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II

2- ,

2005

Unit 1. General Information

802.0-5(075.8) 81.2 -69 2001


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( ): / . .= English Grammar Review; . . ..., ... II. 2- ., . .: . . . , 2005. 391. ISBN 985-457-473-3
" ", 7 . 1 ; 2-5 Indefinite, Perfect, Continuous Perfect Continuous; 6 , - ; 7 . , , . , , . 802.0 (07.5.8) 81.2

ISBN 985-457-473-3(.II) ISBN 985-457-471-7

.., .., .., ., 2003 , 2003

Unit 1. General Information

CHAPTER 7
UNIT 1

VERBS
GENERAL INFORMATION
ENTRY TEST

1 1. Identify the verbs as simple (S), derived (D) or composite (C) as in the model. Start with the second verb. Model: 1) work S (simple) 1) work 2) stand up 3) milk 4) reread 5) give in 6) stay up 7) disagree 8) overcook 9) uncover 10) compute 2. Identify the verbs as derived by prefixation (P), suffixation (S) or by conversion (C). Start with the second verb. Model: 1) lengthen S (by suffix -en) 1) lengthen 2) water 3) dust 4) falsify 5) undercook 6) unload 7) misunderstand 8) enrich 9) patronize 10) fish 3. Say which of the following words are verbs or may be used as verbs: 1) feed 2) loss 3) blood 4) short 5) strike 6) sing 7) economize 8) law 9) belief 10) advise 11) arrival 12) slowly 13) strength 14) blacken 15) election 16) bite 17) ride 18) fill 19) live 20) pay 4. Derive new verbs from the following verbs, nouns and adjectives by means of the prefixes: re-, mis-, be-, un-, de-, dis-, over-, en-. Use each prefix only once. 1) pronounce 2) arrange 3) cover 4) little 5) value 6) feed 7) connect 8) rich 5. Translate using phrasal verbs. 1) . 2) ! ! 3) . 4) . 5) ? 6) ! (!) 7) , .

Unit 1. General Information

8) . 9) . 10) ? 2 1. Identify the verbs in the following sentences as auxiliary (A) or main (M) as in the model. Start with the second sentence. Model: 1) did A (auxiliary), like M (main) 1) Did you like the film? 2) The milk is sour. 3) You must wait. 4) His face turned pale. 5) He knows English well. 6) He turned round the corner. 7) I am leaving now. 8) The boy looks strong. 9) Will you come? 10) He hasn't helped me. 2. Identify transitive (T) and intransitive verbs (I) in the following sentences as in the model. Start with the second sentence. Model: 1) took T (transitive) 1) They took a taxi. 2) She sells books. 3) The sun has just risen. 4) He is studying for a law degree. 5) The books sell well. 6) He studied law at University. 7) Did you stay at a hotel? 8) He stopped the car. 9) He stopped to buy a newspaper. 10) She rose from the chair. 3 1. Identify the tense form of the verbs in the following sentences as in the model. Start with the second sentence. Model: 1) left Past Ind., had talked Past Perf. 1) He left after he had talked to the manager. 2) She drinks tea in the morning.

Unit 1. General Information

3) The children were sleeping when he came home. 4) If you are tired I'll bring you some coffee. 5) Tomorrow at this time we'll be flying to Italy. 6) Will you have translated the text by 6 o'clock? 7) I have been waiting for you since morning. 8) When will you return? 9) By tomorrow morning he will have been writing the report for 3 months. 10) Have you had dinner?

2. Choose the verb form you would use to translate the following sentences. 1) . A) have met C) are B) met D) meet 2) . A) entered C) was entering B) had entered D) has entered 3) . A) will have finished C) has finished B) will have been finishing D) will finish 4) . A)are leaving C) left B) leave D) have left 5) . A) laughs C) has been laughing B) is laughing D) will laugh 6) , . A)went C) had gone B) has gone D) had been going 7) . A) will take C) will have taken B) will be taking D) will have been taking 8) . A) will have moved C) will move B) will be moving D) are moving 9) , . A) had C) had had B) were having D) would have 10) 10 , . A) will live C) will have been living B) will be living D) have lived

Unit 1. General Information

11) , .

A) had met

B) met 12) , 7. A) won't come C) will not have come B) don't come D) aren't coming Total: 100/____

C) had been meeting D) was meeting

MEANING AND CREATION OF VERBS I. General meaning

Verbs are words that express a physical or mental action (This machine cleans carpets. She hopes for the best) or a state of being (She is a student). Without a verb, it is usually impossible to make a sentence in English. On the other hand, a sentence can be made of only one word if it is a verb: Read! II. Verb creation Verbs can be simple (read, run), derived (endanger, intensify) or composite (sit down, give up). 1. Simple verbs (get, go, come, take, give, etc.) make up the core of the English verbal system: most of them are native and most frequently used words. Some of these verbs are differentiated from their historically related nouns or adjectives by means of a sound alteration in the root. The change may affect the root vowel (food n feed v), root consonant (speech n speak v), or both (life n live v). There are many verbs in Modern English that were borrowed from Latin and French together with their verb-building suffixes (e.g. -ate/ -ute) as dictate, pollute. Now these verbs are simple because their roots do not have homonymous free words with the same meaning in Modern English (*dict, *poll).

Unit 1. General Information

Some simple dissyllabic verbs borrowed from French retain the stress on the second syllable while their homographic nouns, which have become more assimilated in English, are already forestressed: to record (v) a record (n), to present (v) a present (n) (See Ch.1, Unit 1). 2. Derived verbs make up the majority of the English verbal system. Derivation of verbs is mostly done by means of prefixes attached to: a) verbal bases: re- (to repeat an action): to reread, to reconsider; under- (to do too little): to underestimate, to undercook; over-(to do too much): to overestimate, to overcook; un- (to act contrary to that of the simple stem): to unload, to uncover; dis- (to negate the action): to disconnect, to disagree; de- (to do the opposite, to undo the action) used in many neologisms: to demobilize, to devalue, to deactivate; mis- (to act wrongly, badly): to misunderstand, to miscalculate; b) adjectival bases: en- (to bring into a certain condition or a state): to enrich, to enable c) nominal or adjectival bases: be- (to make a thing or quality): to befriend, to belittle. Derivation of verbs by suffixes is less common in English. The most common verbal suffixes are usually added to: a) adjectival bases: -fy/-ify: to falsify, to purify; -en: to widen, to shorten; b) nominal bases: -ize, -ise: to cryslalize, to patronise; Some verbs are derived by conversion an affixless way of word formation. Such verbs look simple and usually denote an action highly characteristic of the object (to monkey, to fool), an action with the object (to knife, to water), an acquisition or deprivation of the object (to milk, to dust, to fish) or an action leading to a certain state or quality (to empty, to dirty, to clean). 3. Complex verbs (give up, outgrow) are viewed as phrasal or composite verbs.

Unit 1. General Information

A phrasal verb is a multi-word verb consisting of a verb followed by one or more particles and having a meaning larger than the meaning of each of its constituent (drink up ' ', put up with ''). Some phrasal verbs are used in sentences without a direct object: You have to stay up late tonight. Some phrasal verbs may be followed by a noun or pronoun: He looked after the baby. He looked after him. Some verbs in phrasal constructions may be followed by a noun or pronoun and then by a particle: He answered John back. He answered him back. The number of phrasal verbs in English has remarkably grown in the last century. They constitute one of the most distinctive features of English grammar. There are thousands of them now and they require a lot of memory work on the part of a learner. (Some of them are presented in Unit 7, 8 in this book.) As for compound verbs, the situation is rather complicated. Some verbs as outgrow, overflow, snowball, or housekeep are often called compound. But many other scholars deny word compounding in verbs and view such verbs either derivatives either by means of prefixation (outgrow, overflow), conversion (to snowball (v) from a snowball (n)) or back-formation (housekeep (v) from housekeeper (n)).

EXERCISES 1.1. Read and translate into Russian the following pairs of words. Observe the vowel interchange in nouns and verbs. Fill (v) full (adj); feed (v) food (n); strike (v) stroke (n); ride (v) rode (n); knit (v) knot (n); bleed (v) blood (n); bit (v) bite (n); sing (v) song (n); tell (v) tale (n). 1.2. Read the semantically and morphologically related pair set words. Observe the opposition of unvoiced consonants in nouns (or adjectives) and voiced consonants in verbs. Bath (n) bathe (v); belief (n) believe (v); advice (n) advise (v); cloth (n) clothe (v); glass (n) glaze (v); life (n) live (v); half (n) halve (v); loss (n)

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lose (v); proof (n) prove (v); serf (n) serve (v); shelf (n) shelve (v); close (adj) close (v), choice (n) choose (v), use (n) use (v). 1.3. Read each of the following disyllabic words first as a verb and then as a noun (or adjective). Observe the stress distinction. Explain and translate the words into Russian. Model: to convert - to persuade to accept a particular religion, political belief, etc.; to change into another form (, , ) a convert - a person who has been persuaded to accept a particular religion, political belief, etc. () Abstract, contest, contract, contrast, convict, digest, transport, increase, protest, progress, import, export, produce, rebel, record, survey, conflict, frequent, perfect, present, impress, permit, object, conduct. 1.4. Change the following nouns and adjectives into verbs by conversion. Explain and translate the verbs into Russian, give examples of their usage. Model: land (n) the solid dry part of the earths surface () to land (v) to come to, to bring to, or put on land or water (): We landed safely. Class, hand, measure, place, clean, dirty, empty, free, market, map, sledge, skate, ski, rain, snow, bubble, block, shop. 1.5. Derive new verbs from the following verbs, adjectives and nouns by means of prefixes re-, un-, dis-, under-, over-, de-, pre-, post-, mis-, en-, be-. Model: cover uncover, feed overfeed, rich enrich Agree, arrange, centralize, view, nourish, calculate, contaminate, pronounce, appear, appoint, little, cook, write, pay, marry, understand, large, graduate, behave, cloud, bed, able, act, inform, consider, read, simplify, stay, turn, moralize, work, compose. 1.6. Derive new verbs from the following adjectives and nouns by means of suffixes -fy/-ify, -en, -ize, -ise. Model: crystal crystallize, black blacken, false -- falsify Sharp, false, sympathy, character, patron, intense, pure, strength, short, equal, formal, private, broad, simple, oxide, idol, fertile. 1.7. Say which of the following words are verbs or may be used as verbs. Translate them and explain your choice.

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Arrival, date, execute, strengthen, day, sing, slowly, part, choose, indicate, simplify, home, short, pay, law, empty, elect, educate, economy. 1.8. Complete the sentences using a suitable phrasal verb from the box. break away 'to escape from someone' break down 'to destroy something, to cause to be defeated' break in 'to enter a building by force' break of 'to cure someone of a habit' break off 'to end' break out 'to begin suddenly' break through 'to make a discovery' break up (esp. of a relationship) 'to come to an end' 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Scientists hope to soon in their fight against cancer. Fifteen minutes were enough for them to and steal my money. The police tried to ... the prisoners opposition. Doctors keep trying to his dependence on the drug. I am afraid their marriage will . The criminal used a gun to from the policemen. The war there may at any moment. Lets work and have some tea.

1.9. Use the phrasal verbs in the box to complete the sentences below. You may also need to use certain pronoun or a noun. catch up, cool off, fall behind, give in, grow up keep up, speak up, stay on, wait up, watch out, bring up, hand over, pull down, sort out, put away 1) Their parents were overseas so their grandparents brought them up. 2) He still behaves like a child. I wish hed . 3) Come to the party on Friday and for the weekend. 4) I wont be back until late. Will you for you? 5) He was exhausted but he still kept going. He just wouldnt . 6) Please dont go so fast. I just cant . 7) The garage is falling apart. The best thing is to and build another. 8) Could you a bit? I can hardly hear you. 9) ! Oh dear! Didnt you see that car coming? 10) You look hot and sticky. Come and sit in the shade and . 11) These papers are in a mess. Have you got time to ?

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12) You go on ahead and Ill . 13) Wait for me. I dont want to . 14) Its my money. Please . 15) I want to fold these blankets up and . 2 KINDS AND FORMS OF VERBS I. Kinds of verbs 1. They distinguish between main (or notional, lexical, or ordinary) verbs which describe a physical/mental action and have a full meaning of their own (as play, read, go) and auxiliary verbs which have lost their primary lexical meaning and are used with a main verb to form tenses, negatives and questions: Do you go there? or in a short answer: Yes, I do. Auxiliary verbs are subdivided into: a) primary verbs that can function either as main verbs or as auxiliary verbs (be, have and do: I am going; I have bought it; Do you like it?); b) modal verbs that convey a range of judgments about the likelihood of events (all in all nine in the class can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would: He may come + some other words and phrases having a similar function) (modal verbs are dealt with fully in Part 3); c) link verbs that have lost their original lexical meaning and are used in the compound nominal predicate (be, turn, become, etc.: The soup is good. The Vice President becomes President if the President dies. Many of them are usually followed by adjectives: His face turned red. Henry looks strong. In different contexts the same verb may be used as a notional or a link verb (cf.: He turned back). Main and auxiliary verbs differ in use. Main verbs are not contracted while many auxiliary verbs are: are not = arent, I am = Im, they will = theyll. Main verbs are conjugated (I go but she goes) while many auxiliary verbs (modal verbs in particular) are not: they remain uninflected, i.e. all persons have the same form (I can, she can). Main verbs may be used in progressive tenses (to go I am going) but auxiliaries are usually not (to be I am to go).

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2. A verb may be transitive or/and intransitive. A verb is transitive if it takes a direct object a noun or noun construction that follows a verb and receives the action of the verb (I love you. They take a book. We make a decision) and intransitive if it does not take a direct object (The sun rises. Babies crawl). Some verbs are only transitive (take), and some are only intransitive (rise). There are also verbs that can be both transitive or intransitive in their different meanings: I sell books (transitive) and The books sell well (intransitive). 3. Verbs can be regular and irregular. There are thousands of regular verbs in English that have predictable forms, and there are less than 300 irregular ones (100 of them are commonly used), the forms of which go back to Old English and are unpredictable (go went gone). II. Grammatical categories and forms of verbs The verb has the grammatical categories of person, number, tense, voice, and mood. Thus, English verbs change more readily and more often than words of any other part of speech. This change may be confusing for a foreign language learner as even small changes in the form of a verb reflect many differences in meaning. The forms of the verb are broadly divided into two classes: the Finite and Nonfinite forms, or Verbals. The Finite forms ( ) of the verb are those which limit the verb to a particular number, tense, person or mood: I go; she goes; she went, etc.). The Nonfinite forms ( ) do not limit the verb to any grammatical categories. A nonfinite form of the verb remains the same in a clause, regardless of any its grammatical variation. For example, when -ing form is used (asking), the verb can be referring to any number, tense or mood. There are three Nonfinite forms of the verb for: the Infinitive (or the base form): to ask, to teach;

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the Present Participle and Gerund (the -ing form): asking, teaching; the Past Participle (the -ed form) in regular verbs: asked, taught. All in all, generally speaking, almost every English verb has four (if it is regular) or five (if it is irregular) major forms: Major Verb Forms
the Infinitive (base) form the -s form (3-d person sing. Simple Present) the -ing (Present Participle and Gerund) form the -ed (Simple Past) form the -ed (Past Participle) form

Regular (to) walk walks walking walked walked

Irregular (to) go goes going went gone

Modal verbs have a less number of forms and the verb to be has eight forms. Taking into account the forms of all grammatical categories that finite verbs can express, the real number of the verb forms becomes much more various and will be discussed in detail in the following units. EXERCISES 2.1. Identify the verbs in the following sentences by underlining the auxiliary verb once and the main verb twice. 1) Helen is going to take her entrance exams to the University. 2) Will she pass her exams? 3) She should study hard. 4) Does she work hard on her exams? 5) She has been reading for 6 hours a day all this year round. 6) She became a finalist for a Morehead Scholarship. 7) The cafeteria food smelled terrible. 8) These pears taste delicious. 9) The professor is his office. 10) She was my roommate. 11) He is living in Germany. 12) He doesnt have any money. 13) I saw an elephant at the zoo but I did not see a giraffe. 14) They could have seen a giraffe. 15) They must have been being advised by the government.

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2.2. Determine if the following sentences contain a transitive (T) or intransitive (I) verb. 1) He told Mary of a party at the Student Union. 2) Dennis cried to his girlfriend about his low economics degree. 3) My mother always says, Think before you speak. 4) He showed me the new computer printer. 5) The bell rings to end school. 6) He is young, but hes learning fast. 7) What did you learn at school today? 8) Could you stop the bus, please? I want to get off. 9) Do you think you could stop in front of the post office? 10) We are running a course of English. 11) I cant run as fast as I used to. 12) She is studying for a law degree. 13) He studied law at university. 14) You are not allowed to drive a car until you are eighteen. 15) She learned to drive when she was eighteen. 2.3. Use the verb given at the left in the Infinitive, the s-form, the -ing form or the -ed form to fill in the blanks. Translate the sentences into Russian. know 1) Your father that were here. cost 2) Those cameras too much for me. seem 3) Paul interested. like 4) I coffee very much. take 5) John Mary to the movies every Friday. look 6) The children just like their mother. remember 7) We everything you told us. bark 8) dogs seldom bite. see 9) her is to love her. win 10) is his main desire. threaten 11) The letter alarmed him. come 12) His to town was unexpected. lock 13) He answered through the door. speak 14) Generally , I dont like dogs. change 15) I have found her .

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THE CATEGORY OF TENSE: GENERAL INFORMATION Time and Tense

As it was mentioned above, verbs express action or a state of being. Since action and a state of being involve time a universal concept with three divisions for past, present and future verbs have linguistic means to indicate time, and they are called tenses. The system of tenses that a verb may have is different in different languages and this fact causes difficulties for foreign language learners. The Tenses in English The system of tenses in English includes the groups of Indefinite, Perfect, Continuous and Perfect Continuous Tenses. 1. Indefinite Tenses In English, there are Indefinite (or Simple) Tenses that are generally used to denote: a) a habitual action and that which is true regardless of time (the Present Indefinite, or Simple Present): The sun sets in the west. Justice is important), b) an action that took place in the past time (the Past Indefinite, or Simple Past): He opened a bank account two years ago. John ate his dinner at eight), c) an action that will take place at a certain time (the Future Indefinite, or Simple Future): I shall/will do it tomorrow. He will be here in half an hour). In the diagram below, the group of Indefinite Tenses is presented with a O-sign on the line of time: Past Present Future Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite ------------------------O-------------------O---------------------O---------------- (time)

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2. Perfect Tenses The actions, however, may take place at any other time and be completed by a certain time in the present, past or future, and these are expressed in English by means of Perfect Tenses. Perfect Tenses generally denote an action which: a) ended prior to some definite time or action in the past (The Past Perfect): She had finished her work before she went to bed. John had lived in New York for ten years before he moved to Chicago ; b) began in the past and has just been finished or is continuing in to the present (The Present Perfect): I have just seen her. He has been here for a week; c) will be completed before some definite time in the future (The Future Perfect): They will have finished their book by next year. By the time she gets married, she will have learned to cook. The group of Perfect Tenses are presented in the diagram below: Past Present Future Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite -- -- -- ------------- O -------------------- O ------------------------- O ----------- Past Perfect Present Perfect Future Perfect (time)

Thus, we may say, there are at least six tenses in the English language: The Present Indefinite: The Past Indefinite: The Future Indefinite: The Present Perfect: The Past Perfect: The Future Perfect: Regular verbs walk, walks walked shall/will walk have/has walked had walked shall/will have walked Irregular verbs go, goes went shall/will go have/has gone had gone shall/will have gone

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3. Continuous and Perfect Continuous Tenses. Aspect. Verbs have the ability to tell us not only when but also how actions take place. Thus, the expression of time is closely connected with aspect the manner in which the verbal action is regarded. Verbs may stress that the action described by verbs in Indefinite or Perfect Tenses is in progress. All six of the main tenses also have a companion progressive form. The progressive forms of the verb can be viewed as tense forms and then we may speak about 6 more tenses: Continuous and Perfect Continuous Tenses: The Present Continuous Tense: The Past Continuous Tense: The Future Continuous Tense: The Present Perfect Continuous Tense: The Past Perfect Continuous Tense: The Future Perfect Continuous Tense: am/are/is writing was/were writing shall/will be writing have/has been writing had been writing shall/will have been writing

The Units below will help you to gain a better understanding of the logic behind the linguistic tenses in English.

EXERCISES 3.1. Correlate the Russian verbs in the following sentences with the English tense scheme. Name the tense form of the verb you would use in English. 1) . 2) . 3) . 4) . 5) . 6) . 7) . 8) 5 . 9) , .

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3.2. Which tense (Indefinite, Perfect, Continuous or Perfect Continuous) would you use for the verb to translate the following sentences: 1) . A) take C) are taking B) have taken D) have been taking 2) . A) study C) am studying B) have studied D) have been studying 3) . A) finished C) was finishing B) had finished D)had been finishing 4) , . A) worked C) was working B) had worked D) had been working 5) . A) took C) was taking B) had taken D) had been taking 6) . A) wrote C) was writing B) have written D) had been writing 7) . A) will take C) will be taking B) will have taken D) will have been taking 8) 1 . A) will write C) will be writing B) will have written D) will have been writing 9) . A) write C) am writing B) have written D) have been writing 10) 7 , . A) studied C) was studying B) had studied D) had been studying 3.3. Without translating the whole sentence use the verb in brackets in the correct tense form (Indefinite, Perfect, Continuous or Perfect Continuous). 1) (learn) . 2) (read) (translate) , (answer) .

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3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

. (review) . (write) . (be late) . , (write) . (finish) . (write)

3.4. Use the verb to write in the 1st person singular in different tense forms and complete the table. Translate each verb form and add adverbs of time (, , , , , , , , , etc.): Time Present Past Future Indefinite I write ' ' (, ) Tense and Aspect Perfect Continuous Perfect Cont.

UNIT 2

INDEFINITE TENSES
ENTRY TEST

1. Choose the correct variant. 1) I ..... for eight hours last night. A) sleep C) slept B) sleeped D) was sleep 2) If she ..... me tonight, I'll send her a telegram. A) not to phone C) don't phone B) doesn't phone D) isn't phone 3) My nephew ..... ten next Saturday. A) will have C) has B) will is D) will be 4) Who ..... you to translate this article yesterday? A) helped C) help B) did help D) was help 5) As a rule it often ..... in autumn. A) is rain C) rains B) rain D) does rain 6) ..... in flying saucers? A) Do you believe C) You believe B) Are you believe D) Doesn't you believe 7) Let me know when he ..... . A) will come C) come B) comes D) is come 8) I ..... at home at six the day before yesterday. A) didn't be C) wasn't B) weren't D) didn't was 9) When ..... here next time? A) you are C) will you are B)you will be D) will you be 10) Which of you ..... this poem by heart? A) know C) knows B) do know D) does know 11) I don't know whether he ..... home early today. A) will come C) does come

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B) comes 12) She ..... him when she was twenty. A) meet B) was meet 13) It's dark here. I ..... on the light. A) switch

D) shall come C) meted D) met C) shall switched D) am switch

B) will switch 14) ..... much last winter? A) Was it snow C) Did it snow B) Did it snowed D) Snowed it 15) He goes to the library every week, .....? A) don't he C) goes not he B) does he D)doesn't he 16) We won't go for a walk until it ..... raining. A) will stop C) doesn't stop B) stops D) will not stop 17) Where ..... your last summer holidays?
A) did you spent C) did you spend

B) you spent D) were you spend 18) Who ..... to play the guitar? A) like C) shall like B) do like D) likes 19) He ..... the letter on the table and left the room. A) laid C) lay B) lied D) was lay 20) Whose watch .....? A) this is C) is these B) does this be D) is this 21) I hope he ..... here soon. A) is C) will be B) will is D) shall be 22) ..... a sister? A) Does she have C) Have she got B) Does she has D) Does she have got 23) When ..... here? Two hours ago. A) did they be C) did they were B) they were D) were they 24) They will go abroad as soon as Max ...... his exams. A) will pass C) shall be pass

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B) pass D) passes 25) He ..... a wonderful picture the other day. A) draw C) drew B) drawed D) drawn 26) The sun ..... early in summer. A) rise C) roses D) rises B) raises 27) Her son ..... school in two years. A) finish C) will finish B) will be finish D) will finishes 28) Henry ..... on basketball. He plays it every day. A) keens C) is keens B) does keen D) is keen 29) I don't know when we ..... this question. A) discuss C) are discuss B will be discuss D) will discuss 30) He will be a doctor in three years, .....? A) will he not be C) won't he B) isn't he D) will be not he 31) She'll watch TV after she ..... dinner. A) has C) is have B) will have D) will has 32) When ..... for Paris? A week ago. A) did he left C) did he leave B) did he live D) was he leave 33) There ..... much coffee in the coffee pot. A) are not C) does not B) does not be D) is not 34) He ..... to go to bed late last summer. A) wasn't used C) did used B) didn't use D) wasn't use 35) She didn't know where ..... . A) he lives C) does he live B) did he live D) he lived 36) The weather ..... sunny the day after tomorrow. A) is C) will is B) will be D) was 37) ..... to see you again? A) Did she be glad C) Was she be glad B) Did she glad D) Was she glad

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38) He ..... his son to drive a car next year.

A) will teaches B) shall teach 39) Kate ..... any foreign language. A) don't speak B) doesn't speaks 40) Why ..... so tired yesterday? A) did you be B) were you

C) will teach D) will be teach C) isn't speak D) doesn't speak C) you was D) you were

2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. 41) Every summer they (to go) to the country to see their parents. 42) Last month he (to celebrate) his sixty-fifth anniversary. 43) When you (to be) in Rome? Two years ago. 44) Why you (not to go) to the cinema with us yesterday? I (to be) very busy. I (to have) much work to do. 45) She (to know) English? When she (to study) at school she (to be) good at it. But now she (not to remember) a single word. 46) It (to rain) yesterday? It (to be) rainy and cold yesterday. 47) Why you (to be ready) only in an hour? 48) The day before yesterday he (to have) an important appointment. 49) I (to phone) you before I (to leave) next Sunday. 50) She (to be) twenty the day after tomorrow. 51) It (to snow) tomorrow? I (to be) sure, the weather (to be) fine tomorrow. 52) If you (to help) her, she (to finish) her work in an hour. 53) They'll contact us as soon as the delegation (to arrive). 54) When Father (to come) we (to have) supper. When it (to be)? In half an hour. He always (to come) home at 6. 55) If you (not to come) at 8 I won't wait. 56) Don't worry. He (to phone) you as soon as he (to come) back. 57) When I returned home it (to be) midnight. 58) When I return home today it (to be) midnight. 59) You always (to return) home at midnight? Sometimes, but very seldom. 60) My aunt (to come) to see us tomorrow. She (to come) to see you every year? 61) Please, send me a telegram when you (to get) to London. 62) If I (not to be busy) tomorrow I (to join) you. 63) She (to leave) next Monday. When the train (to leave)? At 3.15.

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64) You (to be) rude to that woman just now. 65) If you (not to know) the word in English, ask your teacher. 66) She (not to be) here next week. She (to be) abroad. 67) When he (to go) to Finland? About six years ago. 68) When you (to have) breakfast yesterday? It (to be) 7 o'clock. 69) We (to go) to the country unless it (to rain) tomorrow. 70) What time your classes usually (to begin)? At 8 o'clock. 71) I wonder if he (to be) a student. 72) The other day she (to get) a letter from her cousin. 73) His train (to leave) at 9. He'll call a taxi as soon as he (to pack) his things. 74) She (to be married)? Yes, she (to have) a family of her own. She (to get married) last year. 75) Robert often (to miss) his classes. I think he (to fail) his exams next month. 76) He said that he (to like) to receive letters from his friends. 77) I'm sure it (not to rain) tomorrow. 78) Where you (to spend) last weekend? At home. The weather (to be) cold. 79) Who (to take) your children to school, as a rule? 80) She (to go) for a walk if she (to have) some free time tonight. 3. Translate into English. 81) . 82) , . 83) ? . 84) 7? , . 85) ? . . 86) . ? . 87) ? . 7. 7. 88) . , . 89) ? . . 90) ? , . ? 10 . 91) , .

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92) ,

. 93) , . 94) ? . . 95) , ? . 96) , . 97) . . 98) ? . 99) ? , , . 100) . , . Total: 100/ ____

THE PRESENT INDEFINITE

1. F o r m a t i o n The Present Indefinite has the same form as the Infinitive (without to), -s being added for the 3rd person singular. The negative is formed with does not + Infinitive (without to) for the 3 person singular, and do not + Infinitive (without to) for all other persons. Do not is usually contracted to don't, and does not to doesn't.
rd

The interrogative is formed with does + subject + Infinitive (without to) for the 3rd person singular, and do + subject + Infinitive (without to) for all other persons. Affirmative
I go You go abroad every

Negative
I do not (=don't) go You do not go abroad every

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He/she/it goes We go They go

summer.

He/she/it does not go


We do not go

summer.

They do not go

Interrogative
Do I go Do you go abroad every Does he/she/it go summer? Do we go Do they go

Negative Interrogative
Do I not go (= Don't I go) abroad every Do you not go summer? Does he/she/it not go Do we not go Do they not go

Remember: Affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences with the verbs to be and to have/have got are formed in the following way: TO BE Affirmative
I am You are He/she/it is We are You are They are Am I Are you Is he/she/it Are we Are you Are they a student. students.

Negative
I am not You are not He/she/it is not
We are not

a student. students.

You are not They are not Am I not Are you not (= Aren't you ) Is he/she/it not Are we not Are you not Are they not

Interrogative
a student? students?

Negative Interrogative
a student?

students?

TO HAVE/HAVE GOT Affirmative


I have/have got You have/have got He/she/it has/has got We have/have got They have/have got a dog.

Negative
1) I do not have (= I don't have) 2) I have not got (= I haven't got)

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You do not have He/she/it does not have We do not have They do not have 1) Do I have Do you have Does he/she/it have Do we have Do they have 1) Do I not have (= Don't I have) Do you not have Does he/she/it not have Do we not have Do they not have

a dog.

You have not got He/she/it has not got We have not got They have not got 2) Have I got Have you got Has he/she/it got Have we got
Have they got

a dog.

Interrogative
a dog? a dog?

Negative Interrogative
a dog? 2) Have I not got (= Haven' t I got) Have you not got Has he/she/it not got Have we not got Have they not got a dog?

2. U s a g e The Present Indefinite is used to denote: 1) repeated/ habitual actions (especially with frequency adverbs: often, usually, etc.): He usually goes to bed at 11. 2) permanent situations or states: She works as a nurse. 3) permanent truths or laws of nature: Water freezes at 0C. 4) timetables/programmes (future meaning): The match finishes at 7. 5) reviews/sports commentaries/dramatic narrative: Meryl Streep acts brilliantly in this film. The following time expressions can be used with the Present Indefinite: every day/ week/ month/ year, usually, often, always, rarely, never, sometimes, from time to time, in the morning/ afternoon/ evening, at night, on Sundays, etc. EXERCISES 1.1. Explain the use of the Present Indefinite forms. Translate into Russian. 1) Every summer we go to the south to have a rest.

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2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

As a rule, we have 6 lessons on Mondays. Does he ever eat meat? No, he never eats meat. He is a vegetarian. It often snows in winter in Belarus. A square has four equal sides. Our hero goes off to search for the treasure, which he eventually finds after many adventures. 7) Usually it takes me three days to drive to Los Angeles. 8) Every day she takes her son to school before she goes to work. 9) My plane arrives at 7:30 tomorrow morning. 10) This shop opens next week. 1.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. (A) 1) Peter has poor eyesight, so he always wears glasses. 2) She drinks coffee in the morning. 3) On Sundays we go to see our friends. 4) They sometimes miss the 7 o'clock train and have to wait for the next one. 5) The sun rises in the east. 6) I hear somebody knocking at the door. 7) The book contains a lot of useful information. 8) Her parents live in the country. 9) The last train leaves at midnight. 10) We understand you quite well. 11) Magnet attracts iron. 12) Charlie looks just like his father. 13) Our classes usually begin at 9 o'clock. 14) Generally he walks to his office because it is not far from his house. 15) The pupils know this poem by heart. (B) 1) Usually they have much work to do about the house. 2) Kate is absent from class today. She has got a sore throat. 3) Robert is keen on video games. He plays them every day. 4) I have lots of books at home. There are many English books among them. 5) Mark is good at tennis. He has got a lot of ability. 6) This car has a good cassette player. 7) This town is 4000 years old. 8) We have got a new computer. 9) There is a very interesting program on TV this evening. 10) They are often late for the classes. 11) Our house has three bedrooms.

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12) We often have dictations in class. 13) Betty and Linda are fond of music. 14) Terry is in bed. He has got the flu. 15) There are many beautiful lakes in Belarus. 1.3. Ask your fellow-student: 1) how long it takes him/her to get to his/her work; 2) if he/she studies well; 3) where they spend their holidays; 4) when it rains much in Belarus; 5) what time his/her classes begin; 6) what he/she does when the weather is good; 7) what kind of sportsman he/she is; 8) why he/she doesn't know the rule; 9) what this word means; 10) how many cinemas there are in this city; 11) when the train leaves; 12) how well his/her friends speak French; 13) if he/she has a dog; 14) how often he/she has got spelling dictations; 15) why his/her parents are so upset. 1.4. (A) Say that somebody or something does the same. Give your reasons: Model: I work in the library every day. And Mary? Mary also works in the library every day. She does her homework there. 1) My parents prefer to travel by air. And your father? 2) Mr Wilson is on business in China. And your boss? 3) She tries to avoid working overtime. And they? 4) Mr Black likes to walk in fine weather. And you? 5) They are fond of pop music. And your friends? 6) His brother watches TV every evening. And his parents? 7) Andy always has breakfast at 8 o'clock. And you? 8) They often go to the theatre. And your sister? 9) She often speaks on the phone. And her younger sister? 10) We usually have 6 lessons a day. And your brother? 11) My friends are students. And your friends? 12) It often rains in September. And in October? 13) There are 10 students in our group. And in your group?

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14) You prefer tea to coffee. And your sister? 15) She remembers this poem well. And you? (B) Say that somebody or something doesn't do the same. Give your reasons: Model: I borrow books from the library. And your friend? My friend doesn't borrow any books from the library. He has a lot of books at home. 1) Bob usually reads newspapers in the evening. And his brother? 2) It snows in winter. And in summer? 3) Mary is fond of playing the guitar. And you? 4) There are lots of sights in this large city. And in this small town? 5) I usually have a substantial breakfast. And you? 6) Lots of students make mistakes in spelling. And he? 7) You always agree with Bill. And your friend? 8) I think cats are very intelligent animals. And you? 9) She is very sociable and has many friends. And you? 10) Some people like autumn. And your mother? 11) I am always in time for my lessons. And you? 12) Tom is 18 and he has got a driving license. And his friend? 13) Usually it takes me 10 minutes to get to the park. And your friend? 14) The train for London arrives at 8 o'clock. And the train for Manchester? 15) Mary is an early riser. She gets up at 7 o'clock. And her younger sisters? 1.5. (A) Describe your daily activities by making sentences with frequency adverbs and the Present Indefinite. always, sometimes, seldom, never, usually, often, rarely Model: to eat breakfast Response: Student A: I usually eat breakfast. Student B: I never eat breakfast. Student C: (Student A) usually eats breakfast. (Student B) never eats breakfast. 1) to drink coffee in the morning 8) to take a bus to school 2) to get up late on Sundays 9) to drive to school 3) to drink more than two cups of tea 10) to have dinner at home in the morning 11) to study in the library 4) to drink tomato juice in the 12) to watch TV in the evening morning 13) to go for a walk after classes 5) to be in time for classes 14) to do one's homework 6) to be away from classes 15) to go to bed late at night

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7) to walk to school (B) Write a story of a typical day in your life. 1.6. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate forms of the verbs to be, to have and to have got. 1) As a rule Mary (to be) very busy because she (to have) much work to do about the house. 2) Whose books (to be) these? One of them (to be) mine. 3) Your desk (to have) any drawers? Yes, it (to have) six drawers. 4) What you (to be)? I (to be) a lawyer. 5) Where Tom (to be)? He (to be) here? No, he (not to be) very well. He (to be) in bed. He (to have) the flu. 6) Everybody (to be) ready? Not yet. I (not to be) ready yet. 7) Nick (to have got) a sister? No, he (not to have got) a sister. He (to have got) an elder brother. His name (to be) Eric. They (to be) very much alike. 8) The meeting (to be) about to begin. Everybody (to be) here? 9) The Browns (to have) a small garden. They (to be) fond of gardening. 10) There (not to be) much coffee in the coffee-pot. 11) Everything (to be) OK? No, Mark (to be) late again. I (to be) angry with him. I (to be) sure, he (not to have) any good excuse. 12) It (to be) cold and frosty in winter. The days (to be) short and the nights (to be) long. 13) The children (to be) at home? No, they (not to be). They (to be) in the yard. 14) Tom (to have) a new car. It (to be) very expensive. 15) She (to be) keen on animals. She (to have got) two dogs and four cats. 1.7. Open the brackets. Use the Present Indefinite. (A) 1) What you usually (to do) when you (to get) tired? I (to go) for a long walk to the park which (to be) not far from my house. 2) How much time it (to take) you to do your homework? Usually I (to spend) three or four hours on it. 3) What she (to be)? She (to be) an economist. She (to work) for an insurance company. 4) He never (to listen) to what you say. He always (to think) about something else. 5) You (to recognize) that man? I (to think) I have seen him before but I (not to remember) his name.

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6) These things (not to belong) to him. They (to be) mine. 7) So in the first scene we (to see) him getting up and then he (to go) out and (to meet) a strange woman. 8) She (to like) to travel by plane? No, she (not to travel) by plane very often. She (to prefer) trains. 9) The semester (to end) in two more weeks. 10) You (to have) usually a light or a substantial breakfast? Frankly speaking, I (to be) a heavy sleeper and it (to be) very difficult for me to get up early. Sometimes and it (to happen) often I (to oversleep). Then I (to be) in a hurry and my breakfast (to consist of) a cup of tea or coffee. 11) The pie (to smell) delicious. 12) He (to have) a big family. There (to be) six members in it. 13) I can't afford that camera. It (to cost) too much. 14) They often (to go) to the theatre? Yes, they (to be) great theatre-goers. 15) It often (to rain) here in autumn? Yes, it (to rain) almost every day, the weather (to be) dull and cool and there (to be) many puddles everywhere. 16) Whose French newspapers (to be) there on the table? It (to seem) to me, they (to be) Terry's. He (to know) French well? Yes, and he (to go) to France every year to master the language. 17) She (to be) busy now. She (not to have) any time to help you. 18) You (to be) good at tennis? Yes, I (to play) it four times a week. 19) The car (to stop) outside the National Bank. Three men (to get) out and the driver (to stay) in the car. The three men (to walk) into the bank and (to take) out their guns. 20) We (to have) a new girl in our class. Her name (to be) Linda. She (to look) nice. She (to be) tall and (to have) long dark hair. Linda (to be) a good mixer and (to have) lots of friends. She (to be) lively and everybody (to admire) her. (B) In London it often (1) (not to snow), but when it (2) (to snow), life (3) (to become) very difficult for everyone. Cars have to go very slowly because the roads (4) (to be) covered with ice and wet snow, so there (5) (to be) traffic jams, and lots of people (6) (to be) late for work. The snow usually (7) (to melt) quickly and this (8) (to make) the pavements dangerous. Only children really (9) (to be) fond of snow. Sam (10) (to work) in the local library where he usually (11) (to have) much work to do. As a rule, he (12) (to go) to work by bus, but this morning he's walking because there (13) (not to seem) to be any buses. He (14) (to be) dressed in his winter coat, but it (15) (to be) cool and it's snowing and the wet

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snow is trickling down his neck. It (16) (to make) him feel very uncomfortable. He (17) (to be) in a hurry. He (18) (to want) to get to the library as soon as possible to have a nice, hot cup of tea. (C) The Willsons (1) (to be) in New England. They (2) (to go) there every summer because they (3) (to have) a lot of friends there. One day the Porters (4) (to invite) them to dinner. So the Willsons are motoring along a strange country road to keep the dinner engagement. But they (5) (to be) late and Mr Willson is driving at top speed. In spite of this he (6) (to notice) a large house with a sign which (7) (to say) that a doctor (8) (to live) there. Half a mile farther on, something (9) (to go) wrong with the car and it (10) (to crash) against a tree. The driver (11) (to be) unhurt but his wife (12) (to be) seriously injured and (13) (to need) medical help. The road (14) (to be) a lonely one and Mr Willson (15) (not to see) any other cars. Suddenly he (16) (to remember) the doctor's house. He (17) (to lift) his wife, (18) (to walk) back to that house and (19) (to ring) the bell. A tall, gray-haired man (20) (to open) the door and (21) (to say) that he (22) (to be) a doctor. There (23) (to be) no one else in the house. They (24) (to carry) Mrs Willson into a small consulting room. The doctor (25) (to examine) her and (26) (to declare) that the only chance of saving her life (27) (to be) to operate at once. Mr Willson (28) (to hesitate) but (29) he (to have) no choice. 1.8. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where necessary. 1) Peter are a good singer. He sing very well. 2) His mother always worry about him. 3) Are airplanes fly all around the world? 4) Water freeze at 0C and boil at 100C. 5) Rivers flow towards the sea. 6) Mr Brown have two daughters. Their names is Mary and Kate. 7) The front page of a newspaper contain the most important news of the day. 8) The Smiths have a small cottage in the country. There is 4 rooms in it. Also it have all modern conveniences. 9) Each season last three months and bring changes in the weather. 10) There is different means of travelling and each of them have its advantages and disadvantages. All depend on a person. 11) It isn't snow much in winter. 12) It seem to me you doesn't understand what I mean. 13) Do John and Terry schoolboys? Yes, they studies at the same school. Besides, they are the best friends and spends much time together.

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14) Is everybody remember this rule? 15) Music consist of pleasant sounds. 16) Whose gloves is these? These gloves is mine. 17) When he have some leisure time, he like to spend it in the open air. 18) Where do the sun set? 19) There are so many books in your bag, Mark. Are you need all of them? 20) They have breakfast at 9, doesn't they? 21) What are you think about the new sport centre? 22) Where are the keys? I can't find them. 23) What you usually do in summer? I go to the seaside to relax. 24) She isn't know this man. She has never seen him before. 25) Sometimes Paul is very stubborn and it make me angry. 26) Why don't you believe her? She always tell the truth. 27) What are you do? I am a student. 28) Where does your father come from? He comes from Wales. 29) She have got a car, but she don't use it very often. 30) Does it very cold in the room? 1.9. Translate into English. Use the Present Indefinite. 1) ? 2) , . 3) ? . . 4) . 5) , . 6) , . . 7) 20 1 . 8) , ? 9) ? , . , , . 10) . . 11) ? . , , . 12) , , . 13) . , .

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14) ! , - . 15) ? . , , . 16) , ? 17) ? . 18) . ? . . . 19) ? , . , , . 8 . 20) , 0. 21) , . , . 22) . . , , , . 23) , ? 24) , ? 25) ? . . 1.10. Read the stories and reproduce them. Use the Present Indefinite. 1) Little Mary goes to school for the first time. When she comes home, her mother asks her, "Do you like your teacher, Mary?" Mary thinks a bit, and then she says, "Yes, I like her very much, but I don't think she is very clever." "How is that?" asks the mother. "Oh," says Mary, "because she asks us so many questions." 2) An Englishman arrives at a hotel in France. There is a sign on the door of the hotel which says, "All languages spoken here." He speaks English to the waiter. But he doesn't understand him. Then he tries to speak German and Italian. No answer. Then a little annoyed, he asks in French, "Who is it that speaks all languages here then?" "The hotel guests," answers the waiter quietly. 3) The teacher tells the pupils about the man who always swims across the river three times before breakfast.

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Eric laughs. "Don't you believe that a good swimmer can do that?" the teacher asks Eric. "Yes, I do," answers the boy, "but I don't see how the man gets his clothes if he doesn't cross the river once more." 4) Once a young man applies for a job to the manager of a circus. His name is Terry Black and he is very popular with the public because he can eat six dozen eggs at a single sitting. The manager informs him that they give four shows a day and adds that on Saturday they give six shows. Terry is glad, he remarks that six shows fetch more money than one. The manager gives one more detail that on holidays they manage a show every hour. In his reply to this Terry warns the manager that no matter how many shows they give a day, he must have time to go out and have his dinner. 2 1. F o r m a t i o n The Past Indefinite in all regular verbs is formed by adding -ed (or -d when the verb ends in -e) to the Infinitive. The form is the same for all persons. In irregular verbs the Past Indefinite form varies so that the Past Indefinite form of the verb to begin is began, of the verb to go is went, of the verb to do is did. These forms must be learnt, but once this is done there is no other difficulty, as the same form is used for all persons. The negative (for both regular and irregular verbs) is formed with did not + Infinitive (without to). It is the same for all persons. The interrogative (for both regular and irregular verbs) is formed with did + subject + Infinitive (without to). It is the same for all persons. THE PAST INDEFINITE

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Affirmative
1) I enjoyed You enjoyed He/she/it enjoyed We enjoyed They enjoyed 2) I went You went He/she/it went We went They went the show last night.

Negative
1) I did not enjoy (= I didn't enjoy) You did not enjoy He/she/it did not enjoy We did not enjoy They did not enjoy 2) I did not go (= I didn't go) the show last night.

to France a year ago.

You did not go

He/she/it did not go We did not go They did not go 1) Did I not enjoy (= Didn't I enjoy) Did you not enjoy Did he/she/it not enjoy Did we not enjoy Did they not enjoy 2) Did I not go (= Didn't I go) Did you not go
Did he/she/it not go

to France a year ago.

Interrogative
1) Did I enjoy Did you enjoy Did he/she/it enjoy Did we enjoy Did they enjoy 2) Did I go Did you go Did he/she/it go Did we go Did they go the show last night?

Negative Interrogative
the show last night?

to France a year ago?

to France a year ago?

Did we not go Did they not go

Remember: Affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences with the verbs to be and to have/have got are formed in the following way: TO BE Affirmative
I was You were He/she/it was We were They were in London last week.

Negative
I was not (= I wasn't) You were not
He/she/it was not We were not

in London last week.

They were not

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Interrogative
Was I Were you Was he/she/it Were we Were they in London last week?

Negative Interrogative
Was I not (= Wasn't I) Were you not Was he/she/it not Were we not Were they not in London last week?

TO HAVE/HAVE GOT Affirmative


I had/had got You had/had got He/she/it had/had got We had/had got They had/had got 1) I did not have (= I didn't have) You did not have He/she/it did not have We did not have They did not have 1) Did I have Did you have Did he/she/it have Did we have Did they have 1) Did I not have (= Didn't I have) Did you not have Did he/she/it not have Did we not have Did they not have a nice job last summer.

Negative
2) I had not got (= I hadn't got) a nice job You had not got last summer. He/she/it had not got We had not got They had not got a nice job last summer.

Interrogative
a nice job last summer? 2) Had I got Had you got Had he/she/it got Had we got Had they got a nice job last summer?

Negative Interrogative
a nice job last summer? 2) Had I not got (= Hadn't I got) Had you not got Had he/she/it not got Had we not got
Had they not got

a nice job last summer?

2. U s a g e

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The Past Indefinite is used to denote:

complete actions or events which happened at a stated past time: She called me an hour ago. 1) past habits or states: He used to go/went to school on foot. 2) past actions which happened one after the other: She sealed the letter, put a stamp on it and posted it. 3) actions which happened at a definite past time although the time is not mentioned. This action is not connected with the present: Shakespeare wrote a lot of plays. The following time expressions can be used with the Past Indefinite: yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, (how long) ago, then, the other day, just now, when, in 1999, etc. EXERCISES 2.1. Explain the use of the Past Indefinite forms. Translate into Russian. 1) The first Olympics took place in Athens more than a hundred years ago. 2) I got up, switched off the radio, and sat down again. 3) They were here just now. 4) Robert used to play football when he was younger, but he stopped playing some years ago. 5) Where did you spend your last weekend? 6) How long did he sleep last night? He slept for about four hours. He had a toothache. 7) It didn't snow much the other day. 8) He was very busy when I phoned him the day before yesterday. 9) Did the old man use to have a walk before going to bed? 10) The other day she got acquainted with a famous actor. 2.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. (A) 1) We enjoyed the performance last night. 2) They used to go to the country every Sunday. 3) He left for London just now. 4) He liked to read detective stories when he was a schoolboy. 5) The other day Sam bought a new car. 6) It rained heavily yesterday. 7) Two years ago John spent a fortnight in Manchester. 8) The Titanic hit an iceberg many years ago.

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9) He gave up smoking a year ago. 10) Last year she finished school and went to work. 11) Robert and Kate got married the other day. 12) He used to be a good football-player in his childhood. 13) Every month she went to visit her parents. 14) The other day he sold his flat and bought a cottage. 15) She believed that he was right. (B) 1) They were friends in their childhood. 2) He had a sleepless night yesterday. 3) He was a famous writer when I met him. 4) She was cheerful and full of energy in those days. 5) The other day my friend was in London. He had a good time there. 6) Terry was ill four days ago. He had the flu. 7) We were glad to see them again. 8) They had three English lessons last week. 9) At school I was good at Chemistry. 10) Usually he had a hot shower before he went to bed. 11) You were fond of sports when you were a student. 12) There were many beautiful flowers in the garden. 13) There was a shop in front of our house long time ago. 14) When the taxi arrived, everything was ready for the trip. 15) He had a nice job last year. He was pleased with it. 2.3. Ask your fellow-student: 1) whether it rained last Wednesday; 2) when they were in the south last; 3) how long Mr Blade lived in London; 4) what he/she did two years ago; 5) when Ann left school and what she did afterwards; 6) if he/she had much work to do yesterday; 7) why he/she was so upset the other day; 8) how many letters there were on the table; 9) why he/she made up his/her mind to become a lawyer; 10) how often he/she wrote letters to his/her parents when he/she was abroad; 11) whom he/she met just now; 12) how he/she used to spend his/her leisure time when he/she was a student; 13) when he/she had dinner; 14) why he/she didn't take part in the conference;

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15) who he/she got acquainted with at the party. 2.4. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate form of the verb 'to be'. (A) 1) Where you (to be) yesterday? I couldn't get in touch with you. I (to be) at my parents' place. 2) Kate (to be) 18 last Monday. 3) When we came to London the weather (to be) rather cold. It (to be) rainy and windy. 4) They (to be) happy to have such a nice weekend. 5) There (to be) many people in the room and it (to be) very noisy. 6) Where she (to be) born? She (to be) born in France. 7) Henry and Mark (not to be) friends when they studied at school. 8) She (not to be) fond of long walks when she was a child. 9) Who (to be) at the meeting yesterday? All the students (to be). 10) A: I hear there (to be) a barbecue at the college last Saturday. You (to be) there? B: Yes, I (to be). And why you (not to be) there?? A: Oh, I (to be) in London. I (to be) very busy. B: That's a pity. It (to be) a very good barbecue. The food (to be) great. A: What the weather (to be) like here? B: Oh, we (to be) very lucky. It (to be) warm. A: There (to be) many people there? B: Yes, lots. Jim (not to be) there, though. He (not to be) very well. A: What about Mark and Jane? B: Oh, they (to be) still on holiday then. So they (not to be) at the barbecue. But all the others (to be) there. We had a good time. (B) Mr and Mrs Temple (1) (to be) a very average couple. His name (2) (to be) Steven. Her name (3) (to be) Ann. They (4) (to be) tall? Mr and Mrs Temple (5) (to be) neither tall nor short. They (6) (to be) both average height. He (7) (to be) average height for a man and she (8) (to be) average height for a woman. They (9) (to be) fat? Mr Temple (10) (not to be) weak or skinny, but he (11) (not to be) strong or well-built either. He (12) (to be) just medium build and his shoulders (13) (to be) neither very broad nor very narrow. His wife, too, could never be described as thin or slim, but then again, she (14) (not to be) overweight or fat either. Her waist (15) (to be) neither too big nor too narrow. It (16) (to be) just ... average size.

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It (17) (to be) very easy for the Temples to buy clothes because parts of their bodies (18) (to be) average size too. Their feet (19) (to be) neither very big nor very small. Their hips (20) (not to be) very wide. And their legs (21) (to be) neither too short nor too long. Yes, the Temples (22) (to be) a very average couple. Except for one thing. They (23) (to be) the only couple in the country who (24) (to be) average in so many ways at the same time. The Temples (25) (to be) in fact ... unique. 2.5. Express contrasting past actions. Give your reason. Model: As a rule she gets up early. (on Sunday) She didnt get up early on Sunday. She got up late on Sunday. It was her day off. 1) Usually I have breakfast at 8. (yesterday) 2) She is always ready to help. (the other day) 3) Tom sleeps very well, as a rule. (last night) 4) I often go abroad on business. (last year) 5) My sister writes to me twice a month. (two years ago) 6) Nick is 20 and he has got a driving license. (when he was 15) 7) Walter is seldom away from classes. (on Monday) 8) Henry waits Kate after work and gives her a lift home. (the day before yesterday) 9) It often rains this month. (last month) 10) She speaks English fluently. (a year ago) 11) Martha skates very badly. (when she was a schoolgirl) 12) Mr Ryan doesnt walk much. (when he was younger) 13) My parents arent great theatre-goers. (many years ago) 14) Sam wears glasses. (five years ago) 15) Mr Black is in a hurry. He is late for the lecture. (yesterday) 16) They always help their mother about the house. (last Friday) 17) He doesnt remember her telephone number. (half an hour ago) 18) Sometimes I miss the 5 oclock train. (last week) 19) He doesnt go shopping. (the other day) 20) She doesnt do her homework in the evening. (yesterday) Oral Activity The teacher divides the class into two teams and gives a sentence. The teams in turn ask questions based on the teacher's sentence. Each correct question gets 1 point. The team with the most points is the winner.
Possible sentence: They robbed a bank. / He invited her to dinner. / Ann wrote a letter. / She bought a new dress, etc.

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Team A. S1: Team B. S1: Team A. S2: Team B. S2:

Who robbed a bank? Did the police catch the robbers? How much money did they get? Did the robbers shoot anyone? etc.

Remember: Used to expresses past habits or states. It forms its negative and interrogative with did and it is the same in all persons. The Past Indefinite can be used instead of used to: She used to walk/walked long distances. She didnt use to stay in and watch TV. Would expresses past repeated actions and routine. Used to expresses past states or habits: Grandma would always make me porridge for breakfast (also: used to make). When I was young I used to live in Leeds (not: would). Was going to expresses unfulfilled arrangements or unfulfilled plans in the past, or actions one intended to do but did not or could not do: He was going to visit Pam but she wasnt at home. 2.6. Fill in: (A) used to or would: I (1) used to live in a small house in the country when I was a little girl. I (2) ..... get up every day at 7 oclock and get ready for school. My mother (3) ..... get our breakfast ready and then she (4) ..... walk to the bus stop with us and wait for the school bus to pick us up. The bus (5) ..... be on time. We stayed at school until 3.00 pm and then we (6) ..... catch the bus home again. In the afternoon we (7) ..... walk home alone because mother didnt pick us up. She (8) ..... work in an office, but she stopped working last year and now she stays at home. (B) was going to, would or used to: Last week I (1) was going to visit an old house where we (2) ..... play as children, but I didnt have the time. We (3) ..... go there every weekend and play cowboys and Indians. We (4) ..... love it! My friend (5) ..... buy it and turn it into a hotel or so he (6) ..... say, but of course he didnt. 2.7. Complete the sentences. Each sentence should have a form of used to. Add your own words.

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1) He didnt use to stay up past midnight, but now he often goes to bed very late. 2) What time you ..... to bed when you were a child? 3) Mary ..... coffee in the morning, but now she has a cup of tea. 4) They ..... tennis every Sunday, but now they dont. 5) When a schoolboy, Terry ..... interested in Physics, but now he isnt. 6) Ann ..... afraid of dogs, but now she likes dogs. 7) When you were a little kid, what ..... after school? 8) Kate ..... in a law office, but now she doesnt have a job. 9) ..... cartoons on TV when you were a child? 10) I ..... shy when I was younger, but now I am not. 11) Jane ..... any physical exercises, but now she exercises for an hour every day. 12) Peter ..... many books, but now he doesnt have any time to do it. 13) I ..... with my parents, but now I dont. I have my own apartment. 14) When you lived in London, ..... to the theatre very often? 15) I rarely eat ice cream now but I ..... when I was a child. 16) Our family ..... in Nottingham, but now we do. 17) There ..... a bank opposite the park, it became bankrupt some years ago. 18) Jim ..... my best friend, but we arent friends any longer. 19) I ..... keen on video games, but now I am. 20) He ..... to his office, but now he goes there by bus. 2.8. Open the brackets. Use the Past Indefinite. (A) 1) When your friend (to return) from Australia? She (to fly) yesterday afternoon. You (to go) to the airport to meet her? Unfortunately, no. I (to be) too busy. 2) He (to put) the book on the table and (to leave) the room. 3) I (to phone) you last Tuesday but you (not to be) at home. Where you (to be)? I (to be) in London. I (to go) there on business. 4) It often (to snow) last winter? 5) He told them that he (to be) fond of football when he (to be) a student. 6) Why you (not to finish) your report yesterday? Frankly speaking, I (to have) no time. 7) Why you (to be) so sad when I (to meet) you? Anything (to be) wrong with you? 8) Ann (to spend) much money the other day. She (to buy) a suit which (to cost) $100.

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9) When I (to reach) the street I (to realize) that I (not to know) the number of Toms house. 10) Robert (to be going) to introduce Susan to his parents a month ago, but he (to manage) to do this only the day before yesterday. 11) Nick (to be) a student when we (to get) acquainted? No, he (to be) a school-leaver then. He (to enter) the University last year. 12) What the weather (to be) like last Sunday? It (to rain) hard and we (not to go) to the country. 13) Last night Mary (to do) her hair, (to put on) her beautiful black dress and elegant shoes and (to go) to the theatre. 14) Why you (not to be) at the Institute two days ago? I (to go) to the dentist. I (to have) a toothache. 15) The other day Linda (to drop) her favourite vase. It (to fall) on the floor and (to break) into a hundred pieces. 16) When you (to be) in Chicago last? Two months ago. I (to visit) my uncle. 17) He (to give up) smoking long time ago. 18) In Madrid Mr Foster once (to go) to a bullfight and (to find) it exciting. 19) Why Karen (not to phone) me on Friday? I think she (to be) away. 20) They (to buy) their tickets and five minutes later the train (to arrive). (B) When I (1) (to be) a child I (2) (to love) visiting my grandmother. I (3) (to think) her house (4) (to be) as beautiful as a palace and the garden (5) (to seem) bigger than a park. As I (6) (to grow) older the house and the garden (7) (to seem) smaller, but I still (8) (to love) visiting the old lady. There (9) (to be) so many lovely things to look at in the house. Sometimes I (10) (to play) with the dolls house which (11) (to be) older than grandmother herself; at other times I (12) (to look) at books which (13) (to be) lovelier and more interesting than my childrens books at home. I (14) (to love) her paintings and the old clock, but most of all I (15) (to love) a big Chinese vase which (16) (to stand) in the hall. It (17) (to be) taller than me, and I (18) (not to see) anything inside it. I (19) (to walk) round and round it looking at the beautiful ladies, birds, flowers and trees which (20) (to be) painted on it. I (21) (to admire) the beauty of the vase and grandmother often (22) (to tell) me stories about these ladies. Before my grandmother (23) (to die), she (24) (to give) me the vase I (25) (to love) so much. I (26) (to be) really happy. It (27) (to look) beautiful in our modern hall.

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2.9. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Present Indefinite. (A) Jane: Hi, Johnny. I haven't heard from you for a long time. Where have you been? Johnny: I (1) (to start) a new job six months ago. I (2) (to be) a computer salesman now. I (3) (to enjoy) it very much. My company (4) (to send) me abroad every few weeks. Last month I (5) (to go) to Japan it (6) (to be) fantastic! Jane: Wow! Japan! How long you (7) (to stay) there? Tell me about it! Johnny: I (8) (to stay) there for three weeks in a luxurious hotel. The company always (9) (to pay) for everything. Jane: I'd love a job like yours. Johnny: Well actually, Jane, that (10) (to be) the reason why I am calling you now. I (11) (to need) an assistant. Last week the company (12) (to tell) me to choose someone and I immediately (13) (to think) of you. What you (14) (to think)? Jane: Of course I (15) (to agree). (B) Yesterday Jane (1) (to wake) up at seven thirty. She (2) (to have) a quick shower, a cup of coffee, (3) (to get) into her car and (4) (to drive) to work. She (5) (to find) a parking space outside the office door. "That (6) (to be) very strange", she (7) (to think) as she (8) (to walk) up to the front door of the office building; usually there (9) (to be) a lot of cars outside the office and she (10) (to leave) her car in another street. The door (11) (to be) locked when she (12) (to try) to open it. This (13) (to be) very unusual. She (14) (to look) at her watch. It (15) (to be) exactly nine o'clock! "The door never (16) (to be) locked at nine o'clock," she (17) (to say) to herself. She (18) (to take) out her key and (19) (to unlock) the door. As she (20) (to walk) into the office, Jane (21) (to see) that all the windows (22) (to be) closed. It (23) (to be) summer and her secretary (24) (to open) the windows when she (25) (to arrive) in the morning. But Jane's secretary (26) (not to be) at her desk this morning. "Anybody (27) (to be) here?" she (28) (to shout) nervously. There (29) (to be) no answer. Jane (30) (to go) to her office and (31) (to sit) down behind her desk. "What the matter (32) (to be)? Where everyone (33) (to be)?" Then she (34) (to see) her diary on the desk. "Oh, no!" she (35) (to say). "Today (36) (to be) Sunday!"

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2.10. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where necessary. 1) He used to went fishing every Sunday. 2) I didn't be very keen on sport in those days. 3) She sured that she remembers my address. 4) Even when they was children, their parents were discussed family problems with them. 5) She falled ill yesterday and had to stay at home. 6) I come to you on Sunday. Where did you be? 7) When he switched on the light, he didn't saw anybody in the room. 8) Why you stayed at home last weekend? The weather was bad. It was very cold and it was snow hard. 9) When you lived in London, did you used to travel by bus? 10) The last time I saw Helen was before she leaved for Australia. 11) Did Tom late for his work the day before yesterday? 12) The other day Henry buy a new car. 13) How old did Marian was when they first met? 14) When did you graduated from the University? 15) When you passed the town hall clock, did you noticed what time was it? 16) I supported you at the time because I feeled that you are right. 17) When were they got married? Two years ago. 18) Did you done your morning exercises every day when you was a schoolboy? 19) She said that she is very hungry and wants to have a snack. 20) Jane was very tired last night, didn't she? 21) Yesterday Terry didn't had breakfast as he was pressed for time. 22) The other day I borrowed this book from the library. 23) She knew that it is very difficult to get this job. But she done her best and she was taken on. 24) Why did he be so angry with you yesterday? 25) Last month John wasn't go to Singapore on business, was he? 2.11. Translate into English. Use the Past Indefinite. 1) , . 2) , ? . 3) ? . .

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4) , , . . 5) , , . 6) ? . ? . 7) ? 8- . . 8) ? . . ? , . 9) ? 4 , 3. 10) ? . . 11) ? . 12) , . . 13) , ? . . 14) . . 15) ? . 16) , . 17) , , . 18) ? . . 19) . , , . 20) , 18 . 2.12. Read the stories and reproduce them. Use the Past Indefinite. 1) Two Englishmen, when in Spain, came into a small restaurant to have their lunch. But they had a problem. They didn't speak Spanish. And the waiter didn't understand English. The Englishmen wanted to order some milk but they didn't know how to explain this to the waiter. They pronounced the word

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several times, they spelled it, they drew it with their fingers on the table. All in vain, the waiter didn't understand them. At last it occurred to one of the Englishmen to draw a cow. He took out his notebook and pencil and drew a picture of a cow. When the waiter saw the picture, he smiled, nodded in approval and rushed out of the room. In a quarter of an hour he came back panting and put in front of his clients two tickets for a bullfight. 2) This happened many years ago when people believed in the stars. There lived a King who had a daughter. He loved her very much. But one day his daughter fell ill. He used to ask his astrologer to tell him his future. This time he ordered him to tell him his daughter's future. The astrologer looked at the stars through his telescope and said: "Your Majesty, the stars tell me that your daughter is going to die." Soon after this she died. The King was very upset but then he got angry and decided to punish the astrologer. He ordered him to come to his place and asked him: "Now, tell us, what your stars tell you about your death." But the astrologer was clever enough to answer: "Your Majesty, the stars tell me that I'll die two days before your death." So the astrologer saved his life in such a way.

