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. . . .

2014
2

.…………………………………………………...…… 2
……………………………………………………….…...…... 8
I ……………………………….…........ 25
1.1 ….. 25
1.1.1 ……………………………………………. 25
1.1.2 ,
……………………………………………………………….…. 27
1.1.3 ………………………………………………….. 32
1.1.4 …………………………………………..…... 35
1.2 –
………………………. 38
1.3 – ..… 42
1.3.1
…………………………………..……………………………………… 42
1.3.2 …………………..…. 45
1.4 …………. 48
1.4.1 …………………………………… 48
1.4.2 .…………… 49
1.4.3 ……………………………………………. 55
1.4.4 ………………………………………………………… 59
1.5 1………………………………………………….... 63
2
808 ………………………………………………….. 65
2.1 66
…………………………………………………………………...
2.1.1 ……………...………….. 66
2.1.1.1 ……………. 66
2.1.1.2 ….…………. 68
2.1.2 …………………………………………….. 72
3
2.1.2.1 ……...………………………. 72
2.1.2.2 ………….…………………………….. 77
2.2
…………………………………………………………………... 78
2.2.1 …………. 79
2.2.2 ……. 81
2.2.3 ………………. 82
2.2.3.1 .….. 82
2.2.3.2 …. 86
2.2.3.3
…………………………………………………………………. 87
2.2.4
………………………………... 89
2.3 ….. 91
2.3.1 …………………………………………….... 92
2.3.2 …………………………………………..... 95
2.3.3 …………………….. 97
2.3.4 ……………….. 100
2.3.4.1 …………….…………………….. 100
2.3.4.2 ……………………... 102
2.4 2…………………………………………………… 104
3

……………….. 107
3.1 ……………………………………..…. 107
3.1.1 ………… 107
3.1.2 …...... 111
3.1.3
……………………………………..…………………..…... 112
3.1.4 ………….. 113
4
3.1.5 …………………………………………….. 114
3.1.6 …………………………………..... 114
3.1.7 ….…….………….……. 117
3.2
…………………………. .………………...... 119
3.2.1 (R1)……. 120
3.2.2 (G1)………. 127
3.2.3 ( 1)…………………..... 133
3.2.4 (R2)……………... 140
3.2.5 (G2)……………………..... 145
3.2.6
(G3)…………………………………………………... 153
3.3
…………………………………………….. 160
3.3.1 (R3)…. 161
3.3.2
(R4)……………………………………………………………. 169
3.3.3 (G4)…..... 176
3.3.4
(G5)…………………………………………………………… 182
3.3.5
(G2D)………………………………………………….………. 188
3.4
………………………………...………. 193
3.4.1 AlGaAs
……………………………………. 194
3.4.2
……………………………………………………………….. 196
3.4.3 ………... 199
3.4.4
5
………………….………………………... 200
3.4.5 …………… 205
3.4.6 ………….. 208
3.5 3…………………………………………………… 211
4
……………………...……..... 213
4.1 ………………... 213
4.2 ……………………………………... 215
4.3 …... 217
4.3.1 , …….... 217
4.3.2 , ……….. 218
4.3.3 ……………….... 219
4.4 …...….. 220
4.5 ……………………….…….. 224
4.6 ..… 226
4.7 4…………………………………………………… 228
5
…………… 230
5.1
808 ………...………………….. 232
5.1.1
…………………………………………… 230
5.1.1.1

……………………………………………………………………… 230
5.1.1.2 ,
………………………………………………….. 231
5.1.1.2.1
………………………………………………………….... 231
5.1.1.2.2
6
……………………………………………………………………… 234
5.1.1.3
……………………………………………………………………… 235
5.1.2
………….…………...… 239
5.2
940 - 960 ………………………………..... 246
5.2.1 ,
……………………………………………………………………… 246
5.2.2

………………………………………………………………..……… 249
5.3
670 ……………….. 255
5.4 5…………………………………………………… 259
6
…………………………………………………………….. 261
6.1
…………..… 261
6.2

………………………………………………… 266
6.2.1

…………………….………...…………………… 266
6.2.2

……………………..…..… 268
6.3 6…………………………………………………… 271
7
7

…………………………..……………………………… 272
7.1 « » « »…... 274
7.1.1 ….. 277
7.1.2 ……………………………………………….... 278
7.1.3
………………………………………………………......…….……. 280
7.1.4

………………………………………………..… 284
7.2
( )
………………………….……………...…… 288
7.2.1
………………………...…………………………………………….…. 290
7.2.2 ………………………………………………. 291
7.2.3 .……………………….. 292
7.3 7…………………………………………………… 297
…………………………………………………………… 299
…………………………………...…….. 302
, ……. 304
…………………………………………………………….. 311
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24
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25
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26
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32
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33
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c) ni(x,y)
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35

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38

50÷60% .

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40
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1.3 –
1.3.1

. -
(Nd:YAG) ,
Er:YAG, Cr:LiSrAlF6, Tm:YAG, Ho:YAG ( 1.1). Nd:YAG
798÷810 AlGaAs/GaAs
, Er:YAG
InGaAs/AlGaAs ,
920÷960 . Tm:YAG Ho:YAG
1,8 ,
InGaAs/InGaAsP.
Cr:LiSrAlF6 , 680 ,
GaInP/AlGaInP.
1.1

, ,
Cr:LiSrAlF6 0,85 0,68
Yb:YAG 1,03 0,94
Nd:YAG 1,06; 1,32; 1.44 0,81
Tm:YAG, Tm:YLF 2,1 0,78; 0,80
Er:YAG, Er:YLF; Er:BYF 3,0 0,79; 0,97
43

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44
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1.4 - ( )
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45
. 1.4 ,

1.3.2

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46
( . . 1.4 )

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60
8.
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Nd:YAG 300
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47
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1.4
1.4.1

808

.

,
GaAs ,
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, p- n- , ,
,
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,
49
.
:

AlxGa1-xAs GaAs
.
, AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs
x .
, ,
700 ÷ 870 .
(Al)GaInAs ,
AlGaAs/GaAs
. ,
, (Al)GaInAs
GaAs. , (Al)GaInAs

.
,
, 800 ÷ 1100
.
(800 ÷ 1100 )
GaInAs
GaInAsP,
GaInP. GaInAs-AlGaAs/GaAs,
GaAs,
.

1.4.2

,
. 1.5.

, .
50
,
.
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:

1.5 -

;
;

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51

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52

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15
.
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.
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,
.

1.6 -

, 810 .
Al0,7Ga0,3As Al0,45Ga0,55As (
); Al0,65Ga0,35As
53

(3 – 4 ),
.

808 . 16 .
Al0,4Ga0,6As 1,2
Al0,6Ga0,4As. AlAs
, AlAs
. 1.7 17 .

1.7 -
AlGaAs

( – 27 ),
.
54
1.2 ,
,
InGaAsP, GaAsP
InGaAsP AlGaInAs 18 . , ,

.
1.2
.

( ,
).
1.2 810 ,
AlGaAs
, , 100 )
QW N DQW, Jt, i, G 0, Ith, d, ,
2 -19
) ) (%) ) ) (%) (0)
InGaAsP 1 18 --- 222 80 23 362 73 25
InGaAsP 1 12 --- 144 80 14 310 73 24
InGaAsP 1 12 117 94 14 292 81 26
InGaAsP 1 6 121 92 18 250 85 28
InGaAsP 2 4 222 85 34 340 75 33
InAlGaAs 2 7 225 90 45 290 85 29
GaAsP 1 9 163 91 19 290 90 25
GaAsP 1 15 140 90 18 260 88 27
GaAsP 1 20 153 92 22 254 88 27
1.2:
QW– ; N –
; DQW – ; –
55
(--- - , – ,
– ); Jt – ; i

; G0 – ; Ith
( 1000 ); d –
( 1000 ); -
.

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1 ),
. ,

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2 ÷ 4 .
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.

1.4.3

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56
[22–27]. ,
gain- index- .

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. 1.8 gain- .

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57
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1.9 -
. ( )
, gain-
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58

. index- . 1.8 .

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index- , . 1.9 .
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. index-
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1.4.4
59

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10 .
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10.000 . ,

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28 .

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60
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61

31 .

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32 .

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34, 35 ,
.
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62
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37 .
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15÷20 38 .
39 .
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808 , 950 ).
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63
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( ,
) GaInP/AlGaInP/GaAs AlInGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs,
(670 ) (808 , 950 )
.
64
,

.
.
1.
808 .
2.

,
,
.
3.
,
.
4.
, (670 , 808 , 950 ).
5.
.
6.
,
.
7.
.
8.

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65
2
808

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,
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,
.

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YAG:Nd,
. ,

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,
.
66
2.1

P
I, ,

P R
st (I I th ) , (2.1)
q R i

– , , q –
, I th – , st –
, i – ,
,
1
R ln ( RF RB ) (2.2)
2L
. L– (
) , RB –
) , RF –
) .
q dP
D st
R
(2.3)
dI R i

(2.1) .

.
,
.

2.1.1
2.1.1.1

.
67
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.
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[47]. , [48]
68
:
.

. ,
, [47],
.
,
,
. , ,
.

2.1.1.2

, ,
.
, [43],
,
.

.
90 , [43]
. . 2.1).

1 1
(T ) 0 exp Ta , (2.4)
T0 T

T0 , Ta 0 ,
~40-50 K. , 90 ,
,
69
max 0 exp(Ta / T0 ) . [43],
, , .

5
10

)
-1
4

(
10 -1
0
= 4700
Ta= 730
3
10
-1
0
= 140
Ta= 5200
2
10
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
T( )

2.1 - T
( ) [32]. –
(2.4) ; T0 = 300

W,
p , [49] ,
[43]. T
Q
, :
1 1 dE 1 dE dC
T Rth Q , Rth ln ln , (2.5)
W E lT C dE

E – , dE d – p-
p , ; lT –
, ,
. , Q
1 RF
Q ( lT ) P , (2.6)
1 RF
70
– .
,
[49] :
T0 1 RF
T , T0 Rth ( 0 T l ) P . (2.7)
1 1 RF
1 T0
0 T

(2.7), T
1
0 ( / T ) T0 . [49],

1
1 RF
P lT Rth . (2.8)
1 RF T

[49] / T

GaAs .
60 , (2.4). 0 lT
[49] , ~103-104 –1

~0.1-1.0 , . lT
,
. ,
, (2.8),
,
( Rth ).
,
, , [49]
, « » .
,
[45], [49] .

.
[50] ,
,
71
. [50] ,
,
. , [50]
,
. , , )

)
, .
,
,
2D 3D [51].

.
, , . ,
, [46, 47], ,
.

.
, ,
.
, « » (
) , [43],
,
.
: ) ,
, )

, )
. ,
, [52].
72
2.1.2

, ,
,
.

2.1.2.1

T THS
I th (T ) I th (THS ) exp , (2.9)
T0

T T HS , T0 – ,
.
(2.9)
[53], .
T0 , ~50 ~300-350 .

, (2.1)
, (2.9)

T THS Rth (1 W ) I Vf , W P / I Vf , (2.10)


T–T HS
. Vf – , I , Rth –
, W – .
Vf :
Vf Vto I RS , Vto – « » , RS –
.
73
, Vto
RS , : D = 0.7, Vto = /q = 1.53 ,
RS = 0.2 , Ith(300 ) = 0.4 T0 = 120 K.
. 2.2a,
, 5 10
[54].
: Rth = 5
, Rth = 10 « »
~7 , ,
.
10 0.5 0.5
)

10
)
(

(
8 0.4 8 0.4

6 0.3 6 0.3

4 0.2 4 0.2

2 0.1 2 0.1
) )
0 0.0 0 0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
( ) ( )
2.0
( )

210
Rth = 5 Rth = 5
180
( )

Rth = 10 Rth = 10
1.5
150

120
1.0
90

60 0.5
30
) )
0 0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
( ) ( )

2.2 -
5 (a) 10 ( ). ( )
( )
74
,
( . 2.2 ), ( . 2.2 )

. , ,
, : ,
T0
.
( ., , [55-59]).

.
,
, ,
, . ,
,
.

, , [60].

, .
,
, 808 . 2 n-
Al0.6Ga0.4As 1×1017 -3
,
Al0.3Ga0.7As 0.74 20
Al0.07Ga0.93As , 2 p-Al0.6Ga0.4As
1×1017 -3
p+-GaAs .
SiLENSe 5.0 [61],
3.1.1. ,
100 2 .
( ., , [62]) ,
, ,
75
,
–1
, sct =2 .
. 2.3
. ,
~100 K .
(2.9) T0 = 135 K.
1.4
(a) 70 )
( )

1.2
65

(%)
1.0
60
0.8
55
0.6 THS= 25
T0 = 135 K 50 ,
0.4
20 40 60 80 100 120 20 40 60 80 100 120
( ) ( )

0.20
1.0
)
-1

0.15 0.9
(

:
-1
0.8
2 cm 25
0.10 45
0.7
65
0.6 85
0.05
105
0.5 )
) 125
0.00
20 40 60 80 100 120 10
1 2
10
3
10
2
( ) ( )

2.3 - ( ),
( ),
(c),

, ,
. 2.3 . ,
76
( . 2.3 ),
,
, , .
. 2.3 ,
, .

