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Articles with Geographic Names The use of articles with geographical names has certain patterns, For example, the name of a river is used with the definite article, and the name of a lake is used without any article. The name of ‘one mountain (or one island) is used without any article, and the name of a mountain chain (or a group of islands) is used with the definite article. The meaning may change depending on the presence or absence of the definite article. For example, Mississippi is the state of Mississippi, while the Mississippi is the Mississippi River. Examples in this material are listed in groups under the two headings: No article; Article the. It is much easier to memorize articles with geographical names in this way. For easier study of the articles, standard English and Russian abbreviations (Mount - Mt., Street - St, etc.) have not been used in this material. Capitalization Generally, the definite article "the" in geographical names is not capitalized (the Indian Ocean; the Nile River; the Philippines; the Alps). But the article "the" is capitalized if it is part of a geographical name (The Hague). The words “north, east, south, northern, southern, western, central" and the like are capitalized if they are part of a geographical name (the North Sea; Northern Ireland; Central America) or part of the name of a region regarded as ApTHKnH ¢ reorparbHieckMmn Ha3BaHHaMA Ynotpe6neHne aptuknen c Teorpadw4eckHmv Ha3BqHHAaMK meet onpepenéHHble Mopenn. Hanprmep, HasBaHne pekH ynotpe6nsetca c onpefenéHHbim apTuknem, a Ha3BaHHe o3epa 6e3 aptukna. HasBaHve ofHon rope (nu opHoro octpoBa) Ges aptukna, a Ha3BaHHe ropHon rpaabl (AnH rpynnb! ocTpoBos) c onpenenéHHbIM aptuknem. 3HaYeHHe MOXKeT MEHATECA B 3QBMCHMOCTH OT HaNHYHA Hn OTcyTCTBMA ONpemeNéHHOFO ApTHKNA. Hanpumep, Mississippi - wrat Mississippi, 8 To Bpemsa Kak the Mississippi — ato the Mississippi River. Npumepl 8 AAHHOM MaTepvane AaHb! 8 fpynnax nog AByma 3aronoBKaMH: Be3 aptikns; Aptikne the. Topasno mere 30NOMHHTe OPTHKNH ¢ TeorpadvyeckHmn Ha3BcHHaMH Takum cnoco6om. {Ina o6nerveHna vay4eHHA apTuknen, CTaHAapTHbIe GHrnicKne M pycckHe CoKpaWeHHAa (Mount - Mt., Street - St, pexa-p. 4 Op.) He ynotpe6nexb! 8 stom matepvane. 3arnasnbie 6ykBbI O6tI4Ho, onpenenéHHei aptHknb "the" B reorpacnyecknx Ha3BaHMAX nuwe+ca c ManeHbKon 6yKebI (the Indian Ocean; the Nile River; the Philippines; the Alps). Ho aptuknt "the" nuwerca c Gonbwon GyxBbI, ecnH OH ABNAETCA YaCTbIO reorpadHyeckoro, Ha3Banna (The Hague). Cnosa “north, east, south, northern, southern, western, central" 7.0. Nwytca c 3arnasHon Gykebl, ecn OHH HacTe reorpadbuyeckoro HasBaHna (the North Sea; Northern Ireland; Central America) unw yacte a unit (the West; Western Europe; the East; the Far East; the Eastern Hemisphere). If such words are used for indicating direction or as descriptive terms, they are generally not capitalized: the north; the west; the southeast; the south of France; western Asia; northern Africa; the eastern United States; central Australia. The words "ocean, river, sea, lake, island, mountains, desert, state, city, street" and the like are capitalized if they are part of a geographical name: the Volga River; the Sea of Japan; Lake Baikal; the Great Lakes; the Canary Islands; Ellis Island; the Rocky Mountains; the Sahara Desert; New York State; Mexico City; Wall Street. If such words are not part of a geographical name, they are generally not capitalized: the island of Greenland; the state of California; the city of Boston. Such words are