3
1. F o r m a t i o n

THE FUTURE INDEFINITE

The Future Indefinite is formed with shall/will + Infinitive (without to) for the 1st person singular and plural and will + Infinitive (without to) for the other persons. The negative is formed with shall/will not + Infinitive. The interrogative is formed with shall/will + subject + Infinitive.

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Affirmative
I shall/will visit You will visit He/she/it will visit We shall/will visit They will visit them next week.

Negative
I shall/will not visit (= I shan't/won't visit) You will not visit He/she/it will not visit We shall/will not visit They will not visit Shall/Will I not visit (= Shan't/Won't I visit) Will you not visit Will he/she/it not visit Shall/Will we not visit Will they not visit them next week.

Interrogative
Shall/Will I visit Will you visit Will he/she/it visit Shall/Will we visit Will they visit them next week?

Negative Interrogative
them next week?

2. U s a g e The Future Indefinite is used to denote: 1) decisions taken at the moment of speaking (on-the-spot decisions): Since it's getting dark, I'll turn on the light. 2) hopes, fears, threats, offers, promises, warnings, predictions, requests, comments etc., especially with: expect, hope, believe, I'm sure, I'm afraid, probably, etc.: I'm afraid I'll be a little late. 3) actions or predictions which may (not) happen in the future: She'll probably buy this dress (prediction); or actions which we cannot control or will inevitably happen: He will be twenty next year. 4) future actions in the object clauses of a compound sentence: I don't know if (whether) the play will be a success. I wonder when he will come back. Remember: The Present Indefinite is used instead of the Future Indefinite to denote a future action in the adverbial clauses of time and condition (after the conjunctions: when, before, after, till, until, as soon as, if = whether, unless): I'll call you as soon as he comes. If the weather is fine tomorrow we'll go to the country. Remember the difference in the use of if and unless: We'll go to the country if it doesn't rain tomorrow. We'll go to the country unless it rains tomorrow.

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The following time expressions can be used with the Future Indefinite: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week/ month/ year, in some days, soon, in a week/ month, in an hour, in half an hour, etc.
EXERCISES

3.1. Explain the use of the Future Indefinite forms. Translate into Russian. 1) I'm sure you will enjoy your visit to the zoo. 2) He'll call you as soon as he comes. 3) Tom won't pass his exam. He hasn't done any work for it. 4) Martin will have his own car in a year. 5) There will be a meeting tomorrow. Don't forget about it! 6) Christmas Day will fall on Tuesday this year. 7) I don't know if the play will be interesting. 8) If the weather is fine, they will go to the country tomorrow. 9) Bob probably won't go to the library the day after tomorrow. 10) She said she would write a test on Monday. 3.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. 1) The company will make a profit next year. 2) The boy will remember this day all his life. 3) We'll have a party next Friday. 4) Linda will become a lawyer in four years. 5) The weather will be a bit colder tomorrow. 6) The sun will rise at 6 o'clock tomorrow morning. 7) Dennis has a cold. He'll stay home in bed today. 8) My grandparents will celebrate their golden wedding anniversary next month. 9) After he finishes school, he'll enter the University. 10) It will rain a lot in October. 11) He'll come to see us soon. 12) I'll recognize Tom when I see him again. 13) It will take her half an hour to get to the cinema. 14) There will be ten students in our group next semester. 15) He'll put on his raincoat if it rains. 3.3. Ask your fellow-student: 1) how long it will take him/her to do his/her homework; 2) whether it will snow tomorrow;

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3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

when he/she will join them; if they will read this text in class or at home; who he/she will go to the south with as soon as he/she passes all the exams; if he/she will go to the theatre or to a concert this Sunday; where they will go when Jane joins them; why he/she won't try to repair the radio-set before his/her father comes home; 9) how long he/she will stay in the mountains if the weather is nice; 10) when he is going to teach her to swim; 11) if he/she will go home by bus or by taxi today as it is rather late; 12) when he/she will have his/her day off; 13) why he/she is not going for a walk today; 14) when he/she will graduate from the Academy; 15) if they will go skating next Wednesday. Oral Activity I The teacher divides the class into two teams and chooses a leader. The teams in turn tell the leader what they are going to do in order to explain why they can't go to the cinema with him/her. Each grammatically correct answer gets 1 point. The team with the most points is the winner. Leader: Shall we go to the cinema tomorrow, John? Team A. S1: I'm sorry, I can't. I'm going to visit my grandparents tomorrow. Leader: Shall we go to the cinema tomorrow, Mary? Team B. S1: I'm sorry, I can't. I'm going to paint the kitchen tomorrow, etc. Oral Activity II The students have decided to decorate a house they are going to live in. The teacher divides the class into two teams. Team A suggests something but Team B finds a reason to disagree. Then Team A agrees and adds on-the-spot decisions as a compromise for both sides. Students who produce a correct sentence get 1 point. Play the game for some time and then change the roles of the teams. Here are some ideas: put paintings / buy carpet (furniture, fridge, TV) / build a garage/ repair the roof / plant trees / fix the door (windows) / paint the walls pink / put up new curtains, etc. Team A. S1: Team B. S1: Team A. S2: We are going to put paintings on the walls. We can't put paintings on the walls. They're expensive. Okay, we'll put posters on the walls then.

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Team A. S3: Team B. S2:

We're going to buy new furniture. We can't buy new furniture. We haven't got enough money, etc.

BE GOING TO vs. WILL Remember: Form Meaning/use will+ 1) decisions made at the base moment of speaking; form 2) predictions, often with I believe, expect, hope, think, etc.; 3) offers or willingness; 4) requests; 5) firm intentions, promises; 6) threats; 7) facts about the future; 8) something we believe will happen. Example 1) OK, I'll see you this evening at nine. 2) I think it will be a difficult game. 3) I'll give you a lift if you like. 4) All right. I'll water the flowers. 5) Will you do me a favour? 6) I'll love you forever. 7) I won't speak to you ever again! 8) This holiday will fall on Monday this year. 9) Don't carry that heavy box you will hurt your back. 1) I'm going to phone her tomorrow. 2) Look. It's going to rain. 3) It's 8 o'clock you are going to be late again. 4) 3) That building is going to collapse soon.

be going to + base form

1) intentions, plans; 2) something in the future because of information in the present; 3) predictions, especially when there is evidence.

3.4. Fill in: will or be going to. 1) I've lost my keys! I ..... help you look for them. 2) Watch out! You ..... knock the vase over. Oh! I didn't see it. 3) This ice-cream is delicious! Don't eat any more. You ..... be sick. 4) Here is the waiter! Would you like a drink? Yes, please. I ..... have a glass of wine. 5) I'll park the car here. Be careful, you ..... hit the wall! 6) ..... you have a biscuit with your tea? No, thank you. I'm on a diet.

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7) Have you decided what to wear tonight? Yes, I ..... wear my black velvet dress. 8) Have you seen John today? No, but I ..... visit him this afternoon. 9) Why did you buy this flour? I ..... make a pie. 10) Could someone get me a glass of water? Certainly. I .....get you one. Would you like some ice in it? 11) Leave the washing up . I ..... do it later. 12) I arranged to borrow some money because I ..... buy a new car next week. 13) What are your plans for the summer holidays? I ..... spend a week on a Greek island. 14) Could someone open the window, please? I ..... do it. 15) Look at all those dark clouds. There ..... be a storm. Written Activity Look at Jim's notes then produce a complete letter using will or be going to: go California / summer holidays / by plane (quickest way) / not alone / friend come/ probably brother if decide / stay San Francisco a week / then somewhere else / hope / find / place / sleep / sunbathe a lot / take swimsuit and sunglasses / think / need them / sure / be / good holiday / join us? Dear Ted, I'm going to California for the summer holidays.. Yours, Tim 3.5. Combine the ideas of the two sentences into one sentence. Use adverbial clauses of time or condition. Model: I will finish my work. I will go to bed. (after) After I finish my work I'll go to bed. or I'll go to bed after I finish my work. 1) The bell will ring. They will leave the room. (when) 2) Bob will study hard. He'll pass the exam. (if) 3) She will come on Monday. She will phone you. (as soon as) 4) He'll tell her everything. He'll leave for Germany. (before) 5) I'll be free in a minute. I'll help you. (as soon as) 6) They will stay at home on Sunday. It will rain. (if) 7) Robert will drive a car. He will be 18 next month. (when) 8) Ann will leave school. She will get this job. (after) 9) Mary will be ready soon. They'll be able to set off. (when) 10) She won't go to bed. He'll come home. (until)

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11) Steven will miss his train. He won't hurry. (if) 12) They will discuss the problem. You will arrive. (before) 13) We won't go to the country. The weather will not improve. (until) 14) He is going to take a hot bath. He will get home tonight. (as soon as) 15) It will be hot tomorrow. I'll go swimming. (if) 16) Adam will call Mary tomorrow. He will invite her to the party. (when) 17) He will not write to you. You will write to him. (unless) 18) She will stay in bed. The clock will strike nine. (till) 19) Sam will have a short rest. He will have dinner. (after) 20) Betsy won't study for the test. She'll get a bad mark. (if) 21) I'll be better in some days. I'll go to school then. (as soon as) 22) We'll meet him at the station. He'll return from his business trip. (when) 23) You'll have to wait. He will be busy. (if) 24) He won't be able to buy this house. He won't have enough money. (until) 25) Everybody will be in the classroom. The teacher will come in. (before) 3.6. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. (A) 1) Nick (to meet) me at the airport when my plane (to arrive) tomorrow. 2) After she (to get) home from school every afternoon, she usually (to drink) a cup of tea. 3) Before Tom (to go) to bed last night, he (to take) a shower. 4) I don't know when he (to come) tonight, but if it (not to be) late, I (to phone) you. 5) It's getting late, but before Mary (to go) to bed, she (to finish) her homework and (to write) a letter to her friend. 6) Every day when Mrs White (to call) me on the phone she (to complain) of her poor health. 7) Kate will graduate in a year. She (to look) for a job after she (to graduate). 8) Yesterday as soon as the snow (to stop), we (to go) skiing. 9) If I (to see) Mike tomorrow, I (to tell) him about the party. 10) Mr Brown often goes to New York. When he (to be) in New York, he usually (to see) a Broadway play. 11) Today is Sunday. Greg has gone fishing. I wonder, if he (to catch) any fish. 12) When Betsy (to be) ill last week, Ann (to come) to see her every day. 13) As soon as I (to be) ready, I (to tell) you. 14) We don't know yet when they (to receive) our telegram. But when they (to receive) it, we are sure, they (to phone) us. 15) Usually if the weather (to be) fine, Cindy (to go) to the beach every day.

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16) As soon as the test (to be) over in class yesterday, the students (to leave) the room. 17) After Peter (to get up) at 8 o'clock, he always (to do) his morning exercises. 18) I wonder, if you (to take) part in the coming competition. 19) It's sunny today, but there's a cold wind blowing. I think you (to be) cold if you (not to put) on your coat. 20) Ask her to call up Helen as soon as she (to come) home. 21) Every time she (to be) in London, she (to call) us. 22) What you (to do) before you (to go) to bed tonight? 23) I am sure he (to be) angry if John (to come) home late again. 24) They (not to go) out last night until it (to stop) raining. 25) Before you (to leave) the room, turn the lights off. 26) Sometimes Jane has temper tantrums. When she (to get) angry, she always (to cry) and (to stamp) her feet. 27) I wonder if he (to go) to the South next summer. 28) When she (to be) a first-year student last year, she (to visit) her parents once a month. 29) If he (to keep) driving like that, he (to have) an accident. 30) Every time Mr Smith (to arrive) in Manchester two years ago, he (to stay) at this hotel. (B) "You (1) (to meet) Agent 205 under the clock at the railway station. When she (2) (to arrive), she (3) (to give) you an envelope. I don't know if you (4) (to recognise) her in her disguise, but if she (5) (not to say) the secret code word, you (6) (to know) she is an enemy agent. You (7) (to take) the envelope and head for the train to Waterloo Station. When the train (8) (to come), you (9) (to get on) it and go to Waterloo. If you (10) (to miss) the 9.15 train, you (11) (to have to) get the next one. As soon as it (12) (to reach) Waterloo, leave the train and take a taxi to the Opera House. You (13) (to meet) Jenny there, although I'm not sure exactly when she (14) (to get) there. Give her the envelope. Wait until she (15) (to drive) off and then go home. We (16) (to call) you there. Are there any questions?" 3.7. Open the brackets. Use either the Future Indefinite or Present Indefinite. (A) 1) You see the weather (to be) rather nasty today. It (to look) like rain. Put on your raincoat or you (to get) soaked to the skin. 2) It is May. Soon summer (to come). The Smiths (to go) to the seaside in July.

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3) You (to have) your day off tomorrow? Certainly. Tomorrow is Sunday and on Sundays I (to be) always free. You (to stay) at home? Of course not, I (not to stay) at home. I (to go) to the skating-rink. I (to be) fond of skating. 4) Look around! How lovely it (to be) here! I (to think) we (to pitch) our tent near that oak-tree. 5) Ann has made up her mind to go in for gymnastics. So tomorrow she (to begin) her training. 6) It (to be) time you get up. All right, I (to get up) in a minute. At a quarter to eight I (to be) ready and we (to begin) breakfast. 7) He says he (to meet) me at the bus stop, but I (to be) sure he (to forget) to do it. 8) Her son (to be) ten next year. 9) If she (not to hurry), she (to be) late for her work. 10) Tomorrow the lecture (to be) over at 3 o'clock. So Mark (to be) at home at four. 11) We (to be) sure Kate (to take) part in the conference. She always (to take) part in them. 12) Tell me when he (to finish) his work. 13) I (to be) busy tonight. I (not to be able) to go to the cinema with you. 14) She (to join) her friends in an hour. 15) I wonder if he (to pass) his exams successfully. He is too lazy. (B) Tom's Uncle George (1) (to be) extremely rich. He (2) (to be) a strange old man, he (3) (to live) alone, (4) (to have) no wife or friends. He (5) (to have) a hobby. He (6) (to spend) all his money on buying precious stones. One day Uncle George (7) (to send) for his nephew because he (8) (to be) seriously ill and he (9) (to understand) he (10) (to die) soon. Here it should be explained that it (11) (to be) their first meeting. The matter is that many years ago Uncle George (12) (to have) a big quarrel with his sister who (13) (to be) Tom's mother and since then he has never spoken to them. When Tom (14) (to come) to see him, Uncle George (15) (to tell) him: "After my death you (16) (to have) all my precious stones. You (17) (to find) them in an iron box in the bank. But before you (18) (to unlock) the box read the letter on the top of it." Soon Tom (19) (to go) to the bank and (20) (to find) the letter which (21) (to say): "Dear Tom,

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This box (22) (to contain) a large number of precious stones which now (23) (to belong) to you. Also the box (24) (to contain) a powerful charge of dynamite which (25) (to explode) as soon as you (26) (to unlock) it. If you (27) (not to believe) me, open it and you (28) (to be blown) into pieces. I (29) (to be) sure you never (30) (to forget) your uncle." So this (31) (to be) Tom's dilemma. A rich man, he (32) (to be) at the same time poor. He (33) (to have) an iron box that (34) (to contain) great wealth, but also (35) (to contain) dynamite that (36) (to explode) when the key (37) (to be used) to unlock it. 3.8. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where necessary. 1) Is you going to visit them next weekend? 2) Call me as soon as she will send you a letter. 3) Look at these clouds! It will rain. 4) I will help you if I will not be busy. 5) We don't know what will happen in the future. 6) He finishes his report before he will go to bed. 7) She says she will be here until he will come. 8) Will you see Mr Smith tomorrow? I wonder whether you give him a message from Mr Black. 9) He will has a new computer next month. 10) When she will arrive, somebody meet her at the station. 11) Where do you work after you will change your job? 12) As soon as Terry get over his illness, his work will improves. 13) Where will you going to spend your summer holidays? If everything will be OK, I will go to the seaside. 14) Kate will has her first English lesson next Monday. 15) The teacher will is angry if Tom lates again. 16) I believe the Johnsons will move into their new flat in a month. 17) They will begin to work when everybody are here. 18) Next time it will takes him less time to get to my place. 19) Give me the book as soon as you will read it. 20) Before you will leave, don't forget to shut the window. 3.9. Translate into English. Use the Future Indefinite. 1) , , , , . 2) , .

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3) . 4) , 9. 5) , . 6) , . 7) , , 6- . 8) , . , . 9) , . . 10) , , . 11) , . ? 12) ! . . 13) , . 14) , , , . 15) ! . . 16) . , . 17) , . 18) ? . 19) ? , 4. 20) , . , . REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. (A) When Sam White (1) (to retire) last year, he (2) (to buy) a small cottage in a seaside village. The cottage (3) (to be) built many centuries ago, but (4) (to be) in very good condition. Sam (5) (to think) that he (6) (to have) a quiet life there, but in the summer holidays he (7) (to get) a shock. Hundreds of tourists

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(8) (to come) to the seaside village. Sam's cottage (9) (to be) the most beautiful building in the village and many of the tourists (10) (to come) to see it. From morning till night there (11) (to be) tourists outside the cottage. They (12) (to keep) looking through the windows and some of them even (13) (to go) into Sam's garden. This (14) (to be) too much for Sam. He (15) (to decide) to drive the unwelcome visitors away, so he (16) (to put) a notice in the window. The notice (17) (to say): "If you (18) (to want) to satisfy your curiosity, (19) (to come) in and (20) (to look) round. Price: ten pence." Sam (21) (to be) sure that the visitors (22) (to stop) coming but he (23) (to be) wrong. The number of the visitors (24) (to increase) and Sam (25) (to spend) every day showing them round the cottage. "I (26) (to come) here to retire, not to work as a guide," he (27) (to complain). In the end, he (28) (to sell) the cottage and (29) (to buy) a small modern house. It (30) (to be) an uninteresting little place and nobody (31) (to want) to see it. (B) There (1) (to live) long ago in the broad lands of Scotland a worthy lord who (2) (to have) an only son. And as he (3) (to come) to lie on his death bed, he (4) (to send) for the lad and (5) (to say): My son, I (6) (to know) too well that when I (7) (to be gone), you (8) (to waste) the money and the land that I (9) (to leave) you, and one day you (10) (to come) to poverty. The Heir of Linne, as the youth (11) (to be called), (12) (to begin) to say that he (13) (to be) careful and (14) (to do) everything to obey the wishes of his father. But the old man (15) (to tell) him not to make promises which he (16) (to be tempted) to break, but only to assure him of one thing. Far away in the borders of our land, he (17) (to say), (18) (to stand) a deserted cottage known as the Lonesome Lodge. (19) (To promise) that if you (20) (to sell) all you (21) (to have) in the world, you never (22) (to part) with this. (23) (To take) the key, and (24) (to hang) it round your neck, and (25) (to remember) that when your friends (26) (to turn) their backs upon you, and you (27) (to have) no place to go to, you (28) (to go) to the Lonesome Lodge, and there you (29) (to find) a friend in need. It (30) (to be) my desire. This (31) (to seem) a very strange saying to the young man, but to satisfy his father, he (32) (to hang) the key round his neck, and soon after the old man (33) (to die). (C) Speaking about my parents I should say that my mother and my father (1) (to be) very different people. Mum always (2) (to be) very calm; not exactly

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easy-going, because she (3) (to take) things very seriously sometimes, but she (4) (not to get excited). When we (5) (to be) small (my brother and me), she almost never (6) (to shout) at us. When we (7) (to do) something wrong, she (8) (to talk) to us about it firmly, but in a calm tone of voice. If we (9) (to shout) and (10) (to cry), she (11) (to make) us go and sit by ourselves in her room until we (12) (to calm) down. Dad, on the other hand, (13) (to use) to shout and go for a long walk to try to cool off. During the next few days he (14) (to be) cross with us a lot of time, which (15) (to upset) us, as nothing (16) (to be) our fault. Both of us kids (17) (to be) worried about what (18) (to be going) to happen, and a bit afraid, but we (19) (not to talk) to our parents much. Most of all we (20) (to be) worried about having to leave all of our school friends. 2. Translate into English: 1) . , ? , . 2) ? 8, , 11. 3) ? . . 4) 7. . , . 5) 18 . . 6) , , . 7) ? . , , . 8) . , . 9) , . . 10) , . . 11) . , . . 12) , 12 . 3 .

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13) , , . . 14) . . , , . 15) . . , . 16) , , , . 17) ! , . , . 18) ? . , . . 19) ? . - ? , . . 20) ? - ? . , . 21) , . , . 22) , , , . . 23) ! , . . . 24) , , . 25) ? ? ? 26) , ? , . . . 27) ? . . 28) , , . 29) ? . . 30) , . .

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PROGRESS TEST
1. Choose the correct variant. 1) Where ..... when I phoned you the other day? A) did you be C) were you B) you were D) was you 2) I dont know whether ..... tomorrow. C) it snows A) does it snow B) will it snow D) it will snow 3) Kate ..... of playing the piano. She wants to be a pianist. A) fonds C) does fond B) is fond D) fond 4) Whose book is this? It ..... to me. A) does belongs C) is belongs B) belong D) belongs 5) ..... to walk in the park every day when she lived in London? A) Was she used C) Be she used B) Did she use D) Is she used 6) Meet Helen at the station. Her train ..... at 4.30. A) will arrives C) is arrived B) arrives D) arrive 7) Why ..... for the lesson yesterday? I overslept. A) was you late C) were you late B) did you late D) you lated 8) She will go to the party next weekend. I think she ..... a good time there. A) will has C) shall have B) has D) will have 9) The other day Mark had dinner in a cafe, .....? A) did he C) didnt he B) hadnt he D) had he 10) I wont go for a walk until I ..... my homework. A) dont do C) will do B) do D) wont do 11) She turned off the light and ..... the room. A) leaved C) lefted B) left D) was leave 12) He ..... to like cats in his childhood. A) wasn't used C) wasn't use B) didn't use D) doesn't used

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13) I wonder whether he ..... his exam successfully next Monday. A) pass C) will pass B) passes D) does passes 14) ..... much last October? A) Was it rain C) Was it rained B) Did it rained D) Did it rain 15) Kate ..... to be alone. A) isn't like C) don't likes B) doesn't like D) not likes 16) Nick ..... a good swimmer in some weeks. A) will be C) shall is B) will has D) is 17) ..... a room of his own? A) Does he has C) Does he have got B) Have he got D) Does he have 18) If it ..... tomorrow, we won't go skiing. A) will be snow C) snows B) is snow D) does snow 19) My friend's sister ..... in London last month. A) didn't be C) were not B) wasn't D) didn't was 20) Who ..... you to play football? A) did teach C) taught B) teached D) was teach 21) She'll jog in the park when April ..... . A) will come C) will comes B) come D) comes 22) Mr Black ..... golf twice a week. A) play C) plays B) is play D) is plays 23) How many cinemas ..... in this town five years ago? A) they were C) did they be B) were there D) was there 24) His mother always ..... with him when he comes home late. A) angries C) is angry B) will is angry D) does angry 25) He ..... for his work if he misses this bus. A) will late C) will is late B) will be late D) shall be late

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26) She ..... a nice play just now. A) sees C) will see B) seen D) saw 27) When .....? At 4.30. A) will your train C) your train arrives arrives B) does your train arrive D) is your train arrive 28) Who ..... this poem? I don't know. A) writes C) did write B) wrote D) was write 29) Mary ..... to get up at 6 o'clock last year. A) did use C) is used B) used D) was used 30) She looks nice, .....? A) isn't she C) isn't it B) does she D) doesn't she 31) He'll write a letter to his parents before he ..... to bed. A) will go C) goes B) go D) will goes 32) She didn't know what time ..... . A) did it be C) did it was B) was it D) it was 33) My sister ..... as a nurse. A) works C) is work B) work D) does work 34) I was sure he ..... us soon. A) will visit C) would visit B) visits D) will be visit 35) They ..... their work in an hour. A) will finish C) will be finish B) would finish D) finishes 36) He ..... to Rome the other day. A) flied C) fly B) flew D) flown 37) The sun ..... early in winter. A) sits C) sats B) sets D) seats 38) There ..... much sugar in my tea. A) are not C) is not B) do not D) does not

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39) I don't know whether I ..... to join you so soon. A)am ready C) ready B) will ready D) will be ready 40) She ..... his last novel. It was boring. A) wasn't enjoy C) didn't enjoyed B) didn't enjoy D) enjoys 2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. 41) Linda always (to have) lunch at home. But yesterday she (to have) it in a cafe. 42) How often he (to miss) classes last semester? It (to be) very seldom. 43) Hurry up! Otherwise you (not to catch) your train. 44) Where you (to be) yesterday evening? I (to be) at home. 45) If Kate (to enter) the Academy, she (to be) a lawyer in 5 years. 46) I dont know if she (to pass) the coming exams successfully. She is a bit lazy. 47) You (to watch) this film the day before yesterday? Yes, but I (not to like) it. I (to be) bored. 48) What your father (to do)? He (to be) an engineer. He (to work) at a plant which (to produce) machinery. 49) Janet (to invite) you to the party just now? Yes. Everybody (to enjoy) it. We (to have) a good time there. 50) As soon as the negotiations (to be) over, we (to sign) a contract with this company, I am sure. 51) Anybody (to meet) him at the station when he (to arrive) yesterday? Yes. It (to be) Max. They (to go) to the hotel at once. 52) I hope it (not to snow) next Sunday and we (to go) skiing. 53) Jack (to be) a heavy sleeper? No, he never (to get up) later than at 7 oclock. 54) She used to be shy when she (to be) younger but now she (not to be). 55) He said that he (to attend) the soccer game if nothing (to prevent) him. 56) Many students usually (to take) part in scientific conferences? It (to depend). 57) You (to be) always in time for your work? Yes, but yesterday I (to be) late because I (to miss) my bus. 58) You (to go) to the skating-rink with us? No, I (to be) very busy now. But as soon as I (to finish) my work, I (to join) you. 59) It (to rain) often here in summer? No, it (to rain) very seldom. The climate (to be) usually warm and dry here.

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60) You (to go) to the Crimea last year? Yes, I (to go) there with my friends. We (to spend) three weeks there. 61) If she (to have) an opportunity to go abroad this year, she (to leave) for France. She (to know) almost everything about this country already. 62) Who (to teach) you English? Mrs Fox does. She (to be) a good teacher. 63) Dont forget to switch off the light before you (to leave). 64) Mr Smith (to be) a sales representative. He often (to go) on business trips. In a month he (to go) to Germany. 65) Why you (to be) so upset when I (to meet) you in the street the other day? 66) What she (to do) on Sundays? As a rule, she (to visit) her parents. They (to live) in the country. 67) What she (to do) last Sunday? She (to stay) at home. She (to be) ill. 68) His grandparents (to celebrate) their golden wedding anniversary next Sunday. 69) When she (to be) here? She (to be) here in a few minutes. 70) Mrs Watson (to be) keen on animals. She (to have) two dogs and four cats and she (to take) much care of them. 71) If it (to be) cold tomorrow, he (to put on) his warm coat. 72) She always (to be) glad to see us when we (to come) to her place in summer. 73) I asked him whether he (to like) ice-cream. 74) When your daughter (to finish) school? Last year. 75) She (to be) ready? Not yet. But she (to be) ready in half an hour. 76) Mark told me that he (to buy) a new TV-set soon. 77) You (to swim) well when you (to be) a schoolgirl? Unfortunately, I couldn't swim at all. 78) Nobody (to like) to stay in town in hot weather. 79) They'll discuss this question when Mr Sutton (to arrive). 80) Our fridge (to be) out of order just now, but father (to manage) to repair it. 3. Translate into English. 81) , . 82) ? , . . 83) . , , , .

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84) , . , ? . . 85) , , . 86) , , . 87) , , . 88) , , . . 89) ? . , . 90) ? . ? . 91) , 7. ? . . 92) , , . 93) , . 94) ? , . 95) . . 96) . , . 97) ? . , , . 98) , . 99) ? . ? . 100) 7. , . ! , . Total: 100/_____

UNIT 3

PERFECT TENSES
ENTRY TEST

1. Choose the correct variant. 1) Why do you look so unhappy? I ..... my purse. A) had lost C) have lost B) lost D) will have lost 2) We are late. The meeting ..... an hour before. A) has started C) started B) had started D)starts 3) She was the most delightful person I ..... . A) ever met C) have ever met B) had ever met D) has ever met 4) Julia ..... all the housework by 3 oclock tomorrow. A) will finish C) has finished B) will have finished D) finished 5) Mother is asking the children if they ..... some biscuits for tea. A) had bought C) have bought B) will have bought D) has bought 6) That morning she went out after she ..... somebody. A) phoned C) has phoned B) had phoned D) have phoned 7) I promise I ..... in touch with you by 5. A) will have got C) got B) will get D) have got 8) We are going to buy a car. By the end of next month our family ..... money for it. A) saved C) had saved B) will save D) will have saved 9) I am so happy to see you again. I ..... you since I left London. A) havent seen C) didnt see B) hadnt seen D) wont see 10) Alice ..... the big house in the country. A) always has C) had always had B) has always had D) will always had 11) The Hills managed to arrive exactly on time because they ..... a taxi. A) took C) have taken

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12) 13) 14) 15)

16)

17)

18) 19)

20) 21) 22) 23)

B)were taking D) had taken He said that he ..... the vase one week before. A) broke C) had broken B) has broken D) would have broken She ..... by the time we arrive. A) will have lunch C) is having B) will have had lunch D) will be having I ..... some pictures to be developed. Are they ready? A) have left C) am leaving B) has leave D) left We asked Peter to come with us but he refused. He ..... to play tennis with his friends. A) had already promised C) already promised B) has already promised D) will have promised By the time I come, they ..... . A) will go away C) will has gone away B) will have gone away D) went away It is snowing heavily. Have you listened to the weather forecast for tomorrow? I hope it ..... snowing by tomorrow morning. A) will stop C) has stopped B) will have stopped D) stops After I ..... all my letters, I went to the kitchen to make coffee. A) wrote C) write B) had written D) had wrote Hardly ..... the envelope when she felt some strange pain. A) she opened C) had she opened B) she had opened D) has she opened The students ..... the text by the end of the lesson. A) will translate C) will has translated B) will have translated D) translated My parents ..... to the USA many times. A) were C) has been B) have been D) will have been I cant find my umbrella. I think somebody ..... it by mistake. A) took C) had taken B) has taken D) will have taken She ..... speaking over the phone when the phone rang again.

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24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35)

36)

A) hardly finished C) has hardly finished B) had hardly finished D) had finished hardly The students ..... the text by the end of the lesson. A) will translate C) will be translating B) will have translated D) will has translated By the beginning of his holidays he ..... all the exams. A) will have passed C) will pass B) will has passed D) passes I am very tired. I ..... the ceiling today. A) has painted C) painted B) have painted D) will have painted One of the passengers ..... in that accident. A) has died C) has dying B) has dead D) have died The workers say that they ..... a district by the beginning of 2008. A) will have built up C) will build up B) will build up D) built up Tell him about these events. He ..... about them. A) have never heard C) never has heard B) has never heard D) will have never heard He was tired because he ..... in the garden the whole day. A) worked C) has worked B) had worked D) is working I am afraid I ..... my book at home. A) have leaved C) have left B) left D) will have left My parents ..... by 5 to collect me from school after the tennis match. A) will have arrived C) has arrived B) will arrive D) arrived By this time next month I ..... my exams. A) will finish C) finished B) have finished D) will have finished I ..... the story. Could you listen to me? A) have learnt C) will have learnt B) had learnt D) will learn They ..... me about the accident. A) have already C) will have informed already informed B) had already informed D) will inform already I ..... from him since he left for Paris.

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37) 38) 39) 40)

A) hadnt heard C) didnt heard B) havent heard D) will not hear Jane was afraid she ..... her key at home, but she found it in her bag. A) had left C) would leave B) left D) has left I wasnt hungry because I ..... breakfast. A) had just had C) am just having B) has just had D) just had By this time next month I ..... my exams. A) will finish C) will have finished B) have finished D) had finished We ..... some good films recently. A) have seen C) will see B) has seen D) will have seen

2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. 41) Granny (to be) ill for a fortnight. 42) I (not to see) Tom for ages. 43) The builders (to finish) most of the work by Sunday. 44) Jack wasnt at home when I came back. He (to go) out 20 minutes before. 45) Peter saw an urgent message on his table. Somebody (to leave) it the day before. 46) By the time I get up tomorrow morning, the sun (to rise) already. 47) I apologized I (not to phone) them. 48) By the time I come, they (to go). 49) Where is Jane? She (to go) to the shops. Shell be back soon. 50) Mr. Brown doesnt often mow the lawn. He (not to cut) the grass for ages. 51) By the end of the year we (to be) through with our experiment. 52) I (never to sail) again since that journey. 53) Dora isnt playing the piano well. It is the first time she (to play) the piano this month. 54) I recognized him at once though I (to meet) him many years before. 55) He told me that he (to come back) a fortnight before. 56) Have you got any money? Yes, I (to borrow) it from my brother. 57) I think she (to cook) dinner by the time mother comes home. 58) Mom (to lose) her car keys, so we have to open the door by force. 59) Sue (not to take) a lot of drugs since she joined the health club. 60) The doctor (to examine) the patient by 5. 61) She (to have) a headache since she came from the theatre. 62) They couldnt believe he (to give up) his job in the bank.

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63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80)

Mr. Jackson said that he (already to buy) everything for lunch. I bought a new dress last week, but I (not to wear) it yet. I (to be) very busy lately, so I (not to type) your letter yet. It is the third time he (to visit) Rome. Tell John about this film. He (never to see) it. Why were you looking so unhappy yesterday? I (to lose) my bag. I (to watch) TV by midnight. When will you repair your bike? I (to do) it tomorrow by 8. He quickly forgot everything he (to learn) at school. The man (to be) unconscious for a few minutes when an ambulance arrived. Hardly I (to finish) speaking with a porter when I saw Paul. By the end of this year Bob (to save) enough to go to America. I began writing to you instead of going to the seaside, as I (to plan) before. I am so happy to see you. I (not to see) you since I left Rome. Sam was upset because Judy (not to come). Your guests (to go) by 4? They (to pick) all the apples by the end of October. After I (to write) all the letters, I went to the kitchen to make tea.

3. Translate into English. 81) . 82) , . 83) , . 84) , . 85) 3 . 86) , ? 87) . 88) , . 89) . 90) . 91) . 92) . , . 93) , . 94) 2 , . 95) . - ? 96) , ? 97) . 98) , .

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99) . . 100) 1 . Total: 100/______ 1. 1. F o r m a t i o n The Present Perfect is formed with the auxiliary to have in the Present Indefinite + the Past Participle: I have just finished my work. The Past Participle in regular verbs has exactly the same form as the Past Indefinite: loved, walked, etc. The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to have in the Present Indefinite + the Past Participle. The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to have in the Present Indefinite and the subject+ the Past Participle. Affirmative
I have just finished (= I've just finished) You have just finished school. He/she/it has just finished We have just finished They have just finished

THE PRESENT PERFECT

Negative
I have not finished (= I haven't finished) You have not finished He/she/it has not finished We have not finished They have not finished Have I not finished (= Haven't I finished) Have you not finished Has he/she/it not finished Have we not finished Have they not finished school.

Interrogative
Have I finished Have you finished Has he/she/it finished Have we finished Have they finished

Negative Interrogative

school?

school?

2. U s a g e The Present Perfect is used to indicate a completed action the result of which is felt at the moment of speech or an action, which began at a certain moment of the past time but is still going on now.

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The Present Perfect is used to denote: 1) an accomplished action which is viewed from the moment of speaking as part of the present situation. Attention is centred on the action itself or on the result of the action: I've changed everything. 2) a recent action when the time is not mentioned: I have read the instructions but I don't understand them. 3) an action which began in the past and is still continuing (with verbs which are not used in the Continuous form) or an action which began in the past and is finishing at the moment of speaking: I have known him since childhood. He has lived here all his life (he still lives here). It has been very cold lately but it is beginning to get a bit warmer. 4) opening up a conversation, introducing a new topic or summing up a situation: I'm afraid I've been terribly boring and talked too much. 5) news reporting; the use of this tense makes the event seem immediate and of direct reference to the present: The Prime Minister has announced that taxes are to increase from the beginning of next year. 6) an action in clauses of time and condition after the prepositions when, after, as soon as to indicate the completion of the action: I'll give you back your ring when I've found it. The following words and time expressions can be used with the Present Perfect: today/ this week/ month / year, etc. denoting an incomplete period of time: Have you seen him today? (= at any time today). just, lately, recently, yet (in negative sentences and in interrogative sentences when it corresponds to the Russian word ""), already (in affirmative sentences; and in interrogative sentences to express surprise), ever, never, before, and in some cases always: He has just gone out. I have seen wolves in that forest lately. I haven't finished my work yet. Has he come back yet? You have already solved this problem. Have you read the book already?! I have never been to Italy. What is the point? I have made it clear enough before. We have always lived in this town. for (used with the period of time), since (used with the beginning of the period of time): We have lived in London for 10 years / for a long time. She has been here since 8 o'clock/ since she left Moscow.

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EXERCISES 1.1. Explain the use of the Present Perfect forms. Translate into Russian. 1) I have just had lunch. 2) I have visited China twice. 3) I have never been to India. 4) He hasn't driven a car since December. 5) John hasn't written to me recently. 6) Has it stopped raining yet? 7) The door was white, now it is blue. Mary has painted the door. 8) We have known each other since we were at school. 9) It's 12 o'clock, so I have been here for 2 hours. 10) You can read this poem with the correct intonation after you have listened to it 3 times. 1.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. 1) She has already done her homework. 2) He has always lived here. 3) She has been here several times before. 4) We have just listened to the story. 5) They have already received a new flat. 6) I have already passed my driving test. 7) I have already found a good job. 8) He has tried to give up smoking 5 times this year. 9) We have met a lot of interesting people for one year. 10) He has studied very hard this term. 1.3. Transform into an interrogative form according to the model. Model: I have known him for 5 years (since 1980). How long have you known him? Since when (what time) have you known him? 1) Tom and I have known each other for 20 years already. 2) Since Christmas the weather has been bad. 3) Ann has been on holiday for 3 days. 4) He has had his car since February. 5) Bob and Mary have been married for 5 years. 6) He hasn't been at home for 2 weeks. 7) Three days have passed since the beginning of the 1st term. 8) He hasn't been to the theatre for a long time. 9) They haven't seen each other since they graduated from the Institute.

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10) He has studied very hard for 2 years. 1.4. Put in: yet or already. Mike: Haven't you cleaned the bathroom (1) yet? Chris: Stop complaining! You've (2) .. asked me that 3 times today. Why is it so important? Mike: I've (3) .. told you. My parents are coming to stay this weekend. Chris: Well, don't worry! They haven't come (4) .. , have they? Anyway, it's not my turn to clean the bathroom. I've (5) .. done it this month. Mike: That's not true. You've been living here for nearly a year and I haven't seen you do any cleaning (6) .. . 1.5. Put in: since or for. John and Norma have been married (1) for 20 years. They have been in New York (2) .. 1989. John has known Wall Street (3) .. 4 years and he has made a lot of money (4) .. he started working there. Norma hasn't worked (5) .. she moved to New York, but she hasn't written a book (6) .. the past 2 years. She has had a lot of spare time (7) .. their son left home 4 years ago to work in France. 1.6. Open the brackets. Use the Present Perfect. 1) The clock is slow. It isn't slow, it (to stop). 2) He (not to smoke) for 2 weeks. He is trying to give it up. 3) It (to be) cold this year. I wonder, when it is going to get warmer. 4) We (to miss) the bus. Now we'll have to walk. 5) I (to lose) my black gloves. You (to see) them anywhere? 6) Why you (not to bring) me the letters for signature? You (not to type) them yet? 7) You (to finish) checking the accounts? No, not quite. I (to do) about half so far. 8) You (to see) today's paper? No, anything interesting (to happen)? Yes, two convicted murderers (to escape) from the prison down the road. 9) How long that horrible monument (to be) there? It (to be) there for 6 months. Lots of people (to write) to the Town Council asking them to take it away but so far nothing (to be) done. 10) How long you (to be) out of work? I'm not out of work now. I just (to start) a new job. 11) I (to learn) the abstract of this poem. Could you listen to me? 12) He is the most handsome man I (ever/to know). 13) I (not to hear) from him since he left Paris. 14) You (to have) a holiday this year?

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15) We (not to see) each other since that evening at Mr. Grey. 1.7. Combine the given phrases. Translate what is given in the right-hand column. 1) I have lived in this city A) B) 10 C) 8 D) , 1990 2) I have waited for the boss A) 9 B) 2,5 C) , D) , 3) They have been our business A) 2 partners B) C) , D) 4) Steve has lived in Germany A) , B) C) D) 10 5) I haven't seen Tom A) B) C) D) , 6) The weather has been quite mild A) B) C) D) , 7) They have known each other A) B) 10 C) , D) 1990 8) He has been ill A) 3 B) , C) , D) ,

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1.8. Use adverbs or adverbial phrases given in the right-hand column instead of the underlined ones. Change the tense if necessary. 1) She has just arrived. A) the other day B) today C) just now D) already E) half an hour ago 2) I have been to Paris recently. A) 2 days ago B) never C) once D) several times E) lately 3) Have you had a holiday this A) just year? B) ever C) last year D) a year ago E) already 4) I havent eaten any fruits A) just now recently. B) never C) yesterday D) the whole life E) since I fell ill 5) Has he driven a car yet? A) before B) ever C) recently D) today E) last week 6) I have already peeled the A) yesterday potatoes. B) just C) the other day D) several hours ago E) just now 7) I didn't see him two weeks ago. A) lately B) never C) last Monday D) recently E) for ages

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She is always making mistakes.

9)

They don't often phone their parents.

10)

We are going to the cinema tonight.

11)

Jane met her friends at the party.

12)

She never dances with you.

13)

She was playing tennis the whole morning yesterday.

A) never B) just now C) last month D) just E) today A) never B) just C) last week D) regularly E) lately A) just B) just now C) the day before yesterday D) today E) last Sunday A) never B) already C) last June D) today E) lately A) last Sunday B) when you were children C) for many years D) since her birthday party E) since you quarrelled A) never B) since childhood C) for 20 years D) for many years E) last summer

1.9. Complete the sentences. Mind the use of the Present Perfect. 1) We ..... some good films recently. 2) I ..... from him since he left Paris. 3) She is the most beautiful and clever girl I ..... . 4) My parents ..... to the USA many times. 5) It's the third time Jill ..... her this evening. 6) I ..... this film yet but I'm going to see it. 7) We ..... a lot of interesting people in the last few days. 8) We ate a lot yesterday but we ..... much so far today.

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9) I ..... just ..... in touch with them. 10) I ..... never..... to Paris before. 1.10. Translate what is given in the left-hand column. Use the Present Perfect or Past Indefinite adding the phrases in the right-hand column. 1) A) today B) for ages C) since 1980 D) last Sunday E) in 1980 2) A) last year B) already C) this year D) recently E) a year ago 3) A) lately B) for ages C) since they got married D) last summer E) today 4) A) since we left school B) last summer C) for a long time D) lately E) since he retired 5) A) last year B) when she was at school C) a long time ago D) today E) since she was five Oral Activity Choose 8 things you have never done or have not done recently. Discuss them with your group mates. Prompts: 1) eat a chocolate/ a piece of melon 2) watch the sun come up/ go down 3) climb a tree/ a ladder 4) sing in the bath/ the shower 5) kiss a man with a beard/ a little girl

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6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12)

break a promise/ a window have a bad dream/ a headache write a love letter/ a poem sleep in a tent/ the open air wear a gun/ shorts go to bed before 10/ after 2 lose one's temper/ anything important

Begin your discussion like this: I have never .... I haven't .... for two weeks/ for months/ years, etc. I have not ... since last year/ 1980/ I was 15/ a young girl, etc. Written Activity The table below summarizes the results of matches played this season by 3 football clubs in the English First Division. Matches played Goals Points P W D L F A Manchester United 8 8 0 0 19 1 24 Liverpool 8 7 0 1 15 3 21 Arsenal 8 6 1 1 13 5 19 P Played, W Won, D Drawn, L Lost, F For, A Against.

Now write 4 sentences of your own about these clubs.


1.11. Translate into English. Use the Present Perfect. (A) 1) ? . 2) ? - . ? 3) . . 4) . , - . 5) ? . 6) , . 7) . 8) . ?

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9)

; , , . 10) , . (B) 1) . , ! 2) . 8 , . 3) , . 4) ? , . 5) . 6) . . 7) . . 8) - ? , . 9) , , . 10) 5 , , . (C) 1) , . ! ? . . . . , , 5 . 2) , . . ? , . 3) . . . . 4) , . , . . 5) , , . ? .

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6)

. , . . 3 . 7) ? . , . 8) ? , . . , . 9) ? , . . 10) ? . (D) 1) ? . . . 60 . . 2) . . , 8 . 3) ? , . . . . 4) . . . . . 5) . , . , , ! 6) , . . , . 7) . , , .

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8)

, , -. . 9) , , , . 10) ? , . ?

2. 1. F o r m a t i o n

THE PAST PERFECT

The Past Perfect is formed with the auxiliary to have in the Past Indefinite + the Past Participle. It is therefore the same for all persons: I had finished my work by the time my friends came. The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to have in the Past Indefinite+ the Past Participle. The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to have in the Past Indefinite and the subject+ the Past Participle. Affirmative
I had finished (= I'd finished) You had finished He/she/it had finished We had finished They had finished Had I finished Had you finished Had he/she/it finished Had we finished Had they finished school when they came.

Negative
I had not finished (= I hadn't finished) You had not finished He/she/it had not finished We had not finished They had not finished Had I not finished (= Hadn't I finished) Had you not finished Had he/she/it not finished Had we not finished Had they not finished school when they came.

Interrogative
school when they came?

Negative Interrogative
school when they came?

2. U s a g e

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The Past Perfect is used to indicate an action completed before a definite moment of the past time or before another completed past action. The Past Perfect is used to denote: 1) an action which began before a certain moment in the past and continued up to that moment or stopped just before it. This certain moment in the past is usually indicated with the preposition by: When I met him, he had been in the army for 2 years. When I arrived, Ann had just left. He had done the work by June. 2) an action expressed in clauses after the prepositions after, as soon as: After he had left Rome, he went to Paris. As soon as he had passed the exam he went to see his friends. 3) an action in reported speech : She said she had had a lovely time. The following words, time expressions and conjunctions can be used with the Past Perfect : ever, never, before, already, yet, always, just, etc.: I wasn't hungry. I had just had lunch. He had phoned us before he left. for (used with the period of time), since (used with the beginning of the period of time): The house was dirty. They hadn't cleaned it for weeks since May. hardly when, scarcely .... when, no sooner ..... than: They had scarcely come home when it began to rain. Hardly had she laid the table when the phone rang. No sooner had they entered the hall than the lecture began. EXERCISES 2.1. Explain the use of the Past Perfect forms. Translate into Russian. 1) I understood he had just fallen asleep. 2) I saw he hadn't written a single sentence yet. 3) She had known him long before he left for India. 4) The students had passed their last exam by the 1st of July and left for the Crimea. 5) No sooner had the clock struck midnight than there was a loud knock on the door. 6) Hardly had he entered the room when he heard some noise. 7) Maggy had scarcely introduced her new boy-friend to me when I recognized him. 8) He went home only after he had spoken to the manager.

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9) She wondered where Mum had put her new bag. 10) Mary told me that she hadn't gone to her grandmother since she finished school. 2.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. 1) From his worried expression I learnt that he had heard my story. 2) It was true that I had cleaned the garden properly. 3) The boy told his father everything that had happened to him. 4) By the evening he had lost the temper and nobody wanted to talk to him. 5) When I was 16, I had already earned the title of prince. 6) I had already cleaned the carpet by the time my mother asked to clean it. 7) They had spent all their savings before their son left school. 8) When I arrived at the caf, it had already closed. 9) After I had washed and dressed, I had breakfast. 10) They had already had dinner when Jack came home. 2.3. Say that somebody had already done the thing he/she was asked to. Model: My mother asked me to clean the window but ... My mother asked me to clean the window but I had already cleaned it. 1) John asked his friend to pick up his little daughter form the nursery school but ..... 2) I asked Jim to buy some bread for dinner but ..... 3) She advised me to contact Deny but ..... 4) I recommended Kelly to apply for a job but ..... 5) The secretary told Bob to pay his exam enrollment fee but ..... 6) They wanted us to buy a house but ..... 7) The receptionist at the hotel asked him to fill in an arrival card but ..... 8) Mr. Baker told the secretary to reply to the letters but ..... 9) John recommended his friend to spend the money saved on a car but ..... 10) I advised my friends to see "Titanic" but ..... 2.4. Answer the following questions. Use the Past Perfect. Model: Why didn't you invite him to your party? (to go to Moscow) I didn't invite him because he had gone to Moscow. 1) Why did you come so soon from your holiday? (to spend all the money) 2) Why didn't you phone Tom? (to quarrel with him) 3) Why couldn't you get into the flat? (to lose the key) 4) Why didn't you send him a letter at once? (to send a telegram) 5) Why didn't you give Nina the book yesterday? (to give it to Ann) 6) Why were you late for classes yesterday? (to miss the 8 o'clock train) 7) Why didn't you cook salad? (not to buy vegetables)

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8) Why did he feel so upset? (to lose the job) 9) Why did he refuse to go to the pictures with you? (to see the film) 10) Why didn't you see Ann on Sunday? (to go for the weekend)

2.5. Complete the sentences. Make use of the suggested Russian phrases. 1) We walked home after 2) They thought that 3) Did you ever see him after he 4) I went down to the beach after 5) The girl felt easier after she 6) When I turned round 7) When the parents came home 8) She didn't want to speak to him , 9) She couldn't believe that they 10) We decided to go to see them after we 2.6. Make up a complex sentence. Combine two simple sentences using either the Past Indefinite or Past Perfect. Model: The children went to bed. They did their lessons. The children went to bed after they had done their lessons. 1) She wrote a very good article. She studied the problem thoroughly. 2) The train started. He kissed her tenderly and wished good luck. 3) He rose to fame. He wrote the novel "Pickwick Papers". 4) She learned the poem by heart. She listened to the record 10 times. 5) He was a widower for a year. He met Mrs. Jones. 6) She fell ill. They moved to Siberia. 7) We packed our things. The taxi arrived. 8) The bell rang. The children ran out of the classroom. 9) Mary dusted the furniture in her flat. Soon she felt tired. 10) Mother laid the table for supper. The family sat down to table to have it. 2.7. Write a compound sentence to show that one action happened after another in the past. Use the conjunctions "after, before, as soon as". Model: Irene's mother cooked dinner. Irene came home soon. Irene's mother had cooked dinner before Irene came home. 1) I washed and dressed. Then I had breakfast. 2) Gill felt tired. She stopped working. 3) The weather became stormy. The air Traffic Control delayed the flights.

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4) The plane took off from Gatwick Airport. Then the hijackers seized it. 5) Andrew got the first profits. Then he decided to expand his business. 6) James listened to the latest news. Then he went downstairs to the recreation

room. 7) Nelly introduced her sister Helen to us. Then Helen joined our company. 8) Mary had bacon and eggs, a cup of tea. Then the clock struck 8. 9) I bought tickets. Then I went to the theatre. 10) I learnt the material. Then I went to pass the exam. 2.8. Jane arrived late at different places yesterday. What had happened when she arrived at each place? Model: When she arrived at the station, her train had already left.
1) the station 2) the theatre 3) the post-office 4) the dress shop 5) Jack's house 6) the tennis court 7) the caf 8) the University 9) John's office 10) cinema

her train/ already/ leave the play/ already / start it/ already/ close they/ sell/ the dress she wanted to buy he/ go out the game/ nearly/ finish her friend/ just/ leave her classes/ already/ begin he/ already/ leave for New York the tickets/ already/ sell out

2.9. Combine two sentences to make a compound one with the conjunctions hardly when, scarcely when, no sooner ... than. Model: She started cooking. The phone rang. Hardly had she started cooking when the phone rang. 1) He saw the policemen approaching the house. He decided to escape at once. 2) We ran into difficulty. Jacob knew how to overcome it. 3) She typed one letter but then the boss gave her another. 4) Mark started business but then the war began. 5) They packed the things. Then it was high time to go to the station. 6) The last passengers got on the train. It started. 7) He touched the pillow. He fell asleep. 8) He entered the hall. The lights went out and the curtains rose. 9) We started. It began raining cats and dogs. 10) She recovered from the illness. There followed another heart attack. 2.10. Put the verbs in brackets into the required tense form:

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1) He hardly (to reach) the door of his office when he (to encounter) two young

men. 2) He scarcely (to say) the first words when she (to interrupt) him. 3) She scarcely (to take) a few steps along the street, when three men (to appear) from around the corner. 4) Hardly he (to ask) his questions when she (to answer) them. 5) No sooner the curtains (to fall) than he (to rise) to go. 6) No sooner the robber (to enter) the bank than he (to hear) the police running. 7) Hardly she (to occupy) the post of a manager in the firm when she (to decide) to give up this job. 8) Scarcely the (to buy) the tickets to go to Rome to participate in the scientific conference when something serious (to happen). 9) She scarcely (to agree) to make a report when she (to change) his decision. 10) No sooner the judge (to pass) the verdict than the jury (to ask) to think it over again. 2.11. Complete the sentences. Supply the missing parts. 1) Hardly had the day broken when .. 2) No sooner had the singer appeared on the stage than .. 3) Scarcely had he opened the door when .. 4) Hardly had the snow covered the ground when .. 5) ..... when he realized that he had left his wallet at home. 6) .. than they rushed out of the room. 7) .. when she cried. 8) .. than the child went to sleep. 9) .. when the train arrived. 10) .. than he asked another question. 2.12. Complete the following sentences. Use either the Past Perfect or Past Indefinite. 1) After he had seen his sister, he ..... 2) Before they reached the house, they ..... 3) As soon as he had bought the tickets, he ..... 4) Hardly had he entered the room when he ..... 5) After he had arrived in London, he ..... 6) Scarcely had he walked home when he ..... 7) She left the office as soon as she ..... 8) We met after he ..... 9) Before he turned round, they ..... 10) No sooner had they become friends than they .....

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2.13. Fill in with the Past Perfect. When I entered the house, something smelt awful. Someone (1) had burnt (to burn) the meal. I (2) (to visit) the house once before and (3) (to meet) the family but I didn't know what (4) (to happen) since then. The house was a mess. The children (5) (to leave) their toys all over the floor. Someone (6) (to leave) all the windows open. All the curtains (7) (to get) wet and dirty. I asked the children where their parents were. They told me that their mother (8) (to be) in hospital for the past two weeks. Their father (9) (to be) with them since then. Obviously he (10) (to do) his best, but he couldn't do any better since he worked all morning long and had to leave them always alone. 2.14. Complete the sentences. Mind the use of the Past Perfect. 1) My father was 40 and he (to be) a widower for 15 years. 2) Hardly ... we (to take) our seats when he (to come over). 3) Why were you so angry when I saw you yesterday? Oh, I (just/ to have) a big argument with my parents. 4) He was very nervous when he first drove in Britain because he (not to drive) on the left before. 5) When I heard his voice on the phone, I knew that I (to speak) to him before. Then I remembered I (already/ to meet) him. 6) When I found my wallet, I discovered that someone (to take) the credit cards out of it. 7) The girls hair was wet because she (just/to swim) in the sea. 8) They werent eating when I went to see them. They (just/to finish) dinner. 9) The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody (to go) to bed. 10) Yesterday at a restaurant I saw Pam Donnelly, an old friend of mine. I (not to see) him for years. He (to lose) at least 15 pounds. ORAL ACTIVITY Not all students of English are hardworking. What do you think the teacher and students actually said in this conversation? Use the Present Perfect or Past Perfect. Teacher: Right, I'll collect your homework now. Student: I (to leave) it at home, sir. T: And you? S: I (to forget) to take my book home, sir. T: Now get out your books and do it now. What is it, Nick? S: Yesterday when I came home I found out that I (to lose) my book. T: Well, share it with Tom then. Where is your pen, Tom? S: I can't find it, sir. I think somebody (to steal) it.

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T: S: T: S: T: S:

Use a pencil, then. My friend reminded me last week that I (to lend) it to somebody. Now, Jack, what's your answer to the first question? I can't read it, sir. I (to break) my glasses. Has anyone seen Ann today? Yes, sir. She said she (to leave) her homework on the kitchen table. She (to go) home to get it.

WRITTEN ACTIVITY Write sentences to show that one action happened after another one in the past. Model: 9.35 I arrive at the caf. The caf closes at 9.30. When I arrived at the caf, it had already closed. 1) 9.00 he telephones Ann's house. Ann goes to work at 8.45. 2) 12.00 we reach the airport. The plane takes off at 11.50. 3) 10.30 they get to the meeting. The meeting begins at 9.30. 4) 7 p.m. I switch on TV. The program finishes at 6.55. 5) I met Miss Davis. She finds out my name. 6) 8.02 we arrive at the station. The train goes at 8.00. 7) We come to Bristol. Mr Smith lives there for 10 years. 8) I arrive at the reception. The person I want to see goes home. 2.15. Translate into English. Use the Past Perfect. (A) 1) , . 2) , . 3) , , . 4) , . , . 5) , . 6) , . 7) , , . 8) , . 9) ; , . 10) , . 11) , , . 12) , .

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13) , . 14) ,

. 15) , . 16) 5. . 17) , . 18) 9 . , . 19) , , , . 20) , . () 1) , , , , . 2) , . . , . 3) , . . 4) , , - , . , , . 5) , . , . 6) , . , . , . 7) . , , , . 8) . . .

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9) 8 . .

, . , , . 10) . , . 3 1. F o r m a t i o n The Future Perfect is formed with the auxiliary to have in the Future Indefinite + the Past Participle. The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to have in the Future Indefinite+ the Past Participle. The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to have in the Future Indefinite and the subject+ the Past Participle. Affirmative
I shall have finished (= I'll have finished) You will have finished He/she/it will have finished We shall have finished They will have finished school by the time they come.

THE FUTURE PERFECT

Negative
I shall not have finished (= I shan't have finished) You will not have finished (= You won't have finished) He/she/it will not have finished We shall not have finished They will not have finished school by the time they come.

Interrogative
Shall I have finished Will you have finished Will he/she/it have finished Shall we have finished Will they have finished school by the time they come?

Negative Interrogative
Shall I not have finished (= Shan't I have finished) Will you not have finished Will he/she/it not have finished Shall we not have finished Will they not have finished school by the time they come?

2. U s a g e

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The Future Perfect is used to indicate an action which will be completed before a definite moment of the future time. The Future Perfect is used to denote an action which will be completed before or by a certain moment in the future. This certain moment is indicated with the preposition by: The TV program will have finished by 5 before we come back. I'll have read 5 books by the end of the term. In subordinate clauses of time and condition after the conjunctions when, after, as soon as etc. to stress the completion of the action the Present Perfect is used instead of the Future Perfect: After I've read the book, I'll give it to you. EXERCISES 3.1. Explain the use of the Future Perfect forms. Translate into Russian. 1) Alice and Robert will have made up with each other by the evening. 2) They will have got married by the time you return from abroad. 3) I'll telephone him when I have completed my work. 4) The teacher will have looked through all our exercise-books by the end of the week. 5) The film will have already started when we get there. 6) I shall have read this book by next Monday. 7) We shall have finished our work by the time the bell rings. 8) In two weeks' time we'll have completed our training. 9) After we have done 3 years at the University, we'll have our teaching practice. 10) By the time the dinner is ready, she will have done the rooms. 3.2. Transform the sentences into negative and interrogative forms. 1) She will have cooked dinner by the time you come. 2) The play will have already been over when we get to the theatre. 3) I shall have read the book by next Sunday. 4) My parents will have gone to bed when we come back from the theatre. 5) The students will have passed their exams by July. 6) We'll have finished our work by 7. 7) They will have learnt to speak Spanish by the end of the term.

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By October George will have saved enough money to buy a video player. 9) Before we part with our friends, we'll have made plans for going to the country next Sunday. 10) By April the prices for essential goods will have risen by 10%. 3.3. Read the situation and then respond to it. Use the Future Perfect. Model: Tom is going to the cinema. The film begins at 7.30 and it's 7.25 already. It takes Tom 20 minutes to get there. (film/ to start) When he gets there, the film will have already started. 1) Jim always goes to bed at 11 o'clock. Andrew is going to visit him at 11.30 this evening. (Jim/ to go to bed) 2) My friends are building a new cottage. Next spring they are planning to finish it. (they/ to build) 3) John is on holiday. He has very little money and he is spending too much too quickly. Before the end of the holiday . (he/ to spend) 4) The Halls are receiving guests tonight. They are expecting them to come at 6. Mrs. Hall is having a lot of things to do. (she / to do everything) 5) Betty's passion is driving. She started saving up 10 years ago. Next summer she is going to buy a car. (she / to save enough money) 6) Mary came to Italy from the USA two years ago. Next Monday it will be exactly two years since she arrived. (Mary/ to be here) 7) Next year is Ted and Amy's 25th wedding anniversary. (they/ to be married) 3.4. Answer the following questions about the actions which will have happened by a certain moment in the future according to the model. Model: Has Jim taught you to play tennis? (next month) Not yet, but he'll have taught me to play tennis by next month. 1) Have Tony and Jill decided to get married? (Monday) 2) Have the Halls bought a new car? (Christmas) 3) Have you done most of the work? (7 o'clock) 4) Have you got everything arranged for your trip? (midday) 5) Has Monica started a new job? (Friday) 6) Have you booked a long distance call to NY for me? (lunchtime) 7) Has John been to the bank to get a mortgage? (Wednesday) 8) Has Nora realized her plan of visiting Rome? (next June) 9) Has the international flight BA 2 850 from Beijing landed yet? (2.05 a.m.) 10) Have you signed the contract? (tea-time)

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3.5. Read the situation and then respond to it. Use the verb in the Future Perfect in an affirmative and negative form, and by then. Expand your responses according to the model. Model: Will you be able to return from your trip to Moscow on Sunday? Yes, I'll have been at home by then. I'll have seen all the places of interest in Moscow by Saturday. No, I shan't have been at home by then. On my way to Moscow I'm going to visit my relatives who live in the country. 1) Shall we come round at 8? 2) Will you finish your work on Sunday? 3) Can you call on me on Sunday if you return from your tour of Brest? 4) Will they have supper at 6? 5) Can you come to our meeting on Monday to tell us about your impressions of Moscow? 6) Shall we be able to see him if we arrive in time? 7) Can you give me a ride in the car on Sunday if you repair it? 8) Will she make her new dress for the party? 9) Can you take us out on Saturday if you return from your business trip? 10) Will they manage to build a new house if winter comes earlier than usual? 3.6. Complete the sentences. Use a suitable modifier of time among those given in the margin and translate these modifiers into English. 1) We hope our luggage will have a) , arrived.. 2) They will have become worst b) , enemies .. 3) Everything will have been ready c) , 50 .. 4) He will have been in firm d) industry for years .. 5) We'll have packed our suitcases e) long before .. 6) The doctor will have examined f) 3 his last patient .. 7) People will have forgotten him g) 10 and his book long before .. 8) They'll have arrived at some h) agreement before .. 3.7. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Perfect.

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1) By 7.00 p.m. they (to play) cricket 8 times. 2) I (to finish) painting your room by the time you get home. 3) Tom (to write) his third novel by the end of this year. 4) This film (probably/ not/ finish) until midnight. 5) Don't worry! You (to forget) all about it by this time next year. 6) Hopefully, he (to cook) dinner for us by the time we get home. 7) I (to read) this book by tomorrow night. 8) He hopes he (to make) a million pounds by the time he is thirty. 9) By 5 o'clock I (to do) this crossword puzzle. 10) By the time he arrives in London, John (to graduate) from the University. 11) I hope you (to go) to bed by 11. 12) The news of their marriage (to reach) their village before they get there. 13) They believe the ship (to come) back by the end of the navigation. 14) They (to take) their last exam by the 1st of July. 15) By the time you come, I (to clean) the flat and (to cook) the dinner.