. 2.4).

, ,
. , (2.3)

st = 1, ( . . 2.3 ).
,
, ,
,
.
19
19 1.0 10
1.0 10
0.5 400 K
300 K

)
0.5

-3
18
)

10
-3

18
10 0.0
0.0
)

(
)

-0.5 17
-0.5 17
10
(

10
(

-1.0 -1.0
16
10
16
-1.5 10
-1.5
-
n-

-2.0 -2.0 15
15
10 10
-2.5 -2.5
(a) )
14 14
-3.0 10 -3.0 10
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
( ) ( )

2.4 -
, 808 ,
300 (a) 400 ( ) ,

,
( . 2.3 ), , ,
.
77
, (2.3) st = inj ,
( . 2.3 ).
,
,
, –
( .
[63] , ).

, , .
, , ,
.
. . 2.3 ).

2.1.2.2

2.1.1, ,
,
,
.
.
.
~50-150ºC ,
[44, 47, 64-66].

[67].
,
,
. , [66],
, , ,
, [51] –
78
~10 .
. , ,
, ,
. ,

,
, ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
.

, ,
.

,
, .

2.2

, ,
.
[54],
,
. ,
79
,

, ,
.

2.2.1

T Rth , . .

T THS Rth [ I V f ( I , T ) P ] . (2.11)

THS – , , Vf –
, I
, P– ,
(1.1).
.

, AlxGa1-xAs,
x = 0.3-0.7 E

, GaAs [68].
RE dE / E WL ,

dE = 2 , L=2 ,
W = 100 E = 0.14 , RE = 0.71 .
RHS ,

RHS ( HS L) 1 ln (d HS / W ) , HS – ,
dHS –
, .
( HS = 4.01 ), RHS = 1.55
dHS = 5 , L=2 W = 100 .
80
Rth RE RHS = 2.27 ,
,
, . ,

AlGaAs ,
.
,
, ,
L p dE .

t 1/2 , t
. ,
, (2.11),
Rth d / E WL , c

d ( DT / )1 / 2 ,

( DT E / E CEp –
, E – , CEp

– ) [69]. = 100 , L=2 ,


W = 100 E = 0.14 : d = 0.5
Rth = 0.18 , . . ,
, . ,
~10

( . . 2.5a).

[70].
. 2.5
AlGaAs . ,
~10
81
2
~5-6 , 100
, .
,
~100 ,

100 100

( )
( )

= 10
10

10

1 = 100
= 100

1 ) 0.1
)
0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10 1 10 100
2
( ) ( )

2.5 -
2
30
(a).
( ).
50%

2.2.2

[54],
:
, .
2.1, 100
,
.

100 ~5-8 ~80-120 , . . , .


82
, ,
, ,
.
,
(
), .
,
,
.

2.2.3

,
, .
,
, .

.
,
. ,

. .

2.2.3.1

, ,

. p- n-
83
,

.
,
.

., , [71]).

, . .
. [72, 73] ,
, , .
[62] ,
p-n .

.
, ,
, ,
( ., ,
. 2.4 ,
, ).

. –
,
[72],
84
[74]. , 2.1,
,
,
.

. ,
, .
(2.1)

st , ,
, .

st [75, 76]
, .
,
, ,
: (1) n- (2)

[62]. . 2.6
( , , ),

1500 ( , ,
) 500 ( , , ). ( . 2.6 , )
0,5
. 5 ). ( . 2.6 , )
, n- (1 - 2)*1017 -3
.
, ,
. ,
,
85
, . ( . 2.6 , )
(graded
index, GRIN) 0,3 .

2.6 – ( , , ),
AlGaAs/GaAs
, 1500 ( , ,
) 500 ( , , ). – ( , , );
, n- ( , , ) GRIN-
( , , )

,
,

( . 2.6 , ).
,
86
.
( . 2.6 , )
.
AlxGa1-xAs ,
x = 0.45 ( X- L
).
, ,
,

[75-77]. ,
,
.

2.2.3.2

,
, , .

, , ,
. ,
[78],
.

,
, .

, ,
87
[79, 80].
,
,
[81]. ,
,
[81]. ,
.
,

, – ,
.

, .

2.2.3.3

, (« ») –
.
« »
.
. 2.7
,
,
RF ( « »
). ,
, RF > 0.2-0.3. , RF
, « »
. , ,
,
88
, ,

.
,
.

2.7 - « »
, ,

,
[82, 83], ,
, 20 ,
.
,
, .
, ~15-20%
, . .

.
89
, ,
. ,
,
( . [54]).

,
.

2.2.4

,
. , ,

. ,
, ( ,
,
1 , – ~100 ).
,

( . 2.2.2). ,

.
,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
90

« » [55] ( . .
2.8), ,
( ., , [84]). ,
,

, , .
,

.
)

30
W = 400
(

25

20

15

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
( )
) )

2.8 -
808 ( ) 400 [55] ( ) 100 [84]
.

,
,
.
– )
)
.
91

,
.
.
, ,
. , ,
,
.

.
,
, .
,

( )
, , , , -
.

2.3

, [54, 85],

. ,
,
.
92
2.3.1

,
( . [68,
86, 87]).

) . , ,
,
[89]. 2.1,
,
, , –

. , ,
100
, ~8-9 [88].
2.1 , , ,
1991 2009 .

, .
, ,

.
, .
2.1 , ,

,
.
93
2.1
,
1
808

) 2
) ) )

AlGaAs 1500/100 8.5 [90]

InGaAsP 2000/100 1.035 5.6 10.8 [91]

GaAsP 4000/100 3.014 13 8.6 [92]

GaAsP 4000/100 1.017 8.9 17.5 [93]

InGaAlAs 1000/100 0.926 5.4 11.7 [94]

AlGaAs 2500/100 1.552 8.5 11.0 [84]

InGaAsP 1250/100 1.0 8.8 17.6 [95]

GaAsP 2000/60 1.017 2.6 8.6 [96]

InAlGaAs 1500/5 ~2.0 0.68 13.6 [97]

InAlGaAs 2000/400 ~1.1 29.6 13.6 [55]

AlGaAs 2500/100 1.541 8.5 11.0 [84]

InGaAsP 2100/100 1.809 9.9 11.0 [55]

InGaAsP 1160/100 ~0.6 5.6 18.6 [98]

, ,

.
2
.
94
( . . 2.9).
,
,

. ,
. 2.9 , ,
,
.
)

20
(

W = 100

15

10

5 :

0
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
( )

2.9 -
100 .
,

.
, ~980-1100 ,
.
, ,
.
,
.
95

. , .
2.8 ,
GaAs, ,
.
980-1100
, , .

2.3.2

.
, ,
,
. , ,

,
, , , . ,

. AlGaAs

. ,
,
, III
,
[99].
.

.
96

, , ,
. ,

GaAs AlGaAs. ,

.
III
– Al2O3 In2O3.
,
[89].
,

. ,

GaN Si3N4 ~1.5


AlGaAs
808 [100] (
).
[101]. ,
,
[102, 103]. ,
10 ) , ,
Al2O3
,
,
Al2O3 [33].

. , -
97

, .

2.3.3

[85],
.

, . 2.2
[104] , .

, , ~7% .

, .
,
, GaAs
AlGaAs ( . 2.2 . 2.10).

, ,
, .
,
, ( ),
.
400 . ,
, ,

[41],
– [105]).
98
,
.
2.2 300 (
)

)
(×10-6)
10-26 1.0
0.057 (|| - ) 27 (|| - )
20 ( ) –1.2 ( )
25-35 (|| )
4.3 19
4.01 17
3.17 14
2.37 23
1.55 4.5
1.42 4.9
0.91 13.3
Cu(10%)W(90%) 1.8-1.9 6.5
Au(80%)Sn(20%) 0.57 16
In(50%)Sn(50%) 0.34 20
Sn(63%)Pb(37%) 0.41 21
SAC :
0.6 20
Sn(95.5%)Ag(3.8%)Cu(0.7%)
7.4-13 3.8
< 0.3 (|| - ) 38 (|| - )
< 6 ( c- ) –2.7 ( c- )
3.20 4.5
2.70 3.7
0.55 5.7
AlxGa1-xAs (x = 0.3-0.7) 0.14 5.5
InGaAsP 0.03-0.06 5.5-6.5
99
BN
, . BN
1.5 , -
, .

·K)
c-C
10 c-BN
/

Cu
AlN Au
(

SiC Cu/W

1 W Ni
GaAs

AlGaAs
0.1
InGaAsP
0 3 6 9 12 15 18
-6
(x10 )

2.10 -
.
.

BN ~13
, ~7-8 .
BN AlN SiC
, , ,
, .
[106].

,
[106].
100
,
,
. ,
AlGaAs
, InGaAsP.
, InGaAsP,
InP , ~0.02-0.05
[107]. InGaAsP, GaAs
, ,
, InxGa1-
xP InxGa1-xAs, x = 0.2-0.8 0.05
0.08 .
,
InGaAsP ~2-3 , AlGaAs.
, InGaAsP
, , AlGaAs.

, AlGaAs,
, GaAsP [92].

, , , [108].

2.3.4
2.3.4.1

(2.8), ,
.
.
~1-2% ( ., , [109]).
, , ,
.
101
: ) [41, 93, 105], )
,
[57, 73, 97,
109] ) « » [111].
,

, p-n . ,
, ,
.
,
.

, .

, ,
, 808 .

2.3.4.2

,
, . , –
,
( « ») ,
. « » ,
. ,
. –
[112, 113],
.
« » ,
, Si
102
Zn [114]. ,
,

.
», ,

[115, 116]. , ,
. ,
,
.
.

,
[64].

.
,
. , ,
, [117],
.
, ,
,
, , , ,
. , , .
,

,
. ,
103
. ,
. ,


. ,
,
.

[118].
,

,
. ,

.
,
.
~1.0-1.5%
.
,
: )
; ) ,
(
GaN, Si3N4 ,
Si); )
.

, .
104

,
.
.

, , InAlGaAs

InGaAsP,
.

« »
.
.

, .

2.4 2

1. ,
808 ,
,
.
, ,
.

2.
,
.
105
3.

, .
(i)

n (ii)

[62].

4. ,
, ,
, ,
,

, .

5. ,
: (i)
, (ii) ,
, (iii)

6.
,
, .
,

, .
106
7. ,
, InAlGaAs
,
InGaAsP,
.

8.
,
.
107
3

3.1

,
« »
1÷2 ,
,
. ,
. 3.1. .
,
,
.

3.1

( )
GaAs ND = 5×1018
n- GaAs 300 ND = 2×1018
n-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 ND = 1×1017
Al0.6Ga0.4As Al0.3Ga0.7As
150 –

Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 –
Al0.3Ga0.7As Al0.Ga0.4As
150 –

p-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 NA = 2×1017


GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019

3.1.1

SiLENSe, ,
108
,
.

, .
, ,

:
1. -
.

AlGaAs;
2.

( . 3.1.7);
3.
,
,
.

;
4. ,
-n ,
.
. 3.1
. ,
,
,
,
109
.
( . 3.1)
AlxGa1-xAs ,
x = 0.4 ( X- L
).

1.5 1.0
2 2
1.0 j = 250 A/cm 0.5 j = 2 kA/cm
0.5 0.0
)

0.0 -0.5
(

-0.5 -1.0
-1.0 -1.5
-1.5 -2.0
-2.0 -2.5
-2.5 -3.0
1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2
( ) ( )
20 20
10 10
2 2
j = 250 A/cm j = 2 kA/cm
)

19
)

19
10
-3

10
-3

(
(

18 18
10 10
17 17
10 10
16 16
10 10
15 15
10 10
14 14
10 10
1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4
( ) ( )

3.1 - ( ),
) ( )
110

,
. . 3.2 . 3.3

,
. ,
,
, ,
-1
add = 0.2 .
,
, , . 3.3.
,
400 .
)
2

95 500
1.4
/ )

( /

90
(%)

-1
= 0.2 400
85 add
1.3
(

80 300
1.2
75
1.1 200
70
65 1.0
100
-1
60 0.9 = 0.2
add

55 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
-1
( ) ( )

3.2 -
.
– , –

,
,
.
700-900 .

int

500 .
111
4.0 3.0

)
-1
3.5 Pout= 1 2.5
Iop

(
3.0
2.0
2.5
( ) 2.0 1.5
1.5
1.0
1.0 Ith
0.5
0.5
0.0 0.0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
( ) ( )

3.3 - ( 1
)
. – , – .
( ) ( )

3.1.2

-1
add = 0.2 ,
,
,
.
,
,
. 3.4.
,
,
90% 20% .
.

