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GLOBAL SERVICE TRAINING

M300F SERIES Wheel Hydraulic Excavators


Main Hydraulic Pump
MODULE 6 - TEXT REFERENCE

SERV2026

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, ACERT, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar
and may not be used without permission. © 2014 Caterpillar Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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SERV2026 - 05/14 -2- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SAFETY BRIEFING��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
PURPOSE����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4
REASON������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
COMPETENCY STATEMENT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
LEARNING OUTCOMES������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7
INTRODUCTION������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8
ELECTRONIC PUMP CONTROL (EPC)����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12
PURPOSE REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 19
REASON REVIEW�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 21
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 22
MODULE CONCLUSION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -3- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

SAFETY BRIEFING
• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

3
SAFETY BRIEFING

Before beginning this module, the following topics will be reviewed:


• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -4- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

PURPOSE

This module is designed to ensure technicians can


locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all
major components and service points of the main
hydraulic pump and pump regulators and demonstrate
knowledge of main hydraulic pump operation and pump
control.

4
PURPOSE

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -5- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

REASON

It is necessary for technicians to properly locate and


identify the main hydraulic pump components and
service points and demonstrate knowledge of pump
operation and control in order to diagnose and correct
hydraulic pump problems, which will ensure customers
experience quick, accurate resolution of hydraulic
system complaints.

5
REASON

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -6- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

COMPETENCY STATEMENT

At the completion of this training session, participants


will be able to demonstrate general knowledge of the
main hydraulic pump operation and test and properly
adjust main hydraulic pump components during lab
exercises.

6
COMPETENCY STATEMENT

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

You will meet the following learning outcomes during


this Main Hydraulic Pump module of the M300F Series
Wheel Hydraulic Excavators course:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components and service points of the main hydraulic
pump and pump regulator.
• Test and adjust the main hydraulic pump and pump
regulator.
• Describe the main hydraulic pump operation and the
methods and strategies used to control pump flow rates.

7
LEARNING OUTCOMES

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -8- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

Swing
Motor T2

A
B

T1
P

Implement Pump Z
Z
VG R
Y2 Y3 Y1

DS1
Fan
S Motor M1

PS FA A1 FE
A G
M MB

B MB B

Swing MPF
Pump Pilot
B Q max Q min
Vg min Vg max
Pump
Fan
Pump Engine

Vg min Vg max S
MA

T MT
S A
T1 T2
L1 L2 L R1 R2
MH FS S

X1 X2 R T1 T2 G Brea
MF - MVL #Mainvalve Dozer L #01D3
# 01D3
# 01D1 Main Return
Filter
D2

1D4
Temperature Sensor
OP? 432 - 6058

8
INTRODUCTION

The M318F and M320F use the same variable piston and pump control valve
design for the implement hydraulic system. The major difference is the flow
capacity.

The M322F uses an even larger variable displacement pump. The pump control
valve on all machines is an electronically controlled design.

The heavy lift feature is standard on the updated M300F Series machines.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -9- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

4
1
5

9
Main Hydraulic Pump Group

The hydraulic pump group consists of the main hydraulic pump (1) and the swing
pump (2). The main hydraulic pump is connected to the engine flywheel by a
flexible coupling. The swing pump is connected to the end of the main hydraulic
pump. Mounted to the variable displacement piston main pump is a pump control
valve (3).

The bidirectional, variable displacement swing pump is part of the closed-loop


swing system. The swing pump is at zero displacement when the swing system is
in NEUTRAL. The swing pump will UPSTROKE in each direction, depending on
the direction of swing. The swing system proportional pilot limiting solenoid valve
also regulates the hydraulic horsepower output from the swing pump.

The swing pump group also includes a charge pump (4) for the closed-loop swing
system. The charge pump keeps the swing system under pressure. The charge oil
is also used for cooling and lubrication.