ORAL ACTIVITY I Look at the work schedule and say what the situation will be by the following times: mid-March, the end of April, mid-June, early September , etc. Stanstead Airport Work Schedule
oct. nov . dec. jan. feb . mar. apr . may jn. jul. aug. sept. oct. nov . dec. jan.

work on approach road work on runways foundation for Terminal 1 construction of Terminal 1 building foundations for Terminal 2 construction of Terminal 2 building ORAL ACTIVITY II Each student says two things that he/she will have done in 15 years' time. Model: In 15 years' time I will have bought my own house.

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3.8. Translate into English. Use the Future Perfect, the Future Indefinite and the Future Continuous. 1) 4. . . , ? 2) . 5 16 . 3) , . 4) , . , , 5) ? , . , 8 . 6) 11.30, . , . 7) , . . 8) , ? , . 9) , . . . 10) , . 3.9. Translate into English. Mind the use of tenses. () 1) 15 . 2) . 3) . 4) 10 . 5) 5 . 6) , . 7) . 8) 7 . 9) , , . 10) 2009 4 . ()

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1) , , . ? . , 10 . 2) . , . , , . 3) 7, , . , , . 4) . -. 5) . 5. . 6) . . 7) 8 . . 8) . 20 , 10 . , e . , , , . 9) . . 10) . , , . REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. (A) 1) I am sorry, but I can't accept your invitation. We already (1) (to make) our plans for the holiday. We (2) (to decide) to go to Greece. You ever (3) (to be) there? 2) You are smoking another cigarette. At this rate you (4) (to smoke) a whole pack before lunchtime. 3) You (5) (to take) all the exams by the end of January?

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4) By the end of next week my wife (6) (to do) her spring leaning and we'll

be able to relax. 5) Anyone (7) (to see) my dictionary? I can't find it. Yesterday I (8) (to put) it on my desk. Who (9) (to take) it? 6) When Professor Jones retires next month, he (10) (to teach) for 45 years. 7) I will go to bed at 10 p.m. He will get home at midnight. I (11) (to be asleep) for 2 hours by the time he gets home. 8) I (12) (to know) Helen for 10 years. She is one of my best friends. We (13) (to be) friends since we (14) (to be) 7. 9) Why are you limping? I (15) (to twist) my ankle. When it (16) (to happen)? 10) Are you the boy whose dog (17) (to make) a terrible noise last night? I am sorry, but you are mistaken, sir. I never (18) (to own) a dog. 11) The house they (19) (to buy) recently looks much larger than ours. When they (20) (to buy) it? They (21) (to buy) it two years ago. 12) Look! Peter (22) (not to eat) all the bread and butter, he (23) (to leave) some in the plate. 13) I never (24) (to see) so many beautiful girls as here at the party! And you ever (25) (to eat) such a delicious cake? 14) I (26) (to order) a taxi to take us to the airport. So we'll be on time. You (27) (to pack) our things yet? 15) You (28) (to cut) your finger! How it (29) (to happen)? 16) Unfortunately they (30) (to destroy) most of the houses by June. 17) He waited until the rider (31) (to disappear) and started on his way home. 18) By the end of that year he almost (32) (to recover). 19) More than a year (33) (to pass) since I first met him. 20) I (34) (to speak) to our agent about the schedule by 9 and I think the matter will be settled to your satisfaction. 21) George (35) (to pass) his driving test by Monday and he (36) (to buy) a car by June. 22) As I (37) (not to get) an answer, I sent him another letter. 23) We reached the village before it (38) (to grow) dark. 24) After John (39) (to listen) to the radio, all the batteries ran out. 25) Hardly the robbers (40) (to steal) the car when they drove away. 26) By the time you leave the city, we (41) (to visit) the museum. 27) By 10 o'clock I (42) (to clean) the flat. 28) The clock (43) (to strike) sooner than the first guests (44) (to appear). 29) No sooner I (45) (to come) than the lecture (46) (to begin). 30) This man (47) (to be) ill for years when the doctor came.

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31) When I woke up, it was 6 a.m. Although it (48) (to stop) raining, it was very

cold. 32) Hardly I (49) (to come) home when they brought me a telegram. (B) A few days after Sue's encounter with the policeman, she decided to visit her parents. It was a long drive and she felt rather nervous on account of her lack of driving experience. It (50) (to rain) earlier that morning and the road still (51) (to be) wet. Before she (52) (to get in) the car, she (53) (to check) that her rear lights were working properly! When she (54) (to make sure) that the road behind her was clear, she (55) (to drive) off. She (56) (to be) on the road for about 20 minutes when she (57) (to see) a warning sign for a sharp bend. By this time, it (58) (to start) raining again and the roads (59) (to be) slippery. She (60) (to look) in her rear mirror and (61) (to see) to her horror that a sport car behind her, driving much too fast, was just about to overtake! It was heading for a collusion with an oncoming Mini! Sue (62) (to jam) on her brakes and (63) (to pull up) at the side of the road to give the sports car room to pass. The two cars (64) (to scrape) against each other and came to a sudden halt. Luckily, there were no serious injuries. As soon as the drivers (65) (to recover) from the shock, they (66) (to get out) to view the damage. 10 minutes later, a policeman already (67) (to arrive) at the scene of the accident, the same policeman Sue (68) (to encounter) the week before! When he (69) (to see) Sue, he (70) (to say): "Oh! So it's you again, is it?" But before he could continue, the driver of the Mini broke in: "If this young woman hadn't reacted so quickly, officer, I might have been killed! She's obviously a very experienced driver!" (C) Peter: Good morning. This is Peter Dale speaking. I've been wondering whether any decision has been taken on the applications for the post of graphic designer. Secretary: I'm afraid I can't help you very much at the moment, Mr Dale. Mr Finch will not be able to come to a decision until he (71) (to interview) all the applicants. Peter: He (72) (to let) all the applicants know as soon as he (73) (to reach) a decision. Secretary: He (74) (not to be) in a position to offer anyone a post officially until he (75) (to speak) to the Board. When his decision has been passed to the Board, he (76) (to make) an offer to the successful

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candidate immediately. Peter: You (77) (to inform) me as soon as you know his decision? Secretary: If you like I (78) (to ring) you at your home number as soon as Mr Finch (79) (to dictate) a reply to you. Peter: That would be most kind. You'll understand that the matter is rather important to me. Thank you very much. Goodbye. Secretary: Goodbye, Mr Dale. (D) Dear Elizabeth, I (80) (to get) 2 pieces of news which I am simply dying to tell you! First of all, Peter (81) (to get) the job which I told you about in my last letter! We are so thrilled, as it means an increase in salary. Also, it means that Peter will be free of his grumpy old boss, who is really beginning to get on Peter's nerves! Secondly, we (82) (to buy) that old house which was advertised by the local estate agent. I (83) (to tell) you about it recently, the one which was in quite bad repairs and therefore very cheap for its size. The owner, who (84) (to be) abroad for a year now, was willing to let it go for almost any price! The repairs, which unfortunately took longer than expected, were completed a week ago, so we'll be moving in very soon! The new neighbour, whose wife (85) (to be) for 2 weeks in hospital, says that he'll do what he can to help, but what I need most is someone to give a hand with all the cleaning! Do come and visit us when we move in! With much love, Sue. (E) Dear Jim, We (86) (to move) into the old house at last! The repairs took longer and were more expensive than we (87) (to expect), but living in the old house is just as much fun as we (88) (to hope) it would be! The cleaning wasn't quite so bad as we were anticipating, but of course, the more we cleaned, the less we enjoyed it! But we knew that the sooner we started, the sooner we'd have it all finished. The actual removal went quite smoothly. Fortunately, the removal men weren't as careless as we (89) (to fear), so we had fewer breakages as expected. The grandfather's clock stood up to it all very well!

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How are things with you and the family? Sorry I (90) (not to write) earlier, but as we say "Better late than never!" Peter. (F) Dear Chris, Many things (91) (to happen) since I last was in New Baytown. My best friend, Tony, was no longer there when I came. He (92) (to go) away. By the way, the neighbours told me on the first day I came here that Mr Jackson didn't live in Oak Street any longer. He (93) (to leave). You wouldn't recognize the Grand Street. They (94) (to change) there everything there. But on the whole I found the town much as it (95) (to be), green and quiet. On the second day I went to see our school and it was still there, but they (96) (to add) a new wing. The bookstore where we used to buy textbooks and pens was no longer there. It (97) (to close) down. But they (98) (to build) a new bookstore not far from it and they (99) (to open) a very nice caf in the old building for a month. On the whole I was very pleased to see the place again. I (100) (not to see) it for 10 years, you know. Yours, Mike. 2. Translate into English. 1) , , , . 2) . 3) . , 7.30. 4) , , . 5) , - . ? 6) , , . 7) , , . 8) ? , . 9) ? - ? 5 . 10) , , , . 11) , . .

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12) ? , . 13) , - , , . 14) . , . 15) , , . 16) , 2 , . 17) , , . 18) 5 , . 19) , , . 20) 2001 12 . 21) . 5 , . 22) , . 23) , . 24) 10 . 25) , 25. 26) ? , . . 27) , . 28) , . 29) , . 30) , , .

PROGRESS TEST 1. Choose the correct variant. 1) In 2 weeks time we ..... our training. A) will complete C) have completed

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B) will have completed D) had completed 2) We knew the Smiths ..... to Bridge Street. A) had moved C) have moved B) had moving D) will have moved 3) He is sorry that he ..... about his friends birthday. A) had forgotten C) will have forgotten B) has forgotten D) forgot 4) I am afraid I ..... my keys at home. A) have left C) have leave B) left D) will have left 5) No sooner ..... than she fell ill. A) had she come C) she came B) has she come D) she will have come 6) By mid-February they ..... most of the road. A) have built C) will build B) will have built D) will be building 7) The policeman ..... the robber. A) just caught C) has just caught B) had just caught D) has caught just 8) She looked tired. She ..... 5 letters since morning. A) has typed C) will have typed B) had typed D) typed 9) When he gets there, the film ..... already. A) will have started C) had started B) will start D) started 10) They ..... me to play golf by next month. A) will teach C) will be teaching B) will have taught D) had taught 11) He asked me how many times I ..... to Rome. A) have been C) will have been B) had been D) was 12) The TV programme ..... by 9.30. A) will finish C) will be finished B) will have finished D) had finished 13) Before the end of the holiday he ..... all his money. A) will spend C) has spent B) will have spent D) will be spent 14) We were sure that the workers ..... on a strike for 3 weeks. A) had been C) will have been B) have been D) were

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15) You ..... many letters today and you are very tired.

A) have written C) had written B) have wrote D) wrote 16) They ..... all the experiments by Friday. A) will complete C) will has completed B) will have completed D) will be completing 17) They knew that Jane ..... 3 articles so far. A) has written C) had written B) will have written D) had write 18) I cant believe he ..... his job in the bank. A) has given up C) will have given up B) have given up D) has gave up 19) ..... them anything about their summer plans? A) Have they told C) Has they telling B) Has they told D) Having they told 20) By the time the dinner is ready, Helen ..... the rooms. A) will have done C) will be doing B) will do D) will has done 21) I ..... 5 books by the end of the term. A) will read C) will be reading B) will have read D) will has reading 22) It is so cold today. Why ..... your warm coat? A) havent you put on C) hadnt you put on B) hasnt you put on D) have no you putting on 23) Last season our team didnt win many games, but this season we ..... only one so far. A) lost C) will have lost B) have lost D) have losing 24) When I saw the girl, I was sure I ..... her before. A) had seen C) had seeing B) have seen D) saw 25) The pupil cant do the translation because he ..... some special terms. A) havent learnt C) hasnt learnt B) didnt learn D) did not learnt 26) I hope I ..... to speak English a bit by the end of the term. A) will have learnt C) will be learning B) will learn D) will has learnt 27) His aunt ..... for 5 days. A) has been ill C) have been ill B) was ill D) has being ill

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28) He ..... unemployed for many years when we came to the city.

A) had been C) will have been B) was D) has been 29) My Dad ..... the paper yet. A) hasnt read C) having not read B) havent read D) didnt read 30) We were hurrying because we thought that the bell ..... . A) had already rung C) have already ringing B) has rung already D) already rang 31) By 3 oclock he ..... all the letters. He wondered, why Ann was away. A) had answered C) will have answered B) has answered D) answers 32) I ..... here since September. A) haven been C) will not be B) wasnt D) hadnt been 33) The Brians ..... a new car by Christmas. A) will have bought C) bought B) have bought D) buy 34) They ..... near London before they went abroad. A) have lived C) will have lived B) had lived D) live 35) When he came out of the shop, the car was no longer there. He wondered, if someone ..... it or if the police ..... it away. A) had stolen; had driven C) will have stolen; will have driven B) has stolen; have driven D) will steal; will drive 36) Things ..... by the time he comes to Rome. A) will have changed C) had changed B) have changed D) will change 37) My brother is an actor. He ..... in several films. A) has already appeared C) will have already appeared B) had already appeared D) appeared already 38) It is the best salad I ..... . Can you give me the recipe? A) had ever eaten C) will have ever eaten B) have ever eaten D) ever ate 39) By August I ..... my old house, but at the moment I am having 2 houses. A) sold C) had sold B) have sold D) will have sold 40) By the time he comes to the station, the train ..... . A) has already left C) will have already left B) had already left D) will leave already

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2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. 41) We (to have) everything arranged for our business trip by midday. 42) He says they (to finish) the house by the end of next month. 43) The workers already (to build) a new road. 44) Ring me up at 4. I think I (to do) most of my work by then. 45) The flight from NY (not to land) by noon because of the stormy weather. 46) Why are you looking so unhappy? I (to lose) my watch. 47) Youd better ring me up back in half an hour. By then I (to find) the letter. 48) When he arrived at the office, he discovered that he (to leave) all the papers at home. 49) By October George (to save) enough money to buy a video player. 50) I am sure that they (to invite) us to lunch by Saturday. 51) Hardly we (to go) to bed when somebody knocked at the door. 52) Hey! Someone (to drink) all my coffee! My cup is empty. 53) After the stewardesses (to serve) lunch to the passengers, they calmed down. 54) It is the first time my brother (to go) to Zoo. 55) I (to make) my final decision by 5 oclock. 56) We are going to buy a car. Our family (to save) money for it. 57) They (to finish) work by 11 and went home. 58) I (to give) you my address by the end of the month. 59) Where are my glasses? Anybody (to see) them? 60) My parents (to be) to the USA many times. 61) No sooner she (to come) than she fell ill. 62) His smile is something she (never to see) before. 63) Jane washed all the test-tubes after she (to complete) the experiment. 64) Jerry is nervous, for he (never/ to flow) in an aeroplane before. 65) The workers (to build) the road by the end of the year. 66) The workers (to be) on a strike for 3 weeks when the agreement on pay was reached. 67) He (to book) a long distance call to NY for us by lunchtime. 68) The door was unlocked. She (to leave) the door open. 69) You (to get) any money? Yes, I (to borrow) it from my brother. 70) By the end of its university course he (to attend) 1,300 lectures. 71) Our daughter (to enter) Moscow University. We are proud of her. 72) Roy is on his way. He probably (to get) here by 5. 73) We shant be able to start discussing the project in an hour because our friends (not to arrive) by then. 74) He felt sick because he (to eat) too much.

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75) After she (to finish) her report, she went to bed. 76) Our group (to stay) in London for a week by the time our visit comes to an

end. 77) The bus (to leave) before I reached the bus station. 78) Before we part with our friends, we (to make) plans for going to the country next Sunday. 79) Alice is away. Something (to happen) her, Im afraid. 80) When we met our friends, they (already/ to learn) the news. 3. Translate into English. 81) , 10 . 82) , . 83) , , . 84) . 85) , . , . 86) , . 87) 18 . . 88) 2 . , . 89) ? , . 90) , , . 91) - 10 . 92) , . 93) , . 94) ? , . 95) , . 96) , 3 . 97) . 98) , . 99) 2 . , . 100) .

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Total: 100/_______

UNIT 4

CONTINUOUS TENSES
ENTRY TEST

1. Choose the correct variant. 1) Kate ..... TV now. A) watching C) is watching B) is watch D) are watching 2) When the phone rang, Tom ..... a shower. A) was tooking C) was takening B) was taking D) was take 3) What ..... at this time next Sunday? A) you will being do C) you will doing B) will you doing D) will you be doing 4) It's October now. It ..... colder and colder. A) be getting C) is getting B) getting D) getting is 5) ..... at the Park Hotel at present? A) Are they staying C) Are they stay B) Do they staying D) Staying they 6) What ..... at 5.30 yesterday? A) was you doing C) you were doing B) were you doing D) were you do 7) They ..... a very important question the whole lesson tomorrow. A) will be discuss C) will are discussing B) are discussing D) will be discussing 8) Look! Somebody ..... up that tree over there. A) are climbing C) is climbing B) is being climbing D) is climb 9) The children ..... with a ball while I was sunbathing. A) were playing C) will be playing B) was playing D) are playing 10) From 2 to 6 the day after tomorrow he ..... his younger brother to skate. A) will is teaching C) will be teach B) will be teaching D) shall be teaching 11) When he came in Kate ..... the piano.

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12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24)

A) played C) was playing B) was play D) playing ..... a test now? A) Do they writing C) Are they write B) Are they writing D) Are they written They ..... their trip at this time tomorrow. A) will not discussing C) will not be discuss B) will be not discussing D) will not be discussing She ..... in the park when she met him. A)was walking C) is walking B) were walking D) be walking What ..... here? I'm waiting for Peter. A) do you do C) are you do B) do you doing D) are you doing We'll be playing tennis while they ..... football. A) are playing C) will be playing B) will be play D) shall be playing He is still ill but he ..... better now. A) getting C) be getting B) is gotting D) is getting When he left the house it still ..... . A) was rain C) was raining B) rained D) is raining ..... her things the whole morning on Sunday? A)Will she packing C) Will be she packing B) Will she be packing D) Will she is packing ..... anything in the room? No, it's very dark here. A) Are you seeing C) Are you see B) Do you see D) Do you seeing What ..... from three to five o'clock the day before yesterday? A) will he be doing C) was he doing B) is he doing D) were he doing They ..... dinner when Jack arrived. A) was having C) are having B) having D) were having It's 11 o'clock, so Mary ..... to bed now. A) was going C) is going B) going D) are going She'll be working in the garden while they ..... the house.

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25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30)

31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36)

A) are decorating C) will be decorating B) were decorating D) will decorating The day was fine. The sky was blue, the sun ..... brightly. A) is shining C) were shining B) was shine D) was shining While Peter ..... his homework, his friends are playing in the yard. A) is doing C) was doing B) will be doing D) doing Ann fell asleep when she ..... a book. A) is reading C) were reading B) will be reading D) was reading Don't phone her at nine. She ..... the baby to bed. A) will be putting C) will is putting B) was putting D) will putting What ..... for? I've lost my purse. A) is you looking C) are you looking B) you looking D) do you looking They were revising the topic while the teacher ..... new words on the blackboard. A) was writing C) is writing B) was writtening D) is wroting She still ..... this article when he comes. A) is translating C) will be translating B) would be translating D) was translating Everybody was silent while she ..... . A) was sanging C) was songing B) is singing D) was singing What language ..... now? French. A) he is learning C) is he learning B) he learning D) does he learning Today from eleven to twelve Susan ..... a picnic lunch with her friends. A) will be hasing C) would be having B) will is having D) will be having Mary is talking with Henry while Kate and Nick ..... . A) is dancing C) are dancing B) were dancing D) shall be dancing They ..... cards when the light went out.

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37)

38) 39) 40)

A) are playing C) were being play B) were playing D) were being playing Kate will be writing a composition while her brother ..... a new poem by heart. A) is learning C) will be learning B) was learning D) will is learning He was dismissed a month ago. He ..... for a new job at present. A) looking C) is looking B) was looking D) shall be looking They ..... in the gym at 4 o'clock last Wednesday. A)didn't training C) wasn't training B) were not training D) wouldn't be training ..... your report the whole day tomorrow? A) Would you be preparing C) Will are you preparing B) Will be you preparing D) Will you be preparing

2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. 41) What's the matter? Why you (to look) at me like that? 42) I (to try) to get in touch with you all day yesterday. Where you (to be)? 43) Don't call her at 2 o'clock tomorrow. She (to have) her English lesson at this time. 44) I (to do) the room when my mother came home from work yesterday. 45) He is very absent-minded. He always (to lose) his things. 46) The child still (to sleep) when his parents (to come) home from the concert tomorrow evening. 47) What you (to do) when I called you yesterday evening? I (to read) a newspaper. 48) While she (to make) supper, I (to lay) the table now. 49) I (to use) Kate's mobile phone because I've left mine at home. 50) I'm sure in four hours' time he (to relax) on his yacht. 51) He was busy and (not to understand) what they (to talk) about. 52) What your brother (to do)? He (to listen) to his favourite music. 53) Yesterday at the party Kate (to wear) a nice dress. 54) The whole day tomorrow Mark (to prepare) for his exams. 55) I (not to speak) too fast to you, am I? 56) Sam (not to work) in the garden at 10 o'clock tomorrow. 57) You will be preparing for your entrance exams while we (to travel) abroad. 58) While I (to do) my homework last night, my sister (to read) a book. 59) At present he (to talk) on the phone while Janet (to play) the piano. 60) This time next week John (to take) his English exam.

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61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80)

Why you (to cry)? What has happened to you? At 5 sharp last Sunday George (to wait) for Kate at the theatre. What he (to think) about? He (to think) about the coming weekend. It goes without saying that tomorrow at this time they (to enjoy) skating. Where are the children? They still (to play) in the yard. When I left the house in the morning, it still (to rain). I had to return home to take my umbrella. It's a lovely day today. The sun (to shine) and the birds (to sing). At this time next Sunday Tom (to ski) with his friends. Where you (to go)? I (to go) to the library. I usually get ready for my classes there. While the children (to play) football, the rain began to fall. My cousin John came from Germany the other day. He (to come) to see us next Friday. I (to recognize) this place now. I was here many years ago. The plane (to land) when the thunderstorm broke out. Tom (to repair) the fridge the whole morning tomorrow. Don't turn on the light. Father (to sleep). What film you (to watch) at 7 o'clock the day before yesterday? I don't remember. Next time we (to play) snowballs while they (to ski). I (to watch) TV now while Nick (to play) computer games. What you (to do) when your mother called you? I (to wash) my hair. Could you help me, please? I (to look) for my spectacles.

3. Translate into English. 81) . , . 82) , . 83) ! . , . 84) . 85) , , . 86) , ? . 87) ? . 88) . 11 . 89) . 90) . , .

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91) , . 92) , , . 93) . 94) , . 95) , . 96) 8 . . . 97) , . 98) . . 99) . 100) , .
Total: 100/______

1 1. F o r m a t i o n

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

The Present Continuous is formed with the Present Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to be + the Present Participle (the Infinitive + ing). The negative is formed by putting not after the auxiliary verb to be in the Present Indefinite + the Present Participle. The interrogative is formed by inverting subject and the auxiliary verb to be in the Present Indefinite + the Present Participle. Affirmative
I am playing You are playing

Negative
I am not playing You are not playing (= You aren't playing) He/she/it is not playing We are not playing They are not playing

He/she/it is playing
We are playing They are playing in the yard now.

in the yard now.

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Interrogative
Am I playing Are you playing Is he/she/it playing Are we playing Are they playing in the yard now?

Negative Interrogative
Am I not playing (= Aren't I playing) Are you not playing in the yard Is he/she/it not playing now? Are we not playing Are they not playing

2. U s a g e The Present Continuous is used to denote: 1) actions happening at or around the moment of speaking: She is looking for a better job. 2) temporary situations: They are staying at this hotel at present. 3) repeated actions with "always" expressing annoyance or criticism: She's always interrupting me! 4) fixed arrangements in the near future: The Browns are visiting us tonight. 5) changing or developing situations: His English is getting better. The following time expressions can be used with the Present Continuous: now, at the moment, at present, nowadays, always, still, while, etc. EXERCISES 1.1. Explain the use of the Present Continuous forms. Translate into Russian. 1) Look through the window. It is snowing hard. 2) Do you remember Mr Laker? He is coming to tea today. 3) Nelly's mother is angry with her because she is fond of chatting. She is always phoning her friends. 4) Do you know that Max is building his own house? 5) While I'm waiting for him at the bus stop, he is chatting with Kate over a cup of coffee in the cafe. 6) They are meeting their friends at the airport tomorrow morning. 7) The world is changing. Things never stay the same. 8) What are you thinking about?

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9) He is still working at his new novel. 10) I am not speaking too fast to you, am I? 1.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. 1) The sun is shining brightly in the sky. 2) He and Mary are discussing their plans for the coming weekend. 3) We are celebrating his birthday on Saturday evening. 4) At the moment the child is making a lot of noise, playing with his toys. 5) They are getting married next week. 6) He's playing tennis with his friend in front of the house. 7) I'm still tidying up the room. 8) Helen is sitting in the armchair and talking on the phone. 9) If I am not mistaken, the Browns are buying some articles of furniture for their new house. 10) Betty is leaving for London at the end of the term. 1.3. Say that somebody is doing it. 1) We often visit them. (today) 2) Business in this area never booms much. (at the moment) 3) Kate cleans the house regularly. (this afternoon) 4) Felix plays golf every weekend. (now) 5) We sometimes go to the zoo. (tomorrow morning) 6) We always economize. (at the moment) 7) Mr Turner, the head of the division, generally has a talk with newcomers. (now) 8) I often meet Janet after work. (this evening) 9) My wife always makes some sandwiches for breakfast. (now) 10) Our son usually goes to the cinema with his friends. (tomorrow) 11) Every time I meet Joan she complains of losses her firm suffers. (now) 12) I don't work on Saturdays. (next Saturday) 13) During the afternoon our boss has meetings with clients. (this afternoon) 14) His hobby is gardening. He works in the garden too much. (at the moment) 15) My neighbour is a great theatre-goer. She goes to the theatre very often. (tonight) 1.4. Ask your fellow-student: 1) if he/she is leaving college this year; 2) what she is doing during her winter holidays; 3) if her brother is playing football at present or whether he is watching the match on TV at home;

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4) when he/she is beginning his/her new job; 5) why he/she is always making a lot of mistakes in his/her dictations; 6) what he/she is going to cook for breakfast; 7) where they are going during their holidays; 8) if she is visiting the circus on Saturday; 9) how many museums we are going to visit in London; 10) what his mother is doing in the kitchen; 11) why he/she is putting on his/her warm winter coat; 12) what time he/she is going to listen to the latest news; 13) whom he/she is going to invite to his/her birthday party; 14) where they are leaving for at the end of the week; 15) why she is staying away from classes tomorrow . 1.5. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Continuous or Present Indefinite. (A) 1) Hurry up! The bus (to come). I (not to want) to miss it. 2) I'm sorry it's so noisy, but we (to move) the furniture. 3) It's 12 o'clock, so I (to go) to bed now. 4) The river (to flow) very fast today much faster than usual. 5) We usually (to grow) vegetables in our garden, but this year we (not to grow) any. 6) This coat (to belong) to you? No, my coat (to hang) there behind the door. 7) Peter is in the Institute canteen. He (to have) his lunch. 8) While Lucy's grandmother (to knit) a sweater for little Nick, he (to play) with his toys. 9) I (to sell) this car. You (to want) to buy it? 10) Please, be quiet! You continually (to interrupt). 11) I (not to understand) what you (to wait) for. 12) They (to revise) the words now? 13) George, is it true that you (to get) married next week? 14) Ron is in Chicago now. He (to stay) at the Hilton hotel. He usually (to stay) at this hotel when he's in Chicago. 15) I (to fly) to Switzerland next week for discussions with Head Office about prices. 16) Hello, Alec. What you (to do) these days? 17) What your father (to do)? He's a teacher, but he (not to work) now. 18) He is still ill but he (to get) better now. 19) I'm about to move to London and I (to try) to decide what books and records to take along.

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20) "You must let me out here. Now I can easily walk to the railway station." "What train you (to take)?" "The next to Montreal." "Then you (to leave) Canada." "Yes." "Just a holiday?" "No. I (to return) to England." 21) June : Hi, Mum! Mum: Hello, June. Where you (to call) from? June : I (to be) at work at the moment. My boss (to have) lunch with his wife now. He often (to take) her to lunch on Tuesdays. Mum: Well, why you (to phone)? Is there anything wrong? June : No, I just want you to know that I (to come) home next Saturday. Mum: What time your train (to arrive) in Leeds? June : It (to leave) London at 11 o'clock and (to arrive) in Leeds at 2 o'clock. Mum: See you on Saturday then. (B) I work in a large office with about thirty other people, most of whom I (1) (to know) quite well. We (2) (to spend) most of the day together, so we have all become friends. In fact, most of my colleagues are so interesting, that I (3) (to think) of writing a book about them! (4) (To take) Helen Watson, for example. Helen (5) (to run) the accounts department. At the moment she (6) (to go) out with John Martin, our manager, and they (7) (to seem) very happy together. But everyone (8) (to know) that John always (9) (to make) eyes at Mary Black. But I (10) (to happen) to know that Mary (11) (to dislike) John. "I can't stand people who (12) (to apologize) all the time!" she told me. "And besides, I know he (13) (to deceive) poor Helen. He (14) (to see) Betty Wilson from the overseas department." And plenty of other interesting things (15) (to go on). For example, every week money (16) (to disappear) from the petty cash box. When you (17) (to realise) that someone in your office is a thief, it (18) (to upset) you at first. But I also (19) (to try) to catch whoever it is before the police (20) (to be called) in. (C) Greetings from Wales! Ben and I (1) (to do) something different this year. We're at the North Wales Activity Centre. People (2) (to come) here every summer to learn more about their hobbies and interests. I (3) (to do) photography and tennis this week and Ben (4) (to learn) about computers. We (5) (to get) up at half past eight every morning and (6) (to do) lessons from ten to half past twelve. We (7) (to have) lunch at one and then there are more lessons. So it's hard work. But I (8) (to like) it here. We (9) (to have) a super

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time. It's half past seven in the evening now, and we (10) (to sit) out on the grass in front of the Centre. The weather is good. See you soon. Love, Kate. Written Activity Write a postcard to an English friend from the place where you last went on holiday. Say what you do every day on holiday and what you are doing at the moment. REMEMBER: Verbs describing a permanent state (stative verbs) do not normally have continuous forms. These are: 1) verbs of the senses: see, hear, smell, feel, taste etc. We often use can or could with these verbs: Can you see that tall boy over there? The verbs look, watch, and listen express deliberate actions and can be used in continuous forms: Be quiet please! I'm listening to the news. But: I can't hear you. Can you speak louder, please? The verbs feel and hurt can be used in either continuous or simple forms, though: How are you feeling today? or How do you feel today? My leg is hurting. or My leg hurts. 2) verbs of opinion: agree, believe, consider etc. 3) verbs of emotions: feel, forgive, hate, like, love etc. 4) other verbs: appear (= seem), be, belong, fit (= be the right shape and size for something), have (= possess), know, look (= appear), need, prefer, require, want, weigh, wish etc.: He knows where Peter is. (not is knowing) Some stative verbs (see, smell, taste, feel, think, have etc.) have continuous forms but there is a difference in meaning. STATE I think she's rich. ( = I believe) The milk tastes awful. (= it has a bad flavour) He has a pet dog. (= he owns) ACTION I'm thinking about your plan. (=I'm considering) He's tasting the sauce; it might need some salt. (= he's trying its flavour) He's having dinner now. (= he's eating)

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This cloth feels like velvet. (= has the texture) I see you're in trouble. (= I understand) He comes from Spain. (= he was born in) I love holidays. (in general) Your hair looks great. (= it appears) The baby weighs 5 kilos. (= it is) Ann is very tall.

She's feeling her way in the dark. (= she's finding her way) I'm seeing my lawyer tonight. (= I'm visiting) He's coming from Spain. (= he's travelling from) I'm loving this holiday. (= I'm enjoying; specific) She's looking at some old photographs. (= she's examining) I'm weighing myself on my new scales. (= I'm finding out my weight) Ann is being very kind to me these days. (= she's behaving)

1.6. Open the brackets. Use the Present Continuous or Present Indefinite. (A) 1) Are you hungry? You (to want) something to eat? 2) Air (to consist) mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. 3) He (to listen) to a tape but he (to wear) earphones so nobody else (to hear) it. 4) This coffee (to taste) bitter. 5) Why you (to smell) the milk? It (to smell) sour? 6) These shoes (to belong) to you? 7) George says he's 80 years old but nobody (to believe) him. 8) Who is that man? What he (to want)? 9) Who is that man? Why he (to look) at us? 10) She (to taste) the pudding to see if it is sweet enough. 11) You (to know) the girl who lives next door? 12) Don't put the dictionary away. I (to need) it. 13) Don't put the dictionary away. I (to use) it. 14) The director (to see) the applicants this morning. 15) She (to see) that the situation is out of control. 16) He (to have) a Siamese cat. 17) Anna is Italian. She (to come) from Italy. 18) Joan (to weigh) 50 kilos. 19) Mary (to be) very naughty these days. 20) You (to enjoy) the party?

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(B) Sue: What (1) you (to do) now? Mark: I (2) (to look) through these old film magazines. Look, here's an old picture of Jack Nicholson. Sue: Oh, I (3) (to think) he (4) (to look) awful! And his suit (5) (not to fit) him properly. Mark: Yes, I (6) (to agree). And he (7) (to appear) to be really angry. I wonder what he (8) (to think) about. Sue: He (9) (to be) in that new film that's on at the Odeon now, isn't he? Mark: Yes, I saw it last night. He (10) (to look) very different now. He (11) (to weigh) a lot more. Sue: I (12) (to hope) it's a good film. I (13) (to see) it tonight. Stuart (14) (to take) me. Actually, he (15) (to be) very nice to me these days. Mark He probably (16) (to want) to borrow some money. Sue: I (17) (to see). That explains it. 1.7. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence. 1) What exactly .? A) is this job involving B) does this job involve 2) Terry is in bed. He . flu. A) has B) is having 3) Who exactly .. ? A) does own this car B) does this car belong to 4) .. that we have been here for six months already! A) Do you realise B) Are you realising 5) This new teaching job is really difficult, but .. . A) I survive B) I'm surviving 6) I .. with you completely. A) agree B) am agreeing 7) .. this house. Do you want to buy it? A) I sell B) I'm selling 8) He .. the milk to see if it's OK. A) tastes B)is tasting 9) I never do anything .. is against my principles. A) I feel B) I'm feeling 10) I'm thinking of doing a postgraduate degree. What ..? Is it a good idea? A) do you think B)are you thinking 11) Of course, you're Mary, aren't you? I .. you now. A) recognize B) am recognizing

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12) .. on Niko's sofa until I find a place of my own. A) I sleep B) I'm sleeping 1.8. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning remains the same. 1) What's your opinion of his new book? What do .. ? 2) Nigel keeps interrupting me. Nigel is .. . 3) What is the meaning of this word? What does .. ? 4) The cost of excursions is part of the price of the holiday. The price .. . 5) The number of people who own bicycles is increasing. More and more people ..... . 6) What is the weight of that piece of meat? How much .. ? 7) There's a smell of onions in this room. This room .. . 8) What is inside the box? What does ..? 9) Paul has flu. Paul is .. . 10) I find working here really enjoyable. I am .. . 1.9. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where necessary. 1) Is this total including the new students? 2) These potatoes are tasting a bit funny. 3) What's that you're eating? 4) Are you believing in God? 5) I always look forward to hearing from you. 6) I have a feeling that something goes wrong. 7) Are you hearing anything from Wendy these days? 8) What is your father doing? He is a lawyer. 9) Look! That man tries to open the door of our car! 10) Excuse me, but do you wait for someone? 11) Right now I am looking at the board. I'm seeing some words on it. 12) Do you listen to me, Paul? 13) You haven't said a word all morning. What do you think about? 14) I am not knowing where she keeps the keys. 15) Why do you smell the milk? Do you think it has gone off? 1.10. Translate into English. Use either the Present Continuous or Present Indefinite. 1) ? .

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2) , . . 3) , . 4) ? . 5) . , . 6) . . 7) , . 8) . ? 9) ? 10) . 11) , , - . 12) ? , . 13) , . 14) , . 15) ? , . 16) . . 17) ? . ? . ? , . 18) ? . . 19) ? ? 20) . , . 1.11. Read the stories and reproduce them. 1) Some people are waiting at a bus stop. One of them has a transistor radio and they are all listening to the report of a spaceship's flight. When the report is over, a lady smiles and says, "Well, the spaceship has just been round the world, but we are still waiting for that bus." 2) Charlie is a bad boy and his mother is going to spank him, but he creeps under the bed. His mother is too stout to creep after him. Charlie's father is rather thin and when he comes home he is able to creep under the bed to get

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Charlie out. When the boy sees his father come, he asks:" Is she going to spank you, too, Daddy?" 3) Why are you carrying that umbrella over your head? Do you think it is raining? No, I don't. But the sun is not shining either. No, it isn't. So why on earth are you carrying that umbrella over your head? You see, when it rains, Father wants it, when it shines, Mother wants it, so now is the only time when I can use it. 4) Two men who live in the same district often meet on the bus. They talk together from time to time when they sit next to each other. However, they don't know each other's names. "Are you going to Small's lecture today?" "Yes, I am." "Well, take my advice and don't go. They say his lectures are not interesting." "Unfortunately I must go. You see I am Small."

2 1. F o r m a t i o n

THE PAST CONTINUOUS

The Past Continuous is formed with the Past Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to be + the Present Participle (the Infinitive + ing). The negative is formed by putting not after the auxiliary verb to be + the Present Participle. The interrogative is formed by inverting subject and the auxiliary verb to be + the Present Participle. Affirmative
I was watching You were watching He/she/it was watching We were watching They were watching TV at 6 o'clock yesterday.

Negative
I was not watching (= I wasn't watching) You were not watching He/she/it was not watching We were not watching They were not watching TV at 6 o'clock yesterday.

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Interrogative
Was I watching Were you watching Was he/she/it watching Were we watching Were they watching

Negative Interrogative
Was I not watching TV at 6 (= Wasn't I watching) o'clock Were you not watching yesterday? Was he/she/it not watching Were we not watching Were they not watching TV at 6 o'clock yesterday?

2. U s a g e The Past Continuous is used to denote: 1) actions in the middle of happening at a stated past time: They were playing football at 5.30 yesterday. 2) past action in progress interrupted by another past action. The longer action is in the Past Continuous, the shorter is in the Past Indefinite: Mark was having dinner when somebody knocked at the door. 3) two or more simultaneous past actions: While I was swimming, Jane was sunbathing. or background description to events in a story: She was flying to Rome. The sun was shining. The following time expressions can be used with the Past Continuous: while, still, when, as, etc.

EXERCISES 2.1. Explain the use of the Past Continuous forms. Translate into Russian. 1) I was shaving while the children were having breakfast. 2) Were you reading a newspaper when I came in? 3) At 8 o'clock on Thursday evening the students of our group were having a meeting. 4) They were revising for their preliminary in English when I arrived. 5) Jane and Lewis were whispering in class while the teacher was looking at them with indignation. 6) At this time yesterday Pete was preparing for his exam in Economics. 7) I fell asleep when I was watching TV. 8) It was raining the whole day yesterday that's why we couldn't take part in the excursion.

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9) He was working in the garden from 7 to 8 o'clock yesterday evening and he didn't hear the telephone ring. 10) They were waiting for us when we came back. 2.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. 1) I was looking for you all day yesterday. 2) When the phone rang, he was sitting at the breakfast. 3) They were watching TV at 10 o'clock yesterday. 4) At this time yesterday she was meeting them at the airport. 5) It was raining cats and dogs when we got to the station. 6) They were playing cards when the stranger appeared on the deck. 7) The foreigner was speaking slowly because he wanted us to understand the joke. 8) Tom was learning English the whole day yesterday. 9) My friends were playing chess when the light went out. 10) The secretary was still dialling 911 when she saw the burglar again. 2.3. Refer the following actions to the past. Model: At the moment Ted is taking his exam. (to prepare for) At this time yesterday Ted was preparing for his exam. 1) Ann is working as a secretary at the moment. (to train for secretarial work) 2) At the moment Susan is having no job. (to work in an art gallery) 3) At the moment we are having a class in English Grammar. (to have a class in Russian) 4) At the moment Andrew is showing the foreign students the main building of our University. (to meet them at the airport) 5) Jill and Ben are breeding pigeons this year. (to breed rabbits) 6) Max is working overtime this month. (to have a rest in Torino) 7) Ted is now learning to drive a car. (to go to classes in computer programming) 8) At the moment she is finishing doing her paperwork. (to report on the project to her boss) 9) We are now putting the project into practice. (to work out its main points only) 10) We are producing a new type of boiler which is 25% more efficient. (to develop) 11) At the moment my fellow-students are working hard at their pronunciation in the language laboratory. (to play basketball in the gymnasium)

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12) At the moment the executive manager is having talks with our Australian partners. (to analyse the information on the activities of their company) 13) We are returning home. ( to swim in the sea) 14) The students are correcting their mistakes. (to write a test) 15) At the moment the teacher is dictating some sentences. (to explain the rule) 2.4. Ask your fellow-student: 1) what report he/she was making when you entered the hall; 2) if he/she was doing his/her grammar exercises from 9 to 10 yesterday; 3) when he/she was going to write a letter to his/her parents; 4) who was always making mistakes last term; 5) if the students were asking or answering questions during the lesson; 6) what the students were doing all the time while the teacher was marking their dictations; 7) why he/she was hurrying to the University when you saw him/her; 8) what time he/she was taking his/her exam in Latin yesterday morning; 9) whom he/she was practising the intonation patterns with while you were reading an article; 10) why Ann was constantly lagging behind the group in Grammar; 11) what games they were playing the whole day yesterday; 12) whom he/she was having some practice in spelling with between 5 and 6 o'clock yesterday afternoon; 13) if he/she was reading something interesting when you saw him/her; 14) why he/she wasn't doing anything in the language laboratory while his/her fellow-students were listening to the new poem; 15) why he/she was constantly complaining of being ill. 2.5. Combine the two sentences into one compound sentence each time saying that: (A) one action was interrupted by another action. Model: I watched TV. I fell asleep. I fell asleep when I was watching TV. 1) Maison went out. I came in. 2) We waited for the bus. We saw an accident. 3) The doorbell rang. Jack left the house. 4) Mike had an accident. He drove too fast. 5) I ate dinner. Jim came. 6) He fell asleep last night. He heard a strange noise. 7) Eric studied. Amanda called him on the phone.

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8) I didn't hear you. I listened to the radio. 9) He bought a ticket. The train left. 10) We played cards. The light went out. (B) two actions were going on at the same time. Model: I shaved. The children had breakfast. I was shaving while the children were having breakfast. 1) You had a bath. The girls washed the dishes. 2) She planted flowers in the garden. The children played with a ball in the yard. 3) You talked to Mary. I talked to John. 4) Alison got ready. Eric fetched the car. 5) I made the tea. Jimmy cleaned the car. 6) The children enjoyed playing chess. Their mothers chatted in another room. 7) It rained. He walked up the hill. 8) The house burnt. We slept. 9) We listened to the teacher very attentively. Pete and Jane whispered. 10) I read up for my exam. My younger sister watched TV. 2.6. How did it happen? Model: How did Alex hurt himself? (play soccer) He hurt himself while he was playing soccer. 1) How did Martin burn himself? (iron his clothes) 2) How did Helen cut herself? (slice onions) 3) How did Jennifer meet her husband? (repair the car) 4) How did Martin break his arm? (skate) 5) How did you lose your wallet? (ride my bicycle) 6) How did Bob get a black eye? (fight with his brother) 7) How did Martha injure her leg? (dance) 8) How did Eric fall off the ladder? (paint the ceiling) 9) How did Ann break the plate? (do the washing-up) 10) How did Susan and Ben get acquainted? (breed pigeons in the park) 2.7. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Continuous or Past Indefinite. (A) 1) Sally (to burn) her wrist when she (to cook) the dinner. 2) Last night I (to read) in bed when suddenly I (to hear) a scream. 3) We (not to go) out because it (to rain). 4) One day I (to play) by the big window in our front room where I used to sit on wet days looking at the rain.

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5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) (B)

When Sid (to be) young, he (to work) from morning till night. While he (to read) aloud, I (to write) a letter to my friend. Last night my neighbours (to shout) for hours and I couldn't get to sleep. The whole day yesterday Nick (to get) ready for his report. What you (to do) at this time yesterday? The phone still (to ring) when I (to rush) into the room. I (not to drive) very fast when the accident (to happen). I (to make) the tea while Jimmy (to clean) the car. Isabel always (to ask) difficult questions to answer when she (to be) a little girl. Ann (to break) a plate last night. She (to do) the washing-up when it (to slip) out of her hand. At this time yesterday the students (to have) a Grammar test. Malcolm (to fall) off the ladder while he (to paint) the ceiling. We (to enjoy) the film when suddenly the electricity (to go) off. He (to open) the book and (to start) to read. Last night at 9.35 the Director of school (to walk) from the office to his car when somebody (to attack) him from behind. Everyone was having a good time, although not many people (to dance).

Last night I (1) (to be) alone at home. I (2) (to lie) on my bed and I (3) (to watch) TV when I (4) (to hear) a strange noise. The noise (5) (to come) from the kitchen. I (6) (to go) downstairs, (7) (to pick up) a heavy vase from the table and (8) (to head for) the kitchen. I (9) (to open) the door very slowly. Then I (10) (to see) someone. He (11) (to search) in the fridge. I (12) (to be) so frightened that I (13) (to drop) the vase I (14) (to carry) and it (15) (to crash) onto the floor. The man (16) (to turn) towards the door and I (17) (to see) his face. It (18) (to be) my husband! (C) Tom went back to the camp the following morning, but it (1) (to be) in some confusion. Soldiers (2) (to wander) around carrying equipment from one place to another, but there (3) (not to seem) to be any purpose to what they (4) (to do). Tom had never been in an army camp before and he (5) (not to know) what to do. He (6) (to try) to phone the newspaper, but something (7) (to be) wrong with the telephone lines. He (8) (to try) to find out what exactly (9) (to go on), when the first plane (10) (to appear). A wooden building a few hundred yards away suddenly (11) (to disappear) in an explosion of flame. Soon bombs

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(12) (to explode) all round him. Smoke (13) (to rise) from burning buildings. And suddenly everything (14) (to go) quiet. (D) It was a typical summer afternoon; the sun (1) (to shine) brightly, the cars (2) (to creep) slowly round the corner of the park. Five or six children (3) (to play) in the stream by the fountain, jumping in and out of the water, their laughter mixing with the noise of the traffic. All the world (4) (to wear) shorts or T-shirts, or bathing costumes; yet Walter Harrison, sitting on a park bench in his overcoat, (5) (to feel) cold and lonely. After a few minutes he (6) (to get up) and (7) (to walk) through the park gates. His adventure was about to begin He (8) (to stop) just before putting his key in the front door. Something (9) (to happen) in the back garden. Quietly he (10) (to creep) around the side of the house and (11) (to look) through the gate. Two men (12) (to stand) at the back of the house, holding a ladder. A third man was at the top of the ladder and a fourth inside the house: he (13) (to pass) furniture through the window to his partner. All four (14) (to work) quietly and efficiently and the pile of furniture in the garden (15) (to get) bigger and bigger. Walter couldn't believe his eyes: the strangers (16) (to empty) his flat, and they (17) (to behave) as if it was the most normal thing in the world. He (18) (to cough) loudly and then (19) (to say), "Excuse me!" and the man at the top of the ladder (20) (to drop) his portable TV onto the concrete below. (E) The other day I (1) (to happen) to finish work earlier than usual. The weather was charming, so I (2) (to decide) to take a walk. When I (3) (to pass) by one of the numerous pubs, it (4) (to occur) to me that I could do with a bottle of beer and (5) (to enter) the bar. There (6) (to be) not many customers in it. Several men and women (7) (to have) their lunch at the tables, others (8) (to stand) at the bar and (9) (to drink) beer. I (10) (to take) a seat and (11) (to order) a bottle of beer. While I (12) (to drink) my beer, the place (13) (to be filled) with visitors. When I (14) (to be going) to leave the bar, it (15) (to begin) to rain. I (16) (to wait) a few minutes, but the rain (17) (not to stop). The strange part of it was that there (18) (to be) no clouds in the sky and the sun (19) (to shine) brightly, and yet it (20) (to rain) hard. Oral Activity

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The Alibi Game A murder happened at 11 o'clock last night. Two students are the main suspects. They leave the classroom and must create an alibi to prove their innocence (where they were, what they did, what they were wearing, etc.). In the meantime the rest of the class take the role of detectives and think of questions to ask them. Each "suspect" (student) enters the class and is questioned separately. If their answers are not the same, then they are accused of committing the murder. Students should use the Past Continuous and/or the Past Indefinite in their questions. Written Activity Your house has been robbed. Using the notes from the list below, write a report to the police. go return get out see men carry jump run after disappear go into realise steal clothes lie take my wife's necklace find glove drop call police ... Last night I went to the cinema. I returned home at 10.30. While I was getting out of the car, I saw two men wearing masks coming out of the house. One of them was carrying a big bag ... 2.8. Open the brackets. Use either the present forms (the Present Indefinite, the Present Continuous) or the past forms (the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous). 1) "Does he like you?" Like me? He never even (to see) me when we (to meet). He (to look) straight through me. The other day I (to pass) him by near the lake; he just (to stare) at the sky. I (to say) "Hello, David!" He even (not to bother) to look my way. 2) On the 1st of September, 1939, I (to lunch) with my father. And I (to try) to explain to him something of the work I (to do). In the middle of the meal the telephone (to ring) and my father (to answer) it. Then he (to come) back and (to say): "Philip (to say) the war has started." 3) Through the arch I (to see) Simon. He (to lie) on the ground. He (to have) a cut which (to bleed) a lot. A few people (to stand) around. His friend, at the top of his voice, (to yell): "You have hurt him!" One of the crowd (to say): "I (not to touch) him." As I (to come) up Simon (to open) his eyes and (to say), "What on earth has happened? Where I (to be)?" 4) It (to be) evening, Jessica (to go) to the window and (to look) out. A Siamese cat (to walk) slowly along the top of the garden wall. A newspaper boy (to deliver) the evening papers. A student (to polish) his old car. Two dogs who had just met (to wag) their tails. She (to turn) away from the window and (to go) back to her desk.

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5) A knock at the door (to arouse) Martin. He (to think) about Joe and (to wonder) where he (to be), as he (to say): "Come in." He (not to turn) toward the door. He (to hear) it close softly. There (to be) a long silence. He (to forget) there had been a knock at the door, and (to stare) blankly before him when he (to hear) a woman's sob. The next instant he (to be) on his feet. "Ruth," he said, amazed. Her face (to be) white and strained. He (to lead) her to a chair and (to draw) up another one for himself. They (to talk) when the servant (to come) in. 6) Last week I (to go) to the theatre. I (to have) a very good seat. The play (to be) very interesting but I (not to enjoy) it. A young man and a young woman (to sit) behind me. They (to talk) loudly. I (to get) very angry. I (to look) at them angrily but they (not to pay) any attention. Soon I couldn't bear it. I (to turn) round again. "I (not to hear) a single word!" I (to say) angrily. "It's none of your business," the young man (to reply) rudely. "This is a private conversation!" 2.9. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where necessary. 1) What did you do at this time last week? 2) Everyone talked but stopped the moment Mr Smith entered the room. 3) I had a bath at the time, so I wasn't hearing the doorbell. 4) Paul had a bad habit. He was always making trouble. 5) In those days, I was always using to get up early in the morning. 6) When I got to the cinema, Jack waited for me. 7) While he cleaned the car, his wife got ready for the trip. 8) He wasn't understanding what was going on. Several people shouted at him and one waved a newspaper in front of his face. 9) It snowed heavily the whole day yesterday. 10) I was realising that someone was stealing my wallet when I was feeling their hand in my jacket pocket. 11) It took a while for me to notice, but then I did. Everyone stared at me. What had I done wrong? 12) I didn't recognize him at first because I didn't wear my glasses. 13) While the guests were dancing, thieves were breaking into the house and stealing a lot of fur coats. 14) While Mr Parker fixed the oil in the car, the children played with a ball in the yard. 15) They were arguing about something when I was walking into the room. 16) This time last year I cycled in the rain along a country road in France with a friend of mine.

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17) I was listening to the news on television at nine o'clock last night. But as it was too noisy in the room because the children played with their toys, I wasn't hearing a single word. 18) When she opened the window, she was happy to see it snowed lightly. 19) The car got worse all the time. One of the headlights constantly fell off, and the engine made more and more funny noises. 20) Nobody watched, so the little boy took the packet of sweets from the shelf and put it in his pocket. 2.10. Translate into English. Use either the Past Continuous or Past Indefinite. 1) , - . 2) , 8 , . 3) , . 4) . 5) , . . , . 6) . , . 7) , . 8) 9 ? 9) , . 10) , . 11) , . 12) , . 13) , . 14) , ? 15) 11 ? , , . . 16) , ? . 17) . 18) , . 19) , . 20) , .

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2.11. Read the stories and reproduce them. 1) Eddie was naughty, and his mother punished him. When his father came home, Eddie was sitting in a corner of the room and crying. The anxious father asked him, "What's the matter with you, my son?" Eddie wiped his tears and answered, "Nothing much, daddy, I have only had a quarrel with your wife." 2) When Karl came in to breakfast, he saw that a bright greeting card was lying on the table. The card was from his cousin. Karl's elder brother Walter was eating. His sister Mary was in the kitchen. She was always doing something in the kitchen. Karl looked up from the card he was reading. "Cousin is coming to us for the summer," he said. "Oh, my!" exclaimed Mary, "We haven't seen him for ages." She was standing in the doorway with a coffee pot in her hands and smiling. It will be nice to see him again, she said. 3) The plane was late and detectives were waiting at the airport all morning. They were expecting a valuable parcel of diamonds from South Africa. A few hours earlier someone had told the police that thieves would try to steal the diamonds. When the plane arrived, some of the detectives were waiting inside the main building while others were waiting on the airfield. Two men took the parcel off the plane and carried it into the Customs House. While two detectives were keeping guard at the door, two others opened the parcel. To their surprise, the precious parcel was full of stones and sand!

3 1. F o r m a t i o n

THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS

The Future Continuous is formed with the Future Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to be + the Present Participle (the Infinitive + ing). The negative is formed by putting not after the auxiliary verb to be + the Present Participle. The interrogative is formed by inverting subject and the auxiliary verb to be + the Present Participle.

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Affirmative
I shall/will be walking You will be walking He/she/it will be walking We shall/will be walking They will be walking in the park at this time tomorrow.

Negative
I shall/will not be walking (= I shan't/won't be walking) You will not be walking He/she/it will not be walking We shall/will not be walking They will not be walking in the park at this time tomorrow.

Interrogative
Shall/Will I be walking Will you be walking Will he/she/it be walking Shall/Will we be walking Will they be walking

Negative Interrogative
in the Shall/Will I not be walking (= Shan't/Won't I be walking park at this Will you not be walking time toWill he/she/it not be walking morrow? Shall/ Will we not be walking Will they not be walking in the park at this time tomorrow?

2. U s a g e The Future Continuous is used to denote: 1) actions in progress at a stated future time: At 10 o'clock tomorrow Simon will be working in the garden. 2) actions which are the result of a routine (instead of the Present Continuous): I'll be seeing John tomorrow. (We work in the same office
so we'll definitely meet.)

The following time expressions can be used with the Future Continuous: tomorrow, tonight, next week/month, this time next week, soon, the day after tomorrow, in some days, etc. REMEMBER: Use the Present Continuous instead of the Future Continuous after while: We'll be playing basketball, while they are playing football. EXERCISES 3.1. Explain the use of the Future Continuous forms. Translate into Russian. 1) At 10 o'clock tomorrow Simon will be working in the library. 2) What will you be doing at this time on Sunday? 3) At this time tomorrow she'll be flying home. 4) What do you think you'll be doing in 5 years' time?

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5)

Will you be working the week after Christmas? I am thinking of visiting you. 6) She won't be writing letters at 3 o'clock tomorrow. 7) We'll be packing if they come at 9. 8) Do you know when you'll be taking your English exam this year? 9) Come round in the morning. I'll be painting the kitchen. 10) It's my eighteenth birthday next month so I'll be having a party. 3.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. 1) I'll be meeting my old friend in London soon. 2) Sam will be taking his friends out to dinner tomorrow night. 3) She'll be returning from the library at 6 o'clock. 4) Max will be playing hockey with his friends at this time on Sunday. 5) Helen will be wearing a blue dress at the party tomorrow. 6) At the beginning of September I'll be starting my college course. 7) This time next week they'll be swimming in the Black Sea. 8) In a year from now John will be settling down in the States. 9) He'll be sleeping when I arrive tonight. 10) They will be having a picnic lunch from 11 till 12 today. 3.3. Ask your fellow-student: 1) if it will be pouring tomorrow morning; 2) if he/she will be staying at his/her aunt's for another fortnight; 3) what he/she will be doing if it is raining all day long tomorrow; 4) who will be getting married in May; 5) when he/she will be writing letters to his/her friends; 6) where he/she will be skiing on Sunday; 7) if they will be going for a picnic lunch at 11 o'clock tomorrow; 8) what he/she will be wearing if he/she is caught in a thunderstorm; 9) what he/she will be doing at this time tomorrow; 10) when he/she will be returning from the South; 11) where he/she will be spending his/her summer vacations; 12) if he/she will be lying in the sun at this time next month; 13) how long he/she will be staying here; 14) if he/she will be driving them to the airport; 15) what he/she will be doing in 10 years time. 3.4. Say what other people will be doing at a given moment in the future.

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1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12)

13) 14) 15)

I'm going to watch TV from 9 till 10 o'clock tonight. (at 9.30) Freddy is going to talk to his boss about his further promotion. The appointment is fixed for Friday, at 3.15 p.m. (at 3.20 on Friday) We're going to clean the flat tomorrow. It will be from 9 till 11 o'clock. (at 10 o'clock tomorrow morning) Between 2 and 4 o'clock the day after tomorrow I am going to meet our business partners from China. (at 3 o'clock the day after tomorrow) Tomorrow afternoon I'm going to play tennis from 4 o'clock till 5.30. (at 5 o'clock tomorrow) He is going to return home from work from 6 to 7. (at 6.25 tomorrow evening) We're going to spend next Saturday lying on a beautiful beach. (in the afternoon next Saturday) George is going to tidy up his garden from 7 till 9 o'clock tomorrow evening. (at 8 o'clock tomorrow evening) Mike is going to travel by boat along the Severn all next week. (on Tuesday) Roy is going to climb up in the Alps in a week's time. (next Wednesday) Alan is going on business to the USA. His flight is at 9.55 tomorrow morning. (at 11 o'clock tomorrow morning) Bill is planning to come back home by car starting from the US eastern coast on 10, July. Bill lives in San Francisco, so it will take him a week to get home. (on 15, July) He is going to visit the Browns this week. (on Friday) Between 2 and 5 o'clock tomorrow Alex is going to participate in the talks with Spanish businessmen. (at 3 o'clock tomorrow) My boss is going to have lunch with his business partner from 12 to 2 o'clock the day after tomorrow. (at 12.30 the day after tomorrow)

3.5. Open the brackets. Use either the Future Continuous or Future Indefinite. (A) 1) Don't ring him up tomorrow, you won't get him on the phone. He (to have) a wonderful time with his friends on the bank of the river. 2) What you (to do) at this time on Sunday? I (to walk) in the park. 3) All morning the day after tomorrow we (to discuss) the company's profits. 4) Our company (to develop) new markets in a year's time. 5) I (not to work) at 8 o'clock in the evening.

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6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) (B)

There's a nasty-looking cloud just coming up behind us. I think it (to rain) heavily in about ten minutes. According to the weather forecast the frost (to get) more severe the whole week. The temperature today is 8 degrees below zero. I am sure your friends (to ski) in the woods all afternoon. She (to help) her grandmother to pick fruit in the orchard all day long next Sunday. Gardening is her hobby. Jane and Kate (to watch) video until midnight. Why don't you come with us? It (to be) a great trip. Jack is sixty-five next month so he (to retire). Uncle Dan (to wait) at the airport to meet us when we (to come) back in four weeks' time. At this time next week we (to fly) to Venezuela. Don't worry about the mistake you made, nobody (to notice). While Joan (to write) the report, Henry (to look) for more information. Jerry (to mow) the lawn from 2 to 3 the day after tomorrow. At 4.30 on Wednesday Bill (to have) an appointment with the manager. Don't phone after 11.00. I already (to sleep). You can try asking Martin for help but it (not to do) you any good.

Who will win the election? Where the best new jobs (1) (to be found) next year? Plans to set up a colony on the moon (2) (to go ahead) and ordinary members of the public (3) (to take) vacations on the moon? What (4) (to be going) to be the most successful electronics products of 2020? How the Internet (5) (to change) not only business but people's lives in 15 years' time? Famous futurist Alvin Toffler (6) (to discuss) these and other questions about the future when his new weekly TV programme (7) (to start) in the new year. Toffler, whose best-seller Future Shock was published some years ago, soon (8) (to host) a TV show which (9) (not to report) on what (10) (to happen) yesterday. Instead it (11) (to report) what (12) (to be going) to happen tomorrow. Alvin Toffler is sure to know everything about the future. 3.6. Identify and correct any possible errors in these sentences where necessary. 1) If he will still be sleeping when you will come, wake him up.

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2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16)

What will you do at this time tomorrow? He will understand it when he will be older. While you will be watching a football game on TV, I will be cutting the grass in the back yard. He will be busy at 4 p.m. tomorrow. He will meet his friends at the airport. She is sure when she will come, he will read up for his exam. The lift doesn't start until you'll press that button. I don't know when he will come, but if it won't be late, I'll talk to him. Will you still work when I come? Will you be lonely while I'll be away? The plane doesn't take off until the fog will lift. Unless he will run, he won't catch the train. I wonder whether he'll be discussing this question at the meeting next Friday. He knew that she will study the whole day on Monday. We send you the goods as soon as we'll receive your cheque. Ask me if you'll need any help.

3.7. Translate into English. Use either the Future Continuous or Future Indefinite. 1) 6 8 ? . 2) 3 : . . 3) , , : , , . 4) ! . , . 5) . 6) , . 7) , 9? 8) , ? 9) , ? 10) 6, . 11) 7, ? 12) 11 , .

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13) . 14) , . 15) 6 . . 16) . 17) , . , . 18) 10 11. . 19) , . 20) , . Oral Activity The teacher divides the class into two teams and chooses a leader. The teams in turn tell the leader what they will be doing and why he/she can't call them at 6 o'clock today. Each correct sentence gets 1 point. The team with the most points is the winner. Leader: Can I phone you at 6 o'clock today, Peter? Team A S1: Oh, no! I'll be doing my homework then. Leader: Can I phone you at 6 o'clock today, Jill? Team S1: Oh, no! I'll be cleaning the house then. etc. 3.8. Act out the conversation. Use the Future Continuous. Tomorrow I'll be flying to Rome and you'll be sorting out the correspondence here in rainy old Birmingham. As you probably know, envy is not very good for your stomach. That's very clever of you to say so, but my stomach is never out of order. And besides, I'll be having a good time, too. Will you really? Yes, I'll be enjoying playing squash, swimming and chatting with my friends in the pub. You'll probably be walking along wet streets, carrying an umbrella and wearing a raincoat. Going out in such rainy weather is out of the question. By the way, when will you be coming back? In a few weeks, I suppose. I'll send you a postcard from Rome, anyway.

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3.9. Talk to your partner about similar things. 1) What will you be doing at this time on Sunday? I think I'll be sliding and skating on the pond. And you? I'll probably be skiing in the park. 2)

At this time tomorrow I'll be flying home. What will you be doing, Kate? I'll be packing my luggage and looking forward to my ten days at home. I suppose we'll all be thinking about our home-coming all the way there. And of course, we'll be feeling too excited to be tired after our journey. REVIEW EXERCISES

1. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense forms. (A) 1) When Mark (to arrive), the Johnsons (to have) dinner, but they stopped in order to greet him. 2) What you (to make), Pamela? It (to smell) really nice. Well, I (to try) a recipe my mother-in-law gave me. It (to sound) really easy. 3) The river Nile (to flow) into the Mediterranean. 4) When I (to phone) Helen last night, she (to wash) her hair. 5) In twenty-four hours' time I (to relax) on my yacht. 6) Peter couldn't understand what had been decided because too many people (to talk) at once. 7) What you (to think) of that new girl, Ann? Well, frankly, I (to find) her terribly annoying. She always (to make) silly remarks and she never (to listen) to anything you say. 8) I felt rather worried. It (to grow) darker and colder, and there was still no sign of the rescue helicopter. 9) Tomorrow at this time I (to fly) to the South and you (to be) in the office, looking at the rain outside and envying me. 10) I haven't decided yet about whether to buy a new car or a second-hand one. But I (to think) about it. 11) When we (to leave) the caf, we (to see) Ann and Harry. They (to laugh) and (to walk) arm in arm. 12) Can you send me the results as soon as you (to hear) anything? 13) What all those people (to do) in the middle of the street? And why they (to wear) such extraordinary clothes? They (to make) a film. Most of the crowd are local people who (to work) as extras.