-1
0.2 .
112

)
2.7

2
450
Pout= 2

( /
400 R1=90% , R2=10% 2.6

( )
350 R1=90% , R2=20%
R1=90% , R2=10%
2.5 R1=90% , R2=20%
300

250 2.4
200
2.3
150

100 2.2
850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100
( ) ( )

85 1.3
(%)

/ )
80 R1=90% , R2=10%
R1=90% , R2=20% 1.2

(
75
1.1
70

65 1.0

60
850 900 950 1000 1050 1100
( )

3.4 - , ,
2 ,

3.1.3

N(z)

,
. . 3.5.
,
« » ~15% ,
~35% .
,
, . . ,
.
113
4.5

)
-3
4.0

x10 (
3.5

18
3.0
N(z)
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5 L = 1000
0.0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
( )

3.5 -
, 90% 20%

2
3.1.4

,
. 3.2.

3.2 ,

0.033

-1
0.450
600 ( )

1.320
-1
600 ( )

3.2 ,
( ) , 4
(
). ,

.
2
90% 20%
, .
114
3.1.5

AlxGa1-xAs
(GaAs AlAs)
Al, 50%
.
k 0.55 2.12 x 2.48 x 2 , [119].
3.2,
.
,
,
. ,
,
(zact)
(zmax)
zmax
dz
th . (3.1)
zact
k ( z)

1.0×10-3 2
.
L=1 W = 200
0.52 . ,
, ,
,
.

3.1.6

, Ub
j, ,

Ub U T ln (1 j / j0 ) j S , UT kT / q , (3.2)
115
k– , T– , q– , –
, j0 – , S –
.

.
. 3.3. , , ,
n- ( ).

3.3 .

.
, 2
.
) -3
) 2
) )
GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 2.0×10-5
n- GaAs
300 n = 2×1018 3000 5.0×10-8

n-Al0.6Ga0.4As
1500 n = 1×1017 200 7.5×10-5

Al0.6Ga0.4 As
Al0.3Ga0.7 As 150 n,p = 1×1017 1000 1.5×10-6

Al0.07Ga0.93As
10 n = 2×1018 8000 6.2×10-10

Al0.3Ga0.7 As
Al0.Ga0.4 As 150 n,p = 1×1017 1000 1.5×10-6

p-Al0.6Ga0.4As
1500 p = 4×1017 70 5.4×10-5

p-GaAs
200 p = 3×1018 200 3.3×10-7

2
( ) 1.5×10-4
2×103 2
) 0.076
116
, ,
AlGaAs,
1.5×10-4 2
,
. 3.3, .
. 3.6 -
,

j0 = 4×10-14 2
UT = 42 . S = 1.5×10-5 2

( -
. 3.6) ,

S = 1.5×10-4 2

, .
5
10
-5
1.5x10
)
2

4 =0
10 S
(A/

3
10
-4 2
2 1.5x10
10
1 L= 637
10
L= 1050
L= 1495
0
10 L= 2050
SiLENSe
-1
10
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
( )

3.6 -
: (
)

,
, .

,
117
, ,
.
,
, 3.3,

, SiLENSe
. 3.6). -
,

. ,

( = 1.615 ).

3.1.7

.
GaAs n- 2×1018 -3
2500 2

2
150 . AlGaAs p-GaAs 500
2 2
50 .
, GaAs
:~6 ~2 .
. 3.7
.
,
» , ,
. ,
118

. ~1.5 , p-
n ,
Al0.6Ga0.4As/GaAs.
, ,
AlGaAs. ,
,
.

1 1
EC
EC
0 0
)

)
Fn Fn
(

-1 Fp ( -1
Fp

-2
EV -2
EV
2 2
j = 7.4 A/cm j = 522 A/cm
-3 -3
-2 -1 0 1 2 -2 -1 0 1 2
( ) ( )

3.7 - ( )
( )

20 4
10 10
)
3

3
10
)

18
10
-3

( /

2
10
(

16
10
1
10
14
10 0
10
12
10 10
-1
2 2
j = 522 A/cm j = 522 A/cm
10 -2
10 10
-2 -1 0 1 2 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200
( ) ( )

3.8 - ( )
( )

p-n
, Al0.6Ga0.4As/GaAs
119
. , ~1.5 (
2
~500 )
, ,
( . . 3.7)3.
,
. ,
, , .
( . 3.8).

3.2

.
:
2%;
-1 2
1,5 ; 250 ;
1 ;
FWHM 40 .
,
.

.
, . . , ,
, , ,
,
.
,
.

. .
120

3.2.1 (R1)

. R1
,
.
AlxGa1-xAs
R1 x =0.6. ,
,
.
,
.
R1, . 3.4.

3.4 R1

( )

1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 GaAs 300 ND = 2×1018
3 n-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 ND = 1×1017
4 i-Al0.3Ga0.7As 500 —
5 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
6 i-Al0.3Ga0.7As 500 —
7 p-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 NA = 2×1017
8 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019

, 3.1.2,
0.9 0.2,
121
. 200
-1
0.2 .
,
( , , ,
2 6 ,
)
. . 3.9. ,
,
Lopt= 1.0-1.1 .
2
480 , – 0.91
2
(59%). , 250
1.9 ,
0.89 (56%). ,
, ,
6 , 3.5% .
R1
, .
,
, L 1,0 ( . . 3.9). ,
, ,
R1 .
0.6 2.0
3 .

int 0.83 ,
, 0.77 , ,
.
,
1.0 ,
( , , )
122
, ,
Lopt = 1.9-2.0 .
,
( . . 3.10).

1 = 1.73 % , 2 = 0.0003 % 3 = 1.40 % .

61

)
-1
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 0.93 2.0

/ )
(%)

(
60 0.92

(
0.91 1.5
59
0.90
1.0
58 0.89
0.88
57 0.5
Lopt = 1000 0.87

56 0.86 0.0
600 900 1200 1500 1800 600 900 1200 1500 1800
( ) ( )
)
2

1000
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 1.10 Lopt = 1200
( /

900
( )

800
1.05
700
600 1.00
500
0.95
400
300
0.90
200
600 900 1200 1500 1800 600 900 1200 1500 1800
( ) ( )

3.4
8.0
Pout= 2 Lopt = 1200 Pout= 6
7.9
( )
( )

3.3 7.8

7.7

3.2 7.6

7.5
Lopt = 1100
7.4
3.1
600 900 1200 1500 1800 600 900 1200 1500 1800
( ) ( )

3.9 - R1
123

,
,
p-n .

1.5
2
1.0
j = 480 A/cm

0.5
)

0.0
(

-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0
( )
20
10
2
j = 480 A/cm
)

19
10
-3
(

18
10
17
10
16
10
15
10
14
10
1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3
( )

3.10 - ( ),
( )

) R1 ,
1.1
124
. 3.10
.
,
.
.

.
,
AlAs. (~ 1017 -3
)
,
.
,
p-n , 38.8º ( . . 3.11).
(L = 1.9 ) ,
( . 3.12);
,
.
R1 . 3.13.
,
,

,
( . 3.5). ,
.
R1,
. 3.14.

1.1 1.9 . R1.


125

.)
= 38.8°

.
(
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
( )

3.11 - R1 ,
p-n
)
-3

5 L = 1.9
x10 (

4
18

3
N(z)
2

0
0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0
( )

3.12 -

4
10 8
)
2

7 L = 1.9
3
10
(A/

6
2 5
(A)

10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe
0 2
10
= 2.1x10
-4 2
1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2
( ) ( )

3.13 -
R1
126
R1,
, 3.1.5, 1.36×10-3 2
,
– 0.358 1.9 .

3.5 R1.

.
2
, ) .
) -3 2
) )
1 GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 2.0×10-5
n-GaAs
2 300 n = 2×1018 3000 5.0×10-8

3 n-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 n = 1×1017 200 7.5×10-5


Al0.35Ga0.65As
4 500 n,p = 1×1017 1000 5.0×10-6
Al0.07Ga0.93As
5 10 n = 2×1018 8000 6.2×10-10
Al0.35Ga0.65As
6 500 n,p = 1×1017 1000 5.0×10-6

7 p-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 p = 2×1017 70 1.07×10-4


p-GaAs
8 200 p = 1×1019 100 2.0×10-7
2
( ) 2.1×10-4
2×103 2
( ) 0.106

6
)

L = 1.9
(

5 L = 1.1

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add

R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2


0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( )

3.14 - R1
127
3.2.2 (G1)

(
)
( ).
,

. p-
AlGaAs .

. G1
. 3.6.

3.6 G1

)
1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 n-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 ND = 1×1017
3 i-Al0.4Ga0.6As 725 —
i-AlxGa1-xAs c
4 75 —
x =0.4 0.3
5 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
i-AlxGa1-xAs c
6 75 —
x =0.3 0.4
7 i-Al0.4Ga0.6As 725 —
8 p-Al0.7Ga0.3As 1500 NA = 2×1017
9 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019
128

, . . , , ,
2 6 ,
,
. 3.15.
)
2

900
1.00
( /

R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 Lopt = 1200

( )
800
700 0.95

600
0.90
500
400 0.85

300
0.80
200
600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
( ) ( )

3.3 7.6
Pout= 2 Lopt = 1200 Pout= 6
7.5
3.2
( )

( )

7.4
3.1 7.3

3.0 7.2

7.1
2.9
7.0 Lopt = 1200
2.8 6.9
600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
( ) ( )

65
)
-1

0.93 1.0
/ )

64 R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2


(%)

0.92
63 0.8
(

0.91
62
0.90 0.6
61 0.89
0.4
60 0.88
59 0.2
Lopt = 1300 0.87

58 0.86 0.0
600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
( ) ( )

3.15 - G1
129
, ,
Lopt= 1.2 .
2
345 ,
– 0.96 (~ 62%).
2
, 250 1.7 ,
– 0.95 (~ 62%).
, ,
. ,
1.7 .
, G1
( . 3.16).

1 = 1.70 % ,

2 = 0.002 % , 3 = 0.95 % 4 = 0.02 % .


,
,
.

, R1 ( . 3.16).
( ,
), ,
. ,

, .
, . 3.15.
G1
28.5º. « »

( R1).
130

1.5
2
1.0
j = 244 A/cm

0.5
)

0.0
(

-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6
( )

20
10
2
j = 244 A/cm
)

19
10
-3
(

18
10
17
10
16
10
15
10
14
10
1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6
( )

3.16 - ( ),
( )

) G1 ,
1.7

, ,
131

.
( . . 3.17).
6

)
-3
L = 1.7
5

x10 (
18
4

3 N(z)

0
0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6
( )

3.17 -

. , G1
,
4
.
4
10 8
)
2

7 L = 1.7
3
10
(A/

6
5
(A)

2
10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe 2
0
10
= 9.8x10
-4 2 1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4
( ) ( )

3.18 -
G1

4
,
. .
.
132
G1
( . 3.18). G1

,
2
, ~500 .
. . 3.7) , G1
Al0.4Ga0.6As.
, - L- (X-)
.
.

3.7 G1.

( .
2
-3 ) .
) ,( ) 2
)
GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 2.0×10-5
n-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 n = 1×1017 200 7.5×10-5
Al0.4Ga0.6 As
725 n,p = 2.1×1016 70 4.9×10-4
AlxGa1-xAs , x = 0.4
75 n,p = 1×1017 1000 3.6×10-6
0.3
Al0.07Ga0.93As
10 n,p = 4×1018 8000 1.2×10-9
Al0.07Ga0.93As
10 n,p = 2×1018 8000 6.2×10-10
AlxGa1-xAs , x = 0.3
75 n,p = 1×1017 1000 3.6×10-6
0.4
Al0.4Ga0.6 As
725 n,p = 2.6×1016 70 2.8×10-4

p-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 p = 2×1017 70 1.07×10-4


p-GaAs 200 p = 1×1019 100 2.0×10-7
2
) 9.77×10-4
3.4×103 2
) 0.287
G1 . 3.19.
133
6

)
L = 1.7

(
5

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( )

3.19 - G1

R1. G1,
, 3.1.5, 1.49×10-3 2
,
– 0.438 1.7 .

3.2.3 (A1)

.
, ,

.
, ,
,
AlGaAs
.

.
3.8.

, , ,
134
2 6 , –
. 3.20.