The Steering/Brake/Pilot and MPF pump (5) is splined to the charge pump.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -10- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

1 2

3 4

5 6

7 8

10
Remote Pressure Tap Panel

Pressure taps, located on the remote pressure tap panel, that can be used to test
the main hydraulic pump, the swing pump, and the fan pump include:
• Main pump supply or discharge pressure tap (1)
• Load sensing pressure tap (2)
• Pilot system pressure tap (3)
• Steering, brake, pilot, and medium pressure supply or discharge pressure tap (4)
• Main pump power shift pressure tap (5)
• Swing pump pilot PRV pressure tap (6)
• Fan pump pressure tap (7)
• Joystick steering pressure tap (8) (if equipped)

A decal (9) identifies each tap on the panel.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -11- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

11
Main Hydraulic Pump Minimum Angle Piston Pressure Tap

Another pressure tap (arrow), located on top of the main hydraulic pump, is used to
check the pressure to the minimum angle piston of the pump.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -12- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

Implement Pump
Z
(1) Displacement
Spool

Fan
S Motor (2) Power-Shift
Spool

A G
M

B Q max (3) Q min


Fan
Pump Engine

Vg min Vg max

T MT
S
T1 T2
L1 L2 L R1 R2

12
ELECTRONIC PUMP CONTROL (EPC)

The main pump regulation is electronically controlled, Caterpillar refers to this as


Electronic Pump Control (EPC). The pump regulator contains two spools. These
spools are the displacement spool (Vg-spool) (1) and the power-shift spool (PS-
spool) (2) the PS-spool has priority over the displacement spool. The EPC utilizes
input from the Adaptive Flow Control (AFC) and Electronic Load Sensing (ELS) to
control main pump output.

With ELS there is no Load Sensing (LS) pressure signal input into the pump
regulator. This eliminates the need for a choke-check valve (orifice/shuttle) in the
LS-line. The stability portion of the regulation is now all electronically controlled with
no hydraulic damping and pure pump flow is fast as possible.

An important pump change on the F Series is the setting of the Q min (3) screw.
The pump is no longer adjusted to 22.5 cc in standby, but it is now close to 0 cc.
A specific test and adjust procedure allows adjustment of the Q min screw to an
almost 0 cc, but not exactly 0 cc, since a minimum pressure is necessary for the
pump to upstroke.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -13- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

ELECTRONIC PUMP CONTROL STRATEGY


• Adaptive Flow Control (AFC)
-- No Load Sensing Signal Line
-- Feed-Forward
-- Feedback

• Electronic Load Sensing (ELS)


-- Calculates Margin Pressure
-- Backup if Pilot Pressure Sensor Fails

13
Electronic Pump Control Strategy

The AFC receives operator input from the joysticks via pressure sensors in the pilot
lines on the boom, stick,and bucket and dozer valve section. The signals are an
input to the AFC algorithm, which results in an estimated flow based on detected
input signals.

The ELS system calculates actual margin pressure, which is determined from
the pressure sensor readings of the main pump and pilot pressure sensor signal.
Actual margin pressure is compared to nominal margin pressure, which results in
flow to match nominal margin pressure.

If an error occurs, such as a lost sensor signal, the AFC is switched off and the
machine works like the D Series machines in an electronic load sensing mode.

The main strategy utilized in the EPC is divided into two sub-strategies, the AFC
Feed-Forward and the AFC Feedback strategies.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -14- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

AFC FEED- FORWARD


• Senses pilot pressure to determine distance control spool
shifts and flow needed
• Sums all flow requests to determine total
• Electronic signal to pump to stroke as needed

14
AFC FEED-FORWARD

The AFC Feed-Forward strategy is summing all the flow requests from the operator
and is then requesting the pump to upstroke or destroke and to provide total flow.
For this AFC feature, the Machine ECM looks at the pilot pressure signals of all
the implements and uses a table associating pilot pressure with the respective
implement flow to understand the operator’s flow demand. All implements are taken
into account, including the 2nd HP and the Multi Combined Valve/Generator/travel
section.

NOTE: Both 2nd HP and Multi Combined Valve/Generator/travel section


do not need pilot pressure sensors since they are all electronically
commanded.
NOTE: The travel function is also taken into account but it does not have
a pressure sensor but, utilizes the travel pedal CAN-bus position sensor
providing the ECM with the travel flow request.
NOTE: The dozer spool has one pilot pressure sensor, a shuttle valve
between A and B sides, mounted in the pilot manifold. The ECM will only
read one pilot pressure when the blade is activated. The ECM will only use
the blade-rod-end-cylinder pilot-pressure/flow characteristic and the AFC-
Feed Back strategy (explained later) will compensate if the margin drops
when the blade head-end is used.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -15- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

AFC FEEDBACK
• HP Sensor on Main Pump to sense supply pressure
• HP Sensor on main valve to sense Load Sense Signal
Pressure
• Electronically computes Margin pressure and maintains
the Margin Pressure

