6.1), ,

(w' , x y ) = S w,
t v t t {w" x ]) = S?),
v v

t p (w" w' ) < 0,20' , , / > v t

5 ? ) < | ^ | + | ^ | + | ^ 1 + | ^ | + (;,
P ( S ? S , ;'.

w
, S?S S t

6' f [0, ].
1
11.5. ^ , (k + 1)--

1 m
U^ W w 9 x
1 1
^ :

. 11.3 11.4.
1
. 11.6. ^
xi
. 11.1 11.5.

11.7. W W
m
U -
0

'1< (i = U . . . , )
, (k + 1)-
w +2 = const,..., = const k

+1
M . w

. ( ,..., )

( ..., x , t, ..., yt) = (, , ).


k

l
, yY , | -|<
Wo
l
||<, | / | < \\ < ( , yY ( )). p 0
1 m
A X: Y W Wq
m l
= hX yW . h XY () ? 0
l
/- Y w

86
(k + 1)- X Zw. w

(, , ),
1 l
Mw hXY ( ) .
p 0
1
, ^
1
( ); . ^ .
11.7
1
Mw ,
,
+1
(w) \
(),...,

* (), ;
k
(*, ) = 2 x
tti(y)
i= l

,
(x t,y){x:\x\<p}
9 X (,) X ()

h ( ) St (hXy, x (x, ), <p{hXy x a ( )))

m
W . , ,
(&+1)- */=const
(h ), ,
. ( , -

.) , < ^ .
, .
,
. ,
. , ,
,

{5:||<}[-,]{:||<}.

, = const -
. , 2

+ 1
Mk +
t
1
(hXy ) ^ x ( ) = .
2

,
wM*? (hXy ) l
x +x
M (hXy ). 2

f
>0} {T hXy , x >0}

5,

f f
{T w, >0} {T hXy , 2 >0}.

,
{* , * > 0 } {* , * > 0 } 2

87
- , , 11.3,
k +l
hly M (hX ).
2 b yi

,
Mt\hXy ) x ^ )
( hXy ), , ,
2

.
,

{ * : < } X (~,) X ^ ( ) - * 0

- -
,
0

, ,
m
Wo W . 11.7 .
,
.
, w w , 0

k + 1
M p (w){] ^,
,
1 1
, wM ? ( ) : ,
.
fe+1 +l m
11.8. 6 & W ,
& Z Y Z w
l
w w
l+1
. <3 { }.
.
, ,
,w' ,
A f \
k 1
wM +\ w'M^ , w

Mif 1
* = (),..., - 1 .
11.1 11.5 ,
m
W , 11.6
Xi(BZ > 11.7 , ,
w

w(), . ,
, ,
+1 m
M W ,
w

,
1
( , Mi*
U (7* ), 8.1).
1*|<5
11.2 , *
.
1
Mi* , J / J ^ l

I / 1 * .
1
= 7<'> ( ) ^ , {t} [t] /,
t *
.
88
12. 8
8 .
@* 6*, ,
, >*,
M . w

Mt ,
, .
6* , 8:
l l
Xi Y Xi Z Y Z 9 W9 w w

& , & ,
.
( 12.10,12.11).
(8.19) (w, )
9

\c(w )\<(\\
9 9 + \\) \ \ \c \<Q(\x\ + \y\)-
9 9 y


, >s
\ ||<0,1. (12.1)
12.1.
w=(w,x y)l 9
k
+ m
( ), 8 (12.2)

00

Je dt = a(w) , (12.3)

() | < 0,51*| (12.4)


1
\ SR^ (w)
.
. (12.3)
, I I < (| J + I I) , (12.2) 2? Q
w. (12.4)
8.2 (12.3) :
/~\

= \ ) dt=\c (S s{ i t , ^
5 ft ) dt = \ ;" ds . (12.5)

( , , 3t
00

( ) | < J |2c(S5)|rfs

(11.3), (11.1) (12.1) ,
0
(^5)|<[ |-^| + |^|| |-^^1<0" . '|^



| < | < $0,22> '|;|<# = 0 , 4 4 | * | < 0 , 5 | | .

1
a ISR^
1
^ , 11.1.
( t) ( , (12.2)).
9

89

= (x, t) = S? 4 , x, x)),
( 5$5? =

G () = a t) =V ' is =
1 + ^ ( ^ ( ^ ( 1 , X)))

_ I ( ^ ( 1 ^ , ( 1 , *)))
ds. (12.6)
~) 1,+ ( 5 > *,(!,*)))

, , (x, t) t
(x, f). .

f \ f \ 1
G -f- ) (l + ) ' (1 - h )* '
c = c(S (w , <f(w ))).
s l9 l9

, ,
1
^ s > + . -
Ss 4 , , 4 , )) (, s); ^/- y{x,s)
s
(7 w x (x, s)), SK = 3R \ ,
l9
m+ m+

S 4 , x 4 , : ) ) = ( 7 4 , (, s) y(x
t 9 9 s)) =
= (74, x(x, s), (74, ~(, s))),

-g- = [- (74, *, ) + - (74, #) 5 (*, x)Ux ( s). 9

, , ( s) -> 0 9
1
,* s > + . , s >
|**(*. s ) | < e - . (12.7)
{5? I 3R *} ,
mf

(, (, )) (,, 4 , /)),
9

w t =74 xt = P (t w) x + (/, , , (, )).


9

, 0 < ; t ^ 1
\ + + < \<\\+ 0 , < + 0,<*5'.

s : s = [si + {s},
S s

_ / M
Os *J{S} loi; .
, = , 0

/+1 = P (1, *) x - + p (1, z 7 4 , /, ( 7 4 , x/)), i < [s],


,
s C s
x (x, s) = P ({s}, 7 4) x + p ({s}, 7 4 , w V , * )),
w

0X
I [s] ax
is-l] a x

(12.7) .
1
- (x, t) SR^ ,
* + (, 0- (12.6)
ds (, Q g

3 1 +
,

. . < + a (x, t) .

t + (, t) = const
1
^ .
, 0

) , 0

^ . 3R^ % .
0 0 0

12.2. 4 k-
0
m
W , w k- 0

Xw .Q

. ,, ,
1
^ , 11.1 ,
ftp
.
k
, M X , ,
WQ Wo

) ^, w = ( , 0, 0) ,- 0 0
1
^ X Z 3)? Wo Wo 0

t + (, ), , 3R^ 0

w ,
0 9

~ (t + a (x, t)) = 0 x - 0,

. . (0, /) = 0.

(12.6) = 0.
12.1.
, ,

S e r b ? * ^ ~ '
0(
> ') = { + ds

t
(0, s) = 0, (0, s) = 0 (, , ) < ([ x | + | |), - = 0,
- = 0 .
1
12.3. w ^ w, w 0
1 1
w, w ^ ftp, 3J}**
0

w (, /) ( ,
11.1). %> ~j-

+ ( + 5
(, ^ )~>0.

91
. 8.2,
2 ^ = 5 ,,)
(

s (, , w) = t + ^

> +

, 1 - 0 - ^ + . (12.9)

, w (*, f); , = 5 ? (^, :, (tw :)), lf


8
> = 7*.' . , = ' ^ = ^ , ,
0

S
T a(5)H = (
+
+ + + 8
' ^ , ,). (12.10)

(12.8) (12.10) .
12.4.
{w.wEE A l \ Hm (', * ) = 0}. 0
*--{-

.
12.3.
12.5. t, w 0

k- U^.t Wo

m
W , T*w . Q

. 11.2 12.4.
. 12.6. WiM^, k-
m
U W , wi
Wl

M : Wi

w GU czMi
t Wl 9 M . Wl

. 11.5 12.4.
12.7. M w

X . w

. 12.2 12.6.

(x, t) 5^
(, ), Xt {w ), | * | < . , -
0

G(x,w ):Xt.
0 > ,

92
1
, ^
4
(-, G (, w ) I, ( 7 wo, G (, wo) I)) (I f < , g X5 (oi )).
0 0 (12.11)
1
, (, ) SR** :.
G (, ) .
0


k
P(x,Wo):X Wo



* (,>): ^-^ .


* (, wo) (, wo) : X - Wu

f (, ) = / * (,- )
0 0 V T,By ) 0

; G
1
G (, Wo) = (, w ) F" (, ). 0
1
(i, ) ^ , ,
(x, t),
11.1. , x = t +
+ . , (x, ), -
P (t vi)x + p (t, w , x, {w , x)),
9 t

wi = b
Tw; 0 (121),
1
I (*, t) = G" (t + , wo) [P (t,Wx) x + p(t, w u x, {wu x))].

l (x, t) (F = ]/ PP* P),


G 11.1 ,
I
\ ( , t) = G-i(P
+ p x + Pl/<p ) x

.
() : = (, ). ,

| (6,)|<1. (12.12)

,
(g, t ) = G (X, t) + C (X, t) X
t x x (, T ) .

(12.6),(, t) = ~ = (). , (12.6) x


c

(12.1) (11.5), , (, ) = ().

(, ).
t
g (* (5, = ,

S* (A:, t) X z (g, T ) + It {x, t) = 0 ,

* (5, = ~ S? (X, t) \t (X, t),

93

|*,(,)|<|& % t)\,
. T- (x, t) t

, w , t I, ] | g/|<X> (|
0 ()
, I (x, t) (, , )
S?
(8.21),
\ = AtwoJ)l + a{wM) < 1 2
>

; f [20,0]; IX$(W )). 0

,
$, (os t ); (, , 0) = 0 a^(wo, t, 0) =0.
m
, (, /) W X [2 , 0]
| | = |6 + |<0().

G (, ) , X ,
0 WO

, 2 . (12.13)
A (w , t) (X*., ),
Q

( , , | )
0 ^ . 0

. 8.1.
1
5^ . ^ ,

(g, ), (, ,,,). (, )
+ G(X, t) = const + (x, t) = const,
+ ( (5, , ))= const. 0

(12.4) (, ) :

|a((,t,o))|<4-|S|. (12.14)
(12.12),
[ + ((,, ))]==(). 0 (12.15)
(12.14) (12.15) , |^|<^0,5
+ (w (I, x, w )) = d Q

= (, ^), (g, , ) 0

*. ,

k
$t = {w : w = w (g, x (g, 0, w ), ), l ()}
Wo 0 0 0

, (. 12.3, 12.4),
* ^{w:w^w{l,x
0 {I, fl, w ), w )}. 0 0

m
12.8. mo4KUw W
0
m
U ^w -
0

| < (t=l,...,m)
, k-
w +ik = const,..., w = const m

M . w

94
. (w ..., w ) lf m
l
(, ft, )- , I ^, Y , | m | < Wo t

1 | | < , |ft | < | | < :


(6, ft, ) X* () X ( - p, p) X ' ( ). 0 (12.16)

11.7, -
(),..., e (), .

, #i (0), ...,& (0) , g , 0 0

i = S |A(0).

ta, ) = S
\ .

, (12.16)
( > ( 1 (y,l),*( (y,l),,hXy),h%y).
.
, ,
, , ,
11.7, 1 2

+ 1 + 1
( )] 1 ( )^.2

, = const ,
. 11.7,
,
.
m
12.9. @* & W ,
l
Xw Y . w

{*} ,
* ( , )
.

11.8.
12.10. L :w = w (s), 0 ^ s ^ le
X Z : w w

f k 1
w (s)X Z , w(s) w(s) 0<s< 1 (12.17)

( Y 0 Z ),
w w
1 z+1
^ ( @ ).
. ,
, (12.17) , s [0, 1]
w' (s) = g (s) + (s), l (s) X i ( s ) , (s) Z\s) .
l
T L, t > 0.
T*w (s) = f V (s) = T't 's) + f (s).
a
s

95
(7.31)
m$l<e-*|(s]|;
l
, % (s) = const- / (T w (s)),
max I / (w) I

(7.2) ,
|^r^(s)|<a|o/(s)l * > 0 ,

.
f
T L < L.

, L -^-,
S E [0,1]
f f
{T w (s), t > 0} {T w (0), > 0}

- j . 11.3, ,
s [0,1] w (s) GE Af(J). ,
wi > ...,w iw , 0
2 n n

. , ,
WiW i+l cz M f w (i = 0, . . ., 1),
, L
12.11. L: w ~w (s), <J s <^ 1 -
&:
w'(s)X ( 0^s^i W Sh (12.18)
l
( Y ),
w

& ( &).
. (12.18) (7.31) , / > 0
\Ttw\(s)\^e-t\w' (s)l


T* L<^ ~ L.
, 12.10 , L
L , 12.4
, L : L , L ^
, .

13. 13.1 3
13.1. > 0 > 0
m
. wczW ^>8 , p (, ) < .
{Vw}
', (,)< , :
{',0<<} {7',0<<'}
( 10) .
96
. 13.1 .
13.2. ^> 0 ^> 0 .
m
wW > , p (w, Vw) < .
1
w = w (t)
,

^& f(w(t)) < t, (13.1)

p(w{t), Vw)< 0 < < . (13.2)


13.3. > 0 s > 0
2

. ,
w ( ) - , t
1

(6.5). ()- (6.1)


{T* w} ', p (w (0), w) < , :

((), 0 < * < } {Vw, 0</<'}
.
13.2. ,
m
w w' W , / [0,1],
(, w', t) , w ',
t : (1 /). , 8,
m
h = h (W,() ( W ,
Rw), (w, w', t )
:
(,>) = > \ (13.3)

r(w,w\t) = h(w, ta). (13.4)


(13.3) = ((W, w') (
, )
r
. = (w,w ) (13.4), ,
( ) .
x
p (w, T w) < s ,

('',:' + ) < 2 / [ 0 , ) / ] . (13.5)
(, ,
, ,
.)

Vw / < * < ,

a(s)C , a(s) = 1 s[0,y ], a (s)
s , , <* (5) = 0 S E } , 0j;
a (s) . s , w (t)
l 2
(13.2). , w(t):C ( w(t)C ),
1
/ G C ,
,
), 0<; / < ; "|/~
t
(t ) = V + w.
7 . -, 97
, (t)
t .
, (13.1).
(t) <^ t <
w = / (), tiO, Y ].
(w> / s) ,
r , TV Ts ,
w

= . / ( 7 * + rf(T< + *w) + T s = ' (=).

(13.1), ,
I (w, ', s) f () + * (, ', s) f (') - / ( (,',s)) I = ( (, ')) (13.6)

( s)
13 7
J Ts ( 0 7 , W',S)\ = (, ')- ( - )
(13.5) ,

4 ^ - / ( ( 0 ) | = (/ -).

, (13.6),
, = '
(>,,s)/ () + 7V (/, ^ , s) f{w) f (),
. . , (,,s) = ,
Tay (, , S ) + *' , S ) = 1 .

(13.6). , (13.7) :
', s 0 1 (,',5)
,
';
.
13.3. L
, (/),
13.3. 8
(6.1) L {St} $s Ds, ,
-
(6.1) (()). ()
5 5
1
Vw' , , II,
(6.8). Y ,
w
l
Xt, Y ,
Wt

(6.27), . 3

{St}
3Es $ 5 ,
L
3 (8.31)
(8.28). Q
(8. 31) (7.33), 8.3 ,
p, q ,
, , (8.28).
, (8.29).
98
( ) 7 8,
, , . ,
2 3

, , , 2 3


< , 8 < , < ( , ).
3 3 0 2 2 (13.8)
, 8 , ,
2 3

(13.8), ,
6 , 8 (, ) .
0 30 2

, , 8 , 2 3

{St} (
9.1). (9.1), 8.3 (8.29), ,

m [Q () + ^ 0 ( 8 ) + 0 ( 8 ) ] < ^ - ,
2 3

m [ () + ( ) + (8 )] < m i n ( ^ ,
2 3

, , , , -, 3

(13.8), , -,
(13.9) m ( ) < ^ , -, - 3


(13.9) m ( ) < ^ . , , -
3

, (6.27) , 3
1
, Vw" * ,
. (13.8) (x, ) 2

, (, , ,
)
< ,e <8 0 2 2 0 , (13.10)
(13.9) ( ) (
2

, ( ) (x, ) , . 8). ,
2 2

< 1, (13.9) ( )

m (0) + ^0(8 )]<-| , 3

m [() + ( * ) ] < - ! - .
, ( < 1),

2

< i , e <8 (). 2 2 (13.11)


, , 13.3,
< , < S i . e

e < m i n [e , e ()].
2 2 2

{St}
. , 10.2,
, < (BSPs St
0 $) /,
, . . ,

x = %i , = %2 () ( = (s) L).
7* 99
L', 5/,
{St}.
V
, 1/ {7 }.
3. 13.1 ,
()- ,
,
. ,
m
W
.
, ,
()- (, ,
, [751). , ,
, ()- .
( [751,
()-, ,
, .) ,

{Vwn} ()- (6.1) , < .

( , ) ;
?

wn -+m,
k tn ~>Vi).
k (13.12)
n
T kw = w , 7 ^ 0 =
rik nk , > 0, 0

, ,
, ). , {Vw^}
( ,
0

, t ). {Vw } 0 nk

, {' } , ,
0

. (13.12) ,
{T'w , Uk 0</< } { T W <></<*}
. ,

f
{T w ,nk t > 0} { W / > 0}

{T'w ,nk /<0} ( /<()}.

10.2.

14. 2 9
,
R .
w

, , .

. 4,
; 14.1 14.2, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, 4.
1 0 0
m
14.1. /: [0,11-* W ,
. > 0 >0,
, p (, f (0)) < ,
m
g: [0,1 ] W , : g (0) =,
, p (/ (f), g (t)) < t [0,1].
. , 4
m
: wW
U^w
m- |/|< 1 (/ = 1,..., ),
+i = const,..., w = const. U
m t

/(). t [0,1]
/, / (A ) cz U . ( t t

[0,1 ]:
(, ), [0, ), [b, 1] [0,1].) {A } t

[0,1] , [0,1] , ,
, . . ,
- ,
[0,1]. ,
,
, ,
, . ,

= [0, ), = ( ), . . . , = ( -.
2 &), A ft+1 = ( , 1],

0 < a i < i < a 2 < ... < a - i < - i < < < l .
n n n /

to = 0, ti^-j^at + bi) i = 1, . . . , n, t +! =
n 1.