3.8 1

( )
1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 n-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 ND = 1×1017
i-AlxGa1-xAs c x =0.6
3 150 —
0.3
4 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
5 i-Al0.35Ga0.65As 300 —
6 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
i-Al0.3Ga0.7As c x =0.3
7 150 —
0.6
8 p-Al0.6Ga0.4As 1500 NA = 2×1017
9 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019
, ,
Lopt= 0.7 .
2
590 ,
– 1.03 (67%).
2
, 250
2.0 , 0.96 (62%).
, ( ~25%),
, 6 ,– ~10%.
,
« » – 0.7
2.2 .
A1
( . . 3.21).

1 = 1.65 % 2 = 1.58 %
.
135
,
,
.
)
2

900 1.05
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 Lopt = 700
( /

( )
800
1.00
700
600 0.95
500
0.90
400
300 0.85
200
0.80
600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100
( ) ( )

3.2 7.5
Pout = 2 7.4 Pout= 6
3.1 7.3
( )
( )

Lopt = 700
7.2
3.0
7.1
7.0
2.9
6.9
2.8 6.8
6.7 Lopt = 700
2.7 6.6
600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100
( ) ( )

1.5
)
-1

67 R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 0.93


/ )
(%)

66 0.92
(

0.91 1.0
65
0.90
64
0.89
63 0.5
0.88
62 0.87
Lopt = 700
61 0.86 0.0
600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100
( ) ( )

3.20 - 1
136

1.5
2
1.0 j = 237 A/cm

0.5
)

0.0
(

-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6
( )
20
10
2
j = 237 A/cm
)

19
10
-3
(

18
10
17
10
16
10
15
10
14
10
1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6
( )

3.21 - ( ),
( )

) 1 ,
2.2

1
, , , R1 ( . 3.21). ,
137
4-5
. ,
, .
.
,
p-n , 50.5º ( . . 3.22), ,
.

AlGaAs, .
.)

= 50.5°
.
(

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80


( )

3.22 - 1 ,
p-n

1.5
2.2 ; 0.7
,

( . . 3.23).
1 . 3.24.
,
,
R1.
138

)
7 7

-3
-3
L = 0.7 L = 2.2
6 6

x10 (
x10 (

18
N(z)

18
5 5 N(z)
4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
( ) ( )

3.23 -

4
10 8
)
2

7 L = 2.2
3
10
(A/

6
5
(A)
2
10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe 2
0
10
= 2.1x10
-4 2 1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2
( ) ( )

3.24 -
1

, 1
R1 ( . 3.9). -

2.2 . 1,
. 3.25. ,
, ,
.
1,
, 3.1.5, 1.34×10-3 2
,
– 0.304 2.2 .
139
3.9 1.

.
2
-3 ) .
) ,( ) 2
)
1 GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 2.0×10-5
n-Al0.6Ga0.4As
2 1500 n = 1×1017 200 7.5×10-5
AlxGa1-xAs , x = 0.6
3 0.3 150 n,p = 1×1017 1000 3.0×10-6

Al0.07Ga0.93As
4 10 n,p = 2×1018 8000 6.2×10-10
Al0.35Ga0.65As
5 300 n,p = 5×1016 1000 6.0×10-6

Al0.07Ga0.93As
6 10 n,p = 2×1018 8000 6.2×10-10
AlxGa1-xAs , x = 0.3
7 0.6 150 n,p = 1×1017 1000 1.5×10-6

p-Al0.6Ga0.4As
8 1500 p = 2×1017 70 1.07×10-4
p-GaAs
9 200 p = 1×1019 100 2.0×10-7
2
( ) 2.13×10-4
4.4×103 2
) 0.048
6
)

L = 0.7
(

5 L = 2.2

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( )

3.25 - 1
140
3.2.4 (R2)

p-AlGaAs
AlGaAs,
.
3.10.

, .

3.10 R2

( )

1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 n-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1500 ND = 1×1017
3 i-Al0.3Ga0.7As 300 —
4 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
5 i-Al0.3Ga0.7As 300 —
6 p-Al0.6Ga0.4As 50 NA = 2×1017
7 p-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1500 NA = 2×1017
8 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019

R2 –
, , ,
2 6 , –
. 3.26.
, ,
Lopt= 1.2 .
2
375 ,
– 0.90 (59%). ,
2
250 1.9 ,
0.89 (58%).
141
.
Lopt= 2.0 .

)
2 1200 1.20
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
( /
Lopt = 1300
1.15
1000

( )
1.10
800
1.05
600 1.00

0.95
400
0.90
200
0.85
800 1200 1600 2000 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.8
Lopt = 1300 8.6 Pout= 6 Lopt = 1300
3.7 Pout= 2

( )
( )

3.6 8.4

3.5 8.2
3.4
8.0
3.3
7.8
3.2
3.1 7.6

3.0 7.4
800 1200 1600 2000 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

62
)
-1

2.0
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
/ )

0.93
(%)

60
(

0.90 1.5
(

58
0.87
56 1.0
0.84
54
0.81 0.5
52
Lopt = 1300 0.78
50 0.0
800 1200 1600 2000 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.26 - R2

R2
( . . 3.27)

1 = 1.67 % .
142
,
.

1.0 2
j = 233 A/cm
0.5
0.0
)

-0.5
(

-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-3.0
1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7
( )
20
10
2
j = 233 A/cm
)

19
10
-3
(

18
10
17
10
16
10
15
10
14
10
1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7
( )

3.27 - ( ),
( )

) R2 ,
2.0
143
R2
, R1 ( . . 3.27 . 3.10).

( . 3.4.1).

-1
– ~1 c ,
.
,
p-n , 23.3º ( . . 3.28),
, AlGaAs
.
.)

= 23.3°
.
(

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80


( )

3.28 - R2 ,
p-n

5
2.0
( . . 3.29).
R2 . 3.30.
,
,
R1, .
,
144
3.11.
2
~1 .
6

)
-3
L = 2.0
5

x10 (
18
4

3 N(z)

0
0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0
( )

3.29 -

3.11 R2.

.
2
-3 ) .
) ,( ) 2
)
1 GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 2.0×10-5
n-Al0.35Ga0.65As
2 1500 n = 1×1017 1000 1.5×10-5
Al0.3Ga0.7 As
3 300 n,p = 5×1016 1000 5.7×10-6
Al0.07Ga0.93As
4 10 n,p = 3×1018 8000 4.0×10-10
Al0.3Ga0.7 As
5 300 n,p = 5×1016 1000 5.5×10-6
p-Al0.6Ga0.4As
6 50 p = 2×1017 70 3.6×10-6
-Al0.35Ga0.65As
8 1500 p = 2×1017 70 1.07×10-4
p-GaAs
9 200 p = 1×1019 100 2.0×10-7
2
( ) 1.54×10-4
4×103 2
) 0.039
145
R2,
2,0 . 3.31. ,
R2
.
R2,
, 3.1.5, 1.63×10-3 2
,
– 0.406 2.0 .
4
10 8
)
2

7 L = 2.0
3
10
(A/

6
5

(A)
2
10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe 2
0
10
= 1.5x10
-4 2 1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
( ) ( )

3.30 -
R2

6
)

L = 2.0
(

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( )

3.31 - R2

3.2.5 (G2)

( .
, 3.12)
146
,
3.4.1.

3.12 G2

( )

1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 n-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1500 ND = 5×1017
i-AlxGa1-xAs c
3 300 —
x = 0.35 0.3
4 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
i-AlxGa1-xAs c
5 300 —
x = 0.3 0.35
6 p-Al0.5Ga0.5As 30 NA = 1×1018
7 p-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1500 NA = 3×1017
8 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019

( 5 )
( 1.5 ). R2,
AlGaAs
p- .
,
, ,
.
,

.
G2 –
, , ,
147
2 6 , –
. 3.32.

)
2 1200 1.40
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 Lopt = 1500
( /
1.35

( )
1000
1.30
1.25
800
1.20
600 1.15
1.10
400 1.05
1.00
200
0.95
800 1200 1600 2000 2400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400
( ) ( )

3.8
Lopt = 1500 8.6 Lopt = 1500
3.7

( )
( )

8.4
3.6
8.2
3.5
8.0
3.4

3.3 7.8
Pout= 2 Pout= 6
3.2 7.6
800 1200 1600 2000 2400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400
( ) ( )

62
)

0.99
-1

1.6
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
/ )

0.96
(%)

60 1.4
(

0.93 1.2
(

58
0.90 1.0
56 0.8
0.87
54 0.6
0.84
0.4
52 0.81
Lopt = 1550 0.2
0.78
50 0.0
800 1200 1600 2000 2400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400
( ) ( )

3.32 - G2

, ,
Lopt= 1.4-1.5 .
2
390 ,
– 0.89 (58%).
148
2
, 250 2.4 ,
0.84 (55%).
.
» Lopt= 2.4 .
,
.
G2
( . . 3.33)

1 = 1.48 % . ,
( .
3.26), .
~ 1.7%
. . 3.33 ,
,

.
R2
G2 –
, , 3 ,
( . . 3.33).
, .

-1
– ~1 c ,
.
,
p-n , 16.4º ( . . 3.34),
, , .
(2,4 ) 3.5 ,
149
1.5 ( . .
3.35).

1.5
2
1.0
j = 244 A/cm

0.5
)

0.0
(

-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8
( )
20
10
2
j = 244 A/cm
)

19
10
-3
(

18
10
17
10
16
10
15
10
14
10
1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8
( )

3.33 - ( ),
( )

) G2 ,
2.4
150

.)
= 16.4°

.
(
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
( )

3.34 - G2 ,
p-n
)
-3

5 L = 2.4
x10 (

4
18

3
N(z)
2

0
0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4
( )

3.35 -

G2 . 3.36.
,
,
R1, .
,
3.13.
2
~ 800 .
G2,
2.4 . 3.37. ,
G2
.
G2, , 3.1.5, 1.62×10-3
151
2
, – 0.338 2.4
.

3.13 G2.

.
2
, ) .
) 2
-3
) )

1 GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 2.0×10-5


2 n-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1500 n = 3×1017 1000 5.0×10-6
AlxGa1-xAs, x = 0.35
3 300 n,p = 4×1016 1000 6.8×10-6
0.30
Al0.07Ga0.93As
4 10 n,p = 3×1018 8000 4.0×10-10
AlxGa1-xAs, x = 0.30
5 300 n,p = 5×1016 1000 5.5×10-6
0.35
p-Al0.5Ga0.5As
6 30 p = 5×1017 70 1.2×10-6

8 -Al0.35Ga0.65As 1500 p = 3×1017 70 8.6×10-5


p-GaAs
9 200 p = 1×1019 100 2.0×10-7
2
( ) 1.35×10-4
4.8×103 2
) 0.026

4
10 8
)
2

7 L = 2.4
3
10
(A/

6
2 5
(A)

10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe 2
0
10
= 1.35x10
-4 2 1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
( ) ( )

3.36 -
G2
152
6

)
L = 2.4

(
5

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( )

3.37 - G2

G2
.
G2m.

G2m
G2 10% .
= 1.68 .
G2m . 3.38
. G2 G2m ,
G2m
L = 1.0-1.1 . G2m
3.14.

,
.
,
, .

3.14 G2m

Lopt Jth Iop (A) D int


2 -1 int 2
(%) ) (A/ ) @ 6W ) ) ) )
G2m 1.68 1.1 440 7.73 0.89 1.8 17.0 0.79 1.4×10-4
153

)
2
1200 1.20
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 Lopt = 1050

( /
1.15
1000

( )
1.10
800
1.05
600 1.00

0.95
400
0.90
200
0.85
800 1200 1600 2000 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.8
Pout= 2 Lopt = 1050 8.6 Lopt = 950
3.7 Pout= 6
( )

( )
3.6 8.4

3.5 8.2
3.4
8.0
3.3
7.8
3.2
3.1 7.6

3.0 7.4
800 1200 1600 2000 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

62
)
-1

2.0
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
/ )

0.93
(%)

60
(

0.90 1.5
(

58
0.87
56 1.0
0.84
54
0.81 0.5
52
Lopt = 1000 0.78
50 0.0
800 1200 1600 2000 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.38 -
G2

3.2.6
(G3)

G2.

(i) (ii)
154
.
,

.
G3
, .
G3 3.15.

3.15 G3

( )

1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 n-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1500 ND = 5×1017
i-AlxGa1-xAs c x = 0.35
3 100 —
0.3
4 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
i-AlxGa1-xAs c x = 0.3
5 100 —
0.35
6 p-Al0.35Ga0.65As 200 NA = 3×1017
7 p-Al0.5Ga0.5As 30 NA = 1×1018
8 p-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1500 NA = 3×1017
9 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019

G3 – , ,
, 2 6 ,
– . 3.39.
, ,
Lopt= 1.2-1.3 .
2
~700 ,
2
– 0.83 (54%). , 250
155
4.4 , 0.69
(45%).