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14) This time tomorrow everyone (to read) about your success, and all sorts of people (to ring up) to congratulate you. 15) Ann says she (not to come) if Tom is driving. She says she doesn't want to die yet. Well, tell her, Tom (not to drive). He's had his license suspended. 16) Mr Jones (to walk) along Piccadilly when he (to realize) that a man with a beard, whom he had seen three times already that afternoon, (to follow) him. 17) I (not to think) your brother (to enjoy) the party today. He (to look) at his watch all the time. Oh, I'm sure he (to enjoy) it. He always (to enjoy) your parties. But I (to know) he (to want) to be home early tonight because he (to expect) an important telephone call. 18) The dentist's waiting room was full of people. Some (to read) magazines, others just (to turn) over the pages. A woman (to knit), a child (to play) with a toy car. Suddenly the door (to open) and the nurse (to say), "Next, please." 19) The first day of the term will be horrible, for everybody (to talk) about their holidays and (to show) photographs of marvellous foreign beaches, and as I haven't been anywhere it (not to be) very interesting for me. 20) Do you know why that man (to stand) in the middle of the road? He (to try) to get across. He (to wait) for a gap in the traffic. 21) He (to sit) on the bank fishing when he (to see) a man's hat floating down the river. It (to seem) strangely familiar to him. 22) This time next month the snow (to melt) and skiing (to be) over. (B) I (1) (to buy) a new alarm clock the other day in Taylor's, the jewellers, when I actually (2) (to see) somebody shoplifting. I'd just finished paying for my clock and as I (3) (to turn) round, an elderly woman slowly (4) (to put) a silver plate into a bag that she (5) (to carry). Then she (6) (to walk) over to another part of the shop and, when she (7) (to think) that nobody (8) (to look), she (9) (to put) an expensive-looking watch into the bag. Before I (10) (to have) a chance to tell the staff in the shop, she (11) (to notice) that I (12) (to watch) her and (13) (to hurry) out. Unfortunately for her, two police officers (14) (to walk) past just at that moment and she (15) (to run) straight into them. (C) A: B: John (1) (not to look) well these days. Is he okay? Apparently, he (2) (not to sleep) well just now, although he usually (3) (to sleep) really soundly.

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A: B: A: B:

Sounds like something (4) (to worry) him. Well, that's part of the problem. You (5) (to know) that he (6) (to work) for Tardown, the engineers, don't you? Yes, ever since he (7) (to leave) university. That's right. Well, at the moment he (8) (to work) on a major roadbuilding scheme in Liverpool, so he (9) (to drive) up there every day, which (10) (to take) a couple of hours each way. And on top of that, he (11) (to suffer) from a cold and (12) (to have) difficulty in breathing.

(D) Pat left the house and (1) (to go) along a sandy path leading to the vegetable garden. Soon she (2) (to see) that somebody (3) (to move) among the tomato plants. Coming closer she (4) (to recognize) Humphrey Bell. "Hello," Pat (5) (to call) out. "You (6) (to get) tomatoes, eh?" He (7) (to straighten) himself. "Yes, and I (8) (not to be) the thief I (9) (to look). Your uncle (10) (to tell) me to help myself." He (11) (to show) her the basket half full of tomatoes. "I (12) (to help) you," said Pat and without waiting for his reply she (13) (to begin) to gather the tomatoes. "You (14) (to look) unusually elegant," he said. "We (15) (to have) a family dinner party. But they'll not miss me. As a matter of fact, the party is really scattered. The young people have paired off and (16) (to stroll) about." "Then I (17) (to consider) myself lucky that you have paired off with me in the vegetable garden." "It (18) (not to sound) very romantic," she said. "How you (19) (to get) on with your writing? You yourself (20) (to like) what you (21) (to write)?" "Yes, I do." He (22) (to speak) with conviction. (E) Meanwhile it (1) (to get) on to the time for the family's usual fortnight at the seaside. They always (2) (to go) to Herne Bay and for years they had taken the same lodgings. One evening Herbert (3) (to say) to his mother as casually as he could: "By the way, Mum, you'd better write and tell them I (4) (not to want) my room this year. Betty and I (5) (to get married) soon and we (6) (to go) to Scotland for the honeymoon." His mother (7) (not to say) a word. She (8) (to go) deathly pale. "Oh, Mum, don't take it so hard. I'm sure you (9) (to like) Betty when you (10) (to get) to know her. Everything (11) (to be) all right if you only (12) (to be) reasonable." "That's what you think. Well, let me tell you that this woman never (13) (to set) foot in this house, only over my dead body."

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2. Translate into English. 1) , , , . . 2) - ? . . . 3) , ? , , , . , . 4) , . 5) . . 6) , . 7) . . 8) . , . , . 9) . . , . , . 10) , . 11) . ? 12) , . 13) 3 ? , . . 14) , . 15) . ? 16) . . 17) , ? , . 18) , . 19) ? . . ? . 20) , . 21) . , . 22) . ?

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23) ? , . 24) . 25) ? , . 26) , . 27) - , , . 28) , ? 29) , . 30) , . , , . , . , . 31) ? , . . . 32) . 33) , . 34) , . 35) - , . 36) , . 37) $15.000, $5.000. 38) . 39) . 40) , . 41) . 42) , , . 43) . , .

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44) . . 45) , . 46) 20%. 47) , . 48) - . 49) , . 50) , , , . 51) . 52) . . 53) , . 54) 9 , . 55) , . 56) , . 57) , . 58) , . 59) , , , . 60) - . 61) . . 62) . .

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63) , , . 64) , . 65) , , . 66) , . 67) . , . . 68) ! . 69) ? , . 70) , . PROGRESS TEST 1. Choose the correct variant. 1) Everyone ..... to the teacher very attentively at the moment. A) are listening C) is listening B) listening D) is listen 2) While you ..... dinner, Ill be tidying up the flat. A) will be cooking C) will cooking B) are cooking D) will are cooking 3) When she saw them, they ..... the street. A) are crossing C) were be crossing B) was crossing D) were crossing 4) You are always talking on the phone. Who ..... to now, John? A) you are talking C) are you talking B) is talking you D) is talking 5) I think it ..... all day long tomorrow. A) will be snowing C) will be snow B) shall be snowing D) will being snow 6) Can you remember what ..... ten years ago today? A) you doing C) were you doing B) was you doing D) you were doing

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7)

8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19)

While I am writing a composition, my elder sister ..... on the phone with her friend. A) is talking C) talks B) be talking D) was talking While the children ..... hockey the snow began to fall. A) played C) were playing B) be playing D) are playing Don't call him at 4 o'clock tomorrow. He ..... dinner at that time. A) will have C) will being have B) shall be having D) will be having He ..... much money at present. A) shan't be making C) doesn't making B) is not making D) isn't make She ..... to her manager at this time next Monday. A) will be speak C) will be speaking B) will speak D) shall be speaking Where .....? To the post-office. A) are you go C) do you go B) are you going D) you were going While he was painting her portrait, she ..... at the window. A) was setting C) is sitting B) was seating D) was sitting They ..... in the river at present. A) are not swimming C) be not swimming B) do not swim D) not swimming Hurry up! Our bus ..... in ten minutes! A) leaving C) is leaving B) leave D) be leaving She still ..... a letter when I came home. A) is writing C) were writing B) was writing D) wrote ..... heavily the whole day yesterday? A) Did it raining C) Were it raining B) Was the rain going D) Was it raining We'll be cleaning the windows while she ..... the dishes. A) is washing C) was washing B) will be washing D) shall be washing You ..... a lot of noise. Can you be a bit quieter? A) make C) are make B) was making D) are making

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20) ..... a cake the whole morning tomorrow? A) Will be she making C) Will she making B) Will she be making D) Will she is making 21) Peter ..... the latest news when the phone rang. A) will be listening to C) was listening to B) was listening D) was being listen 22) I ..... you. Speak louder, please. A) am not hear C) wasn't hearing B) am not hearing D) dont hear 23) It ..... dark. Shall I turn on the light? A) is getting C) gets B) getting D) is being getting 24) Kate ..... on the phone with her friend while her husband was watching TV. A) is talking C) will be talking B) was talking D) talked 25) We haven't seen Kate for a month. She ..... to us tonight. A) is coming C) was coming B) will be coming D) coming 26) She said she still ..... dinner when they came. A) will be cooking C) would is cooking B) will is cooking D) would be cooking 27) Max is reading a text while Jack ..... an exercise. A) is doing C) was doing B) will be doing D) does 28) What ..... at 5 o'clock last Sunday? A) was you doing C) are you doing B) will you be doing D) were you doing 29) Eliza has made good progress in her English. Her teacher ..... with her work now. A) is being pleased C) is pleased B) is pleasing D) are pleased 30) She ..... the guitar when somebody knocked at the door. A) is playing C) would be playing B) was playing D) were playing 31) Why .....? What has happened? A) Kate is crying C) does Kate cry B) does Kate crying D) is Kate crying 32) I wonder if Mr Smith ..... his business partners at the airport at this time the day after tomorrow. A) shall be meet C) will is meeting

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33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40)

B) will be meeting D) would be meeting Mark hurt his leg when he ..... football. A) played C) is playing B) will be playing D) was playing She is so absent-minded. She always ..... her things. A) is losing C) were losing B) will losing D) would be losing Mary ..... dinner at 3 o'clock tomorrow. A) would be having C) will be having B) will be hasing D) is having While Tommy ....., his grandmother was knitting. A) is sleeping C) will be sleeping B) was sleeping D) would be sleeping Don't enter the room! The doctor ..... a patient. A) are examining C) is examing B) shall be examining D) is examining Who ..... with when I saw you the other day? A) were you talking C) are you talking B) you were talking D) did you talk While Peter's parents are abroad, his aunt ..... after him. A) would be looking C) will is looking B) was looking D) will be looking As I ..... down the street, Mr Brown, our neighbour, went by. A) am walking C) was walking B) walked D) was being walk

2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. 41) What they (to do)? They (to plan) their next holiday. 42) Nick (to work) all day yesterday that's why he couldn't go to the cinema with us. 43) When you next see me I (to wear) my new dress. 44) What you (to do) when Mr Smith arrived? I (to type) a contract. 45) At the moment Kate (to learn) new words and I (to look) through a magazine now. 46) While her friends (to swim) in the river, she (to sunbathe) at this time next Sunday. 47) He bought his car five years ago and he still (to drive) it. 48) The boy jumped off the bus while it (to move). 49) Mr Brown lives in Washington though he (to stay) in London at the moment.

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50) What do you think the children (to do) when you get home? I expect they (to have) their supper. 51) It (not to rain) when she got up. 52) Call her later. I don't think she (to sleep). 53) Linda is away on holiday so Janet (to handle) her work. 54) The students of our group (to discuss) a very important question the whole lesson yesterday. 55) Open the door, please. Somebody (to knock) at it. 56) He still (to work) when she comes? 57) Can I borrow your pen or you (to use) it at the moment? 58) Mary (to stand) at the bus stop when I saw her. I asked her what bus she (to wait) for. 59) This time the day after tomorrow he (to write) a test. 60) Tom has a bad habit. He always (to put off) some difficult work to the very last moment. 61) What Ann (to do) in the library? She (to prepare) a report. 62) The house was in great disorder because he (to redecorate) it. 63) She'll be cooking dinner while her husband (to pack) their things. 64) Why is it so cold in the room? We (to air) it. 65) It (to rain) when you left the office? Yes, it (to rain) heavily. 66) Has she typed all the documents yet? No, she (to type) them the whole day tomorrow. 67) Our friend is in hospital. I wonder, how she (to get) on. 68) We had a terrible time looking after your dog. It constantly (to chase) the cat next door. 69) Mary won't be able to join us. She (to look) after her younger sister at the time. 70) I (to taste) the tea to see if it is sweet enough. 71) While the workers (to repair) the roof, they broke the bathroom window. 72) Mr Nutton (to investigate) a new case at present. 73) The secretary (to type) the contract the whole morning tomorrow. 74) Why she (to cry) when I entered the room? 75) Our father (to fish) while we (to swim) in the river next Sunday. 76) They (to talk) so loudly that we can't really hear your words. 77) Kate still (to do) the flat when her parents come home. 78) We (to wait) for him during the break but he didn't come. 79) Nick (to wear) a nice suit when I saw him at the party. 80) The children are in the sitting room now. While Tom (to draw) a picture, his brother (to play) with his toys.

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3. Translate into English. 81) , . 82) , . 83) . , . 84) . . 85) . 9 . 86) , . , . 87) , , . 88) , ? 89) . 90) , . 91) , . , . 92) , , . 93) . . 94) ? . 95) , . 96) , . 97) . ? 98) . . 99) , . , . 100) , . Total: 100/______

UNIT 5

PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES


ENTRY TEST

1. Choose the correct variant. 1) I ..... cakes. That is why my hands are all covered with flour. A) have been making C) will have made B) have make D) make 2) He ..... since he returned from his business trip. That is why he looks so tired. A) has been overworking C) overworks B) overworked D) will have overworked 3) She ..... the children for 2 hours by the time their parents come home. A) will have been caring for C) had been caring for B) has been caring for D) cared for 4) I ..... over the phone for 20 minutes when they brought me the letter. A) has been talking C) will have been talking B) had been talking D) have been talking 5) They ..... in that room since morning when the taxi arrived. A) have been sitting C) had been sitting B) sat D) will have been sitting 6) He ..... in the south the whole week by the time his friends come to visit him. A) will have been resting C) had been resting B) has been resting D) rested 7) In an hour we ..... at this report for 5 hours. A) will have been working C) had been working B) have been working D) will work 8) He ..... Russian for 2 years and doesnt even known the alphabet yet. A) is studying C) studied B) has been studying D) studies 9) He quickly forgot everything he ..... at school for more than 5 years. A) had learnt C) has been learning B) had been learning D) learnt 10) I ..... at the hotel for a fortnight when I received your letter. A) had been staying C) had stayed B) was staying D) have been staying 11) By next week my friends ..... in this flat for 22 weeks.

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A) will live C) will be living B) will have been living D) are living 12) By 6 p.m. she ..... in the garden for 4 hours. A) will have been standing C) will be standing B) will stand D) are standing 13) I ..... at the hotel library for an hour when I got your message. A) had been staying C) will have been staying B) have been staying D) had stayed 14) The musicians ..... the piano for an hour when we came in. A) played C) had been playing B) had played D) had being playing 15) By the beginning of the year they ..... English for 1 year. A) will learn C) will have been learning B) will be learning D) are learning 16) We ..... along a forest road for 3 hours when we saw a house. A) had walked C) had been walking B) were walking D) walked 17) They ..... in the garden for 2 hours by the time we come to their house. A) will be working C) will work B) will have been working D) work 18) I ..... over the phone the whole hour when the porter knocked at the door. A) had talked C) talked B) had been talking D) had being talked 19) In half an hour we ..... since morning. A) will sunbathe C) will have been sunbathing B) are sunbathing D) will be sunbathing 20) Alice closed the magazine and rose from the sofa on which she ..... for more than 2 hours. A) had been lying C) had lain B) had lied D) was lying 21) By 5.00 p.m. they ..... TV for 4 hours running! A) will watch C) will have been watching B) will be watching D) are watching 22) She looked tired. She ..... letters all the morning. A) typed C) has been typing B) had been typing D) is typing 23) The trial ..... on for a long time. I wonder, what the verdict will be. A) has been going C) is going B) went D) has gone 24) It ..... for 3 days now. The roads will be blocked if it doesnt stop soon.

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A) has being snowing C) is snowing B) has been snowing D) snows 25) I ..... you to mend that window for 6 weeks. When are you going to do it? A) have been asking C) am asking B) ask D) asked 26) He ..... since 10 oclock. It is time he woke up. A) has been sleeping C) had been sleeping B) will have been sleeping D) slept 27) Janes clothes were wet. She ..... her dog. A) had been washing C) will have been washing B) has been washing D) washed 28) By tomorrow we ..... to Poland for 10 days. A) will have been walking C) will be walking B) will walk D) had been walking 29) He ..... to work for half an hour when suddenly the car broke down. A) had been driving C) will have been driving B) has been driving D) drove 30) By next April he ..... Russian for 2 years. A) will have been learning C) is learning B) will learn D) had been learning 31) He ..... the car since 1 oclock when the phone rang. A) will have been cleaning C) had been cleaning B) was cleaning D) cleans 32) In a month they ..... this building for about 5 months. A) will have been decorating C) decorated B) will decorate D) have been decorating 33) By tomorrow she ..... her car for a week. A) will have been driving C) drives B) has been driving D) had been driving 34) He ..... football for an hour when the ball hit his head. A) had been playing C) was playing B) has been playing D) plays 35) The students ..... very well this term. A) have been working C) had been working B) are working D) work 36) I ..... the table all the morning. A) has been polishing C) will have been polishing B) have been polishing D) polish 37) He ..... at this school for 5 years. A) has been teaching C) will have been teaching

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B) have been teaching D) teaches 38) In an hour she ..... her shopping since morning. A) has been doing C) had been doing B) will have been doing D) does 39) By June my friends ..... in the south for a fortnight. A) will have been resting C) will rest B) will be resting D) have been resting 40) Yesterday afternoon it ..... since 5 a.m. when I got home. A) had been raining C) rained B) has been raining D) was raining 2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. 41) He (to read) this book for some hours by the time we come. 42) That old radio (to work) for many years before I dropped it. 43) Mary took a hot bath after she (to work) in the garden all the afternoon. 44) He (to use) this machine for 12 years. 45) He (to stand) there for nearly half an hour when I realized I was at the wrong bus stop. 46) By Friday she (to prepare) for her exams for a month. 47) It (to rain) for 2 hours and the ground is wet to play on. 48) Tom (to dig) in the garden the whole afternoon and I am helping him. 49) He (to smoke) for 20 years before he finally gave it up last year. 50) Ever since he came to us that man (to try) to make trouble. 51) I (to watch) the hockey match for 2 hours. 52) Kate (to dance) for some time, but when she saw a newcomer she stopped. 53) By 6.00 p.m. he (to deal) with their complaints for 2 hours. 54) They were very angry. They (to try) to see us for 2 or 3 hours. 55) The driver of that car (to sound) his horn for the last 10 minutes. 56) By the end of this week Mike (to repair) his car for a week. 57) I was tired because I (to dig) all day long. 58) By tomorrow she (to drive) her car for a week. 59) They (to live) in France since 1970. 60) By Wednesday they (to lie) in the sun for a week. 61) Mr. Brown (to work) for 50 years when he finally retired in 1985. 62) By 4.00 p.m. when I get home, they (to clean) the flat for several hours. 63) Tom (to try) to get a new job for 6 months before he finally found a position at a local college. 64) Your fingers are very brown. You (to smoke) too much. 65) I am sorry for keeping you waiting. I (to try) to make a phone call to Rome since morning.

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66) The car (to make) a very curious noise ever since it ran out of oil. 67) When Sarah got off the bus, it (to rain) for 2 hours already. 68) In a couple of months he (to work) at this plant for a year. 69) Her phone (to ring) for 10 minutes. I wonder, why she doesnt answer it. 70) Have you seen my bag anywhere? I (to look) for it for ages. 71) The helicopter (to fly) round the house for the last hour; do you think it is

taking photographs? 72) By the time we make a decision, they (to wait) for us for about an hour. 73) By the time we come to their house, they (to celebrate) for 3 hours. 74) I know that he (to study) at the University for 4 years already. 75) You (to drive) the whole day. Let me drive now. 76) By the time he makes a decision to visit us in Moscow, we (to live) there for some years. 77) Everybody knew that he lost his job because he (to cheat) the company for many years. 78) When I got there, I could see that they (to wait) for me since morning. 79) By June my friends (to rest) in the south for a fortnight. 80) He (to live) in London for 8 years before he decided to move to Manchester. 3. Translate into English. 81) , . 82) 3 , . 83) , : 3 . 84) . 85) , . 86) . 87) , . 88) , . 89) , , 9 . 90) , , . 91) , . 92) , , . 93) 6 , .

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94) . 95) 15, . 96) , . 97) . 98) , . 99) ? ,

. 100) , ? Total: 100/______

THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

1. F o r m a t i o n The Present Perfect Continuous is formed with the auxiliary to be in the Present Perfect + the Present Participle: I have been working for two hour already. The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to be in the Present Perfect + the Present Participle. The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to be in the Present Perfect and the subject + the Present Participle. Affirmative
I have been working (= I've been working) You have been working He/she/it has been working We have been working They have been working at school for five years.

Negative
I have not been working (= I haven't been working) You have not been working He/she/it has not been working We have not been working They have not been working Have I not been working (= Haven't I been working) Have you not been working at school for five years.

Interrogative
Have I been working Have you been working Has he/she/it been at school for five

Negative Interrogative
at school

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working Have we been working Have they been working

years? Has he/she/it not been working Have we not been working Have they not been working

for five years?

2. U s a g e The Present Perfect Continuous is used to indicate an action which has begun before the present moment of speech and has continued up to this moment. The Present Perfect Continuous is used to denote: 1) an action which began in the past and is still going on at the moment of speaking: I have been waiting for an hour and he hasn't turned up yet. 2) an action which began in the past and has recently stopped or just stopped: You are out of breath. Have you been running? Ann's hands are dirty. She has been watering the flowers. The following time expressions can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous: how long, for and since: They have been waiting here for an hour. I have been watching TV since 2 o'clock. How long have you been learning English?

EXERCISES 1.1. Explain the use of the Present Perfect Continuous forms. Translate into Russian. 1) They have been learning English for a long time. 2) It has been raining heavily since I got up this morning. 3) How long have you been smoking? 4) I have been waiting here since 5 p.m. 5) Ann has been writing letters the whole day. 6) John hasnt been feeling well recently. 7) Have you been working hard today? 8) We have been collecting stamps since we were children. 9) Has she been working for this company since she graduated from the University? 10) She has been waiting for them since she came home.

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1.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. 1) He has been living in London since March. 2) She has been playing tennis for 2 hours. 3) They have been painting the whole day. 4) I have been working here since I moved to Minsk. 5) Diana has been teaching English in Germany for a long time. 6) It has been snowing since I got up. 7) He has been studying languages at the University for 2 years. 8) They have been waiting for us for a long time. 9) Jack has been living here since he was born. 10) They have been looking for a flat since they arrived in Minsk. 1.3. Transform into an interrogative form according to the model: Model: He has been studying maths for 3 years (since 1985). How long has he been studying maths? Since when (what time) has he been studying maths? 1) My brothers have been working in London since February. 2) They have been waiting for us for half an hour. 3) Jack has been smoking since he was 17. 4) She has been living in Glasgow for a year. 5) It has been raining heavily since 6 a.m. 6) They have been learning German since the beginning of the 1st term. 7) Ann has been writing letters for a long time. 8) He has been ill since Monday. 9) The workers have been painting the walls since they started working here. 10) They have been making films since they left college. 1.4. Combine the given phrases. Translate what is given in the right-hand column. 1) They have been waiting A) 6 for us B) 2,5 C) , D) 2) He has been wearing A) glasses B) , C) 10

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3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

D) My friends have been A) living here B) , C) D) She has been painting the A) ceiling B) 2 C) D) , My friend has been A) 1993 working in the bank B) , C) 15 D) She has been learning A) this poem B) 3 C) , D) 2 He has been staying at A) this nice hotel B) C) , D) 3 The musician has been A) playing the piano B) , C) 6 D)

1.5. Open the brackets. Use the Present Perfect Continuous. 1) What are you doing? I am repairing my sons bicycle. I (to do) it for 2 hours. 2) Ill call for an ambulance. She (to get) weaker and weaker since she had breakfast. 3) Who is that man standing there? He (to stand) there for the last half an hour. 4) Where is John? I (to wait) for him since 6 p.m. We are going to be late to the concert. 5) I cannot stand it any more. Those people (to quarrel) since breakfast. 6) Jim works as a sales manager. He (to sell) washing machines for 3 months. 7) Dora is playing the piano. She (to play) it since I came. 8) Arent you going to tell me what (you/ to do) in my absence? 9) How long you (to sit) here? 10) Mike, I (to try) to get you all this day!

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11) Hurry up! I am waiting for you. You (to have) a bath for an hour. 12) Ill go and wash my eyes. I dont want them to see I (to cry). 13) The amount of crimes (to increase) for the last 10 years and we cant stop

this process. 14) The children are playing. They (to play) since they came home. 15) You (to write) a composition for 2 hours and cant complete it. 1.6. Put in: since or for. 1) I have been trying to open this box .. last 40 minutes, but in vain. 2) It is the best book I have been reading . January. 3) I have been listening to you .. the past half an hour, but I cant understand what you are speaking about. 4) Hey! Somebody has been drinking my coffee .. a week! My cup is constantly empty. 5) I have been sitting here in the park .. an hour. 6) How much money have you been saving for the holidays .. a year? 7) I have been waiting for you .. 2 oclock. I have something urgent to tell you. Where have you been spending ..... the last three hours? 8) She has been taking guitar lessons ..... a year. She is very patient and hardworking. 9) Last year our team didnt win many games, but this year we have been playing without losing any game ..... June. 10) Who has broken the window? Jack has. He has been playing football with his friends .... morning. 1.7. Complete the sentences. Mind the use of either the Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect. 1) We (to walk) along a forest road for some hours, but (not to reach) the lake yet. 2) She (to talk) over the phone for an hour. What she (to discuss) all this time? 3) She (to lie) on the sofa for more than 2 hours already. Anything (to happen)? 4) He (to work) in the garden for a week. He (to plant) 8 trees and a lot of bushes. 5) He (to stand) near that shop since I returned home an hour ago. Whom he (to wait for) for such a long time? 6) He (to knock) at the door for half an hour already, but nobody (to open) it.

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7) It (to rain) cats and dogs since I began to work in Nigeria. The weather (to

be) very bad lately. 8) They (to sit) by the window for an hour or so. They (to notice) anything interesting? 9) She (to study) at the University for 2 years. 10) I (to try) to open this door since I returned home from work, but I (not to succeed) yet. Oral Activity You've arranged to go to the cinema with an English-speaking friend. Complete the conversation. Notice how your friend replies in this example and change the numbered verbs in the same way: Model: You: You look hot. Friend: I (to run). I've been running. Friend: Am I late? You: I (to wait) for you for the last half an hour. Friend: You are wet through. You: Yes, it (to rain). Friend: You look tired. You: I (not to sleep/well). Friend: Why's that? You: I (to worry) about my exams. Friend: Well, tonight you can forget about them. It's funny, but in this light your face looks green. You: I (to paint) the bedroom ceiling. Friend: But apart from the green spots, your face has a really funny colour. Are you feeling all right? You: Actually, I (to feel) dreadful all day long. Friend: If you are feeling so awful, why don't you go home? You: I (to look forward to) this film for a month. Friend: That's a pity. You: Why? Friend: While we (to talk) they'd sold all the tickets. 1.8. Translate into English. Use the Present Perfect Continuous where appropriate. 1) .

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2) . ? . 3) ? 4) . 5) , . 6) 2 . 7) 10 . 8) , . 9) , . 10) ? . 2 .

1.9. Translate into English. Use either the Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect. (A) 1) ? 10 , . 2) . ? ? 3) - . 4) , . 5) ? , . 6) , . . 7) , . 8) , . 9) , 2 . , ? ? 10) . - ? . ()
1) ? ,

. 2) , . -, . 3) , . . 4) , , .

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5) 2 ,

. 6) 2 . , 100 . 7) ? . . 8) . , . 9) . 2 . 10) . , . ()
1) ? 20,

. 2) , ? . ? -, 9 . . 3) , , . 4) . 9 - . 5) ? . , ? 6) . , . 7) 2 . , . 8) 2 . , -. . 9) 5 , , . 10) . , , , .

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2 1. F o r m a t i o n

THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

The Past Perfect Continuous is formed with the auxiliary to be in the Past Perfect + the Present Participle. It is therefore the same for all persons: I had been working for two hours when my friends came to see us. The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to be in the Past Perfect + the Present Participle. The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to be in the Past Perfect and the subject + the Present Participle. Affirmative
I had been working (= I'd been working) You had been working He/she/it had been working We had been working They had been working at school for five years when they came. at school for five years when they came?

Negative
I had not been working (= I hadn't been working) You had not been working He/she/it had not been working We had not been working
They had not been working

at school for five years when they came. at school for five years when they came?

Interrogative
Had I been working

Negative Interrogative
Had I not been working (= Hadn't I been working) Had you not been working Had he/she/it not been working Had we not been working Had they not been working

Had you been working Had he/she/it been working Had we been working Had they been working

2. U s a g e The Past Perfect Continuous is used to indicate an action which began before a definite moment of the past time and continued up to that past moment.

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The Past Perfect Continuous is used to denote: 1) an action which began in the past and continued for a period of time up to another action in the past: When I came home, my mother had been cooking dinner for more than two hours. 2) an action which began in the past and was completed before another past action, but the effect was still apparent: When the boys came into the house, one had a black eye. They had been fighting. The following time expressions can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous for, since: I had been translating the article for an hour since morning before you came. EXERCISES 2.1. Explain the use of the Past Perfect Continuous forms. Translate into Russian. 1) They had been living in this city for 3 years when their son came back to the USA. 2) We felt tired when we came home because we had been walking in the rain for a long time. 3) It had been raining for 2 hours when we left home. 4) Angela rose from the arm-chair in which she had been sitting since morning. 5) David saw that Margie had been weeping, but didnt say anything. 6) I thought that he had come to talk about the problem which we had been already discussing for hours. 7) She had been learning French for 5 years before she could speak fluently. 8) How long had you been waiting before he came? 9) When the test was over, the students found out that they had been writing it for 2 hours. 10) Mark tried to stop his friend who had been talking for the last 10 minutes. 2.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. 1) Ben felt frustrated, because he had been trying to open his door for an hour. 2) When Betty came home from the beach, her eyes were red, because she had been lying in the sun too much. 3) When he came into the room, no one was smoking, but somebody had been smoking in this room. 4) When the test was over, the students looked tired, because they had been writing it for 4 hours.

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5) When he got up from the table, he had been reading up for an hour for the

exam. 6) When Jane opened her eyes, she saw snow everywhere. It had been snowing the whole night. 7) Jim came home with dirty hands, because he had been working in the garden since morning. 8) They had been watching TV for half an hour when their parents came. 9) The orchestra had been playing for 10 minutes when a man ran into the hall. 10) Mother had been cooking dinner for 10 minutes when Hazel came to help her. 2.3. Use the Past Perfect Continuous instead of the infinitive in brackets. 1) He looked at her. He knew she (to cry). 2) She told him about her plan, which she (to think of) the whole morning. 3) Molly closed the book which she (to read) and looked at her friends. 4) Paul (to think) for some time before he dared to answer. 5) How long Tony (to read) when this terrible accident happened? 6) When the lesson was over, the teacher asked the students to hand in the tests they (to write) since its beginning. 7) How long they (to wait) for a taxi before it came? 8) How long this man (to stand) there and (to watch) you before you noticed him? 9) What are you thinking of? he asked after he (to look at) her a few seconds. But she didnt answer. 10) Who (to sit) here before I came? 2.4. Join the following sentences. Use the Past Perfect Continuous in the main clause according to the model: Model: They began watching TV. After half an hour their parents came. They had been watching TV for half an hour when their parents came. 1) We had arranged to meet in the cafe. I came and began waiting. After 15 minutes I realized that I had come to the wrong cafe. 2) Mr. and Mrs. Thompson went to live to Sussex. Six months later their son joined them. 3) We started to play football at about 3. Somewhere about half past 3 it began to rain. 4) Bernard couldnt calm the baby down. It was crying. After 15 minutes his wife came.

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5) Brian was trying to fix his car. After several hours he gave up the idea. 6) Faith sat down and began to write her report. After half an hour her sister

called her. 7) She worked for this company. After 25 years she retired. 8) The family began watching an interesting film. After half an hour the TV broke down. 9) We sat down to dinner. After 5 minutes the door-bell rang. 10) Margo went to the park. After 10 minutes she realised that she had forgotten to close the door. 2.5. Express the same idea. Use the Past Perfect Continuous according to the model. Model: We knew he had begun to play hockey years before and he was still playing it. We knew he had been playing hockey for years. 1) Marsha said that she had started jogging 2 months before and she enjoyed jogging a lot. 2) Tom looked tired when I came to see him at 5. He had started working early in the morning and was still working. 3) When Jack telephoned Marion, she was still busy with cleaning the flat though she had begun cleaning it 3 hours before. 4) Anns mother said that her daughter had started looking for a job 6 months before and she was still looking for it. 5) The assistant said that Roger had begun to copy the report half and hour before and was still copying it. 6) Carol remarked that she had started to explore the problem when she was a student and she was still interested in it. 7) The boss got angry because his secretary had begun to type a letter an hour before and she was still doing it. 8) We learnt that Jeremy had begun working as a librarian 3 years before and he was still working there. 9) She knew that John and his brothers had started training to climb the mountains 6 months before and they were still training. 10) Everybody knew that they had started building a house and they were still doing it. 2.6. Answer these questions. Give your reasons according to the model. Model: How long had Kate been waiting when the bus came?

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1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

As far as I know, Kate was late for work that day. So she had been waiting for the bus too long. How long had Jack been talking over the phone when he realized that it was a wrong number? What had they been discussing for a few minutes before they started off? How long had she been working for this company before she gave up this work? What had Fred been living on for 3 months before his uncle left him money? How long had your father been working for the previous 5 years before he reached a middle-management position?

2.7. Ask questions about the starting point of the actions according to the model. Model: Roger began watching a football match at 7 p.m. When Jack phoned him, Roger was still watching it. Since when had he been watching a football match, I wonder? 1) I promised Mary to come at 5. When I arrived, Mary was waiting for me but she was very annoyed as I was 30 minutes late. 2) They started boating at 10 a.m. When their friends came up to the beach 2 hours later, they were getting ashore. 3) They went to live in the south of France in 1983. When Phil visited the country 10 years later, they were still living there. 4) On the 1st of January my friend decided to change his way of living and started working out a plan what and how to change. When a fortnight later I visited him, he was still busy with working the plan out. 5) Last Monday the German team started climbing up the mountains. When on Thursday I flew to Nepal, it was still climbing up. 2.8. Translate into English. Use the Past Perfect Continuous. 1) , . 2) , , 15 . 3) , . 4) , ?

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5) , .

15, . 6) 10 , . 7) 5 , . 8) , . 9) , , , . 10) , , . 2.9. Translate into English. Be sure to use either the Past Indefinite or Past Continuous, Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous. () 1) . , , . 2) . , , . 3) . , , . 4) , , . , . 5) . 15 , , . 6) , , , , , . 7) , , , . 8) , - . 9) , , . 10) . . ()
1) ,

. 2) 5 . 2 , . 3) , . , 3 .

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4) , .

. . 5) , . 6) , , 2 . 7) . . 8) , , . 9) , , 3 . 10) , .

THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

1. F o r m a t i o n The Future Perfect Continuous is formed with the auxiliary to be in the Future Perfect + the Present Participle: I will have been working for two hours when my friends come to see me. The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary to be in the Future Perfect + the Present Participle. The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary to be in the Future Perfect and the subject + the Present Participle. Affirmative
I shall have been working (= I'll have been working) You will have been working He/she/it will have been working We shall have been at school for five years by the time they come.

Negative
I shall not have been working (= I shan't have been working) You will not have been working He/she/it will not have been working We shall not have been at school for five years by the time they come.

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working They will have been working

working They will not have been working

Interrogative
Shall I have been working Will you have been working Will he/she/it have been working Shall we have been working Will they have been working at school for five years by the time they come?

Negative Interrogative
Shall I not have been working (= Shan't I have been working) Will you not have been working Will he/she/it not have been working Shall we not have been working Will they not have been working at school for five years by the time they come?

2. U s a g e The Future Perfect Continuous is used to indicate an action which will begin before a definite moment of the future time and will continue up to this moment. The Future Perfect Continuous is used to denote a continuous action which will begin before a certain moment in the future and which will have been in progress for some time in the future including this certain moment. This certain moment in the future is usually indicated with the preposition by: You will have been discussing the plan for half an hour by the time I get there. The following time expressions can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous for, since: He will have been working at the plant for 20 years since his graduation from the University by the 1st of May.

EXERCISES

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3.1. Explain the use of the Future Perfect Continuous forms. Translate into Russian. 1) We will have been working for 5 hours already when we come and join them. 2) By the first of June he will have been working here for 14 years. 3) They will have been trying to solve this problem for 2 years by 2009. 4) She will have been writing an essay since 8 when her friends come. 5) The students will have been answering the whole hour already by 12. 6) Shell have been talking for 2 hours already by 4. 7) Someone will have been playing the piano for 3 hours by midnight. 8) He will have been studying English for 10 months by the time he goes back to Syria in October. 9) Theyll have been sitting here quite a while by the time we return. 10) He is never going to stop talking. In 15 minutes well have been listening to his lecture for 3 hours! 3.2. Transform into negative and interrogative forms. 1) This is a long trip! By the time we get to NY, well have been riding on this bus for over 15 hours. 2) I have been sitting at this desk for an hour. By 11.00 Ill have been sitting here for 2 hours. 3) By the end of next year Ill have been working for him for 40 years. 4) Ill go to bed at 10 p.m. Hell get home at midnight. Ill have been sleeping for 2 hours by the time he gets home. 5) By the time they reach the finish line, theyll have been running steadily for more than 2 hours. 6) Ill have been reading this book for 2 hours by the time you come back. 7) My auntll have been working at this plant for 10 years by the end of December. 8) By the time we get to the party, theyll have been eating for 2 hours. 9) By the 3rd of January theyll have been passing their exams for 2 weeks. 10) In 10 minutes the phonell have been ringing for 20 minutes already. 3.3. Open the brackets. Use the Future Perfect Continuous. 1) He (to write) a letter for 3 hours when you come. 2) He (to learn) French for 6 years already when he enters the college. 3) She (to watch) this film for an hour already when you ring her up. 4) You (to have) dinner for half an hour tomorrow when he calls for us.

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5) By July he (to live) here for 5 years. 6) When you enter the University, you (to study) languages for more than 10

years. 7) The painter (to work) on this landscape for almost a year by Christmas. 8) They (to quarrel) for more than an hour when the police come. 9) The students (to read) up for their exams for more than 3 hours already by the time we come to the library and join them. 10) They (to travel) for almost a year by Christmas, but they dont want to return. 3.4. Complete the sentences. Mind the use of the Future Perfect Continuous. 1) They ..... this film for 5 hours by the time we come. 2) My parents ..... in the USA for 20 years by Christmas. 3) She ..... the cleaning for half an hour by 5. 4) John ..... to the radio for almost an hour when we come to visit him. 5) By the time we return home, the children ..... football for 2 hours. 6) They ..... me silly questions for an hour by 12. 7) The students ..... to the teacher with interest for half an hour by the time the lesson comes to an end. 8) He ..... at the door for 20 minutes by the time they open it to him. 9) The doctors ..... him for a month by the time he recovers. 10) She ..... them English at school for 40 years by the time she retires. 3.5. Open the brackets. Use either the Future Perfect, Future Indefinite or Future Perfect Continuous. 1) He (to sleep) for an hour when you (to come) back tonight. 2) I think, by the time I come, they (to go) away. But if they dont we (to go) to the restaurant. 3) It is snowing heavily. Have you listened to the weather forecast for tomorrow? I hope it (to stop) snowing by tomorrow morning. 4) My sister (to learn) the results of her exam on economy in 3 days. 5) Lets meet at the station at 5. OK. By that time I (to finish) my work. 6) She (to have lunch) for half an hour by the time we arrive. 7) They are going to buy a car. By the end of next month they (to save) money for it. 8) The workers say that they (to build up) a district by 2007. 9) By 7.00 p.m. they (to play) cricket for 8 hours. 10) By the end of next month I (to live) in London for exactly 3 years. 3.6. Translate into English. Mind the use of tenses. (A)

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10 , . 2 , . 1 6 . 5 . , 10 . 6) 2 . 7) 3 . 8) , . 9) , , . 10) , , , .
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

()
1) ,

? 2) , , . 3) , , . 4) , . 5) , , 2 . 6) 3, . 7) , , . 8) , , . 9) , . 10) . . . ()
1) , ,

10. 2) , . 3) .

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4) , ,

. 5) , , , , . 6) , , . 7) , , . 8) . 9) , , 5 . 10) 2 . REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. (A) 1) They (1) (to discuss) this matter for 2 hours already when the teacher suddenly entered the classroom. 2) She (2) (to read) this book for 3 days and (3) (to read) 300 pages already. 3) She (4) (to learn) French since she (5) (to be) 4. Her parents (6) (to talk) French to her since she (7) (to be) born. 4) Barry (8) (to do) this room since morning and he (9) (not to finish) it yet. 5) Since when you (10) (to sit) here? How long you (11) (to wait)? 6) By noon we (12) (to watch) this film for an hour when our friends phone us. 7) He (13) (to study) English for 2 years before he came to work here. 8) His friend (14) (to wait) here for half an hour before his friends called him. 9) He (15) (to solve) this puzzle at last! He (16) (to solve) it since breakfast. 10) They (17) (to work) in the garden for some time when we come to help them. 11) By the beginning of the year she (18) (to deal) with this affair for 3 months already. 12) By next week my brother (19) (to study) English for a year. 13) Don't tell me any more lies. I (20) (to listen to) you too long! 14) I hear Jerry's footsteps. I'm going away. I don't want him to see I (21) (to cry) for some hours. 15) They (22) (to speak on) that topic for half an hour when the professor came. 16) My friends (23) (to play) chess for an hour when I came to visit them.

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17) I (24) (to look for) my notebook the whole morning before I finally discovered it under the newspaper. 18) She (25) (to wait for) us there for a long time when she decided to go home. 19) I (26) (to rain) for ages before we left home. 20) By midday John (27) (to work) at the project for 2 hours. 21) In a month Kate (28) (to live) in her friends' house for 2 weeks. 22) We (29) (to show) the new engineer round the factory for 3 hours before other engineers joined us. 23) He (30) (to prepare) for the conference the whole week by the time we visit him. 24) My friend (31) (to serve) in the army for 10 years before he went to work at the factory. 25) In an hour they (32) (to attend) the lecture for 4 hours. 26) By the end of the year Tom and Mike (33) (to live) in Moscow for 2 years. 27) She (34) (to walk) in the park since morning. It is time to have dinner, but she (35) (not to come). 28) In 2 hours she (36) (to fly) to Italy for 3 hours. 29) He (37) (to drive) to London for 6 hours. How many miles he (38) (to cover) by now? 30) I (39) (not to be) through with this test yet. Not through! How long you (40) (to write) it? For an hour. 31) We (41) (to play) football for 2 hours by the time they join us. 32) By yesterday my friends (42) (to write) 5 letters. They (43) (to write) them for 2 days. 33) In 3 hours we (44) (to go) to Miami for 5 hours. 34) How long you (45) (to prepare) for the exam? I (46) (to prepare) for it for a week. 35) She (47) (to work) at school for 5 years before she gave it up and decided to look for another job. (B) 1) Shop assistant: Customer: Shop assistant: Could you give me some proof of your identity, madam? But I (48) (to shop) here for 15 years! I know, madam, but apparently the company (49) (to lose) a lot of money lately and (50) (to make) new regulations which we have been told to apply to all customers no matter how long we (51) (to know) them. I (52) (to intend) to call you all the week, but your father (53) (to

2) Mother:

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Sue: Mother: Sue: Mother:

have) such a terrible cold! Peter (54) (to have) a cold, as well, and he (55) (to feel) pretty awful with it. ... (56) (to try) giving him hot lemon drinks with honey? The doctor (57) (to prescribe) him some tablets and cough medicine. He (58) (to tell) Peter to stay indoors for a few days; the doctor hopes that he (59) (to recover) by the 1st of May. Hmm! Tablets and medicine! No good! Nothing from the doctor (60) (to do) ever your father any good! I (61) (to wrap) his head up in hot damp towels all the week! He (62) (to have) vapour rubs and I (63) (to feed) him on thick porridge and spinach! Anyway, in view of Peter's cold, I (64) (to decide) just to come and visit you for the weekend! Tell Peter I'll have him cured in no time!

3) Mr Brown: Do come in, Mr Ben. I am sorry to have kept you waiting, but I was held up. You (65) (to wait) long? Mr Ben: Not too long, and I (66) (to look) through the material which your secretary handed me. Mr Brown: Oh, that's OK then. And the secretary already (67) (to show) you around our department? Mr Ben: No, not yet. Mr Brown: Well, that can be arranged afterwards. Do sit down. Now tell me, how long you (68) (to work) for your present firm? Mr Ben: Oh, let's see, almost 5 years now. Mr Brown: And you ever (69) (to work) for television before? Mr Ben: Not, not directly. Mr Brown: But I'm right in thinking that you (70) (to do) similar work before. Mr Ben: Yes, you'll find the details in my application. Mr Brown: Oh, yes, of course. And how long you (71) (to work) as a graphic designer altogether? Mr Ben: For about 10 years. Mr Brown: Fine! So you (72) (to have) plenty of experience in the field already. Now tell me, you ever (73) (to travel) abroad for your present firm? Mr Ben: Yes, frequently, but mainly inside Europe. Mr Brown: You ever (74) (to visit) America to study advertising techniques over there? Mr Ben: No, not yet. Mr Brown: Perhaps you (75) (to bring along) some speciments of your work? Mr Ben: Yes, here are some ideas from the project (76) (to work on) for the past 6 months.

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Mr Brown:

Excellent! Well, we (77) (to have) a long chat and you (78) (to give) me a full picture of your experience and ability. You'll be hearing from us within a week or so.

4)

Dear Pierre, I am glad that you are my new pen-friend. Let me tell you something about myself and my hobbies! I am 12 years old and I (79) (to attend) our local comprehensive school for almost 2 years. I don't like school too much! I prefer riding my bicycle and playing football. I (80) (to ride) a bicycle since I was 7 and (81) (to play) football for the school team since last January. It is a great fun! But I (82) (not to play) with the team for the last weeks, because the weather's been too wet. I haven't got any favourite school subjects apart from sports. I (83) (to learn) French at school for a year now, but I don't really enjoy it. I have some interesting hobbies. I often go to football matches and for 2 years now I (84) (to build) a model railway with my father. I also have a favourite uncle in France. He (85) (to work) in Paris since the summer before last. He often writes to us, but I (86) (not to write) to him since his birthday. I (87) (to lie) in bed ill for over a week now! I (88) (to have) a bad cold and a high temperature since last Saturday, so I haven't been able to go to school for a week! Isn't that a great pity? I (89) (not to do) my homework for over a week, either! Please write to me soon! With best wishes, Tom. 5) Sue Dale is not happy about the slow progress that the workmen are making with the repairs to the old house. Peter is trying to cheer her up. Sue: The repairs are taking so much time and are costing so much money! Not even half of the work has been completed! When the workmen (90) (to finish) putting the house right? Peter: Don't worry, dear. One can't rush these things. The builder is definitely coming this morning at 9.30, so by lunch-time he (91) (to finish) replastering the bedroom walls. Sue: Well, let's hope he really does turn up at 9.30! And what is about the plumber? He still (92) (not to make) a start on the installations in the bathroom. Peter: Well, he promises that he will come tomorrow morning, and his work will take him about a week, so by this time next week he (93) (to install) the new bath and shower. Sue: And I am not at all happy with the electrician! He (94) (to work) on

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Peter: Sue: Peter: Sue: Peter: Sue: Peter:

the rewiring now for 10 days! His bill will be enormous, but whenever I see him, he always (95) (to have) a tea-break. Ten days! Yes, that is rather a long time, I suppose. But you'll see, in some days all the rewiring will be completed. At least the holes in the roof are almost repaired! The men (96) (to finish) replacing the slates by 5 o'clock this afternoon at least, as they told me yesterday! Yes, it will be nice not to have the rain coming through the bedrooms' won't it? And the joiner still (97) (not to show up)! When did he say he would start? He can't come until most of the other work has been done. By this time next week he (98) (to make) a start, just you wait and see! You really are a comfort, Peter! Just imagine, if all goes well, by Christmas we (99) (to live) in the house for almost 2 months! ... or, if all doesn't go well and we can't move into the house, we (100) (to stay) for almost 2 months in our new tent!

2. Translate into English. 1) 5 , . 2) -. 3) ? 2 . 4) . 3 . 5) , . 6) , . 7) , . 8) 20, . 9) . 10) 6 , . 11) , . 12) . 13) . 14) 4 . . 20 . .

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15) , , . 16) 3 ? , . 17) , , 9 . 18) , , . 19) , . 20) . 21) , , . 22) , . 23) 8 . . 24) , . 25) . 26) , 2 . 27) . 28) , . 29) , . 30) . . 31) . 32) : . 33) , , . 34) , , . 35) . 36) , , . . 37) , , .

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38) , ,

, - . 39) , . 40) . 41) . 42) , , . 43) , . 44) , , . 45) " ". . 46) , , . 47) 2%. , , . 48) , . 49) , , , , 25%. 50) , , .

PROGRESS TEST
1. Choose the correct tense form. 1) He said he ..... in New York for 5 years.

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A) had been living C) has been living B) will have lived D) was living 2) He ..... spaghetti for an hour by the time we get hungry. A) will cook C) will has cooked B) will have been cooking D) has been cooking 3) I ..... on the beach the whole week by the time my friends come. A) will lie C) will have been lying B) will be lying D) have been lying 4) The students ..... the text since the lesson began. A) have been translating C) translate B) are translating D) have been translated 5) You ..... for almost an hour without stopping. A) talked C) is talking B) have been talking D) have being talking 6) The professor ..... the material for an hour before he gave it to the class. A) explained C) has been explaining B) had been explaining D) was explaining 7) Their son ..... with his sisters since breakfast. A) has been fighting C) have been fighting B) is fighting D) fought 8) She ..... TV for some hours by the time her friends come to visit her. A) will watch C) watch B) will be watching D) will have been watching 9) She looks fit and tanned. She ..... outdoors a lot recently. A) has been working C) is working B) has being working D) had been working 10) The students ..... their papers for 2 hours before they went home. A) had been correcting C) corrected B) were correcting D) had being correcting 11) By the end of the year they ..... an exhibition in Paris for a month. A) will open C) will have been opening B) will be opening D) open 12) In a month we ..... Estonia for a fortnight. A) will visit C) are visiting B) will be visiting D) will have been visiting 13) Their cat ..... to catch a mouse since breakfast. A) is trying C) has being trying B) has been trying D) will have been trying 14) John ..... in an old house for 20 years before he sold it.

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A) was living C) has being living B) had been living D) lived 15) George ..... at the University for 45 years before he retired. A) had been working C) has been working B) will have been working D) worked 16) Ed ..... with his dog in the park since morning. A) is playing C) has being playing B) has been playing D) played 17) After Henry ..... in Puerto Rico for some time, he went to St. Thomas. A) had been staying C) was staying B) has been staying D) will have been staying 18) They ..... to a new flat for a week by tomorrow. A) will have moved C) will have been moving B) are moving D) move 19) By tomorrow it ..... since Friday. A) will snow C) will have been snowing B) will be snowing D) will have snowed 20) The policeman ..... the suspect his rights for about 20 minutes before he arrested him. A) had been reading C) has been reading B) read D) was reading 21) I ..... food here since I came to this town. A) have been buying C) buy B) will have been buying D) bought 22) The doctor ..... the patient for an hour before he prescribed the medication. A) has been examining C) had been examining B) had being examining D) was examining 23) In 15 minutes they ..... the house since morning. A) will clean C) will have been cleaning B) will be cleaning D) clean 24) Mary ..... her clothes for an hour before she began to study. A) had been washing C) has been washing B)was washing D) will have been washing 25) They ..... for a new house for the last few months. A) have been looking C) has been looking B) are looking D) look 26) In 15 minutes they ..... the bike for exactly 2 hours. A) will be repairing C) will have repaired B) will repair D) will have been repairing

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27) The tourists ..... for the guide since 4 oclock.

A) have been waiting C) has been waiting B) are waiting D) waited 28) By 11.00 he ..... his exam on math for 2 hours! A) will take C) will have been taking B) have been taking D) will have taken 29) The committee ..... the consequences for some time before they voted on the proposal. A) had been considering C) has being considering B) had being considered D) was considering 30) Who ..... with the remote control? It wont work! A) have been playing C) played B) has been playing D) is playing 31) Customers ..... up all the morning complaining about getting incorrect bills. A) have been ringing C) will have been ringing B) had been ringing D) are ringing 32) Mary ..... in Japan for 2 years. She is working there and likes it a lot. A) had been staying C) is staying B) has been staying D) stays 33) By July she ..... lectures at the Institute for 5 years. A) will have been giving C) had being given B) has given D) is giving 34) They ..... a barbecue in the garden since morning when I found them. A) had been building C) built B) have been building D) will have been building 35) By tomorrow Ann ..... for her birthday for a week. A) will have been preparing C) is preparing B) has been preparing D) had been preparing 36) I ..... in this queue for ages. Id better return home. A) has been standing C) am standing B) have been standing D) will have been standing 37) He ..... looking at her for some time, wondering why her face was familiar to him. A) has been keeping C) will have been keeping B) had been keeping D) kept 38) By July my friend ..... his driving test for a year. I hope that this time hell succeed. A) will have been passing C) had been passing B) has been passing D) is passing

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39) By 5 he ..... at the library for 6 hours.

A) will have been working C) works B) has been working D) is working 40) Peter ..... next door for quite a long time but he never said more than good morning to me. A) had been living C) lived B) has been living D) will have been living 2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense form. 41) The stewardesses (to serve) lunch to the passengers for about an hour before they sat down. 42) Tom (to search) for gold in these hills for 3 months but there is no sign of it. 43) John (to learn) French for 4 years by the time of his going to Paris. 44) She (to practise) for a month and I think she will pass her driving test. 45) George (to collect) matchboxes before he left school. 46) It is 6 p.m. now and Jack is tired because he (to work) hard all day. 47) He looked angry. ..... he (to argue)? 48) They (to look) through the old photograph album when a woman came and asked everybody for tea. 49) By 6 I (to wait) here nearly for half an hour for Mary. Do you think she has forgotten to come? 50) Are you sunbathing? Dont be ridiculous. It (to rain) the whole day. 51) She (to look) through her old photograph album for an hour. 52) By March these disasters (to continue) for a long time already. 53) Mrs. Brown (to live) next door for quite a long time before I went away. 54) I (to wait) for the prices to come down for 2 weeks already, but in vain. 55) By June he (to look for) a new car for about some months already. 56) You must wake her! She (to sleep) soundly for 5 hours running when her friends come. 57) Peter (to look) for a better post for a week before he found something suitable. 58) Someone (to use) my umbrella. It was wet. 59) I (to watch) the birds from my window since last week. 60) George (to wait) for an hour before the bus came. 61) In 15 minutes she (to look for) her books for an hour. 62) He (to paint) for 5 years but he hasnt painted a single picture yet. 63) He (to read) books on history for some time when his Dad came.

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64) By tomorrow I (to work) for Jones and Company for 2 years already. 65) I (to grow) strawberries for years but I havent had such a good crop before. 66) John (to live) in Miami for one year when his parents came to visit him. 67) She (to paint) for 5 years but didnt sell a single picture. 68) The car (to flip) for 10 minutes before it landed on its roof. 69) He (to mend) sheets all the morning but he only did 3. 70) In 5 minutes he (to ring) the bell for half an hour. 71) By tomorrow he (to wait) for her here for a week. 72) My friend says that he (to try) to repair his car for a week by the beginning

of the next year. 73) By May he (to try) to learn English for years. 74) He (to look) for a better post for a week but so far he hasnt found it. 75) In 20 minutes she (to sit) for her portrait for a year. 76) I wonder, if something has happened to Tom. I (to wait) for him for an hour now. 77) He (to work) for Crow Brothers for 40 years. 78) In a month she (to have) English lessons for a week. 79) They (to have) an enjoyable time in the South for some time when we come to see them. 80) I (to do) housework all the morning and it isn't finished yet.

3. Translate into English. 81) 3 . . 82) , , . 83) , , -, . 84) . ? 85) , . 86) - . . 87) , , . 88) , .

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89) 3 , . 90) , ,

. 91) , . 92) , . 93) 6 . 1000 . 94) . . 95) ? 9 . 96) . 97) , , , . 98) 3 , 130 . 99) . 100) . Total: 100/_______

UNIT 6

ENGLISH TENSES IN COMPARISON


ENTRY TEST

1. Choose the correct variant. 1) How long ..... here? A) you live C) have you lived B) do you live D) are you living 2) We ..... since we left school. A) hadnt met C) havent met B) didnt meet D) not met 3) He denied he .... the money. A) takes C) took B) has taken D) had taken 4) She ..... for 12 hours before she finished everything. A) had been working C) is working B) has been working D) has worked 5) When I was a child I ..... running every day. A) have gone C) was going B) used to go D) had gone 6) What ..... at 10 o'clock last night? A) have you done C) have you been doing B) were you doing D) had you done 7) He hasn't left the office ..... . A) yet C) just B) before D) already 8) They will have finished the work ..... 8 o'clock. A) until C) since B) by the time D) by 9) He always ..... about his difficulties. A) complained C) is complaining B) will complain D) had complained 10) We went into town and ..... some new clothes. A) bought C) have bought B) will buy D) had bought 11) If you ..... at 7, well leave.

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A) not come C) wont come B) dont come D) doesnt come 12) What ..... about? About my son. A) you think C) you will think B) are you thinking D) do you think 13) You look slimmer. Yes, I ..... 12 kilos. A) had lost C) have been losing B) lost D) have lost 14) Im having trouble with this exercise. Dont worry. I ..... you. A) have helped C) helped B) am going to help D) ll help 15) Have you ever been to China? Yes, I ..... there in 1990. A) have gone C) have been going B) went D) have been 16) How long have you worked here? By the end of the month I ..... here for three years. A) ll work C) ll have been working B) m going to work D) ll be working 17) Well need some Coke for the party. I ..... some. A) buy C) ve already bought B) will have bought D) had bought 18) I need to give a message to Susan. I ..... her at the office this afternoon. A) see C) ll have seen B) had seen D) ll be seeing 19) Have you ever met a famous person? Yes, I ..... Maria Callas once. A) have met C) meet B) met D) have been meeting 20) These shoes arent at all comfortable. When ..... them? A) have you bought C) you bought B) did you buy D) had you bought 21) Whats wrong with Lynda? She ..... problems at work lately. A) has been having C) was having B) will have D) ll be having 22) Whats Pam doing? She ..... . A) is working C) has worked B) works D) has been working 23) How long have you been working here? ..... 6 months. A) Since C) From B) For D) Ago 24) I cant stand this noise any longer! Calm down. They ..... the work by 6.

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A) will finish C) have finished B) will have finished D) are being finishing 25) How long does it take you to write a novel? By December I ..... on this one for 3 years. A) will work C) will be working B) will have been working D) am going to work 26) When I saw him he ..... asleep in a chair. A) sat C) had sat B) was sitting D) has been sitting 27) My wife ..... home yet. She never comes home before midnight. A) hasnt come C) hadnt come B) doesnt come D) not come 28) My brother ..... the air force when he was 17. A) joins C) had joined B) has joined D) joined 29) The town ..... its appearance completely since 1968. A) is changing C) has changed B) had changed D) changed 30) We never ..... before. A) met C) had met B) have met D) will meet 31) Hello, who have you brought with you? ..... supper yet? A) Has he C) Did he have B) Does he have D) Has he had 32) ..... chess? Yes, but I havent played for many years. A) Have you like C) Do you like B) Did you like D) Are you liking 33) ..... my name, or have you forgotten it? A) Are you remembering C) Did you remember B) Have you been remembering D) Do you remember 34) Does she always arrive late, or do you think ..... to her? A) something has happened C) something will happen B) something have happened D) something will have happened 35) We have been waiting for half an hour now, so I dont think she ..... . A) comes C) will come B) has come D) shall come 36) We won't go out until the rain ..... . A) stops C) doesn't stop B) will stop D)won't stop 37) Ill come to see you before I ..... for England.

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A) was leaving C) leave B) will have left D) had left 38) When you come back he ..... the house. A) will have bought C) buys B) bought D) is buying 39) By next June he ..... his second novel. A) has written C) will have written B) would write D) will write 40) He ..... nothing before he saw me. A) had done C) did B) has done D) has been done 41) He had already learnt English before he ..... England. A) had left C) had been leaving B) left D) was leaving 42) She ..... the piano when our guests arrived. A) played C) has played B) was playing D) has been playing 43) As soon as he ..... Ill let you know. A) will phone C) had phoned B) phones D) phoned 44) For three days we ..... the living room, but havent finished yet. A) paint C) have been painting B) are painting D) were painting 45) If he ..... mayor he will save the park. A) will become C) became B) is becoming D) becomes 46) She was making supper when he ..... home. A) was coming C) has come B) came D) comes 47) I was doing the shopping while you ..... tennis. A) played C) were playing B) have played D) have been playing 48) They took a short rest only after they ..... the yard. A) had cleaned C) have cleaned B) were leaning D) would clean 49) She ..... off the bus before the accident took place. A) has got C) got B) had got D) would got 50) He is very tired. He ..... hard today. A) was working C) has been working

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B) is working

D) will have been working

2. Use the proper tense changing the underlined adverb (make use of the adverbs, adverbial phrases and subordinate clauses given in the right-hand column): 1. He left yesterday 51) unless he feels bad. 52) in a week. 53) as soon as his wife returns. 54) just now. 55) by 5 a.m. 2. I haven't seen him lately 56) for ages. 57) since he left for London. 58) after he had moved to his country house. 59) if I don't take a taxi. 60) until he returns. 61) before. 3. Translate the sentences in the left-hand column using the phrases given in the right-hand column. 62) at the meeting yesterday. 63) before we came. 64) so now we want to listen to you. 65) took his things and left the hall. 66) and I advise you to see it. 67) since it appeared in 1998. (to enjoy popularity) 68) for almost 5 years. 69) when we got to the camp at last. (to get tired) 70) lets have a rest. 71) and fell asleep at once. 72) When shall we have a rest? 73) after we have packed all our things. (to set off) 74) by the time the sun rises. 75) if it doesnt rain. 76) before they return. 77) and I dont know when hell be back. 78) when I called on him in the morning. 79) after he had seen his father off. 80) before you phoned him. 4. Complete the sentences using the proper tense.

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81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90)

He never talks while he ... Dont switch on the light, please. The children... While Dad was watching TV, Mum... I am thinking of what you just... If you help me, I ... Ill wait until she ... The clock had struck 10 when I ... When ... you ... him last? Since she arrived, she ... He ... for this company for 10 years by next May.

5. Translate into English. 91) , ? , . 92) , , . 93) , . ? 10 . 94) . , . . 95) , . 96) 3 , . 7 ? 97) ? ? , . 98) ? ? ? 99) . 100) ? . . Total: 100/_______

So far in the previous chapters, we have dealt with the commonest and simplest uses of English tenses. However, the system of tenses in English, being different from Russian, causes a lot of difficulties for foreign language learners. The Units below regard tenses in comparison. That will help you to get a better knowledge of the English system of tenses.

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WAYS OF EXPRESSING THE PRESENT IN ENGLISH There are several ways of expressing the present in English: 1) the Present Indefinite, 2) the Present Perfect, 3) the Present Continuous, 4) the Present Perfect Continuous.