{t } :

0 = f o < * i < - - - 1

[t ti ] /, / U
i9 +1 t

U t
f([t ,t^ ]jC=:U (i = 0, . . . . ) .
i 1 i

i : > 0
> 0, , (, t (0)) < ,
m
g: [0, t \ > W , ,
t

g (0) =u> (f (t), g ( 0 ) 0 t [0, t ]. i = 0 .

, i, i + 1.
f{t), tlh, fc+il, Ui,
m
: Ut-> R , Ui |/[ < 1
m
R ,

/ '*) - 'q>i/ / (* [//,
/ f(/) = const / > /?, / (/)
. (, f(ti)) , Ui,
m
R
w (t) = ( (t), . . . , W (t)) = / (f) + /
Wl m ( / )

(, f (?))
|/| < 1, qThv () Ui.
101
, ( , /(t) = const
/ > ) p (f (), ^ (t))
t : [h, / ], (/ (), ) .
+1

(, f (0)) , , -,
g: [0, U\ -> W , g (0) = , p (f (/), g (0) <
m

r [0, U] , , -,
(/ ), i { , g (&)
, (t) tUt, u+J _1

f (f) . g (t) [ti,


-1
(t) g (). g : [0, tt+i]

, .
m
14.2 f: [0, 1 ] - > W ,
I. ^> 0
> 0, / , (, f (0)) < ,
g: [0, 1] = ,
, < I + ,

9 ( (0> # ( 0 ) < * ( [0, 1].
q
. qm E ^- w

, (. . 2
Q Rw = 0 ). () uiapa{e 2, ||< }
h, & ()
, ,
. , > 0
> 0, (, ' () (')
, '.
gi () , ;
2 (t) = Bi ( gl (t)) Bl (f (t)) (0 < t < 1).
. , - t 0

[0, 1] g (t) . ,
2

gi (t) t , ,
to
g2(t)~b ( (t )) A gl Q BVf(t)).
A , , , g (t) 2

t.
,
w = gi (0)B A (f (0,),
g (t) , . ,
2

, g (0) , ,
2

. g% (0)
g%, g , 3

< g + . 2

, 0 < ; t <^ 1
| ( ' ) | < | / ' ( 0 | + (). (14.1)
, p (w, f (0))
g < / + .
2

g , g,
3

.
102

D P )m .

a () () .
( (w) $(w)):R EZ-+R.
9 w

1 1 1 1
(" (), " ()), " "
. ,
4
g%(t) = h(f(t), (/(*)) *(')), (1 -2)
(t) ^>, | (t)\ < .
m
W
= ,
(14.1) ,
. , f () g (t) 2
m
/n- jR , (t) ^-
q m
E () R
9
q m 1 m q
E R , a " () R E .
gif (,..., w ) m

, | | Ig21 .

g @ ,
2

(14.2):
g (0 = ( *)f(0 +
2

+ (f, e) . (/ (0) (0 (0 + - ( *) V (0) (0-


/ (t) + (), (
) (), /i = l + (). , w R m

4 (0 = / ' (0 + (*) + (f ( O K W + (*)0 ( - (14.4)



~ (/ ( W = *' (0 + 0() + 0 ()0 (*'),
x
(14.5)'
1
f Rf - /' = 0.
R , , , '
w

/ < )
I " 1
() ' () I ' |.
(14.3), (14.2) (14.4),
I " (/ (0)ft (0 | < Q W | / ( ) + *' + () (') I
1

, (14.5),
I ' + () + 0 ()0 (e ) | < Q () [ (1) + () + {') + () (')1
f

, | ' \ = Q (). (14.4),


l e i W K I / ' (01 + Q
.
()- (6.1). *,
+1
<5 , , ,
1
(), N (), (), ^ 1
()

1 0 3
.
l +l l
B* 'w), B (w),
R R B% (w,, B ?'w)
1
R (), N (), ( ) , ()
.( .)
, > > ,
(,')< s (w') (tw)
.
^-()=)-^(^),
f , * / >0) (14.6)

, (7.7) .

l
U (w)=
R U Bb(w'), U (w)= U N (w').
,

f/ = U U (w). n (14.7;
+ 1
(14.6) T W () = () ,
' 1 / * => U t > ^ = U (w).
Rc co (14.8)

14.3. < i? ^ U () , R

R -
, 8 .
. 0 < # < z UF> ( ) , . .
l k+1
B (y), yM (w). *,
R
1
N {z) < R 2,
r
. 14.2, (z, z ) ,
1
zu N (z')
< R , 2Q= ! p (zi, z\) < ,

. 8 , () BI(Z{)

. '
z{ , N (zi) = N (z')
< ; z't.
k+1
, N (z'), ' M (w)
z' < R. ,
l
z'B R ) ^ ( ) .

, U% () .
(14.7) , U (w) .

, (,')< , , ,
B[{w') ^()^,
, ' U ().
m
14.4 > 0 a wW
(. .
) , p (T~ w,)< . s

kb
. {T~ w} t

k > 0. ,
; .
m
W , k k + /, / > 0,
(-* , -5 ( / + / ) 5
)<8,
104
8 , 13.1. ,
7MW)B w % = /, , ,

(+
~ ^ .
m
14.5. W
, Uoo{w).
. 14.3 14.4 ,
s
s , T~ w U (). (14.8) ,

Uoo {-
14.6. R, < R < > ne-
1,..., w , n

W m
= Un {Wi).

m
. 14.5, W ,
(14.7) 14.3.
14.7. R <

~+, T () U % (),
k+1
m ().

. = U (), , (14.8), R

T~ IL
UR cz U -. (w).
1
Re

, : /,
+ 1
* () , ^- (*), . .* .

9 ,
()-
. 14.6 ,
U > Wj
tl
, 14.6, T w U (/). R
k+1
14.7, w M (/). ,
k+1 k+1 m
M (,..., M (w ) W . n

9 ()-
k+1
. - M (w)
k+1
, M ()
k+1 m
, , M () = W .
k X
, M + () = U (). R
kJrl k+1
, U () M (). ' M
R (), . .
k+1
' " M ().
" ',
+
l
B {w')R ^ >'^0.
k l
z , z M + () ' B (z), R

' U ().
R

U () (), R

, , U (), R
k+1
M (). (, ()-
.)

14.7, = U (), R

T WU {W), i-1,2, ... X


R

105
14.8. ()- ,
.
(, ,
U, t
f
TU [)U = .
. ,
, U
^ > ,
T*U .)
. 14.8
13.1.
2. ( 14.5
14.6), . ,
Z i , . . . , IN, ,
.
T* w t - >
+1
//, , 11.3, w <S ,
N
+ 1
U. - \ U Nif {k + 1)-
,
. w . 8 > 0
IN
t >- , T w ,
n

8, II,...,IN. {T* w} n

{T w}. Wo = tn

= lim T w. w Zi,..., IN s. ,
tn
0

.
- U WQ. ,
T w U > .
tn

T^oU [\U ,

tn
Tw = TN
T ~ *T * IN TN
w U,

14.8, w 0

, . w , ,
0

Zi,..., IN,
,..., IN-

15. ()-
()-.
4 6, 13, 8 9, -,
, -,
.
, ,
, , ,
. ()-
()-. ( ,, :
. . 1)
; . 2)
, . ;
.) : - + ()--
0

106
{} V : W -> W ,
m + l m + 1

, 2,.
2 3 { }
{'} . 8
m+1 1 1
. W -> S W.
1

. -
W. ,
X
0 w

X
w

-
m+l
X , Yw {*}, { } . W
w
+1 /+1
* , {'}.
H1
W ^-
k
W. <S ,
. ,


@ . ,

-
1.
:
0 ()- {}, f : W-> Wo 0
1
. 2, ,
0
m+1
W {'}
0

, 0
171+1 V
{7 } .
m+1
{'}, W
1 1
{ },
m+1 1 1
W > S
. , , 1 {*}
{*}, 1 {} { } . (
() ,
W > S ; m+1 1

%: W W ,
r n l m + 1

F
{*} {T }> .)
, 13, (w ',t) 9

, W
', t : (1 t). 13
00
, .
VU
S , l * s
w i o 1 0

1
S s (*) = ' y , TQ T W 0 } a (sj),
00
a (s) , a (s) = 0 s 10, -^-1, a (s)
s l y , y ] , a (s) = 1 s [, 0].
yiW'fx [0, 1 ] - > [0, 1],
(, s) [S ,s). (
s
1 1
), ( ).
W X 0 Wo X 1 , 0 0

< : W x W . ^ m+ m + l

V = ' " .
1

107
9 ()- {},
, , 14
()- ,
+1
,
, ,
k+1 1 w
M (,..., !^ ( n)
.
{V} WT ,
+
&
, .
,
(M (t*i)k+1
U . . . U M (w )) n wi
M
n
l

,

Mi,..., . ,
Mi U . - - U % = W%.
W (
) Wo X ( 8 , ),
{*} w X ( , ), w WQ.
/+1
@ *,

\
k+l
X ( - 8 , )) = (M W") x (-, e).
,
(M (w ) k+1
x [}...[) M ^(w )) (W? x ( - e , e)) =
k
n

( M U - - . U AlXr)X(-e, s).
f
WQ X ( 8 , ), M [ U
1
...U Wo .
9 ()- {}
. , w W
{?}, . . T w = w. 0

kil k
M (w) (W? x ( - e, e)) = M (w) X ( - e, e),
hArl m+1
M (w) = W , (w) = Wo-
, w Wo { }

: w = w. w ()- { , <
k
< < } . , M (w) {}
{}, ,
W.
, , w WO . 8 >
,
( ) - W, . . 8--
W. ,
W, ,^, ...
w , - W;
N

= (, J X . . . X ( w ). N

108
pn
{T w, n = 1, 2,...}
- /. ,
8 ^> - >
l n
W ,
0

/
( , )<. (15.1)

, , () W, ,
8

*() cz (). (15.2)
k
- w'M (). () '
, , ,
R. ' 3 (). (14.6),
R

pn h pn
TW B -n Rr t (T *w } = B% -n e (wj.

e (15.1) ,

[ ( * '; S (T w) 0, pni

. , ,
z .
t

pni pn pn r pn pn
T' ziT Bi (T *w ) T~ Bi {T 'w);
, (14.6),
Pn pn l
T~ { (T W) CZ B -pn e (' ),
pni pni k
a T~ B\(T w) cz M (w);
T zi pni
B -pn l
e (w') M k
(;.

, T ~ Z / , () prt/

'. , ' *(), (15.2) .


pn
{T w, n = 1, 2,...}
- /. ,
8 ^> 0 >
1
W * ,
pn
p(T *w )<. (15.1) 9


, , (w)=W, ,


() cz (). (15.2)
k
- w'M (). () '
, , ,

R. ' (). (14.6),


<' B%-n t (T *w) = pn k
B -n
Re (,.
/ (15.1) ,

[ ( * '; S (T 'w) 0, pn

. , ,
2/.
pni r pn
prll
T- Zi^T~ B pni l
x (T w )
~ 1 (T 'w);
, (14.6),

- *[ (T W) pn
: i-p/./ ('),

a ~ ( *) cz ();
1 k
"" '* - , ('; M (;.

/
, ~ /, ()
'. , ' *(), (15.2) .
x\
l
dx .


xh , , ,
.
; ,
, . , ,
, .
, 22. ( dxh
, ,

, [ 7

( / 7 , ). .)
h m h m
, , A R AR
,
; . . . A , , - - *h> =
det < | Xj> , (Ii R ,

m
X j R ). m

r- x -
(q )- ] ip, (q )-

( q < r x _J >
| = 0.) ,
_J : iVRm
x A i m
- >
q r
A - R' n

.
L(T\>) = {x: x R
m
= 7? , jcjip = 0}
1

m
R.
*m * m
E cz R cz AR >

- - -
*
m
. , E (ty) cz R ,
, i|) = (|)).
1 Re
|). ,..., e ^ (), ^
1 Re
,..., e ^\ ,
, |.
, <7^ Rg^ ^ m Rgi|> = q ,
^- | .
L () E (ty) .
, - Ann () L (|), x Ann (|?) 7

O J ^ , > = (/\, '


(<7 1)- t/,
.<*, Zi> . . .

Zl> . . . <#l, ^ >

z/ (),
. : E (i|)) ZD AnnL (tfi).
-, : (oj?) cz AnnL (|),
, , , x L (|)
if A (Ann *)
, ,
Ann L .
Ill
m
R , = .

|5

ii<...<iq

1
({ } ). x L (), _J - = 0, . .

/ < < U
2

= 0
< * i A / . A - - - A < V ^> >
1
, , 1/,.../ . , ,
. .
2 w
( , . . . , e j = A(Annei).
E ()
* * (
, ).
L (), , ,
- , ,
| , ,
'imL ($)~mq. ,
q- .
p ,n
R - R .
m q - ^-
R , R (. . R R = 0). #
q p p g

{et},
7
u . - - , , . . , i?" .
+ m

m 1
{} R .
p
R ,

^ = 0, . . . , = ,


<&*\ > = 0, . . . , <, > - 0.
pvX
^- = e /\.../\
p
Rp. , x R . (q 1)-
< >^> ,
p+1
< , > <1 , ^> 9
p
. , R cz L (), a Rg = q, dim L () = L () =
p
R .
p
, * R
. ,
L () = RP, , ,
p
^ ()-A(Ann ),
p
7- Ann R ,
, -.
-
m
Rw, W . U
W) m
{ (w)}, w U {et (w)}

Rw, R - w

,
p+l
(w) = e (w) / \ . . . /\ (w),
112
, ,
R U. R , (
w w

{et (w)}) , . .
- wU - ^-
R , R . Ri cz Rw
w w

ARw > .R , W

(), , ;
| () Rw (. .
, , ).
1|() U ,
R , Rw, .
w

, , ,
m
R% W ,
. R ,
w

() ,
m
R > W ,
w

, .
m
, U a W
- i|) (), . (

: wU
Rw, . . q.) ,
- R , w

U. () , R w

, . . ( ,
, , (
) ,
,
,

, . .)]
(), R ,
w

. ,
m
W 7- * (),
R - , .
w
q
, - R ,
w
q
Rw (, R R
w w

); , * (),
,
R . , ,
w

Rw
.
, , :

$ /$1 Rw/Rw .
, ; >,
R , . (
w

, .) , -
m p
3t /3t . { U } a
m
W ,
(), R . ,
w

- () R #^/^> - w

8 . -, 113
m p
dt /St .
wU (] ... U ip (w),...,
ai (w)
s ei

,

^-,
R . {ft* (w)} ,
w

{t/a};
() = 2 (w) (w).

, i|) . R , w

oj>
.
p
, R
w

@ .
. ,

@


= const, . . . , = const.
1 p
(dy ,..., dy , 0 , . . . , 0).
, ,
m
dyp+i == 0, . . . , dy = 0.
, ,

, (d% = 0 ) .

g . , , ,
a

Ua,
d^ = d (g %) = dg = 1 g*
a a
d

w U, , ,
d\ng ]?:=<*1

( dfy), , , d\ng=f= d\n g . a

, { },

^= S A a ^ l n ^ a = ^ ,
2 =

( ). ,
,, R 6"
w

^- -, .
, ,
(. . ).
, - <,
RS,, , dcp .
, = / -, / ,
d<p = df + = d\n\f \ + * / = (|/| + #) .

:
g- , <,
"-
& ( , >)
, *
. U
q
(I(W, dw), . . . , (o (w, dw), q

114
w = U ,
/1 - 0, = l , . . . , ? . (16.2)
, U
(^-) ^-
R = {dw : ( (w, dw) = 0, . . . , < {w, dw) = 0}.
w q (16.3)
, ,
,

. . m .
,
, :
, . ,
,
.


( (16.2)),
,
. ,
,
,
, , :

() R , w

Wo, L,
I R ,
0 w

.
. (

w (#\..., ),
Q
+1
= 0,..., = 0, R&

. L
1 1
: = (/), i = 1,..., .

5: * ) = \ . . - , (^). > ), \ . - , *)
(q + 1)- (t, \) m- %
1
. , x" /?(#, >
l
, (t,r\) %~ Rx(t,n) t

(/, \). (, 0,..., 0)


+1
(t, yp (t),... (t)) , ' %
y

, ,
L ,
R . t = 0 . ,
w

t, , . . L
w .) ,
0

,
.
, (16.3)
coi,..., Cq, L (|) (w)) ; z= /\^ f (l

...?.,# /, (|> (w)),


-, , ,
|; = ... (^, / ,
0 1

(16.3). ,
8* 115
(16.2) dty \|)
q\dq> (16.4)
.

.
. ([76, 77]; .
[1021, 6),
.
C I , . . . , C

, ,
dco;
(16.2). U
(16.3)
; , ,
R
Wt

. , , R w

& (, , ).
, *, ,
Op . . . ? ,
= C I

(16.2) (16.4). , , . ^
>
dip, ij),
. (, , )
3
q = (dy zdx) (dz dx)
2
3
(g , ). , ^
( dty ).
_2_
3
R\ y
Xt iZ) = L () = {(dx, dy t dz) : dy zdx = 0, dz 30y dx = 0}



2 2
30 T
= * = ( s i g n y = sign0. (16.5)
(16.5),
,
9

,
,
,
.
R
w

, .
, ,

. ,
Rw , . ,
: R w

, ,
1
. (, = ~ *, sign 0,
,
( ) , 3
*<,
{ c)\ *>c,
116
,
.) ,
- ( > 1)
. , ,
, , R
w

. -
,
? (,
dip, ?).
.
()- %> *
+1 1
( ()- X w ) , .
,
:
, ,
, ,
. ,
. ,

, .
2
, , , ()- X
w

/- ,
, (
2
()- ). ,
,
;
& ( ), ,
.