)
2 1200 2.20
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
( /
2.15 Lopt = 1270

( )
1000
2.10
2.05
800
2.00
600 1.95
1.90
400 1.85
1.80
200
1.75
1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200
( ) ( )

5.0 11.0
Pout= 2 Pout= 6
4.8 10.5
( )

( )
4.6 10.0

4.4 9.5

4.2 9.0
Lopt = 1250 Lopt = 1250
4.0
1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200
( ) ( )
)

0.84
-1

54 R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2


/ )

1.5
0.82
(%)

52 0.80
(

0.78 1.0
50
0.76

48 0.74 0.5
0.72
46 Lopt = 1300
0.70
0.0
1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200
( ) ( )

3.39 - G3

( . 3.39). « »
Lopt= 4.4 ,
156
2
, 250 . G3
( . . 3.40)

1 = 1.02 % .

1.5
2
1.0
j = 238 A/cm

0.5
)

0.0
(

-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0
( )
20
10
2
j = 238 A/cm
)

19
10
-3
(

18
10
17
10
16
10
15
10
14
10
0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0
( )

3.40 - ( ),
( )

) G3 ,
4.4
157
G3
, ( . 3.26)
. . 3.40 ,
,
.
, , ,

.
G2,
G3 –
4-5 , ( . . 3.40).
, ,
, .

.
, , G2,
( . .
3.39).
,
p-n , 7.1º ( . . 3.41),
.

.
2.5
4.4 1.5
( . . 3.42). G3
. 3.43.
158

.)
= 7.1°

.
(
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
( )

3.41 - G3 ,
p-n

,
, R1,
.
, 3.16. ,

2
~ 800 .
G3,
4.4 . 3.44.

4.4 .
.
G2, , 3.1.5,
1.62×10-3 2
, – 0.338
2.4 .
, G3
G2.

.
159
3.16 G3

.
2
-3 ) .
) ,( ) 2
)
GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 2.0×10-5
n-Al0.35Ga0.65As
1500 n = 3×1017 1000 5.0×10-6
AlxGa1-xAs, x = 0.35
0.30 100 n,p = 3×1016 1000 2.9×10-6

Al0.07Ga0.93As
10 n,p = 3×1018 8000 4.0×10-10
AlxGa1-xAs, x = 0.30
0.35 100 n,p = 2×1016 1000 3.5×10-6

-Al0.35Ga0.65As
200 p = 3×1017 70 9.5×10-6
p-Al0.5Ga0.5As
30 p = 5×1017 70 7.8×10-7
-Al0.35Ga0.65As
1500 p = 3×1017 70 8.6×10-5
p-GaAs
200 p = 1×1019 100 2.0×10-7
2
( ) 1.29×10-4
8.8×103 2
) 0.015
)
-3

5 L = 4.4
x10 (

4
18

3
N(z)
2

0
0.0 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2
( )

3.42 -
160
4
10 8

)
2
7 L = 4.4
3
10

(A/
6
5

(A)
2
10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe 2
0
10
= 1.3x10
-4 2 1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
( ) ( )

3.43 -
G3

6
)

L = 4.4
(

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
( )

3.44 - G3

,
,
.
.

3.3

.
161

[42].
3.2 ,
,
. ,
, , ,
.
1,0-1,5% ,
.
,
2
– 250
2
~450-500 .
,
,
, ,
, , 3.2.

3.3.1 (R3)

, n-
AlxGa1-xAs x =0.35 0.60, .

. n-
,
.
,
,
. 3.1,
.
R3, 3.17. ,
162
, . 3.1,
0.9 0.2,
,
. 200
-1
0.2 , R3,
, .

3.17 R3

( )

1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 GaAs 300 ND = 2×1018
3 n-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1800 ND = 5×1017
4 i-Al0.3Ga0.7As 300 —
5 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
6 i-Al0.3Ga0.7As 450 —
7 p-Al06Ga0.4As 700 NA = 5×1017
8 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019

,
R3 ( , , ,
2 6 ,
)
. . 3.45 .
,
Lopt= 1.0-1.1 , – Lopt= 1.4 .
Lopt= 1.0-1.1 450
2
, – 0.92 (60%).
2
, 250 1.8
, 0.89
163
(56%). , .
, 2 6 ,
Lopt= 1.0-1.1 .
)
2

1000
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 1.10 Lopt = 1400
( /

900

( )
800
1.05
700
600 1.00
500
0.95
400
300 0.90
200
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )
3.35
Pout= 2 Lopt = 1100 7.8 Pout= 6 Lopt = 1100
3.30
( )
( )

7.7
3.25

3.20 7.6

3.15
7.5
3.10
7.4
3.05
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )
62 0.95
)
-1

2.0
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
/ )

0.94
(%)

61
0.93 1.5
(

60 0.92
0.91 1.0
59
0.90
58 0.89 0.5
Lopt = 1000
0.88
57 0.0
400 800 1200 1600 2000 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.45 - R3
.
n- , –
n- , 2×1017 -3
164
R3,
, ,
.
,
( . . 3.17).
, ,
. 0.6 2.0
, 2.5 ,
.

int 0.83, ,
, 0.77 , ,
. ,

1.0-1.1
.
, R3
( . . 3.46).

1 = 1.71 %.
, n-
.
n- .
n-
.
,
, R1, . 3.2.1.
165
. 3.46a
, R1.

1.0 2
j = 453 A/cm
0.5
0.0

)
-0.5

(
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-3.0
1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7
( )

20 20
10 10
2 2
j = 453 A/cm j = 453 A/cm b
a

)
19
)

19
10

-3
10
-3

(
18
(

18
10 10
17 17
10 10
16 16
10 10
15 15
10 10
14 14
10 10
1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7
( ) ( )

3.46 - ( , ),
( , )
((a)
(b)) R3 , 1.0
. ( ) n- ,
(b) – 2×1017 -3

, .
,
, ,
, .

, n-
166
2×1017 -3
(
). ,
n- ( . 3.46 ) ,

( . ,
. 3.45).
,
.
R3
n- (
R3D). R3D
, R3, .
.
,
p-n , 30º ( . . 3.47).
(L = 1.0 ) 2.5-3.0
. 3.48).
, . .
.
~ 1.5 .
R3 . 3.49.
,

,
( . 3.18).

,
2
, ~1 .
R3 . 3.50.
n- 1.0
1.2 .
167
0.7
= 1.7% = 30°

( . .)
0.6

( . .)
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

AlAs
0.1
0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90
( ) ( )

3.47 -
R3/R3D ,
p-n

6
)
-3

L = 1.0
5
x10 (
18

4
N(z)
3

0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
( )

3.48 -
R3

4
10 8
)
2

7 L = 1.0
3
10
(A/

6
2 5
(A)

10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe 2
0
10
-5 2
=7.5x10 1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
( ) ( )

3.49 -
R3 ( n- )
168
3.18 R3.

. .
2 2
) ,( -3
) ) )

1 GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 1.3×10-5


n-GaAs
2 300 n = 2×1018 3000 3.1×10-8

3 n-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1800 n = 5×1017 1000 7.5×10-5


Al0.30Ga0.7As
4 300 n,p = 1×1017 100 1.9×10-5

Al0.07Ga0.93As
5 10 n = 2×1018 1000 1.6×10-9

Al0.30Ga0.7As
6 450 n,p = 1×1017 100 2.8×10-5

7 p-Al0.6Ga0.4As 700 p = 5×1017 70 1.3×10-5


p-GaAs
8 200 p = 1×1019 100 1.3×10-7

2
( ) 7.4×10-5
2×103 2
( ) 0.037

6
)

L = 1.0
(

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add

R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2


0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( )

3.50 - R3

R3,
, 3.1.5, 7.74×10-4 2
,
– 0.387 1.0 .
169
3.3.2
(R4)

, n- AlxGa1-xAs
x =0.60 0.35, .
,
, R3.
-
.
-Al0.8Ga0.2As 30 ( .
3.3.5).
R4,
3.19.
3.19 R4

( )

1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 GaAs 300 ND = 2×1018
3 n-Al0.6Ga0.4As 700 ND = 1×1018
4 i-Al0.3Ga0.7As 500 —
5 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
6 i-Al0.3Ga0.7As 350 —
7 -Al0.8Ga0.2As 30 NA = 5×1018
8 p-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1700 NA = 2×1017
9 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019

R4
. 3.51 . ,
170
Lopt= 0.9-1.0 ,
– Lopt= 1.4 .

)
2 1.00
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
( /
800 Lopt = 1300
0.98

( )
0.96
600
0.94

0.92
400
0.90

200 0.88

0.86
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.30 7.9
Lopt = 1000 Pout= 2 Lopt = 900
3.25 7.8
( )

( )
Pout= 6
3.20 7.7

3.15 7.6

3.10 7.5

3.05 7.4

3.00 7.3
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

61
)
-1

0.96
1.8
/ )

Lopt = 900
(%)

60
0.94 1.5
(

59 1.2
0.92
0.9
58 0.90
0.6
57 0.88 0.3
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
56 0.86 0.0
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.51 - R4
.
n- , –
n- , 2×1017 -3
171
Lopt= 0.9-1.0
2
500 , – 0.93 ( , 61%). ,
2 6 ,
Lopt= 0.9-1.2 .

, ,
,
. 3.2. , .
,
.
R4,
, ,
. R3,
,
( . . 3.52). 0.6
2.0 3 ,
.
,

. ,

0.9-1.0 .
, R4, R3,

. 3.52).

1 = 1.71 %.
, .
R4 -
172
.
.
, -
2×1017 -3
R3.
1.0 2
j = 506 A/cm
0.5
0.0

)
-0.5

(
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-3.0
0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4
( )
20 20
10 10
2 2
j = 506 A/cm a j = 506 A/cm b
)

19
)
19
10
-3

10
-3
(

18 18
10 10
17 17
10 10
16 16
10 10
15 15
10 10
14 14
10 10
0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4
( ) ( )

3.52 - ( , ),
( , )
((a)
(b)) R4 , 1.0
. ( ) n- ,
(b) – 2×1017 -3

. 3.52a
. R3,

, .

, , R3, n-
173
2×1017 -3
(
n- R4D).
,
n- ( . 3.52 ) ,
,
( . , -
. 3.51). -
.
,
p-n , 30º ( . . 3.53).
(L = 0.9 ) 5 ,

,
( . 3.54).
R4 . 3.55.

,
,
( . 3.20).
0.8
= 1.7% = 30°
( . .)

( . .)

0.6

0.4
AlAs

0.2

0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90
( ) ( )

3.53 -
R4/R4D ,
p-n
174
6

)
-3
L = 0.9
5

x10 (
18
4

3 N(z)

0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
( )

3.54 -
R4

10
4 8
)
2

7 L = 0.9
3
10
(A/

6
5
(A)
2
10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe 2
0
10
= 1.2x10
-4 2 1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4
( ) ( )

3.55 -
R4 ( n- )

,
. -
R4 . 3.56.
6
)

L = 0.9
(

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( )

3.56 - R4
175
n- ,
R4 R4D
.

3.20 R4.

.
2
, ) .
) -3 2
) )
1 GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 1.3×10-5
n-GaAs
2 300 n = 2×1018 3000 3.1×10-8

n-Al0.6Ga0.4As
3 700 n = 1×1018 200 2.2×10-6

Al0.30Ga0.7As
4 500 n,p = 1×1017 100 3.1×10-5

Al0.07Ga0.93As
5 10 n = 4×1018 1000 1.6×10-9

Al0.30Ga0.7As
6 350 n,p = 1×1017 100 2.2×10-5

p-Al0.8Ga0.2As
7 30 p = 5×1018 70 5.2×10-9

p-Al0.35Ga0.65As
8 1700 p = 2×1017 100 5.3×10-5

p-GaAs
9 200 p = 1×1019 100 1.3×10-7
2
( ) 1.2×10-4
1.8×103 2
( ) 0.068

R4,
, 3.1.5, 1.81×10-3 2
,
– 1.007 0.9 .
176
3.3.3 (G4)

(G4)
n- , n- -
AlGaAs.
( ,
R3).
3.21.

3.21 G4

( )

1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 GaAs 300 ND = 2×1018
3 n-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1800 ND = 1×1018
i-AlxGa1-xAs c
4 350 —
x =0.35 0.3
5 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
i-AlxGa1-xAs c x =0.3
6 500 —
0.35
7 p-Al0.6Ga0.4As 700 NA = 1×1018
8 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019

G4
, . . , ,
, 2 6 ,
,
. 3.57. ,
,
Lopt= 1.1 .
177
2
406 , – 0.94 (~ 61.5%).
1 1.5 .
,
(R3 R4),
G4 ,

( . 3.57).
, ( . ).
, G4

1 = 1.70 % .
n- ,
.
,
R3 ( . 3.58). , ,
, .