Compare: Dad usually reads detective stories after supper. ( ) He has known her since childhood. ( ) Where is Dad? He is reading a detective story. ( ) Has your Dad read my book? No, he hasn't. But he has been reading it for a year. ( )

1.1. The Present Indefinite the Present Continuous ENTRY TEST 1. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous. 1) What he (1) (to do)? He (2) (to be) an accountant. He (3) (to like) his job? 2) Why are you so gloomy? I (4) (to think) about my mothers illness. 3) What he (5) (to do)? He (6) (to sleep). He always (7) (to sleep) after dinner. 4) Dont phone him now. I (8) (to think) he (9) (to have) supper. 5) Lets go home. It (10) (to get) dark. If we (11) (not to return) home at 9 Mother will get nervous. 6) Ill discuss the plan with the manager before he (12) (to go) on a business trip. And when he (13) (to leave)? Tomorrow. 7) She (14) (to have) exams in June. As soon as she (15) (to pass) them shell go to the Crimea. 8) He (16) (to be) back in a moment. Wait, please. 9) Why you (17) (to look) at me in such a strange way? You (18) (to understand) me? 10) They (19) (to give) a party next Saturday. I wont go if they (20) (to invite) Nick.

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11) Look! Ted (21) (to play) football. He (22) (to seem) to like it a lot. 12) Why you (23) (not to believe) me? I (24) (to tell) the truth. 13) You (25) (to know) Mr Green? Where he (26) (to work)? 14) The old lady always (27) (to complain) of her illness. I (28) (to be) awfully tired of it. 15) Who (29) (to wash up) in your family? My sister does. But she (30) (not to like) it. 16) Theyll join us unless they (31) (to be) busy. 17) My aunt (32) (to come) to Minsk next week and she (33) (to want) me to meet her at the airport. 18) Once a week I (34) (to go) to see my grandfather. Whenever I (35) (to come) he always plays the violin. 19) Dont make noise! The children (36) (to sleep). If you (37) (to switch on) the TV-set theyll wake. 20) When you (38) (to plan) to leave? Tomorrow. When your train (39) (to leave)? At 7.15. You always (40) (to travel) by train? 2. Translate using either the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous. 41) . , . ? 42) . . 43) ? ? ? 44) , . . . 45) , . 46) ? , . . 47) ? . 48) ? . . 49) . 50) ? Total: 50/_____ The Present Indefinite the Present Continuous The main use of the Present Indefinite is to express habitual actions: His father smokes. Cats drink milk.

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The Present Indefinite does not tell us whether or not the action is being performed at the moment of speaking. If we want to make it clear we must use a verb in the Present Continuous.
Compare: He usually wears a scarf, but he is not wearing it now (the first verb refers to a habit, the second to a present action). They are playing tennis now, they usually play it after supper.

The Present Continuous is used to express a definite future arrangement. The time is nearly always given and is usually in the near future: We are leaving at the end of the week. The Present Indefinite is often used for a planned future action or series of actions, particularly when these refer to a journey: We leave Paris at 9 a.m. next Monday and arrive in London at 10 oclock.

EXERCISES 1.1.1. The verbs in the following sentences are either in the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous. Mark the Indefinite (Simple) ones S and the Continuous ones C: 1) I'm getting used to it. 2) How long does it take to deliver to Manchester? 3) What other languages do you speak, Sven? 4) We provide catering and cleaning for big companies. 5) I'm trying to get through to Rashid Aziz in Accounts. 6) I go abroad at least once a month. 7) What are you planning to do during your holiday, Tom? 8) I'm still waiting for a call from the head office. 1.1.2. Now use the sentences from exercise 1.1.1. to complete the conversations. Reproduce them: 1) So you travel quite often in your job, Maria? Yes, that's right. ..... . 2) ..... . Russian and Japanese. And I also know a bit of Spanish. 3) How are you finding the new data base programme, Karen? It was quite difficult at first, but now ..... . 4) Are you coming for lunch, Roula? I'll join you in about ten minutes. ..... . What? They haven't rung you yet? 5) And what does your company produce? Actually, we're a service company. ..... .

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6) ...... . I'm not sure yet. We might go to Italy or even France. What about you? 7) Velex Supplies. Can I help you? ..... . I'm afraid he's having the day off. Can I take a message? 8) ...... . Normally two or three days. But I can send it "express" if you like. Yes. I think that would be a good idea. 1.1.3. Use the following verbs in the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous to complete the text. Retell it (in the 3rd person singular). (A) study, enjoy, work(2), live, manufacture, employ Hello, my name's Maria Lascaratou. I was born on Skopelos, a Greek island and now I (1) ..... in Athens. No, not Athens, Greece, but Athens, Georgia, in the United States. My company, Scantech, (2) ..... components for the electronics industry. The company (3) ..... 340 people at its two production plants and another 50 at the head office. I normally (4) ..... in the production department, but at the moment I (5) ..... in R+D, helping them to develop new products. I (6) ..... my job because it gives me a chance to travel. At the moment I (7) ..... French and German because I have to travel to Europe a lot. (B) Now find suitable verbs (from exercise A) in the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous to complete the text. Retell it (in the 3rd person singular). Let me introduce myself. My name's Jane Slater and I (1) ..... for Forest White, a medium sized company which (2) ..... paper and packaging materials. I (3) ..... my job because it's very varied and I (4) ...... lots of opportunities to meet new people. I (5) ...... abroad at least once a month, sometimes more. I'm a sales executive but at the moment I (6) ..... in the marketing department. We (7) ..... to develop a new marketing policy for southern European markets. 1.1.4. Use these auxiliaries to complete the conversation. Reproduce it. 'm are(3) is do don't(3) doesn't Jill: Hi, Karen (1) ..... you busy? Karen: No, not particularly. I (2) ..... just working on last month's accounts. Jill: Oh, (3) ..... you have to do the accounts every month? Karen: Well it's not my job really. But Osman (4) ..... visiting the Manila branch this week and Paul and I (5) ..... filling in for him. Jill: I see. So you (6) ..... get much chance to travel? Karen: Unfortunately, not. I'd like to get away a bit more, though.

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Jill: Well, why (7) ..... you have a word with your boss? Karen: I did! She (8) ..... think I've got enough experience yet. Jill: That's a pity. Still, I suppose you (9) ..... getting lots of experience doing the accounts? Karen: Yes, but it's the kind of experience I (10) ..... want! 1.1.5. Use each verb twice, once in the Present Indefinite and once in the Present Continuous. 1) have He ... four cars, all of them Rolls-Royces. I ... lunch with my mother tomorrow. think What ... you ... of Stephen Spielberg's latest film? You're day-dreaming. What ... you ... about? 2) expect I ... an important phone call from America. I ... you're hungry after so much hard work. 3) smell Something ... good in the kitchen. What's cooking? Why ... you ... the meat? Do you think it's gone off? 4) see I ... what you mean but I don't agree. She ... a solicitor about her aunt's will. 5) look It ... as if it's going to rain. ... you ... for something? 6) think What ... you ... of doing when you leave here? How much ... you ... it would cost to fly to London? 1.1.6. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous. Reproduce the conversations from part A. (A) want, need, prefer, like, love, hate, forget, seem, have (possess), think (believe), belong, see, hear, know, realize, believe, suppose, mean, understand, remember 1) Mary (to see) Peter standing at the bus stop. Mary: Hello, Peter. What bus you (to wait) for? Peter: Hello, Mary. I (to wait) for a 9 or a 14. Mary: You usually (to go) to work by car, don't you? Peter: Yes, but the car (to belong) to my mother and she sometimes (to want) it. She (to use) it today to take Tom to the dentist. Mary: I usually (to go) by car too. Jack (to take) me because he (to pass) my office on his way to the factory. But this week he (to work) in a factory in the opposite direction: so I (to queue) like you. Peter: Here's a 9 now. You (to come) on it or you (to wait) for a 14? Mary: I (to think) I'll take the 9. If I (to wait) for a 14 I may be late, and if

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you (to be) late at my office everyone (to look) at you. 2) Mary and Ann (to wait) outside a telephone box. Inside the box a boy (to dial) a number. Mary: You (to know) that boy? Ann: Yes, he's a friend of my brother's. He (to phone) his girl friend every day from this box. Mary: Where he (to come) from? Ann: He (to come) from Japan. He's a very clever boy, he (to speak) four languages. 3) It's 8.30. Tom and Ann (to have) breakfast. They both (to open) their letters. Tom: No one ever (to write) to me. All I (to get) is bills! You (to have) anything interesting? Ann: I've got a letter from Hugh. He (to say) he (to come) to London next week and (to want) us to meet him for lunch. 4) Tom: You (to see) that man at the corner? He (to keep) stopping people and asking them questions. Jack: You (to think) he (to ask) for directions? Tom: No, I (to expect) he (to make) a survey. Jack: And how you (to make) a survey? Tom: I (to stop) people and (to ask) them questions and (to write) the answers on a report sheet. 5) Mrs Jones: My daughter never (to write) to me so I never (to know) what she (to do). Your son (to write) to you often? Mrs Smith: Yes. I (to hear) from him every week. He (to seem) to like writing letters. 6) Tom: We (to move) into our new house tomorrow. Bill: But why you (to leave) your present house? It (to suit) you all. Tom: Yes, I (to know) it (to do): but the Council (to pull down) all the houses on this side. They (to widen) the road. They (to say) it's a bottleneck. 7) Tom: I (to smell) something burning! Jack: So (to do) I. I (to think) it (to come) from the kitchen. Ann probably (to iron). She usually (to iron) and (to watch) TV at the same time and if she (to get) very interested in the programme she (to forget) that she (to press) a hot iron on somebody's shirt. 8) Mrs Jones: What you (to look) for, Tom? Mr Jones: I (to look) for the garage key. I always (to look) for the garage key, because nobody ever (to put) it back on its hook. (B)

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1) Why that man (to stand) in the middle of the road? He (to try) to get across. He (to wait) for a gap in the traffic. Why he (not to use) the subway? Lots of people (not to bother) to use the subway. They (to prefer) to risk their lives crossing here. 2) You (to wear) a new coat, aren't you? Yes. You (to like) it? The colour (to suit) you but it (not to fit) you very well. It's much too big. 3) Englishmen very seldom (to talk) on the Underground. They (to prefer) to read their newspapers. Those two men in the corner (to talk). But they (not to talk) English. 4) Ann (to act) in the film? She has a small part. She (not to act) very well. I (to imagine) she got the part because she (to know) the director. 5) If you (to want) a candid opinion you'd better ask my sister. She never (to tell) white lies: she always (to say) exactly what she (to think). 6) I (to hear) that you have bought a new house. Yes, but I (not to live) in it. They still (to work) on it, and the work (to take) longer than I expected. 7) How much she (to owe) you now? I (not to know). I (not to keep) an account. Anyway she (to leave) next week: she (to get) married. I (to try) to think of a suitable wedding present.

1.1.7. Translate using either the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous. 1) . . 2) ? ? 3) ? , . ? 4) . ? 5) , . 6) , . 7) ? . ? 8) . . 9) ? . ? . 10) . ? 11) ? , . 12) ?

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13) ? , . 14) ? . 15) ? 16) , . 17) , . 18) , . 19) . . . 20) . ? . 1.2. The Present Indefinite the Present Perfect. While the Present Indefinite is used to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly the Present Perfect denotes an action which has a definite connection with the present. Compare: Every summer he goes to Canada. He has gone to Canada. = He is in Canada or on his way there now.

1.3. The Present Perfect the Present Perfect Continuous. ENTRY TEST 1. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. 1) You (1) (to read) the book for 5 months and (2) (not to finish) yet. 2) My brother (3) (to play) tennis since he was 6. He is the best tennis player at school. 3) Her sister is keen on English. She (4) (to learn) it for 15 years already. She (5) (to be) to the USA and Great Britain several times. 4) You look tired! Yes, I (6) (to play) football since morning and I (7) (not to play) for years. 5) How long you (8) (to know) Ann? Since childhood. We always (9) (to be) good friends. She never (10) (to let) me down.

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6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20)

He (11) (to look) for a job for six months but (12) (not to succeed). He (13) (to work) for a big company for 12 years. But last year the company went bankrupt. Nobody (14) (to live) in this house since October. So, it (15) (to be) empty for half a year. At last he (16) (to buy) a car. He (17) (to dream) of it for years and only yesterday his dream came true. What you (18) (to do) here for such a long time? I (19) (to repair) my son's bike, but I (20) (not to repair) it yet. You (21) (to find) me in the photos? He (22) (to go) already. He (23) (to wait) here for an hour. It (24) (to rain) for 3 days. If it doesn't stop tomorrow we won't go to the country to see our grandparents. Your eyes are red because you (25) (to read) for more than 6 hours. I (26) (not to eat) anything since morning. You (27) (to have) dinner yet? Not yet. Ann (28) (to cook) a wonderful Italian dish and in a minute we'll have dinner. He (29) (not to talk) to the manager yet. The manager (30) (to be) busy since morning. He (31) (to discuss) delivery problems with our business partners already for 3 hours. Look! Ann (32) (to come). Who she (33) (to bring) with her? Is it Jane? I must phone my doctor, but I can't. My sister (34) (to talk) on the phone for 2 hours. When will she stop? For how long he (35) (to work) for this company? For 17 years. He likes his job and isn't going to quit it. For how long he (36) (to be) married? For 20 years. His wife is a wonderful woman. She (37) (to travel) all over the world and (38) (to write) several books about different countries. We (39) (not to discuss) this problem since he returned. He (40) (to be) away for half a year.

2. Translate using either the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. 41) . 42) , ? . 4 . 43) . , . 44) ? . ? 45) , .

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46) 8 . ? . 47) 8 . . 48) . 30 . . 49) 3 . . 50) 50 10 . Total: 50/_____ The Present Perfect the Present Prefect Continuous. The Present Perfect often expresses a recently completed action: He has just left. = He left a few minutes ago. The Present Perfect Continuous is used for an action which began in the past and is still continuing (Type 1), or has just finished (Type 2). Compare: Type 1: I have been waiting for her for an hour. I dont think she will come. Type 2: Im sorry Im late. Have you been waiting long? The Present Perfect can also express an action which began in the past and still continues, or has only just finished. When used in this way it is very like the Present Perfect Continuous, and often either form can be used: He has lived here for 3 years. He has been living here for 5 years.
How long have you learnt English? How long have you been learning English?

I have dreamed to visit Italy for a long time. I have been dreaming to visit Italy for a long time. This is not possible with verbs which are not used in the Continuous forms. Thus, the Present Perfect Continuous cannot replace the Present Perfect in the following examples: I have known him for ages. She has been away since Monday. The Present Perfect Continuous can be used with or without a time phrase. In this way it differs from the Present Perfect, which can

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only express this type of action by adding a time phrase such as since June, never, for a month. When the Present Perfect Indefinite is used without a time expression of this kind, it refers to a single completed action. Compare: I have been knocking (this is how I have spent the last five minutes). I think nobody is in. I have knocked six times (this is what I have done six completed actions). But theres no answer. I have knocked (it is a single completed action). Wait, please. Im sure, she is in. EXERCISES 1.3.1. Complete the sentences. Use either the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. In some sentences, either form is possible. 1) The zoo isn't far from here. I (to walk) there many times. 2) I'm tired. We (to walk) for over an hour. Let's stop and rest for a while. 3) Mr Curtis (to work) for the power company for fifteen years. He likes his job. 4) I (to read) this chapter in my chemistry text-book three times, and I still don't understand it! 5) My eyes are getting tired. I (to read) for two hours. I think I'll take a break. 6) Mrs Jackson (to teach) kindergarten for twenty years. She's one of the best teachers at the elementary school. 7) Marge is writing a letter to her boyfriend. She (to write) it since she got home from class. 8) I (to write) my folks at least a dozen letters since I left home and came here. 9) A new bridge (to appear) here recently. They (to build) it for four years. 10) Lately she (to be) very angry with me. She (not to speak) with me since Christmas. 1.3.2. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous, the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous. Reproduce the dialogue. A: What are you doing? B: I ... (to write) a letter.

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A: B: A: B:

A: B: A: B: A:

You ... (to sit) at the desk for hours. Is it a difficult letter? Yes. I ... (to decide) to resign from my job. But how do you know you don't like it? You ... only... (to do) it for a week. I do like it. But Mr Brown already ... (to offer) me a better one, and I'm going to accept it. It's in Brazil, and I ... always ... (to want) to go to Brazil. I ... (not to like) living in cold climate. But how ... you ... (to know) if you'll like it there? You ... (never, to be) out of England before. That doesn't matter. Some friends of mine ... (to live) there at the moment. They'll look after me. You're very lucky, really. I ... (to try) to find a job for months. I ... (to be) to endless interviews, and they ... (to turn down) me. Well, obviously you ... (to apply) for the wrong kinds of job. Don't worry. You'll find one soon. I ... (to hope) so.

1.3.3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: the Present Indefinite or Present Continuous, the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. 1) I (to do) housework all morning and I (not to finish) yet. I (to do) mine already. I always (to start) at 6 a.m. 2) She just (to sell) two of her own paintings. She's lucky. I (to paint) for 5 years and I (not to sell) a single picture yet. 3) It was lovely at 11 o'clock but since then the sky (to get) steadily darker and the wind (to rise). I'm afraid the fine spell (to come) to an end. 4) Someone (to use) my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and the day before! Well, it wasn't me. I (not to be) out of the house for a week. 5) You look exhausted! Yes, I (to play) tennis and I (not to play) for years. 6) I wonder if anything (to happen) to Tom. I (to wait) for an hour now. He often (to keep) me waiting but he never (to be) so late as this. 7) What you (to do) with my typewriter? I can't find it anywhere. Tom just (to go) off with it. 8) He (to collect) matchboxes ever since he left school. Now he (to collect) so many that he doesn't know where to put them. 9) I (to look) through my old album. It's full of photos of people whose names I completely (to forget). I wonder what (to happen) to them all.

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10) Peter (to be) a junior clerk for three years. Lately he (to look) for a better post but so far he (not to find) anything. 11) Tom is sure that there is gold in these hills but we (to search) for six months but (not to see) any sign of it. 12) We (to mend) sheets all morning but we only (to do) three. But now the sewing machine (to break) down. 13) I (to stand) in this queue for ages. It (not to move) at all in the last five minutes. I think the man in the ticket office just (to shut) his windows and (to go) off for lunch. 14) That man (to stand) at the bus stop for the last half an hour. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (to go)? I (not to think) he (to wait) for a bus. 15) I just (to remember) that I (not to pay) the rent yet. I am surprised that the landlord (not to ring) me up to remind me. It's the first time you (to be) late with the rent for 25 years. He probably thinks that you (to pay) and he (to lose) the cheque. 16) Mark (not to study) right now. He (to watch) TV. He (to watch) TV since seven o'clock. He always (to watch) TV after supper. 17) Carol (to stand) at the corner. She (to wait) for the bus. She (to wait) for the bus for twenty minutes. 18) Right now we're in class. We (to do) an exercise. We (to do) this exercise for a couple of minutes. 19) John and Mary (to talk) on the phone right now. They (to talk) on the phone for over an hour. 20) I (to sit) in class right now. I (to sit) here since 10 o'clock. 1.3.4. Translate using either the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. 1) , 4 . 2) ? ? . 3) 5 , . ? . 4) . . 9 , ? . 5) . ? , .

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6) 20 . , . 7) ? . . 8) , . 9) - ? . 5 , . 10) ? . . 2 WAYS OF EXPRESSING THE PAST IN ENGLISH There are several ways of expressing the past in English: 1) the Past Indefinite, 2) the Present Perfect, 3) the Past Perfect, 4) the Past Continuous, 5) the Past Perfect Continuous, Compare: They lived in the Ukraine two years ago. ( ) I have read the instructions but I don't understand them. (,
)

After they had lived in the Ukraine for ten years they moved to Russia.
( )

When they were living in the Ukraine I often visited them. ( ) I knew they had been living in Russia for ten years. ( , ) 2.1. The Past Indefinite the Past Continuous ENTRY TEST 1. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Past Continuous. 1) I (1) (to sit) in my garden when I (2) (to understand) somebody (3) (to look) at me. 2) When you (4) (to be) in London? A year ago. You (5) (to like) it? It (6) (to be) magnificent. 3) When my Dad (7) (to study) at school he always (8) (to have) a lot of friends.

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4) When I (9) (to come) home Mother (10) (to fix) supper. 5) I was at home yesterday evening. From 7 to 9 I (11) (to watch) a comedy on TV. 6) My cousin (12) (to leave) school a year ago. 7) Where you (13) (to be) yesterday from 2 to 6? I was at the library. What you (14) (to do) there? I (15) (to get ready) for my English examination. 8) A week ago at this time we (16) (to lie) on the beach. 9) In 1999 his family (17) (to live) in Poland. 10) We (18) (to go) to the theatre yesterday. You (19) (to enjoy) the play? 11) When I (20) (to phone) Ann her mother (21) (to say) she (22) (to have) a bath. 12) Hardly had I entered the room when somebody (23) (to knock) at the door. I wondered who it (24) (to be) at such a late hour. 13) She (25) (to speak) to him just now. He said he (26) (not to know) their address. 14) When you (27) (to see) him last? 15) While the guests (28) (to drink) tea the girl (29) (to play) the piano. 16) When Mother (30) (to come) the children (31) (to watch) a cartoon. They (32) (not to notice) her. 17) When you (33) (to take out) your dog for a walk yesterday evening? At 9. It (34) (to rain)? 18) When she (35) (to be) 5 she (36) (to like) oranges a lot. 19) Did you go to Spain by plane? I (37) (not to go) to Spain last summer. Really? Where you (38) (to be)? 20) He asked me if I (39)(to know) German. I (40) (to say) I studied it at school. 2. Translate using either the Past Indefinite or Past Continuous. 41) ? ? . 42) , ? , . 43) . 44) . 12 2 . 45) ? . ? .

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46) . . 47) . ? 48) , . ? . 49) , . , . 50) ? . Total: 50/_____ The Past Indefinite the Past Continuous The Past Continuous is mainly used for past actions which continued for some time but whose exact limits are not known and not important: The wind was rising and it was getting colder and colder. But in the sentence: When I returned she was sleeping we convey the idea that the action in the Past Continuous started before the action in the Past Indefinite and probably continued after it. The combination of two Past Indefinite tenses indicates successive actions: When she saw us she smiled. The Continuous Tense is used in descriptions: A man was sitting at the fire place, and a cat was sleeping on his lap. Suddenly somebody knocked at the door. The man moved. The cat woke up. Here comes the combination of description (the Past Continuous) and narration (the Past Indefinite). EXERCISES 2.1.1. Use sentences: 1) o 2) row 3) ecome 4) the Past Indefinite of these irregular verbs to complete the d In the past we ..... more business with the Japanese than now. g The company ..... very rapidly in its first 12 years. b We ...... a public company in 1985. c We ..... our advertising budget because of the recession.

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ut 5) end 6) et 7) ake 8) ose 9) un 10) w Last month we ...... an important order from the Government. in 11) m I first ...... Roberto when we were working in Budapest. eet ake ell 14) r Profits ..... due to an improved management strategy. ise 15) s We ..... all of our advertising budget in the first six months. pend 16) f Our profits ..... last year, but things look much healthier now. all 17) l TransWare, our main competitors, ..... the market throughout the ead 80's. 18) t Our competitors ..... that we were going to increase our prices. hink 2.1.2. Complete these sentences with the following verbs in the Past Indefinite: get, join, increase, study, phone, be, meet, start 1) The weather ...... terrible on Sunday. 2) I ..... her at the trade fair in Rotterdam. 3) I ..... work at seven o'clock this morning. 4) She ..... marketing at business school. 5) I ..... the company as a junior manager last December. 12) m Last year our Japanese branch ..... a small profit for the first time. 13) s Greenham Products ..... its old headquarters for $46 million. r Paula ...... the company from her home. l We ...... the contract with the Polish oil-refinery plant. t They ...... a long time to make up their minds. g We ...... a big surprise when they made their offer. l The bank ..... us $45,000 to fund our expansion.

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6) I ..... the 7-o'clock train from London. 7) They ...... their prices by over 20% last year. 8) Tina from Sales ..... when you were out. 2.1.3. Now use the sentences from exercise 2.1.2. to complete the conversations. Reproduce them. 1) So you know Esther? Yes, ..... . 2) Did you do anything interesting this weekend? Not really......, so we didn't go out. 3) Who do you recommend for the new job? I think Julia would be ideal. ....., and she's had a lot of experience. 4) How long have you worked for Lawton's, Maria? Only for a few months...... . 5) You look exhausted, Karen? lt's not surprising ..... . 6) Are there any messages for me, Christina? Yes,..... . 7) You're here early, Bill. ..... . It only takes an hour and a half. 8) So you don't do much business with Silbert Systems now? No. ..... . We find the competition much cheaper. In most of these examples the verb makes a strong word partnership with a following noun, e.g. do business, cut the budget. Can you underline the others? 2.1.4. Complete this article from a trade magazine using the Past Indefinite of the following verbs. Retell it (in the 3rd person singular). visit, join, help, spend, begin, decide, study, become, leave, complete
We are pleased to announce the appointment of Mrs Maria Teicher as head of quality control. Maria...... chemical engineering at the University of Utrecht and then..... an MBA at Claremont College. After graduating she ..... work with ChemTech Supplies in Belgium. She ..... assistant production manager in 1989 and she ..... to develop ChemTech's Multivit pharmaceutical range. Maria ...... the company in 1991 and ...... Volcker Foods of California as head of research and development. She ..... two years in the United States. Last year she briefly ..... our Milan plant and was so impressed that she ...... to return to Europe.

2.1.5. Think of a suitable verb in the Past Indefinite to complete each gap. Retell it (in the 3rd person singular). This morning I (1) ..... work at a quarter to eight. I (2) ...... a meeting with my boss at nine o'clock and then I (3) ..... to the production plant to sort out an

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assembly line problem. When I (4) ..... back to my office I (5) ..... a fax from Sanjay on my desk. He (6) ..... me to phone him with details of the Lyon conference. After that I (7) ..... half an hour writing the production report. Then it (8) ..... time for lunch. I (9) ...... Christina in the canteen and she (10) ...... me that there (11) ..... a lot of problems in her department. She (12) ..... me if I could come to a meeting in her office to discuss the situation. 2.1.6. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Past Continuous. Retell the story. I (to walk) along Piccadilly when I (to realize) that a man with a ginger beard (to follow) me. To make sure, I (to walk) on quickly, (to turn) right, then left and (to stop) suddenly at a shop window. In a few minutes the man with the beard (to appear) and (to stop) at another shop window. I (to go) on. Whenever I (to stop) he (to stop). I (to decide) to try to shake him off. A 74 bus (to stand) at the bus stop just beside me. Just as it (to move) off, I (to jump) on it. The man (to miss) the bus, but he (to get) into another 74 which (to follow) the first. At Gloucester Road Underground I (to leave) the bus and (to buy) a ticket at a ticket machine. As I (to stand) on the platform waiting for a Circle Line train, my pursuer (to come) down the stairs. He (to carry) a newspaper. We (to get) into the same compartment. At every station he (to look) over the top of his newspaper to see if I (to get) off. I (to become) tired of being shadowed like this, so finally I (to sit) beside the man and (to ask) him why he (to follow) me. At first he (to say) he (not to follow) me at all but when I (to threaten) to knock him down, he (to admit) that he was. Then he (to tell) me that he (to be) a writer of detective stories and (to try) to see if it was difficult to follow someone unseen. I (to advise) him to shave off his ginger beard if he (not to want) his victims to know he (to follow) them. 2.1.7. Translate using either the Past Indefinite or Past Continuous. 1) ; . 2) . , . 3) , . 4) , , , . 5) , .

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6) 5 7 ? , . 7) , - . . . . 8) , . 9) , , . 10) , , . ?

2.2. The Past Indefinite the Present Perfect ENTRY TEST 1. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Present Perfect. 1) I just (1) (to return) from Moscow. You (2) (to go) there by plane? 2) What language you (3) (to learn) at school? English. You ever (4) (to be) to England? Yes, I (5) (to be) there last spring. 3) Lately I (6) (not to see) much of her. But a week ago I (7) (to come) across her in a shop. 4) You (8) (to have) dinner? Not yet. I (9) (to have) breakfast very late today, at about 11. 5) We (10) (not to meet) since we (11) (to leave) school. I (12) (not to hear) anything about them since then. 6) Do you know this man? Yes, I (13) (to know) him since childhood. For how long you (14) (to know) him? For almost 20 years. 7) The director (15) (to go) to New York today. But I (16) (to see) him just now. Yes, he (17) (to go) to the airport half an hour ago. He ever (18) (to be) to the USA before? 8) I'm very pleased you (19) (to accept) my invitation. I (20) (to be) to this restaurant recently. And I (21) (to like) it. 9) Is it raining? No, the rain (22) (to stop) an hour ago. It (23) (to rain) since yesterday evening. 10) I wonder, what (24) (to happen) to him. Why is he late? 11) She always (25) (to be) a good doctor. Lately she (26) (to return) from Germany. She (27) (to work) there for 2 years. 12) When you (28) (to see) Ann last time? We (29) (not to meet) lately.

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13) She (30) (to be) to London twice. 14) You (31) (to find) your key? Unfortunately, no. But I remember I (32) (to put) it on my desk yesterday evening. 15) When they (33) (to buy) their new house? Last autumn. But they (34) (not to repair) it yet. 16) Your face seems familiar to me. I'm sure we (35) (to meet) before. 17) The weather (36) (to change) greatly since morning. Yes, it (37) (to change) yesterday at this time too. 18) His parents (38) (to die) when he was 5. 19) She (39) (to learn) to play the guitar at school. 20) When the wedding ceremony (40) (to take place)? Last Friday. 2. Translate using either the Past Indefinite or Present Perfect. 41) - ? . ? 3 . 42) . . 43) . 44) , . 45) . . 46) - ? . 47) - . ? 3 . . 48) 4 . 82 . 49) , . 50) ? , . Total: 50/____ The Past Indefinite the Present Perfect The Past Indefinite is used for an action whose time is not given but which (Type 1) occupied a period of time now terminated, or (Type 2) occurred in a period of time now terminated. Compare: Type 1: She worked for this company for five years (now she doesnt work there).

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They lived in Russia for a long time (now they arent living there). Type 2: I met him in Rome. Did you ever watch Ulanova dance? Yes, I did. The Present Perfect is a sort of mixture of present and past. It implies a strong connection with the present and is chiefly used in conversations, letters, newspapers, and radio reports. It is used for a past action whose time is not definite. But if there is a clear idea of when it happened we use the Past Indefinite. Compare:I have read the instructions but I dont understand them. I read the instructions last night. Have you had breakfast? No, I havent had it yet. Did you have breakfast at the hotel? A conversation about a past action often begins with a question and an answer in the Present Perfect, but normally continues in the Past Indefinite, even when no time is given. This is because the action first mentioned has now become definite in the minds of the speakers. Compare: Where have you been? Ive been at the theatre. What was the
play? Othelo. Did you enjoy it?

The Present Perfect is often used in newspapers and broadcasts to introduce an action which will then be described in the Past Indefinite: Two prisoners have escaped from the court. They killed two policemen and got away in a car which someone had parked at the back door. EXERCISES 2.2.1. Complete the sentences using these verbs: use, study, meet, see, go, finish, work, be 1) Have you ..... Mr Aziz? He's our Head of Sales. 1. How long have you ..... for Truman Industrial? 2. So, you've ..... to Milan before, Toyo? 3. I can't find my diary. Has anyone ..... it? 4. Have you ..... this program before, Julia? 5. Elena, have you ..... the sales report yet? 6. I think Henry's just ..... out for a few minutes. 7. Have you ever ..... Japanese? 2.2.2. Now match up these responses to the sentences in 2.2.1. Reproduce these conversations.

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A . B . C . D . E . F . G . H .

Yes, I was here last year for the Electronics Fair.

No, I haven't. I hope it's not too difficult to learn.

I think Kristina borrowed it a couple of hours ago.

Well, I started to study it but I found it very difficult.

No, I don't think we've been introduced.

That's OK. I don't mind waiting for him.

Yes, I have. Just let me print out a copy for you.

Just over ten years. Since I left school.

2.2.3. Use these phrases to complete the conversation. Reproduce it. have you heard from Tom; I've been so busy today; I haven't finished it yet; have you had a chance to read it yet; he's left RTX Services; you've received the Mexico file Rashid: Martina: Rashid: Martina: Can I speak to Martina, please? Speaking. Morning, Martina. This is Rashid from Sales. I'm phoning to check if..... . Yes, it's here on my desk. It arrived this morning.

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Rashid: Martina: Rashid: Martina: Rashid: Martina: Rashid: Martina:

Good. ...... ? I'm afraid not...... Of course. You're still working on the market survey, aren't you? That's right, but ..... It's taking much longer than expected. Talking about marketing, ..... recently? Yes. He phoned me last week. ..... you know. He's working for Collinson Investment now. Really? Why did he change the job? I think he just wanted a change.

2.2.4. The following adverbs of time are common with the Present Perfect. Use them in these conversations: since, for, yet(3), ever, just, already, never 1) Is Jack here? You've ..... missed him. He went out a few minutes ago. 2) Tom borrowed my lap-top last week and he hasn't .. returned it. I'm not surprised. He's had my calculator for a month! 3) Have you got those market projections, Daniela? No, I haven't finished them ..... . They'll be ready tomorrow. 4) Here's a copy of the agenda for the planning meeting. Thanks, but I've ..... got one. Julia faxed me a copy this morning. 5) So you've been working here ..... six months, Kate? That's right. I joined the company in March. 6) Have you ..... eaten avocado? No, I don't think so. What is it? 7) We've been talking ...... ten o'clock this morning and we haven't decided .. . You're right. It's time we had a break. 8) So you've ...... been to Canada? No, but I've been to the States a couple of times. 2.2.5. Put the verbs in brackets either into the Past Indefinite or Present Prefect. (A) Dear Tom, Thank you for your letter. It (to arrive) yesterday and I (to decide) to write back immediately. You see, my agent (to find) me a part in a new film and I'm going to Hollywood next week! I (to speak) to Robert Redford on the phone about the part and I'm meeting him as soon as I arrive. The film is a remake of a 1956 thriller which I (to see) hundreds of times. It starred Marilyn Monroe who, as you know, I (to meet) when I was a little girl. Yesterday I (to

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buy) lots of new clothes and I already (to start) packing. Well, I must rush now. There's so much to do! Love, Sharon (B) 1) You (to be) on holiday this year? No, I (can not) go, because I (to break) my leg in August and (to have) to stay in hospital. 2) You (to visit) the National Museum yet? Yes, I (to be) there three times, but I (not to see) everything yet. 3) I'm ever so sorry, Jim, but I (to burn) your dinner. Maria (to phone) and I (to forget) about the food. That's okay. I already (to eat). 4) I (to buy) a new dress yesterday, but when I (to arrive) home, I (to find) a hole in the seam. What you (to do)? You (to take) it back to the shop? No, I (not to be) to town yet. I'll do it this afternoon. 5) Your hair (to grow) a lot since I last (to see) you. Yes, I (to want) to get it cut yesterday but I (to be) too busy. 6) I never (to fly) before and I'm very nervous about it. I (to feel) like that the first time I (to fly), but I thoroughly (to enjoy) it. 7) I (to lose) my glasses. You (to see) them anywhere? No, where you (to put) them? I (to put) them on the table a minute ago, but they're not there now. 8) You ever (to meet) anyone famous? Yes, I (to speak) to Paul McCartney and I (to see) John Lennon. 2.2.6. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Present Perfect. 1) I hear that Mr Jones (to leave). Yes, he (to leave) last week. The board of directors (to appoint) Mr Brown to take his place. 2) You (to book) your hotel room yet? Well, I (to write) to the hotel last week but they (not to answer) yet. 3) Peter (meeting Paul unexpectedly in London): Hello, Paul! I (not to know) you (to be) here. Paul: Oh, I (to be) here nearly for two months. I (to arrive) on the 6th of January. Peter: When we last (to meet) you (to say) that nothing would induce you to come to England. What (to make) you change your mind? Paul: I (to find) that I (to need) English for my work and this (to seem) the quickest way of learning it. Peter: You (to know) English when you first (to arrive) here? Paul: No, I (not to know) a word.

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4) Paul: Tom: Paul: Tom:

I (to play) football since I (to be) five. You (to play) since you (to come) to England? Oh, yes, I (to play) quite a lot. I (to join) a club two years ago. I (to play) football when I (to be) at school but when I (to leave) school I (to drop) it and (to take) up golf. 5) My son (not to start) work yet. He's still at the High School. How long he (to be) at school? He (to be) at the High School for six years; before that he (to spend) five years at the Primary School in Windmill Street. 6) I just (to hear) Peter is in Australia. Oh, you (not to know)? He (to fly) out at the beginning of the month. You (to hear) from him? Yes, I (to get) a letter last week. He (to tell) me about his job. But he (not to say) if he (to like) the life or not. Perhaps it is too soon to say. He only (to be) there for three weeks. 7) I (not to know) you (to be) left-handed. I'm not left-handed: but my oilheater (to explode) yesterday and I ( to burn) my right hand. 8) I just (to have) my first driving lesson. How it (to go)? You (to enjoy) it? Well, I actually (not to hit) anything but I (to make) every other possible mistake. 9) Ann: You (to be) to Wales? Jane: Yes, I (not to be) to Wales, but (not be) to Scotland. Ann: And I (to be) there last year, I (to like) it very much. 10) Peter: You (to see) any good films lately? Ann: Yes, I (to go) to the cinema last week and (to see) a Japanese film. Peter: You (to like) it? Ann: Yes, I (to love) it, but of course I (not to understand) a word. 11) I (to buy) a new house last year, but I (not to sell) my old house yet, so at the moment I have two houses. 12) When Ann (to be) on her way to the station it (to begin) to rain. Ann (to run) back to her flat for her umbrella. 13) At 7 a.m. I (to ring) Peter and (to say), "I'm going fishing. Would you like to come?" "But it's so early", (to say) Peter. "I (not to have) breakfast yet. Why you (not to tell) me last night?" 14) I can't find my gloves. You (to see) them? Yes, you (to leave) them in the car yesterday. I (to put) them back into your drawer. 15) When I (to be) sixteen I (to start) my university course. When you (to get) your degree? Oh, I (not to get) my degree yet. I'm still at the University. I (to be) there only for two years. 16) How long you (to work) for Jones and Company? I (to work) for them for two years.

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17) Mr Speed (to dictate) three letters and (to tell) Ann to type them as soon as possible. Half an hour later he (to phone) Ann's office. "You (to finish) the letters yet?" he (to ask). "Well, (to say) Ann, I (to do) the letter to Mr Jones, but I (not to start) the two letters to Mr Smith yet". 18) Carol and I are old friends. I (to know) her since I (to be) a freshman in high school. 19) Maria (to have) a lot of problems since she (to change) her job. 20) I (not to get) any letters since I (to move) to a new flat. 21) Since the semester (to begin) we (to have) four tests. 22) Mike (to be) in school since he (to be) six years old. 23) My mother (not to be) in school since she (to graduate) from college in 1970. 24) Since we (to start) doing this exercise, we (to complete) six sentences. 25) My name is Surasuk. I'm from Thailand. Right now I'm studying English at this school. I (to be) at this school since the beginning of January. I (to arrive) here January 2, and my classes (to begin) January 6. Since I (to come) here, I (to do) many things, and I (to meet) many people. I (to go) to several parties. Last Saturday I (to go) to a party at my friend's house. I (to meet) some of the other students from Thailand at the party. Of course, we (to speak) Thai, so I (not to practise) my English that night. There (to be) only people from Thailand at the party. However, since I (to come) here, I (to meet) a lot of other people. I (to meet) students from Latin America, Africa, the Middle East and Asia. I enjoy meeting people from other countries. 26) Lately I (to see) very little of her. She (not to phone) me since I last (to see) her. 27) When you (to see) this film? In May. And since then I (not to be) to the cinema. 2.2.7. Translate into English. Use either the Present Indefinite or Past Indefinite, the Present Continuous or Present Perfect. 1) , , . 2) , . 3) , . 4) , . . . 5) , .

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6) . 7) . . . 8) , . 9) , . , . 10) ? , . . . 11) ? . ? . ? . 12) ? , . 13) , . . . 14) , , . 15) . , 5 . . , , . 16) - ? . . , 10 . 3 . . 17) . . , ? 18) . ? . 19) - ? . -? . ? 20) ? , . . . ? . 2.3. The Past Indefinite the Past Perfect ENTRY TEST 1. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Past Prefect.

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1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20)

I was disappointed because when I (1) (to arrive) at the station the train already (2) (to leave). I (3) (not to see) Paul yesterday. When I (4) (to come) to the office he already (5) (to go). He retired after he (6) (to work) in the bank for 15 years. I was sure the bus (7) (to leave) at 3.15. But I was mistaken. She said she never (8) (to be) to the USA and (9) (to want) to go there in spring. He thought he (10) (to meet) the woman before, but he (11) (not to remember) when and where. When I returned home the guests already (12) (to go). I (13) (to see) the manager just now. He (14) (to be) very upset because he had missed a good opportunity to talk to the director in private. She said she already (15) (to invite) all her friends to the housewarming party. He said that lately he (16) (to work) hard and needed a good rest. When I (17) (to be) in Riga I stayed at a nice small hotel. Hardly I (18) (to open) the door when the phone (19) (to ring). Everybody already (20) (to have) supper when we (21) (to get) home last night. A woman (22) (to enter) the room and (23) (to say) she (24) (to be) Mrs Green. She looked at the man and wondered if she ever (25) (to see) him before. When you (26) (to get) his last letter? A week ago. He (27) (to write) he just (28) (to return) from Germany and (29) (to want) to see us. I (30) (not to recognize) my old teacher because we (31) (not to meet) for more than 40 years. He (32) (to change) a lot. But his smile was the same. My sister (33) (to eat) all the sweets before we (34) (to get) home. She (35) (to say) she (36) (to like) them a lot. He (37) (to begin) to smoke when he was young. But he (38) (to give up) it 35 years ago. He said that since then he (39) (not to smoke) a single cigarette.

2. Translate using either the Past Indefinite or Past Perfect. 41) , . 42) , . 43) . , . , .

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44) , , . 45) , . 46) , . 47) , , . 48) , . 49) ? . , . 50) , . Total: 50/_____

The Past Indefinite the Past Perfect The Past Perfect is the past equivalent of the Present Perfect. Compare: Present: Your room is dirty. You haven't cleaned it for ages. Past: Your room was dirty. You hadn't cleaned it for ages. . The Past Perfect is also the past equivalent of the Past Indefinite, and is used when from a certain point in the past the narrator looks back on earlier actions: Compare: We met in 2000. I had seen her last ten years before. Her hair had been black then; now it was white. Compare the difference of meaning in the following examples: I heard voices and realized that there were four people in the kitchen: three men and a woman. I saw empty cups and realized that there had been four people in the kitchen (they were no longer there). Compare the use of the Past Indefinite and the Past Perfect in time clauses: 1) Two past actions can be combined with when: When I opened the window the bird flew out (two Past Indefinite
Tenses give the idea that the first action led to the second and the second followed the first very closely).

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When he had seen all the photos he said he was ready to leave (when he
had finished looking at them).

2) Two past actions can also be combined with till/until, as soon as, before. Generally Past Indefinite tenses are used here: I waited till she returned. As soon as the rain started the children ran outdoors. But when it is necessary to emphasize that the first action was completely finished before the second one started, the Past Perfect is used: As soon as his guests had eaten everything they went home. Before he had known her for a month he made a proposal. 3) After is normally followed by a Perfect Tense: He felt better after he had talked to his father.

The Past Perfect the Past Perfect Continuous The Past Perfect is the past of the Present Prefect. Compare: Present: I am not hungry. I have just had dinner. Past: I was not hungry. I had just had dinner. The Past Perfect Continuous is the past of the Present Perfect Continuous. Compare: Present: How long have you been waiting? Past: How long had you been waiting when she finally came? Compare: By six oclock she had typed all the documents and was ready to leave (it
is a single action in the past).

I knew she had been typing the documents since morning (the action
began before the time of speaking in the past, and continued up to that time or stopped just before it).

EXERCISES

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2.3.1. Fill in with either the Past Indefinite or Past Perfect. State which action happened first. 1) When I (to leave) the house, I (to realise) that I (to First Action: had forget) my keys. forgotten 2) After I (to finish) digging the garden I (to decide) to First Action: ... go for a walk. 3) I (to lend) Fiona some money only after she (to First Action: ... promise) to give it back the next day. 4) They kept arguing about the money their father (to First Action: ... leave) them in his will when he (to die). 5) Kate (to start) cooking after John (to leave). First Action: ... 6) I (to present) Beckie with flowers yesterday because First Action: ... she (to sing) so well in the concert the night before. 7) When I (to see) Julie, I (to realise) that I (to meet) her First Action: ... before. 2.3.2. Open the brackets. Use either the Past Indefinite or Past Perfect. 1) I (not to recognize) my old teacher because we (not to see) each other for 15 years. 2) After they (to finish) their work, they (to go) for a drink. 3) When I (to arrive) at her house, I found she (to go) out. 4) My brother (to eat) all the cakes before we (to get) home. 5) I was surprised to hear that she (to get) an honour degree when she (to be) only sixteen. 6) After the burglary, they (not to touch) anything until the police (to find) any finger-prints. 7) I (to write) to the shop to ask why my books (not to arrive) yet. 8) He (to refuse) to admit that the accident (to be) his fault. 9) Henry (to come) home from holiday to find that someone (to break) into his house. 10) When Elizabeth I (to die) in 1603, she (to reign) for over 40 years. 2.3.3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: the Past Indefinite, Past Continuous or Past Perfect. 1) When I left for school this morning, it (to rain), so I used my umbrella. 2) By the time the class was over this morning, the rain (to stop), so I (not to need) my umbrella any more. 3) Last night I (to start) to study at 7.30. Dick came at 7.35. So I (to study) when Dick (to come).

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4)

Last night I started to study at 7.30. I (to finish) studying at 9.00. Dick came at 9.30. By the time Dick (to come), I (to finish) my homework. 5) When I (to walk) into the kitchen after dinner last night, my wife (to wash) the dishes, so I picked up a dish towel to help her. 6) By the time I walked into the kitchen after dinner, my husband already (to wash) the dishes and (to put) them away. 7) I went to bed only after I (to pack) all my things. But I (to be) so tired that I couldn't sleep. For a long time I (to lie) in bed sleepless and I (to think) about my future. 8) They (to build) that supermarket when I was here last year. They haven't finished it yet. 9) While I (to wonder) whether to buy the dress or not, someone else came and (to buy) it. 10) When I came Peter (to have) supper. He said Ann (to leave) just. 2.3.4. Open the brackets. Use the correct past form. Retell the text (in the 3rd person singular). (A) I remember when I (1) (to go) on holiday abroad for the first time. I (2) just (to leave) school. I (3) (to study) very hard for my final exams and I (4) (to feel) that I needed a holiday. A friend of mine (5) (to want) to come as well so we (6) (to look) at some brochures from the travel agency. We (7) (to read) for about an hour when my friend (8) (to find) the perfect holiday two weeks in Hawaii. We (9) (to be) very excited about it. Finally the day of our holiday (10) (to arrive). We (11) just(to leave) the house when the phone (12) (to ring). I (13) (to run) back into the house, but the phone (14) (to stop) by the time I (15) (to reach) it. When we (16) (to arrive) at the airport we (17) (to sit) in the cafeteria. The airline (18) just (to make) an announcement. Our flight was delayed for eight hours. We were very disappointed because we (19) (to get up) very early and (20) (to rush) to the airport, all for nothing. (B) 1) He (to give) me back the book, (to thank) me for lending it to him and (to say) that he (to enjoy) it very much; but I (to know) that he (not to read) it. 2) When the old lady (to return) to her flat she (to see) at once that burglars (to break) in during her absence, because the front door (to be) open and everything in the flat (to be) upside down. 3) I (to think) my train (to leave) at 14.33, and (to be) very disappointed when I (to arrive) at 14.30 and (to learn) that it just (to leave). Later I (to find) that I (to use) an out-of-date timetable.

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4)

5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11)

12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20)

He (to park) his car under a No Parking sign and (to rush) into the shop. When he (to come) out of the shop 10 minutes later the car (to be) no longer there. He (to wonder) if someone (to steal) it or if the police (to drive) it away. It (to be) 6 p.m.; and Jack (to be) tired because he (to work) hard all day. He (to be) hungry as he (to have) nothing to eat since breakfast. He (to keep on) looking at her, wondering where he (to see) her before. When I (to get up) the following morning he was still there, and I (to wonder) if he (to stay) there all night or if he (to go) away and (to come) back. A woman (to come) in with a baby, who she (to say) just (to swallow) a safety pin. I (to put) a $5 banknote into one of my books, but the next day it (to take) me ages to find it because I (to forget) which book I (to put) it into. When he (to search) all his pockets and (to find) no key he (to remember) where it was. He (to leave) it in his overcoat pocket. I (to arrive) in England in the middle of July. I (to be) quite surprised to find no fog there. I (to ask) a passenger, an Englishman, about the fog and he (to say) that there (to be) no fog since the previous February. However, he (to tell) me that I could buy tinned fog at a shop in Shaftesbury Avenue. I suppose he (to joke). They (to complete) all the preparations for the fancy-dress ball by 5 o'clock. It was 7 o'clock when the first guests (to arrive). During my last visit to the picture gallery I (to find) that I no longer (to like) the pictures which (to impress) me when I first (to see) them. Hardly he (to touch) the pillow when he (to fall) asleep. Everybody (to be) at the airport, but the guide (not to come) yet. They (to be) friends for some ten years before I (to meet) them. In the morning I (to feel) good after the night I (to spend) in the comfortable sleeper. No sooner she (to open) the drawer than she (to find) the photo which she (to think) she (to lose) long before. When she (to finish) reading the letter she (to understand) that she (to lose) him for ever. She guessed why he (not to come) the previous evening. She (to know) he (to stay) away because he (to be) afraid.

2.3.5. Translate using the Past Indefinite, Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous. 1) , .

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2) , ,

. 3) , , . 4) , . 5) , . 6) , , . 7) , . 8) , . 9) , , . 10) , . 11) , , , . 12) , , . 13) , , 9 . 14) , , , , . 15) , .

WAYS OF EXPRESSING THE FUTURE IN ENGLISH There are several ways of expressing the future in English:

2)

the Present Indefinite (not very important use); the Present Continuous; 3) the going to form; 4) the Future Indefinite (shall/will + Infinitive); 5) the Future Continuous; 6) the Future Perfect.
1)

Each is used in a slightly different way.

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Compare: The train leaves at 6.15. (


'')

They are leaving tomorrow. ( '') They are going to buy tickets in advance. ( , ) They will buy tickets in advance. () They will be flying to Italy at this time tomorrow. ( ) They will have left by the time you come. () We have already compared the use of the Present Indefinite and the Present Continuous for expressing the future (See Unit 6, 1: 1.1). 3.1. The Future Indefinite (shall/will + Infinitive) the going to form. ENTRY TEST 1. Open the brackets. Use either the Present Continuous or Future Indefinite. 1) He (1) (to leave) tomorrow at 7.25. And in 2 hours he (2) (to be) in Sofia. He (3) (to spend) there a week. As soon as he comes back we (4) (to meet). 2) Last summer they were in Spain. They (5) (to plan) to go there again. They (6) (to go) by plane or by train? I think, by plane. 3) On Monday I (7) (to have) my last exam. As soon as I pass it I (8) (to go) to the country to see my grandparents. I haven't visited them since autumn. They (9) (to wait) for me now. 4) My aunt (10) (to come) to see us next Saturday. She (11) (to stay) with us for a fortnight. Then she (12) (to fly) to Brest to see her brother. 5) Next year she (13) (to be) 20. How she (14) (to celebrate) it? I think, she (15) (to go) on a tour. 6) What the children (16) (to do) now? They (17) (to play) in the garden. And in an hour I (18) (to take) them to the Zoo. 7) When we (19) (to have) supper? In half an hour. Mother (20) (to cook) it still. 8) She (21) (to phone) us soon and we (22) (to decide) where we (23) (to spend) our holidays. 9) Jack (24) (to come) tomorrow. I (25) (to ask) him for help but I expect he (26) (to refuse). 10) They (27) (to play) cards now. When they finish they (28) (to go) for a walk. 11) The weather (29) (to be) fine if it isn't windy tomorrow.

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12) She asks me if I (30) (to join) them the day after tomorrow. 13) When you (31) (to send) them a telegram? Next Sunday. 14) She always (32) (to find) fault with the boy. Why she always (33) (to complain) to his parents about his bad behaviour? 15) I'm sorry, but she cannot talk to you now. She (34) (to have) a shower. 16) Why the girl (35) (to cry)? She is afraid of the dog. 17) Before he leaves he (36) (to sign) all the documents. 18) What's up? Why you (37) (to sit) here alone? I (38) (to wait) for Mother. I've left my key in the office. 19) As soon as I get a letter from them I (39) (to let) you know about it. 20) When he comes he (40) (to explain) to you why he has done it. 2. Translate using either the Present Continuous or Future Indefinite. 41) ? . 42) . . 43) 20. , . 44) ? . , . 45) , . , . 46) ? , . ? . ? 47) ? , . . , . 48) ? . , . 49) . . ? . 50) , . Total: 50/______ The Future Indefinite (shall/will + Infinitive) the going to form. The going to form expresses the subjects intention to perform a certain future action. This intention is always premeditated and there is

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usually also the idea that some preparation for the action has already been made. Actions expressed by the going to form are usually considered very likely to be performed, though there is not the same idea of definite future arrangement that we get from the Present Continuous. Compare: I am going to meet Ann at the theatre at 6.30 (intention to perform the
action).

I am meeting Ann at the theatre at 6.30 (definite future arrangement). Compare: He is going to buy a new car (he has already made this decision and he
will do it soon).

Hell buy a new car (this is the speakers opinion, it gives no idea when it will be done). EXERCISES 3.1.1. Underline will and (be) going to in these sentences: 1) I'll finish them. 2) There are going to be some big changes. 3) I'm going to do a course in business studies. 4) I'll put you through. 5) I'll be there on time. 6) We're going to stay at home this year. 7) We're going to send Ronald. He's an expert on the area. 8) I'm going to be a bit late. 3.1.2. Now use the sentences from the previous exercise to complete these conversations. Reproduce them. 1) Steel Engineering. Can I help you? Yes, I'd like to speak to Ms Johanssen? One moment, please, ....... 2) Don't forget Thursday's project meeting. lt's at ten o'clock, isn't it? Don't worry, ...... . 3) Sales. Lisa Pavic speaking. Hi, Lisa. This is Alexandra. I'm still at the head office. I'm afraid, ........ . 4) So you're going back to college, Mario? Yes, ... . 5) I need those figures as soon as possible. Don't worry, ...... after I've done this report. 6) Have you seen the consultants' report ? No, but I hear, ...... at the head office.

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7) 8)

Have you come to any decision about the Dehli Fair? Yes, ...... . Have you made any plans for the holidays? Yes, we've made up our minds at last. .....

3.1.3. Complete the gaps using will/(be) going to and the verb in brackets: 1) What time's the meeting, Karen? Half past nine. We'd better go or we ...... late. (to be) 2) I think we've run out of copying paper. Don't worry. I ..... you some when I go out. (to get) 3) So you want to use the computer, Julia? Yes, I ..... the quality control report. I only did the first two pages yesterday. (to finish) 4) Have you decided who's getting the sales job? Not yet. We ...... the decision at this afternoon's meeting. (to make) 5) Are you ready to order yet, sir? Yes, I think so. I ...... the pate followed by the baked salmon. (to have) 6) Can I borrow your calculator, Louise? I've stopped lending it. I never get it back! Don't worry. I ...... it back to you as soon as I've finished. (to give) 7) Who are we sending to the Berlin Conference this year? I think Carol should go. Good idea. I think she ...... a great job. (to do) 8) Have you got those sales figures, Bill? Don't worry. I ...... them to you this afternoon. (to fax) 3.1.4. Match the situations with what is "going to" happen: 1) Tina is stuck in a traffic A) Don't worry, it's going to jam. be replaced. 2) Elena is looking for a new B) Right, we're going to have job. an emergency meeting. 3) Bill's been late once too C) You're going to have to often. start learning Japanese. 4) The new computer keeps D) He's going to have a breaking down. breakdown. 5) You're being transferred to E) He's going to be sacked if the Osaka branch. he isn't more careful. 6) Westgate Construction Pie F) Then, she's going to be is losing money. late for her appointment. 7) Rashid works till ten G) I suppose she's going to o'clock every night. resign, then. 8) Your main competitors H) I know the Board is going have just cut their prices by 15%. to call in a firm of consultants.

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3.1.5. Open the brackets. Use either will or (be) going to. 1) Tom: Where you (to go) for your next holiday? Ann: I don't know yet, but we probably (to go) to Spain. 2) I (to see) my bank manager tomorrow. I'm going to ask him for a loan but I expect he (to refuse). 3) I (to know) the result tomorrow. As soon as I hear I (to tell) you. 4) Peter: We'd better leave a message for Jack. Otherwise he (not to know) where we've gone. George: All right. I (to leave) a note on his table. 5) Jack: I don't want to get married. I never (to get) married. Mother: You think that now. But one day you (to meet) a girl and you (to fall) in love. 6) Tom: I (to go) to York tomorrow. Ann: You (to come) back the same day? Tom: No, I probably (to have) to spend the night there. 7) What you (to do) next weekend? It depends on the weather. If it's fine we (to go) somewhere in the car, if it's wet we (to stay) at home. 8) I (to wait) for you? No, don't bother. This (to take) a long time. 9) Jack: I (to give) you a lift to work tomorrow if you (to like). Tom: Have you borrowed a car? Jack: No, I've just bought one. I (to collect) it this afternoon. 10) Mary: Jack and I (to go) out tonight. We (to have) dinner at the Festival Hall and (to go) to a concert afterwards. Ann: And what about the children? I (to come) and baby-sit if you like. Mary: Oh, my neighbour (to come) and sit with them. I (to ask) you next time. 3.1.6. Translate using either the Present Continuous or Future Indefinite. 1) ? . . . . , . 2) ? , . . , ? . ? , .

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3)

. ? , . 4) -. ? . , , , . 5) . ? , . . 6) . , . 7) , . ? . 8) , . . . 9) ? , . 10) , . ? , . , 4 , , . 3.1.7. Translate using either the Present Indefinite, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, Future Indefinite or Future Continuous. 1) ? ? 2) . 2 . . 3) ? . . . 4) , . , . , . 5) - . . ? 6) ? . ? ? . 7) , ? . , . ? . 5 .

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8) , . 9) . , ? . . . 10) . 50 . , ? 11) , . . - ? , , . 12) , , . , , . ? . . 13) . ? . ? , . . , . , . 14) , . . . 15) ? . , . . 3.2. The Future Continuous the Present Continuous. Though the two tenses have much in common (they both express future without intention), they differ in the following points: a) The Present Continuous implies a deliberate future action. b) The Future Continuous usually implies an action which will occur in the normal course of events. It is less definite and more casual than the Present Continuous. Compare: I am seeing Ann tomorrow (it implies that Ann or the speaker has
deliberately arranged the meeting). Ill be seeing Ann tomorrow (it implies that Ann and the speaker will meet in the ordinary course of events; perhaps, they study together).

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The Present Continuous can only be used with a definite time and for the near future while the Future Continuous can be used with or without a definite time and for the near or distant future. Compare: I am meeting her tomorrow. Ill be meeting him some time/next summer (or without a time expression
at all).

The Future Continuous can also be used like other Continuous tenses to express an action which will continue for some time without definite limits. When used in this way with a time expression it implies that the action will start before the time mentioned and probably will continue after it. This time tomorrow Ill be flying to Rome.

3.3. The Future Perfect Continuous the Future Perfect ENTRY TEST 1. Open the brackets using either the Future Perfect Continuous or Future Perfect. 1) By the time they get home Dad (1) (to go) to the airport. 2) By the time you finish the work I (2) (to fix) supper and (3) (to wait) for you for half an hour. 3) In 10 minutes you (4) (to stand) in front of the mirror for an hour and a half. You (5) (to choose) which dress to put on by this time? 4) I hope you (6) (to take) a decision by the time we meet again. 5) The guests (7) (to leave) by the time the children go to bed, I think. 6) In a few minutes' time I (9) (to stand) here in front of the theatre and (10) (to wait) for her for almost an hour. As soon as the clock strikes seven I'll leave. 7) Is there any hope he (11) (to find) the key by the time the children get home from school? 8) By the time you join us we (12) (to try) to persuade her to go with us for 2 hours. 9) We (13) (to do) the greater part of the work by the time you are ready to assist us. By this time we (14) (to do) it for several months.

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10) I am sure, by the time you phone he (15) (to buy) the tickets and (16) (to inform) me about the time of his departure. By this time I (17) (to wait) for this reasonable step for two weeks. 11) By the end of this spring they (18) (to repair) their new house and will go to see it. By this time they (19) (to repair) it for 2 years. 12) By the end of the year he (20) (to work) for this company for 30 years. He likes his job and isn't going to quit it. 13) My parents (21) (to be married) for 60 years by next May. They have always been a wonderful couple. 14) You have been translating the text for 2 hours. I'm sure, I (22) (to finish) it by 5 o'clock. By this time you (23) (to sit) here for 5 hours. Is it as difficult as that? 15) My children became keen on video games when they went to school. By 2009 John (24) (to be) keen on them for 5 years and Nick (25) (to be) crazy about them for 7 years by that time. 16) By the time they return we (26) (to discuss) the plan since 9 o'clock. I'm afraid, we (27) (to finish) only by 7. 17) My parents have always lived in this house. They (28) (to live) in it for 50 years by next winter. 18) She (29) (to give) us her final decision by Monday. By this time she (30) (to think) over it for 3 days. 19) By the time my sister is twenty she (31) (to learn) English for 15 years. Do you think by the time she is twenty she (32) (to be able) to speak it as a native speaker? I'm absolutely sure, she will. 20) My brother (33) (to try) to learn Spanish for 3 years by September. But I don't think, he (34) (to achieve) any good results by this time. I'm so pessimistic because by next May I (35) (to learn) German for 6 years, but I must admit, I don't know it. 2. Translate using either the Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous. 36) . 37) 40 . 38) , , . 39) , 7 ? 40) 7 4 , . 41) 40 . 42) , , . 43) , , .

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44) , . 45) , 6 ? 46) 6 , , . 47) . 48) , . 49) ? 50) , 6 . Total: 50/______

The Future Perfect Continuous the Future Perfect The Future Perfect is used for an action which will have completed or not completed by a definite moment in the future. It is always used with a time expression: By the end of summer they will have moved to their new house. If we want to indicate the duration of an event at a specific time in the future, we can use the Future Perfect Continuous: By March next year he will have been teaching French for 25 years. EXERCISES 3.3.1. Open the brackets. Use either the Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous. 1) I hope they (to repair) this road by the time we come back next summer. 2) By the time you come back I (to paper) the walls for more than 10 hours. 3) By the end of next year he (to run) this company for 45 years. And he is not going to retire. 4) Come back in an hour. But you (to pack) by that time? No, I don't think so. I (to pack) only by midnight, I think. 5) I am afraid we (not to discuss) all the questions by the time they return. 6) I hope they (to receive) my letter by Saturday. By the time you get into contact with them they (to arrive) at a conclusion. 7) We (to solve) this problem for more than two hours by the time you join us.

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8)

By the time you are able to start the experiment we (to study) all the documents. 9) The secretary (to look) through all the papers by the time the manager comes. 10) By the time he's 17 he (to learn) English for 12 years. 11) She (to do) the shopping by the time her husband comes home. 12) By next May they (to live) in this town for more than 50 years. 3.3.2. Open the brackets. Use either the Future Indefinite or Future Continuous, Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous. 1) Next year she (to be) 20. 2) Tomorrow at this time they (to fly) to Rome. 3) What you (to do) the day after tomorrow from 3 to 5? But why are you asking? 4) They (to finish repairing my car by the time I come. 5) By the time he arrives in Minsk he (to drive) for 10 hours. 6) How long you (to learn) English by the end of the year? 7) I'm sorry, but I (not to go) to the theatre with you. I (to stay) at home. My Mum has fallen ill. 8) Don't cry! You (to forget) about all your troubles by tomorrow. 9) By Monday I (to work) on this business plan for a month. 10) I'm sure, I (to read) this article by tomorrow night. 11) By 5 o'clock he (to translate) this text for 3 hours. 12) Will you be busy tomorrow evening? Yes, I (to write) a report. Will you (to finish) by 9 p.m.? 13) If nothing happens, they (to return) at 7. 14) If nothing happens, they (to return) by 7. 15) I (to wait) until you phone me. 16) I promise, I (to phone) by the time you get home. 17) I (to wait) for your call from 1 till 3. 18) Tomorrow at this time the children (to sleep). 19) As soon as I buy the tickets I (to let) you know. 20) It's going to be a big party. I'm sure we (to have) a great time. 3.3.3. Complete the dialogue using the Future Indefinite, Future Continuous, Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous. Reproduce it. Can I call on you tomorrow, Linda? Tomorrow? What time?