17.


& .
, .
9- (g = m ) Ilj,

@ , . . ^- ,
m
W &.

m
^- W ,
.
wi !
L :w = w (t), 0 < / < 1 ,
0 Q (17.1)
6*.
(. ),
w w' Hl (
0 0

w'o) ?1 Ilf , (
w'o) & L ; wl-+w[
0

w w^ ?
0

. ,
m
giEl X I^W

117
^- El,
1 q
Q= (W ) E , / = [0,1]
0

W
m
y

g(x, 0) = 1*0 () g(x, 1)? XES', )


g(e ,t) 0 = w(t) 0<*<1; | ( 1 ? 2 )

xE$ ay = g(;c, f), 0 < * < 1 , |



@ . ]
w' = (:), g (x, t), 0 < t < 1,
0

u?i = fi (g*(x, 1)), w' ->^ Q

, ?
/ : * - > ^ ( * , 1). (17.3)
/ El *.
, ,
i ,
?. ,
, nj,

<
,
, / .
,
q m q m
i , :E ^W , i :E ~>W , 0<s<l,
0 s liS

s (. . i , () i () (s, )
0 s XtS

^r*o,s () i () (s, )), s


ltS

, .
, u?o,s = h, s (o) s
, 5

L :w = w (t), 0 < * < 1 , (17.4)


8 s


( 5) ,
w (t) (t, s).
s

(. ), w QtS

WQ ll ,s nfS ,
lS
q

s w' . 0tS

,
q m
g:E xIxI->W (x, t, s)-+g(x, t, s)
( El, , ),
s = 0 :
*(*.'. 0) = (, );
g(x,0,s) = i (x)
0iS g(x,l s)lll
9 s XE$, -
g(e . 0 t, s) = w (s) 0 < / , s < 1;
t '
XEQ , w = g(x, t, s), 0 < s < 1,
1
SI

? .
118
s /

/. : El - * \ f (x) = h%g(x,
s 1, s), (17.6)

(x, s).
g*. , i ltS

, f ( ) = w (1, s). <* j


lfS {)

. {
0

q m
h:E x x I X I-+W 9 (x, t, s)-+ht,,{x),
:
o,s = h, s \ hi, s = h., s I -^
ht, s () = w(t, s);
A JE? X * X s
(t, S)I X / , ' (1^.7)

;
-j^ht (x) yS (x, t, s).

& h (El x
X * x 5) , t s. -
( , t So), El.
0 0l 0

/, s, h (El x s x t) ,

<& .
\t to I, 15 So I (, s)
x(t,s) ht, (x (t, s)) h (El X
9 s

X t x s) @, h (x ), tarSo Q

:
x(t, s) = hts(h(El x t X s) B ( A ^ . ( * > ) ) ) ,

J3? (u?) e
w. x (t, s) ( , U, s ), 0 0

x (t, s, , U, s ). , a

\ = (t-iy Si, Xot to, So),

x(t, s, X o , ^ o , So) = x(t, s Xi, t y ly Si)

t, s, .
x (t, s) (s , t ) I / T x

, x (s , U) \.
T

/ X / ,
w (t , So) 1x1 (, s)
0

, ( , s ) (, s). jt 0 0 0

, x (t, s, , , 0) f ( ). f ( ),
0 itS 0 lt8 0

, f (xo),, s

s
fi,s(*o) = (/.(*) L )>
g" :
g(xo, t, s) = ht sft,s(x ). 9 0 (17.8)

119
El,
0 0

, x (t, s, , 0, 0) (t, s) I x /.
( 1 7 . 1 ) , ,
L o , @ ,

L o . ( 1 7 . 4 )

L:o> = wJ(*), 0 < * < 1 ,

<3 ,
L ; w] (t) (t, s)
S

no t, (t, s). ,
( 1 7 . 2 ) , , ( 1 7 . 6 )
( , ).
, L 0

Ls ( ,
~w (t) (t, s)). ( 1 7 . 7 ) , h
s

:
(x, S ) G O X / X /
( 1 7 9 )
d '
-^-A/, (^), (, t, s).
s

, s x (, s)
t
{ x / X s (x (t, s), t, s)

1
1?'* %,8(*<!'*>
A
("SF '' 'S
(17.10)

, ( 1 7 . 1 0 ) ;
, , {, 0, s),
, x (t, s) = ft, (#0
s

, , (t, s, ).
0 0

, ,
( 1 7 . 1 0 ) . , , ,
, , ,
;
( 1 7 . 1 0 ) - .
, ,
/ h(E{ X
X t s) , -
( ). ( 1 7 . 8 ) ,

] & g, ( 1 7 . 5 ) ,
g(x, r, s) [ (x, t s) E* X I X I
t

/, (17.11)
(x, t, s).
( 1 7 . 3 ) ( 1 7 . 6 ) , ,
/ , , /
s

, ft, . , , ,
s

. 5
, ,
f , (x, s).
s

f ,
s

@ . -
120
.
, , IIi, n0S s

^- ,
() = \ - : , s A cz n 0 lt s .
i
{x, t, s),
IX,, s = J ?,,|>, (17.12)
AxtXs

,
ip (w)

% A* . (17.7) (17.9) 9$ fS

, p^ El,
|S

( ) (x, t, s).
,
h (x, t) = h (x),
s ttS g (x, t) = g (x, t, s), f (x, t) =
s s f (x),
itS

h , g , f
s s s

m m
A : x / W ,
E g : El X / - > W ,
s f : 1
s Elxl,
h g (
s s

), a f . s
q
A cz El ^- ,
1
- (q 1)- ^ (,
). ( [0, t])
*|):
$ $ + 5 S dfty- (17.13)
f (Axt)
$ f (AX0)
s f (
s 10, f}) f (Ax{0,t])
s

f (dA X [0, t]) . s


x q x
, R%~ dA ~ ,
q x
Kf {dA ~ x [0, 1]) f (x, t) s s
1 1
TsiRT i? )- (17.5) ,
h cRg ( ,t), ,
s s X

l l p l
g (Rr R )
s (] R ( ,t) gs X = ~g <R ).
s

, ^-
Rg (x,t) s 9

X^lfsidA^X [0, t]) = 0.

(17.13), ,
,
J 7%, sty 5 *.
f (A)xtxs
t>s Axoxs
121
, . . (. 17.12))
V>t,sft,s(A) , s .
, ,
\i ,sft,s(A)
t s)dp ,s(*)> = $(17.14) 0


J (x, t, s)
.
(17.13). ,
d(/ap) = A*Ap. (17.15)

1
(x, t) = (\ **, Q, = ( , ) E l t l

X / X s,
h* dq =
s (*, , s)djt x
* d q
A > dt 176
( )
A.s = X (*, s) dx . . . f\dx* 1
(17.17)
, ,
Xdijf = Y (x, , s) 7 op , s (17.18)
^ = /
. (17.13)
t
( \ (, , s) d\i XiS (x)dr.
f (il) T|S

, (17.14),
[ Y (, , s) d p , W = ( T (/ ,s (x), T, s)"dp
T s T T>s (/ ,s(*)) =
T

f-r, s U) A
\ (/ (x), T , s) / (x, T, s) dp , s
= T>s 0

i
.
(17.13)

l4sfcs(A)-|4s(4)= J (f,,,(x), s)/(x,T,s)dTdpo, s (17.19)


A 0

^ [J(x, t, s) l ] d p , s = ^ ^ ( f t , s W ,
0 s)/(x, t, s)dTd\Lo, .
s

A A0

/ s) 1 == jj (/ , W , T, S) J (X, T , S) du
T s

0
, ,

J (x, s) = e (17.20)

, < ,
^- ,
dop, . -
122
(17.15)(17.18); (17.18) Y -
. (17.20) -
(x, t, s)
J (x, r, s), ,

(17.14) (17.19). , 6
. ( :
\
, ?)
(17.13)
: , ,
. ,
.
17.1. ,
, , ,

'<& q- ,
dip, .
.
, (17.10) .
P (x, t, s) , (17.10)
/ x / X s 1.
, ,

* = % (x, t, s) A
=1
(dx? P (x, t, s) dt)
1

% , (17.17)).

= X* (x, t, s) (dx* - Pi (x, t, s) dt)


/i
,
%*=U, PkZtP*, d^ztd(V yp).s

(, (q + 1)- El X I X s ^-
.) ,
ft.*{x)ztft.s(x). (17.21)

(17.18), dip

dip* = (x, t, s) (ip |? xt


xs) dr,
Y k . (17.21) ,
t
9i
J (x,t,s)=e
k j

J (x, t, s), (17.20).

Axtxs

(17.19), J, p, Y, f
,
A
tf,,( )=m..(4)
( ),
123
,
t
. H s ft s (A) - [I , s (A)
0 zt J J Y (fx, s ( * ) , T , S ) J ( X , T, S) d ( X 0> s (x).
A 0

,
14 s/*s(i4)z$^ e e ^ t S (i4).

.
17.2.

f: ->
f
n

():
det(^-)=*p(*). (17.22)
Toaa f
().
.

mes / () = J q>(*)d* (17.23)


, ,
. -
Ai , , , ,
2

,
^ det ( ^ ^ - ) dx - mes f (Ai) < mes / (A) <
n

dx
< mes / ( ) = 2 J
AT
det
("^r- ) -
- ^ , (17.22),
^ (x) dx ^ (x) dx
1 ,
. .

I (x) dx<^ mes f () < \ (x) dx.

, J (x) dx. -

(17.22) .
18. 10
, ()--
.
l
Xw Yw ^ Y ( w

, -
124
l
; , X Y , . . w w

w Xi Y = 0). , (10), A, (w), % (w) I (w)


l
w
l l
Xt, Y , X Y Rw.
w w w

' M /-,
X ,
w

l
(a/): A * (RZ)-+A*(Y ), w

% (w), (. .
, ,
) Y . ( , w

/ ;
.) /-
/- ,
n
X* (w) f V (T w) = f (w) (w) ' (w), n (18.1)
f (w) .
n

= = ( ) (18 2)
^ 1 ^ ' *
*

( , ,* =f= , f =j= (18.2)

).
18.1. >
* ( ) = 5 ,
l-,
Xi ,
k* (w) (w) = V (w) (w) (18.3)
(, X Xw , ,*| , w

).
18.1. ,
, , ,

-yk
n
>- xsk
> W
Tw '

,
. , 18.1
( )
, ,
.
X* (w)
(): * ( - ^ * ( ) ,

X(w)..
18.2. - (w), 1 ^ p ^ ,
*(/) (w) = 0, :
- ^ - ^ ( T ^ r t O -^.

, , 0 < d < 1,

-\{ )
f (w)

Y V
'
<0& ||||. (18.4)
n

125
.
1
-
' , = ^
, = 0,1,2,... (18.5)
l
Y ,wCzRw X (w). ,
n n

l
Y o, =% X (w) = l(w). m 0

l l l
Y Y , Y
w w nyW
l
Y >
w

, , = +i, . 7 | , D (;):
Im (w) = lmX +i (Tw),
n

D (w) = (Tw)TK (w).


n (18.6)
/- ' (w)
Y n w-
l
t

det D (w). ,
n

U (w) = detD (w)...detD -i 0 n (T^w). (18.7)


,
n
D (w)...D _ (T~ w)
0 n l

1 w 1 n
n, T w

m m
p p
,
(;) f (T o>) = D*_ ( T " ^ ) . . . Do X {T w)i (T w). (18.8)
n n
x n
n l n

1
^ (^^;) /- , )

. D -. ....Do n x
l
Y W9

det (DU ...D;) = det Dt (T*w).


/==

, Y V (w) ' (w), w

(18.8), (18.1), f (w)X* (w) ' (w). n

Rw
l
RZ = X @Y . w w (18.9)
l
w X Y w w

, > 0,
* (), | * (Y ) l
w

-\1\<\1\<\1 (18-)
l
X WJ Y ,
w

T Rw R Tw
*
>

126
, (18.9),
/() 0 \ A {w) (Xi, ),
0
V D ( W
' D (w) . (, YTW)-
,

(%(7), X (Tw) ( (w), X (w)).
L L
(18.6) , Y Y ( W W

X)D (w) VLD(W) n

, , ,
1
MDX)< +*

" > -
( 1 8 1
>

L
Y , W
l
etD (w), & (w)
m L L
W ; Y , a Y W W
L
Y ,
W

(18.11).
X*(w)y (w) = 0. (;) g* (w)
L
) (), I* = ^- * (X ), ) = - * (Y ). W W

<7 + = p, <7 > 1 < / ( r- > / * () ).


= 2g?

b . , (18.10),

I & = \ 1"

4" I TV I I ^ V |. (18.12')

I fx I I I

, 1; 1- I

\n\<mi
- \i A* (X ) w

|6*|<*||;


| ^ | < ^ |^|. (18.13)
,

r
\f\ (T Wj n
|< <'-'> det> (ay)...det> ( > | ^ ( ) |. (18.14)
(18.13) (18.14) (18.12) (18.10),
,
\ ( ( ) ( ) ) | <

<
^ ^-) det D (w)... det D ( " ^ ) | g 11 -n | < - ? r

n q + n ( l r ) 1
< c4 - det D ().. . det D { ' , [ ' A V I -
(18.7) (18.11) ,

^| () ))|<
(

127
(18.12),
2
1
f\(T Wj < 6 ; # ( 1 +
n n
e) \<f(T w)\, n

Y Y, s , 0* (1 + ) < , ,
, (18.4).
(18.14). (/)-
* L-r
A* (Y ) , \
w


\ .
|fvi-|TVI==|^(^A^ol =
n l r
= det D (w).. . det D (T ' w) \4 ~ A \ <
l r
< det D (w). . . det DT^w) \ r\ ~ \ | i f |,


r r ) n
1 7 V - I I T \ I< ~ detZ) () . . . det D ( ~ \ } f r\^\-\ \,
(18.14).
, 18.1 18.2.
n n
X T ty (T w) w>

\|) (w) :
n
f\ (T w) =gn(w)ty(w). (18.15)
l
, A* (Y ) /- X* (w) ()
w

/- X* (w) (w) h (w),


* (w) [ (a;) h(w)^ (w)] = 0.
18.2,
fn
[ (T"w, - h (T w) (T (/)] = 0 n n

, (18.2) (18.15),
n
g (w)h(T w)
n

co (w)
rt (18.16)
fn
* (ta;) (18.16) (18.1) (18.3), ,

n
r g (w)h(T (w))
n ^
% (w) (w) j- X (w) (w) 0,
n
g (w) h (T w)
. e. T:, 1 - , (18.16) <p (W) ^$ (/). n

18.1. ,

= g* (w)
() + ^
(;), j (lg?)

U 1, () = 0.

( g (w)n ,
n
g (w)h(T w)
n \
)
128
18.2. ,
>,
d( . (18.2) ,
n

< = ^ - d \ n f N A K - 18
(-) 18

. ,
2
* (w) da (w) = 0, A*Y (/ + 1)-; ,
W

n r
18.2, -~f d Z^0.
'/
18.3.
1-
a (w)>
x a (w),
n ...

> (I + \)-

k (I + 1)-, ():

( , , /
, \ .)
.
==
Rw Xw Ywt
,
/ = + / ,
(18.19)

.
(18.19) (18.17) < (w)

+ 2 & () (7^)+ 2 * (T'w) ff * +



l i n n
+ T r (T w)A ^ T %(T w).
l 1 )


* ,

2 || /|> a g (w) z 1. n

(/ -f- 1)-,

1
()^0,
(
9 . -, 129

2 T'MT'W)
/=1 1=1

.
, (/ + 1)- * (Y ). w

, :

,
2 -" ( ;)(
/

1
r^Y*, \ \$ ~* l l j , , ,
,

S^lrJ-lxKrrlxl-
il
,
.

2 f" n
ri (Tw) % (T w)] = n
= 0.

18.2 ,
. 18.3 .
18.3. ,
18.3

I S % (Tw) <* I < 21 a,1


' / =1 L
, , ,-, # < 1.
{( ( / . , ,

,)} ;
m
> 0 WEE W . -
X
w
k 1
X , Y ,
= x ), = (yi,---, - ( U ,w, .)
k n

. > 0,

(, ) -> /i (w, %(w)x + (w) )


(18.20)

\ x Y{
k 1
X Y w\
U ,w, (18.20)
n . ,
(p ,
n w

Y n , . ( U ,
l
tW n w

.)
1
(, ):
1
ytw (^ (*, )) = , w % y)dy /\. x
.. -f

+ S % q'j (x, ) AW-


w
1
Adx* Ady 1
- - - AW +
t=z\ j=l i
+ , dx /\^ -\- (18 21

130
l l
q (f ^ X , Y ,
ntW9 n w w niW

.
= 0, = 0 X w
1 l
dy = 0,..., dy = 0,
1 1
(18.21) dy ... dy :
^ ' ( ; ^ ( 0 , 0)) = <7 (0, 0)dy\\ EW . . . /\dy*. (18.22)

, q (, 0) Y ,
ntW n Wt
l
( (w), ,
1 1
dy . . . dy , . . ; , q ,w(0, 0) n

. q (0, 0) ' q (w). ntW n


m
W ,
, : n, w
|<7 (aO1|<,
(18.23)
l
Y Y . ,
w w

qo(w)=l, (18.24)
1
Fo,a> = YL (w) . , .

(w) = <p* dq
fw Ul w (*, y)\ =o, =o- x y (18.25)
l
a (w) % Y
n . , njW

( U ,w, .) ( U , n n>w

,)- , , =

= (, ), , = (, ) (, By), , .