15
AFC FEEDBACK

The AFC Feedback strategy uses one HP-pressure sensor on the main pump
output and a second HP-pressure sensor on the LS-port of the main valve. The
ECM will constantly compute the Margin pressure (Pump pressure – LS pressure)
and will compensate a low/high margin offset, caused by tolerance/hysteresis, by
an additional increase/decrease in pump displacement compared to AFC Feed-
Forward Command. For example, if the pump displacement resulting from the
APC-Feed-Forward strategy was not enough, the lack of flow to all open spools will
result in a low margin pressure, which the AFC Feedback strategy will identify and
try to compensate. The AFC Feedback strategy is slow but, eliminates most margin
deviations due to system tolerances and is necessary for fine pump response and
fine control.

NOTE: The target nominal margin pressure of the AFC Feedback strategy is 1800
kPa (261 psi) measured on main valve block and can be increased to 2000 kPa
(290 psi) or lowered to 1400 kPa (203 psi) if the operator decides to adjust the
hydraulic modulation (aggressiveness). Only three modulation levels are available
on F Series. The pump response behavior will increase or decrease with the
hydraulic modulation.
NOTE: An exception to the 1800 kPa (261 psi) target margin pressure is the single
usage of the MCV/Generator. In this case, due to the presence of the priority valve
and pre-compensation valve in the MCV/Generator, we ensure the stability of the
system increasing the target margin to 2500 kPa (362 psi). However, as soon as
the MCV is used in combination with a minimum (software defined) demand from
other post compensated implements,

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -16- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

the target margin pressure drops back to 1800 or 2000 kPa dependent on the
selected mode. When the drivetrain is in first gear or 2nd gear, up to 14 km/h, the
target margin is 1800 kPa at all times, even if hydraulic modulation mode 1 (1400
kPa) or 3 (2000 kPa) is selected.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -17- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

ELECTRONIC CONTROL STRATEGY


• Pressure Cut-Off Control Software and Mechanical
Signal Limiter work together to maintain Margin Pressure
during a stall
• No need for cutoff spool

17
ELECTRONIC CONTROL STRATEGY

The second main EPC strategy is the ELS controlling the displacement spool,
in parallel to the AFC strategy, and the Pressure Cut-Off control (PCO) is active
parallel to ELS and AFC.

For PCO, the F Series main valve still contains the mechanical LS-limiter, 330 bar
or 355 bar with Heavy Lift, and the PCO Software module strives to maintain the
margin pressure as the operator stalls a hydraulic function. As an example, the
ELS will keep the pump pressure at “LSmax” + Margin (of 1800 kPa), as it does in
the AFC Feedback strategy, but, in this example, with much more aggression and
faster reaction to avoid pump pressure spikes.

There is no need for a cutoff spool on the main pump regulator and, in most cases,
the margin relief valve (also called Unloading Valve) controls less unloading than in
previous series. With EPC the pump pressure will spike when a cylinder extends to
the end of it’s stroke. These are much higher in D Series than with EPC in F Series
because the pump is not damped mechanically.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -18- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

The F Series Power-Shift spool destrokes the pump when the engine load has
reached the maximum torque limit. ETC is the backup System when MPLim
solenoid has a diagnostic event. When you have a diagnostic event, ETC will
control the pump torque by the Vg axis.

The Under-Speed control function (US control) is also affecting the Power-Shift
PRV output of the ECM, to prevent the engine from stalling below a minimum rpm
target depending on requested mode, Economy/Power/Travel mode, and Speed
Dial.

NOTE: The displacement (Vg) function of the pump control is proportional


(high current equals high flow) but the Power-shift function has been
inverted in the F Series compared to previous generations for stability
reasons as well (high current equals lower torque).

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -19- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

MAIN PUMP GROUP OPERATION


(1) Bucket and Multi-combined Valves
ENGINE OFF (14) Main Pump
Torque Limit
(2) Signal
Drain Valve

LS P Implement Pump
Z
(3) Boom, Dozer, Travel,
(15) Displacement
and Bucket (13) Main VG
Spool
Pump
(4) Main Displacement
Relief Valve Solenoid

(16)
Power-Shift M1
Spool

(5) Signal
(17) Power
Limiter Valve
Shift Piston
(6)
Unload A G
Valve M

(19) Actuator
Piston
(10) Heavy Lift
Solenoid
(7) Quick
Coupler (20) Max. Angle
Piston Q max Q min
(11)
(8) VA Boom and Engine
2nd High Pressure Valve (21) Min. Angle
Piston
(9) Main Control Valve Group
(12)
Main Pump
Group T MT
T1 T2
R1 R2

19
Hydraulic Pump Group Operation

Three control pressures are used by the EPC to control the main pump group (12)
to regulate the pump flow. These pressures are: load sensing signal pressure,
pump supply pressure, and pilot pressure.