capitalized in titles (A Brief History of the City of New York) and may be capitalized in formal writing. Note: Phonetic transcription of many geographical names is indicated in the materials The Largest in the World and Countries and Cities in the section Miscellany. Continents and geographical areas No article: America, North America, South America, Latin America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica; Ha3BaHHa pernoHa, PaccmarpHeaemoro kak ennHoe uenoe (the West; Western Europe; the East; the Far East; the Eastern Hemisphere). Ecnu Take cnosa ynorpe6nerbl ana ykasaHvia HanpaBneHHs nH Kak OnvcaTenbHble TepMHHbI, OHH O6bINHO. TMyTca C ManeHEKON GyKabt the north; the west; the southeast; the south of France; western Asia; northern Africa; the eastern United States; central Australia, Cnosa "ocean, river, sea, lake, island, mountains, desert, state, city, street" TAN. MMWYTCA C 3arnaBHON 6yKBbI, ecn OHM YaCTb reorpacu4eckoro: Hassanna: the Volga River; the Sea of Japan; Lake Baikal; the Great Lakes; the Canary Islands; Ellis Island; the Rocky Mountains; the Sahara Desert; New York State; Mexico City; Wall Street. Ecnu Takne cnoga He 4aCcTb Teorpacuyeckoro Ha3BaHHs, TO o6bI4HO c ManeHBKoN GyKBbe the island of Greenland; the state of California; the city of Boston. Taxne cnopa nuwytca c Gonbwon 6ykKBbI B 3aronoskax (A Brief History of the City of New York) 4 moryt 6piTb c Gonbwion GykBbI 8 OMUNANbHEIX MaTepHanax. Mpumesanve: bonetnueckaa TPOHCKpHNUNA MHOTHX Teorpadyecknx Ha3BqHHii yka3cHa B martepnanax The Largest in the World" w "Countries and Cities" 6 pasgene Miscellany. KoHTHHeHTBI H reorpadbu4eckne MectHocTH Bes aptukna: Amepnka, CesepHaa Amepuka, fOxHaa Amepvka, SlatHHckaa North Africa, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Central America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Siberia. Article the: the Western Hemisphere, the Eastern Hemisphere, the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere; the Arctic, the Antarctic, the Far East, the Middle East; the North Pole, the South Pole. Oceans, seas, gulfs, bays, lakes Article the: the Atlantic Ocean / the Atlantic, the Pacific Ocean / the Pacific, the Arctic Ocean, the Indian Ocean; the Mediterranean Sea / the Mediterranean, the Caribbean Sea / the Caribbean; the Red Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Barents Sea, the Bering Sea, the Yellow Sea; the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Marmara; the Gulf of Mexico, the Bay of Bengal, the Gulf of Finland, the Bay of Biscay, the Persian Gulf. But: Hudson Bay, San Francisco Bay. No article: Lake Baikal / Baikal, Lake Victoria, Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Crater Lake, Utah Lake, Lake Geneva, Great Pond. Amepuka, Espona, Asn, Adpuka, Asctpanna, AXTapkTHaa; Cesepnas Adpnka, 3anagHas Espona, BocroyHas Eapona, LleHtpanbHas Amepuka, 1OkHas A3na, Oro- Boctoynaa Asus, CpeaHaa Ana, Cu6npe. Aptuknp the: 3ananHoe nonywapue, Boctounoe Nonywapne, CesepHoe nonyuiapHe, 1OxHoe nonywapre; Apxtuka, AHTapkTHKa, DanbHHi Boctok, BnwxHuin Boctok; CesepHbii nontoc, IOxkHbIM nomtoc. OkeaHt!, Mops, 3anvBbl, 03épa Aptuknp the: ATnaHTH4eckHi oKeaH, THXHi OKeGH, Cepepnbii Slegosutbii oKean, Vnanincknin oxen; CpennzemuHoe mope, Kapn6ckoe mope; Kpachoe mope, YepHoe mope, Kacnnitckoe mope, CesepHoe mope, Bantniickoe mope, Bapexuieso mope, Bepuirogo mope, >Késtoe mope; OxorcKoe mope, SINOHCKOe Mope, MpamopHoe mope; MekcvkaHckni 3anne, BeHranbcKHih 3annve, PHHcKHi sane, BUcKalicKHin 3anne, Mepcvackni 3anve. Ho: [ya3oHos 3anue, 3anue