( U , , )
n>w

1 l
q w(x y)dy /\.
ny 1 . . /\dy +
q , n w c, ) == q KtW (x, y).
(A 0 )* dq n> w (0, 0 ) = dq , (0, 0), n w

(18. 26) ,
d
U. <ln,w
9 (0, 0) = ; dq , w n w (0, 0).
(w) w. ,

w X , 0 w

Yn w w;
t

q , (, )
n w

(w,x, ) , dq ,w n (0, 0) w.
, (iv) .

l
, , X Y ,w w n

n, w ,
, n, w
l
^ Y
ntW

4ftw: Xi X Y^W m

. ,
l
, U7 & Y ntW

(18.21) , ,
x, .
9* 131
,,
dq ,w(x,
n )\=,

, ( - . ()),
:

q n, w.,
nfW


l
X, Y
w 0rW , X?n , w
l
Y ,T w
n
n
(18.27;

(/<>, J ( n , % J . 0> T w t

' = 0, = 0

*. = 9 . T V * T
( 1 8
- 2 8
>


0 * . (, */) =
1 k 1
= ( x , . . . x , , . . (, /)
9

, ,
. :
( )
ZntW = Zn (x, ) 7W = -*> V (18.29)

, at, 25, ,
(18.27), .
n l
T Y = , n ,
0i w T w w

35n, w (0, 0) = 0. (18.30)



=<pl dIn det ; (*, y) | _ ^
ft (18.31) w w 0f 0

m
rt () W ,
(18.27). ,
(U ,y J, (V n , , n ) OtW 0 ntT w T w


18 32
(/ .., ) , (/
0 ,, > - < ' )
, (. (18.26))
^^ = 0 , , | = 4'', (18.33)

, , ', ' .
(18.32), (18.28)
T 1 1
= , nw Stw = (' 0 50
T * (' " ).
(, ) = ( By)

/3tn ,(x, ) ,(*, #


ttt

W n a , ( * , ) > , ( , */)>
f

/' 0 \ / 1 , *(*>#) /" 1


\
\ 5 7 U,, ) , (, ) ) \ ^ /

1

1
e / ' Sin, (*, ) " '95*, (, /) \

1 }
\* <,(*, ) A' ' ( , y)B-i) *
132
* ,
, ) = 'n, (*, ) " (i, #) = (, By). 1

1
' " ,
det . ( ) = det, (*, ) (i, */) = (,'By). (18.35)
,
q e d In det , (0,. 0) = , ,d In det , (0, 0 ) ,
n e 0 >

(u?) w. ,
n

w w 0 0

(18.27) w.
wo , (, ) :, ,

(w, , ). , din det (0, 0) w, n>cy

(w) .
n

, (w),
. w' U ((/, 0tm
l
<f) ) (, ), Y '
QtW W

^ = 2 r*(x,y)dyi, t = l , . , . ,k. (18.36)

( ,

Ii = ^ _ J g r ) ^ ^l,..., fe, (18.37)

k
X Q
^ - ( , (18.38)

1
I = 0,..., = 0.) 7?^ (, #)
, ri (, ); ,

l
X , Y , . , R (, )
w w w

, . = 0, = 0 (18.38)
Y ,
1

( 0 , 0) = 0.
(18.39)

= , S p [Vw&n,wdR (x,
w w )] ==0 (18.40)
m
() W ,
(18.27). ,
(18.32),
(18.33). , (, R
, , , S
(18.34). R,
1
R(x, ) = AR (x, ) " (, ) = (, By). (18.41)
, (18.36) ( U 0t Wt

-
<Po, ) w

dx = R w (x, ) dy, dx = R (x, y) dy, w

133
(18.26) , ,

= , dx = Adx, = By, dy = Bdy.


(18.41). (18.41) ,
l
dR = [( )* dR]B~ ; (18.42)
( )* dR ,
l
( )* dr L
(18.40) , <S, R , , (18.34) (18.42),
1 1
= ( ' S - ) - ( ' ^ [( B) dR]B~ m 1
=
1 1
= ~ < [( e ^ A R l - ,
,
Sp [( B) dR]} = ( )* Sp [-].
m

, , ,
, Sp [-! dR] = , Sp [-4d#].
() ;. ,
n
?, T w 0

(18.27) w.
w R (, )
0 w

(w, x, ); .
, , , - n

18.4.
n
(w) + dlnf n (w) = \ * (T w) + (w) + U (w).
(18.43)

f
. w U " ( U QiW 0tW

.) (, ),

k
j
dy = 1}%(,)*, / = 1 /,

f
s w(x, y) (x, ). ,

,/ = dyl - 2 4 (*, ) dx*, j = 1, . . ., I, ( 18.44)


k 1
X. Y

1
) = 0, \ = 0. ,

, ) ... \ . (18.44) 1 1

1
dy? |' dx (18.21) = 0,
%,w ( > ) l
Y 1
+ , dx . 1

) ... )', dx
1 1

. ,
0 1
t/ '('(*> )) = <7, 0 ) '- (18.45)
134
, , (18.39)
S (, 0) = 0. w (18.46)
1
0 Y
1
(, ) dx , dy? (18.37),
(18.44), :
= dx Rdy, [ = dy Sdx.

(dx\ /1 - R y ( l \ m - R S ) - i (l-RS)-iR\(t\
\dy) \-S l) UJ [(l-SR^S (l-SRp- JU)
, , g, \
k 1
X Q) Y (, ) , ,
(dx, dy), % , w (. (18.29))

1
(dx\ = / , , \ /(1 - RS)'
(l-RSpR\ \
\dy) Wn,AJ\(l-SR)-\S (1-S)- 1
)\)'

1
(18.47) dx , dy? \?
n
(18.21), w T w x, , dx, dy x, , dx u

dy. , (|, )) (dx, dy),

\cfj ))

:
, , ,
d = 1 </ = k;
. = 1

= / .
/

= *, (4 + bU ) i
. ( c i ^ + * ) + a/

+SS , (i, y) (4 + ^ )
1 1 1

/=1 /=1
1
(< ^ + b f c ^ ' - ) ( < ' + b^-n^)
/+1
(< + ^ ' -
+1 + *><) +
x 2
-f dx dx +
,
x
K = %w^(Votw( * ))*?*,*
I* , a / ,
(18.38).

i*Xn, ^ y
w Tn ( ^ * ( ^ </))

135

%* ([ . . . rf)
. *(,) 4 | +
>i. . . pi DiDi . . . Ci
k t
+ 2 ^qi n T w (x,y)
+
- f bb + . . . (18.48)
Ho, no (18.1) (18.45),
1
i'Z'n, JV^T"* ( ^ " 4 (*, )) =
= /n ( <
x
( > )) %, w * W ')-

(18.48) = / (< (, )) 0> w (, ). (18.49)

, = 0, = 0 qV = 0 , ) . (18.22),

= , '4=.(, , ;

. (18.47), (18.30), (18.39) (18.46). (18.48), (18.49), (18.24)


, , ,

,
/ = (.) det ,(0, 0j, (18.50)
1
! d/n + f ? o , (0, 0) =
n
d

= det , (0, 0) d<? ( , (, )) f*= , = +


n> 0

+ 7 () det ||l | , = 0 . y = o . (18.51)


(18.47), (18.39) (18.46)
1
d 1 $ f |, , v - o = d [( (1 -
= S f * + (1 - S#)-ib = 0 > f f = 0 =

,
d det - det -Sp (-), (18.52)

d det = det ( + dA) det =


= det [ (1 + A^dA)) det A = det det (1 + A~4A) - detA =
1
= detA[l + Sp (" dA)] detA = detA -Sp (A^dA).

d det f 6 f |^=o, =o y =

= det Sp ftw^n, w dR w + S>n]w d&n, w]x^, y=o =

w \x=0, y=Q
(18.25), (18.31), (18.40) (18.50) (18.51)
(18.43).
18.4. (18.43)
:
136
1 fa n
n (T w) =t 0.
n
(18.53)
n
qn (T w)
, a (w) ,
n

On (18,23). (18.53)
18.3.
fn, , .
18.5. ()
x ( (
).
.


***** ' . * = 0,1,2,... (18.54)
(//, 'tu /, T*W)- (, ),
,


- (An, (x,y)
w B , (x,y)\
n w

\,(;, y) Dn (x,y)/
tW

(18.28) (18.29), ,

(18.55)

(18.30)
, w(0, 0) = 0,
(18.56)

", = ^. , ^ * ^ (18.38) = 0,
= 0 ',
1 1
7* I = Y
t, T'w \=, = 0
, = 0, = 0 (18.55)
f&n 0 \ /_ 0 \ 4, 0
U n / IG,-! D _ J ' ' * \, D,

= >_!... D ,

/=0

S = 1
Do ... 2 ' n-i - .. ... -

nX
= 2 ^ . . . D ^ O A ^ . . . .
/==
137
, (18.40)

/ (tW) = , r^Sp [Do^w . Di\ixtPi t ^ *** \ ^ ] * , .

() , i, w
1^.(')1<*. 1\ / (0,0)|<0,

, .
dfw ( X , /) |:=0, =0

/ .
2 +1
I / ' , M . ,
00

2 / () .

.
18.6. (;)
1 18
= 2 ^ fP' (
n ) + '. ( ) ( -57)
i=0
; || - || <* "^, z t

, d , $<^\. 18.3
18.3, , () < ()

. (,

12 l
%, (T w) () I < Cn\)

1=0
. ,
18.5, (18.55) (18.56), = ,
=0
'An-i 0 \ /<)
\C -i D xl \() )
n n
+
, (18.58)
^' J
/.
, ,
An-i M m 0 \fO
WO dB
< \
(Ai-
/ ^ 00 t X \ M.ON
\ W-1 wU * A-_j le D J


' 0 \ /0 d \ / '
C J \ , V D/U
-dB D', i-ro
(18.59) , ,
' - 0 \ /, +1

\ -\ D -i/ \Ci i Di+\] n +

138
,

, , (18.59)

S* S" ^ W H d/- --1... Do. 8.60)


=0 /=/+1

d, , (18.58), (18.60)

d [ D _ ! . . . Do] = 2 D D
" - i * '+i ^ D / ' ^ - i A>.
i'=D

, (18.52),
1
d In det = Sp [Sr d] =
= Sp Do ** [ 2 2 - i M A - i AM dB; _ ! ...> +
1 D D C

/=0 /=/+1

+ "2 A * - i . . . D M dDrDt^... Do] =

= 2 2 S
P^ 07 ... A
M dBi D,_i . . . A , +
z=0 / = / + 1
n1
+ 2 Sp D o . . . D7 dD, D,-_! . . . D . 1 1
0

/=0

X
DQ . . . DfC$A ... hx i4 /+1 d, . . . Do ( / > i)

1
D 7 . . . Df'CiAj-i... At dB +1

,
1 1
D . ..D7 dD D - ...Do r i 1

1
DJ dt.

d In det ), , (x, y) = xsss0t l==0

= 2 S SpDr\..DJ C A ...A dB + 1
J hl M l 2 Sp DJ dDt.
1

=0 /=/4-1 /=0

dBi = dB i {%i,w{x,y)) iy T w

,
db* (Zi. {x,y)), Ti9 w (18.61)

b*\i .
w , dD/. (18.61), T i w

* ,

13
, , Z*, dB/. w
1
Sp dD , ^
it

1
Sp DJ dDi=- din det Dt;
,
d In det D , (,, (x, y)) \ = , y=o = Sy d In det D. t
t r w w x 0 ew T w (x y)
r v -o.

,
d In det (x, #) ftf = y = s 0

= 'S Sp D 7 . . . DfC A ...


1
f hl (SS. dB,) +

/=0 /=/+1
n1

(18.31) (), , rt

(w) =
n [j ( + ; (^)],

/ () = /, In det D,, (x, r/) | = 0 ,= ,


0

n1
1
& = 2 S
P^ * 07 /^... A J+1 ( *, dB, (x, )) l ^ o

, 1- , (;) . ,

() = 2 Sp D 7 . . . DfCjA ... 1
hl / + 1 ( dB,)
/=/+i
,
I D 7 . . . D/'C/^bi - Ai+i (/. du) t <
1

< ^ \\Cj\\ b^[dBi\ H+1


= ^ i C / l JdB.-K Mb \ hl

4 . ,
() =
7() + /. (),

, () ,

S 7 1 D c A D
/ , n () = 2 P ' T i i-* ( ')

1 / | | < **(1 + * + V + . ..) =

7 + V' = ;, .
18.7. d( (w) . n

. 18.2, 18.4
18.1, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6.
10 ()- .
12.11, 17.1, 18.1 18.7 , @* -
140

. & &
z
; @ .
10 () - .

@ \ 12.10, 12.11 17.1, ,
l
ty
.
/+1
]) ,
l
()-, Y w
l
Yw Z f.
w

ty > , |*
l 0

(w) = f(w)_J ()
( f (w) , ()-).
1
dty ,
d(f J<p) = ,(q>)--/_Jdq>> (18.62)
f ()
f:
t t
(,()) (w)=^ T q(T w)\ o.
f t=

(18.62)
(., , [78, . III, 1]). ,
dy
Xf () f,
f 1 d (/_]),
(16.62). ( 6.)
,
/+1
Xf ( ), ,
l
X Y w , , (18.3),
w


$>* () f ()) ^ () = (* () f ()) (w),
-.
V

19. ()-
11
4, 6, 11, 12, 13 15.
3 5, 14 12 13,
5 7 11 14, ,
; , , (
) 3
. ()-.
.

@ ; ,
(-
) , ,
. , -
, " - (q=m)
. ,
:
{ ,
, /
,
. ( Wo
wi, /,
w {t), . ^ ,
Wo, w' /, /,
, & w (/). w' w
0 0.)
,
& . , , ,
m
U a W ,

<3 6 , & &\U (. .

@ U)
V
q- /?- <S \U
& . -
, ,
, &\U & ,
q
, , (), N ().


^:(,)^ () N (x) q

() /.
0. , -
142
, mes () = . ,

p q
E = iy-(x,y)<p(A)}^{y:M (y)
x ] N {x)<=A},
mes 0, N* ()-> N<* (Oj,


() Q N* () , .
mes U x X = 0, . . mes () = 0. ,

4 = {^.(^/)()} = { : N*(x)=A},

mes = 0. (0) ()>
q
(y)[\N (), 0
0 ( ),

mes ( ()) = 0,
p
. . & \U
(-) 0.
, , ,
P
<S \U (-) 0, 0.
& & ,
, p + q = .
m
- wW .
1
, . . . , {w) @
1 q
w, , . . . , y
i
Bl(w) & . (w) x
, Bl (w) X?
1
-, Bl (w) '
, Bl (w) Yl.
- * . ) = 1()
(\ ()
( , ,. , ).
1
, U = (f (X? X Yl)
w . ,
, . ,
mes = 0 mes () = 0 ,

@ | U .

{% *. #)}> t = l , . . . , min (p, q)

* @ &
1
"" (, ). , ,

(0)^ ()
:-> (){) \{),

1(0)-+1() : -> () ()

, dv
dx, dy
= g (x, ) dx, dv = h (x, y) dy.
*
:
, ,
.
, ,
, .

*

m i n ( p , q)

mes4= - smtyi(x,y)g{x,y)h(x,y)dxdy. (19.1)


(A) /=1

, , ,
$ = \ f(x,y)dxdy, (19.2)
()

f .
(19.1).
p
<S & ,

fa, yi), ,
q
( K ) , , ,
q
-> ( Y - * N?),
Kb ( ). (, ) -
p q
Q Q
7
X *i X ' . , (
)
min (pi q)
1 p q s i n p
mesqT (Q x Q ) % #0 m e s K m e s ^ (19.3)
/=i

,
(19.3) .
,
p p 4 q
mesK g(x l7 #i)mes Q , mesK &h(x l9 y ) mes Q .
x (19.4)
(19.3) (19.4) (19.2), , (, )
(19.1)
f (, ).
(^-; ,
. , , -
. t > 0.
, L & , t > 0
r'L>,'- L,
, 1 ( ,

f
[f T||>X'|T|| *>0).

4
1<'. L (>*>1).

l
T^B\t (rw)czB r(w),
f (19.5)
~* Pw , &
L < ', 7 % ' B[t , r

<Ar'Z. < > T'W.

B^^PB^^w). (19.6)
m
/ W
144
/ (r) = sup j f (w) / (ta; ) |; <j (r) = 7
sup | / (w) f(w ) \ r

m m
w, w'W w,w'W
k l
w'^B (w) r w'<=B (w)
r

m
M cz W
<* (r I M) = sup I / (w) f (w ) |, f

7 4
, n y ' e W " * ^

i\ (r j M) = sup I / () / (a/) |.
f m
ou, w W \M
l
w'B (w)
r


(r, ) = sup |/(o>)_/(a>')|,

<(, ;) = sup \f(w) f(w') |,

c/(r)= sup /(r, ), /(r) = sup (, ).

cof () :
> 0; cf () > 0; ce> (0) = 0; ^ () .
f

/ , / () 0 - * 0.
, /' :

U*f (w) = f (Pw).


19.1.
h
to uif (bV, )<*(, ,

co^ (bV,w)<<o '(r, "*).


f f

. (19.6)2

<*(XV,)= sup I (U*f) (w) - (U'f) (') I =

f
= sup \f(Pw)-f(T w')\= sup -/(')!<
w ' E ^ ^ () ' ^ 5 * / (/)
r

< sup I / (fw) - f (w') j = cof (, .


'es* (r*)

.
19.2.
^ (XV) < (), ^ (XV) < ^ ().f

. 1.
2 M
, [ L (W
10 . -, 145
: f (Tw) = /() t, w*.
r , , = 1.
19.3. > 0.

