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Ben Clennell*

ASEG-Perth
9th June 2010

* CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering


Perth, Australia Ben.Clennell@csiro.au

1

Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Shell Sponsorship
CSIRO

: Matthew Josh, Tony


Siggins, David Annetts, Brett Harris, Niels
Christensen, Olivar Lima

2



; CSEM,
EM IP

CO2

,





!

3

1.

2.

3. DC

4.
:

5.

4
:

:

:


0 = 8.854e-12 F/m)

r = /0
:
,
, , ,
= 0

- () ,
, ,

5
1.




6

E H
H eE e JT E 0
t t
, =0

E 2E
E e 0
2
e 0 2
i
t t : t

k 2 [ 2 i ]
e 0 0 e

k i 1/ 2 /
Ward & Hohmann in Nabighian 1987. Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, SEG
Guegen, Y. & Palciauskas, V. 1998. Introduction to the Physics of Rocks. Princeton.

7
k 2 [ 0 2 i0]

>> <<
EM-


:





2
2
0
0
8
:

J T *E * i

* i
E
JT *

t d



i JT [ e ie ]E
t
9
2.

10

, , ,

,
,
()

(, )
1.
2.
(),
(Sw)
3.
( )
4. m n

11


0
0 1 s
F

0 1 1
w F F
w

12
?

13



: E

,
.

:
,
,

14

:

sc
(Maxwell - Wagner)

at ~1 GHz

A
3 4 5 6 7
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
8 9
10 10 10 11 10 12 10 13 10 14 10 15 10 16

()
V.H.F

15
After von Hippel 1958
1
:
r ~4-4.5
r ~5-6
r ~3-4
r ~1
r ~80

r ~4.5
r ~10

16
-

1 2 :
E 5 3L
1 2 m
3(1L2 )
E: :

1
2
L= 1/3 L> 1/3 L< 1/3

17



-


-



,
(high CEC)
:

18
Goncalves & Tremosa JCIS 2010

-:
,
-
+
+ -
+ -
+
+ -
+ - -

19
Matthew Josh CSIRO

:
-
,
-: ,
,
,
(
- )


:

(
103 106 109 1012 1015
)

-LFDD Maxwell-W

-3 0 3 6 9 12 +15
Log f Hz
20
(~ 100 )

: r <4 to ~10
,
r ~10-30
- - r ~10

r ~10-100
r ~100-1000

r >1000
21
3.

22


< 1 ~100
Z

,
,
Z Z
Rp
Cp,
R

r
*Rp Cp ,
;
Rs Cs
23
Matthew Josh CSIRO
:

24
Clennell & Lima, UFBa

?

25
4.

27
Lionel Esteban, CSIRO
: 2

178
tan1 Z
Z

23

CSIRO

28
: 4

CSIRO

100 , ...
29

30

: Quentin Fisher, Maggie Pokar, University of Leeds

31

LF
Brine
conductivity
S/m

Clennell & Lima 2003, SBGf proceedings


33
:

2 S/m,
~ 5 .%
107.90 2.53

92.26
CSIRO
- 10034
!
cf. Merriam 2007, Zhdanov 2008 both in Geophysics

LFDD
( IP)
,


( <3 ):
LFDD ,

, ,
.
...

35

10

-



:
/

... . .

1
36


~30 kHz to ~6 GHz

S11, S12,



Agilent

r

conductivity e

* i e 0
37




(
, )




f <10 !

CSIRO

38


300 1.0E+06

250 1.0E+05

200 1.0E+04
E '

E "
150 1.0E+03

100 1.0E+02

50 1.0E+01

0 1.0E+00
1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07 1.00E+08
()

39
Matthew Josh CSIRO


North Sea
Shale Core, Samples S series
Good Surface Probe Data
90 S2_BTR_av_e' S4 _wm_4 e' S5_BT_av_e' 1.2

S2_BT_av_sigma S4_wm4_sigma S5_BT_av_sigma


80 1.1
(e')

1.0
70

- (S/m)
0.9
60
0.8
50
0.7
40
0.6

30
0.5

20 0.4

10 0.3
1.0E+07 1.0E+08 1.0E+09

()

40
CSIRO- IPETS Project

: ,
(e')


100
Lancer 166 e' Lancer 603green e'
90
Lancer 603red e' N Sea 5 e'

80 Opalinus e' Pierre e'

70 Lancer 665 e' Lancer 905B e'

Lancer 970 e' Lancer 1114 e'


60

50

40

30

20

10

0
1.0E+07 1.0E+08 1.0E+09
()

41
CSIRO IPETS Project

1
,
, CRIM Hanai-Bruggeman

1
-
-,

( )
-

(1 ),
-

1MHz 1GHz MW DL
42
See Myers 1991, SPWLA

43
UFBa

: ,
-, ,

: MW ,
LFDD,
m.
: ,


:
100 , MW 500 1

()?
: 1
- 1 , LFDD,
CEC

: IP -
1

44

4 el r

Membrane- LFDD Maxwell-W Molecular

-3 0 3 6 9 12
Log of frequency (Hz)
45
CSIRO Petrophysics Lab
4.


,
,
,

46


<1

48
Page and Benefield SPE 78341


f ~10-100

49
EM
f > 100 , (
)
,

,
Rx1 & 2 2
e
0

2 2
e 2
0

50

LWD (2 ):
,
(,
)
16, 40 , 1980-

(EPT):
1,1 , -
(DPT):
200

51


20-1
Schlumberger
Dielectric Scanner

52
Hizem et al. SPE 116130
,


MT MCSEM TDEM/FDEM GPR

IP VLF LWD MFT


SN, LL Induct DPT EPT IR, Vis, UV, GR

Membrane Maxwell-W Molecular Atomic

-3 0 3 6 9 12 +15
Log f Hz


53




EM
,
, ,
.

(, )
(VOI !)
( )



.

54
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