The EPC utilizes the load sensing pressure along with the pump supply pressures
to control the main pump displacement solenoid (13). The load sensing pressure
is equal to the highest circuit load pressure. The difference between the two
pressures called the margin pressure.

When the engine is not running, the maximum angle piston spring moves the pump
swashplate to the fully UPSTROKED position. This action allows the pump to
provide flow as soon as the engine is started.

The power-shift spool (16) is held to the right and the displacement spool to the left
by their respective springs when the engine is not running. The spring on the right
end of the horsepower control spring holds the power shift pressure piston to the
left.

The signal drain valve (2) is used to regulate the signal flow and to allow the signal
oil to go to the tank when the implements are returned to NEUTRAL. The extra
flow provides faster response when an implement is initially activated.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -20- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

Because Q-min~0ccm the system is in STANDBY, margin pressure is lower than


the opening point of the margin valve.

The horsepower control spool regulates pump flow in relation to pump supply
pressure and power shift pressure. Power shift pressure is a reduced amount
of pilot system pressure. The main pump torque limit solenoid (14) in the pilot
manifold receives a proportional electrical signal from the Machine ECM. This
electrical signal controls the power shift pressure and will vary depending on the
power mode selected and the engine speed. Power shift pressure limits hydraulic
horsepower demands on the engine.

The force created by the actuator piston (19) working on the lever (18) changes
with the position of the maximum angle piston, the value of the pump supply
pressure, and the value of the power shift pressure.

The actuator piston rides along the top of the lever as the pump UPSTROKES
and DESTROKES. As the actuator piston moves closer to the pivot pin, the
mechanical advantage decreases. As the piston moves away from the pivot pin,
the mechanical advantage increases. If the mechanical advantage increases to
the point that the lever is able to move the power shift pressure piston to the right
to overcome a given power shift pressure, the horsepower control spring will then
move the horsepower control spool to the right to DESTROKE the pump.

The main relief valve (4) serves as a backup to the signal relief valve and margin
spring. The main relief valve is set above the signal relief valve and margin spring
combined spring settings.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -21- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

MAIN PUMP GROUP OPERATION


(1) Bucket and Multi-combined Valves
UPSTROKE (14) Main Pump
Torque Limit
(2) Signal
Drain Valve

LS P Implement Pump
Z
(3) Boom, Dozer, Travel,
(15) Displacement
and Bucket (13) Main VG
Spool
Pump
(4) Main Displacement
Relief Valve Solenoid

(16)
Power-Shift M1
Spool

(5) Signal
(17) Power
Limiter Valve
Shift Piston
(6)
Unload A G
Valve M

(19) Actuator
Piston
(10) Heavy Lift
Solenoid
(7) Quick
Coupler (20) Max. Angle
Piston Q max Q min
(11)
(8) VA Boom and Engine
2nd High Pressure Valve (21) Min. Angle
Piston
(9) Main Control Valve Group
(12)
Main Pump
Group T MT
T1 T2
R1 R2

21
Main Pump UPSTROKE

This illustration shows the pump in the UPSTROKE condition when flow increases
due to a change in the position of the load sensing spool by the main pump
displacement solenoid.

The displacement solenoid causes the displacement spool to shift to the left. The
minimum angle piston (21) is open to the tank through the displacement spool and
power-shift spool.

Supply pressure and the maximum angle piston spring move the swashplate
toward the maximum angle to increase pump flow.

When a hydraulic circuit is activated from the LOW PRESSURE STANDBY


condition, additional circuits are operated, or a single circuit is shifted requiring
more flow.

On the right end of the displacement spool, the margin spring works against the
main pump displacement solenoid that is on the left end of the load sensing spool.
When more flow is required, the displacement solenoid forces the spool to the right
and overcomes the spring pressure.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -22- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

This action opens the minimum angle piston chamber to the tank around the
displacement spool and the power-shift spool. Pump supply pressure and spring
force on the maximum angle piston (20) move the swashplate toward maximum
angle, and pump flow increases. When the pump UPSTROKES due to an increase
in flow requirements, the unload valve (6) will close.