, mes < e * ( | 7 W ) < , w


g

N , mes N <^eu
s } ( | Af )
e .

.
2 3
L , / / = g + , g , ||ft[| '<e . L

/ , (V'r) < . , 19.2,


k
vt (r)<<l(ir*r)<s. g

f 3
= { : \ U h () | > }. || /' |( = [| A 11 < ,
L
( ):
3 f 2 2
e > j U h\ dw> mesMe-e ,

M k
. . mes M < . ,' W \
t M ' B (),
r

|/-/(')1 = |/7 () /'/ (') | =


= I (U*g + U'h) () - (U'g + U*h) (') ] < | 1/()- /'*(/) | +
+ i U h () I + I U*h (w') ] < * , () + e + < + + = .
f
e

.
19.4.

[ U M t ] = 0, (f ( | U ) = 0,
n = = 1 v
IS"'
0 0

mes ! < Y. == e, mes U N . < e.


. 19.3.
19.5. M N ,
mes M = 0, cof (| ) == 0; mes TV 0, / (/-( JV) = 0.
. 19.4.
4. f

. 19.5 , @
6* f .
f , f
k + 1
& ,
,
m
, / , ( W
), f .
\
& ()-. , 19.6 19.7
()- ()-.
2 m
19.6. fL (W ) > 0, ^> 0.
t = U(f, e, ), t^>U
Q

.[ ( f ,
* . . / ,
2 m 2 m
L (W ). ( f L (W )
, t / (') = f (w)
.) (. [2] [81]), ,
, ,
.

146
s ), '
,
mesMe<8, ^ ( | Afl)<3e.
. 19.3,
3
/ / = g + h, g , || h\\ * < . t L 0

, cg(ArV) > e t > t . [ 19.2 t > t


Q Q

B <*i<r)<2(&~V)<e.

[ = { : | I/' () | > }. || U'h = || h 3


< s ,
( ):
> jj 1 t//z j <to>e mesM' ,
5 2 2

. . mes < . ,' W \ m


{ ' ^
f t
\U f(w)~U f(w ) /
1=
= I (U'g + t/'A) () - (U'g + U'h) (') \<\U g() - U'g(')| + f

+ I U'h() I + I U'h (') | < (r) + e 4- s < e + e + e = 3e,


.
19.7. .
> 0, > 0 ] t
Mi ( , ), mes Mt<C& ,
m k
' W \M{, & <
, ,
-.
. 19.6 f () = % (W),
% . ,
(1, wT*A\il, T^WA)
i , tz: i / 1 U, i t = /1 + ,

lO, ') 10, T^w&Aj


. . U*%A = % -t - % 19.6 ,
T A

t
(^ a (\ M l ) < .

, < 1; < 1 , = 0,
% = 0 1. ,
_ , / | {) = ,

.
()-.
19.8. ,
, &,
:
mes 0, mes > .
. ,
& . ~*, ,
* 147

& ; t ~
19.7.
- (/, ),
& , . ,
, , ,
19.7, U,
, t
. (19.2) , (, ) Ml ,
, U, . . { Q [/),
, ', 8' = ' () -> 0 > 0, '

U = X Yb- f (, )
~* (, )\ ,

~* ,

/ (*, y) = f (, ) , , \
(19.7)
f(x,y)=f{x',y), (x y)&y{Mi()U),
9

, 5,
mes [<({ U) ( )] < ", 0 (19.8)
;
" (" e'- , a
).
<V(Mlf\U) U {lq>(Ml[}U)}(X Xyo)]xYb} (19.9)
b

f (, ) . , ( ), ( , ) 2 2

(19.10),* ( ), ( , )
0 2 0

, ({ U); (19.7)

/ = f ) = f [*2> ) = / (* , ). 2

, (19.9)
mes ({ U) + mes ( (19.8)) - mes 5 < s + eT-c , 1

8 .
, t U *
U, ,

, , /, ,

n < 0
-"L r <- (W-)
(19.10) (19.11) ,
L
m
W
{ Vi* /}> Ui (19.11),
mes
mes = mes T" A f
<
2
148
, t-, (19.10),
mes = mes ~* > ( 1 a) mes Ut.
, ,
& , :
mes < 2 mes //, mes > (1 a) min mes Ui. , -
i i
, ,
mes = 0, mes > min mes (/,
z
19.8 = min mes Ui.
i
11.
& ,
k
& .
, ,
m
, W ,
& . ,
, ,
& , '. ' \'
.
,
,
, 19.8, ,
. ,
&
m
W , (,
), & .
, ,
mes ( )^> 0. , {] ,

n
& . , mes ( QT ) = mes , . . =
.
,
n f
{(T ) }oo<f<oo- ()-
.
20. 6 12
,
([)-.
,
. & ' (
+ 1 +
), & &
( ). ,
.
, , *, &
.
. , 5 ,
.
1
, . ^
, .
0

, , - m,
l +
w N
0 w , M * xsh.
Wo Q w

.
1
Mw, ^ ( 0
l
), N , ^ w ,
149
1
^ w'. F ,
, F , w w'. F ,
WOFWL W Q W I

W), wu
,

;
W) wi
( w Wi). F Q9

( ) .
20.1. * &
, (
) w , wi F , Wo Wi

.
.
, WI:N , w Mt Mwi Nw
1
Wq 2 Q t

( Mw N t
l
Wi

Nw MwX ;
0

.
1 1
S ^ = @' @' ^ ,
:

= U F (Mt )=
WWl 0 U M i r (20.1)

l
Mw, N .
w

-
, , ,
, Fw Wi ( - J M ;
ot
k
Wl

(
) .

, (20.1) ,
e (, ), - 0

.
.
+1
, *, & , , Mw
,
, .
@* ' ,
.
,
0
1
. ( 1)- ~
1
N .
WQ
l
(, ) , & X, a N , Y. 9 w
1
, w *"* , ~ ^ , w 1 1

r
T~ w
^"" .
1

{'}, (, ),
1 1
- ,
' ^ , , , \
t = t (x, ) $>.
x, y t ( ). , t
1 1
N ^
, * ' , * ( ) }
l
t = t (x, ) N >. , x

150
, , X,
1
,
, *> 9
l 1
N w
0 '. , t (x, ) =t (, ).
1
t = t {x, ) (m 1)- A I / .
6
,
& . , . ,
t%y) = o(\x\ + \y\). (20.2)
, ' ( , t (, ))
9
,
(\\ + + ||)- || 0

(I \ + \-\- \t\). (|, |, )


1
X (|| + l !! + 11)> () * 0
0. ,
{, , ), (0, \ 0), ,
\t\ = i*{\x\ + \y\ + \t\).\4\ = o{\x\ + \y\ + \t\),
, \t I = (I x j + I I).
(20.2) , f (x, ) = 0,
= 0 ( , ,
, ). , , -
(xi, ); Xi, z/i, t {x yi) lt

wi. wx , w^.
1
t =* { ), , 9

, ~ . 9

, , , t

, WQ.

t = <x y) | = (x, ), x = t T (*, ).
9 9 (20.3)
1
AfSj

, I ) 2~\
, . ,

| , |, = (g, ),
\ = 0, ) = 0.
(20.3) , t ( ) = %
9 9

= 1-
, t ( ) .
9

, = 0, = 0
t = t (x, ) t = 0, . . . 0

, ( # 1 , ) | , *,
0, . ., , ^ ^ .
1
AI" , X .

, %
,

. * %~~
Af^7*, w
T*w .
, *
. , , ,
1 1
^" (
151
1 1
), , , t S" - (,
)
t = const.
1
, , , ~
: ,
, . ,
t () = const, t (w)
.
(s) , ^- t ( (s)) = 0,
' ( ($)) = const.
20.1. ,
<gfe @' - , ,
y

{*};
. , ,
& *, k + / = m 1,
, , ,
20.1. ,
( 1)-
1
Mw" ] , ,
. ,
(, ,
*, & ).
12.
M * - = @* &.
171 1
, {V}
1
"~ "*- ( ,
, ). ,
, VM * M"** . ,
171 1 1

1 1
~ = * , , , (
1
- ) , ,
, , ,

. U V ~ , -
m
, , ; W
m
. wW
7%', 0 < ; t < t ' " . ,
1


2, ; " \ \ 0

6.
20.2. ()- f.
0 *
( , ).
. X ,
f, . . t
u
( 7 % ) = f (w). t = : n

tn
f(T w)~f(w) (20.4)
( 0
t ). 19.6
n
(20.4), ,
mes M < e, <f (r I M?) < .
, ,
mesM = 0, * ( | M) = 0 (20.5)
* . . ,
.

152
( , 19.4, 19.5); -
N,
mes N = 0, ^ | N) = 0. (20.6)
6. , ()-
f:
f
f(T w)=e^f(w) 9 (20.7)
% =f= 0. , ,

6 20.1.
f
. (20.6) , w% 0
1
0, ^ 2

f(w ) = f (F , (w ))>
2 Wo Wt 2 (20.8)



F WoyWt (w )^N.
2

, (20.5) , f
; (20.7) ,
f ,
. (20.8)
, F ^w .
w t

, f
m
. W { ?},
k+l
, \ Ut (. .
+ 1
&
, .
k+1 k+1
M .<3 \Ui f
/**+1. (20.8) ,
k+l
fM ,
Ui fu f n

. , Ui(] U fi/ fUu f


f t t

, fu fu ,
f f

// Uj\ fu t

Ui , f
m
W .
20.2 , f

@ ~ = @* &, (20.7) ,
f .
, . 6
12.

21. 13 15
,
()- {*} .
21.1. , Uu . . ., U
. t - > n

> 0, t n

mesT~ B tn
->.
.
: J [0, )
153
( , - mes(Jfl , t])-*Q t->oo) ,

lim m e s r t n ^ = ^ ^ , m
/= (21.1)
/->, t$j mes W

, [81],
, , Ui,
J/ = [0, ) 0,
_ f _ mes mes V f

lim mes T~ L
fif]^ = 1

m
i*-oo, t$Ji mes W '
J = JiCJ. . . (J Jiv; ,
(21.1).
21.2. ,
&.
m (w) = mes{t:\t\<^x,
x T'WA} (21.2)
, & () * 1 - > 0.

* . ,
, (21.2),
[, ]

M M
W X [ , ] -* W (, t) -> T*w. (21.3)
() ' ,

* . , ,

m (w) = ^%
x A U*w)dt,

% .

^m (w)dw
x = ( % {T*w)% (w)dt}dw
A A =

, t>0 mes .
2
, / = L ( ) t > 0 fi/?/ / | | L - > 0;
% /, ,

S % % (T
F
W) dw = (% '% ) 9 (% , % ) = mes .

* , ,
,
1
[84]. {*} W, f. = L (IF);
w

f
lim - \f(T w) dt = f(wy

1 I'
(, m (w) = % (T* w) dt.)
T

x
154
(21.4)

^ m (w) dw ->
T ^ mes Adx = mes .

, , 0 < / n ( f f i ) ) < l ,
T

.
21.3.
( < mes < mes W ), &
m
9

,
&, > 0, =
UVB ,
&.
. ,
, & ,
, & .
+1
. -, ,
& , F , a

& , , F . ( a

.) -,
(k -f 1)- 0,
& 0. (
.)
m
D = W \A. (w) (21.2) (w)

f
n (w) = -^rmes{r : | / | < , T w<=D}.
x (21.5)

21.2 ,
= {W:WA, *()>-^-},
E = {W:WD, n (w)>
x

'. (
m (w), (w) w 0 -
x

, (21.2), (21.5);
, . ,
' (21.2), (21.5), .)
, = .
w s,
S
|s\<T, WB, W' = T WE.

. , , , s > 0.
D {Vw, s ^ t }.
{Vw, x ^ t ^ }, ,
, D 10%;
mes: s < ^<, } <

< m e s { r : - T < * < T , T*w G } < ~ J 2 T - |.


, {TW, < ^ < ^ s}
{TW, / ^ }; ,
,
m e s { < : - r T < f < t s, T V E A } <
< m e s { r : T < r < r , T V A} < -~-2t = 1 1 .

155
m l
A [}D = W , {T w, s x <^ t <^ ) -
, D; , < ^ x + = -^ <
< t. , , x (s ) = 2 s >
> . , [\ = .
, , ,
, .
X [ , ]
(21.2). , & . ,
, ,
( ).
13.
, .
21.3. , > ,
, r- w
z + 1
S . ,
; * , * (, ,
, , ) ( ).
{(Us, </), i = 1, . . . , N}
m
W , , ,

19. Ut =7 (X X F ) k w

, r- w Ut
+ 1
&
1
iV^ Ui. , w
1
/ (w) = (, ), / (Nw ) x X Y.
21.1 , -, . . . , UN-
,
t > > 0,


mes (ft (* fi Ut) >> A, i = 1, . . . , .
f
, T~ , ,
>
n
mes { : Y<=.^t(T* C //)}>* i = 1, . . . , . (21.6)
19.7,
&\ Ui.

t .{
n

. / ([ Ut)
, , (21.6).
t - n

XnXYcz / (~' U ) t


mes [/ ([ Ut) ( X Y)] . (, )



.<,.' Ut) [j{Xx l<p/(M' Ui) ( X )]},
e


* (~' Ut)

( , ), / (~* Ui).


mes[(X XY)\,(~* (] Ut)] 0> ->,
r tn
mes( Ut \T ~ ) 0 -> . ,
m m
mes (W \C) = mes(W \* C)<2mes(/,\ "**)0.

156
, .
15.
* & , ,
1
& . - N
m
, W) W ,
1
8 > 0 . , N ,
- U (w) w >
z u

, , { (w)
1 + 1
& w, Bp (w) &

l
V(tai)= U Bp (W).

,
> 0 () > 0, ' /&() (),
1
& , ', (w")
" [ (). -
U w
()> ' *' ,()( ^ < 2 1 7
' ^

m
W . ,
21.1, t > ,
T*V (Wi)
^ W , t= 1, . . . , n
3 3
.
WiTty^iWi) U (w>), i = l , . . . , n. (21.8)
3 3
-* (,)

r^E^W, WiB (w ). l

3 3
~* N[&. (21.7)
m 1
W , , , ~* N ', -
4 1 1
, t-, . T" N Bp (*),
3
, _
3

1 f
-* ^ (wi), w T~


f
T t ^> 0
k+1
<S
m
(., , 12.11), W
(', wi) < | - s.
-
^ (21.8) , ' U (w.)). * * 7* e
7
/ , . . f/e (t^o) 0>
.

157
VI

22.

()-,
. 22, 23 ,
24, 25 , ()-
.
,

(). ,
, , ,
;
,
/
' + / * =
0 (22.1)
(/ ;
), .
,
, ,
.
n
V -
, ;
2n
. W
() ( 6
2n 1
31), W -
2n
. W
(, v),

2 1
v () v; W "- *
2 1 2rt
v . W "" W

, ,;
.
v /,
0
1
Vo S^ - vi /
0

. t
1 2 1 2 1 1
^ E S ^ . T* : W "- -* W * ' *

f
T (v , e ) =. (v , e ).
0 Q t t

158
2n x
{*} W ~ , ,
1
. W*"- ,
2n 2
W , . w W "~ 0

(v , vi). v =f= 0, % = | v> |, =


Q 0

=-^-v , V (tb, ) = (pu e ); , ,


r t

t (, vo) = ( (0, v (0) = (, **).

72 1
= (O, 0) % = /-. , "" ,
0 0

(v (t) , v (t)) ,,

v (t) = ^L d
I v (t) I = const. (22.2)

,
(22.1). ,
2n
W , *
n
(U, ) V , {*} , , -
, ,
= 0, v ^ ) ) ^ ^ ) - - - ^ ) , 1 l
v (t),.:.,v(t)),
i 1
v (t) (22.1). v (t),
(22.2), x/(t)\ , if () v* ()

i/ = v \
(22.3)
v' = - T) (v) v V , k

, -
2n 2 1 1
W ( W * * ). ^ .
gtj, (22.3) , -

.
(22.3), :
1
(dv ) = dv ,
k h k
(<)' = d (/* (v vh ) = J d v v h
} 2) (v) v'dvK
(22.4),

.
,
.
6, 7 ,
2n
W = K, . , .
(6.19), (6.20) 7. *
jR( v) W (v, v) (dv, dv). 6
2n
f

, R a R^ , dv - t v)

(0, dv)\ R* R%.


