Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

Russian Cases Cheat Sheet

by Lammmas via cheatography.com/23950/cs/5415/

Cases and functions Conjug​ation exceptions (cont) Nominative case (nimetav)

Case Function Question стел​ить обид​еть ('to зави​сеть ('to Gender Nouns Adjectives Posessives

Nominative Subject of the кто? ('to lay') offend') depend') Male const., ый ий ой Мой Твой
sentence что? нена​вид​еть терп​еть ('to й Наш Ваш

Genitive The 'of' case: кого? ('to hate') tolerate') Female а or я ая яя Моя Твоя
Posses​sion, Quantity чего?* смот​реть ('to слыш​ать ('to Наша Ваша
& Negation чей? watch') hear') Neutral о or e ое ее Моё Твоё
Dative The 'to/for' case: кому? дышать ('to гнать ('to Наше Ваше
Indirect object, чему?
breathe') drive') Plural +ы; ый Мои Твои
Recipient йая ой > ые; Наши Ваши
Accusative Direct object кого? Past > ы; ий > ие
что? ь > и;
Gender Ending о > а;
Instru​menta The 'by/with' case: кем?
Male л е > я;
l Means of doing чем?
something Female ла Именительный падеж
Prepos​ition The 'at/about' case: о ком? Neutral ло
al Location о чём? The nominative case is the default case of a
Plural ли
где? word, as found in dictio​naries and when no
Gender is determined by the subject (I was other case is specif​ically used. It is also used
* - differ​ent​iated by context. Genitive is
speaking, She was eating) for the subject of a sentence: in "Bob eats
equivalent to the second case in English: the
lunch", Bob is the subject of the sentence, so
Possessive ('s)
Pronouns would be in its default nominative form.

Conjug​ation (verbs / tegusõna) I Я Me Меня


Genitive case (omastav)
Person I conj II conj You Ты You (informal) Тебя
Gender Nouns Adjectives Posessives
others и He, It (m) Он Him, It (m,n) Его
Male/N​ const., ого его Моего
Я ('I') у/ю у/ю She, It (f) Она Her, It (f) Её eutral о > а; Твоего
Ты ('You') ешь ишь It Оно й, е, ь Нашего
>я Вашего
Он/о​на/​оно ет ит We Мы Us Нас
('Him/​Her​/It') Female а>ы ой ей Моей
You Вы You Вас
ь, я> и Твоей Нашей
Мы ('We') ем им (forma​l/p​lural) (forma​l/p​lural)
Вашей
Вы ('You') ете ите They Они Them Их

Они ('Them') ут/ют ат/ят Вы is used as the formal singular "​you​", and

"to ..." is the infinitive of a verb, and keeps the- the plural "​you​" (slang: "​you​s" or "you all")
when talking to more than one person.
ть, while "I am ..." requires conjug​ation

Conjug​ation exceptions

I conj II conj держ​ать ('to


keep')

брить ('to видеть ('to верт​еть ('to


shave') see') twirl')

By Lammmas Published 15th October, 2015. Sponsored by CrosswordCheats.com


cheatography.com/lammmas/ Last updated 15th October, 2015. Learn to solve cryptic crosswords!
Page 1 of 2. http://crosswordcheats.com
Russian Cases Cheat Sheet
by Lammmas via cheatography.com/23950/cs/5415/

Genitive case (omastav) (cont) Accusative case Instru​mental case (cont)

Plural ов, ев, ых Моих Твоих Наших Gender Nouns Adjectives Posessives Plural const., о, ыми Моими Твоими
ей их Ваших M obj As As nom. As nom. а > ами ими Нашими Вашими
й, е, я >
Роди́тельный падеж nom.
ями
M alive As As gen. As gen.
- Counting - When counting objects ("I have six gen. Творительный падеж
sheep"), the thing being enumerated is usually пoд ('under') нaд ('abov​e'/'on top of') зa
Female a>у aя > ую Мою Твою
put in the genitive case. ('behind') мeждy ('betw​een'), and пepeд
я>ю яя > юю Нашу Вашу
- Posse​ssion - If something is owned by ('befo​re'/'in front of').
something else, the owner is in the genitive Neutral As As nom. As nom.
nom.
case. The instru​mental case is used to denote the
- Negation - To say something is there, we Pl obj As As nom. As nom. object by which something is done.
generally use the nominative case. If it isn't nom.
there, we use нет followed by the genitive. Pl alive As As gen. As gen. Prepos​itional case (kohak​ääne)
- Prepo​sit​ions - Locations (in/on​/ne​ar/​etc); Also gen.
used for "I have" Gender Nouns Adjectives Posessives
Вини́тельный падеж
Male / e ом ем Моём
Dative case Neutral Твоём
The accusative case is used for the direct Нашем
Gender Nouns Adjectives Posessives object of a verb. In "Bob eats lunch,​" "​lun​ch" is Вашем
Male/N​ const., о ому ему Моему the direct object.
Female а, я > е ой ей Моей
eutral >у Твоему
ь>и Твоей
й, е, ь > Нашему NB! Masculine nouns denoting people or
Нашей
ю Вашему animals (i.e., animate nouns) take their genitive
Вашей
form, while neuter nouns and inanimate
Female а>е ой ей Моей Твоей
masculine nouns take their nominative form. Plural const., о, ых их Моих
я, ь > и Нашей
Plural nouns of any gender take their а > ах Твоих
Вашей
nominative plural form if inanimate, or their й, е, я > Наших
Plural const., ым им Моим Твоим genitive plural form if animate. ях Ваших
о, а > Нашим
Предложный падеж
ам Вашим
Instru​mental case в (in), на (on), and о/обо (about; it's обо in the
й, е, я >
ям Gender Nouns Adjectives Posessives phrase "​about me" or "​about my").

Дательный падеж Male/N​‐ ом ем ым им Моим Твоим


Commonly used to denote a sentence's
eutral ём Нашим
object's location or an activity.
The dative case is used to denote indirect Вашим
However, these prepos​itions can also call other
objects, which are objects that indicate "to Female ой ей ой ей Моей Твоей cases, in which case their meaning changes.
whom", or "to what" an action is done. So in the ёй Нашей Вашей For instance, в + prep means 'in', as in, "I live
sentence, "I am writing a letter to you", "(a) in Englan​d". в + acc, however, means 'into' or
letter​" is the direct object of the verb, while " 'to', as in, "I'm flying to New York".
(to) you" is the indi​rect object.

By Lammmas Published 15th October, 2015. Sponsored by CrosswordCheats.com


cheatography.com/lammmas/ Last updated 15th October, 2015. Learn to solve cryptic crosswords!
Page 2 of 2. http://crosswordcheats.com