,
(R3 R4), .
R3,
, n-AlGaAs
3×1017 -3
n ,
2×1016 -3
n-
8×1016 -3
.

, G4D,
, . 3.57
.
G4D . 3.58 .
n
178
(
n- ).

)
2
1000 1.10
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 Lopt = 1200
( /

( )
1.05
800

1.00
600
0.95

400
0.90

200 0.85
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.30 7.8
Lopt = 1100 Lopt = 1100
3.25 7.7
( )

( )
Pout= 2 Pout= 6
3.20 7.6

3.15 7.5

3.10 7.4

3.05 7.3

3.00 7.2

2.95 7.1
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

63
)
-1

2.0
0.96
/ )
(%)

62
1.5
(

0.94
61
1.0
60 0.92

Lopt = 1100 0.5


59
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 0.90
58 0.0
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.57 - G4 (
) G4D ( )
179
1.0 2
j = 406 A/cm
0.5
0.0

)
-0.5

(
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-3.0
1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7
( )
20
20 10
10 j = 406 A/cm
2

j = 406 A/cm
2
a b

)
19
10

-3
)

19
10
-3

(
18
10
(

18
10
17
10
17 10
16
10
16 10
15
10
15
10
14 14
10 10
1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7
( ) ( )

3.58 - ( , ),
( , )

) G4 (a) G4D (b) ,


1.1

G4
25º. « »
n

R3).
( . . 3.60):
2.0-2.5 .
1.7 ,
.
G4
2
~ 300 A/ ( . 3.61).
180

= 1.7% 0.6 = 25°

( . .)
( . .)
0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

AlAs
0.1

0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90
( ) ( )

3.59 -
G4/G4D ,
p-n

6
)
-3

L = 1.1
5
x10 (
18

3
N(z)
2

0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
( )

3.60 -

4
10 8
)
2

7 L = 1.1
3
10
(A/

6
2 5
(A)

10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe 2
0
10
= 1.24x10
-4 2 1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
( ) ( )

3.61 -
G4 G4D,
181
( . 3.22)
, G4
. .
G4 G4D
.

3.22 G4.

.
2
, ) .
) -3 2
) )
1 GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 1.3×10-5
n-GaAs
2 300 n = 2×1018 3000 3.1×10-8

n-Al0.35Ga0.65As
3 1800 n = 1×1018 1000 1.1×10-6

AlxGa1-xAs , x = 0.35
4 0.3 350 n,p = 4×1016 100 5.5×10-5

Al0.07Ga0.93As
5 10 n,p = 4×1018 8000 1.6×10-9

AlxGa1-xAs , x = 0.3
6 0.35 500 n,p = 6×1016 100 5.2×10-5

p-Al0.6Ga0.4As
7 700 p = 1×1018 70 6.2×10-6

p-GaAs
9 200 p = 1×1019 100 1.3×10-7
2
( ) 1.24×10-4
2.2×10-3 2
( ) 0.058

G4 . 3.62.
182
G4D.
R3.

)
L = 1.1

(
5

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( )

3.62 - G4/G4D

G1,
, 3.1.5, 8.5×10-4 2
,
– 0.388 1.1 .

3.3.4
(G5)

,
,
n- .
n- ,

, n- .
R4 G5;
3.23.
G4 30 Al0.8Ga0.2As ,
.
, R4. ,
183

3.23 G5

)
1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 GaAs 300 ND = 2×1018
3 n-Al0.6Ga0.4As 700 ND = 1×1018
i-AlxGa1-xAs c x =0.35
4 600 —
0.3
5 Al0.07Ga0.93As 10 —
i-AlxGa1-xAs c x =0.3
6 350 —
0.35
7 p-Al0.8Ga0.2As 30 NA = 5×1018
8 p-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1700 NA = 2×1017
9 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019


, , ,
2 6 , –
. 3.63.
,
, Lopt= 0.9 .
2
467 ,
– 0.95 (62%). ,
G5D ( . ) :
2
461 , – 0.96
(63%). G5 G5D
. G5D
184
, G5,
.

)
2 0.90
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
( /
800 Lopt = 1200

( )
0.88

600 0.86

400 0.84

0.82
200
0.80
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.15 7.6
Lopt = 1100 Pout= 2 Lopt = 1000
7.5
3.10
( )
( )

Pout= 6
7.4
3.05
7.3
3.00
7.2

2.95 7.1

2.90 7.0
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

63 2.1
)
-1
/ )

0.96 1.8
(%)

62 0.95 1.5
(

0.94 1.2
61
0.9
0.93
0.6
60 Lopt = 900 0.92
0.3
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 0.91
59 0.0
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.63 - G5 (
) G5D ( )
. , ,
185
G5
( . 3.64)
= 1.73 % , .
1.0 2
j = 467 A/cm
0.5
0.0

)
-0.5

(
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-3.0
0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4
( )
20 20
10 10
2 2
j = 467 A/cm a j = 467 A/cm b
)

19
10 ) 19
-3

10
-3
(

(
18 18
10 10
17 17
10 10
16 16
10 10
15 15
10 10
14 14
10 10
0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4
( ) ( )

3.64 - ( , ),
( , )

) G5 (a) G5D (b) ,


1.0

G5
, , , R3 R4:
,
4-10 , ( . . 3.64).
G5D , G5
( . . 3.64a .
3.64 ).
186
,
p-n , 26º ( . . 3.65).
3 ,
~ 1.5 ( .
. 3.66).
1.0
= 26° = 1.7%
( . .)

( . .)
0.8

0.6

0.4

AlAs
0.2

0.0
-90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
( ) ( )
3.65 -
G5/G5D ,
p-n
6
)
-3

L = 1.0
5
x10 (
18

3
N(z)
2

0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
( )

3.66 -

G5 . 3.67.
,
,
, 3.24.
187
4
10 8

)
2
7 L = 0.9
3
10

(A/
6
2 5

(A)
10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe 2
0
10
= 2.0x10
-4 2 1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4
( ) ( )

3.67 -
G5 G5D

3.24 G5.

.
2
-3 ) .
) ,( ) 2
)
1 GaAs 3.5×105 n = 5×1018 3000 1.3×10-5
n-GaAs
2 300 n = 2×1018 3000 3.1×10-8

n-Al0.6Ga0.4As
3 700 n = 1×1018 200 2.2×10-6

AlxGa1-xAs , x = 0.35
4 0.3 600 n,p = 4×1016 100 9.4×10-5

Al0.07Ga0.93As
5 10 n,p = 4×1018 1000 1.6×10-9

AlxGa1-xAs , x = 0.3
6 0.6 350 n,p = 5×1016 100 4.4×10-5

p-Al0.6Ga0.4As
7 30 p = 2×1017 70 1.3×10-6

p-Al0.35Ga0.65As
8 1700 p = 2×1017 100 5.3×10-5

p-GaAs
9 200 p = 1×1019 100 1.3×10-7
2
( ) 2.0×10-4
1.8×103 2
( ) 0.114
188

2
, , , ~ 1
G5 G5D . 3.68 (
G5D
G5). G5,
, 3.1.5, 1.86×10-3 2
,
– 1.030 0.9 .
) 6
L = 0.9
(
5

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add

R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2


0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( )

3.68 - G5/G5D

3.3.5
(G2D)

, , 30
Al0.6Ga0.4As
, . ,
,
,
.

40-50% .

, , ,
189
AlGaAs . ,
AlAs 80% (
3×1018 -3
) .
R4 G5.
, -
.

,
.

G2 G2m, . 3.2.

n-
,
( . 3.2).
G2/G2m
, G2D. 3.25.

3.25 G2D

( )
1 GaAs ND = 5×1018
2 GaAs 300 ND = 2×1018
3 n-Al035Ga0.65As 1800 ND = 1×1018
i-AlxGa1-xAs c
4 300 4×1016 1×1017
x =0.35 0.3
5 Al0.07Ga0.93As 11 —
i-AlxGa1-xAs c
6 300 —
x =0.3 0.35
7 p-Al0.8Ga0.2As 30 NA = 5×1018
8 p-Al0.35Ga0.65As 1800 NA = 2×1017
9 p+-GaAs 200 NA = 1×1019
190

, , ,
2 6 , –
. 3.69.
)
2

R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 1.02


( /

800 Lopt = 1200

( )
1.00
600
0.98
400
0.96

200
0.94

400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.30 7.8
Lopt = 1000 Pout= 2 Lopt = 1000
3.25 7.7
( )

( )

Pout= 6

3.20 7.6

3.15 7.5

3.10 7.4

3.05 7.3
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

62 1.5
)
-1
/ )

0.96
(%)

1.2
61 0.95
(

0.9
0.94
60
0.93 0.6

59 Lopt = 1000 0.92 0.3


R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2 0.91
58 0.0
400 800 1200 1600 2000 400 800 1200 1600 2000
( ) ( )

3.69 - G2D
191
,
, Lopt= 1.0
2
. 469 ,
– 0.94 (61%). G2D

, .
G2D
( . 3.70)
= 1.63 % , .
n-
n- ( . . 3.70).

20
1.0 10
2
j = 469 A/cm j = 469 A/cm
2
0.5
)

19
10
-3

0.0
)

18
10
-0.5
(

17
-1.0 10
-1.5 16
10
-2.0
15
10
-2.5
14
-3.0 10
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
( ) ( )
3.70 -
( )
( ) G2D
, 1.0

,
p-n , 15º ( . . 3.71).
192
3 ,
~ 1.5
( . . 3.72).

G2D . 3.73.
1.0
= 1.63% = 15°

( . .)
( . .)

0.8

0.6

0.4

AlAs
0.2

0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90
( ) ( )

3.71 -
G2D ,
p-n

6
)
-3

L = 1.0
5
x10 (
18

3
N(z)
2

0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
( )

3.72 -

,
, ( . .
3.2).
.
193
4
10 8

)
2
7 L = 1.0
3
10

(A/
6
5

(A)
2
10
4
1
10 3
SiLENSe 2
0
10
-4 2
= 1.3x10 1
S
-1
10 0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2
( ) ( )

3.73 -
G2D
G2D . 3.74.
,
.3.2, .
6
)

L = 0.9
(

2
-1
= 0.2
1 add
R1= 0.9 , R2= 0.2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( )

3.74 - G2D.

3.4

,
.
194
3.4.1 AlGaAs

n ~ ( j / q) d / U , (3.3)

d – , U ~ Ub – Ucut , Ucut –
. d~3 , Ucut ~ 1.4 , Ub ~ 1.5-1.7 ,
2 2
~ 200 , j~1 n ~ (0.3-1.0)×1017 -3
,
. ,

, . . AlGaAs
0.4.
U/d (3.3)
, .
, ,
.

.
AlGaAs
x > 0.5 ,

. AlGaAs (x < 0.4)


.
,
195
.

AlGaAs.

.
. ,
,

, [120].
,
,
[121], . .
, ,
. , ,
AlGaAs ( .,
. 3.75),
,
, .

AlGaAs
.

, ,
, , .
196
,
, « »
, . ,
,

( x < 0.4 ). , . 3.75, ,


AlGaAs 0.42 < x < 0.57
.

3.75 - AlGaAs
[122]

3.4.2

3.26,
, .
,
, ,
1 . ,
.
197
,
,

1.24 1 RL R0 RL
PoutL int (I I th ) th
R
, , (3.4)
i R RL R0 RL 1 R0 RL

PoutL – , , 1.24/
– , , int –
,

, I Ith –
th
, R i – ,
– , (RL)
(R0) .
(3): D d PoutL / d I .

3.26
( ).
,

Lopt Jth Iop (A) D int


2 -1 int
(%) ) (A/ ) @ 6W ) ) ) 2
)
B 3.30 0.85 240 6.12 1.05 1.3 40.3 0.83 1.5×10-4 —
R1 1.73 1.9 250 7.75 0.89 1.1 38.8 0.77 2.1×10-4
G1 1.70 1.7 245 7.13 0.95 0.7 28.5 0.77 9.8×10-4
1 1.65 0.7 590 6.66 1.03 1.6 50.5 0.81 2.1×10-4
1.65 2.2 240 7.39 0.94 1.0 50.5 0.84 2.1×10-4
R2 1.67 2.0 235 7.68 0.89 1.0 23.3 0.79 1.5×10-4
G2 1.48 2.4 245 8.23 0.85 1.1 16.4 0.79 1.4×10-4
G3 1.0 4.4 240 10.71 0.70 1.2 7.1 0.80 1.3×10-4
198
(3.4). RL = 0.2
R0 = 0.9 = 0.944 , . . ~
6% R0 .
-1 th
L=2 R = 4.3 . i ~1
-1 th
(1.24 / ) R /( i R ) 1.13 /A,
, 1 .

int = 0.75
0.88 , .

th -1
, , i < 0.3 .