As the pump UPSTROKES, the actuator piston (19) rides along the top of the
lever (18) moving farther away from the pivot pin and the mechanical advantage
increases. As long as the increased force is not able to overcome the power
shift pressure, the change in flow demand will have no impact on the horsepower
control.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -23- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

MAIN PUMP GROUP OPERATION


(1) Bucket and Multi-combined Valves
DESTROKE (14) Main Pump
Torque Limit
(2) Signal
Drain Valve

LS P Implement Pump
Z
(3) Boom, Dozer, Travel,
(15) Displacement
and Bucket (13) Main VG
Spool
Pump
(4) Main Displacement
Relief Valve Solenoid

(16)
Power-Shift M1
Spool

(5) Signal
(17) Power
Limiter Valve
Shift Piston
(6)
Unload A G
Valve M

(19) Actuator
Piston
(10) Heavy Lift
Solenoid
(7) Quick
Coupler (20) Max. Angle
Piston Q max Q min
(11)
(8) VA Boom and Engine
2nd High Pressure Valve (21) Min. Angle
Piston
(9) Main Control Valve Group
(12)
Main Pump
Group T MT
T1 T2
R1 R2

23
Main Pump DESTROKE

This illustration shows the pump in the DESTROKE condition when flow decreases
due to a change in the position of the displacement spool.

As shown here, the displacement spool is shifted to the left, and some of the pump
supply oil is directed to the minimum angle piston (21). The minimum angle piston
moves the swashplate toward the minimum angle to meet the new lower flow
requirements.

When either a single hydraulic circuit is returned to NEUTRAL and the pump goes
to a STANDBY condition, an additional circuit or circuits are returned to NEUTRAL,
or a single circuit is shifted requiring less flow, the pump DESTROKES to provide
less flow.

On the right end of the displacement spool, the margin spring work against
the DEACTIVATED main pump displacement solenoid on the left end of the
displacement spool. When less flow is required, the force on the right end of the
spool is greater than on the left end, and the displacement spool moves to the left.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -24- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

This action directs pump supply pressure around the displacement spool to the
minimum angle piston and moves the swashplate toward the minimum angle
decreasing pump flow. With less flow, the system pressure will decrease.

As the pump DESTROKES, the actuator piston (19) rides along the bottom of the
lever (18) and moves closer to the pivot pin. The mechanical advantage is
reduced.

When the pump DESTROKES, the unloading valve (6) will allow some of the
supply oil to drain which allows the system to react faster to the lower flow
requirement.

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -25- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

PURPOSE

This module was designed to ensure technicians


can locate, identify, and describe the functionality of
all major components and service points of the main
hydraulic pump and pump regulators and demonstrate
knowledge of main hydraulic pump operation and pump
control.

25
PURPOSE REVIEW

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -26- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

REASON

This training was necessary for technicians to


properly locate and identify the main hydraulic pump
components and service points and demonstrate
knowledge of pump operation and control in order to
diagnose and correct hydraulic pump problems, which
will ensure customers experience quick, accurate
resolution of hydraulic system complaints.

26
REASON REVIEW

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -27- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

COMPETENCY STATEMENT

Participants have demonstrated general knowledge


of the main hydraulic pump operation and test and
properly adjust main hydraulic pump components
during lab exercises.

27
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -28- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

LEARNING OUTCOMES

You have met the following learning outcomes


during this Main Hydraulic Pump module of the
Wheel Hydraulic Excavators M300F Series course:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components and service points of the main hydraulic
pump and pump regulator.
• Test and make adjustments to the main hydraulic pump
and pump regulator.
• Describe the main hydraulic pump operation and the
methods and strategies used to control pump flow rates.

28
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW

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SERV2026 - 05/14 -29- Module 6 - Main Hydraulic Pump

29
MODULE CONCLUSION

This presentation has provided information for the M300F Series Wheel Hydraulic
Excavators.

This presentation covered the main hydraulic pump group and pump control valve.

When used in conjunction with the service manual, the information in this package
should permit the technician to do a thorough job of analyzing problems in these
systems.

For service repairs, adjustments, and maintenance, always refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Service Manuals, and other related service publications.

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