CaH- Ppanuncko. Bes apruxna: ‘o3epo Balkan / Baiikan, o3epo Buktopua, o3epo BepxHee, 03epo. Typox, o3epo Muuurax, o3epo 3pu, 03epo OxTapHo, o3epo Kpeiitep, But: the Great Salt Lake, the Lake of the Woods; the Great Lakes (5 lakes). Rivers, straits, canals, currents, waterfalls Article the: the Amazon / the Amazon River, the Nile / the Nile River, the Mississippi / the Mississippi River, the Missouri / the Missouri River, the Rio Grande, the Yangtze / the Yangtze River; the Thames / the Thames River / the River Thames, the Seine / the Seine River, the Danube / the Danube River; the Amur / the Amur River, the Dnepr / the Dnepr River / the Dnieper, the Lena / the Lena River, the Ob / the Ob River, the Volga / the Volga River, the Yenisei / the Yenisei River, the Amu Darya; the Strait of Gibraltar, the Strait of Dover (Pas de Calais), the Strait of Magellan, the Bering Strait; the Dardanelles, the Bosporus (also, Bosphorus}; the English Channel (La Manche), the Mozambique Channel; the Suez Canal, the Panama Canal, the Erie Canal; the Gulf Stream, the Florida Current, the Japan Current (the Kuroshio); the Victoria Falls / Victoria Falls, Niagara Falls / the Niagara Falls, the American Falls, the Canadian Falls, the Horseshoe Falls / Horseshoe Falls. Islands No article: o3epo tOta, KeHescKoe o3epo, Bonbwon npya. Ho: Bonbuioe ConéHoe o3epo, o3epo NlecHoe; Benukne 03épa (5 0368p). Pex, nponuets, KaHaN, TeHeHHA, Bofonappl Aprixne the: Amazoxka / peka Amazonka, Hun / peka Hun, Muccncunn / pexa Mucencunn, Muccypn / peka Muccypn, Puo-Tparae, AHU3bI / pea AHU3bI; Temsa / pexa Temsa, Cea / pexa Cena, Dynan / pexa JyHai; Amyp / pexa Amyp, {Henp / pexa AHenp, Sena / pexa MleHa, O6b / pexa 06b, Bonra / peka Bonra, EHncehi / peka Exucei, Amygapps; Tu6pantapcKnit nponne, flyspcKnia nponne (Ma-ae-Kane), MarennarHos: nponne, BepnHros nponue; nponwe flapagHennti, nponue Boccpop; Axrnuiickui KaHan (nponne Sla- MaHw), Mo3sam6ukcknit nponne; Cyaukni Kanan, Naxamckni Kanan, kaHan 3py; Teyenne Fonbebctpum, PnopupcKoe Teyenne, AMOHCKOe TeYeHHe (Kypocuo); Bogonag Buktopna, HuarapcKHia Bogonag, AMepvikaHcKHi Bogonan, KaHapckni sogonag, sogonag Xopcwy (Bogonag Nopkosa). Octposa Bes apruxna: Greenland, Java, Cyprus, Madagascar, Hokkaido, Sakhalin, Jamaica, Ellis Island. But: the Isle of Man. Article the: the island of Greenland, the island of Java, the island of Cyprus, the island of Madagascar, the island of Jamaica. Article the: the Aleutian Islands / the Aleutians, the Kuril (or Kurile) Islands / the Kurils, the Bahamas / the Bahama Islands, the Canary Islands / the Canaries, the Philippines / the Philippine Islands; the British Isles, the Virgin Islands, the Falkland Islands, the Florida Keys, the West Indies, the Azores. Peninsulas, capes Article the: the Indochinese Peninsula, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Alaska Peninsula, the Kola Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula, the Iberian Peninsula, the Italian Peninsula (the Apennine Peninsula); No article: Indochina, Kamchatka, Iberia (peninsula); Cape Horn, North Cape, Cape Chelyuskin, Cape Canaveral, Cape Cod. But: the Cape of Good Hope. Mountains, volcanoes, hills No article: Everest / Mount Everest, Fuji / Mount Fuji /Fujiyama, Kilimanjaro / Mount Kilimanjaro, Elbrus / Mount Elbrus, Etna / Mount Etna, Vesuvius / Mount Vesuvius; Tpernanana, 80, Kunp, Manarackap, Xoxkaiino, Caxannu, Amavika, Sannc- Avinexa, Ho: Octpos Max. Aptukne the: octpos [peHnanana, octpos ABa, ‘octpos Kunp, octpos Magarackap, octpos Amaika. Aprixne the: Aneytckne octposa, KypunbcKne