.
, ,
, ,
, , int

R ,
, .

.
G1 G2,
, .
G2 ,

. G2 .
– AlGaAs ,
199
. –

.
, AlGaAs
,
,
,
, . .

.
,
InGaAlAs
.


n- p .

.
~ 0.1 .

3.4.3

.3.3

.
,
,
, .3.2.

. ,
200
,
.
, ,
,
, , , ,

.
n-
. ( ,
, n- ) n-
, .
, n- ( , ,
)
n- .
, ,
.
. ,
.
, ,
, .

3.4.4

3.27
.
3.26, . 3.4.2,
, ,
, .

.
201
, – .
A1
, 40º.

3.27
( )

Lopt Jth Iop (A) D int


2 -1 int
(%) ) (A/ ) @ 6W ) ) ) 2
)

B 3.30 0.85 336 6.12 1.05 1.53 40 0.83 1.5×10-4 —


1 1.65 0.8 522 6.68 1.03 1.62 51 0.81 2.1×10-4
R1 1.73 1.0 479 7.54 0.91 1.71 39 0.77 2.1×10-4
R2 1.67 1.3 354 7.58 0.90 1.32 23 0.76 1.5×10-4 —
R3 1.71 1.0 468 7.48 0.92 1.71 30 0.77 7.4×10-5 —
R3D 1.71 1.0 461 7.41 0.92 1.67 30 0.78 7.4×10-5 —
R4 1.71 0.9 506 7.49 0.91 1.96 30 0.77 1.2×10-4 —
R4D 1.71 0.9 494 7.35 0.93 1.90 30 0.78 1.2×10-4 —
G1 1.70 1.4 293 7.10 0.96 0.75 29 0.76 9.8×10-5 /?
G2 1.48 1.4 390 7.81 0.89 1.37 16 0.77 1.4×10-4 —
G2D 1.63 1.0 467 7.31 0.94 1.52 15 0.78 1.4×10-4 —
G3 1.0 1.4 622 8.93 0.83 1.46 7 0.72 1.3×10-4 —
G4 1.73 1.0 406 7.27 0.94 1.34 25 0.78 1.2×10-4 —
G4D 1.73 1.0 401 7.18 0.95 1.22 25 0.78 1.2×10-4 —
G5 1.73 0.9 467 7.16 0.95 1.61 26 0.78 2.0×10-4 —
G5D 1.73 0.9 461 7.09 0.96 1.57 26 0.78 2.0×10-4 —

,
, . .
, .
, ,

~ 1.63-1.73% 76-78% . :
202

7.1 7.6 , . . 7% .

,
.
~ 1.63-1.73%
, 0.90 0.96 , . . 6% ( . 3.76).

D .
1.00
/ )

0.95
(

0.90

0.85

0.80
R1 R2 G1 G2 G2D G3

1.00
/ )

0.95
(

0.90

0.85

0.80
R3 R3D R4 R4D G4 G4D G5 G5D

3.76 -

D = 0.95 ,
G1
G4D, G5 G5D .
, G2
203
,
. G1 , ( )
,( )

.
( ) (1.4
1.0-1.1 ),
, ( )
.
.
G4D
, . . ,
, G1, .

(
).
G5 G5D
, .
p-Al0.8Ga0.2As ,
5
.

. , G5
G5D. ,
,
. . 3.77,
, ,
.

25÷29 .
5
,
.
204

.
3.0

)
-1
2.5

(
2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
R1 R2 G1 G2 G2D G3

3.0
)
-1

2.5
(

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
R3 R3D R4 R4D G4 G4D G5 G5D

3.77 -
( ) ( ) .

. 3.78

~ 1.63÷1.73%
, ,
.
, ,
G2D, 30 AlGaAs,
205
.
.

)
60

50

(
40

30

20

10

0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
(%)

3.78 -
.
, –
, –

3.4.5

,
.
123 ( . 3.79)
1,
InGaAlAs, 808±3
, – 10 . 1
2 3 ,
50 100 ,
4 5 ,
, 2 3 .
4 6 p- .
5 7 n- .
6 7 Alx Ga1-x As,
206
0,5 0,7. 6 – 1,5 .
,
p=2*1017 -3
. 7 – 1,8 .
,
n=2*1017 -3
.
4 5 Aly Ga1-y As,
y 0,39 0,41. (d )
4 5 1500 1800 . 2, 3
Alz Ga1-z As. z
4, 5 y
0,34 z 0,36 .

3.79 - .
:1– ,2–
3– ,4– 5–
, 6 – 7 – , 8 – , 9 –
, 10 – , 11 –
, 12 –

2, 3 (d ) 70 80
. 8 GaAs n-
n=2*1018 -3
. 9 GaAs n- 0,3
207
18 -3
n=2*10 . 10
GaAs p- p=1*1019 -3
.
.
11,
Au-Zn, 200 ,
Au-Ge n- 12.
Alx Ga1-x As
: 0,5 x 0,7, ,
, , , ,
.
,
,
. , ,
1500 1800 ,

. 1500
, 1800

.
, x, Al Alx Ga1-
x As, 0,5
, x > 0,7
, .
Aly Ga1-y As
: 0,39 y 0,41,
. y, Al Aly Ga1-y As, 0,39
( , )
, .
y > 0,41
208

, .
,
Alz Ga1-z As, z, Al
Alz Ga1-z As, y
0,34 z 0,36
« » .

.
, ,
. z
0,34
, . z 0,36

( z y).
70

.
, ,
35%. 80
,
,
p-n 28-29
.

3.4.6

, .
209
124 ( . 3.80)
1,
InGaAlAs, 808±3 ,
– 10 . 1 2
3 ;
320 380 ,
470-530 . 4 p- 5 n-
, , 2 3. 4
Alxp Ga1-xp As, xp 0,5
0,7. 4 ,
p=2*1017 -3
. 5
Alxn Ga1-xn As, xn 0,3
0,4. 5 ,
n=2*1017 -3
. 2
Al Ga1-y As. y
4 xp 0,25 y 0,30.
3 Al Ga1-y As.
y 5 xn 0,25
y 0,30. 7 GaAs n-
n=2*1018 -3
. 6 GaAs n- 0,3
n=2*1018 -3
. 8 GaAs
p- p=1*1019 -3
.
.
9,
Au-Zn, 200 ,
Au-Ge n- 10.
p-
Alxp Ga1-xp As : 0,5 xp 0,7, ,
, ,
.
210
n- Alxn Ga1-xn As :
0,3 xn 0,4 ,
. ,

, ,
.
x p, Al Alxp Ga1-xp As,
0,5 ,
xp > 0,7 ,
. xn 0,3
n-
, . xn 0,4
n- .

3.80 - .
:1– ,2– 3–
, 4 – 5 – , 6 –
, 7 – , 8 – , 9 –
10 – n-
211
,
Al Ga1-y As Al Ga1-y As,
y y p- n-
xp xn
0,25 y 0,30 0,25 y 0,30, « »
.
.
,
, .
y y 0,25
, .
y y 0,30 .
(d ) 320
p- ,
. d 380
,
, , .
(d ) 470
,
; ,

, .
d 530
, .

3.5 3

1.
,
,
,
212
. ,
,

.
, ,
,
, .
2309501
2309502.
2.

.
,
.
~1.0-1.5%
.
3. , ,
,
.
, ,
.

.
4.

p . ,

.
213
4

[52, 54, 85] ,


, ,
, .
(Rth ),

Ph T.

, , , ,
, , . .
Rth
,
, .

.
,
.

4.1

, , ,
», . 4.1 .
, p- -
,
±5
.
.
. ,
214
.
,
).
.

(a)

)
4.1 - ( )
( ).
W=200 , 600
215
.
4.1 . 3 600
200 ,
.
0.15 . ,
, 3 .
3 .
AuSn ( ) -
250 ,
CuW (10/90%). ( . 4.1 )
SnPb
.
,
AlGaAs.
1.5 0.8 , .
, [125].

4.2

. Ph
,
. ( . .
4.1 ) 25° .
Rth T / Ph , T –
25° .

: ( )
( . 4.1 ).
,
216
, , ,
3D , .
1D 3D ( .
4.1 ) 2D , ,

.
, ,
,
( 2 . 4.2, ).

. . 4.2, ).

3D .
CFD-ACE+.
, , [52].
30
21
)

2 1-
2

25
/

18
1 2-
15
( )

20
(

12
15 2
9
1
10
6
5 3

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
( )
4.2 -
( 100 ) (1) (2)
( ).
(1) (2) (
)
217
4.3

4.3.1 ,

,
(~ 95%) p-
, AlGaAs [52].
1D : Rth d / WL ,
d– , – ,
, W L .
W = 200 L=3
0.22-0.23 .
,
, 1D .
~ 3
(~ 49%) SnPb (~ 17%),
(~ 23%). W = 200 L=3
0.20
0.24 .
, CuW ,
1D 3D . ,
(250 ),
, W
L , CuW
(250 ). Rth 0.92 .
218
4.3.2 ,

,
, ,
. . 4.3
, . ,
,
. 3D

. Rth = 1.63
. 85% , ,
15% –
.

4.3 -
, 10
219
,
. ,
Rth , ,
: DHS ( 6 10 ) tHS 2 4 ).
,
, ~ 7%,

1 2 DHS t HS
Rth ln 2
, (4.1)
L W DHS

. (4.1) ,
( WL),
,
) ( ). ,
,

4.3.3

. 4.4
L
W = 200 CuW
. ,
, «
». ,
~ 0.3-0.7 ,

.
220
. 4.3
,
~ 30%
( . . 4.6).
[54] ,
, .

, . 4.4 ,
Rth ,
– –
.
Rth . ,
,

[52],
.
,

.
,
,
[54].

4.4

Rth .
[126].
h , u
e ( . . 4.5).
221

4.4 -
L W = 200
, :( )

( ) AuSn ,
SnPb . – ,
– ,
( 5 .)
222
,
, 45° .
, ,
. h=4
,
,
.

4.5 -
, 10

, ,
u = 10 l= 6 ,
.
. . 4.5
, h=4
, u = 12 l= 6 0.2×3.0 .
Rth = 1.33 ,
~ 20% Rth ,
223
. 2 ,
,
Rth 1.28 .
,
.
,
,
, .
,

45°- . . 4.6

, , 10 .

4.6 -
, 10 ,

, (
z=3 ) , 1.5
.
224
4.5

,
, ,
. [52],
. ,
, ,
, , [127,
128].
,
.
100 ,
0.2 .
= 23
/( ). , Rth
1.13 K/ , Rth ,
. ,
(u = 12 , l=6 )
, 0.78 .
Rth
.
,
. ,
, ,
( . 4.7). ,
,
.
,
. 4.8.
225
,
,
,
, .

4.7 -
100 ,
,
, 10

2.0
)

1.6
h=2
h=4
( /

0.6x3.2

6x12

1.2

0.8

0.4

0.0

4.8 -
,
226
,
, ,
(ScD) ~ 6 /( ),
,
~ 17 /( ), . . , [129].
,
– ~20 ~ 60 /( ) [130],
,
, .

4.6

,
,
, [54]
,
.
– D = 0.7,
» Vto = /q = 1.53 ,
RS = 0.2 , Ith(300 ) = 0.4 ,
T0 = 120 K, [52]. -
,
, . 4.9 .
. 4.9
( ,
) Rth .
, Rth
. . 4.9 ,
( )
808 .
227

4.9 -
( )
3 ,
( ).
( ),
808 [52]

, , ~ 7

, Rth , ~ 4
228
. ,
. 4.4, Rth < 4
1.5 . , , ,
. 4.9 , ~ 0.8÷1.2
,
.

4.7 4

1.
[126, 131] ,
,
.

.
2.
,
, , .

.
3.
,
.
4. ,
, ,
.
,
, .
.
5. ,
229
.

~ 0.15÷0.20 .
,

[52].

,
[106, 132].
230
5

5.1
808
5.1.1

3.

808
, 3.4.5, 3.4.6.

5.1.1.1

( )

,
15 ,
[133].

;
231

;
;

5.1.1.2 ,

5.1.1.2.1

4 :
;
;
« »
;
.

, .
, ,
, ,
(p- ) 3- .
,
:
, ;
, ;
;
232
;
;
;
;

;
;
,
;

;
, ;
.

:
;

;
;
;
n- ;
n- ;
;
n- ;

;
n-
;
233
n-
;
;
;
.

»
:
;
;
;
;
;
;

;
;
;
;
;
;
.

:
;
;
;
234

;
;

;
;
;
;
, , .

5.1.1.2.2

:
;
;
n- ;
,
.
,
, .

,
,
235
.
(6*10-6
-1
) (18*10-6 -1
). In-
, .
5 . . 5.1

. n-
.