, , ,
,
n
, ] R R\ ), v % V

dv (dv, (v, v, dv)). R%


v), R*, v) v) RZ, ,
m
- #" R%, R% i??, |
0fV)

v) , R":
& v) - % , v ) e s /?s ? . (22.5)

(du, dv) v)
R(v,v)
v, VR", ( 2 2 . 5 ) dw
{t>, v}.
dw (dv, dv),
.
dw = (dv, dv) = {v, v},
,
(dv, dv) = (v (v, v, 6i>)) + (0, v),
. .
v = dv, = dv + (, v, d). (22.6)
Zn 2n
W -> W ,
2n n 2n n
W >V W -+V :

l I (22.7)

W (v, v, I), V G - R J H ^ G
Zn

lF >7 (v, v, g) (t/, v). ( 2 2 . 5 ) ,
3n 2

n
SR ( ") W*
2

n 2n
W* -+W :
: SR (W ) 2n
m W 3n
W. zn
(22.8)

((v, v), (dv, dv)) = ((v, v, v), (v, v, v)), v, v dv, dv


( 2 2 . 6 ) .
n n
( 2 2 . 7 ) , W* -+V
n 2n
W* -+ W .
2n 2tl
W , . . 31 (W ), dw~ {v, v}
2 2 2
|d^| = |u| + |v| . (22.9)

R" R" ) . 0T V

v (t)
v (t) Rv(t), (v (t), v (t)) (v (t), v (t))
W , ( 2 2 . 5 ) ( 2 2 . 6 ) , {v, v -+-
2n

+ (v, v, ti)}.
?
v ( v(t)) m 9 .
n
v v V ^ ,

( 2 2 . 1 )
j | = 0 , . . {*}
{v, 0}.
( 2 2 . 4 ) ,
, v v da dv ( 2 2 . 6 ) , v -
160
(22.3).
D

Dt
v = (uy + (, v, ) = (dv)' + (, uv, v) =
= dv + (, v, do) = v,
. .
-^o = v. (22.10)
,
JL v = (v)' + (, v, ) =
= (dv -f (, v, do))' + (v, v, v) =
= dY (v, v, v) + (v, v, dv) + (, v, v) =
= T (o, v, v) dv 2 (v, v, dv) + T (v, v, d) v +
v v

+ (v, v, dv) + (, v, (dv)') + (, v, v) =


= (v, v, v) do 2 (v, v, dv) + (v, v, do)v
0 0

(, (, v, v), do) + (, v, dv) + (v, dv, v) +


-f (, <, , do), v) -
= (, v, v) do + Y (, v, do) v
0 v

(, (, v, v), do) + (, (, v, d ), v),


. .
s s r s
v * = ~ v V do H ^ v' dv v * ? v V do +
5 r

^ dv

+ n T&dv V. (22.11) r
s

(. [3, . VII, . 159]):


; ?
A/rs = "TT "~" kr * is * ks A fr-

(221), ,
j s
^v ~R vVdv , rs

^ o t / + J * V = 0. (22.12)

(22.3), (22.10) (22.12), ,


2 1 3n 1
{*} (IF *), , , { '^ } W IT*
(. (22.8)):
v = v; v = (, v, v), . . ^ = 0;
D js D , i & fc & / n 7 (22.13)
_ o = v; ^j-v + #;*/v o*v = 0.
2n x
W ~ .
2n
W ,
g..(o)v<V= 1. (22.14)
2 1
, R (W "" )'
2 1 2 1
w "* . (do, dv) W "" ,

1^. v / j dti* + 2g.. (j v' dvi = 0.
v (22.15)

11 . -, 161
{ v , v}, v , v -'
2 1
W ^ , :
g .(v) v vi = 0. (22.16)
l

(22.16) (22.14), *
. , (v (t), v (t)),
(v, v) W " 2n x

{v, v}, t = 0 W " " ( , 2 1 1

{v, v} W * ' ) ,
2 1 1

W) V (t) v* (0 = 0 t = 0;
(22.15),
(22.16),
. , (22.16)
(22.15), (22.15) dv
v:
0 = ^ p l vVo* + 2g v v
j
l
2g v'T kj n
l
vi dv k
=

v i
= - '> */ - l> ) * '
T vJ d x ) k
+ V -
/,*/ /, , / #

i, j v'V.
,
~7 /, /, = 0
der

(., , [3, . II, . 33]), (22.16).


(22.16) , | v | = 1 ^

R %~) W "- ,
2
2 1
v)

{v, 0}. , W ~ > 2n x

n
V R l ,
v,
2
R ^ ) - , ,
R\S~h
1
{0, v}, v S*"" v:
g (o,v<v/= 0. }

#fyj ,
(22.5):
2
R v, v) = R(v, v) $ ( ) ~ Rv Rv- (22.17)

, fm (W ~ ) = 9t (W *- ),
2n l
VW - = W "\ 2 1 2 1 2n

, (22.13)
(22.16), /.
, dw %t (W " )
2n 1

(22.8) {v, 0} {'},

162
t Vdw
. ,
2n
w = (, v) W ~\ dw = {v, v} E E R^ )t dw {v, 0}

fw = (v (t), v(t)), fdw = {v (t), v (i)}.


dw _]_ {v, 0} ,
g., (v) v'o'' = 0. (22.18)
Ho
ft ' (0) v (0 U/ (f) =
7 to/ + ^ = v"' v /
= -
,
, v () () (22.13) t
T*dw R^r^y . . t (22.16).

n
= {dw : dw #(c ,1), dw 1 {v, 0}}
2 1
Xt ^(W ^ ),
2 2 2
(, v) U %~ . , R^^cziU ^). }

{, 0 } G " , v ) , , v v,
{v, 0}.
, (22.5) (22.17):
U\v, v) = R^v^v) 0 R?v,\) ~ R(v^) ^()- (22.19/
,
>2-1 _ /2/1-2 M 7I

Z( v), {v, 0}.


0f
f
, T U = U. ,
' | U.
(t), v (t), v (t), v (t) (22.13). *

l k l 2
= _ 2g. v R kiv v v + 2 I v I =
j
i
h
h

2
= 2R v v v v + 2 I v I .
ihkl
l h k l

k l
Ho R iv \ v v
hk =K<v, v, v)|o v | ,
l h 2

I v v I v v, fy, ou, v)
v .
2 2 2
*L I v I = 2 (v, v, v) j v v l + 2 I v j . (22.20)
{v, v}, U,
\vv| = \v\,
2
I | - 2 (, o, v) I v j + 2 j v [ .
2 2
(22.21)
,
. o (f) , ,
(22.21), /
2
|dM >> (22.22)
* [3] .

11* 163
I v (t) | (. . ).
2

, , ,
: (0) = 0, v (t ) = 0 t 0, v (/) = 0. , x

,

v (0) = 0 G R \ v (h) = l R # . w (22.23)
1
, T^Rw"
1, R%u w

k^i] ,
1
. , R^tt ; w

(22.23). , ,
( )

n
v(0) = 2 \ v ) = ^ R T t .w (22.24)
, v (t)
, ( 2 2 . 2 4 ) , ,
(/)
v (0) - 0, v (t ) = v (t ) g . x a


n t
X =={dw:dwUl -~\f dw->Q
w /~*+},
n t
Y ^={dw:dwUl -\f dw^0
w t-+ }.
2
, X , Y ( ^ .
W w
2
o (t) | ,
tf, t-~> ,

X W Y w = 0. (22.25)
X , Y , W w

* = , ,
9 9 = ^. (22.26)

2
o(0)=f 0 {o(0), V(0)}X , W ' o (/) | < t.
2
, , , -~- j v (t) | > 0 t = t , , 0

(22.22), 1 v (t) | > 0 t^> t ; ,


2
0

v (t) t - > + .
2
, v (0) =j= 0 \v (0), v (0)} Y , -| |o ()| > 0 /. w

( 2 2 . 1 3 ) ,
^v(0|<i4|o(0| (22.27;

A J > 0, , v | v | = 1 , ,
v. ,
| v | < 2 y"\v\ {v, V } < B X , (22.28; ( 0 J V )

I v I < 2 j / X | v j {v, v} Y , (v V ) , (22.29;

A , ( 2 2 . 2 7 ) . ,
, , ( 2 2 . 2 8 ) . {o, v} X , (VT V )

164
, , | v (t) | /. (22.28)
.
22.1. v (0), v (0), v (0), v (0)
v (/), v (/), v (t), v (t) (22.13) , | v| = 1
\ v (t) \ 0 ^ t <; .
VT
1 v ( 0 ) | < 2 ) 4 | ( 0 ) | . (22.30
. ,
2

dt
I v 7 < 0 (22.31)
^ VA
2
, , -^- \v {t)\ <^ 0 0 ^ t <^ ,
, - t, t = t , 0

0, t J > t .
0

, v (t) 0 0 < t < . ,

v (t) = 0, (22.31).
v (t) 0 |v (t)\,
(22.27) ,
2 lv (t, dt
v ) I =

D
= 2 v' ^
ft/ v/ < 2 I v (/) I \ v<t \,
}

dt
[v (/) I < I O U (*) I v (t) 0, I v | = 1. (22.32)

, , v (t) = 0
, ( )
| v () | ;
, v =j= 0 .
| v (t) | , (22.32) ,

dt
|v(/)| < A j do (0)| 0</<-
V

v (t) I > I v (0) j \ v (0) j t 0 < t <

2 2
v (t) | > I v (0) j 2 j i, (0) j I v (0) j t 0 < t < - ^ (22.33)
2 2
(, ,, > 0 > , > 2&,
2 2 2 2
_ ^ > 2 + > 2, a <
2
b < 2, . . 2 < 0.)
(22.21), < 0 (22.33) ,
2 2
-^r\v(t) | > 2 I v (0 I > 2 I v (0) I 4 I o (0) Hv(0)l *,
2

, 0 s,
2
\ovii, | |* > 2 I v (0) j s 2A j v (0) | | v (0) 1 s .
2 2

dt

165

d
dt l o
= | 2 ^ v / | < 2 i o | |v|,

, \ v (t) , ,

^ | o ' s ) | > 2 | v ( 0 ) | s 2 I 60 (0)| l v ( 0 ) | s 2 | (0) | | v ( 0 ) | .


2 2 2

o o ,
0 < s < ; ~ ' ^ >
i * 1
0<^s^ ^= . , s = == ,
\

0>)P_4|to(0 | ( |v(0,| =

= {{V ( 0 ; | _ 2 YA\bv(

(22.30).
22.2. o Rw~ 0
x
v 0 ef
{o ,
0 V } X ,
0 w v^ e {o , 0 v^} .

. ,
, . { v (t), v (t)} n n

,
v n (0) = o , 0 v n (n) = 0.
2
I v (t) | ,
n

t = ; , 0 <^ t <^ . -
, , > , 22.1 ,
I v (0) 2 I o |. {8v (0)}
n 0 n

;
{v (0)}, v .
rt/fe 0


(0) = o , v (0) = v . 0 0

, v . (t) o (t)
n :

. , | o (t) | .
,
lim o (tj = 0. (22.34)

, I o (t) I t + 00;
> 0, [ o (/) | > /. (22.21)
, t
r\v (t)\*>2ka\
2
k = min | / C ( 0 , o, v) | . I o (/) | - >
/ > + , I (/) I
.
t o (t)
, 22.1 | v (/) | < 2|^ | o (t)\ t.
, (22.34), lim | v (t) \ = 0. ,
/-+

(o , v ) AV
0 0

166
22.2 ,
dim X > n 1, dim Y > n 1.
w w

(22.25) ,
2
1 Ut~~ :
n l _ 1
/;2-2 Y~ \ /

(),
I o (t) | | v (t) |
l 1
{o (0), v (0)} Xl~ {o (0), v (0)} ^ -
(22.26) 1 ,
t > 0, X Y w w
1
KjT . , (22.28) (22.29) ,
| o (t) |. ,
~
dt I o (0 p > 0, (22.21) ,
-?L\bv (t)\*>2k\v (t)
dt-

k = min | (v, o, v)| > 0. 22.3


2
() = j (f)j ,

sh chY2kt ~ ^ ,
:
I v (t) I > 1 j o (0) I Z 1
* ' t > 0.

22.3.
r (t), t > 0
(0 >2kr (0, (0) = , (0) - > 0. 0 0

(/) > ch y22f + Y=-r 0 sh f2kt t > 0. (22.35)

. r (f) p (t),

p (t) - 2kp (0, P (0) = Po, P (0) = po, (22.36)

Po < ', Po < . 0 (22.37)


, t > 0
p (t) < (0, (/) < (/).
, t = 0,
t. , p (t) < (^)
> 0, (/) < () / > 0. ,
, / > 0 p () =
= r (t). t* t. t [0, t*)
P(t)<r(t), p (*)<>(*)

t* t*
p (/) = p, - f 2k \ p (t) dt r (**) > ru + 2ft
0
5 r (/)
167
,
/*

r(t)- 9 (t) = - + 2k $ [r (t) - p (/)] > 0,


0

r (t ) = p (t*)
> 0.
(22.36)
Po sh Y2kt.
,
( > + -= Po sh Y2kt t > 0.
2
Po po ,
(22.37). (22.35).
k
2
V . ,
,
. -
3
W
. /
, ( , )
0 0

,
0

Ti{v ,e ) = (*,**)
0 0

v /, v v ] 11,
t b t

vt /
0

, t; e t

, I v . t

,
u
W ,
7*( , 0 ) = (, 0),
0

' ( , v ) = (),
0 0

= | v | , e = v ' ( , ) = (v
0 Q 0 0 0 u e ).
t

(, v) Rl ,
v Rv ,
t

,
v, .
, {{}

b ' = v', v' = / * () v/v* + kyf (, v).


1
(22.39)
(22.39), ;
(22.4) , .

(d\ y
kdy? (, v) = k -4dvf+ d
k d\L (22.40>

168
.
, -
(dv, dv), {v, v}),,
v v dv dv (22.6). - , -
-^-&==v. (22.41).
-^-v, ,
v v (22.39):
v = (v)* + (v, v, v) = (dv + (v, v, dv))' + (v, v, v) =
- dt + kd\i + + .
, (dv)'
(22.4) (22.40). dT
,
= T (v, v, dv) v + (v, v, dv) + (v, v, (dv)') =
v

= , , +
+ (v, k\i, dv),
v (22.39) v (22.3) .
_|L. v = , , +
+ kd\x + (v, k\i, dv).
,

W ^ W\ (v, v) (v, p (v, v)).



4
~ : m (W ) -> 9 (W')

p (v, v, dv, dv) = (v, p, dv, d\i),

d\i dv dv (22.40).
4 6 6
, 31 (7 ) W W (. (22.8)).
:
p ((v, v, v), (v, v, v)) = ((v, p, v), (V, [A, p)).
v = dv, a p dv v
(22.6),
p = d\i + (v, p, dv).
,
(22.13), ,
V + R^vW = kp* (v,v r (22.42)

T{\W*.
R* {v, v}, v RV
VI V)

, a v (22.16), . . v;
,
v = z\x (v, v), (22.43)
169
z . v
v = xv + y\i (v, v). (22.44)
d 3 z
9 (W ) W X R .
(22.41) (22.42) , , .
, (22.38) ,
^ = - . (22.45)
(22.44), (22.41), (22.38), (22.45) (22.43) xv + \ +xk\i ykv=z^
. .
-\- kx z, x ky = 0. (22.46)
(22.42), (22.43), (22.45) (22.44),
f k l l J k
zp/ zkv + R)kiv xv v + R jktv 'yp v ,
Ri

. ^ .
v z
p J L * | p | = | v | = l ( W ),
1
z + yRhjki^^ = z+K(v)y.
1
(22.42) gihW
f
kgihVfibyf = kb gih]^Y) = 0.
,
z + K(v)y = 0. (22.47)
, (22.46) (22.47)
2
+ 1 (v) + k ) = 0, (22.48)
. , k = 0, . . (22.48)
,
.
2
, k < min \ ()|.
(22.48)
:
2
K(v)+k ^-c, >0.
()
.

2 3 .
n
. V
, .
n
V ,
, , ,
.
,
rn
{*} , W
w f (w).
(w)

</>>= 5 ( , / ) . (23.1)

< (w), f (w) > 1- (w) #2, f(w)


EzRw, a p (w) . ,
/ (w) -
70
. , , . .
|), </, >
:
</,*!>> = 0 . (23.2)
d
, </ (w), dty (&)> = ^ ^J ^ ,
at j t=Q
= ,
1
i=0
IF" 117

1 m
(23.2) F (fl? ,#)
1
W"
1 m
: x H (W , R) F () < /, <p >,
- . F
m
Hi(W , R)
m
W .
/ , F, ,
.
.
.
23.1. {*}
, F 0.

. 23.2. { } -
n
V , , F = 0.
23.1.
(w), < > 0.
if ()
{?}:

(*>, = \(), . (23.3)
, | * () | = const; , (w) | = 1 .
( , .)
(23.3) , D/ ():

D () =
F 4" * ^ I'-* =
^

. 6 ,
(w) (w)
,

I () ( , | < 8, (w) D ') | < e, f

8 . ,
:
| ( ) | = 1 . , -
1|?(), * (w) , -
iB ()
1 , j ^ ^ j * ,

171
aj)
i (/ & (w)
W ) - - Y
v

I (w) I

. , Df = 0 (
) Df (), . . //||; ,

f J
1 1
. , , |* () | = 1.
() - , () =

1
= d Ln ()
.
< (),
/()> =-LD Ui$(vu) f

Df (), , (23.3), X 0.
(23.1) , </, > 0.
23.2. ,
22,
1 2n
* : ^ ) - > (W '\ ),
2n 1 n
p:W ~ >V ,
n
= (v, v), v. , V
, * . (
2 1 1 n r0 1
W * ' > V El = (V", i?),
,
1
, 3 = 0. , ]> 2
% = (S ~\ ) = 0, 1 n

= 2
1 1
2 = # ( , ^ , ) ) = 0,
= 2,
1
= (S\ ) = >
,x
d El = f i ' * ,
2
0

1 n 2 2 2
(S ~\i?) (V ,i?) = l' D ,
2 2 2
, , d a = x (V )v % (V ) .)
2
1
f
1 %n x
F () x (W " , R),
/?*,
n
V , </, *>.
F (x) = <f, p = jj <(*) (), / ()> () =

= J <(;), /()>().

1
p r / ? " "

/ (w) = {v, (, v, v)}
v. () , ,
172
, () (v)
n a
V ( V )
1
a (v) ST ;
d\i (w) = do (v) de () OJ = (, v).

F(x)=^dv{v) 5 <<P(a),v>fo(v,= ^ < ( ) , $ vd(v)>do(v) = 0,


yn sn-l y ' n s n-l

, [ vda (v) = 0. 23.2 .

,
()-,
. ,
3
W .
, .
W% 14,

( @
&); , W , .
, 2, , Wl
3
W . , Wl .
Wl
0

. Hi (Wl) 9

* = + by, T *y = ex - f - dy.
0 Q

s
, (W' ) , ,

3 1
( W > S
1
H (5 )),
+ by, = -\- dy.
3
, (W )

, = d = I, b = 0. ,
, , . 0

X , Y W\ . ,
w w

[72] (
. [73, 74]) , *, &
(), ,
" " .
, . ,
;
0
2
-
r- ( ) ,
0

.