octposa, Baramckne octposa, KaHapekne octposa, bununnvHbl / ununnuuckne ocrpoea; Bpwtarckne octposa, BupruicKne ocTposa, PonkneHAckHe ocTpoBa, octposa @nopuaa-Kuc, octposa Bect- Vana, AzopcKne octposa. Nonyoctposa, Mbicbi Aptuknp the: nonyoctpos MHAoKHTai, nonyoctpos Kamuatka, nonyoctpos AnscKa, Konbckni nonyoctpos, BankaHcKnii nonyoctpos, Muperelickni nonyoctpos, AneHHMHCKHit Nonyoctpos; Bes aptukna: Vkgokntai, Kamyarka, Nuperencknii Nonyoctpos; mbic Top, Mbic HopaKan, MbIc Yentockn, mbic Kaxapepan, Keiin- Kog (nonyoctpos). Ho: mbic lo6po Hapexkabl. Topbi, ByNKGHbI, XONMbI Bes aptukna: 3eepect / ropa JBepect, ByNKaH / Fopa ynsnama, KunumanpKapo / ropa Kunumangkapo, Snb6pyc / ropa Mount Whitney, Mount McKinley, Mont Blanc, Lassen Peak; Capitol Hill, Telegraph Hill. But: the Kilauea Volcano. Article the: the Himalayas / the Himalaya / the Himalaya Mountains, the Rocky Mountains / the Rockies, the Balkan Mountains, the Ural Mountains / the Urals, the Caucasus Mountains / the Caucasus; the Pamirs / the Pamir, the Tien Shan / the Tian Shan; the Cordilleras, the Andes, the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Apennines; the Black Hills, the Berkshire Hills. Plateaus, canyons, plains Article the: the Tibetan Plateau, the Central Siberian Plateau, the Mexican Plateau, the Colorado Plateau; the Grand Canyon; the Great Plains, the East European Plain {the Russian Plain), the West Siberian Plain, the Turan Plain (the Turan Lowland). Deserts, valleys Article the: the Sahara / the Sahara Desert, the Kalahari / the Kalahari Desert, the Arabian Desert, the Gobi / the Gobi Desert, the Kara Kum; the Ruhr Valley, the Nile Valley, the Valley of the Kings. Snb6pyc, 3THa / ropa StHa, Besyenin / ropa Be3ysvii; fopa YuTHH, ropa Mak-Kunn, Mon6naH, Slaccex-Muk; Kanutonnicknit xonm, Tenerpad- Xuan. Ho: Bynkalt Kunay3a, Aptuknp the: Tumanan / Tumanarickne ropbl, Ckannctele ropbl, BankaHcKne ropbl, Ypanbckne ropbi / ropti Ypan, Kaskasckne roppi / opp! Kaska3; Namup, Taltt-Wanb; Kopannseptt, AHabi, Mmperen, Anbnibs, AneHHMHbI; YépHle xonml, BepkWuHpckie xonmbl. Mnato, KaHbOHbI, paBHHHbI Aptuknp the: TuGerckoe Haropee, Cpepecn6upcKoe nnockoropbe, MexkcvkaHckoe Haropte, nnaro Konopago; Bonbwoi KaHboH; Benukne pasxunti, Bocto4Ho- Esponevickas pasxuua (PyccKaa PasHnHa), ZanapHo-CH6upcKaa PasHuna, TypaHcKas pasHnHa (Typarickas HH3MeHHOCTp). TyctoiHv, noni! Aptuknp the: Caxapa / nyctbiHa Caxapa, Kanaxapn /nyctbiHa Kanaxapn, Apasniickaa nyctoiHs, To6n / nyctbiHa To6n, Kapaxymes (nycteiHa); AMonnHa pekn Pyp, AonvHa pekn Hun, Alona Uapen. But: Death Valley, Silicon Valley. Countries, states No article: America, Australia, Great Britain, Britain, England, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand; Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Holland, Hungary, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Luxembourg; Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Norway, Poland, Russia, Spain, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, Turkey. But: the Congo. Article the: the United States (the U.S.), the United Kingdom (the UK), the Russian Federation, the Netherlands, the Philippines; the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Cuba, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Spain, the Commonwealth of Australia. States, provinces No article: Arkansas, California, Delaware, Georgia, linois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New York / New York State, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode. Island, Texas, Utah, Washington / Washington State; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan. Article the: Ho: onua cmeptn, KpemHnesan fAonuHa / CunukoHosaa AonnHa. Crpanbi, rocynapcrea Bes aptuna: Amepuka, Asctpanna, Benuko6putanua, BpHtanna, AHrana, Kaxana, Mpnaxana, Hosa 3enanaua; Aprentuna, Benbrns, Bpasunus, Yun, Kura, Danna, Erunet, paxuna, Tepmanna, fpeuna, Fonnanans, Bexrpua, Mnana, Upar, V3zpann, Vranua, Anonna, Susan, Moxcembypr; Mexcnka, Moxronua, MapoKko, Mosam6nk, Hopserua, Monbuia, Pocena, VicnaHua, Caynosckan Apasus, Weeiyapna, Typuna. Ho: Koxro, Aptuknp the: CoeguHenHbie Wrarbi AMepHkn (CWA), CoennHeHHoe Koponescrso, Poccuiickaa Penepauna, Hugepnanabi, Pununnunel, enepatnexas Pecny6nnka Tepmanna, Pecny6nuka Ky6a, Koponesctso flanna, Koponesctso Vcnanna, Asctpannitckni Coio3. Wratel, nposHHuKH Bes aptuna: Apkansac, Kanucopxns, flenassp, Ebxopaxna, Mannion, Nynanana, Kentykkn, Maccauycere, Hbto-Mopk / wat Hpto-Nopk, Oknaxoma, NeHcunbsanns, Pop-Ainena, Texac, tOra, BawnHrToH / wrat BaWwHHITOH; Anb6epta, Bpntarcxas Konym6ua, Mannto6a, HbiodbayHaneria, OHTapHo, Kee6ex, Cackayepan. Aptuknp the: the state of California, the state of New York, the state of Texas, the state of Washington, the province of Ontario, the province of Quebec, Cities, towns No article: Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Berlin, Brussels, Cairo, Delhi, Havana, Lisbon, London, Los Angeles, Madrid, Montreal, Moscow, Munich, New York, Oslo, Paris, Philadelphia, Prague; Rio de Janeiro, Rome, Saint Petersburg, Stockholm, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Vienna, Warsaw, Washington / Washington, D.C. But: The Hague. Note: D.C. [' Columbia. :] — the District of No article: Atlantic City, Kansas City, New York City (NYC), Oklahoma City, Quebec City, Mexico City, Panama City, Cape Town / Capetown, Fort Knox. Article the: the city of Athens, the city of Moscow, the city of New York, the city of Oslo, the city of Rome, the city of Tokyo, the city of Washington, the town of Bedford. Streets, avenues, highways No article: Main Street, Wall Street, 42nd Street, Oak Alley, Maple Boulevard, Fifth Avenue, Sixth Avenue, Pennsylvania Avenue, Broadway, Lexington Road, Route 66, Highway 64, But: the Arbat, the Mall. Article the: rat Kanucopua, wrat Hbto-Mopk, wat Texac, wrat BawHHrToH, NposuHunsa OXTapHo, NpoBMHUKA Kee6er. Topoga Bes aptuna: Amctepnam, Adri, Bapcenona, Bepnun, Bptoccens, Kavp, Jenn, Fasana, SIuccaGox, SloxpoH, floc Avgxenec, Mappa, MoHpeanb, Mocksa, MioHxeH, Hbto-Mopk, Ocno, Napwx, Punagenboua, Npara; Pnio-ge->Kanenpo, Pum, CaHkt- Netep6ypr, Crokronbm, CHaHen, Tokno, Topoxto, Bea, Bapwasa, BawnHrtou. Ho: Taara. Mpumesanue: D.C. [' Konym6na. Bes aptukna: 1] oxpyr Atnantik-Cutn, KaHaac-CHTH, Hbto- Mopk Cutu, Oknaxoma-Cutu, Kee6ex, Mexuko, Marama, Keiintayx, Popt- Hoke. Aptuknp the: ropon Adnubi, ropon Mockea, ropon Hbto-Mopk, ropon Ocno, ropoa Pum, Fopon Tokvo, ropog BawHHrToH, ropon, Bendopa. Yanupl, npocnextei, Aoporn Bes aptuna: TnasHaa ynnua, Yonn-Crput, 42-a ynnua, fly6osas annes, KneHoseiit 6ynbBap, Matas Asenio, Wectaa Asento, MeHcunbsaHns-ABeHio, Bponeen, Slexcurton-poya, Mopora 66, Wocce 64. Ho: Ap6ar, Monn. Aptuknp the: the Avenue of the Americas, the National Road, the Freedom Trail, the Blue Ridge Parkway, the Trans-Canada Highway, the Pan American Highway, the Lincoln Highway, the FDR Drive. VctosHnk: htfp://usefulenglish.ru/grammar/part-7- articles-with-geographical-names Asento Amepnk, HayvonanbHaa Aopora, Tpona cBobobi, Napkosaa astoctpana Bnypumk, Tpatc- Karapckoe wocce, NavamepnKaHcKoe wocce, wocce JIMHKoNbHa, Wocce Py3penbra.