5.1 -

5.1.1.3

InAlGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs
, 3.4.5, 3.4.6
236
15 (
400 , . 5.2) [133].
,
. . 5.3
.

5.2 - 15

5.3 -
[133]
237
. 5.4
( ).

5.4 -
( ) ( )
( ) p-n
238

.
In- .
AuSn
CuW , , , .
. 5.5
.
,
[125]. . 4.4 ( )
( ) 3 ÷ 3,5 .

5.5 -
: In-
( )
AuSn CuW
( )
239
5.1.2

,
,
[134],
. ,
( ,
),
( -
, ) .

,
" , ( )
( ) [135].
"
,
.
[135, 136]

.
,
,
[ 1 3 7 ]. " "

[2].
(P 100 )
,
200 - 400 , 50 - 100 ) [3, 138].
240

InAlGaAs
. . 1.4.1). n-Al0,6Ga0,4As:Si p-Al0,6Ga0,4As:Zn
1.5 . AlxGa1-xAs
0.3 Al - x = 0.6 x=
0.3 .
( 200 )
160 , ,
. 2- .

[3].

[138].

1000 eV. 11000 .

95%, -
10%.
.

"LASERMATE" "COHERENT".
(P1) P1 =
P2 • , P2 - ( )
, v— .

-23.
241
, -
.
. 5.6a
.
100 115 A ,
2
200 A/ . - 1.0 /A
(65%), - 40% . FWHM
2.2÷2.5 ( . 5.6 ).

5.6 – : -
200 , 50 ); –

( . 5.7a)
,
242

.
( )

( . 5.7 ). ,
" ,
, .

5.7 - : a —
; —

. 5.8
.
200 190 ÷ 200 A, - 1.2 /A (78%) - 45%.
243

5.8 - ( )
) ( 250 ,
20 )

200
10 ) . 5.9.
, ,

.
,

10 .
, 2 50 .
6 10 .
2,5 ( 6 42,5
) 10 ( 10 126,5 ) . 5.10.

5.1. ,
250 , 20 ), ,
5*108 .
244

5.9 -

5.1

, 2,5 10
, . 20 50
, 125 200
2
, 6000 1 10000 1
, 250 ÷ 500
, 20
,A 150 200
( ), 50 120
+25°C, 802 ÷ 806
( ), 4.0
( ), 5*108
245

) )

5.10 - : -
6 42,5 , 2,5 ; -
10 126,5 ; 10

,
Al2O3 « »
-100-1), ( 20 /( *K)).
5
10 63 ) . 5.11. .
5.11, ( 50%),
.
500 ,

.
246

5.11 -
: (1) +25°C, (2) +40°C)
(3)

5.2
940 - 960

5.2.1 ,

, 0.96 ÷ 0.98 ,
Er3+
.
InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs

, [139-141].
,
,
. 5.12. ,
= 0.034
,
p-n- , = 40°,
247
.

, .
( int)

« »
, [144].

5.12 – InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs X(d), Y(d)


I(d)

( int)

( J °th, ) [ 1 4 5 ]
(1/2 ) (L)
(Jth) ( . 5.13 ).

+25 °C. 1/2 ( L) [1 4 6 ] aint =


-1
1.5 c int = 98%. aint
[147, 148]. Jth ,
2
Jth(1/L), 70 A/c
« » ,
( =2 ).

,
, . 5.13 .
248
( = 65%; Jth =
2 2
100 A/c = 70%; Jth = 120 A/c 2000 1000
). T0, 150°C,
945÷950, FWHM
1.5 .

5.13 – (Jth)
1/L ( , ),
(1/2 ) L( , )
( )

P = 1W
( T =+25°C),
( T =+50°C),
[146]. 30 . ,
249
« » , «
» [149, 150]
, ,
« » 2*10-5 -1
,
10 000 .

5.2.2

Yb-

(1.5 ÷ 2.0 ),
(1 ÷ 10 ) [151].

[152]).

,
.
,

[153, 154].

5 , 940 ÷ 960
Yb.
InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs ,
5.2.1 [143].
(50 .) [3],
160 200 .
250
1000 ± 50 .
95 5%
. ,
±1 .
,
.

«LASERMATE»
«COHERENT». ( P out)
Pout = Pc • v Pc - ( )
, v — .

GaP.
-23.
. 5.15
P
. ,
47 42%,
72 66% +25 +55°C
.
0, 180°. . 5.15

120 A. ,
5% .
Pout +25 +55°C,
Pout , ,
« »
20 .
251

5.15 - P (1 2)
(3 4) +25 +55°C (1, 3
2, 4 ). 5
10 .
,
110 A

, (300 5 )
(10%) . 5.16
( 1.1 /A 1.05 /A)
. . 5.16
, 110 A. ,
5 5%.

. ,

( . 5.17).
FWHM 5
252

Yb.

5.16 - ,
(300 5 ).
,
110 A

5.17 - ,
300 5 . 110 ,
+250 .
253

0 0
–40 +85 . . 5.18

( ). ,
100 (80 +850C) -
60% (T= – 400C)
40% (T= +850C). Ith(T)
[144] T0=150 K.

5.18 -
( )

. 5.19
. FWHM 3.5
5.6 –400C +850C.
0.35 .

( –40 +850C) Yb [156]


Yb-Er .
254
,
.

5.19 -

, 100 A,
5 . + 25°C
Pout 3*107 .
+55°C 1÷
2% 107 . ,
Pout(t) Pout(t0) = 0.8*Pout(0)
= + 5 5 °C t0 = 108 . ,
, 30
(
[145]),

= + 2 5 °C t0 = 109 .
, , [157,
158, 159].
255
5.3
660

, ,
.
( 1 ) ,
.

E6
665 .
89 %
. , ,
:
665±5 , FWHM 3 ,
1 , ,

, 5000 ,
.

GaInP 70…100 .

[160].
x In1-xGaxP,
LQW , ,
Ee1
Ehh1 ( h (x,LQW) = Eg(x) + Ee1(LQW) + Ehh1(LQW)).

« » [161]
256
.

,
, .
.

“ ”
. ( . .
5.20)
.

5.20 -
« »: 1 – n-
GaAs; 2,3 – n-AlGaInP p-AlGaInP , 4 –
AlGaInP/GaInP/AlGaInP ~ 10 ; 5 – SiO2 ;6–
p-GaAs; 7 – [ 29]

p-
,
.

1000 .
257
90 %,
, 10 %.

,
.
,
p-n ,
32°, p-n
6° ( . 5.21).

5.21 -
, (1) (2) p-n .
T = +20 °C

. 5.22. , 1 .
1,3 A 2A 20° 50°
2
, 244 375
. ,
, T0 = 70°C.
. 5.23.

, 30 – 30
258
, , 0,5 %.

5 – 10 %.

,
,
.

5.22 - ; T = 20 °C

5.23 -
20 °C (1) 50 °C (2)

1 000 1,3
259
20° ( . 5.24). ,
10 000 .

5.24 -
; 2,77 , 1 000 ,
1,3 %

, ,
, , ,
[162].

, , .
,

5.4

1.
,
.
260
,
15 , 808 , 48%,
7 36 .
2.
( 500 )
808 100
) 200 ( ).
10 .
3.
( 5 ) ,
InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs 940 – 906 . ,
0
-40 +85 ,
109 (+250 ) 108
(+850 ).
Yb-Er ,
,
.
4.
GaInP 670
2 . “
” ( 2110874)
(P=1,3 , =670 )

, .
261
6

, .
,
5, ( ) ( )
.

6.1

. ,
, ,
. . [163-165].

.
( ) ,
,
.

( . . 1.4 ),
.
[166].
, . ,
262
( YAG:Nd)
20 .
( . 1.3.2). ,

,
.
1,5-2
, .
15÷20 .
,
5.1.1.3.
15 , 16
1 400 . . 5.2,

. 5.3. InAlGaAs

( . 3.4.6).
( )
. 4.4).

. 6.1 [133].
– ( ), ( )
( ).
YAG,
Nd 0,8%.
( )
4 ,
[10].
.
263

6.1 -
. :
– , :
LD1, LD2 – ; 1, 4– ;
L1, L2 – ;
2, 3, 5– , ;
1– ; D1 – ;
AOM – .
– , :
LD3, LD4 – ; 6, 9– ;
L4, L5 – ;
L3 – ; 7, 8– ;
2–
– , :
D2 – ; L6 – ;W– ; L7 – .

2, 3 5,
2 3 0,808
HR 1.064 , 5
1.064 .
“AA opto-electronic” ( ).
1,5 2,0
264
60-70 %.
1,064 ,
. . 6.2.

6.2 -

,
,
1,5÷2.

, .
,

.
. 6.3.

: 10 ,
1,5 , 4÷5 % 15-20
10 . 6.1
.

, , ,
.
,
265
. 6.1 ,
.

6.3 -

6.1

- Mesa Prometheus ATC 1,06–10


IR-Y
IB Laser Compact
«
) laser ( )
»

Nd:YAG Yb:fibre Nd:YAG Nd:YAG Nd:YAG


, 1,06 1,05-1,07 1,06 1,06 1,06
1-100 20-100 1-100 0,005-50 0,004-10

,
10 10-20 12 5 10
,
1,5 0,5-1,0 0,5 0,5 1,5

,
- - 30 10 20
,
1000 700 500 200 400
,
266
6.2

6.2.1

( )

, ,
, ,
.
( « « »,
, « . », « » .)

,
.

1,5 10 .
,

, ,
.
1,5 ,

:
(7.9 )
,
;
;
.
267
-
[138, 157],
1,5
,
,
.

Nd:YAG .

125 ,
802 ÷ 804 , FWHM 3 ,
45% 6 ,
5.1.2. 120
. ,
Nd:YAG ( 1 )
. , ,
,
,-
,
.
0.3
.

, . 1.4 .
( . . 6.4) , ,
,
, .
,
, .
268

,
,
.

6.4 -
. : 1, 9 – ; 2 -
GSGG:Cr4+; 3 – ;4- YAG:Nd3+; 5
- ; 6, 8 – ;7-
KTP; 10 - .

YAG:Nd 2.5 ,
.
GSGG:Cr4+.
80 HR 1.064
.
. . 6.5.

6.2.2
269
,

: ,
, .

50 .

6.5 -

1
. 6.6 . 6.7, .

6.6 -

(
, HR ,
270
) ,
,
.

.
2000 – 3600 .

.
.

6.7 -

, ,
.
.
1.57 10 ,
20 , 7-
0.7 . ,
.
,
10
271
0
– 55 + 55 .

15 g 2 ,
3g 10 ÷ 400 ).
142 58 54 .
,
10 , , 300 000
. ,

6.3 6

1. ,

1,5
( =1,06 ). 10
, 1,5 , 4÷5 %
15-20 10 .
, , ,
.
2. ,

( )
10 ,
( =1,57 ). -55 +55 0 ,
,

.
272
7

.
,
, , , , ,
.
,
,
,
.
,
, , .
,
– ( ,
)
, .
, ,

,
.

. 2000 .
100000 .
1,5
, , . 2005 ,
273
. -
. 2005 392,9 100
, – 268,5 100 .

, 38% .
. 25%
( 25000 ) ,

,
.

. ,

, .

,
.

.
,
, , ,
.
274
7.1
« » « »

( . 5)
» [167]

(670, 808 950 ).

7.1 -

,
,
, 3, 4 5 .
,
. 7.1, .

, ,
(
10 )
. ,
, ,
275
,
.
2000 .
- « -15» ( . . 7.2)
15
( . . 29/05020400/1005-00 27.09.2000 .).

7.2 - « -15»

« -15»
,

. «
. . » ( . .- )
[168 - 170].

( , , ).
( ) « -15»
.

.
.
2004 .
« -2» ( . .
276
29/05010104/5958-04 26.01.2004 .).
670
2
. « -2»

6
: , ,
, , , ,
, , ).
2006 .
»( . . 022 2006/3307-06 16.06.2006 .)
– , , ( .
7.3).

7.3 - « »

, .
(30 808 5
670 ) « »
.
,
,
.
277
,

.
,
« » « ».

7.1.1

[171]

.
, , ,
,
,
, .

,
, ,

.
. 7.4,
.
, , 1,
2,
1, 3,
4 5. 1
6 1
4 3. 6 7
2. 5 8.
278
3 9, 7
10.

7.4 - .
: 1 - ( ), 2 -
, 3 - , 4 -
,5- ,6-
( ), 7 -
, 8 - , 9 - , 10 -

9 10 7
6, 2 7 9
10.
, ,
1 6,
4 3. 5
8.

7.1.2

[172]
.
279
, ,
,
, 150 600
0,5 10 .
. 7.5, .

7.5 - .
: 1,2,3 – , 4,5,6 –
, 7 – , 8 –

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