& , ( )
1

->, ->, | ^ | < 1 , )|>1,


, 0 < ^ < ^ 1 ^ > 1 .
1.
, .
23.1. ,
, ()-,
173
2, ,
.
.
%
23.2. 6 , &
k
, 23.1 F 10 ( <5 /\&
: <(), 1).

24. ()-
& , &
()--
, ()- .
. ,
2, X i , Y .
w

, () ,
2
.
l
X , Y - w w


(
, )
)
-( \-*( '\ = ( ' \ - * - ( * \ - + (
\ = ( * {
' )
)

) \ ' ) \g(x,y)J \) \(,))
/, g .

\gx gyJ

(0, 0) a, d, > 1, 0 < d < 1. ,


2
k (, )
. , dy = k (x, ) dx
dx' = f (x, y) dx + f (x, y) dy,
x y

dy' = gx (*, ) dx + g (x, y) dy,y

dy' = k (x!, y') dx'. , ,,


f g (0, 0)
.
,
(0, 0)

d :
fx (0, 0) = a, f (0, 0) = g (0, 0) = 0, g (0, 0) = d.
v x y

dy = kdx, , (0,0)
, . . k (0, 0) =
( , ,
1 \
; k (0, 0)=0. k (',')
k'; ,
k' (f + fyk) dx = k'dx' = dy' = (g + g k) dx
x x y y

" fx + fj* *

174


h
* (*', ') = (> , k (x, )). (24.2)
k (, 0) k (0, 0). x y

, (24.2)
V (*'. ') = (* + **) + ( + A*ft ) |. y (24.3)

(0, 0) = 0, % (0, 0) = -j-, (24.1) A ,A


y v

h : = 0, = 0, = 0:
k

(, , 0) = *v *-** *v
8 f f
, A;c , ) = ? (24<4)

k (0,0,0)
y = ^ } , , 0 , 0 ) - * ^ . (24.5)

*, (, /, &) = fx fv (24.6)
42 7
*(0, 0, 0)=4- (-)>
(24.3), , = 0, =

, 0) = J ^ 1 . (24.8),


,0)=%^-. (24.9)

k (, 0), ,, yv

, , k yy

,
(24.3), ,
/ g
(0, 0). , (24.3),
2
ky ' (\ ') = (* + h k )
V k x x / + (h + hkk )y<p >y!py> +x x y

+ (h + y + (h + h ky)ytfy> +
y k

+ (h + h k ) x k x + (h + h k ) i(> .
y k y v (24.10).
x = 0, y = 0 .
= 0, = 0
qv/y + qv"y = , * J C ' / + ^ygy = i

<P*'/W + 4Wd = 0' 2


%'y>d* + ^yffw = 0,

v y
(0, 0) = - a d l , ^ (0,0)= -
yV .

175
,
(hy - f h ky) k y hyy + hkyky + hkkh\ + h kyy.
k

(24.4)
V(0,0,0) = ^ j _ ? ^ = J^L.

A (0, 0, k) = (. (24.6)), A > (0, 0, k)=0. , A

h (24.6).
k y

k = 0
fx fy
h k (, , 0)
gx gy
.,
fx fy fxy fy fxfyy
0, 0) = +
7 gxy g y gx gyy
1

a d

fxy . yy- fx
ad+ 4 -
1
- 8 d 0 gyy

, (24.5), (24.7), (24.8) (24.9)


(24.10),
ft
+ a 2
d(a - 1 )

, <i ^XX fyy > > s


yy
1 1
' d ad a d{a \)

fxy; xy 8xxf
xx i yy &
l) d*(a* d) ad*
, ad = 1,
& f xxfyy &
d a 1 1 d 3
d-
= 0. (24.11)

fug
) (, ) ()

- . ( ,

,
,
.)
n n
j k < n, k-ro j
n
&- , j
k.
.
. 24.1.
2

,
/ 0 \
j i { T ) = 1 d 1
[o d]' > ' < < '
f ()
(24.11).
176

,
fx fy
= 1. (24.12)
gx gy

(24.12) ,
. (24.12)
,
;
(24.12). ( + 1)-
,
/- , , -


(24.12) , , --; (+1)-
1 11

.
( + 1)- ,
. , ,

; ( )
.
, ,
j = (Q 2)> (24.11). ,
1

2 1
/ , j =
fa 0 \
= ( , ,
2
/ g = . , ,
xyy
2 2


g , , (24.12) ^
xyy ^ ' ^ "
g f (, 0) = 0, xyy y

g .
xyy


2
agxyy + df = , '/ . (24.14)
xxy

, f : (24.14) , -
xxy
2

(24.12)
f g (0, 0) = 0, . .
xxy x

} . , g f xyy xxy

(24.14)
, g . ,
xyy

(24.12) , ag + xxy
2 3
+ dfxxx ag + df yy / . /
yyy X

.
2
W
-+2+ + F(x, ),
(24.15)
~> + + G{x\ ),
F,G . ,
| mx |, | lmy | * , 0

(n- & ). F = G ~ 0,

F, G, , , ()--
. (
1 2 . -, yjj

) .
(, ').
% X 2 S
(, ') =' Y ' + (*. ')> (24.16)
5 ( | Imx |, 11/1 <
< ),
0

r
= (x, x') = x 2x + S (, * ' ) , (24.17)
x

' = > (x, x') = x (, ) (24.18)

. (
, (24.17) ' (24.18).)
5 , ' 1,
(24.15) F, G. (
, , (24.15)
F, G
(24.16), .) (24.15),
(24.16),
Ts.
- ( , ). (24.17) (24.18) 0 0

Ts ( , ) S , S >
0 x x

= , ' ' . S
0 0
1
j '(S). S
, . .
jx y (S) ,
0t 0

. S . (24.17)
(24.18) , n,
(^|), ,^ (Ts) 0

S, ,
^ . , ji ,y (Ts)
r Q 0

+ 1
; ' (S), 5 . ,
, XQ
n + 1
j (S) , - ,
f
Xot X' Q

jx ,y (Ts)- ,
0 0
+1 n n + 1
(5) j (). j (S)
n
j () .
n + l
, j (S)
,
.
S,
S = S > = S = S > = S > > = 0 x = x' = 0.
x x xx xx x x

(24.17) (24.18) , S
T s

?s(0, 0) = 0 -

(U, ) - (0, 0)
,
; . Ts
1
^" .
S
. j j = >0

178

^ \Odl . 24.1
2
, Ts
, S
, ,
3
, (24.11) j (),
4
/ (5). ,
, , S,
Ts
2
.
.
2
S ( ) ( )
Ts .
, , S,
2
Ts ,
. ,
S
Ts- 3
, .
,
2
,
{Ts}-
1 ,
2 2
S %$: W - W ,
w %s w, Ts %s = %sT , < k < , Q

TsXs w w . %sw
w. \ ||5||*<
2
5 ,

%
%:\ W*-+W (S,w)-*%sw,

, (S,w). , ,
-
Ts- Ts
0

S S -
. ,
Wo - ; ,0

5 Ts
ws, S
(
S) w , Tsw
Q s

Wv\ , Ws = %sw . , ^,
0

ws S,
: 0

> ,
sup 15(, )\<
(Rex, Rey)^W*
y jj< r
j I m * f, f Im 0

ws S, ^ w 0

( ).
- Ws
S , - -
13 . -, 179

( (), )
5
*.
, Ws Ts, ws.
w , Ts
s

es es,
a ds. , , , as, ds, es
s

es S. (Us, <Ps)
ws, | \ e $; s
1
. jo, (<Ps Ts ? )
0

S. 2.1. , , Ts
2
, ,
1
, , /, (<Ps T s s ) 0

(24.11). ,
,
.
S = 0 . w Q

(*, ), {xi, ), . . . , ( - -l)-

, S

(x , x-i), ( , ),..., ( * - ) ;
Q 2

S. $ = . 0

,
(x , Xi).,..., (x _ ,x -i)6bmH . ,
Q n 2 n

5 ( - ),
0

/, ( Ts ~0 = TQ. (24.11)
1

.
2
, Yi
, ,
2
w W , . .
, ,
l
()- %, Y . 3,
w

2, , , ,
k / , , ,
, , ,
,
()- ;
4 .
,
;
. , -

* S , ,
, w s

| [ < Im S = , 8 w 0

. , , 8,
\c\<Cew ,
s

= w ;
s

. , , S

,
, .

180
,
. ,
,
.
,
m n
, . W Z ,
()- ( ).
m m n
R R R >
n
R . X Y
m
R ,
, , , ; U V
m n
. /: R ^>Z
. ,

T :W m
xZ ^ W xZ
n m n
T (w, z) = (Aw, Bz + f (w)).

, { }
Rw = % 0 , ().

/ 0/ = (24.19)

f (, Q = (, B% + / (w) ), (24.20)

nl

fn
( 0 , ) ( A 4 " [S + 2 ^ / ( A'CI) . (24.21)
/
f(w) = g(w) +h(w),gU,h=V, (24.22)
(24.21)
1 -1

+ 2
n
S ^ f o ('>) 4' + B 2 n
('>) ^'. (24.23)

m 1 n n
X cz R , Y c= R" , U a R ,V cz R x, %, p, v.
,

\\() \\<\ IK^'KMV,
(24.24)
1
I (AXT 1 < ' , I (Sv)"' I < ' t > 0,
0 < < 1, a M . ,
M ,

2
, ., M = . /
F (w): X -> V

F (w) = - 2 (Bvf^h* (A'w) (AY) . 1


(24.25)

(Bv)' ^ , A G V . (24.24) , (24.25)


1

. (24.25) , X
00
F (w) = 2 B~ ~ w l ih
A'- 24
( - ) 26

13* 181
,
n
lim f (CD, F {w) ) = 0 X. (24.27)
-
(24.21) . ,
(24.23) (24.26),
1
-
2 B~ - h (A w)A c+
1
w
i i
2 - ' ( )%


+
i=0
1
+
2 -*h (A w) A ( =
1

*=0
1 00

= 2 ^ " " ^ ( ' ) ' - "" 2 Ef^Ktfw) ' =


1

= 2 B - ~ g (A w)A (- n 1 1
w
l l
2 - {^ )


.
1=0 i=0
i-
M fffI A*' I | < ~ I I,

t-
f , [ | a * I | < ' "II.
1+ /+n 2 4

, (24.21) .
, (24.20) (24.27) ,

lim (, F (w) + ) = 0 X, >U.
-+

T~\
w G ( ^ ) H o m (, V),

lim " (, G(a;) + ) = 0 QY, IV.
-*00

, (24.19)
X (Wt z) = {(, ): X, I F (w) t/},
Y(w, z) = {(, ): , EG V}.
X( ) Y ^ , ) Wl Z Z

F (w) G(w).
m n
W , Z , . Z
2
TOpZ ,

4 !)
U V . , 1,
; . Bv

1 1+i
, (24.25) ( v ) - - ^ a . , W
,
2
( Z ) : W = W\ x W\.
w w . Wl X W\ x 2
3
X :
3
[ x ) (w w ) = (Bw B*w ). v 2 l9 2

182
3 2 2
0 = ^ Z j R R
U U,

4 2 2
U / /? = R i ? . U 0 U
3
0 .
h: W l X W\ V

.
h = (h h .) = (h i, h 2, h x, A 2\ -
w Wl9 w

w )' 2 2

(a/J;,) (o/J, ) w . t

(24.26)

= ( S (B*wu B* w )
2 9 - S a 1 + 4
X CBV,
2 2 ) ). (24.28)

:
A (ojj, /) = cos 2 o/ sin 2 . 2

hWl (sin 2no; sin 2nw\ 0). 9

= (1,0), wl = (w ) nw\ = ( , e), a y i- l9 2


l
(24.28) 2 (B w ) l9
8
2 ( '/ ). 1

, F (w), . .

<p(a>i, ) = 2 a 'sin2:it(13Vi., ) sin 2 ; ( S ^ , ),


2
1+a 8
(24.29)


, .

(w w + (w ) =
l9 2 l9 2


= 2 * 1 + / s i
" 2 (B'wu ) {sin 2: [(B w , e) + (B h z
2
3i
9 )] sin 2 ( , )} = 3/
2

= 2 <* ' sin 2 ( V u ) sin 2: (B w ,


1+ si
2 ) [cos 2; (B h 3
9 ) 1] +

+ 2 1+2/
sin 2 ( V , ) cos 2 ( , ) sin 2 (B h, ).
2
3
(24.30)
1=0
2
( w w ) L (W x W ). l9 2 1 2

sl
sin 2 (B w ) sin 2 (B w
l9 ) = 29
z
= sin 2 (o/ *') sin 2 (w B* e) (24.31) lf 2y

i > 0 B Z A ,
* = (1,0) , i
1
* , * .
183
j > 0
sin 2 (B w ) cos 2 (B w , J
l9
s
2 ) (24.32)
; , i j > 0 (24.31) 9

(24.32). ,
, - g - .

c o s 2 e 1 2
1 (, % + h) - w ) | = 4 - 3 f
% * ) - 1 +
/=0
CO CO

2+4/ 2 3/ 2 + 4 / 2 3/
+ 4- S <* sin 2jt ( A, *) = 4- S sin rt( A, e).
L= 0 i=0

h = (A A ) e 7; lf 2

I (w w + h)-<p (w w ) ||b
u 2 l9 2 <* *' 2+ s n 2
$ ' (24.33)
1=0
,

|)(1, w + ) ( ) 1 >
2 2 L2 1 Ai I (24.34)

t, i- (24.33)
, . .
2/ 8
sin ><4
| | i 9

8
. '+<| |<4- '-
1


3 8/ 8
a <|i|<4-a '-

1 >4-* 8
(24.35)

L
Jt I 3
<~7
1
,
or'
2 1fa[ 2 I Ai
sin- >
a (24.35)

JTAI 2 1 h 2 | A l l
sin- f |/nl*">
*

, w w h = (h h ) e V X9 2 l9 2

I (a>i, + A) ( a/ ) | < | ft | ,
2 1 2 x
3
(24.36)
, w w . (24.30) tf 2

,
184
| (wv w + h) ( ,
2 Wl w) 2 I<
. 21
sm v3/
1=0 /=0

= 2 2 b* ( s i n ^ + 2

/=0

<4cc 2 a sin-

\h \ />-0, x

/
8 ( / +
<1 |< . 1

s 3
I Ai I < / /+* < | Ai | .

Jti
2 <** sm = 2
/= 0
" sin-
rti
+ 2 <* 2/
sin jri
<

/= /=/+1
/ = 0 / = 0

< , f t l , T I ^ 2 a , + | l i T ^ < n l f t i l i ^ + 1 A i | T_^ 2

i =0

(24.36) .
, <p (w w ) l9 2

. (24.29) ,
w 3
( i> ) = sin 2 (w ) sin 2 (> , ) + (Bw
l9 2 b B*w ). 2

(w w ) , l9 2
3
(Bw , B w ). , x 2


U ( *) ,
/1=

( X ) : W X W -+ W X W 3
x 2 x 2

, W X W . x 2

, .
w w
l9 2

Hv-*0 I 1 I '*

, (24.36) , (
now , w , ). ,
x 2

II (ta*, + ) (wi, w ) || ,
2 L

lim =- = 0.
A.
3
I il
(24.34). , -
.
185
25. ()-


,
, .

_ ->' = 2 + ,
* (25 1 )
-+' = % + + sin 2 (2 + ). }

, > , (25.1)
, (25)
.

->2 + ,
* " ,
-> + ,
()-, , , ()- ( 7).
, ,
, (25.1) .
:
-*' = 2 + ,
}
^ =x+y + f{2x + y),
/ (x) = f (x + 1)
: / (0) = 0, / ' (0) == 0, /
(, f (x) = F(x)). ,
/ (), Df (). (25.2)

2 1
= 1,
1 + 2D/ +Df
{*} .
, / h (Tf) < h ( ). 0

([69], [14],
, k = / = 1, ,
, ),

()- { } .
L 1
Y Y T ;
W w

/- X (w) : (
L
Y ) =X(w).
W

h (T) = jj \nX(w)dw.
m
, W 1,
,
,
t:W =
M
Ai, ,/ = 0 1]
L


H (I) = S mes Ai In mes /.
,
.
186
(25.2)
^ _ dx >dx' = 2dx + dy,
T = = T f :
dy-+dy' = dx + dy + Df(2x + y)dx'.
x
k (x, ) Y \ , w

, k ( (, )) TYi = Y\ , w

(dx, kdx) (dx', k'dx'); ,


dx' = 2 dx + k dx = (2 + A) ,
A'd*' = dy' = dx + kdx + Df (2x + y)dx' = (1 + k) dx + Df d*',
. e.
+DA D / = D f { 2 x + (25 3)
*' = 4 r i ^ '
&

g (w), g (Tw) g' (w),

5 g'dw =\g (Tw) dw = ^g (Tw) dTw = \g (w) dw.

h (T) ln M * , 0) =
= 55 XnyW^l'dxdy 55 ln A + */ + 55
2
(2 + A)
ln = l n

(2 + A)d*dy. = 55
2 + k p. , / = 0 X, \i,k
, , , , . , = k , (25.4)
0 0 0 0 0

= 2 + = . ,
0 0 0 0

= , . .
0 0

2_+ 1 =0. (25.5)


, / (0, 0)
Tf, ' (0, 0) = (0, 0), (25.4) = 2 + ,
X (0,0) = (0,0)
Tf (0, 0), . .
2
(0, 0) - (3 +Df (0))|i (0, 0) + 1 - 0.
, , Df (0) =f= 0, (25.5) ,
[ (0,0) =f= v (x, ) = (:, Z/) 0

2
5 J v dxdy > 0. (25.6)
, [| v || > 0 [| / |* 0.
= 2 + (25.3)
p' e 2 + *' = 2 + - u = ^ + 0 / = 3 - J L + D / ,
H* r
v = 0

V - 3 - - j ^ - m + i y - S r i _ _ _ ( i 0 + D/ =

1 . V V 2

= 3-^--1 0 + ^ - - ^ + ( ^ ) + /.