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Well, I'm not going to the institute tomorrow so I (to call on) you at 10 in the morning. Oh, no! It's too early. I (to sleep). OK. I (to call on) you at noon. Well, at that time I (to dye) my hair. Perhaps I (to come) in the afternoon, then. What you (to do) at about 3? I (to get) ready for my swimming class. Well, you (to be) at home, if I come at 5? I'm afraid not. I (to be) away to the theatre. When can I see you? I want my book back. Phone me tomorrow evening. I think, by that time I (to finish) it. You haven't finished it yet? You (to read) it for a year by May, 7. How do you remember it? May, 7 is my birthday. 3.3.4. Translate using either the Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous. 1) , , . 2) , , . 3) 45 , . 4) . 5) ? 6) 5 . 7) , . 8) , , , . 9) , , . 10) , . 11) 5 , . 12) , . 2, 4. . 13) 50 , . 14) 3 , . 15) .

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REVIEW EXERCISES WHICH ALTERNATIVE IS CORRECT? 1. In the following pairs of sentences, one sentence is right and one is wrong. Choose the right one. 1) A) Had you heard the news? B) Have you heard the news? 2) A) I was losing my glasses. I can neither read nor write. B) I have lost my glasses. I can neither read nor write. 3) A) The plane to Bang Hong has just taken off. B) The plane to Bang Hong just took off. 4) A) Im exhausted. I was packing all day. B) Im exhausted. Ive been packing all day. 5) A) How long do you write stories? B) How long have you been writing stories? 6) A) Have you been to the bank yet? B) Were you to the bank yet? 7) A) I saw her just now. B) I have seen her just now. 8) A) Last time I spoke to her a week ago. B) Lately I have spoken to her a week ago. 9) A) When did they return? B) When have they returned? 10 A) How long has he been working here? ) B) How long is he working here? 11 A) Yesterday from 5 to 7 I had been learning English. ) B) Yesterday from 5 to 7 I was learning English. 12 A) Will you have finished the job by 7? ) B) Will you finish the job by 7? 13 A) We are leaving tomorrow. ) B) We will be leaving tomorrow. 14 A) After he translated the text he had supper. ) B) After he had translated the text he had supper. 15 A) Do you know him? ) B) Are you knowing him? 16 A) Before he leaves hell phone me. ) B) Before hell leave hell phone me. 17 A) If it doesnt rain tomorrow well go to the park.

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B) If it not rains tomorrow well go to the park. 18 A) Ill talk to him after I have been typing the contract. ) B) Ill talk to him after I type the contract. 19 A) Hell wait until I don't come. ) B) Hell wait until I come. 20 A) What have they been doing now? ) B) What are they doing now? 2. Choose the correct alternative. 1) I (understood/ was understanding) that he (didnt listen/ was not listening) to what I (told/ was telling) him. 2) He went over in his mind all that (appeared/ had appeared) in the papers about the Island. 3) He laid the paper down and (glanced/ had glanced) out of the window. 4) Mentally she reread the letter which she (already read/ had already read) so many times. 5) I think they (will inform/ will have informed) you about it by the end of the week. 6) I (returned/ was returning) to this house at 5.30 precisely. The church clock (chimed/ had chimed), I (looked/ was looking) at my watch and (found/ had found) it (was/ had been) 5 minutes slow. 7) I thought the shop was shut. But it wasnt. I (went in/ had gone in), there wasnt anyone about. I (hammered/ was hammering) on the counter and (waited/ was waiting) a bit. Nobody (came/ had come), so I (went out/ had gone out) again. Thats all I can tell you. 8) Twenty minutes later we were in a fast police car crossing the Thames on our way out of London. With us was Inspector Crome, who (was/ had been) present at the conference the other day, and who (was/ had been) officially in charge of the case. 9) He (rang/ was ringing) the bell and (put/ had put) the question to the butler. 10) Hardly (turned we/ had we turned) round the corner, when we (saw/ had seen) a strange lady again. 11) At least a lot of people (were detained/ had been detained) and questioned before they (satisfied/ had satisfied) the police. 12) While I (shopped/ was shopping) I (lost/ had lost) my purse. 13) He (was/ had been) working as a journalist when World War II (began/ had begun). 14) Dear Sir, I (was thinking/ have been thinking) a lot about this matter since we last (met/ were meeting). 15) How long (have/ had) you been learning English?

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16) I (was/ have been) using my word processor for five years and there is

nothing wrong with it. 17) It (is/ has been) raining for several days. 18) I (was/ have been) playing tennis since I (was/ have been) a boy. 19) How long (is she/ has she been) writing novels? 20) While I (did/ was doing) ironing, my sister (cooked/ was cooking) dinner. 21) A policeman (stopped/ has stopped) us on the motorway when we (drove/were driving) less than 70 km an hour. 22) A reporter (took/ has taken) a photograph of them while they (fought/were fighting). 23) Hardly (have/ had) I seen him when I (realised/ had realised) that something (went/ had gone) wrong. 24) I had an impression that they (didn't do/ hadn't done) anything practical by that time. 25) While I (will be cooking/am cooking) an apple pie tomorrow, the children (will be sleeping/are sleeping). PRESENT INDEFINITE OR CONTINUOUS? 3. Choose the correct verb form. 1) He can't see you now. He .. someone. A) phones B) is phoning 2) I.. hard for my exams now. A) am working B) work 3) Don't forget to take your umbrella. It .. outside. A) rains B) is raining 4) I .. for a business trip tomorrow. A) leave B) am leaving 5) The pupil said at the lesson that water .. at 100 degrees Centigrade and got a bad mark. A) boils B) is boiling 6) I .. to you attentively. A) listen B) am listening 7) Look! The water .. . Let's make tea. I'm terribly thirsty! A) boils B) is boiling 8) Mr Brieger and his son .. business together. A) run B) are running 9) I .. French. But I've just started to learn it. A) don't speak B) am not speaking 10) The plane .. in half an hour.

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A) arrives B) is arriving 11) He .. for the travel agency "Holidays". A) works B) is working 12) Look! Someone .. to open your car. A) tries B) is trying 13) He .. a lot about show business. A) knows B) is knowing 14) I .. of starting my own business. A) think B) am thinking 15) We .. for Spain in a few days. A) leave B) are leaving 16) What time .. Nick and Rosa .. for dinner tonight? A) do ... come B) are ... coming 17) I .. coffee at all. A) don't drink B) am not drinking 18) The children .. quite well now. They don't quarrel any more. A) get on B) are getting on 19) I'm sure you .. the right choice. A) make B) are making 20)_ uch a curious child! She .. all sorts of questions. S A) constantly asks B) is constantly asking 21)_ .. you are not right. His new book is much better than the previous one. I A) think B) am thinking 22) The sun .. from East to West. A) goes B) is going 23) He .. his own shop. A) runs B) is running 24) Our company .. a great risk at the moment. A) runs B) is running 25) The film .. at 7. Let's hurry. A) begins B) is beginning 26) It's eight o'clock. Kate, .. you .. ready for school? A) do ... get B) are ... getting 27) "Wheres Tom?' "He .. the dog out for a walk." A) takes B) is taking 28) I .. music lessons twice a week. A) have B) am having 29) Why .. you .. ? A) do ... laugh B) are ... laughing 30) What .. you .. after school tomorrow?

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A) do ... do B) are ... doing 31)_ .. French at Language School. I A) learn B) am learning 32) What .. you .. next weekend? A) do ... do B) are ... doing 33) .. it often .. here in winter? A) Does ... snow B) Is ... snowing 34) .. you .. to make sandwiches? A) Do ... go B) Are ... going 35) It .. long to get to work. A) doesn't take B) isn't taking 36) .. your mother .. listening to classical music? A) Does .... enjoy B) Is ... enjoying 37) They .. lunch now. A) have B) are having 38) "Where are Jill and Tom?" "They .. Dad to plant flowers in the garden". A) help B) are helping 39) "Where's Cathy? I can't see her." "She .. on a hat over there". A) tries B) is trying 40) He .. on the phone. Don't disturb him. It's a very important call. A) speaks B) is speaking 41) It .. heavily. Let's wait a little bit. A) rains B) is raining 42) Who .. she .. with? I don't know that boy. A) does ... dance B) is ... dancing 43) She .. a nice dress today. A) wears B) is wearing 44) The plane .. at 2 p.m. A) takes off B) is taking off 45) Look! She .. for someone. A) waits B) is waiting 46) He often .. on business to Germany. A) goes B) is going 47) She usually .. bright clothes. A) wears B) is wearing 48) He .. in class! A) constantly talks B) is constantly talking 49) Our firm .. office equipment. A) produces B) is producing

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50) I .. a birthday party next Saturday. Would you like to come? A) have B) am having 51) Tomorrow I .. a representative of a German engineering firm. A) meet B) am meeting 52) The exhibition .. at 11 a.m. as usual. A) opens B) is opening 53) Their train .. at 7. A) arrives B) is arriving 54) I .. you. A) don't understand B) am not understanding 55) I .. to the disco tomorrow night. What about you? A) go B) am going 56) Excuse me, but I .. you. It can't be true. A) don't believe B) am not believing 57) .. this bus .. downtown? A) Does ... go B) Is ... going 58) .. it .. like rain? A) Does ... look B) Is ... looking 59) .. you .. him tomorrow? Tell him I'm waiting for his call. A) Do ... see B) Are ... seeing 60) We .. for coffee tonight. A) meet B) are meeting 61) Where .. you ..... from? A) do ... come B) are ... coming 62) I .. the concert very much. And you? A) enjoy B) am enjoying 63) I .. the weather will be fine tomorrow. A) think B) am thinking 64) I .. the problem. I'll try to help you. A) see B) am seeing 65) Do you know when they .. on a trip? A) go B) are going 66) .. you .. with me? A) Don't... agree B) Aren't... agreeing 67) .. you .. how to settle the matter? A) Do ... know B) Are ... knowing 68) No, Liz isn't in. She .. the dog out. A) takes B) is taking 69) What .. you .. to tell me? A) do ... want B) are ... wanting

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70) I .. this music! Let's go home. A) hate B) am hating 71) Your words .. encouraging. A) sound B) are sounding 72) At present she .. marketing. She's going to look for a job of a marketing manager. A) studies B) is studying 73) We .. a new product at the moment. A) launch B) are launching 74) .. she often .. tennis? A) Does ... play B) Is ... playing 75) I .. where to go on holiday yet. A) don't know B) am not knowing 76) My sister .. in fashion design. A) specialises B) is specialising 77) At present they .. on a new project. A) work B) are working 78) What .. you .. by saying this? A) do ... mean B) are ... meaning 79) I .. what he is talking about. A) don't understand B) am not understanding 80) I .. the dentist at 4 p.m. I've arranged it already. A) see B) am seeing 81) My uncle is a jockey. He .. horses. A) rides B) is riding 82) Look! The fire brigade .. at a terrible speed. There must be a fire somewhere. A) rushes B) is rushing 83) I.. my dog out for long walks in the park on Sunday. A) always take B) am always taking 84) I .. cakes. Only on special occasions. A) rarely bake B) am rarely baking 85) We .. your proposition. We'll give you an answer in a few days. A) think over B) are thinking over PRESENT INDEFINITE OR FUTURE INDEFINITE? 4. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets. 1) I (phone / will phone) you when I (come / will come) back.

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2)

When the Sales Manager (arrives / will arrive) tell him I (am / will be) back at 5 o'clock. 3) If I (pass / will pass) my exams, I (enter / will enter) the University. 4) If there (is / will be) a good program on TV, I (watch / will watch) it. 5) I (tell / will tell) him the news when I (see / will see) him. 6) If it (rains / will rain), I (stay / will stay) at home. 7) I (try / will try) to speak to the Managing Director before he (leaves / will leave) for New York. 8) I (buy / will buy) a car when I (save / will save) enough money. 9) If you (insist / will insist), I (accept / will accept) the invitation. 10) What (do / will) you do if you (miss / will miss) the train? 11) I (pay / will pay) for the coffee if you (don't / won't) mind. 12) In case you (arrive / will arrive) earlier, wait for me at the station. 13) If you (are not able / will not be able) to do this yourself, I (help / will help) you. 14) I (go / will go) to stay with my grandparents as soon as the exams (are/ /will be) over. 15) Can you look after my cat while I (am / will be) away? 16) If it (isn't /won't be) too expensive, I (buy / will buy) it. 17) You (fail / will fail) your exam if you (don't / won't) study hard. 18)Where (do / will) you stay when you (arrive / will arrive) in Paris? 19)As soon as I (get / will get) tickets I (phone / will phone) you. 20)The flowers (don't / won't) grow well if you (don't / won't) look after them properly. 21)I (don't / won't) go to bed until I (finish / will finish) writing the paper. 22)If you (are / will be) out, I (leave / will leave) a message on the answer phone. 23) I (show / will show) you round the factory as soon as the interview (is / will be) over. 24) As soon as we (get / will get) money for the project we (start / will start) constructing the building. 25) If we (get / will get) cold, we (make / will make) a fire somewhere on the way. 26) You (recover / will recover) soon, if you (follow / will follow) the doctors advice. 27) We (go /will go) there straight away as soon as we (get/ will get) a message from you. 28) I (have / will have) lunch as soon as I (finish / will finish) typing the report. 29) If he (calls / will call), tell him the meeting (is/ will be) at 8 oclock. 30) Where (do /will) you stay if hotels (are/ will be) full?

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5. Choose the correct verb form. 1) If I .. late, wait for me a little bit. A) am B) will be 2) Do you think they .. our terms? A) accept B) will accept 3) I wonder, if the weather .. fine tomorrow. A) is B) will be 4) Do you know when the Production Manager .. from his business trip? A) is back B) will be back 5) If you .. to the countryside tomorrow, let me know. A) go B) will go 6) Do you know when they .. house? A) move B) will move 7) When you .. any information, phone me immediately. A) get B) will get 8) I dont know when they .. the product on the market. A) put B) will put 9) Send me a fax when you .. your mind. A) make up B) will make up 10) I dont know if I .. any spare time tomorrow. A) have B) will have 11) Call the Director and ask him if he .. us right now. A) receive B) will receive 12) Dont get off the bus before it .. . A) stops B) will stop 13) I wonder, if my parents .. me a computer for my birthday. A) buy B) will buy 14) Please, wait till I .. to her. A) speak B) will speak 15) Im not sure if he .. a report at the conference. A) makes B) will make 16) Dont worry about it before you .. with him. A) speak B) will speak 17) Do you know when the conference ..? A) is over B) will be over 18) In case you .. the details, let me know. A) find out B) will find out 19) Dont forget to call Mother when you .. from work. A) come back B) will come back

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PAST INDEFINITE OR CONTINUOUS? 6. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets. 1) When I (brought / was bringing) in the papers he (spoke / was speaking) on the phone. 2) When I (entered / was entering) they (discussed / were discussing) something. 3) He (felt / was feeling) that somebody (watched / was watching) him. 4) I (met / was meeting) him while I (made / was making) a tour of France. 5) I (paid/was paying) my check when I (heard/was hearing) someone call my name. 6) I (turned / was turning) round and (saw / was seeing) Jenny. 7) Pardon, I (didnt hear / wasnt hearing) what you (said / was saying). 8) I (finished / was finishing) shopping and (went / was going) home. 9) I (asked / was asking) her if she (knew / was knowing) any good Spanish restaurant there. 10) When I (came / was coming) back home I (took/ was taking) an aspirin and (went/ was going) to bed. 11) When Ruth (looked out / was looking out) of the window she (saw / was seeing) that it (still snowed / was still snowing). 12) Mike (fell / was falling) down and (hurt / was hurting) his knees. 13) Last summer, when climbing a mountain in the Caucasus we (lost / were losing) our way. 14) The rescue team (found / was finding) us on the fourth day. 15) We (left /were leaving) the camp and (went / were going) towards the mountain. 16) When I (entered / was entering) the room Justin (showed / was showing) photographs to the guests. 17) Police (stopped / were stopping) him while he (drove / was driving) at a high speed. 18) While I (spoke / was speaking) to Jill, I (learned / was learning) that her husband was in hospital. 19) I (looked / was looking) after my niece while my sister (made / was making) a tour of Italy. 20) She first (met / was meeting) her husband when she (attended / was attending) a conference in Stockholm. 21) While I (listened / was listening) to him I suddenly (remembered / was remembering) our first meeting.

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7. Choose the correct verb form. 1) After the meeting I .. a terrible headache. A) had B) was having 2) We .. tennis from 2 till 5 oclock in the afternoon. A) played B) were playing 3) When I saw her that day she .. a stylish yellow hat. A) wore B) was wearing 4) Where .. you .. for your holiday last year? A) did go B) were going 5) Yesterday Nick .. his eighteenth birthday. A) celebrated B) was celebrating 6) One hot, sunny day in July, at about 5 p.m. we .. on the terrace drinking tea. A) sat B) were sitting 7) A terrible wind .. our mountain-tent to pieces. A) tore B) was tearing 8) We .. with us any survival equipment. A) didnt take B) were not taking 9) They . the hotel early in the morning. A) left B) were leaving 10) How long .. you .. there? A) did stay B) were staying 11) During the performance the lights on the stage suddenly .. . A) went off B) were going off 12) We .. a new market in South Asia last year. A) opened B) were opening 13) It was a warm autumn day. We .. along the country road. A) walk B) were walking 14) All week long a severe wind .. from the sea. A) blew B) was blowing 15) I ..... to Spain for my weekend last month. A) went B) was going 16) During my holiday I ..... swimming every day. A) went B) was going 17) What ..... you ..... at the weekend? A) did do B) were .. doing 18) Now, Mr Briggs, what ..... you ..... yesterday at 8 oclock? A) did do B) were .. doing 19) A few minutes later we ..... on the London road in the direction of Overton.

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20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32)

A) rode B) were riding At about 4 oclock in the morning I ..... some distant noise. A) heard B) was hearing He ..... me about his departure during the lunch. A) told B) was telling Looking through old newspapers I ..... the article about my grandfather. A) came across B) was coming across I could hear that somebody ..... in the adjoining room. A) whispered B) was whispering We ..... to go for a swim, but the weather was awful. A) wanted B) were wanting We ..... in Madrid for three days and then went to Paris. A) stayed B) were staying The helicopter ..... the children to hospital. A) took B) was taking I ..... in the garden all day yesterday. A) dug B) was digging At University I ..... economics and finance. A) studied B) was studying Telling me his story he ..... nearly at each word. In the end I lost my patience. A) stumbled B) was stumbling Listening to him I couldnt but feel that all he ..... us was a lie. A) told B) was telling Jack ..... to see them the following day. A) hoped B) was hoping It ..... heavily from Monday till Wednesday. A) rained B) was raining

PAST CONTINUOUS, USED TO + INFINITIVE/WOULD + INFINITIVE 8. Choose the correct alternative. 1) He ..... a lot, but now he doesnt. A) used to smoke B) was smoking 2) My son was terribly homesick while he ..... abroad. A) was living B) used to live 3) They ..... happy together, but now they are constantly quarrelling. A) used to be B) were being 4) When I was a child we ..... to the Black Sea every year. A) were travelling B) would travel

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5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22)

My son hurt his knee while he ..... football. A) was playing B) used to play I remember that Nanny ..... us fascinating stories about past times. A) was reading B) would read When we came back the children ..... in the garden with two unknown boys. A) were playing B) would play I ..... swimming every morning when we lived near the swimming-pool. A) was going B) used to go They walked on into the Zoo grounds. In the distance three camels ..... along side by side. A) were strolling B) used to stroll We ..... supper when suddenly the light went off. A) were having B) used to have My aunt ..... flowers, but now she has a beautiful rose garden. A) wasnt growing B) didnt use to grow My Dad ..... mountains when he was a student. A) was climbing B) used to climb I ..... to the pictures a lot, but now I prefer watching video at home. A) was going B) used to go When Grandma was alive Aunt Polly ..... for a cup of tea now and then. A) was coming over B) would come over Yesterday evening Mrs Brill ..... the paper with her spectacles on her nose. A) was reading B) would read I ..... a lot of newspapers, but now I dont. Theyve become so boring. A) was reading B) used to read He was arrested when he ..... through passport control. A) was going B) used to go We ..... the plane when suddenly we saw a police car rushing towards the plane at a terrible speed. A) were boarding B) used to board When a student Mother ..... Beatles records. A) was collecting B) used to collect They ..... a lot when they were not married. A) were going out B) used to go out When I came in the headmaster ..... very quietly, dreaming his own dreams in the centre of the classroom. A) was standing B) used to stand I ..... Champaign. But now I think it is hideous. A) was liking B) used to like

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23) She ..... make up, but now she does a lot. A) wasnt wearing B) didnt use to wear 24) When a child I ..... with my grandparents in a small village. A) was living B) used to live 25) In her young years my aunt ..... in horse races. A) was participating B) used to participate PAST INDEFINITE OR PRESENT PERFECT? 9. Choose the correct verb form. 1) They ..... the company two years ago. A) started B) have started 2) He ..... the Managing Director of the company since 1990. A) was B) has been 3) We ..... the project yet. A) didnt finish B) havent finished 4) Our company ..... a big profit last year. A) made B) has made 5) My car ..... . I wont be able to drive to the countryside at the weekend. A) broke down B) has broken down 6) He ..... a new car two weeks ago. A) bought B) has bought 7) I ..... of petrol. I must have my car filled. A) ran out B) have run out 8) Last year we ..... to manufacture new items of office equipment. A) began B) have begun 9) He and his wife Helena ..... for over 30 years. A) were married B) have been married 10) I ..... them since December. A) didnt see B) havent seen 11) I ..... such a strange dream last night, said Jane. A) had B) have had 12) Since then I ..... my job several times. A) changed B) have changed 13) You ..... your hair, he cried. A) dyed B) have dyed 14) Jane ..... suddenly that there was a letter attached to the painting. A) found B) has found 15) I ..... that point yet.

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16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35)

A) didnt consider B) havent considered Mary isnt at home. She ..... to work. A) went B) has gone Last year they ..... their production greatly. A) increased B) have increased They ..... in construction business for 5 years. A) were B) have been We ..... a few contracts last month. A) signed B) have signed ..... you ever..... the Queen of Great Britain? A) Did ... see B) Have ... seen He cant find a job. He ..... unemployed for half a year. A) was B) has been ..... you ever ..... to Africa? A) Did ... travel B) Have ... travelled I ..... them that we would go down there immediately. A) told B) have told Just out of curiosity I ..... Mike last night. A) rang up B) have rung up ..... you ..... about Miss Carols marriage? A) Did ... hear B) Have ... heard It ..... foolish to take the matter so seriously then, she said. A) was B) has been What ..... you ..... to find the way out? A) did ... do B) have ... done He ..... to answer the telephone. A) rose B) has risen Nick and Sally ..... each other since their school years. A) knew B) have known I ..... something fantastic, he said. A) expected B) have expected His spirits ..... a little. Hes all right now. A) revived B) have revived So far we ..... to find anyone who saw that man. A) werent able B) havent been able They ..... some years ago. A) separated B) have separated ..... anything ..... from the flat? asked the policeman. A) Did ... disappear B) Has ... disappeared There ..... any sign of robbery. Nothing was stolen from the shop.

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36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51)

A) wasnt B) hasnt been I ..... the letter asked about, sir, said the butler. A) brought B) have brought The doctor ..... us a careful description of the position of the victim. A) gave B) has given She ..... the door of a small room and came in. A) opened B) has opened ..... you ..... dinner already? A) Did ... have B) Have ... had When we came in the boy ..... .He didnt seem to notice us at all. A) didnt move B) hasnt moved The clock ..... midnight. Holmes stood up and came up to the window. A) struck B) has struck I ..... back on Monday afternoon. A) arrived B) have arrived Im sure youll be surprised when you get to know who ..... the game yesterday. A) won B) has won He ..... his driving test. He is so happy. He hasnt been able to pass it three times. A) just passed B) has just passed I ..... my keys. I cant get in. A) lost B) have lost The taxi ..... a few minutes ago. A) arrived B) has arrived The taxi ..... .Hurry up! A) arrived B) has arrived We ..... lunch already. A) had B) have had ..... you ..... writing your book yet? A) Did ... finish B) Have ... finished My aunt ..... me a nice puppy for my birthday. Its a fox-terrier. I call it Napoleon. A) gave B) has given I ..... on holiday for the last two years. A) wasnt B) havent been

10. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets. 1) She (started/ has started) running the company a few years ago and soon (doubled/ has doubled) her business.

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2) I (studied/ have studied) economics at University, then I (worked/ have

worked) for a small advertising agency. 3) I (changed/ have changed) my job several times since I (left/ have left) the University. 4) She (began/ has begun) acting six years ago and since then she (starred/ has starred) in more than ten films. 5) She (got/ has got) her first Oscar in 1986 and (won/ has won) three of them during the next six years. 6) My parents and I (toured/ have toured) Europe twice but none of us (was/ has been) to the States yet. 7) She (wrote/ has written) several books since she (came/ has come) back home from the US. 8) Alice is a journalist. She (met/ has met) a lot of famous people. She says that she (interviewed/ has interviewed) Princess Diana. 9) They (moved/ have moved) to the village five years ago and since then (never were/ have never been) to town. They like living in the country. 10) They (lived/ have lived) for many years in the United States, then in 1995 they (moved/ have moved) to France and (settled/ have settled) there. 11) My parents (toured/ have toured) Italy last summer but they (werent/ havent been) to Florence. 12) I (had/ have had) a good long talk with Dr Thompson, he said. Some things (became/ have become) clear to me. PAST INDEFINITE OR PAST PERFECT? 11. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets. 1) Our company (launched/ had launched) the new product at the beginning of May. 2) The address which the inspector (gave/ had given) us (was/ had been) that of a good-sized house about a mile on the London side of the village. 3) Poirot (asked/ had asked) her if Mrs Ascheer (received/ had ever received) any peculiar letters without a proper signature. 4) I thought that Mrs Fowler (told/ had told) us everything. But Poirot said that she (knew/ had known) more than she (told/ had told) us. 5) The letter (came/ had come) just before I (arrived/ had arrived) back. 6) Miss Higley said that Elizabeth (was/ had been) friendly in working hours, but the girls (didnt see/ hadnt seen) much of her out of them. 7) She said that Betty (didnt say/ hadnt said) anything about her plans and she (didnt see/ hadnt seen) her in the cafe that evening.

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8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18)

19) 20)

Hardly (did/ had) she (say/ said) these words when a beautiful young lady (appeared/ had appeared) in the room. I (knew/ had known) that once he (was/ had been) a well-known specialist in his field. He (lived/ had lived) in the house he (built/ had built) for himself near the Devon coast. Susan (told/ had told) her parents the news only after she and Mike (got/ had got) married. The telephone on his table (rang/ had rung) and he (picked/ had picked) it up. He (paid/ had paid) the bill and (left/ had left). She (was/ had been) a stronger person now than she (was/ had been) a few months before. She (put/ had put) on her coat and (went/ had gone) for a walk. Hardly (did it stop/ had it stopped) raining when a rainbow (appeared/ had appeared) in the sky. Nabokov (lived/ had lived) in many countries after he (emigrated/ had emigrated) from Russia. He (graduated/ had graduated) from Cambridge University in 1922; then (lived/ had lived) in Germany, France, and the United States where he (worked/ had worked) at Harvard and (taught/ had taught) at Cornell University. The museum, which (opened/ had opened) just a year before, (planned/ had planned) a rich and varied international program. Several local businesses and foundations (agreed/ had agreed) to sponsor the Centennial.

12. Choose the correct verb form. 1) I was late because I ..... in a jam. A) stuck B) had stuck 2) We went out after it ..... raining. A) stopped B) had stopped 3) The sergeant ..... about ten minutes later. A) returned B) had returned 4) He told me that he ..... jazz. A) liked B) had liked 5) I thanked him for what he ..... for me. A) did B) had done 6) The house he ..... was of a modern design. A) built B) had built

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7) We were told that Sir Clark ..... in the habit of taking a stroll after dinner.

A) was B) had been 8) She said that she ..... detective stories. A) liked B) had liked 9) My mother was worried because I ..... in touch with her for a long time. A) wasnt B) hadnt been 10) I remembered that I ..... the letter on the table. A) left B) had left 11) When I came back a few minutes later I ..... the letter. A) didnt find B) hadnt found 12) I told her that I ..... interested in the project. A) was B) had been 13) The girl explained that she ..... from Bexhill by the 3-oclock train. A) came B) had come 14) James regretted that he ..... that conversation. A) started B) had started 15) I asked him if he ..... a Shakespearian role. A) ever played B) had ever played 16) I remembered that I ..... the window. A) didnt close B) hadnt closed 17) I realised that he ..... with his illusions. A) did not part B) had not parted 18) Judging by his reaction I came to the conclusion that he ..... of her arrival. A) wasnt aware B) hadnt been aware PAST PERFECT OR PAST CONTINUOUS? 13. Choose the correct verb form. 1) I ..... supper when the bell rang. A) was having B) had had 2) When they came back home it was rather late. Everybody ..... to bed. A) was going B) had gone 3) When they came back home the children ..... already. A) were sleeping B) had slept 4) They ..... back home when the car skidded on a wet road. A) were driving B) had driven 5) It was an embarrassing moment. I ..... utterly ..... about his birthday. A) was ... forgetting B) had ... forgotten 6) I ..... the park gates. Jack was due to come in a couple of minutes. A) was watching B) had watched

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7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23)

By the time the police arrived everybody ..... in the dining room. A) was gathering B) had gathered When we ..... the house we saw a dark shadow. A) were approaching B) had approached I realised that he ..... us everything during our first meeting. A) wasnt telling B) hadnt told While I ..... to Sue there was a loud knock at the door. A) was talking B) had talked He said that he ..... a new film at that time. A) was making B) had made I was surprised when I heard that they ..... to the countryside a few months before. A) were moving B) had moved When I came into the bar my friends ..... lunch. A) were having B) had had He started a small advertising agency after he ..... from the military service. A) was retiring B) had retired It was clear that he ..... to meet us. He seemed quite displeased at seeing us. A) was not expecting B) had not expected When Holmes looked out of the window again the strange-looking gentleman ..... by the gates. A) was still standing B) had still stood We left after it ..... snowing. A) was stopping B) had stopped The children spent the whole day indoors because it ..... heavily. A) was raining B) had rained While the inspector ..... to Miss Terry he suddenly heard a slight noise behind the door. A) was talking B) had talked Jims father was really angry when he knew that Jim ..... the University. A) was leaving B) had left Tom saw her for the first time at the University library when he ..... for his final exam. A) was working B) had worked She was very nervous while she ..... us about her stepfathers departure. A) was telling B) had told I met him first when he ..... already his second novel. A) was publishing B) had published

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24) I asked him what he ..... at that time. A) was doing B) had done PRESENT PERFECT OR PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS? 14. Choose the correct verb form. 1) I ..... on my report all day. Im exhausted. A) have worked B) have been working 2) I ..... six letters today. A) have written B) have been writing 3) Alice ..... English in Spain for some years and doesnt want to come back home. A) has taught B) has been teaching 4) They ..... software for the last ten years. A) have sold B) have been selling 5) How long ..... Jane ..... for the tour agency? A) has ... worked B) has ... been working 6) The Prime Minister ..... just ..... that voting is postponed till tomorrow. A) has ... announced B) has ... been announcing 7) The police ..... people all week. A) have questioned B) have been questioning 8) So far the police ..... nobody. A) have charged B) have been charging 9) The economic situation in the country ..... over the last few years. A) has improved B) has been improving 10) Unemployment ..... lately. A) has fallen B) has been falling. 11) Export figures ..... their highest level. A) have reached B) have been reaching 12) I ..... my passport and my credit card. Its a real disaster. A) have lost B) have been losing 13) Why are you out of breath? I ..... for half an hour. A) have run B) have been running 14) The children ..... anything today. A) havent eaten B) havent been eating 15) We ..... our living room for a week. A) have painted B) have been painting 16) Our neighbours ..... a row all day. I'm sick and tired of them! A) have had B) have been having

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17) ..... his book yet? A) Hasn't he finished B) Hasnt he been finishing 18) Samantha is a journalist. She ..... a lot of countries all over the world. A) has visited B) has been visiting 19) I ..... anything. I have left my purse at home. A) havent bought B) havent been buying 20) Its one of the best books I ..... . A) have ever read B) have ever been reading 21) It ..... all night. There are huge pools everywhere. A) has rained B) has been raining FOR, SINCE, WHILE, DURING 15. Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 1) Where have you been? Ive been waiting for you ..... an hour. A) while B) during C) since D) for 2) Ive been trying to get in touch with him ..... early morning. A) while B) during C) since D) for 3) ..... the break I had a cup of coffee and a sandwich. A) While B) During C) Since D) For 4) Tom and Sally have been going out together ..... about six. A) while B) during C) since D) for 5) I havent been sleeping well ..... a few nights. A) while B) during C) since D) for 6) It was terribly hot ..... my stay there. I could hardly bear it. A) while B) during C) since D) for 7) ..... I was trying on a hat somebody stole my handbag. A) While B) During C) Since D) For 8) ..... Tom was painting the fence he noticed Sam slowly walking towards him. A) While B) During C) Since D) For 9) Ive been waiting for an answer from the Personnel Officer ..... two weeks. A) while B) during C) since D) for 10) Nora has been living in Madrid ..... she left the University. A) while B) during C) since D) for 11) I spoke to him about my report ..... the lunch break. A) while B) during C) since D) for 12) ..... I was driving to work I got in a terrible jam. A) While B) During C) Since D) For

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PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST PERFECT? 16. Choose the correct verb form. 1) Hanna ..... on the remote farm before she moved to the village last year. A) has lived B) had lived 2) He bought a house there. He ..... there for 5 years already. A) has lived B) had lived 3) I remembered that on my way home I ..... at the chemists. A) haven't dropped in B) hadn't dropped in 4) By the time I got to the bank most of the staff ..... . A) has gone away B) had gone away 5) Aunt Nancy ..... . A) has never been B) had never been married married 6) Its the first time he ..... another country. A) has visited B) had visited 7) I ..... a letter from him just before my wedding. A) have got B) had got 8) By the time I arrived the Marketing Manager ..... her presentation already. A) has made B) had made 9) ..... the pills? A) Have you taken B) Had you taken 10) Only after I ..... two aspirins my headache disappeared. A) have taken B) had taken 11) He went on honeymoon with his second wife. Really? I didnt know he ..... married before. A) has been B) had been 12) ..... married? I hear they are going to. A) Have they got B) Had they got PAST PERFECT OR PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS? 17. Choose the correct verb form. 1) How long ..... she ..... for your company before that incident? A) had ... worked B) had ... been working 2) Once upon a time there was an old farmer who ..... hard in his vineyard all his life. A) had worked B) had been working 3) ..... you ever ..... abroad before you went to the States? A) Had ... lived B) Had ... been living

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4)

We ..... for about ten hours before we stopped for a break. A) had driven B) had been driving 5) When I got home, Mother ..... a pie already. A) had made B) had been making 6) The film ..... for about a month when I saw it. A) had run B) had been running 7) By 6 oclock the conference ..... . A) had finished B) had been finishing 8) How long ..... she ..... driving lessons before she passed the exam? A) had ... taken B) had ... been taking 9) His English became much better. It was evident he ..... hard during the term. A) had worked B) had been working 10) When I was speaking with her on the phone I realised that something unusual .... . A) had happened B) had been happening PAST INDEFINITE, PAST CONTINUOUS, PAST PERFECT OR PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS? 18. Choose the correct verb form. 1) I ..... the washing up when suddenly I heard a terrible scream. A) finished C) had finished B) was finishing D) had been finishing 2) I ..... to drive for 5 months before I could pass my driving test. A) learnt C) had learnt B) was learning D) had been learning 3) After the Managing Director ..... his report, we expressed our personal views on the subject. A) made C) had made B) was making D) had been making 4) The lights went off and the orchestra ..... playing. A) started C) had started B) was starting D) had been starting 5) He ..... as a journalist for several years before he began writing novels. A) worked C) had worked B) was working D) had been working 6) He was a heavy smoker. He ..... smoking even when he fell seriously ill. A) didnt give up C) hadnt given up B) wasnt giving up D) hadnt been giving up 7) Jane ..... a dark-blue suit when she came for the interview.

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A) wore C) had worn B) was wearing D) had been wearing 8) My daughter ..... taking music lessons but soon gave it up. A) began C) had begun B) was beginning D) had been beginning 9) I learned that the interview ..... for more than an hour. A) went on C) had gone on B) was going on D) had been going on 10) Her parents ..... with her marriage until the baby was born. A) didnt reconcile C) hadnt reconciled B) werent reconciling D) hadnt been reconciling FUTURE FORMS: WILL + INFINITIVE, TO BE GOING TO 19. Choose the correct alternative. 1) They ..... their honeymoon in a villa by the sea. A) will spend B) are going to spend 2) The Government ..... soon. The situation is critical, he said. A) will resign B) is going to resign 3) I hear they ..... married. A) will get B) are going to get 4) I ..... him a new tie for his birthday. And you? A) will give B) am going to give 5) Are you going home? I ..... you a lift. A) will give B) am going to give 6) My parents ..... somewhere in the countryside after they retire. A) will settle B) are going to settle 7) Dont worry! I ..... the report for you. A) will finish B) am going to finish 8) The suitcase is very heavy. Nick ..... it for you. A) will carry B) is going to carry 9) Tony and Alice ..... a bigger flat. A) will buy B) are going to buy 10) The film is over. Now I ..... the washing up. A) will do B) am going to do 11) My sister and her husband ..... a puppy. Their children are simply crazy about having a dog in the house. A) will take B) are going to take 12) I hear the book is very interesting. I ..... it. A) will buy B) am going to buy

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13) On Sunday we ..... a new exhibition in the Hermitage. A) will see B) are going to see 14) Stop! I ..... a photo of you. A) will take B) am going to take 15) They ..... a new car. A) will buy B) are going to buy 16) My husband and I ..... our own business. A) will start B) are going to start 17) Good bye! I ..... you a postcard from Italy. A) will send B) am going to send 18) He ..... a film about Ernest Hemingway. A) will make B) is going to make 19) I ..... a computer for my son. A) will buy B) am going to buy 20) ..... you ..... after my cat when I am on holiday? A) Will ... look B) Are ... going to look 21) We ..... Florence, Venice, Milan, and Rome, of course. A) will visit B) are going to visit 22) I ..... a doctor immediately. He is running a high temperature. A) will call B) am going to call 23) They ..... their project in a couple of days. A) will finish B) are going to finish 24) I ..... take the dog out for a walk. Do the washing up meanwhile, please. A) will take B) am going to take FUTURE CONTINUOUS, FUTURE PERFECT 20. Choose the correct verb form. 1) I will (be working/ have worked) for my exam on Philosophy all day tomorrow. 2) By that time Ill (be graduating/ have graduated) from the University and will (be getting/ have got) a well-paid job, I hope. 3) Will you (be seeing/ have seen) Alex tomorrow? Of course I will. Ill (be seeing/ have seen) him at the Board meeting. 4) Well (be reaching/ have reached) the camp by 10 oclock, I believe. 5) I hope well (be driving/ have driven) half of our way by tomorrow. 6) I wonder, if that terrible wind will (be blowing/ have blown) tomorrow? Oh, yes. The weather forecast says the weather will (be changing/ have changed) by Monday.

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WILL+INFINITIVE, FUTURE CONTINUOUS, FUTURE PERFECT, FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS 21. Choose the correct verb form. 1) At 10 oclock tomorrow morning Ill ..... my son to the dentists. A) take C) have taken B) be taking D) have been taking 2) Well ..... decorating the room by the time you get back. A) finish C) have finished B) be finishing D) have been finishing 3) By the end of August well ..... house. A) move C) have moved B) be moving D) have been moving 4) Will you ..... the car tonight? A) use C) have used B) be using D) have been using 5) Dont worry! Ill ..... the ring. A) answer C) have answered B) be answering D) have been answering 6) If we dont hurry, the party will ..... by the time we get there. A) finish C) have finished B) be finishing D) have been finishing 7) Imagine! Next year my Grandpa will ..... lectures at the University for 40 years already. A) give C) have given B) be giving D) have been giving 8) Hell ..... by Monday, so try to get in touch with him earlier if you really want to speak to him about that. A) leave C) have left B) be leaving D) have been leaving 9) You look so tired! Ill ..... tea for you. A) make C) have made B) be making D) have been making 10) We are going for our holiday to Spain. This time tomorrow well ..... the warm sea and sunshine. A) enjoy C) have enjoyed B) be enjoying D) have been enjoying 11) I hope they will ..... this unpleasant episode by the time they meet again. A) forget C) have forgotten

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12) 13)

14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19)

20) 21)

B) be forgetting D) have been forgetting Do you think people will ..... books in 50 years' time? A) read C) have read B) be reading D) have been reading Its a nice place. I went there last summer. I hope youll ..... your stay there. A) enjoy C) have enjoyed B) be enjoying D) have been enjoying Someone from the agency will ..... for you at the airport from 5 to 6. A) wait C) have waited B) be waiting D) have been waiting In a few minutes I will ..... for their call for three hours already. A) wait C) have waited B) be waiting D) have been waiting What time tomorrow will you ..... the Managing Director? A) see C) have seen B) be seeing D) have been seeing Ill ..... the letter. Where is it? A) post C) have posted B) be posting D) have been posting I hope we will ..... the market research by January. A) do C) have done B) be doing D) have been doing By next week we will ..... on our project for three months already but the results are not encouraging. A) work C) have worked B) be working D) have been working We will ..... at the hotel for the whole week. A) stay C) have stayed B) be staying D) have been staying I will ..... to him about your suggestion. A) talk C) have talked B) be talking D) have been talking

22. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. (A) Moving House I come from a very large family, and recently my parents (1) (to decide) that they (2) (to spend) long enough living in an overcrowded house in Birmingham. We (3) (to move) to the country, my father (4) (to announce)

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one evening. I (5) (to sell) this house, and we (6) (to live) on a farm. So last week we (7) (to load) all our possessions into two hired vans and for the last few days we (8) (to try) to organise ourselves in our new home. Yesterday, for example, my three brothers and I (9) (to start) painting the downstairs rooms. Unfortunately while I (10) (to mix) the paint, one of my sisters (11) (to open) the door. Nobody (12) (to tell) her that we (13) (to be) in the room, you see. So instead of painting the walls, we (14) (to spend) all morning cleaning the paint off the floor. But worse things (15) (to happen) since then. This morning when I (16) (to wake up), water (17) (to drip) through the ceiling next to my bed. We (18) (to spend) today so far repairing the roof. It's not all bad news, though. The school in the village nearby (19) (to close down) two years ago, and my parents (20) (not to find) another school for us yet. (B) At the Dentist's I was on time for my dentist's appointment, but the dentist was still busy with another patient, so I (1) (to sit) in the waiting room and (2) (to read) some of the old magazines lying there. While I (3) (to wonder) whether to leave and come back another day, I (4) (to notice) a magazine article about teeth. It (5) (to begin): How long is it since you last (6) (to go) to the dentist? You (7) (to go) regularly every six months? Or you (8) (to put off) your visit for the last six years? Next to the article was a cartoon of a man in a dentist's chair. The dentist (9) (to say): I'm afraid this (10) (to hurt). I suddenly (11) (to realise) that my tooth (12) (to stop) aching. But just as I (13) (to open) the door to leave, the dentist's door (14) (to open). Next please, he (15) (to call), as the previous patient (16) (to push) past me. Actually I'm not here to see you, I (17) (to wait) for my friend, I (18) (to shout), leaving as rapidly as I could. You ever (19) (to do) this kind of thing? Surely I can't be the only person who (20) (to hate) the dentist! 23. Look carefully at each line. Some lines are correct, but some have a word which should not be there. Tick each correct line. If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space. (A) Meeting Again Dear Harry,

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Do you remember me? We have met last year when you were on holiday in Brighton. I'm sorry I haven't been written to you since by then. I have been working abroad and I have only just come back home to England. Next week I am planning is to be in Bristol, and I am thinking about that we could meet. Do you remember Shirley, the girl we have met in Brighton? We are getting married next month, and we are want you to come to the wedding. I have lost your phone number, but when I have get to Bristol I'll try to contact you. It will be great to see you again. Are you still studying, or I have you found a job ? You won't recognise me when you will see me! I had my hair cut last week, and now I look at completely different. Shirley doesn't like men with long hair, you see! Best wishes, Graham Norris. (B) A Holiday in Scotland Some friends of mine decided to go on holiday to Scotland. They asked me if I was wanted to go too, but I had already arranged to go to Italy. I told them so that I had been to Scotland before, so they asked me to give them some ideas. I advised them to take up warm clothes and raincoats. "If I were like you, I'd always carry umbrellas!" I told them. "I doubt that whether you'll have any sunny days." I didn't see them again until after their holiday. They were all very sun-tanned, and they told to me that they had had very hot weather. "If we had been taken your advice, we would have made a terrible mistake," they said me. "Luckily we were told us before we

.. have.. 1) . 2) . 3) . 4) . 5) . 6) . 7) . 8) . 9) . 10) . 11) . 12) . 13) . 14) . 15) .

.. was.. 1) . 2) . 3) . 4) . 5) . 6) . 7) . 8) . 9) . 10) . 11) . 12) . 13) .

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left that it was very hot in Scotland. 14) . It is said to they have been the hottest summer 15) . ever!" 24. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. (A) The Latest News Dear Linda, I'm sorry I (1) ..... to you for so long, but I (2) ..... very busy lately. All last month I (3) ..... exams, and I (4) ..... anything else but study for ages. Anyway, I (5) ..... studying now, and I (6) ..... for my exam results. As you can see from the letter, I (7) ..... my address and (8) ..... in Croydon now. I (9) ..... that I wanted a change from central London because it (10) ..... so expensive. A friend of mine (11) ..... me about this flat, and I (12) ..... here about two months ago. When you (13) ..... to London this summer, please visit me. I (14) ..... here until the middle of August. Then I (15) ..... on holiday to Scotland. Please write soon, Margaret.
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

A) don't write
B) haven't written

C) am not writing
D) wasn't writing

A)was being B) had been A) had B) was having A) haven't done B) don't do A) stop B) will have stopped A) wait B) am waiting A) am changing B) had changed A) will live B) have been living A) decided B) have decided A) will become B) becomes

C) am D) have been C) had had D) have had C) wasn't doing D) am not doing C) have stopped D) was stopping C) have waited D) was waiting C) will change D) have changed C) live D) have lived C) was deciding D) decide C) has become D) will have become

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11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

A) tells B) told A) have moved B) had moved A) will come B) came A) am staying B) stayed A) have gone B) went

C) was telling D) will tell C) was moving D) moved C) come D) were coming C) stay D) have stayed C) am going D) will have gone

(B) The Stolen Bike One morning last week I realised that my bike (1) ..... stolen from my garden. I phoned the police and two officers called at my house the next day. They (2) ..... me if I had seen or heard anything. I told (3) ..... I had been out that evening, and hadn't noticed anything suspicious when I came home. If I had seen anything, I (4) ..... you, I replied. It was raining hard too. If the weather (5) ..... so bad, I would have ridden my bike. The officers told me that lots of people (6) ..... their bikes stolen lately. The thieves (7) ..... to have put the bikes in a van, said one of the officers. I (8) ..... I had known about that, I said. I saw a black van that evening. In fact, it (9) ..... opposite my house. The officers asked me what the van's number (10) ..... , but I couldn't remember. (11) ..... you saw the van again, (12) ..... you recognise it? one of them asked. It (13) ..... painting. I remember that, I replied. However, there was a happy ending to this story. After the officers had left, I (14) ..... by a friend of mine. By the way, she said, "(15) ..... you want your bike, I'll bring it back this afternoon. I borrowed it a couple of days ago."
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

A) had B) had been A) reminded B) said A) them B) that A) called B) would call A) weren't B) wouldn't be A) had

C) will be D) has been C) told D) asked C) if D) later C) had called D) would have called C) hadn't been D) wouldn't have been C) had to have

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7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

B) had had A) think B) are thought A) would think B) realize A) was parked B) had been parking A) is B) was A) If B) When A) do B) can A) needed B) had been A) called up B) was phoned A) unless B) if only

D) have had C) have thought D) are thinking C) wish D) thought C) is parked D) has been parked C) had D) wrote C) Remember D) Suppose C) would D) if C) looked like
D) seemed C) had a phone call

D) heard some news C) if D) as long as

25. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. A Friend in the Rain Last week I (1) (to walk) home after playing tennis when it (2) (to start) raining very heavily. "Oh, no, I (3) (to get) soaked before I (4) (to reach) home," I thought. "I wish I (5) (to remember) to bring my raincoat." But unfortunately I (6) (to leave) it at home. "How stupid of me! I always (7) (to forget) to bring it with me." Luckily just then a friend of mine passed in her car and offered me a lift. "You (8) (to go) home?" she asked, "or you (9) (to want) to go for a drink?" "I think I'd rather you (10) (to take) me home." I said. "If I (11) (not to change) my clothes, I know I (12) (to fall) ill, and then I (13) (not to be able) to play in the tennis tournament next week. And I (14) (to practise) hard for the last month." "I (15) (to wait) for you to change if you (16) (to like)," she told me. "I think it's time you (17) (to relax) for a change. You (18) (to worry) too much about things lately. And people who (19) (to worry) too much (20) (to fall) ill more easily. It's got nothing to do with the rain!"

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26. Fill in the correct tense. (A) Sue Thomas is a fashion designer. She (1) has been making (make) clothes ever since she (2) (to be) a young girl. She (3) (to get) her first job in a clothes factory when she was sixteen. She (4) (to sew) buttons onto a shirt one day when she (5) (to have) a brilliant idea for a design. After she (6) (to speak) to her bank manager, she got a loan and (7) (to open) her own little workshop. Now she (8) (to make) lots of money. Next year she (9) (to open) a shop which will sell all her own designs. She (10) (to sell) clothes to a lot of famous people, including film stars and singers, and she (11) (to think) she will be very rich soon. (B) Kevin Adams (1) loves (to love) trains. He first (2) (to see) one when he was four years old and he (3) (to think) it was great. He (4) (to go) to a different railway station every week and (5) (to write down) the engine numbers of every train he sees. He (6) (to do) this since he was eight. By the time he was fifteen he (7) (to collect) over ten thousand different engine numbers in various countries. Once, while he (8) (to stand) at the station in Cheshire he saw something very unusual. He (9) (to wait) for over an hour for a train to go by when suddenly he (10) (to see) a very old steam train coming down the track. It (11) (not to stop) at the station and, as it passed, Kevin noticed that all the passengers (12) (to wear) old-fashioned clothes. When he told the station guard about this, the poor man turned pale. He said that no steam train (13) (to pass) through that station for years, and that the last one (14) (to crash) killing everyone on board. PROGRESS TEST 1. Open the brackets putting the verbs into the appropriate form. (A) I am a doctor and I have to drive a lot. I (1) (to drive) for twenty years. For all that time the police never (2) (to stop) me. But last Tuesday police officers (3) (to catch) me for speeding. It was afternoon. I (4) (to drive) fast because I (5) (to be) late. I (6) (to go) to the airport to meet a friend. I was late because a patient (7) (to telephone) before I (8) (to leave) the house. The police (9) (to wait) at the side road outside town. When they (10) (to see) me go past, they (11) (to follow) me and (12) (to stop) me. They (13) (to tell) me I was booked for speeding. I (14) (to try) to explain to them that my friends plane

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(15) (to land) a few minutes before and he (16) (to wait) for me, but they (17) (not to want) to listen to my excuse. They (18) (to say) I (19) (to have) to pay $50 the next day. I paid, of course. But since then I never (20) (to violate) traffic rules. (B) David William (21) (to have) such a terrible time this year that he ought to be in the Guiness Book of Records. The trouble (22) (to start) one morning last January when David (23) (to find) that his car (24) (to disappear) from outside his house. He (25) (not to see) it ever since. In March he (26) (to buy) a new car, but he (27) (not to have) it for more than a week when someone (28) (to crash) into the back of it. These disasters (29) (to continue) for more than a year right up to the present time. Two days ago David (30) (to sit) on a seat that someone (31) (to finish) painting only some minutes before. He (32) (to wear) a new suit he (33) (to buy) only the previous week. The worst thing happened in August. David (34) (to spend) 3 days of his holiday at airports because of strikes. When he (35) (to arrive) home finally, he (36) (to discover) that someone (37) (to break) into his house. The burglars (38) (to steal) his video-recorder and TV-set. David doesnt know what he (39) (to do) to deserve all this bad luck. But he (40) (to hope) his luck will change soon. (C) 1) Two days ago I (41) (to put) an ad in the local newspaper so that I could find a buyer for my old car. Yesterday I (42) (to sell) it. A man who (43) (to look) for an old car (44) (to buy) it. Today a friend of mine told me that he (45) (to want) to buy my old car, but he was too late. By the time he (46) (to talk) to me, I already (47) (to sell) my car. 2) After the teacher (48) (to return) the test papers to the students in class tomorrow, the students (49) (to receive) their next assignment. 3) Ever since they (50) (to build) the Taj Mahal three centuries ago, it has always been described as the most beautiful building in the world. A Turkish architect (51) (to design) it and it (52) (to take) 20.000 workers 20 years to complete it. Though it is so ancient, I'm sure, people always (53) (to like) it. (D) Dear Sirs,

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I (54) (to want) to complain to you about some fashion boots I (55) (to buy) from your Westborough branch last Wednesday. When I (56) (to put) them on for the first time at the weekend, it (57) (to rain) and after a few minutes the boots (58) (to let) the water in. The next day I took the boots to your shop and asked the assistant who (59) (to sell) them to me to replace the boots. But she said she (60) (not to replace) the boots because I (61) (to wear) already them. But how could I have seen the defect without wearing them? I cant believe that boots are made to wear in dry weather only! And I (62) (not to want) the boots which (63) (not to be) waterproof. Ill be grateful if you (64) (to send) me a replacement pair that will not let water in. Look forward to your response. Sincerely yours Mary Crawford. (E)
It (65) (to rain) when I (66) (to wake) up last Saturday. It always (67) (to rain) when I am not working. We (68) (to plan) to go to the seaside but in the end we (69) (to decide) to go to the theatre instead. We (70) (to miss) the bus and (71) (to arrive) late. We (72) (to arrange) to meet Joe outside the theatre and he (73) (to wait) for twenty minutes when we (74) (to get) there. The play already (75) (to start) when we (76) (to go) in.

Its Monday again today, and I (77) (to work) as usual. I (78) (to sit) here in the office for the last two hours, but I (79) (not to do) much work yet I (80) (to feel) I am fed up with work. I already (81) (to have) my holiday this year. I (82) (to go) to Scotland in July and, of course, it (83) (to rain) every day. Tomorrow I (84) (to book) a holiday for next April in Spain. (F) Will Kelogg, famous for Keloggs cornflakes, was taken out of school at thirteen because he (85) (to be) a slow learner. Since he (86) (to fail) as a salesman, his brother, a doctor, (87) (to give) him a job in his hospital. He (88) (to shine) shoes for ten years when a fortunate baking accident in the hospital kitchen (89) (to give) him an idea for Keloggs cornflakes. This breakfast cereal already (90) (to become) one of the most successful business ideas. Every morning thousands of people (91) (to have) cornflakes for breakfast. (G)

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Mrs Winfred Weave (92) (to get involved) in politics ever since she (93) (to be) a student. She (94) (to go) to Hull University, where she (95) (to study) agriculture. She (96) (to have) a distinguished career in politics and (97) (to represent) her constituency for 30 years. For the past few months she (98) (to write) her memoirs, although she insists her political career (99) (not to finish) yet. Who knows, maybe in some years she (100) (to become) a prominent politician. Total: 100/_____

UNIT 7

VOICE
ENTRY TEST

1. Choose the correct variant: 1) Nylon .. since 1938 and today it ..in many things. A) has been produced; is being found B) has produced; is found C) has been produced; is found D) has been produced; has been found 2) Wait for a while. He .. now. A) is being interviewed C) has been interviewed B) is interviewed D) will be interviewed 3) She .. about the results of the research as soon as it .. . A) will have been informed; is finished B) will be informed; will be finished C) will be informed; is finished D) will have been informed; will have been finished 4) The Houses of Parliament ..between 1849 and 1857. A) were being built C) were built B) was built D) had been built 5) Acid rain .. by burning coal or oil A) is caused C) has been caused B) is being caused D) has caused 6) Boss says I .. a pay-rise. A) was giving C) will given B) will be given D) was be given 7) Two million books .. to America every year. A) are being sent C) were being sent B) will send D) are sent 8) The students of our Institute .. every opportunity to master the language. A) give C) had been given B) was being given D) are given 9) The room .. for a month. A) hasnt lived in C) has not been lived in B) is not lived in D) is not being lived in 10) By the time she comes, the problem .. .

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A) will have discussed C) will have been discussed B) will being discussed D) will be discussed 11) By the time Mr. Brown returned, the old fireplace .. . A) had been taken out C) was taken out B) had taken out D) has been taken out 12) The cats .. when Mary entered the room. A) were fed C) had fed B) fed D) were being fed 13) The new night club .. by the council last week. A) was closed C) closed B) had been closed D) had closed 14) Im going home now because all the work .. . A) is doing C) does B) has been done D) has done 15) Jims house is very modern. It .. only 2 years ago. A) had been built C) was being built B) built D) was built 16) This piece of music .. yet. I have just composed it. A) hasnt been recorded C) hasnt recorded B) wasnt recorded D) wasnt being recorded 17) This tree is very old. It .. in the 19-th century. A) had been planted C) was planted B) planted D) was being planted 18) The house .. at this time yesterday. A) was painting C) was being painted D) had been painted D) was painted 19) A valuable painting ..from the Art Gallery last night. A) was stolen C) stole B) had been stolen D) had stole 20) By the time I arrived, all the tickets .. . A) had been sold C) were sold B) had sold D) sold 21) The garages ..... every day A) are being cleaned C) are cleaned B) clean D) will clean 22) Two hundred people ..... to the wedding last week. A) were invited C) were being invited B) invited D) have been invited 23) A new spaceship ..... by our scientists now. A) is being examined C) has examined

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B) is examined D) has been examined 24) After the work ..... , they went home. A) was finished C) was being finished B) had finished D) had been finished 25) This letter recently ..... by the secretary. A) has brought C) is brought B) has been brought D) was brought 26) The meal ..... now. A) is preparing C) will prepare B) has been prepared D) is being prepared 27) By the time I returned from work, my new washing machine ..... . A) had been delivered C) has been delivered B) was delivered D) was being delivered 28) We ..... all the time we were there. A) were watched C) watched B) had been watching D) were being watched 29) A plan to build a helicopter near Westminster last year. A) was considered C) had been considered B) considered D) has been considered 30) The burglar ..... yesterday. A) arrested C) was arrested B) had been arrested D) was being arrested 31) They didnt leave the restaurant until the bill ..... A) was paid C) had been paid B) had paid D) was being paid 32) When I entered the room, the politician ..... A) was being interviewed C) had been interviewed B) interviewed D) has interviewed 33) The prisoners ..... to prison now. A) are taken C) take B) are being taken D) will be taken 34) When I returned, I noticed that the dog ..... yet. A) wasnt fed C) hadnt fed B) hadnt been fed D) fed 35) The window now. A) is being replaced C) will have replaced B) will replace D) will being replaced
36) Millions of pounds worth of damage ..... by a storm which swept across the north of England last night . (refer to the Present)

A) has been caused

C) caused

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B) had been caused D) were caused 37) Too many offices ..... in London over the last 10 years.
A)were built C) have been built

B) are building D) had been built 38) When she discovered that all the biscuits ..... she got angry. A) were eaten C) had eaten B) had been eaten D) ate 39) I hope that the missing money ..... soon. A) will be found C) is found
B) has been found A) is restored D) will find C) is being restored

40) The antique car ..... by an expert, at the moment B) is restoring D) has been restored

2. Open the brackets. Use the proper tense and voice form. 41) The new proposal (to discuss) at our next meeting. 42) The man (to send) to prison for 6 months after he (to find) guilty of fraud. 43) Much of London (to destroy) by the fire in the 17-th century. 44) The Government is apparently winning the fight against inflation. A steady fall (to record) over the last 6 months. 45) The builders will start work as soon as the plans (to approve). 46) The motorist (to disqualify) some five years ago. 47) They say this book (to publish) next year. 48) The naughty boy (to teach) a good lesson by his friends. 49) The meat must be nearly ready. It (to cook) for nearly an hour. 50) I read in the paper a few weeks ago that Richard (to make) Vice-president of the company. 51) Their behaviour was so outrageous that we (to force) to leave the house. 52) The letter (to hand) to Lord Henry on the day of his departure. 53) Mind, you (to punish) if you disobey my orders. 54) The preparations for the party just (to finish) and the guests are arriving. 55) When I came into the kitchen I smelt something delicious. My favourite cookies (to bake) in the oven. 56) You cant use the fax now. It (to fix) at the moment. 57) Many towns (to destroy) by the earthquake in Japan last year. 58) You ever (to teach) how to play chess? 59) The exposition (to open) when we drove up to the picture gallery. 60) I cant believe my eyes! My book (to publish) already! 61) The helicopter (to construct) in Russia many years ago. 62) Youll have your copy soon, the contract (to type) now.

Unit 7. Voice 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 78) 79) 80)

29

The sportsmen (to give) instructions before the match. Im happy as I just (to allow) to stay here for an extra day. I wonder, when my project paper (to publish) (refer to the Future). We felt happy that the car (to repair) the next day. When they joined us, we already (to show) a lot of places of interest. The house (to repaint) since they moved out. She greatly (to impress) by the size and beauty of our capital every time she visits Minsk. He escaped when he (to move) from one prison to another. They invited Jack, but Tom (to invite). The escaped convict (to arrest) in a few days. After a million pounds (to spend) on the project, they decided that it was impracticable and gave it up. He said he (to involve) in an accident that month. The bomb (to carry) to a safe place when it exploded. The water level (to check) every week. A whistle (to blow) if there is an emergency. Your shoes (to mend) at the moment. The children already (to tell) about the party. The outside of the ship (to paint) when the accident happened.

3. Translate into English. 81) . 82) ! . 83) . 84) . 85) . 86) . . 87) . 88) , . 89) . . 90) , . 91) , .. . 92) , ! . 93) , , . 94) , .. .

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95) , ? 96) , .. . 97) ? 98) , . 99) , . 100) , .


Total: 100/_____

GENERAL INFORMATION

Voice is the form of the verb which shows whether the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action expressed by the verb or whether it was acted upon. There are two voices in English the Active Voice and the Passive Voice. The Active Voice shows that the person or thing denoted by the subject of the sentence is the agent (the doer) of the action expressed by the predicate verb: Someone stole the jewels. The Passive Voice shows that the subject of a sentence is not the agent (doer) of the action but the receiver of it: The jewels were stolen. 1. F o r m a t i o n The Passive Voice is formed by using the appropriate tense of the verb to be + past participle.
1) The Rules of Changing from Active into Passive

a) The object of the active verb becomes the subject in the new sentence. b) The active verb changes into a passive form and the subject of the active verb becomes the agent. c) The agent is introduced with by or it is omitted.

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Only transitive verbs can be changed into the passive. Subject Verb Object Bell invented the telephone Active The was invented Passive Active Passive
telephone The doctor The patient has examined has been examined the patient

Agent
by Bell by the doctor

2) Active Tenses and their Passive Equivalents Affirmative Form Tense Active Voice Passive Voice
Cars are repaired The car was repaired The car will be repaired The car is being repaired The car was being repaired The car has been repaired The car had been repaired The car will have been repaired The car may be repaired The car has to be repaired Present Indefinite They repair cars They repaired the car Past Indefinite They will repair the car Future Indefinite

Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect


Future Perfect

They are repairing the car They were repairing the car They have repaired the car They had repaired the car They will have repaired the car They may repair the car They have to repair the car

modals (modal+be+p.p.) Infinitive

Negative Form Tense Active Voice Passive Voice


Cars are not (= aren't) repaired The car was not (=wasn't) repaired The car will not (=won't) Present Indefinite They do not( = dont') repair cars They did not (=didn't) Past Indefinite repair the car They will not (=won't) Future Indefinite

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repair the car

be repaired The car is not (= isnt) being repaired The car was not (=wasnt) being repaired The car has not (=hasnt) been repaired The car had not (=hadnt) been repaired The car will not (=wont) have been repaired The car may not be repaired The car doesn't have to be repaired

Present Continuous Past Continuous

They are not (=arent) repairing the car They were not (=werent) repairing the car. They have not (=havent) repaired the car. They had not (=hadnt) repaired the car. They will not (=wont) have repaired the car They may not repair the car They don't have to repair the car

Present Perfect Past Perfect


Future Perfect

modals (modal+be+p.p.) Infinitive

Interrogative Form Tense Active Voice Passive Voice


Are cars repaired? Was the car repaired? Will the car be repaired? Is the car being repaired? Was the car being repaired? Has the car been repaired? Had the car been repaired? Will the car have been repaired? May the car be repaired? Has the car to be Present Indefinite Do they repair cars? Did they repair the car? Past Indefinite Will they repair the car? Future Indefinite

Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect


Past Perfect Future Perfect

Are they repairing the car? Were they repairing the car? Have they repaired the car? Had they repaired the car? Will they have repaired the car? May they repair the car? Do they have to repair

modals (modal+be+p.p.) Infinitive

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the car?

repaired?