187
(25.5) , 3 ; = 0 .
0

v'dxdy = dx dy

i i

^Dfdxdy = Hfy (2x + y) dxdy = $ ( J f dy) dx = y

0 0
1
= (2* + l)-/(2*)]d*==0,

, ,

^vdxdy = -j-Jr^vdxdy 2
v dxrdr/ + ( ) v 2

1 v v 2 d v 2 d x d y
I - i ) S ^ - - *^+(S )

,
h (Tf) = ^ In y, dx dy = ^ In ( + v) dx dy.
0 (25.8)

1 ( + v) = Injjio + In ( l + - J L j - l n n o + i J - - 2 | + ,

(25.8) (25.7):

2
h = lnix + vdxdy-^v4xdy
0 + o (v ) dx dy =

+ d x d y
=
^ - ^ t ^ ^ i d x d
y - ^ S * * * ) -

l n v 2 v dy
= ^- i + T ) 5 * + (S * * ) -

(25.6) lnp = ( ) v,
0 0

1 . ,

,
, . .
, ,
, .
,
, . ,
, ,
,
. , ,
, ,
, ; ,

, , .
( ,
= const.) , ,

; *.
* , ,

( , ,
) .

2 2
= ( 8) (5 20 ),
2 2
=--(-2) (3* + 5*/ 16*),

g
5 2 c o n s t
# (* ) = + ^) =
( x = , = ,
2
( 2) .

(, ); = 8, = 2 ).

== 0, = 0; = , = 1; = 8, = 2,
, , , ; ,
, . ,

189

, ,
(

1
); L '
.

,
. , ,
()- (
, ()- ).

.
,
,
, ,
.
, , ,
, . . (M, , .) (
) M ,
9

33 - , ,
, ;
, .
, ;
: p (M) = 1. (
, ,
,
,

.)
,
[81] [1], , ,
. ,
, ,

. ,
,
,
.

.
()
. ,
, , .
[0, 1 ] -
,
, 0 [0, 1]
- . (,
(, 35, ) (\ 35', /) -
4
+ Zx\ 25/ + ,

.
, .
*
, ,
; ( )
.

190
/: M M',
M ! ,
. / (mod 0),
M ' N N' ,
/ M\N
'\ N' ( N
). , mod 0
. (, 35, ) = (, 35', /), ,
, .)
[89];
[2, 13]. [89] [2] , ,
.
-
1
" , { }, < / < . ,
*
,
.
mod 0,
, , 0,
,
mod 0. ,
{ } mod 0,

= (T-LY mod 0, { } {S }
n

, = S mod 0; ,
n

{ } ,


.

,
, , . . T : M -> M,

. , ,

, . . , { },
0 <^ n < . 0
. [1]
(
, ).
, (
)
( [11]).
, , .
{T*} (t
) ,
Us s
1. T (W)= V T (w) w, t, s.
2. A a M
{(x, t): VXA}
M X ( , ).
, , ,
, ,
.

,
.
{Tt} mod 0 ,
1. Tt+sTtTs mod 0. ( , ,
t s.)
2. , \ M p(T^ {)[\)
t.
191
{Tt} {S }
t

, tT = S mod 0.
t t

* [81],
, ,
. [90] ,
.
, ,
, .
, , {*},
( , )
0 0 0

F .
{'}
M = {(x, s) ; x Mo, s [0, F (x))}
M x ( , ); M ,
Q 0

(, ) ( ),
0

( ) ^ Fd\i . M :
0

Mo
(x, s) x X
X [0, F ()) s,
(x, F ()) ;
( , 0). (x, s) M
0

t, ,

%F(TZx) = co, 2 F (T x) = ; n

,
. -
( [2]),
(. . , ,
, )
mod 0 , inf F > sup F > 0
, , mod 0
,
,
.
0


; 0

, .
, ,
, , ,
,
.
2.
,
,
, . .,

[ / / = /(,
, ,
. ,
2
; L (), -
2
* L (); -
, M .

192

( t):
t+s f s
u = uu .

{ } [81]
i
t^U
, (
). {U*}
, ;
{U*}
, ,
.

. -,


,
, -
. , ,
. -,

;
[1] , [81] . -,

. , [1] [81],

.

, [81],
, , ,
f
{{} {U } (, [1],
2

), . .
,
AUlA-^Ul (.1)
,
[93], .
Li ,
, \ = 1 <
< < , t ,

V L*:
i
V f('k) = *?(%), t , ^ ^
t i Ki
V f(X) = e ' f(k\ t .
1
, {U }

/,

1 t i
<Pio(U'\Hi)o<p7 = V V . . . ,
ti

193
, ,
, |/, ,/ i - j .
Hi
( , ),

( ).
{U{} {U{}
{ni, pi), (n2i ),
2 .
. ,
,
.

{U*} . ,
, . .
.
, (1, ), . -
H (/), /,

{U* \ H (f)} ,
( ,
) /.
f
Rf (t) = ( U f, f), ,
, ,
(.)

, .
, . .
(1, mes), mes
,
, (.2). ,
2
L (, ) ( -
) {U*} :


2
L (Z) / (k) (
Z , . . A a Z
n
), { U } :
U*f{k)=f(k + n).
,
, -
{ }, < < , U

: Ue = + . ,
n

,
; ,
.
,
(, mes);

.
{*},
^.-^^,
, ,
. {V} M = 0

X [0, 1]. , / (x,s) (XMQ, S G [0, 1)),


194
s, , .

J/ (x, s) dx = 0 s.
,
1
{ U ) .
/ () 0


fui ( fe, /, m, p, q,
),
fkt(ToX) = fk+n,t(x)-
,
htm (x, S) = f (x)
kt


im nitM
U'fktm (X, S) = (*" *# fk+lt+s, l (X) (UA)

( ). /
, f i k m

/ . ,
Hi.
i
(U% l n . f )^
pqr \ *n*-P)s ( \ f k+u+slJ(x)TMdx)ds (.5)
0

q =f= I , , U f i f
k m

H q =j= L , / q

{U*}, ,
{U* j Hi} , . . (n, mes),
1 <^ < ; . (.4) , fktm, < & < ,
(/Wm),
. -, (/ /) 0

. -, (f f ) l9 8


= 1, s,
foimjH (foi , mi . - folm ) s (. 6).

,
(folmv ? folm , s fotm) (foirm-, folm ) s

( ,
) .
(/),
/ = foin* (.5) ,
Rf (i) = (t/7, /) = (U% , lm f )
Qlm = jt j> 1,

(.5) s.
, ()

.
R (t)=^^R (%)dX
f f

(.), , d\i () = Lr- R (X) dl.


f f R r

2
13* 195
, \i , . .
f

{U* I (/)} .
(.6). (.5) ,
{tffoitnp form) == 0 111 > 1 , i s = 1 , . . . , s.

g / 0

H(himv-, ^


*? UK U g (.5)
n

(U* (folm gn), folm g ) n = 0 | * | > 3.

, f g, oim
/,
, f#(/ormx,...,/<K* ), s = ||>3.

, , ,

( / ) = (folmv fo/m //m) G (folmn . . . , / f m )


s 0 s

, .
,
, . . { Ul} {Ul}>
, , .
, , , :
.
, .
, ,
:
(V'ifg)) = ( ( ^ / ) (w)H(U'g) ) .
[1, 2], {$} {* } 2

{U{} {
, (. 1)
| / * {{}
{* } . , ,
2
2
, L ()
, .

: ,
2 2
L () L ().
,
2
, L (),
, [91].

.

3.
-
. M
: M M - 95
M 55 - * 95,
. , ,
, ,
.

196
95 --
SR, SR,
M ,
. , ,
, ,
SR . (
, ,
1
~ :95 95,

~ (),

~ : SR - > SR. , , ,
, ;

~
, ,
.)
95 ~> SR - ^ c z
95 - SR SR --
X

5R SR . - 95 95 er
X 2

95 3R : SR
a

, , ,
5 , ,
( ) = 0; 95 = 95 2

mod 0, [2], [89].


- SR,
. ,
, [92], . .
- {SR } \ / S R
a a

SRa- : SR - SR -
, .
M > M
SR * SR, , ,
,
, SR. ( )
,
.
M 95 SR , 95 SR
95 (
+ , AB
(] ) , .
SR (
. ) [1].
,
, , [92], . XII, 4.
, .
, ,
(
, ,
).
, , , -,


,
, ,
-,
,
. -
14 . -, 197
,
,
, ;
,
, - 9R (
).
, ,
-, ,
, , -
.
-
,
. ,
de facto, de jure
M 95 9R, -
- .
--
95, (, ,
, );
33i, SS , 95i = 95 mod 0.
2


, -
. ,
[9, 10]
.) , , ,
,
, .

,
. ] ,
\ ;
, , I ], I < ; .
, g ^ \ ()
. I \ M
mod 0, N 0,
M\N> M\N
, ; I = r\ mod 0.
l ^ r i mod 0 , | ' ]',
|=fc'modO, , = ,'mod 0, ' < ' .
g < rj mod 0 (. .
) , , g ^ rj mod 0
) ^ I mod 0 g = r\ mod 0. ,
mod 0, mod 0
.
| M ,
2 ,
, g
2 , ,
.
2 g.
mod 0, mod 0
( ,
). , (
mod 0) ()
, . ,
m
W &

198
. ,
U, &\ U,
@? (/, .
, U
/?- \wt | < 1 (i 1,..., m),
@| U w = const,..., " = const. ,
p+1


|OJI|< 1, . . . , | ' | < 1 , 1 < 1 < 6 , . . . , < & ,
+ + 1

, 6 1 , . . . , , ,
+

( ) ,
"| U.
mod 0 mod 0 ,
g < \ mod 0, S.
,
2
L (),

,
mod 0, mod 0
g < ; ] g < r) mo'd 0. g

S (. . )
\> .


t
n

, :
| {A }, \ / 1
n

fl $ . .

, - M
v,
e ( , mod 0, ).
T : M -> M g

Tg, {, A g}; {~ , G g}
_1
T g . g = rj mod 0 T = 5 mod 0, Tg = Sr\ mod 0 ;
mod 0
S. , -
Al/g, ,
g, ,
: M M/g ,
l
p = \in~ A. g , M /g
.
g --
95 (g), ,
g. , ,
- 95i : 95 g,
95 = 95 (g) mod 0. SR,

S ; 95 (g) SR SR (g).
x
2
g L () (..
,

), () , (
;
) g, . . ,
93* (g) - 95 (g) (. . SR (g)
95-* SR).
S --
14* 199
. ,
.

. ,
, ,
, ,..., ;
2

I
M /. , > 0, /,
, ,

,
/. (|) X
g , / ([/);

. , ,
p (X|95i) X - 95 : 35
,
- . ( ,
, ?
, -;
, ,
, .)
.
(, , ),
, (.|),
,
1) , (
, , )
(, p (. | )) .
2) X 95 X
(. . , ,
), p (X Q | )
'

p (|) = p (X Q /) X czM
A M / i . [89], -
.
mod 0, . . ,
,
.
,
{1 }> - { $}.

^ , , ...
A n . . ^ , = 1, 2,..., ,
n

X flA ; \ - -
n n


, --
, .

. , -,
, -
200
( -
, ,
). , ,
, , , [1] [81].
[89] , .
. , ,
( ()
, ),
, ,
, 10
.

4. /-
H (I) I
: , ,
, H (g) = ,

tf() = - 2 i x ( 4 ) l g | i ( A ) , (.7)
g,
. lg .
Z c S (, Z ,
-). Z , mod 0
, , . . . ,
2

-> ( ) .


. , lgp ()
, ,
,
(). , ,
(. 7)^
,
. , # (g) = 0
g = v mod 0.
, , g \. g
g | ]
, g. ,
) (.| ),
, 1\.
, ( ,
, ) 1\
, H (1\). ()
g ]

( 1 ) = $ (6| ) dm.

, tf (g) = (gl v). g = g' mod 0, | = ' mod 0, (g' |\') =


= H (1\\), (\r\)
S X . , (g \ \) = 0 ,
g < ] mod 0, ,
p(,4) = tf(h)+ff(ilS) ( g , t ] E E Z )
Z , Z
;
201
Z .
[11]. (g| )
g, ,
) .
. g,
), (g|rj), a (g) (g|rj)
g, ,
).
T : M -> M .
g
g ^ \/~% g? = V T*l. (. 8)
0 k1
0 0
g G Z , g? Z , (gr) <C ,
( (g))
h(T, ) = lim 1 rt
(Cr), (. 9)
rt-

g (
^ ). , , h (T, g) =
H (g|g ), , (.9),
B \ Z , h (T, g)
g S
h{T, I) - (g I g"). (. 10)
S A B Z .
, (.8) (.9) , g, ) Z g < rj h (T, g) <
^ h (T, T]), : ,
~ =
h (, ) = 0. (. 11)


V T~ g = ' V T*g, g, , (Tg) =
(g), g Z
/(, t) = l i m l f f ( V T%=h(T~\ g).

, (. 10)
, , g B / Z
. h (T, g) h (~\ g) .
h (T, g) . ,

.
, , g = {

,...} ;
,
. , ,


2 /- , ~%,

/- , Ai, X
n _1
e T~ Ai. , , g, T g,...

~ , g?.
, , (?),
, (.9), h (T,g).
(. 10),

+
h (-\ I) = (I I), 1 = V %

m
\ ,

, (| 11)
, ,
,
. (. 11)
.

h () ( { })
sup h (T, g), ,
E E Z , g S,
f 1
. {T } h ( )
1
; [85],

1
(') = |<|( ).


{*}, 0

M F ():
Q 0

h { T t m*()
Mo

,
. ,

[9]. ,
, ,
. :
,
186].
,
. g (
)
{*}, t > *% > I mod 0 ( * = I mod 0).

h(T, E) suo (g I E)
S e s

, 1

(1 I (1))== ( I ) = (g V 6 11) = (1\ 1).
1 1
I , 1 = ' ^, h (T, I) = H (\~ %)
, g ^ 7*^1 mod 0.
,
:
.
,
,
,
, ,
. -
. , ()- ,
,
; . 25 .
,
,
203
. [94],
, .
. ,
:
f d
lim| T (\e~ =
t-+co
^> 0 (. .
), .
; ,
.
/("-.
{*} ,'
9

,
,

V 1 = emod 0 T vmod 0.
*=~

/- ,
. /- .
g /(-
, -
r f
e = V 7 6 = g = ' 5 = v;
1
, { } /("-, I

{ }. , /("-
.
/("-
.
/(-.

, , { } /-
,

lim sup I p ( () ()| = 0.
-> .
kn

3R (), ., -,
g.

5.
'
.
4. ,


, , . . ,
, ,
,
. , ,
, ;
(. ).
, .
, , ,
, , , -
204
*.
4, , ()-,
, ()-

@ & .
ri - , .
v ()) mod 0
I, g ^ | mod 0:

v (]) = \ ( S).
< mod 0
S e s

5,
, @?
, v (@) = v.
f
. {T }
&

(/. . g ^
,
V * 6= , % = { ),

t= tz=00

h(T\Q = \ \g%(w)dw, (. 13)


M
W
(to) ,
w :
1
- ^ = ( %).
, ,
& , ,
. :
U,
U ( U )
1
- . (. 13), , , ( ,)]>
1
>> 0, h (T ) j > 0;
.
, , ( )-
,
;
.

()- {*} @ .
k
{*} ( 4) v (<S ) = v, (
11)
15.
/(-, 5 7. ( ,
,
, 4,
11 15.) , | ,
1 1
, , ( , ) = h ( );
25 ()-.
* 7 [69] ,
,

s
. {S },
* ,
,
s
{S } ;
,
. (
), -, .

205

1. . P. X . . ., , 1959.
2. . . . .
. , 1949, . 4, 2, 57128.
3. . . . ..., , 1936.
4. . . , . . . .
. , 1962, . 144, N 4, 695698.
5. . . , . . . .. , 1963, . 150,
5, 958.
6. . X .
. . , 1949, . 4, 2, 129170.
7. . H o p f . Statistik der Lsungen geodtischer Probleme vom unstabilen Typus. IL
Math. Ann, 1940, Bd. 117, 4, 590608.
8. . . , . . . . ,
1937, . 14, 5, 247250; . . . . - ,
1956, . 183187.
9. . . .
. . , 1958, . 119, N 5,
861-865.
10. . . . ,
. . , 1959, . 124, N 4, 754755.
11. . . . . . ,
., 1961, . 25, N 4, 499530.
12. . . . .
I. . , ., 1961, . 25, N 6, 899924.
13. . . . .
. , 1960, . 15, 4, 326.
4. . . . . Proceedings of the Inter
national Congress of Mathematicians, Uppsala 1963, pp. 540559.
15. . . . .
. , 1955, . 10, 4, 101126.
16. M. M. P e i t . Structural stability on two-dimensional manifolds. Topology,
1962, v. 1, N 2, 101120.
17. . M e .
.
. , , 1961, . 13;
. , - , 1963, . II
. 365366.1
18. . .
. . , 1967, . 1 1 , 4, 6978.
19. . . .
. . , 1962, . 145, N 4, 707709.
20. . M. . .
. , 1959, . 128, N 5, 880-881.
21. . . .
/- .-. , 1962, . 56, 1, 7794.
22. Ph. H a r t m a n . A lemma in the theory of structural stability of differential equations.
Proc. Amer. Math. S o c , 1960 v. 11, 4, 610620.
23. Ph. H a r t m a n . On the local linearization of differential equations. Proc. Amer. Math.
Soc. 1963, v. 14, N 4, 568573.
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