NOTE 1. Present Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous are not normally used in the passive. NOTE 2. Get is used in colloquial English instead of to be to express something happening by accident: He got hurt last Monday. (more usual than He was hurt last Monday). 2. U s a g e The Passive Voice is used:
when the agent (the person who does the action) is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context: The door had been locked. (we dont know who locked it unknown agent) Repairs are being made on the runway. (by the builders obvious agent) when we are interested more in the action than the agent, such as in news reports, formal notices, instructions, processes, headlines, advertisements etc.: The whole area was evacuated. (news report) Breakfast is served from 6.00 to 10.30. (formal notice) to make statements more formal or polite: My new dress has been ruined. (more polite than saying You ruined my dress.) to put emphasis on the agent: The Pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians.

3. Prepositions with Passive Verbs


1) They use by + agent to say who or what carries out the action. 2) They use with + instrument/material/ingredient to say what the

agent used. The pancakes were made by Claire. They were made with eggs, flour and milk. The agent is often omitted in the passive sentence when the subject of the active sentence is one of the following words: people, one, someone/somebody, they, he, etc. Active: Somebody has rearranged the furniture. Passive: The furniture has been rearranged. But: The agent is not omitted when it is a specific or important person, or when it is essential to the meaning of the sentence: The Mona

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Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci. A new law has been passed by the government.

EXERCISES
1.1. Underline phrases which are not necessary in these sentences. Not all sentences contain unnecessary phrases

1) My wallet has been stolen by someone. 2) We were taught by a different teacher yesterday. 3) Nick was operated on at the hospital by a doctor. 4) The meal was served by a waiter in a red coat. 5) We were shown round the museum by a guide. 6) Two letters were delivered this morning by the postman. 7) Three men have been arrested by the police. 8) Yesterday a window was broken by someone. 9) Paper was invented by the Chinese. 10) The interview is being televised throughout the world. 1.2. Read the following text and underline the passive constructions. Acid rain is caused by burning coal or oil. When either fuel is burned, it releases poisonous gases which are carried up into the atmosphere and sometimes transported long distances. Over 3,000 research projects have been carried out to look into acid rain, and a decision to tackle the problem has been taken in most of the western European countries. Measures have been taken in Scandinavia and in Central Europe to stop the pollution before it is dumped on the environment, and a diplomatic campaign has been launched to convince other countries that the problem has to be considered as a major ecological threat. Five years ago this issue was not being treated seriously, says one leading environmental group, but now that damage has been reported in large areas of forest and Lakeland, our politicians are being forced to take action. This problem must be solved quickly: if governments do nothing, they will be faced in two or three years time with the accusation that they have allowed our

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forests to die. A major international initiative to combat acid rain is expected in the near future.

THE INDEFINITE TENSES IN THE PASSIVE VOICE Structure am/is are + Past Participle was/were + Past Participle shall/will be + Past Participle Example
am (is/are) written was (were) written shall/will be + Past Participle

Tense Present Indefinite Passive Past Indefinite Passive Future Indefinite Passive

The Present Indefinite Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Present Indefinite (am, is, are) and adding the past participle of the main verb: Write is written. The Past Indefinite Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Past Indefinite (was/ were) and adding the past participle of the main verb: Wrote was written. The Future Indefinite Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Future Indefinite (shall/will) and adding the past participle of the main verb: Will write will be written. EXERCISES 2.1. Open the brackets. Use the Present Indefinite Passive
(A)
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Lots of people like coffee. About 20 billion cups of coffee (to drink) in Belarus every year. A billion litres of milk (to buy) by the Belarusians every year. 1,5 million litres of juice (to produce) every year. 10000 litres of water (to use) by the average Belarusian family every month. Over 2 million cars (to own) by Belarusian families.

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36

Some people do not eat meat. Meat (not to eat) by 2 per cent of Belarusian people. 3 million chickens and turkeys (to kill) every week in Belarus. A lot of TV-sets (to manufacture) by Belarusian plants every year. Lots of computers (to assemble) by some Belarusian companies. In Belarus lots of new block of flats (to build) every year.

(B) Open the brackets and retell the texts Finding a Job
If you have left school and havent got a job, dont despair. Jobs (to advertise) in local papers under Situations Vacant. Go to your local Job Centre or Employment Office. If they havent got a suitable job for you, at least good advice (to give) here. Job vacancies (to post) up on notice boards outside firms and factories. Local jobs (to display) on cards in shop windows and at post offices. When you have found a job that interests you, make an appointment for an interview. Sometimes, an interview (to arrange) by telephone, but often a written application (to require). Application forms (to provide) for this purpose by the firms. Sometimes the applicant (to test) at the interview. Dont be nervous, do your best. Dont feel that you have to take the first job that (to offer) to you. Go to the Career Office and ask about the Young Training Scheme. Many on-the-job courses and schemes (to organize) by the Youth Training Scheme and they pay you during the training.

Delivery letters
First the letters (1) (to pick up) from the postbox, and then they (2) (to take) to the sorting office. Here the stamps (3) (to cancel) automatically with blue dots and the date. The letters (4) (to sort) then either by post-office workers or by machines which read the blue dots or postal code. Next the letters (5) (to sort) automatically into boxes. They then (6) (to tie up) with elastic bands and (7) (to put) into bundles. After that, they (8) (to send) to the main post-offices nearest their destinations. Finally, they (9) (to pick up) by the postman and (10) (to deliver).

2.2. (A) Transform from Active into Passive. (Omit the agent where it can be omitted) 1) They kill elephants for ivory. 2) People chop down a lot of trees every year. 3) The Muslims celebrate Ramadan. 4) They put fresh flowers in the hotel rooms every day.

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5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

They check passports at Passport Control. A million people visit the cathedral every year. Do they teach Latin at this school? People make wine from grapes. A lot of children use computers nowadays. People ask Eve about her job all the time. Two million people use the London Underground system every day. People all over the world speak English. Millions of people watch this programme. Students write most of the magazine. We bake bread here.

(B) Transform from Passive into Active 1) Dinner is served at 6.00. 2) The best fudge is made by the Scots. 3) Trained dogs are used by the police to find drugs. 4) The patients are given their medicine every morning. 5) The rooms are cleaned daily. 6) The best restaurant in our town is owned by my parents. 7) Important decisions are made by the Government. 8) Tickets are checked by inspectors regularly. 9) These TV sets are made by a Japanese firm. 10) The milk is brought. 11) The letters are left in the hall. 12) Hot meals are served till 10.30. 13) Things are stolen from supermarkets every day. 14) He is never seen in the dining-room. 15) The warehouse is guarded by dogs. 2.3. Open the brackets. Use the Past Indefinite Passive to complete the following texts. Retell them. (A)
The disaster happened when the ship (1) (to hit) by something unknown. The women and children (2) (to put) into the lifeboats first while the men (3) (to tell) to stay on the ship. A nearby ship (4) (to bring) into action as a rescue vessel. The men who (5) (to leave) on the ship (6) (to rescue). Unfortunately some of the men (7) (to frighten) and jumped into the water. It is believed that they are now dead. The survivors (8) (to take) to hospital by helicopter and maximum effort (9) (to make) to find the missing men.

(B)

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The Greatest Explosion in the World Did you know that the greatest explosion in the world (1) (to cause) by a volcano? Krakatoa, an island in Indonesia, erupted in 1883. More than half the island (2) (to destroy). The explosion (3) (to hear) in India and Australia. Rocks (4) (to throw) more than 55 kilometres high into the air. Surprisingly, only a few people (5) (to kill), but a huge wave, 35 metres high (6) (to create) by the explosion. Several small islands (7) (to cover) by the wave. 163 villages (8) (to destroy) and 36.000 people (9) (to drown). Dust (10) (to carry) all round the world and the weather everywhere (11) (to affect) for many years afterwards. (C) The Royal Hotel almost completely (1) (to destroy) by the fire last night. By the time the Fire Brigade (2) (to call) the hotel was already blazing. Fifteen people (3) (to take) to hospital suffering from severe burns. Seven of them were in a serious condition. The fire had been started by a discarded cigarette. (D) They were Surprised
Jewellery and coins (to steal) last night from the house of Mr and Mrs Smith. At about 2.30 a.m., a young man (to see) in the Smiths garden by a neighbour. The police (to inform) immediately by the neighbours wife. Ten minutes later, the man (to catch) as he was leaving the garden and (to take) to the police station for questioning. His pockets (to search). Rings and gold coins worth over 3000USD (to find). When the man (to question) about the theft, he said, It was easy. A window was open and the safe (not to lock). The jewellery and coins (to return) to the Smiths. 2.4. Transform from Active into Passive where appropriate. (Omit the agent where possible.)

Model:

1) My sister had a baby. (a passive form would be inappropriate) 2) John opened the door. The door was opened by John. 1) The police questioned George. 2) My sister married Paul last year. 3) One of the most famous painters in the world painted this landscape. 4) Kate asked the policeman for the way to the station. 5) We didnt come home late last night. 6) The nanny took the children to the zoo yesterday. 7) I left very early yesterday evening. 8) Victor took these photographs. 9) United won the cup last year. 10) The letter arrived a few days ago.

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11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. I arrived at the airport at 7.30 in the morning. They washed the car yesterday. She escaped from prison. The dentist pulled out the rotten tooth.

2.5. (A) Fill in by or with. (Consult 1 point 3 for information about prepositions with Passive Voice.) 1) The lock was broken .. a hammer. 2) The book was written .. my favourite author. 3) The cake was decorated .. icing. 4) The tiger was shot .. a gun. 5) Claire was shouted at .. her teacher. 6) He was hit on the head .. an umbrella. 7) She was woken up .. a loud noise. 8) The parcel was tied up .. string. 9) John was told off .. his mother. 10) This picture was painted .. famous artist. 11) The chair was covered .. a woolen blanket. 12) The walls were decorated .. posters. 13) My car was repaired .. my father. 14) This dessert was made .. fresh cream. 15) The window was broken .. a ball. 16) He was knocked down .. a car. 17) That novel was written .. D.H. Lawrence. 18) The lion was shot .. a rifle. 19) The garden was dug .. a spade. 20) The pudding was made .. fruit and chocolate. 21) The city was attacked .. the enemy. 22) He was hit .. a handbag. 23) The picture was painted .. Jackson Pollack. 24) The house was built .. wood and bricks. 25) The Stadium was packed .. cheering fans. (B) Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use by or with only where necessary Model: The police believe that someone used a master key to open the door. The police believe that the door was opened with a master key. 1) Mozart, the well-known composer wrote this music. The music .

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2) Apparently, someone used a knife to kill him. Apparently, he . 3) The police arrested a 39-year-old woman for shop-lifting. A 39-year old woman . 4) Ice on the road caused the accident. The . 5) The supermarket manager is afraid that someone put poison into some of the food when he was out. The supermarket manager is afraid that some of . 2.6. Open the brackets. Use the Future Indefinite Passive. (A) The company is sorry to announce that it has been forced to introduce a range of cost-cutting measures from the beginning of the New Year. Unfortunately, free tea and coffee (1) (not to provide). New coin-operated drinks machines (2) (to install) in every department and a wide range of drinks (3) (to purchase) from these. Overtime payments also (4) (to stop) after the end of this month and all members of the staff (5) (to expect) to complete their duties within their contract hours. Personal calls no longer (6) (to make) from office phones and the pay phones in the basement (7) (to use) for this purpose. (B) Interview for the Post Interviews for the post (1) (to hold) in the first week of October. Candidates (2) (to ask) a lot of questions at the interview. They (3) (to inform) about the results of the interview within 48 hours. The successful candidate (4) (to expect) to start work on the first of November. 2.7. Rewrite and retell the following passage in the Passive
Our apartment-block is starting a new scheme. We will collect all the old newspapers and tin cans. We will put them in a special container. When the container is full, the council will collect it. They will take it to a factory. The factory will recycle the newspapers and cans into something new.

2.8. Open the brackets. Use either the Present or Future Indefinite Passive. 1) The prizes (to award) by the President tomorrow. 2) The product (to launch) in May. 3) The offer (to confirm) by Jones Ltd. tomorrow. 4) Plants (to use) by herbalists to cure common illnesses. 5) The rooms (to clean) daily. 6) She (to represent) by a defense Lawyer.

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7) I guess the refrigerators (to export) to Singapore and many other countries. 8) In 6 months my salary (to raise). 9) The old house (to demolish) in only three days. 10) The concert (to perform) on Wednesday evening. 11) Air fares (to increase) on all international flights next month. 12) You (to protect) by a bodyguard 24 hours a day. 13) Consideration (to give) to the issue at the next weeks meeting. 14) The letters (to deliver) here every week. 15) The luggage (to inspect) by the customs officers. 2.9. Translate into English. Use the Present, Past, Future Indefinite Passive. 1) . 2) , , , . 3) ? 12.00 13.30. 4) , . 5) . 6) . 7) . 8) , . 9) . 10) ? . ? . 11) . . 12) ? 13) , 14) . 15) . 16) 1492 . 17) . 18) - . 19) 2 . 20) - , . 21) , .

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22) , . 23) , . 24) , ? 25) . 26) - , 2 . 27) , 10 . 28) . 29) , . 30) , . 3 THE CONTINUOUS TENSES IN THE PASSIVE VOICE Structure am/is/are being + Past Participle was/were being + Past Participle Example
am/is/are being repaired was (were) being repaired

Tense Present Continuous Passive Past Continuous Passive

The Present Continuous Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Present Continuous (am, is, are) and the past participle of the main verb: Is repairing is being repaired. The Past Continuous Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Past Continuous (was, were) and the past participle of the main verb: Was repairing was being repaired

EXERCISES 3.1. Open the brackets. Use the Present Continuous Passive. (A) 1) The police (to question) the suspect now. 2) A new bridge (to build) across the river this month. 3) The match (to play) tonight.

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Our school (to redecorate) at the moment. A new museum (to build) in the city centre now. The company report (to write) by Martin this year. Dinner (to serve) at the moment. The roof (to repair) now. Excuse the mess: the house (to paint) at the moment. Animals (to feed) at the moment. Goods (to deliver) at the moment. Look! The jewellery (to steal). Dont you know experiments (to carry) out on moon rocks this year? The Final Lexical-Grammar Test (to write) in this room now. Dont make so much noise! My passport (to check) at Passport Control at the moment.

(B) Mrs Brown is angry. She is complaining to the mayor: 1) Too much money .. (to waste). 2) Education .. (not to improve). 3) Old people .. (not to help). 4) The wrong things .. (to spend) money on. 5) Nothing .. (to do) against crime. 6) The streets .. (not to clean). 7) Money .. (to waste) on dinners and parties. 8) Too many offices .. (to build). 9) The health service .. (not to improve). 10) Nothing .. (to do) against pollution. 3.2. Open the brackets. Use the Past Continuous Passive to show what was going on at a particular time in the past 1) The telephone didnt work, it (to repair). 2) When I arrived, dinner (to serve). 3) The fish (to cook), when Mr. Green arrived. 4) A lot of interesting things (to display) there last week when I passed the Central Department Store on my way home. 5) Lorry driver Mr. Brown had a lucky escape this afternoon when a concrete block, which (to load) on to his lorry, fell off. 6) Mary knew that she (to watch). 7) A new project (to discuss) when I came in. 8) What television programme (to watch) when I called on you? 9) The TV-set (to mend) when my mother came. 10) He (to question) when the inspector came in.

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3.3. Answer the following questions about Minsk. Use the passive Continuous forms: 1) What was being displayed in the Art Museum, when you visited it? 2) What were the tourists being shown when you passed them? 3) What was being built in Jakub Kolas square when you took your friend sightseeing about the city? 4) In what districts are a great many new blocks of flats being built in Minsk? 5) In what districts are new Metro lines being constructed? 3.4. Translate into English. Use either the Present or Past Continuous Passive. 1) 2) , ? 3) - , ? . 4) . 5) . , , , . 6) ? . 7) ? , . 8) ? . . 9) . 10) . 11) , . 12) , . 13) , (). 14) , . 15) , . 16) , . 17) , . 18) . .

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19) , . 20) , .

THE PERFECT TENSES IN THE PASSIVE VOICE Structure Examples have/has been written have/has been + Past participle had been written had been + Past participle shall/will have been shall/will have been + written Past participle

Tense Present Perfect Passive Past Perfect Passive Future Perfect Passive

The Present Perfect Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Present Perfect (have/has been) and the past participle of the main verb: Have written have been written The Past Perfect Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Past Perfect (had been) and the past participle of the main verb: Had written had been written The Future Perfect Passive is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Future Perfect (will have been) and the past participle of the main verb: Will have written will have been written. EXERCISES
4.1. Open the brackets. Use the Present Perfect Passive to complete the letter:

Dear Sam,
Last month we bought an old double-decker bus to convert into a mobile home so that we can tour Europe in it this summer. So far ..
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

the windows (to replace); blinds (to put) up on the windows. the tyres (to repair); the roof (to remove); the bus (to paint); a door (to put) on;

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the lights (to repair); a toilet and shower (to install); new seats (to put) in.

Its marvelous. Do join us on the tour round Europe. Youll love it. Write to me soon. Love, James. 4.2. Complete the following short dialogues. Use Present Perfect passive constructions in the positive or negative forms. (The suitable verbs are given in the box) pay, sting, choose, mend, light, catch, find, steal, change, arrest 1) A: Id like to pay my bill, please B: You dont need to. It .. 2) A: Im worried about those escaped prisoners. B: Dont worry. They .. 3) A: Ive come to pick up my watch. B: Im sorry, It .. yet. 4) A: I left my bicycle outside the house and its gone! B: Oh, dear. I hope it .. 5) A: Is that the lost Property Office? Any news of the passport I lost yesterday? B: No, Im afraid it .. yet. 6) A: Dont touch that bee, little girl! B: Too late. She . 7) A: Shall I go and light the fire? B: You dont need to. It ... 8) A: Are you playing in the basketball team? B: I dont know. The team .. yet. 9) A: Is the dialing code for Orprington still 57? B: I dont know, but it seems to me it ... 10) A: Whats going on here? B: A man .. for the crime. 4.3. Say what improvements have been made in our country over the last 20 years. Talk about roads, hospitals, housing, new lawns, schools, social system; industry, agriculture, working conditions, medical service, public transport, living conditions, etc. Model: More roads have been built. The social system has been improved. Compulsory education has been introduced.

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Useful verbs: build, develop, improve, introduce, make, modernize, reorganize, set up, etc. 4.4. Open the brackets. Use the Past Perfect Passive (A) When the pupils went back to school after the summer holidays, a lot of things had been changed. 1) A new wing .. (to build). 2) The walls .. (to paint). 3) Some trees .. (to plant) in the school yard. 4) The roof .. (to repair). 5) The school .. (to change) from a girls school to a co-ed school. 6) A library .. (to open). 7) Computers .. (to deliver). 8) New desks .. already (to buy). 9) Several classes .. (to add). 10) A tennis court .. (to build). (B) Mr Brown was having his house done up. Write what he saw when he went to inspect the work 1) New furniture .. (to deliver). 2) The windows .. (to repair). 3) The walls .. (to paint). 4) New curtains .. (to put up). 5) Light fittings .. (to install). 6) The carpets .. (to buy). 7) The telephone .. (to install). 8) The flowers .. (to bring). 9) A nice picture .. (to hang) above the fireplace. 10) The old fireplace .. (to mend). 4.5. Make up sentences. Use the Future Perfect Passive to say what will have been done by the year 2015. (The following word-combinations may be useful). Model: I dont think (I think) the drug problem will have been solved. the drug problem; - the world hunger problems; talking robots; - supersonic trains; international traffic laws; - new energy source; a cure for AIDS/cancer; - the problem of world peace; passenger transport to the Moon; - satellite TV for everyone. a European currency;

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4.6. Transform from Active into Passive. Use either the Past Indefinite Passive or Past Perfect Passive, Future Indefinite Passive or Future Perfect Passive: 1) Someone stole my car and abandoned it fifteen miles away. He had removed the radio but done no other damage. 2) It was obvious, someone had posted my parcel. 3) When she heard that somebody had killed her dog, she burst into tears. 4) I thought that someone had told you about the meeting. 5) I hoped that someone had given Sally the message. 6) The manager will have received the documents by tomorrow. 7) The builders say they will have finished the road by Saturday. 8) She thinks, she will have written an article by the end of the month. 9) By the end of the week the government will have introduced new measures against crime. 10) They will have given him medicine before another cheek-up. 4.7. Transform from Passive into Active. Use either the Past or Future Perfect. (When the agent is not known add words like people, somebody or someone): 1) I was given a goat for my birthday last year. It had been bought from a farm down the road. 2) The problem had been discussed for more than an hour before the decision was arrived at. 3) The house had been broken into and three thousand pounds worth of jewellery had been stolen. 4) The last ticket had been sold before we could get to the theatre. 5) The accountant realized that some money had been stolen. 6) New buildings, concert halls, cinemas will have been built by 2017. 7) New working methods will have been introduced by the end of the week. 8) They didnt leave the restaurant until the bill had been paid. 9) A new National Library will have been built by 2010. 10) By 2012 a new wing will have been added to the house. 4.8. Translate into English. Use the Present, Past or Future Perfect Passive Voice 1) , . 2) , . 3) ? 4) , 5 , .

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5) , , , , , . 6) , . 7) . . 8) , . 9) , . 10) , . 11) ? . 12) ? . 6 . 13) ? 14) , . 15) , . 16) , .. . 17) , . 18) , , . 19) , 2015 . 20) , , .

SPECIAL PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS. VERBS WITH TWO PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS

Some English verbs in the Active Voice can take two objects, a direct (usually a thing) and indirect one (usually a person). With verbs which take two objects such as bring, tell, send, show, teach, promise, buy, throw, write, award, hand, sell, owe, grant, allow, feed, pass, post, read, take, offer, give, pay and lend, they can make two different passive sentences. However, it is more usual for passive sentences to begin with the person. Active Ann showed Rod some photos Passive a) Rod was shown some photos by Ann. (more usual) b) Some photos were shown to Rod by Ann. (less usual)

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EXERCISES 5.1. (A) Change the structure of the following sentences so as to begin them with a person. Model: A clock was given to him. He was given a clock 1) Nothing was sent to him. 2) Contracts were brought to sign.(He) 3) Fairy-tales were read to the kids. 4) A lot of money is owed to my friend. 5) A new job was offered to him. 6) Spanish is taught to us by Mrs Brown. 7) A car was lent to me for a few days. 8) A message has been sent to Anns director. 9) A full explanation has been promised to me. 10) Lots of flowers were given to the winner. 11) A nice picture will be sent to them soon. 12) Some help was offered to Sam, but he refused it. 13) The whole truth has been told to Melanie. 14) A lot of lies were told to me by the secretary. 15) The newspaper was handed to him. (B) Use two passive constructions where possible 1) The Queen presented him with a medal. 2) The waiter brought us the bill. 3) Sam bought Ann some flowers. 4) Victor has sold Tom a second-hand car. 5) The examiner didnt give us enough time to prepare all the questions. 6) They left the children some fish. 7) She took the report to Mr Green. 8) They showed us the way to the cinema. 9) We owe some money to the bank. 10) I lent my friend 10$ the day before yesterday. 11) The teacher explained the use of the Passive Voice to the students. 12) The local council suggested a new project to the citizens. 13) She has described her methods of teaching to us. 14) Mr Brown introduced his cousin to us. 15) Ann sent Bob her guitar. 16) Mary wrote her friend a letter. 17) No one explained the procedure to us. 18) They have taught the boy a good lesson. 19) The scientist demonstrated to the public how the machine worked.

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My boss promised me promotion.

5.2. Translate into English. Use the Passive Voice where appropriate 1) , . 2) . 3) . . 4) , . 5) . 6) . 7) . 8) . . 9) . 10) , . 11) 12) . 13) . 14) , . 15) . 16) , . 17) , . 18) , . 19) . 20) , . 6 PERSONAL AND IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS

Personal and Impersonal constructions are used when we cannot say or do not need to say who the speaker is (for example, in news reports). It was reported that the president had suffered a heart attack. (People said that the President had suffered a heart attack.) or The President was reported to have suffered a heart attack. (Someone reported that he had suffered a heart
attack.)

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The verbs think, believe, say, repoirt, know expect, consider, understand are used in the following personal and impersonal constructions: 1) It + passive verb + clause with verbs of reporting: It is said (that) Henry is in love with Claire. 2) Subject (not it) + passive verb + to infinitive with verbs of reporting: Henry is said to be in love with Claire. 3) There + passive verb + to be with verbs of reporting: There is said to be plenty of oil off our coast. EXERCISES 6.1. Begin these sentences with it, a name/a noun + passive construction. 1) It is expected that prices will rise again this month. (to expect) 2) that all the passengers had died in the crash. (to fear) 3) to be an expert in financial matters. (to suppose) 4) to have committed a crime. (to think) 5) that the sea level is rising. (to think) 6) to be a lot of coal in the Antarctic. (to think) 7) to be honest and reliable. (to consider) 8) to be thousands of people waiting to renew their passports. (to say) 9) that thousands of new jobs will be created in the computer industry. (to say) 10) to be a fall in house prices, but I havent noticed it. (to suppose) 6.2. Complete the sentences, as in the example. 1) It is expected that he will win the race tomorrow. He is expected to win the race tomorrow 2) It is thought that the school has good teachers. The school 3) It is said that she speaks seven languages. She 4) It is believed that the missing jewellery has been found. The missing jewellery 5) It is thought that she is a talented pianist. She 6) It is said that the athletes train for eight hours every day. The athletes 7) It is expected that the American team will break the world record. The American team 8) It is known that she is hiding somewhere in the city. She

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It is reported that the world leaders have reached an agreement. The world leaders ... 10) It is reported that the thieves have escaped from prison. The thieves
9)

6.3. Transform the following sentences into the Passive as in the example. 1) People expect him to win. He is expected to win. / It is expected that he will win. 2) Journalists have reported that the President is ill. 3) Everyone knows that the statement was untrue. 4) Many people believe that the climate is changing. 5) People say that the quiz champion Claude Jennings has lost his memory. 6) Everyone expects that the soap opera Round the Corner will end next year. 7) Journalists suppose that the footballer Wayne Johnson is earning 10 million USD a year. 8) Lots of people believe that the Prime Minister and his wife have separated. 9) Everybody has agreed that changes to the scheme are necessary. 10) People think that the company is planning to set up a new production line. 11) People say that the company is having problems. 12) Everyone thought that he was lying. 13) People believe that a spy revealed the secret. 14) Many people say that the new prices are too high. 15) They claim that this diamond is the largest in the world. 7 PASSIVE VOICE/CAUSATIVE FORM

They use have in a passive structure. Compare: Im building a garage at the moment. (Im building the garage myself) Im having a garage built at the moment. (I arranged for someone else to do
this for me)

1. F o r m a t i o n subject James + has/have + has object his car + participle II cleaned every day

* All tenses are possible in the construction.

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He paints the house. Present Indefinite He painted the house. Past Indefinite Future Indefinite He will paint the house. He is painting the Present house. Continuous Past Continuous He was painting the

He has the house painted. He had the house painted. He will have the house painted. He is having the house painted. He was having the house painted. He will be having the house painted. He has had the house painted. He had had the house painted. He has been having the house painted. He had been having the house painted. He can have his house painted.

Future Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Infinitive

house. He will be painting the house. He has painted the house. He had painted the house. He has been painting the house. He had been painting the house. He can paint his house.

NOTE: The verb to have, used in the causative forms its negations and questions with do/does (Present Indefinite) and did (Past Indefinite): She doesnt have her hair dyed. Did you have your curtains put up? 2. U s a g e 1) They use have + object + past participle to talk about something which they arrange for someone else to do for them: Im having a garage built at the moment. Compare: Im building a garage at the moment. (Im building the garage myself) Im having a garage built at the moment. (I arranged for someone else
to do this for me)

2) They can use have + object + past participle to express accidents or misfortunes. She had her car stolen. (= Her car was stolen.) He had his leg broken. (= His leg was broken.) Get can be used instead of have in the causative: I had/got my tooth taken out yesterday. (Get is stronger in meaning than have and can be used

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to suggest difficulty). Get the door repaired, will you? He finally got the seats

booked. Make/have + object + bare infinitive are used to express that someone causes someone else to do something, but their meaning is slightly different: He made Ann type the letter. (He insisted that Ann should type the letter.) He had Ann type the letter. (He asked Ann to type the letter.) Get + object + to-infinitive is used to show that someone persuades someone else to do something: He got his mum to bake him a cake. (He
persuaded his mum to bake him a cake.)

EXERCISES 7.1. Read the situations. Then write sentences using the causative form on each situation. The first one is done for you. 1) Liz is at the beauty parlour. The beautician is painting her nails. What is she doing? She is having her nails painted. 2) Wilf has written a novel and its going to be published. What is Wilf going to do? 3) A jeweller has made a special wedding ring for Ann. What has Ann done? 4) Simons suits are all made by a tailor. What does Simon do? 5) Sonia is going to the optician for an eye test tomorrow. Whats she going to do? 6) Trevor has paid a technician to install his computer. What has he done? 7) They had arranged for their house to be cleaned by the end of the week. Now it is clean. What had they done? 8) His tooth was filled yesterday. What happened to him? 9) Their house is small. They are going to build an extension. What are they going to do? 10) Mr Brown arranged for the builder to build a barn. What did he do? 11) All Lindas clothes are made specially for her. What does she do? 12) They arranged for their house to be painted last week. Now it has been done. What have they done? 13) Her bag was stolen yesterday. What happened to her? 14) Diana is at the hairdressers. The hairdresser is cutting her hair. What is Diana doing? 15) Malcoms car was broken into last night. What happened to him?

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7.2. Kate Gilmore is a poor young actress. Lily Showbourne is a rich star. Kate does everything herself while Lily pays other people to have it done for her. Write what Lily says. Kate Gilmore. 1) I dyed my hair yesterday. 2) I make all my costumes. 3) I enjoy entertaining people. 4) Im going to cook dinner tonight. 5) I like doing my make-up 6) Ill send some flowers to my mother. 7) I had painted my flat before I moved in. 8) Ill manicure my nails. 9) I write letters to my fans. 10) I make my bed every morning. 1) 2) 3) 4) Lily Showbourne. I had my hair dyed yesterday. .................................................... .................................................... ....................................................

5) .................................................... 6) .................................................... 7) ................................................. 8) ................................................... 9) .................................................... 10) ....................................................

7.3. Complete the following conversation. Use the causative form. Reproduce it. A: Im having an extension built (an extension/to build) on my house this week. B: Thats nice. When its finished, (it/to decorate)? A: No, Im going to do that myself. First, though, I (double glazing/to fit). A: (carpets/to lay)? B: Im not sure yet. How about you? ...(you/your curtains/to deliver) last week? A: Yes. Theyre really nice. I also ...(the carpets/to clean), so everything looks lovely now. 7.4. (A) Rewrite these sentences. Use have + object + past participle. Change some words if necessary: 1) Someone delivers the newspapers. (We) We have the newspapers delivered. 2) Someone cleaned the carpets every year. (I) 3) We ask someone to check the accounts every month. (We) 4) Someone sends the money to my bank account in London. 5) My cameras being repaired at the moment. (Im) 6) He split coffee on my jacket so he took it away for cleaning. (He split coffee on my jacket so he )

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7) I think its time to service the car. (Its time to) 8) I dont like the office curtains. Its time to change them. (I think Ill) 9) The computer is no good: we are changing it. (We) 10) I send the films to England: they are processed there. (I) (B) Model: His teeth are checked twice a year. He has his teeth checked twice a year. 1) His skirt is being cleaned at the moment. 2) My hair is trimmed once a month. 3) Central heating is going to be installed in our house next month. 4) Sams burglar alarm was fitted last week. 5) My car is being repaired at the moment. 6) The bands new single has just been recorded. 7) Our new furniture is going to be delivered tomorrow. 8) Their new house is being decorated at the moment. 9) The windows will be cleaned. 10) A new jumper has been knitted for me. 11) The hairdresser was styling Mrs. Browns hair. 12) She told her son to carry the shopping to the house. 13) Dad is going to arrange for someone to cut the grass. 14) They used to employ a cleaner who cleaned the house. 15) Did the mechanic repair Pauls motorbike? 16) The boss asked his assistant to type the letter. 17) A plumber fixed the dripping tap for Joe. 18) Have you told the secretary to make some photocopies? 19) The chef was cooking Toms lunch. 20) Did you tell the shop to deliver the sofa to you? 21) My purse was stolen last Friday. 22) Did you employ a painter to decorate your house? 23) The builders are putting a new roof on Adams house at the moment. 24) She asked the maid to polish the silver. 25) The man had asked the porter to carry his luggage to his room. 26) Did you ask Jenny to arrange the flowers for you? 27) When will your glasses be made? 28) I hired a professional to cater for my party. 29) Did you ask anyone to sweep the chimney? 30) She asked him to do the shopping. 31) Their house was burgled last night. 32) He employed a carpenter to build the fence. 33) Julies housekeeper irons all her clothes. 34) His shops windows were smashed in the riot.

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35) A new pair of glasses was bought for him.

PHRASAL, PREPOSITIONAL VERBS AND PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN PASSIVE STRUCTURES

Special care should be taken with the passive forms of verbs and phraseological units taking prepositional objects: the verb and the preposition following it always stay together while the noun-object (or pronoun) becomes the subject of the passive construction.

Active
They laughed at him. They looked down upon him. They did away with the old rules.

Passive
He was laughed at. He was looked down upon. The old rules were done away with.

NOTE: When phrasal (compound) verbs are followed by a direct object without a preposition, remember to keep the two parts of the phrasal verb together in a passive structure. Active
They knocked down old buildings in the centre of the town.

Passive
Old buildings in the centre of the town were knocked down.

Prepositional Verbs 1) 2) account for to give an explanation or reason for His foolish behaviour could not be accounted for. The late arrival of the steamer is accounted for by a storm on the sea. arrive at (a decision, conclusion, agreement) to reach, to come to After many hours talk the decision was arrived at. After an interesting discussion about the problem the agreement was arrived at. ask for to make a request for Have I been asked for at the hotel? approve of to consider good, right, wise (disapprove of to consider bad, wrong or unwise)

3) 4)

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5) 6)

7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17)

His request was disapproved of. His behaviour cant be approved of. break into to enter by force: to break into a house Their house was broken into last night but nothing was stolen. At night his car was broken into and a few things were stolen from it. call for a) to demand: to call for the waiter, to call for the bill At the end of the meal the bill was called for. b) to collect (someone or something) Youll be called for at 7 oclock. comment on to make a remark, give an opinion The election results were widely commented on in the newspapers. deal with to do business This store has been dealt with for twenty years. The matter should be dealt with as soon as possible. depend on to trust (usually someone) Youll be depended on to do it. The map was depended on but it was wrong. hear from to receive news from someone usually by letter She hasnt been heard from since she went to live in France. hear of 1) to know of (a fact, existence of something or somebody) 2) to hear about This young tennis player has been heard of quite a lot lately. insist on (upon) to declare firmly (when opposed) Punctuality is insisted on in this office. Higher rates of pay were insisted on. interfere with to get in the way of another, to prevent from happening My work was constantly being interfered with. He doesnt like to be interfered with while he is working. laugh at to treat as foolish, worthless or an object of fun You look stupid with this haircut. Youll be laughed at. Dont say such foolish things. Youll be laughed at. listen to to give attention in hearing I like to be listened carefully. He was listened to attentively. look at to give attention in seeing, use the eyes She felt she was being looked at and it pleased her. She was looked at with surprise. look after to take care of someone or something Are you being well looked after? I hope the child will be well looked after while the parents are away.

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18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30)

Albert is 85. He lives with his sons family and is well looked after. look for to try to find The missing keys had been looked for everywhere but were never found. The boy who disappeared from home last week is still being looked for. look into to examine the meaning or causes of something The matter will be looked into in the near future. mock at to laugh at (someone or smth.) when it is wrong to do so His strange way of expressing himself is always mocked at. object to to be against something or someone His proposal was strongly objected to. provide for to support, supply with necessary things She was well provided for in her husbands will. read to to say printed or written words especially to give pleasure to others Little children like to be read to. refer to to mention, speak about Later the Ministers report was referred to. Your sister shouldnt be referred to like a fool. rely on to trust someone to do something He can be relied on to help you. Jill can always be relied on. She never breaks her promises. send for to give a command, request The child looks ill and I think the doctor must be sent for at once. When they found her lying on the floor the doctor was sent for. shout at to give loud cry, speak or say very loudly I hate to be shouted at. I like people to be nice to me. think highly (well, little, poorly) of someone or somebody to have a good (bad, etc) opinion of someone or something He was highly thought of in his town. wait for to stay somewhere without doing anything until somebody or something comes or something happens Hurry up. You are being waited for downstairs. write to to produce and send (a letter) Will Bill be written to and informed about the changes? Phraseological Units

1)

do away with cause to end, abolish All these silly restrictions should be done away with.

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2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12)

find fault with to complain, perhaps too much or too often The poor child is always found fault with. lose sight of 1. to cease to see At last the ship was lost sight of. to forget The main purpose of this discussion mustnt be lost sight of. make use of to use well, to take advantage of These are good examples. They should be made use of in the report. make fun of to laugh or cause others to laugh rather unkindly She is often made fun of because she wears such strange hats. pay attention to to take notice of All his remarks were paid little attention to. put an end to - to stop from happening any more This state of affairs will be put an end to. put up with to accept an unpleasant situation or person without complaining Her attitude to her duties cant be put up with. set fire to to light (something) not really meant to burn, set something on fire The house was set fire to in the middle of the night. take (good) care of to be responsible for someone or something I hope the child will be taken good care of. take notice of to pay attention to She said something but her words were taken no notice of. Phrasal Verbs

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

blow down to fall by blowing Several trees were blown down by the storm last night. bring up 1. to educate and care for the family until grown up: to bring up children It was clear that the child had been brought up well. to raise or introduce (a subject) to bring up a question The question of Judys future was brought up at the regular meeting of the committee. call up to order (someone) to join the armed forces He was called up in 1996. give up to stop believing that someone can be saved especially from death

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6) 7) 8) 9)

10)

11)

12) 13) 14) 15)

16)

The boy was given up for lost. hold up to delay The building of the new road has been held up by bad weather. knock down to destroy a building (bridge) by means of blows Our house is being knocked down to give way for a new road. There used to be a church here but it was knocked down. let down to cause (someone) to be disappointed in ones loyalty; fail to keep a promise to someone It was difficult to believe that he had been let down by his friend. pick on a) to choose someone to do an unpleasant job or blame someone for something, especially unfairly Why am I always picked on (by the boss)? b) to choose something or someone Any student can be picked on to answer the examiners questions. pick out a) to choose someone or something carefully All the synonyms to the word despair must be picked out from the text. b) to recognize someone or something in a group of people or things Bobs father could be easily picked out of the crowd. pick up a) to lift something up from a surface The baby is always picked up whenever it cries. The litter should be picked up. b) to collect someone who is waiting for you or something that you have left somewhere The mail will be picked up a bit later. I hope to be picked up at 8.00 at the latest. The hitchhiker was picked up by the truck driver. point out to draw attention to something or someone Not all the mistakes in Bobs written test were pointed out. pull down to break to pieces and destroy something Half the houses in the street are being pulled down to make room for the new post-office. put off to move to a later date, to delay Their wedding has been put off. The meeting will have to be put off till later in the week. run over (of a vehicle or its driver) to knock down and pass over the top of (esp. a creature) The brakes failed and the old man was run over by the bus. They had a dog but it got run over. see off to go to the airport, station, etc. with someone who is beginning a trip

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When he was going away he was seen off by all his friends at the airport.

EXERCISES 8.1. Transform from Active into Passive 1) They put up with some problems. 2) They have carried out their work recently. Their managers talked a lot about the outcome. 3) Somebody has thrown his papers away. 4) The strong wind blew our tent down yesterday night. 5) They will deal with the matter as soon as possible. 6) They accounted for the money. 7) At last the delegates arrived at a decision. 8) They always pick up their child when it cries. 9) One never approves of silly people. 10) The thieves broke into the house of a rich man the other day. 11) They called for the bill as soon as they finished their meal. 12) The newspaper reporters have commented widely on the Expresidents speech . 13) They insisted on the interview with a famous singer. 14) I havent heard from him since he left for Moscow. 15) Who is he? I have never heard of him. 16) Does anybody object to my proposal? 17) Act your age! Otherwise people will laugh at you. 18) Ann is very bright. The colleagues always speak highly of her. 19) When the child was ill, his granny often read to him. 20) Ann always keeps her words. Her friends rely on her. 21) Mr N. is a good speaker. The audience always listens to him very attentively. 22) Are the parents looking well after the children? 23) They have knocked down the old building to give way to a new road. 24) She doesnt like when somebody interferes in her private affairs. 25) The boy tried to do his best but his mates mocked at his efforts. 26) She said something in a low voice and nobody took notice of her words. 27) It is not easy to deal with silly people. 28) They are always finding fault with Ann.

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29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35)

They have recently called in the police. They put an end to their row. The car ran over him. If it rains they will put off the concert. Leave these papers here! Ted will call for them later. They picked up signals for help from the sinking boat. He tried to warn them of the danger but nobody paid attention to his words.

8.2. Put a suitable preposition in each space 1) Though the problem had been discussed for a long time no decision was arrived .... . 2) The speech of the President is widely commented ..... in the newspaper. 3) He left for London several years ago and he hadnt been heard ... since. 4) Im sure your ideas will be strongly objected .. . 5) Her presence at the meeting will be insisted .. . 6) Dont tell anybody about it! Youll be laughed . 7) Mr Brown is an experienced lecturer. He is always listened ..... with great interest. 8) I felt I was being looked ..... and turned around. 9) The gloves have been looked ..... since noon. 10) A shop was broken ..... last night. A man was seen leaving the premises. 11) He was knocked ..... by a car and taken to hospital. 12) The problem will be dealt ..... as soon as possible. 13) The tent was blown ..... by a gust of wind. 14) The doctor has been sent ..... and he will come soon. 15) All children like to be read ..... . 8.3. Translate into English. Use the Passive Voice where appropriate. 1) . . . 2) , , . 3) , . 4) , . 5) . 6) . . 7) , . 8) , .

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9) , . 10) - ? 11) . , . 12) . , , . 13) 15 . . 14) , ( ) . 15) , . 16) . . 17) , . 18) . 19) , . 20) , . 9 EXTRACTS FOR TRANSLATION FROM RUSSIAN INTO ENGLISH

1. Translate into English. Mind the use of Tenses. (A) 1) . , , ( ) . 2) . , , . . 3) . , . . , 5 . . , . 4) , . . . 5) . ! . . .

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6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12)

13) 14)

15) 16) 17)

. , . . . , 20 . . , , . . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . , . , , . - ? , - . . - 6 , . ? , . . . -. , . - , . . , . , . , , . ! . . . , . . . ? - ? , . . . . . , . : , .

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18) ? , . . 19) , , . . , . 20) . . . , . 21) , - . , . . 22) . ? , . . ? , , - . . ! 23) , ? , , . 24) , . . , . , , - ? 25) ? . ? , , -, - , . 26) , . 27) ? . . ? , . 28) ? , , . ? , . , . 29) ? . ? . .

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30) 31) 32) 33) 34)

35) 36) 37) 38)

39) 40) 41) 42)

, . . . . . ? , , . . ? , . . . ? . . . , . , . . . , , . . ? , . , . . . . . ? . , , . , , . . . ? , . ? . ? . . , . . . . . , . ? . ? . . . , . . ?

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43) , . , . , 8 , . 44) , - . . 45) 20 . , . ? 46) , . , , . , . 47) . . 48) . ! . . . 49) ? . . . 50) ? , . . 51) ? . 15, . 52) ? ? , . . 53) ? . , . , ? , . 54) ? . ? 7. , ? , . . , , . 55) , . , , , . . . 56) . . , , .

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57) , . , . 58) , . , . 59) , , () , - , . 60) , . , , . , . 61) . . . . . 62) . , . , . , . 63) . . , . 64) , , ? 6. ? , . -, . , . 65) , . . . 66) , , . , . 67) , , , . , , . , . 68) ? , . . . . . 6-30 . 69) . , , . .

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70) 71) 72) 73)

74) 75) 76)

77) 78) 79)

80)

, , . , - . ! , . , . . . , . . , . , ? , ? . , . . . , 20 , , . . , . , . . . , ? , . , . - , . , , : , .. , , ? , , . , . -. , . , . - ? . , , - . . ? ! , . . . ? , . , . , . . , , . .

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81) ? . 10 . . 82) ! . . ? ! . . , . ? , . 20 . 83) ? . , , . ? , . 84) , , . , , , . 85) , , , . 86) , ? , , . . 17 . , 20 . 87) . . . , , . . . 88) , , , . . ? , . ? . , . ? 4, 8 . , . 89) ? . , . , . ? : , . 90) 9. ? ? . , 10 .

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91) , , , . 92) . . 93) ? . ? , . . . , . 94) , . , , , . 95) 4 , 5. 7 . , . , . , , c. 96) . . 97) . , . . . - . . . 98) " , , ?" . "," . " , . ". 99) , , . . . , . 100) , , , 2 . , , . 6 . , . , . 3 . , . . (B) 1) 3. , ,

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, . 2) ? , . . . ? , , , . 3) ? - , . , . 5-7 . , - . 4) . , 10 . , . 8 . 5) , , . 8.15. . 6) . . , ? 7) , , . 10 , . . 8) , . . , 40%. 9) , . . - ? . . ? , . 10) , . 10-00. , . . 11) 10-00. . . , .

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12) . , . . 13) . . . , 6 , . 14) ? ? , . . . . , . 15) , . . , , Star Ltd. ? . 16) ? . , 10% 15%? 17) ? , , . , , . 18) , ? , . 19) , , , . , ? 20) 4-00 . . 21) ? . , . 22) , . , . 23) , . , .

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24) , 11 , . , , . 25) . . , . 26) , , , , . , . 27) ? . , ? . ? 28) , . 29) "". , . 30) , . 15 . , . 31) , , . , 5 . 32) -? . , . 33) . , ? , , . 34) , . , . , . 35) . . 36) . , , - . , .

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37) . , , 100 . . . 38) . , 10 . 39) 1979 , . , . ? , -. 40) , . . . , . 41) , . . 42) . , , , . ? , . , , , . 43) . . - . 44) , ? , , . 45) , , . ? . 46) . 1996 . 47) , , , . 48) . . .

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49) ? . . 50) , . , , . 51) . 52) , . 53) - , . 54) . 55) , . , . 56) 3 , . , 3 . 57) 3 "Dorothy and Company" . , 5 . 58) , . 59) 10 . 60) , , . , , . 61) . . . 62) . 40 . 63) . 64) VHS (video-home system) JVC. . .

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65) . , . 66) , 4 . 67) 2 . , . . ? . 68) , ? . , . 69) , . 70) , , . 71) 10 300 . , . 72) , 20 . . 73) - 15%. , 10-12 . 74) 17 1998 . () 6 . 30 . . 1999 . 20 . 75) " " . 76) - . 45 . , . 77) . , . 78) , ? , . 79) , ? . 80) . - N., . 81) , 1 . .

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82) . , . 83) . . BMW. 84) , . 85) "Hotrem" . 86) , ? 87) 1,000. 88) 10 . 89) . 90) - ? , . . 91) , . 92) ? , . 93) , , . 94) . 95) . 96) . . 97) , 4%. 98) 3 . . 99) , . 100) .

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() 1) , . 2) , , . 3) , . 4) , , . 5) , . , - . 6) . , . . . 7) " " ? , . 10 . 8) , . 9) . , . 10) , . 11) , . 12) , , . 13) - . . , . 14) , ., . 15) . 16) . . . 17) , . 18) , ? , .

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19) ? , . 20) , . 21) ? . , . 22) . 23) . ? , , . 24) , . . 25) . . 26) . 27) . 28) . 29) , , - . . 30) - . , . 31) , . 32) . 33) , . 34) . , . 35) , . 36) , . 37) . , , . 38) , .

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39) , , . 40) , , , . . . ? 2 . 41) 20 , . . 42) . . , , . 43) , . 44) . 45) . 3 . 46) ? 47) 1 . . 48) , . 49) . , . 50) , , , . 51) . . 52) ? . . 53) ? , . 54) , , , , , . 55) , 27.

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56) , 200 . . 57) , , , . 58) , , , , , . 59) , . , . 60) , , . 61) . . . . 62) , . 63) . 64) , . 65) . 66) , , -, ; -, . 67) , . 68) , - ? , , , . , . 69) , . .

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70) 1917 ., , 90- . 71) 1923. . - , (at Saint Cloud). 72) . 1992 . . . 73) . , . . 74) , . 75) , . 76) , . 77) , ? 78) . . 79) . , . 80) , . 81) ? . , . 82) , ? 83) . . . 84) ? , , , , . 85) . 250. .

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86) , , , , . 87) , - . 88) . , . 89) . . 90) , , , , . 91) - , . 92) , " , , , ". 93) "" , , . 94) . 95) . , . 96) , , , , . 97) , . 98) XIII . 99) , . .

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100) II . . 1953 . 10 TENSE AND VOICE IN WRITTEN TEXTS

Read the stories. Practise retelling them. Analyze the key structures, do the exercises. 1. A Pretty Carpet We have just moved into a new house and I have been working hard all morning. I have been trying to get my new room in order. This has not been easy because I own over a thousand books. To make matters worse, the room is rather small, so I have temporarily put my books on the floor. At the moment they cover every inch of the floor space and I actually have to walk on them to get in or out of the room. A short while ago, my sister helped me to carry one of my bookcases up the stairs. She went into my room and got a big surprise when she saw all those books on the floor. "This is the prettiest carpet I have ever seen", she said. She gazed at it for some time, then added, "You don't need bookcases at all. You can sit here in your spare time and read the carpet!" Key Structures: We have just moved into a new house. I have been working hard all morning. I have been trying to put my new room in order. This is the prettiest carpet I have ever seen. Comprehension questions: 1) What has happened to the man? Has he just bought a new house? 2) What has been happening all morning in the new house? 3) Has the man been trying to put over a thousand books of his on the bookshelves? 4) Where and why has he temporarily put his books? 5) Has he finally got his new room in order? 2. The Greenwood Boys The Greenwood Boys are a group of popular singers. At present, they are visiting all parts of the country. They will be arriving here tomorrow. They will be coming by train and most of the young people in the town will be meeting them at the station. Tomorrow evening they will be singing at the Workers

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Club. The Greenwood Boys will be staying for five days. During this time, they will give five performances. As usual, the police will have a difficult time. They will be trying to keep order. It is always the same on these occasions. Key Structures: At present they are visiting all parts of the country. They will be singing at the Workers Club. They will be staying for five days.
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Comprehension questions: Whom will the young people of the town be meeting at the station? Where will the Greenwood Boys be singing? Will they be giving 5 or 7 performances? Are they visiting only big cities of the country? Why will the police be having a difficult time?

Speak about a group of popular singers visiting Minsk now. 3. Do You Speak English? I had an amusing experience last year. After I had left a small village in the south of France, I drove on to the next town. On the way, a young man waved to me. I stopped and he asked me for a lift. As soon as he had got into the car, I said good morning to him in French and he replied in the same language. Apart from a few words, I do not know any French at all. Neither of us spoke during the journey. I had nearly reached the town, when the young man suddenly said, very slowly, Do you speak English? As I soon learnt, he was English himself. Key Structures: After I had left a small village I drove on. As soon as he had got into the cat I said good morning to him. I had hardly reached the town when he asked if I spoke English. Hardly had I reached the town when he asked if I spoke English. Join these sentences: 1) The man left a small village in the south of France. He drove on to the next town. 2) The young man got into the car. The driver said good morning to him in French. 3) They nearly reached the town. The young man said, "Do you speak English?"

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4) They were silent during the journey. They understood they both spoke

English. Comprehension questions: 1) Where did the man drive after he had left a small village in the south of France? 2) What did the young man who had waved to the driver ask him for? 3) What happened as soon as the young man got into the car? 4) What did the young man say hardly had they reached the town? 5) Did the two men laugh after they had learnt that they both spoke English? Why? 4. A New House I had a letter from my sister yesterday. She lives in Nigeria. In her letter, she said that she would come to England next year. If she comes, she will get a surprise. We are now living in a beautiful new house in the country. Work on it had begun before my sister left. The house was completed five months ago. In my letter, I told her that she could stay with us. The house has many large rooms and there is a lovely garden. It is a very modern house, so it looks strange to some people. It must be the only modern house in this district. Key Structures: If she comes, she will get a surprise. When she comes, she will get a surprise. Before she comes she will send us a telegram. Work on the house had begun before she left. I said to my friends I had received a letter from my sister. Comprehension questions: 1) What did the girl from Nigeria say in her letter? 2) What will happen when she comes? 3) When did work on the house begin? 4) When was the house completed? 5) Is there a lovely garden or a nice lawn near the house?

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5. Not For Jazz We have an old musical instrument. It is called a clavichord. It was made in Germany in 1681. Our clavichord is kept in the living room. It has belonged to our family for a long time. The instrument was bought by my grandfather many years ago. Recently it was damaged by a visitor. She tried to play jazz on it! She struck the keys too hard and two of the strings were broken. My father was shocked. Now we are not allowed to touch it. It is being repaired by a friend of my father. Key Structures: It is called a clavichord. It was made in 1691. It has belonged to our family for a long time. He was shocked. Recently it has been damaged by a visitor. It is being repaired now. Comprehension questions: 1) What is their old musical instrument called? 2) Where and when was it made? 3) Where is it kept? 4) When was it bought? 5) What has happened to it recently? 6) Why was their father shocked? 7) How many strings were broken? 8) Are the strings being replaced now? 9) What arent they allowed to do? 10) What is being done to the clavichord? 6. Quick Work Ted Robinson has been worried all the week. Last Tuesday he received a letter from the local police. In the letter he was asked to call at the station. Ted wondered why he was wanted by the police, but he went to the station yesterday and now he is not worried any more. At the station, he was told by a smiling policeman that his bicycle had been found. Five days ago, the policeman told him, the bicycle was picked up in a small village four hundred miles away. It is now being sent to him by train. Ted was most surprised when he heard the news. He was amused too because he had never expected the bicycle to be found. It was stolen twenty years ago when Ted was a boy of fifteen.

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Key Structures: He was asked to call at the station. He was told by a policeman that his bicycle had been found. Change the form of the phrases in italics using the Passive Voice: 1) Something has worried Ted all the week. 2) In the letter they asked him to call at the station. 3) Ted wondered why the police wanted him. 4) At the station a smiling policeman told him that they had found his bicycle. 5) They picked up the bicycle in a small village. 6) They are sending it to his home by train. 7) This amused him because he never expected them to find the bicycle. 8) Someone stole it twenty years ago. Comprehension questions: 1) Who has been worried all the week? 2) What was Ted asked to do? 3) What did Ted wonder? 4) What was Ted told at the station? 5) Where was Ted's bicycle picked up? 6) Where is the bicycle being sent? 7) What did Ted feel when he heard the news? 8) Why was Ted amused? 9) How long ago was the bicycle stolen? 10) For how long has Tom been without his bicycle? 7. The Olympic Games The Olympic Games will be held in our country in four years' time. As a great many people will be visiting the country, the government will be building new hotels, an immense stadium, and a fine new swimming pool. They will also be building new roads and a special railway line. The Games will be held just outside the capital and the whole area will be called "Olympic City". Workers will have completed the new roads by the end of this year. By the end of next year, they will have finished work on the new stadium. The fine modern buildings have been designed by Kurt Gunter. Everybody will be watching anxiously as the new buildings go up. We are all very excited and are looking forward to the Olympic Games because they have never been held before in this country.

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Key Structures: The Olympic Games will be held in four years time. A great many people will be visiting the country. Workers will have completed the new roads by the end of the year. Say: what will happen in some years; what will be happening; what will have happened by the end of the year. 8. Everything Except the Weather My old friend, Harrison, had lived in the Mediterranean for many years before he returned to England. He had often dreamed of retiring in England and had planned to settle down in the country. He had no sooner returned than he bought a fine house and went to live there. Almost immediately he began to complain about the weather, for even though it was still summer, it rained continually and it was bitterly cold. After so many years of sunshine, Harrison got a shock. He acted as if he had never lived in England before. In the end, it was more than he could bear. He had hardly had time to settle down, when he sold the house and left the country. The dream he had had for so many years ended there. Harrison had thought of everything except the weather. Key Structures: He had no sooner returned than he bought a fine house and went to live there. He had hardly had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the country. Note the inverted word order with the prepositions hardly when, scarcely when, no sooner than: Examples: Hardly had he had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the country. Scarcely had he had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the country. No sooner had he had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the country. Now study these sentences. They tell us what happened some time ago and what had happened some time before. He lived in Scotland fifteen years ago. He had lived in Scotland fifteen years before he came to England.

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Underline in the text the verbs which tell us what happened some time ago and what happened some time before. The police found Billy Wilkins last night. He had run away from home five days before. He had spent the last two nights near a farmhouse. The police took him home at once. When she saw him, his mother burst into tears. She said he had never run away before. Comprehension questions: 1) Where had Harrison lived before he returned to England? 2) When did he buy a house there? 3) What did he begin to complain about? 4) Why did he sell the house hardly had he had time to settle down? 5) Why did the dream he had for many years end? 9. A Clear Conscience The whole village soon learnt that a large sum of money had been stolen. Sam Benton, the local butcher, had lost his wallet while he was taking his savings to the post-office. Sam was sure that the wallet had been stolen by one of the villagers, but it was not returned to him. Three months passed, and then one morning, Sam found his wallet outside his front door. It had been wrapped up in a newspaper and it contained half the money he had lost, together with a note, which said: "A thief, yes, but only 50% (per cent) a thief!" Two months later, some more money was sent to Sam with another note: "Only 25 per cent a thief now!" In time, all Sam's money was paid back in this way. The last note said: "I am 100 per cent honest now!" Key Structures: He was sure that the wallet had been stolen. The whole village soon learnt that a large sum of money had been stolen. It had been wrapped up in a newspaper. All Sam's money was paid back. Change the form of the expressions in italics. Use the Passive Voice. The whole village soon learnt that someone had lost a large sum of money. Sam was sure that one of the villagers had found the wallet, but no one returned it to him! Someone had wrapped it up in newspaper and it contained half the money Sam had lost. Two months later, someone sent more money to Sam with another note ... . In time someone paid back all Sams money in this way.

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10. Mad or Not? Airplanes are slowly driving me mad. I live near an airport and passing planes can be heard night and day. The airport was built during the war, but for some reason it could not be used then. Last year, however, it came into use. Over a hundred people were driven away from their homes by the noise. I am one of the few left. Sometimes I think this house will be knocked down by a passing plane. I have been offered a large sum of money to go away, but I am determined to stay here. Everybody says I must be mad and they are probably right. Key Structures: I live near an airport. I am living at my friend's now as my house is being painted. I have been living here for 10 years (since I was born). Comprehension Questions: 1) Why are airplanes driving the man mad? 2) What happened to a hundred people when the airport came into use last year? 3) Did the man stay at his house or did he move to a new flat? 4) Why is the man determined to stay? 5) Do you believe he is mad? Why? REVIEW EXERCISES 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form. Last week a new leisure centre (1) (to open) in the town of Malden. The centre (2) (to believe) to be the largest in Europe and it (3) (to hope) that it (4) (to visit) by over 40,000 people a month. The centre (5) (to plan) for over ten years, but it (6) (only/to make) possible by a large government grant. Unfortunately, it (7) (not/to finish) yet, but it (8) (to think) that it (9) (to complete) by next month. The centre includes an Olympic-size swimming pool and fifty tennis courts which can be booked by phone. The gym (10) (to claim) to be the most modern in the country. The equipment (11) (to buy) in Germany and training (12) (to provide) by five top instructors. Entrance fees are cheap because half the cost (13) (to pay) by the local council, so many local people will be able to afford them.

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2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form. Something should (1) (to do) to protect holidaymakers from awful experiences. So many articles (2) (to write) so far in newspapers and magazines warning tourists to guard against being victims of tricksters. The brochure advertisements ought to be approved by ABTA before being published to ensure that the details which (3) (to give) arent misleading or inaccurate. Mr and Mrs Brown had a typical bad holiday experience. They arrived at the old hotel which was situated in the middle of nowhere. The brochure claimed that it (4) (to build) recently, but it was obvious that it was old. It (5) (not/to decorate) for years and the paint was peeling off the walls. The previous owners had sold the hotel, which (6) (to buy) by an elderly couple. They (7) (to advise) by their children to employ staff to manage it but, unfortunately, people (8) (still/to interview) at the time when Mr and Mrs Brown arrived. Food (9) (not/to serve) in the restaurant and guests (10) (to expect) to make their own arrangements. As if that wasnt enough, when they went to their rooms, they found the bed linen (11) (not/to change) after the previous occupants. As far as Mr. and Mrs. Brown were concerned the hotel should be closed until adequate staff (12) (to employ). It is certainly nothing like the hotel which (13) (to describe) in the brochure. 3. (A) Laura is writing to a friend. This is a part of her letter. ... Someone broke into our house at the weekend. The burglar took some jewellery. But luckily he didnt do any damage. A very nice young police officer interviewed me. Detectives found some fingerprints, and the police computer identified the burglar. Police have arrested a man and are questioning him. But they havent found the jewellery. Now complete the passive sentences in this conversation. Use a phrase with by only if it adds information. Reproduce it. Laura: Our house was broken into at the weekend. Melanie: Oh no! Laura: Some jewellery (1) ....... . But luckily no damage (2) ...... . Melanie: Did the police come and see you? Laura: Yes, they did. I (3) ...... . Melanie: I dont suppose they know who did it. Laura: Well, amazingly they do. Some (4) ...... , and the (5) ...... . A man (6) ...... and (7) ...... now. Melanie: Wonderful. Laura: Theres only one problem. The (8) ...... .

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(B) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form. Retell the text. Jake felt that the secret plans (1) (to hide) somewhere in the room. He began searching carefully. Behind a picture on the wall he found a small metal safe. They (2) (to keep) in here, he thought. Suddenly, he (3) (to push) violently from behind. He fell, hitting his heard on the stone floor, and everything went back. When he came round, he found that he (4) (to take) to a small room. His hands and feet (5) (to tie) with rope and he felt as if he (6) (to drug). He also had the strange feeling that he (7) (to watch). A few minutes later the door (8) (to unlock), and two men walked into the room. Jake immediately recognized one of them. It was Boris Mariovitch, the mad scientist! So, my friend, said Boris, smiling coldly, what made you think the plans (9) (to keep) in the safe? You fool! They (10) (to hide) where no one will ever find them! What are you going to do with him? asked the second man, pointing at Jake. Him? Nothing for the moment. No doubt he (11) (to kill) in the morning! The two men left. The door slammed shut and (12) (to lock) from the outside. Jake looked desperately round the room. The door (13) (to make) of metal and couldnt be broken. The windows couldnt be opened from inside. What was he going to do? There was no escape! Jake (14) (to trap)! 4. Rewrite the following passages in the passive. Retell them. (A) The Government made an important decision last night. They will ban all cars from the centre of town as pollution is seriously affecting peoples health. They will allow only bicycles and buses to enter the town centre. They are making plans for a new environmental police force. After all, they will do something before its too late. (B) Last month the Council put forward a plan to make the seafront trafficfree. Many of the shop and restaurant owners support the plan as they believe that a more pleasant environment will improve their trade. However, the hotel owners are less enthusiastic and say that the traffic restriction will make access to their car parks very difficult. There have also been protests from some local residents who complain that the closure of the seafront road will make their journeys around the town much longer.

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(C) Reproduce the dialogue. Jane is talking to her friend Greg about her holiday. G: So, how was the holiday? J: Oh, it was fantastic. They organized everything so well. As soon as we arrived at the airport, our courier met us and took us to the hotel. Someone had cleaned all the rooms beautifully and put fresh flowers on the tables. G: Oh, how lovely. And what about the food? J: It was excellent. They freshly prepared it all in the hotel and they even made the bread in the hotel kitchen. They served the bread rolls hot every morning with breakfast. G: Mm, it does sound good. I must say, Id like someone to cook my meals for me for a couple of weeks. And what about the surrounding area? Was that nice? J: Oh beautiful. There were trips every day and they showed us all the local sights. There was so much history to see. Youd love it there, honestly. 5. Rewrite these sentences. Use have something done. 1) John will have someone bring him the post. John will have the post brought to him. 2) Did Sheila ask the dressmaker to make her a dress? 3) When will his photographs be developed? 4) The decorators are decorating Tims house at the moment 5) Your car needs to be serviced. ... 6) The gardener was pruning Bobs bushes. 7) The manager has asked the secretary to book a room for him. 8) I paid someone to fix the roof of my house. 9) Lets ask the porter to carry the luggage to the taxi. 10) Larry has got the plastic surgeon to remove his tattoo. 11) A nurse took her temperature. 12) The make-up artist was applying the models lipstick. 13) Ask the cook to prepare the vegetables. 14) Have you told the accountant to check the figures? 15) Jim hates the teacher correcting his mistakes. 16) Did the beautician paint Joannes nails? 17) He told the maid to serve breakfast in his room. 18) Dad was late because the garage had been servicing his car. 19) Pam is going to tell someone to repair the pipes. 20) My parents house was burgled last Monday. 21) He used to employ a chef who cooked his meals. 22) Does your mother ask for her shopping to be delivered to her house?

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23) Did you pay an artist to paint a portrait of your family? 24) Do you employ someone to clean your house? 25) Did you tell the tailor to make a suit for you? 6. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate tense and voice form (Active or Passive). 1) The children (1) (to frighten) by the story. It was about ghosts, witches and evil spirits. 2) Derek crashed his mothers car. It cant be repaired quickly, because the front door end (2) (to knock) into the wheel, making it unmovable. 3) Yesterday we had a surprise party for Alberts birthday. While Mary (3) (to take) him to a show, we (4) (to gather) at his appartment. When they (5) (to return) home, Albert was surprised to see us all there. 4) Joan is an example of someone who can beat the odds. In 1980, she (6) (to tell) she had 6 months to live because she had cancer. After exercise, dieting and positive thinking she (7) (recently/to inform) that she (8) (to beat) the disease. 5) This newspaper (9) (to publish) by an Italian company. It (10) (always/to have) interesting stories. 6) Rice (11) (to grow) in this area for hundreds of years, but now the government (12) (to try) to find an alternative crop because rice (13) (not to make) much profit last year. 7) My shoes (14) (to make) in Italy, but I (15) (to buy) them in France last May. 8) The Queen (16) (not/to see) since last July. The newspaper say that she is sick, but most people (17) (not to believe) it. 9) The class (15) (to cancel) because very few students (16) (to register) before registration (17) (to close). 10) After Allan (18) (to search) for twenty minutes he (19) (to realize) that his jacket (20) (to lie) on the table all the time. 7. Choose the correct verb form. (A) 1) Why ..... he ..... to the party? A) didnt ... invite B) wasnt ... invited 2) The painting by Rembrandt ..... from the museum yesterday. A) stole B) was stolen 3) The first sputnik ..... by the Soviet Union in 1956. A) launched B) was launched

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4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23)

When ..... Jury Gagarin ..... into cosmos? A) did ... fly B) was ... flown A new car design ..... at the plant. A) developed B) was developed Somebody ..... the door from inside. A) closed B) was closed Marilyn Monroes dress ..... at the auction at the price of $ 20 000. A) sold B) was sold What ..... Greece ..... ? A) does ... export B) is ... exported Both the driver and the passenger ..... in the car accident. A) injured B) were injured ..... credit cards ..... in your shop? A) Do ... accept B) Are ... accepted ..... his words ..... you? A) Did ... hurt B) Were ... hurt Nylon ..... in the 1930 by an American chemist, Julian Hill. A) invented B) was invented In Japan marriages of young people ..... by their parents. A) usually arrange B) are usually arranged We..... a telephone call from them a few days ago. A) received B) were received The first Volkswagen cars ..... in Germany just before the World War II. A) made B) were made I ..... them a fax yesterday. A) sent B) was sent She ..... a well-paid job. I think shell take it. A) offered B) was offered Our parent company ..... in Sweden. A) located B) is located Mary Poppins ..... them steadily, looking from one to the other. A) regarded B) was regarded Our factory ..... last year. A) reconstructed B) was reconstructed I ..... my car last week. A) sold B) was sold English ..... all over the world. A) speak B) is spoken We..... a lot of money on advertising campaign. A) spent B) were spent

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24) The storm ..... on Monday afternoon. A) began B) was begun 25) During the storm a lot of trees ..... . A) blew down B) were blown down 26) The roofs of some houses ..... . A) blew away B) were blown away 27) Windows in some houses ..... . A) broke B) were broken 28) ..... the film ..... Oscar? A) Did ... win B) Was ... won 29) His film ..... for Oscar. A) nominated B) was nominated 30) I feel I .. . A) am being looked at B) am looking at (B) 1) The contract ..... at the board meeting now. A) is discussed B) was discussed C) is being discussed D) was being discussed 2) Wait a minute! The document ..... by the secretary at the moment. A) is typed B) has been typed C) was typed D) is being typed 3) The papers ..... by the Managing Director yet. He is on business trip. A) werent signed B) arent signed C) havent been signed D) werent being signed 4) She ..... the Head of the Information Systems Department two months ago. A) is appointed B) is being appointed C) was appointed D) has been appointed 5) Recently a new generation of TV sets ..... in Japan. A) is being launched B) has been launched C) was being launched D) had been launched 6) At present our company ..... . A) is reorganised B) is being reorganised C) has reorganised D) has been reorganised 7) The mail ..... yet. A) isnt received B) isnt being received C) wasnt received D) hasnt been received 8) From Monday English classes ..... in the Training Centre. A) are held B) are being held C) will be held D) have been held

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9)

We ..... to send the documents by Friday. A) were asked B) were being asked C) have been asked D) had been asked 10) At last a new government ..... after a long governmental crisis. A) is formed B) is being formed C) was formed D) has been formed 11) My car ..... at the moment. Sorry, I cant give you a lift to the station. A) is serviced B) is being serviced C) has been serviced D) has being serviced 12) All the teaching material ..... after the classes start. A) are provided B) will be provided C) provided have been D) will have been provided 8. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets. 1) The jumper (is/has been) washed several time s, and it (wasnt/ hasnt) shrunk. 2) Nylon (has/has been) produced since 1938 and today it (is/ is being) found in many things. 3) The Houses of Parliament (were/ have been) built between 1840 and 1857. 4) Scientists hope that a cure for cancer will soon (be/ have been) found. 5) Each Concord (was/had been) built at a cost of 55 million pounds. 6) Boss says I will (be/ have been) given a pay-rise next month. 7) By next year, everybody in the company will (be/have been) given a payrise. 8) She will (be/ have been) informed about the results of the research as soon as it (is/ will be) finished. 9) Wait for a while. He (is/ is being) interviewed now. 10) He (is being/ has been) interviewed for 40 minutes already. 9. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate tense and voice form (Active or Passive). (A) Dear Sally, How are you? We've been having a lovely time. We're being very well looked after by our hosts. We (1) (to take) sightseeing and we (2) (to introduce) to some of their friends, who (3) (to make) us feel very welcome. Last night we (4) (to show) round a castle, by the owner! Most of the land in this area (5) (to belong), to his family for about five hundred years. Apparently, the land (6) (to give) to them after one of his ancestors (7) (to kill) while trying to save the king's life. Quite romantic, isn't it?

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The castle itself was a little bit disappointing, to be absolutely honest. The owner told us that it (8) (to suffer) serious damage during a fire about thirty years ago. When it (9) (to restore) they (10) (to add) central heating and things like that. So once you're inside it (11) (not to feel) much different to any other large, old house. But the owner is a real character. He told us lots of stories about things that (12) (to happen) to him when he was young. He (13) (to send) abroad to work in a bank, but he hated it, so he (14) (to behave) very badly in order to (15) (to sack) He kept us laughing for hours. I hope he (16) (to invite) us here again before we leave. I'll have lots more to tell you when we get back. Take care. Yours affectionately, Maurice (B) Sir James and Lady Blenkins (1) (to be) married for thirty years next March. They (2) (to celebrate) their wedding anniversary with a dinner party on the seventeenth. I don't think it (3) (to be) a particularly stylish affair, but I am sure a lot of good food (4) (to serve). Sheila, Ken and Willie (5) (to invite) already. A few days ago Marilyn (6) (to invite) too, but she can't go because she (7) (to leave) for the States by then. Helen and Denis say they (8) (to go) if they (9) (to invite). (C) Licking his lips in anticipation of a tasty meal he (1) (to ask) her where she (2) (to go). The girl, who never (3) (to see) a wolf before (4) (to tell) him about her grandmother and where she (5) (to live) Just as he (6) (to be) about to attack her, he (7) (to hear) two woodcutters approaching and (8) (to hurry) off, saying he (9) (to forget) an important meeting on the other side of the forest. While the little girl (10) (to make) her way slowly along the path, the wolf (11) (to rush) through the forest towards the old lady's cottage. The cottage door (12) (to be) locked so the wolf (13) (to pretend) to be Little Red Riding Hood by copying her voice. Granny (14) (to open) the door to let her in and .... (D) When we (1) (to arrive) in London we (2) (to be) two hours late because our train (3) (to hold) up by bad weather. Outside the station it (4) (to snow) hard and a lot of people (5) (to wait), for taxis. As we (6) (to be) about to join them, a young man (7) (to pull) up in his car and (8) (to ask) us where we (9) (to want) to go. Although it (10) (not

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to be) an official taxi, the car (11) (to be) new and shiny and the young man (12) (to look) clean and respectable. So we (13) (to decide) to accept his offer. When we (14) (to tell) him that we (15) (not to have) a hotel he (16) (to say) he (17) (can) take us to one which (18) (to be) cheap and clean. He (19) (to put) our luggage in the boot and we (20) (to drive) off to the hotel. On the way we (21) (to chat) cheerfully and he even (22) (to point) out some interesting sights. We (23) (can) hardly believe our luck and (24) (to think) of all the people we (25) (to leave) standing in the freezing cold. When we (26) (to get) to the hotel, he (27) (to tell) us he (28) (to wait) until we (29) (to check) in. After we (30) (to tell) that the hotel (31) (to be) full, we (32) (to go) down the steps only to find that our driver and our luggage (33) (to disappear) Needless to say, we never (34) (to see) him again. (E) Some Facts About Sugar Pocket sugar from the supermarket (1) (to extract) from either sugar cane or sugar beet. These products (2) (to mix) with water, which (3) (to dissolve) their natural sugar. Sugar (4) (also to find) in fruit some of which, such as dates and grapes, (5) (to contain) very high amounts of sugar. To be a little more scientific, sugar should (6) (to call) sucrose. Sucrose (7) (to make up) of two substances, glucose, which 8) (to use) for instant energy, and fructose, which (9) (to last) longer as a source of energy. The sugar in fruit is mainly fructose. So when we (10) (to eat) fruit, we (11) (also to eat) quite large amounts of natural sugar. Some scientists (12) (to believe) that too much sugar (13) (to eat) in sweets, cakes and bisquits. It (14) (to say) to be generally bad for the health, although nothing (15) (definitely to prove) so far. However, it (16) (to know) that sugar (17) (to cause) tooth decay. As one expert put it: If other foods (18) (to damage) our body as much as sugar (19) (to damage) our teeth, they (20) (to ban) immediately. 10. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate tense and voice form (Active or Passive). Retell the text. Animals on the roads More cars and lorries (1) (to drive) on our roads every year and, sadly, as a result of this, more and more wild animals (2) (to kill) by vehicles. Roads often (3) (to cross) the routes that (4) (to take) by animals when they are migrating, breeding or feeding.

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Every spring, many thousands of toads (5) (to kill) as they (6) (to make) their way to the traditional breeding ponds. All over the world, animals are victims of the road and their dead remains (7) (often/to see) lying on the roadside. Many badgers and hedgehogs (8) (to hit) by cars at night as they (9) (to move around) in search of food. Rabbits sometimes seem to (10) (to hypnotize) by the headlights of cars and (11) (not to move) quickly out of the way. Birds (12) (sometimes to hit) too as they (13) (to fly) low over roads. Can anything be done to protect these animals from the dangers of the road? Well, in 1969, a toad tunnel (14) (to build) in Switzerland and was a great success. Since then, other tunnels (15) (to construct) elsewhere in Europe, not just for toads but for badgers and salamanders too. In Florida, where the rare Florida panther (16) (to live), panther tunnels (17) (to build) under the highway and fencing (18) (to put up) beside the highway to guide the animals safely into these underpasses. Road signs warning drivers to (19) (to look out) for particular animals (20) (often/to see) in the US and it is to (21) (to hope) that they (22) (to become) a more common sight on the roads of Europe. 11. Translate from Russian into English. Use the passive voice where appropriate. 1) , , . 2) , . 3) . . 4) , . 5) ! , . 6) , , . 7) , , . 8) , , , , . 9) - - ? . 10) , . 11) . 12) , . 13) ? . 14) , . 15) , , . 16) , . 17) .

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18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39)
40)

41) 42)

43) 44) 45)

? , 15 , . , . . ! . . . , - . , . . , , . , . , . , . . , . . . ? . , . . - . () 7 . . . . . . . , , (justices of the peace) . , - , , (they have sound common sense) . , (High Court Judges). . . .

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46) , (a disturbance of the peace) . (Magistrate Court). 47) . 48) , . (cross-examination) . 49) (trial of jury). 50) . 51) . (unless proved guilty). 52) 6 400. 53) (The Crown Court). 54) (malicious) . 55) (the International Court of Justice) 15 . . 56) (Black economy) , . 57) . 58) (to work out) . 59) . . . 60) , . , (to be expedient) . 61) (Commercial activity) . 62) (Competitive capacity of an enterprise) . 63) .

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64) (Transaction) . , , . 65) /, . 66) , (, , ). 67) (), , . 68) : , (distribute) . 69) , : ? ? ? ? 70) , . Oral Activity The teacher sets the situation first. Sarah Ford, the well-known millionaires daughter, was kidnapped yesterday. Then he/she asks the students to look at the cues below and, working in groups of three, to prepare the story in 2 minutes using the passive. Each group then reports its story to the class. Students decide which groups story is the best and has the fewest mistakes. Cues: Sarah Ford kidnapped/yesterday. threatening calls made/before. Sarah seen/last/park. same day/letter sent. Sarah released/as soon as/kidnappers given 300,000. police informed/immediately. all areas searched/since yesterday. nothing found/so far. PROGRESS TEST 1. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate tense and voice form. (A) There is an old castle in Norwich which (1) (to believe) to be haunted. It (2) (to call) North Castle and it (3) (to say) that ghosts can (4) (to see) there at night. The castle (5) (to build) 400 years ago and (6) (to own) by two old ladies

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who (7) (to believe) to be witches. One day, long ago, they both disappeared and they (8) (never/to see) again. In 1985 the castle (9) (to buy) by a businessman and (10) (to convert) into a luxurious hotel. The castle (11) (to visit) by quite a few guests every year and special groups (12) (to organize) to watch for ghosts. It has been a long time some any ghosts (13) (to see), but one night a trick (14) (to play) on some visitors by a local couple, who dressed up as the two witches. They (15) (to see) by a guest who said she (16) (to frighten) almost to death. The couple apologized the next day, and (17) (to tell) never to visit the castle again, certainly not in the middle of the night dressed up as witches. (B) Professor Higgins, who (18) (to award) a major science prize last month, (19) (to invite) to take part in a conference which (20) (to hold) in London last week. He (21) (to meet) at the airport by a driver who, unfortunately, (22) (to give) the name of the wrong hotel to take the professor to. A large reception (23) (to organize) for the professor and at least 200 eminent scientists (24) (to invite) to meet him that evening. The poor professor, however, (25) (to leave) at a small hotel in a rather bad area, and when he asked to speak to the Head of the Conference Committee, he (26) (to tell) to try somewhere else because he (27) (not/to hear off) there. Luckily, later that evening, the driver (28) (to send) to the hotel where the reception (29) (to hold), and when he (30) (to ask) what he had done with the professor, everyone realized that a mistake (31) (to make). The professor says that if he (32) (ever/to send) another invitation to a conference, he hopes it (33) (to organize) more efficiently. 2. Fill in by or with. 34) The Old Man and the Sea was written Ernest Hemingway. 35) Radium was discovered Pierre and Marie Curie. 36) My desk was covered papers. 37) The safe was blown open dynamite. 38) The Gold rush was directed Charlie Chaplin. 39) The house was painted a new kind of paint. 40) The cake was made dried fruit. 41) The safe was blown open the robbers. 42) The photos were taken a very cheap camera. 43) Imagine was composed and sung John Lennon. 3. Transform from Active into Passive. 44) Police use trained dogs to find drugs. 45) A lifeguard rescued the drowning boy.

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46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60)

An electrician is repairing our water heater. A defense lawyer will represent you. They clean the rooms daily. Customs officers searched her suitcases. Hijackers were holding the plane passengers hostage. A gas leak has caused the explosion. An eyewitness gave the police a full report. The government has increased the tax on cigarettes. They will launch the product in May. The Scots make the best fudge. The teacher sent him out of the classroom. They will have finished the work by tonight. Her parents made her clean the room. The horrible old man was slowly poisoning the dog. Which building are they going to knock down?

4. Rewrite the sentences. Use have something done. 61) Her hair was cut by her best friend. 62) Tonys car will be taken to the garage tomorrow. 63) Janes bag was stolen last night. 64) Pauls jaw was broken in a boxing match. 65) They are fitting our new carpet tomorrow. 66) His passport has just been stolen. 67) Their house is decorated every year. 68) Our rooms were cleaned by our mother this morning. 69) Sallys wedding dress is going to be made next month. 70) My salary is deposited in my bank account every month. 71) Our grass is cut by the gardener. 72) My window was broken during the storm. 73) His photograph will be taken by his friend. 74) His case was carried to the car by the chauffeur. 75) Their windows are cleaned once a month. 5. Translate into English. 76) . , . 77) . 78) . 79) , . 80) . 81) .

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, . , . , . . 86) . 87) . . 88) ! . 89) . 90) , . 91) , .. . 92) . 93) (); . 94) , . 95) . 96) , , - . 97) . 98) , . 99) ? , . 100) .
82) 83) 84) 85)

Total: 100/_____

KEYS
Unit 1 GENERAL INFORMATION

1 1. 2) C 3) S 4) D 5) C 6) C 7) D 8) D 9) D 10) S 2. 2) C 3) C 4) S 5) P 6) P 7) P 8) P 9) S 10) C 3. 1, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 4. 1) mispronounce 2) rearrange 3) uncover 4) belittle 5) devalue 6) overfeed 7) disconnect 8) enrich 5. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) She put up with the loss. Don't give up! Try again! He gave up smoking a year ago. Their family has broken up (split up). When did the was break out? Watch out! Speak up, please. Let's break off and have some tea. I'll look after you child. What are you looking for?

2 1. 2) A 3) A,M 4) A 5) M 6) M 7) A, M 8) A 9) A, M 10) A, M 2. 2) T 3) I 4) I 5) I 6) T 7) I 8) T 9) I 10) I 3 1. 2) Pr. Ind. 3) Past Cont., Past Ind. 4) Pr. Ind., Fut. Ind. 5) Fut. Cont. 6) Fut. Cont. 7) Pr. Perf. Cont. 8) Fut. Ind. 9) Fut. Perf. Cont. 10) Pr. Perf. 11) Pr. Ind. 2. 1) D 2) A 3) D 4) A 5) B 6) C 7) B 8) A 9) B 10) C 11) A 12) B Unit 2 INDEFINITE TENSES

Entry Test 1. 1) C 2) B 3) D 4) A 5) C 6) A 7) A 8) C 9) D 10) C 11) A 12) D 13) B 14) C 15) D 16) B 17) C 18) D 19) A 20) D 21) C 22) A 23) D 24) D 25) C 26) D 27) C 28) D 29) D 30) C 31) A 32) C 33) D 34) B 35) D 36) B 37) D 38) C 39) D 40) B

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2. 41) go 42) celebrated 43) were 44) didn't go/ did not go; was; had 45) Does know; studied; was; doesn't remember 46) Did rain; was 47) will be ready 48) had 49) will /shall phone; leave 50) will be 51) Will snow; am; will be 52) help; will finish 53) arrives 54) comes; will/shall have; will be; comes 55) don't come 56) will phone; comes 57) was 58) will be 59) Do return 60) will come; Does come 61) get 62) am not busy; will join 63) will leave; does leave 64) were; were not 65) don't know 66) will not be; will be 67) did go 68) did have; was 69) will go; rains 70) do begin 71) is 72) got 73) leaves; packs 74) Is married; has; got married 75) misses; will fail 76) liked 77) will not rain 78) did spend; was 79) takes 80) will go; has 3. 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) It often rains here at this time of the year. If it rains tomorrow, we won't go for a walk. Did it rain last weekend? Yes, it did. Where were you at 7 o'clock yesterday? I phoned you but you were not at home. When do you usually have dinner? At 3. But yesterday we had dinner at 5. My friend will come to visit us tomorrow. When did you see him last? A year ago. 87) Will you be at home tomorrow evening? Yes, I will. I'll return from my work at 7. I always come home at 7. 88) She visits her parents twice a month. I'll talk to her before she leaves. 89) How many lessons will you have tomorrow? Six. We always have six lessons on Mondays. 90) Do you know this man? Yes, I do. We studied at the same school. When was it? Ten years ago. 91) As a rule children spend much time in the open air in summer. 92) Last year he trained much to take part in the competitions. 93) I don't know yet if I'll go to Moscow next week. 94) Why didn't you phone me yesterday? I was very busy. We had a meeting. 95) Do you know how old she is? She was twenty last month. 96) If he doesn't take a taxi, he'll miss his train. 97) Last winter was very cold. It snowed almost every day. 98) Who usually helps you to do your homework? My elder sister does. 99) When will you be in London again? I don't know exactly, but I think I'll go there in a month. 100) The other day Kate met her former classmate. She was glad to see her because they saw each other ten years ago last time. Progress Test 1. 1) C 2) D 3) B 4) D 5) B 6) B 7) C 8) D 9) C 10) B 11) B 12) B 13) C 14) D 15) B 16) A 17) D 18) C 19) B 20) 21) 22) 23) B 24) 25) B 26)

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27) B 28) B 29) B 30) D 31) C 32) D 33) A 34) C 35) A 36) B 37) B 38) C 39) D 40) B 2. 41) has; had 42) did miss; was 43) will not catch 44) were; was 45) enters; will be 46) will pass 47) Did watch; didn't like; was 48) does do; is; works; produces 49) Did invite; enjoyed; had 50) are; will sign 51) Did meet; arrived; was; went 52) will not snow; will go 53) Is; gets 54) was; is not 55) would attend; prevented 56) do take; depends 57) Are; was; missed 58) Will go; am; finish; will join 59) Does rain; rains; is 60) Did go; went; spent 61) has; will leave; knows 62) teaches; is 63) leave 64) is; goes; will go 65) were; met 66) does do; visits; live 67) did do; stayed; was 68) will celebrate 69) will be; will be 70) is; has; takes 71) is; will put on 72) is glad; come 73) liked 74) did finish 75) Is ready; will be ready 76) would buy 77) Did swim; were 78) likes 79) arrives 80) was; managed 3. 81) Many people like winter though from time to time frosts are severe and it often snows. 82) Who left the book in the desk yesterday? John did. Sometimes he is very absent-minded. 83) The other day Mike got a driving license. He hopes if he has enough money, he will buy his car in a couple of months. 84) Yesterday I came to Martha but nobody was at home. Do you know where she is? She went on a business trip the day before yesterday. She will be at home in a week. 85) If it does not stop snowing, we won't go to the skating-rink tomorrow. 86) He said he would read the book as soon as he passed his exams. 87) I am sure he won't go home until he discusses this question with the manager. 88) When he was young he used to spend his weekends in the country. Now more and more often he prefers to stay at home. 89) What time does he usually finish his work? At 5. They will have a meeting tomorrow, so he'll come home at 8. 90) When did your father start up his own business? Half a year ago. What do they do? They sell furniture. 91) I began to play chess when I was seven. Who taught you? My father did. He plays chess well. 92) Nick said that he would phone us as soon as he met John at the airport. 93) If your tea is not sweet enough, add some sugar. 94) Why don't you want to go on the excursion with us on Saturday? We'll go to the country with our friends if it doesn't rain. 95) Henry will be in London in two days. He'll discuss financial questions with our partners. 96) The other day Max finished his new novel. He hopes his readers will like it.

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97) How often does your father play tennis? Twice a week now. When he was young he used to play tennis almost every day. 98) Kate won't go to school tomorrow, if she doesn't feel better. 99) When did Martha come back from the South? The day before yesterday. Who met her at the station? Her brother did. 100) The film starts at 7. Now it's a quarter to 7 but Mark is not here yet. He is late again! If he isn't here in five minutes, we won't wait for him. Unit 3 Entry Test 1. 1) 2) A 3) B 4) B 5) C 6) B 7) A 8) D 9) A 10) B 11) D 12) C 13) B 14) A 15) A 16) B 17) B 18) B 19) C 20) B 21) B 22) B 23) B 24) B 25) A 26) B 27) A 28) A 29) B 30) B 31) C 32) A 33) D 34) A 35) A 36) B 37) A 38) A 39) C 40) A 2. 41) has been 42) haven' t seen 43) will have finished 44) had gone 45) had left 46) will have risen 47) hadn't phoned 48) will have gone 49) has gone 50) hasn't cut 51) will have been 52) have never sailed 53) has played 54) had met 55) had come back 56) have borrowed 57) will have cooked 58) has lost 59) hasn't taken 60) will have examined 61) hasn't had 62) had given up 63) had already bought 64) haven't worn 65) have been; haven't typed 66) has visited 67) has never heard 68) had lost 69) will have watched 70) will have done 71) had learnt 72) had been 73) had I finished 74) will have saved 75) had planned 76) haven't seen 77) hadn't come 78) Will your guests have gone 79) will have picked 80) had written 3. 81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) We have had wonderful sunny weather for the last some days. I am sure they won't have read this book by the fixed date. She asked me where I had bought that book. Hardly had the family rented a house when they began to look for a new one. By 3 o'clock my elder brother had already returned from school. They'll have finished the experiment by winter, won't they? It is the third time you have been late for this week. The lecturer announced that the population of the city had reached 1 million. They will have seen all the sights of the city by the evening. I have never seen her so angry before. My younger sister has just returned from London. This house is very old. The workers will have removed it by the time you return to the town. 93) When I came to Warsaw, John had already left for London. PERFECT TENSES

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94) We'll have done this exercise by 2 o'clock and then we'll go to the park together. 95) The workers have already finished to repair this house. Has anybody moved into it yet? 96) What will you have managed to do by the time I come? 97) They will not have written the test by the return of the teacher. 98) I hope they will have bought the TV set by the end of the week. 99) Jane wasn't hungry. She had just had breakfast. 100) My friends will have come home after holidays by the 1st of September. Progress Test 1. 1) B 2) A 3) B 4) A 5) A 6) B 7) C 8) B 9) A 10) B 11) B 12) B 13) B 14) A 15) A 16) B 17) C 18) A 19) A 20) A 21) B 22) A 23) B 24) A 25) C 26) A 27) A 28) A 29) A 30) A 31) A 32) A 33) A 34) B 35) A 36) A 37) A 38) B 39) D 40) C 2. 41) will have had 42) will have finished 43) have already built 44) will have done 45) will not have landed 46) have lost 47) will have found 48) had left 49) will have saved 50) will have invited 51) had we gone 52) has drunk 53) had served 54) has gone 55) will have made 56) has saved 57) had finished 58) will have given 59) Has anybody seen 60) have been 61) had she come 62) has never seen 63) had completed 64) has never flown 65) will have built 66) had been 67) will have booked 68) had left 69) Have you got; have borrowed 70) will have attended 71) has entered 72) will have got 73) will not have arrived 74) had eaten 75) had finished 76) will have stayed 77) had left 78) will have made 79) has happened 80) had already learnt 3. 81) If I continue to sit on a diet, I will have lost 10 kilograms by the end of the month. 82) She has been looking happy since she returned from the journey. 83) Yesterday I advised my friend to apply to the company to get a job there, but he had already done it. 84) By Monday Bill will have recovered and will begin his work. 85) It is hot and it hasn't rained for more than a month. I hope that the weather will have changed by Monday. 86) No sooner had John managed to represent everybody his new friend than everybody recognized him at once. 87) I have known him for almost 18 years. He hasn't changed at all. 88) I'll be back in 2 hours. I hope that by this time you'll have finished the translation.

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89) How many years have they been married? For 10 or 11 years, I don't remember exactly. 90) Hardly had the secretary come up to the phone to call the police when the robbers appeared in the office again. 91) Because of the snow-fall the train will have come to the station by 1o o'clock in the evening. 92) She hasn't phoned me since she found a new job. 93) We had prepared everything long before they came. 94) Who has broken this cup? I don't know, I haven't been to the kitchen since morning. 95) When we approached the house, the sun had already set. 96) He was very disappointed because by 3 o'clock he had answered only to the half of the letters. 97) I'll have finished this work by the end of the week. 98) As soon as the Sales Manager entered the office, he informed his subordinates about his forthcoming business trip to Japan. 99) Tomorrow I am going to the country for 2 weeks. By the evening I will have packed all the things and everything will be prepared for the trip. 100) The builders will have repaired the building by Christmas. Unit 4 CONTINUOUS TENSES

Entry Test 1. 1) C 2) B 3) D 4) C 5) A 6) B 7) D 8) C 9) A 10) B 11) C 12) B 13) D 14) A 15) D 16) A 17) D 18) C 19) B 20) B 21) C 22) D 23) C 24) A 25) D 26) A 27) D 28) A 29) C 30) A 31) C 32) D 33) C 34) D 35) C 36) B 37) A 38) C 39) B 40) D 2. 41) are looking 42) was trying; were 43) will be having 44) was doing 45) is losing 46) will be sleeping; come 47) were doing; was reading 48) is making; am laying 49) am using 50) will be relaxing 51) didn't understand; were talking 52) is doing; is listening 53) was wearing 54) will be preparing 55) am not speaking 56) will not be working 57) are travelling 58) was doing; was reading 59) is talking; is playing 60) will be taking 61) are crying 62) was waiting 63) is thinking; is thinking 64) will be enjoying 65) are playing 66) was raining 67) is shining; are singing 68) will be skiing 69) are going; am going 70) were playing 71) is coming 72) recognize 73) was landing 74) will be repairing 75) is sleeping 76) were watching 77) will be playing; are skiing 78) am watching; is playing 79) were doing; was washing 80) am looking 3. 81) Don't phone her now. I think she is still sleeping.

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82) While the adults were playing volleyball, the children were swimming in the river. 83) Hurry up! The train leaves in half an hour. If we are late, our trip will fail. 84) He'll be working in the reading-room the whole day tomorrow. 85) She doesn't see that we are looking at her as she is talking on the phone. 86) What were you doing when I phoned you? I was watching TV. 87) What are your plans for the weekend? I am going to visit my parents. 88) Don't be late. She'll be waiting for you in the library at 11. 89) She is always talking in class. 90) Yesterday I was coming back home rather late. It was getting dark and it was raining. 91) He is very busy and doesn't hear what we are talking about. 92) I don't think I'll still be looking through the papers when you come. 93) We are going to buy a new TV-set next week. 94) The lecture was very interesting and everybody was listening to the teacher with pleasure. 95) While the gymnasts are getting ready for their next exercise, the referees will be discussing their results. 96) The sun was setting, it was getting dark. The rain began. We hurried home. 97) She was still packing her things when the taxi came. 98) The Ivanovs have a son. They are celebrating his birthday next week. He'll be ten. 99) Mr Smith will be signing a contract with our new partners at this time tomorrow. 100) Kate was playing the piano when the phone rang. Progress Test 1. 1) C 2) B 3) D 4) C 5) A 6) D 7) A 8) C 9) D 10) B 11) C 12) B 13) D 14) A 15) C 16) B 17) D 18) A 19) D 20) B 21) C 22) D 23) A 24) B 25) A 26) D 27) A 28) D 29) C 30) B 31) D 32) B 33) D 34) A 35) C 36) B 37) D 38) A 39) D 40) C 2. 41) are doing; are planning 42) was working 43) will be wearing 44) were doing; was typing 45) is learning; am looking 46) are swimming; will be sunbathing 47) is driving 48) was moving 49) is staying 50) will be doing; will be having 51) wasn't raining 52) will be sleeping 53) is handling 54) were discussing 55) is knocking 56) Will be working 57) are using 58) was standing; was waiting 59) will be writing 60) is putting 61) is doing; is making 62) was redecorating 63) is packing 64) are airing 65) Was raining; was raining 66) will be typing 67) is getting 68) was chasing 69) will be looking 70) am tasting 71) were repairing 72) is investigating 73) will be typing 74) was crying 75) will be fishing; are swimming 76) are talking 77) will be doing 78) were waiting 79) was wearing 80) is drawing; is playing

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3. 81) While the students are making up the dialogues, the teacher will be checking up their tests. 82) He came when we were still discussing the plan of our trip. 83) It's very noisy here. I don't hear what they are talking about. 84) He won't be at home after 6 tomorrow. He'll be playing football with his friends. 85) Tonight Tom is leaving for London to take part in the conference. His train leaves at 9. 86) When we were walking in the park, the rain began. We hurried home as we hadn't an umbrella. 87) I'm sure when we come he'll be still preparing for the exam. 88) Do you know why she is crying? 89) This time tomorrow they'll be returning home from the South. 90) The secretary was typing some documents when a visitor came in. 91) I don't know whom she is talking with. Maybe she is one of her pupils. 92) We were going to spend last weekend in the country but the rain began and we stayed at home. 93) Mark will be working on his new script tomorrow after dinner. He wants to finish it in a week. 94) Why is it so cold here? I am airing the room. 95) They were boating when the storm broke out. 96) While we are skating they will be playing snowballs. 97) You look serious. What are you thinking about? 98) We are leaving for the Crimea tomorrow morning. We are going to stay there for two weeks. 99) The schoolchildren are playing volleyball in the gym while it is raining. 100) We were having dinner when the postman brought us a telegram. Unit 5 PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES

Entry Test 1. 1) A 2) A 3) A 4) B 5) C 6) A 7) A 8) B 9) B 10) A 11) B 12) A 13) A 14) C 15) C 16) C 17) B 18) B 19) C 20) A 21) C 22) B 23) A 24) A 25) A 26) A 27) A 28) A 29) A 30) A 31) C 32) A 33) A 34) A 35) A 36) B 37) A 38) B 39) A 40) A 2. 41) will have been reading 42) had been working 43) had been working 44) has been using 45) had been standing 46) will have been preparing 47) has been raining 48) has been digging 49) had been smoking 50) had been trying 51) have been watching 52) had been dancing 53) will have been dealing 54) had been trying 55) has been sounding 56) will have been repairing 57) had been digging 58) will have been driving 59) have been living 60) will have been lying 61) had been working

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62) will have been cleaning 63) had been trying 64) have been smoking 65) have been trying 66) had been making 67) had been raining 68) will have been working 69) has been ringing 70) have been looking 71) has been flying 72) will have been waiting 73) will have been celebrating 74) has been studying 75) have been driving 76) will have been living 77) had been cheating 78) had been waiting 79) will have been resting 80) had been living 3. 81) The teacher has been delivering this lecture for half an hour already since he came into the hall. 82) She had been trying to translate this article for 3 hours already when Catherin came and helped her. 83) When I woke up, I looked at the watch: I had been sleeping for 3 hours. 84) By our arriving home Mary will have been waiting for us for nearly 2 hours already. 85) John had been repairing the car for an hour already when Mary asked him for dinner. 86) By September I will have been preparing for passing the exams for some months already. 87) They have been taking the exams for some days already, but haven't passed a single yet. 88) We had been watching TV for some hours already when it stopped raining. 89) When I returned home, Mother said that the children had been sleeping since 9 o'clock. 90) She had been wandering in the forest for about an hour when she understood that she had lost her way. 91) My friend will have been learning German for a year the day after tomorrow. 92) By the time I have cooked dinner, my friends will have been having rest for some hours. 93) He had been learning French for 6 years when he entered the college. 94) The students have been doing these exercises for an hour already. 95) Brian had been waiting for about 5 minutes when Kate came. 96) She had been sleeping for an hour or for an hour and a half when her brother came. 97) By 5 p.m. Steve will have been repairing his car for 3 hours. 98) In half a month John will have been studying biology for a year. 99) How long have you been studying at this Institute? Since I moved to this town. 100) I wonder, how long have my friends been living in St.Petersburg. Progress Test 1. 1) A 2) B 3) C 4) C 5) B 6) B 7) A 8) D 9) A 10) A 11) C 12) D 13) B 14) B 15) A 16) B 17) A 18) C 19) C 20) A 21) A 22) C 23) C 24) A 25) A 26) D

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27) A 28) C 29) A 30) B 31) A 32) B 33) A 34) A 35) A 36) B 37) B 38) A 39) A 40) A 2. 41) had been serving 42) has been searching 43) will have been learning 44) has been practising 45) had been collecting 46) has been working 47) Has he been arguing 48) had been looking 49) will have been waiting 50) has been raining 51) has been looking 52) will have been continuing 53) had been living 54) have been waiting 55) will have been looking 56) has been sleeping 57) had been looking 58) had been using 59) have been watching 60) had been waiting 61) will have been looking 62) has been painting 63) had been reading 64) will have been working 65) have been growing 66) had been living 67) had been painting 68) had been flipping 69) had been mending 70) will have been ringing 71) will have been waiting 72) will have been trying 73) will have been trying 74) has been looking 75) will have been sitting 76) have been waiting 77) has been working 78) will have been having 79) will have been having 80) have been doing 3. 81) He has been working at the book for 3 hours already. He has never worked so hard. . 82) By the time I finish the translation, my friends will have been waiting for me for about an hour already. 83) They had been speaking for about 2 hours, then he said suddenly that he wanted to see somebody of his friends, and went away. 84) I have been trying to find you all the morning. What have you been doing? 85) Tomorrow I will have been preparing for my test for a month. 86) At last you have come. We have just been talking about you. 87) By the time I come tomorrow, the meeting will have been lasting for about an hour already. 88) Their firm had been working at a new project for some months when their competitors learnt about it. 89) He has been learning French since he was 3, but he hasn't learnt it so far. 90) By June when his friends come to visit him, my friend will have been taking the exams for 2 weeks already. 91) He has been preparing for the exam the whole week and he has read very many books on this subject. 92) In a month he will have been working as a director of the enterprise for a year. 93) John has been collecting stamps since he was 6. He has collected 1000 stamps already. 94) They had been sitting together for a long time. Jack was the first to break silence. 95) Where have you been? I have been waiting for you at the library since 9 a.m. 96) By the end of the day Ann will have been working at her report for a very long time already.

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97) The telephone had been ringing for some minutes already when he finally woke up. 98) She has been reading the book for 3 days and she has read 130 pages already. 99) By Monday the police will have been looking for the robbers for some weeks already. 100) By the director's coming Mr Brown will have been working in his office since morning. Unit 6 Entry Test 1. 1) 2) 3) D 4) A 5) B 6) B 7) A 8) D 9) C 10) A 11) B 12) B 13) D 14) D 15) B 16) C 17) C 18) D 19) A 20) B 21) A 22) A 23) B 24) B 25) B 26) B 27) A 28) D 29) C 30) B 31) D 32) C 33) D 34) A 35) C 36) A 37) C 38) A 39) C 40) A 41) B 42) B 43) B 44) C 45) D 46) B 47) C 48) A 49) B 50) C 2. 51) He will leave 52) He is leaving 53) He will leave 54) He left 55) He will have left 56) I haven't seen him 57) I haven't seen him 58) I didn't see him 59) I will not (won't) see him 60) I will not (won't) see him 61) I haven't seen him 3. 62) He made a report 63) He had made a report 64) He has made a report 65) He made a report 66) This film enjoys popularity 67) This film has been enjoying 68) This film has been enjoying 69) The children had got tired 70) The children have got tired 71) The children got tired 72) The children have got tired 73) We'll set off 74) We'll have set off 75) We'll set off 76) We'll set off 77) He has gone to the airport 78) He had gone 79) He went 80) He had gone 4. 81) is eating 82) are sleeping 83) was fixing supper 84) you have just told me 85) I'll finish the job 86) she comes 87) I returned home 88) When did you see 89) she hasn't phoned me 90) He will have been working 5. 91) I wonder, if it is still raining. Yes, it has been raining since morning. 92) Hardly had we opened the door when the phone rang and John said that he had already returned. 93) He has been working here since he finished University. When was it? 10 years ago. 94) Lately my husband has been very busy. We'll go to the theatre if he is free tomorrow. I've already bought the tickets. 95) He went home only after he had talked to the director. ENGLISH TENSES IN COMPARISON

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96) You have been translating this article for 3 hours already, but haven't finished yet. Will you have finished by 7 o'clock? 97) Are you writing a letter to your parents? Do you often write them? I'll wait until you finish. 98) Where were you yesterday evening? Why are you asking? Did you phone me? 99) Our Granny is coming to see us tomorrow. 100) Have you had dinner? Not yet. I'll go to a caf in half an hour. 1 WAYS OF EXPRESSING THE PRESENT IN ENGLISH

1.1. The Present Indefinite the Present Continuous Entry Test 1. 1) What does he do? 2) is 3) Does he like... 4) am thinking 5) What is he doing? 6) is sleeping 7) sleeps 8) think 9) is having 10) is getting 11) don't return 12) goes 13) When is he leaving? 14) is having 15) passes 16) will be 17) Why are you looking...? 18) do you understand me? 19) are giving 20) invite 21) is playing 22) seems 23) Why don't you believe? 24) am telling 25) Do you know... 26) Where does he work? 27) is always complaining 28) am 29) washes up 30) doesn't like 31) are 32) is coming 33) wants 34) go 35) come 36) are sleeping 37) switch on 38) are you planning 39) When does your train leave? 40) do you travel? 2. 41) The weather is nice today. The sun is chining and birds are singing. Do you like spring? 42) It's always warm here at this time of the year. I come here every autumn. 43) Why aren't you listening to me? What are you thinking about? Do you understand me? 44) As a rule we meet twice a month on Sundays. It's Sunday today. We are sitting in the garden and talking. 45) My son doesn't like milk, he prefers tea. 46) How do you usually get to your work? As a rule, I drive. It takes me half an hour. 47) Why does she look so tired? She always works much. 48) What are you looking for? I'm looking for my keys. I always lose them. 49) A good teacher never cries at his pupils. 50) Why are you always crying at your little brother? 1.3. The Present Prefect the Present Perfect Continuous Entry Test 1. 1) have been reading 2) haven't finished 3) has been playing 4) has been learning 5) has been 6) have been playing 7) haven't played 8) have you known 9) have

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always been 10) has never let me down 11) has been looking 12) hasn't succeeded 13) has worked 14) has lived 15) has been 16) has bought 17) has been dreaming 18) What have you been doing 19) have been repairing 20) haven't repaired 21) Have you found 22) has gone 23) has waited 24) has been raining 25) have been reading 26) haven't eaten 27) Have you had 28) has cooked 29) hasn't talked 30) has been busy 31) has been discussing 32) has come 33) Who has she brought 34) has been talking 35) has he been working 36) has he been married 37) has travelled 38) has written 39) haven't discussed 40) has been 2. 41) Mother has been talking on the phone for an hour. 42) Mum, have you cooked dinner? Not yet. But you have been cooking it for 4 hours already. 43) I haven't seen her today. We haven't met lately, she has been working a lot. 44) Where have you been all this time? I have been looking for you since morning. Have you brought my book? 45) I've just recollected I haven't sent a telegram to my parents yet. 46) He has been working for this company for 8 years. Since when has he been working there? Since he graduated from the University. 47) He has worked for this company for 8 years. He has always been a good specialist. 48) I have known her since childhood. We have been friends for more than 30 years. She has always been a devoted friend. 49) The guests have been sitting at table for more than 3 hours and the children have already had supper. 50) My friend's mother has worked at school for 50 years and my friends has been teaching children for 10 years. 2 WAYS OF EXPRESSING THE PAST IN ENGLISH

2.1. The Past Indefinite the Past Continuous Entry Test 1. 1) was sitting 2) understood 3) was looking 4) when were you 5) Did you like it? 6) was 7) studied 8) had 9) came 10) was fixing 11) was watching 12) left 13) where were you 14) What were you doing? 15) I was getting ready 16) we were lying 17) lived 18) went 19) Did you enjoy 20) phoned 21) said 22) was having 23) knocked 24) was 25) spoke 26) didn't know 27) when did you see 28) were drinking 29) was playing 30) came 31) were watching 32) didn't notice 33) When did you take 34) Was it raining? 35) was 36) liked 37) Did you go 38) Where were you? 39) knew 40) said

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2. 41) -Why didn't you call me yesterday? What were you doing? I was writing an article. 42) You were at the theatre last Sunday, weren't you? Yes, I was. And I liked the performance a lot. 43) He started working for this company some years ago. 44) Yesterday after dinner we had an important sitting. From 12 to 2 we were discussing a new contract. 45) Where were you after school? I was at a computer club. What were you doing there? Plying computer games. 46) He graduated from the University in June. A week later he found a good job. 47) I saw her the other day. And when did you see her last (time)? 48) It was midnight when the train arrived at the station. Who met you? My brother did. 49) I wonder what you were doing yesterday after supper. I wanted to invite you for a walk, but you weren't at home. 50) Did you have a good time in Italy? 2.2. The Past Indefinite the Present Perfect Entry Test 1. 1) have just returned 2) Did you go 3) did you learn 4) Have you ever been to 5) have been 6) haven't see 7) came 8) Have you had 9) had 10) haven't met 11) left 12) haven't heard 13) have known 14) have you known 15) has gone 16) saw 17) went 18) Has he ever been 19) have accepted 20) have been 21) liked 22) stopped 23) has rained 24) has happened 25) has always been 26) has returned 27) has worked 28) When did you see 29) haven't met 30) has been 31) Have you found 32) put 33) When did they buy 34) haven't repaired 35) haven't met 36) has changed 37) changed 38) died 39) learnt 40) When did .... take place 2. 41) Have you ever been abroad? Yes, I have. When was it for the first time? I was in Poland three years ago. 1. I have already finished the work. I finished it last Monday. 2. I have never met such a beautiful woman before. 3. I have known him since he began to work for our country. 4. Lately he hasn't phoned me. Last time he phoned me several months ago. 5. Has anything happened? My dog has fallen ill. 6. At last you've come. Where have you been for all this time? Nick has waited for you for 3 hours. He left half an hour ago. 7. My Granny has been dead for 4 years. He died at the age of 82.

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8. He hasn't been to his native town since he entered the University. 9. Since what time have you lived here? Since we got married. 2.3. The Past Indefinite the Past Perfect Entry Test 1. 1) arrived 2) had left 3) didn't see 4) came 5) had gone 6) had worked 7) left 8) had never been 9) wanted 10) had met 11) didn't remember 12) had gone 13) saw 14) was 15) had invited 16) had worked 17) was 18) had I opened 19) rang 20) had had 21) got 22) entered 23) said 24) was 25) if she had ever seen him before 26) When did you get 27) wrote 28) had just returned 29) wanted 30) didn't recognize 31) hadn't met 32) had changed 33) had eaten 34) got 35) said 36) liked 37) used to 38) gave it up 39) hadn't smoked 40) hated 2. 41) I was sure I had never met this man before. 42) Hardly had entered the house when it started to rain. 43) I didn't see her yesterday and she didn't phone me. When I came to the office she had already gone. Her friend told me she had fallen ill. 44) When he read her last letter he understood he had left her for ever. 45) She said she had never been to Italy and wanted to visit this country. 46) He had a cup of tea, switched on the TV-set and sat down into his armchair. 47) I knew she hadn't come because she didn't want to meet Nick. 48) He was hungry because he hadn't eaten since morning. 49) Did Jane go to the theatre with you yesterday? No, she didn't. She said she had already seen the ballet. 50) When he returned home an hour later, his wife had already come home from work. 3 WAYS OF EXPRESSING THE FUTURE IN ENGLISH

3.1. The Future Indefinite (shall/will+Infinitive) the going to form Entry Test 1. 1) is leaving 2) will fly 3) will spend 4) will meet 5) are planning 6) will they go 7) are having 8) will go 9) are waiting 10) is coming 11) will stay 12) will fly 13) will be 14) will she celebrate 15) will go 16) What are the children doing? 17) are playing 18) will take 19) When will we have supper? 20) is cooking 21) will phone 22) will decide 23) will spend 24) is coming 25) will ask 26) will refuse 27) are playing 28) will go 29) will be 30) will join 31) when will you send 32) is always finding faults 33) is she always complaining 34) is having 35) is the girl crying 36) will sign 37) are you sitting 38) am waiting 39) will let 40) will explain 2. 41) Why are you sitting here in the dark? The children are sleeping.

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42) We are leaving tomorrow. We are planning to spend a week at our friends' in the country. 43) She'll be 20 in a year. She'll marry Nick and they'll be very happy. 44) What are you going to do tomorrow evening? Nothing special. I'll very glad if you come to see us. 45) If the weather is nice tomorrow, I'll take the children to the park. I'm sure they'll like it. 46) Are you busy? Yes, I'm translating an article. Are you translating it for Nick? You are always translating for him. When will he make his translation himself? 47) Are you crying? No, I am not. I'm laughing. When you read this book you'll laugh, too. 48) Will you be present at the meeting tomorrow? Sure The director will get angry if I don't come. 49) We are having a meeting tomorrow. We always have meetings on Mondays. Will you come? Yes, I will. 50) I'll call you before I leave. 3.3. The Future Perfect Continuous the Future Perfect Entry Test 1. 1) will have gone 2) will have fixed 3) will have been waiting 4) will have been standing 5) will you have chosen 6) will have taken 7) will have left 8) will have eaten 9) will have been standing 10) will have been waiting 11) will have found 12) will have been trying 13) will have done 14) will have been doing 15) will have bought 16) will have informed 17) will have been waiting 18) will have repaired 19) will have been repairing 20) will have been working 21) will have been married 22) will have finished 23) will have been sitting 24) will have been dead 25) will have been away 26) will have discussed 27) will have finished 28) will have been living 29) will have given 30) will have been thinking 31) will have been learning 32) will have been able 33) will have been trying 34) will have achieved 35) will have been learning 2. 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) By the end of the month they will have moved to their new flat. They will have been living in this house for 40 years by the end of the year. By the time you return we will have fixed supper. Are you sure you'll have finished the work by 7? You will have been translating the article for 4 hours by 7 o'clock. By next year they'll have been married for 40 years.

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42) By the time the manager comes the secretary will have looked through the correspondence. 43) I'm afraid they'll have finished the work before we join them. 44) We hope they'll have received our letter by the end of the week. 45) Are you sure you'll have packed the things by 6? 46) By the evening I'll have been trying to find Ann for 6 hours, but her phone doesn't answer. 47) I'll have read your book by tomorrow. 48) He'll have been repairing his car for half a year by May. 49) Will you have moved by Christmas? 50) I hope you'll have been ready by 6. Progress Test (A) 1) have been driving 2) has never stopped 3) caught 4) was driving 5) was 6) was going 7) had telephoned 8) left 9) was waiting 10) saw 11) followed 12) stopped 13) told 14) tried/ was trying 15) had landed 16) was waiting 17) didn't want 18) said 19) would have 20) have never violated (B) 21) has had 22) started 23) found 24) had disappeared 25) hasn't seen 26) bought 27) hadn't had 28) crashed 29) have continued 30) sat 31) had finished 32) was wearing 33) had bought 34) spent 35) arrived 36) discovered 37) had broken 38) had stolen 39) has done 40) hopes (C) 41) put 42) sold 43) was looking 44) bought 45) wanted 46) talked 47) had sold 48) returns 49) will receive 50) built 51) designed 52) took 53) will like (D) 54) want 55) bought 56) put 57) was raining 58) let 59) had sold 60) wouldn't replace 61) had worn 62) don't want 63) aren't 64) send (E) 65) was raining 66) woke 67) rains 68) planned 69) decided 70) missed 71) arrived 72) arranged 73) had been waiting 74) got 75) had started 76) went 77) work/ am working 78) have been sitting 79) haven't done 80) feel 81) have had 82) went 83) rained/was raining 84) will book (F) 85) was 86) failed 87) gave 88) had been shining 89) gave 90) has become 91) have (G)

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92) has got involved 93) was 94) went 95) studied 96) had 97) had been representing/ had represented 98) has been writing 99) hasn't finished 100) will become Unit 7 VOICE Entry Test 1. 1) C 2) A 3) C 4) C 5) A 6) B 7) D 8) D 9) C 10) C 11) A 12) D 13) A 14) B 15) D 16) A 17) C 18) C 19) A 20) A 21) C 22) A 23) A 24) D 25) B 26) D 27) A 28) D 29) A 30) C 31) C 32) A 33) B 34) B 35) A 36) A 37) C 38) B 39) A 40) C 2. 41) will be discussed 42) was sent; had been found 43)was destroyed 44) has been recorded 45) have been approved 46) was disqualified 47) will be published 48) was taught/has been taught 49) has been cooked 50) had been made 51) were forced 52) was handed 53) will be punished 54) have just been finished 55) were being baked 56) is being fixed 57) were destroyed 58) have been taught 59) was being opened/had been opened 60) has been published 61) was constructed 62) is being typed 63) are/were given 64) have just been allowed 65) will be published 66) would be repaired 67) had been shown 68) has been repainted 69) is greatly impressed 70) was being moved 71) was not invited 72) will be arrested 73) had been spent 74) had been involved 75) was being carried 76) is checked 77) will be blown 78) are being mended 79) have been told 80) was being painted 3. 81) The parcel will have been delivered by your arrival. 82) Dont make noise! A dictation is being written in this room. 83) I have been advised to visit Moscow. 84) The witness is being questioned now. 85) Ann was invited to spend the month of August in Germany. 86) Dont leave your bicycle outside. It will be stolen. 87) She was taught music in childhood. 88) The book had already been discussed when we entered the room. 89) Switch on the TV-set. It has just been mended. 90) All (the) exams will have been passed by the end of June and well return home. 91) The airport was closed as it had been snowing heavily the whole week. 92) Wait, please! The last student is being examined now. 93) When I left (went out of) the shop, I discovered that my bicycle had been stolen. 94) The tourists were pleased as their programme had been well-planned. 95) I wonder, what is being built in the centre of the city. 96) This man was arrested because he had tried to rob a bank several times. 97) When was this picture painted? 98) The letters will have been sent before you come.

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99) My brother was being interviewed when I came in. 100) The door had been locked, when we returned. Progress Test 1. (A) 1) is believed 2) is called 3) is said 4) be seen 5) was built 6) was owned 7) were believed 8) were never seen 9) was bought 10) was converted 11) is visited 12) are organised 13) were seen 14) was played 15) were seen 16) was frightened 17) were told (B) 18) was awarded 19) was invited 20) was held 21) was met 22) had been given/was given 23) had been organised 24) had been invited 25) was left 26) was told 27) had been heard of 28) was sent 29) was being held 30) was asked 31) had been made 32) is ever sent 33) will be organised 2. 34) by 35) by 36) with 37) with 38) by 39) with 40) with 41) by 42) with 43) by 3. 44) Trained dogs are used to find drugs. 45) The drowning boy was rescued by a lifeguard. 46) Our water heater is being repaired by an electrician. 47) You will be represented by a defence lawyer. 48) The rooms are cleaned daily. 49) Her suitcases were searched by Customs officers. 50) The plane passengers hostages were being held by hijackers. 51) The explosion had been caused by a gas leak. 52) A full report was given to the police by an eyewitness./The police were given a full report by an eyewitness. 53) The tax on cigarettes has been increased (by the government). 54) The product will be launched in May. 55) The best fudge is made by the Scots. 56) He was sent out of the classroom. 57) The work will have been finished by tonight. 58) She was made to clean the room. 59) The dog was slowly being poisoned by the horrible old man. 60) Which building is going to be knocked down? 4. 61) She had her hair cut. 62) Tony will have his car taken to the garage tomorrow. 63) Jam had her bag stolen last night. 64) Paul had his jaw broken in a boxing match. 65) We are having our new carpet fitted tomorrow. 66) He has had his passport stolen. 67) They have their house decorated every year. 68) We had our rooms cleaned this morning. 69) Sally is going to have her wedding dress made next month. 70) I have my salary deposited in my bank account every month. 71) We have our grass cut. 72) I had my window broken during the storm. 73) He will have his photograph taken. 74) He had his case carried to the car. 75) They have windows cleaned once a month. 5. 76) The tape-recorder is being repaired now. Wait, please. 77) This picture is always admired.

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78) 79) 80) 81) 82) 83) 84) 85)

The article will have been translated by tomorrow morning. When we returned the door had already been locked. 40 people have been invited to the wedding. The books will be returned to the library in a few days. When we first met, I had already been offered a new job at a bank. Youll be laughed at if you put on this cap. We had been shown a movie before he came. The works of this writer have been translated into many languages and have been published in many countries. 86) I was told about the incident by a friend of mine. 87) The Art Museum is being repaired now. It will be opened at the end of the month. 88) Dont worry! Your children will be taken care of. 89) He has been advised to call upon the police. 90) The cinema had been built by the time we moved to the city. 91) He was fined because he crossed the street when the red light was on. 92) They have just been sent a telegramme. 93) He was offended because he was taken no notice of. 94) When we arrived, the problem/question was still being discussed. 95) The letter was handed to Ann on the day of her departure. 96) I read in the paper a few weeks ago that Mr Ivanov had been made the vicepresident of the company. 97) These TV-sets are made by a Japanese firm. 98) It is said that he is an experienced lawyer. 99) Why has the meeting been cancelled? It hasnt been cancelled, it has been postponed to Thursday. 100) This novel is dedicated to the writers sister.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. .., .. .. .

( . .). : , 1973. 2. .., .. .. . . : , 1973. 3. Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar. Longman, 1997. 4. Azar, Betty Schramper. Fundamentals of English Grammar. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1985. 5. Berry, R. Collins Cobuild English Guides Articles. Harper Collins Publisher, 1993. 6. Carter, R., Hughes, R. and McCarthy, M. Exploring Grammar in Context. Cambridge University Press, 2000. 7. Carter, R., Hughes, R. and McCarthy, M. Grammar Reference and Practice. Cambridge University Press, 2000. 8. Carton-Sprenger, J., Greenhall, S. Flying Colours. Heineman, 1992. 9. Craig, Ruth Parle. 1001 Pitfalls in English Grammar. New York: Barrons Educational Series, Inc., 1986. 10. Collins Cobuild Student's Grammar. Practice Material by Dave Willis. Self-study edition with answer keys: The University of Birmingham, 1993. 11. Collins Cobuild English Grammar. Birmingham: Harper Collins Publishers, 1994. 12. Evans, V. FCE use of English. Express Publishing, 2000. 13. Super Review: English Language. New Jersey: Research and Education Association, 2000. 14. Murphy, Raymond. Essential Grammar In Use. A self-study reference and practice book for elementary students of English. Cambridge University Press, 1997. 15. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Moscow: English Language Open Doors, Cultural and Business Centre, 1988. 16. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar In Use. A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students. Cambridge University Press, 1994.

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17. Thomson, A.S., Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford

University Press, 1986. 18. Thomson, A.S. and Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. Exercises. Oxford University Press, 1990. 19. Vince, M. Intermediate Language Practice. McMillan Heinemann, 1998. 20. Vince, M. Advanced Language Practice. Heinemann, 1994. Dictionaries
21. Fowler, H.W. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Greenwich

House, 1983. 22. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman Group Limited, 1978. 23. Longman Language Activation. Longman Group UK Limited, 1995. 24. Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Second Edition. International Student's Edition. Oxford University Press, 1996.

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CONTENTS
Chapter 7. VERBS Unit 1. General Information ........................ Entry Test ..................................... 1. Meaning and creation of verbs ......................... Exercises................................... 2. Kinds and forms of verbs ......................... Exercises ...................................... 3. The category of tense: general information ............. Exercises ...................................... Unit 2. Indefinite Tenses ........................... Entry Test .................................... 1. The Present Indefinite .............................. Exercises ...................................... 2. The Past Indefinite ............................... Exercises ...................................... 3. The Future Indefinite ........................... Exercises ...................................... Review exercises ................................. Progress Test ................................... Unit 3. Perfect Tenses ............................... Entry Test .................................... 1. The Present Perfect .............................. Exercises ...................................... 2. The Past Perfect .............................. Exercises ...................................... 3 The Future Perfect ................................ Exercises ...................................... Review exercises ................................. Progress Test ................................... Unit 4. Continuous Tenses .......................... Entry Test ................................... 1. The Present Continuous .......................... Exercises ...................................... 2. The Past Continuous ........................... Exercises ...................................... 3. The Future Continuous ........................... Exercises ...................................... Review exercises ................................ 3 3 6 8 11 13 15 17 20 20 25 27 36 39 49 50 59 62 69 69 74 75 85 86 94 95 100 105 111 111 116 117 126 127 136 137 143

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Progress Test ................................... Unit 5. Perfect Continuous Tenses ...................... Entry Test ................................... 1. The Present Perfect Continuous ....................... Exercises ...................................... 2. The Past Perfect Continuous ....................... Exercises ................................... 3. The Future Perfect Continuous ....................... Exercises ...................................... Review exercises ................................ Progress Test ................................... Unit 6. English Tenses in Comparison .................... Entry Test ................................... 1. Ways of expressing the present ........................ 1.1. The Present Indefinite the Present Continuous ...... Entry Test ................................... Exercises ...................................... 1.2. The Present Indefinite the Present Perfect ......... 1.3. The Present Perfect the Present Perfect Continuous ..... Entry Test ................................... Exercises ...................................... 2. Ways of expressing the past ........................ 2.1. The Past Indefinite the Past Continuous ........... Entry Test ................................... Exercises ...................................... 2.2. The Past Indefinite the Present Perfect .............. Entry Test ................................... Exercises ................................... 2.3. The Past Indefinite the Past Perfect ............. Entry Test ................................... Exercises ...................................... 3. Ways of expressing the future ..................... 3.1. The Future Indefinite (shall/will + Infinitive) the going to form .................................... Entry Test ................................... Exercises ...................................... 3.2. The Future Continuous the Present Continuous ........ 3.3. The Future Perfect Continuous the Future Perfect .... Entry Test...................................... Exercises ......................................

149 155 155 160 161 168 169 174 176 179 186 192 192 198 198 198 200 205 205 205 208 211 211 211 213 217 217 219 225 225 228 232 232 232 234 239 239 239 242

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Review Exercises ................................ Progress Test ................................... Unit 7. Voice. English Tenses in the Passive Voice ............ Entry Test ................................... 1. General information ........................... Exercises ...................................... 2. Indefinite tenses in the Passive Voice ................. Exercises ...................................... 3. Continuous tenses in the Passive Voice ............... Exercises ...................................... 4. Perfect tenses in the Passive Voice .................. Exercises ...................................... 5. Special Passive constructions. Verbs with two Passive constructions ................................... Exercises ...................................... 6. Personal and Impersonal constructions ............... Exercises ...................................... 7. Passive Voice/ Causative form ....................... Exercises ...................................... 8. Phrasal, prepositional verbs and phraseological units in Passive structures ................................. Exercises ...................................... 9. Extracts for translation from Russian into English ...... 10. Tense and Voice in Written Texts .................... Review exercises ................................ Progress Test ................................... Keys ............................................ Bibliography ......................................

244 278 281 281 286 290 291 291 298 298 301 301 305 305 307 308 309 311 314 319 321 343 350 363 367 387

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