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, , 14

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, ,

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24

25

(Icons) 26
(Mouse)

26

(Windows) 27
(Dialog boxes) 29
(Menu) 29
31
(Shortcuts) 32
(Controls) 32
(Buttons) 33
33

. . Mac OS X UNIX

(Check boxes) 33
(Radio buttons) 34
(Sliders) 34
(Scroll bars) 34
Clipboard () 34

35
35
Bitmap 37
WYSIWYG 38
PostScript 39
TrueType 42
OpenType 44

44
Unicode 46
49
51

52
, , ... 55
ARPA 56
TCP/IP 57
IP- 59
IP- 59
61
63
DHCP 64
DNS 65
ICANN 68
69

FTP, HTTP, WWW

70

FTP 70
71
URL 73
Proxy

74

MIME 75

76

Macintosh 76

Mac OS X 83
AQUA 83
Finder

84

Finder'a 84
Finder'a 92
(Menu)
(Dock)

95

102

104
105
(Windows)

106

(Sheets)
(Icons)

109

109

(Controls)

(Buttons) 110
110
(Check boxes)
(Sliders)

110

110

(Scroll bars)
Pasteboard ()

110

.
Classic, Carbon, Cocoa 1 1 1

. . Mac OS X UNIX

Mac OS X
114

116

. (Domains) 119
System Local 120
Network

124

User 124

.
(Inspector) 126
130
130
131

.
1 3 1
.
Print Center 132
141
Network Utility 146

.
150
151
:
AppleScript. 157
159
Classic 161
ColorSync

163

Date & Time 165


Desktop

168

Displays

168

Dock 170
Energy Saver

170

General 171
International 172
Internet 176
Keyboard
Login

180

182

Mouse 184
Network

184

QuickTime 191
Screen Saver
Sharing

194

196

Software Update
Sound
Speech

197

198
199

Startup Disk 202


Universal Access

202

Users 203

207
Darwin 208
Mach

208

BSD 209
- (I/O Kit)

210

211
213

HFS, HFS+: 215


Mac OS X 217

. . Mac OS X UNIX

219
219
(Bundles) 220
(Kernel Extensions) 221
(Plug-ins) 223

223
Quartz

223

OpenGL 225
QuickTime

225

226
Mac OS X 227
Finder 227
. 227
Desktop Folder 230
230

231

, Mac OS X 232

233
233
root 234

235
(startup). 235
(login) 235
237

1. 239
(Install).
(Uninstall)

239

239
239
(install) 241
(uninstall) 247

2. 249
249

3. 255
Mac OS 9 - Mac OS X 255

4. 257
Windows - Mac OS

257

5. 259
BSD 259

262
270

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Macintosh... , , , ... ,
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. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


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10

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11

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, , 14
15
, , 17
25
35
44
52
, , ... 55

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SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


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13

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

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14

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15

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

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16

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

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17

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

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18

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19

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

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20

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UNIX'a, , , .
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. , :
/Documents/PriceList.

,
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21

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

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22

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, HFS+ ,
. , HFS+ 512 , 1 (2x512), 2
(4 512), 4 (8x512) .


(volume), (partition)
(mount)
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, (volumes).
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23

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

,
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(mount).
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(symbolic link)
(alias)
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24

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

-
. , :
, -, . - ,
, ,
, .


Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)
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, ,
, . , , ,
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, ,- , , ,
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.
Palo Alto Research Center
(PARC) Xerox. ,
, ,
Lisa Apple 1983 Macintosh.

25

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

(Icons)

(Icons)
.

, , ,
, , .

(Mouse)
, -
:
(click), (double click)
, (drag-and-drop)
(mouse) .
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:
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26

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

(click): ,
, .
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(double click) ,
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,
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(Windows)


(windows). -

27

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


,
.

, , ,
.

, , . , ,
. , ,
.
(borders)
.
(title bar) . - (drag). - : , , ,
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,
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(size box),
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28

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

(Dialog boxes)
(dialog box)
(alert box)
(dialog boxes) , ,
- , .

(alert boxes),
.

.
,
, , , .

(Menu)

,
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29

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. , , .
(menu) . :
( ),
, MS DOS UNIX.
Macintosh , .

.
.
, - . . , (
),
.

. () .
(, -
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. ,
, (/, /, /). , File
, ,
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, .

30

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.
-, , ,
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-, ,
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-, ,
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, , , , ,
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31

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, : , , , .
(Shortcuts)
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.
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+ , , +
. , +. , , Shift,
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(Controls)

, , .
, , .
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(controls) ,
, , , , .

32

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, . .
(Buttons)

(buttons) - . , .
, . Return,
Esc.
, Return, Return , .
Mac OS ( ).

(pop-up menu)
.
, .
. - - .

(Check boxes)

(check boxes)
,
/,
.

33

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

(Radio buttons)

(radio buttons) , .
(Sliders)

(sliders) ,
.
(Scroll bars)

(scroll bars)
, . - . , "", , ,
,
,
.

Clipboard ()
Clipboard ()

Clipboard () ,
. Clipboard'a
.
Clipboard'a , , ,

34

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, . ,
, , , , .
,
(), (Cut), (Paste)
,
. Clipboard .

-
. : , , , .
, ,
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(font), (type family), (size)
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(regular), (bold), (italic)
, dpi
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, ,
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.

35

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

(font) . ,
, .
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, ().
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-, .
. , , .
(typeface, style)
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. ,
. , , . .
. -

36

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. , , (dots per inch, dpi). , ,


.
.

Bitmap
(bitmap)
(raster)
(color depth, bit depth)
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. : , .
, , , . , , , , , ,
. , ,
,
. ,
, .
.

37

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


. , - (/); , .
,
(bits per pixel, bpp), (color
depth, bit depth).
, , , (bitmap) ,
. .
(raster) ,

, .
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, , ...
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WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG
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Macintosh'a
1980-
: , , ... ,

. -

38

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

WYSIWYG
/What You See Is What You Get), : ,
. . . 72
,
( ).
. Apple
Sony . , Sony .
- Sony
Trinitron. Macintosh .
, , , . ,
. ...

PostScript

Adobe
(Bezier)
PostScript
hints, 1 3
QuickDraw

Adobe
. ...

. . , = 2+ b + : , b, .
, :
. ,

39

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. , ( ,
, ), .
Adobe (Bezier) ,
. PostScript.
PostScript-. - , , ,
,
.
PostScript-

. ,
,
, .
PostScript- ( ).
PostScript, , ,
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Apple 1985 .
LaserWriter. 300 (300 dpi).
, , .
,
. , - PostScript- , . : , , - . bitmap-
PostScript-

40

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: 9, 10, 12, 18, 24 ( ).


bitmap- , , PostScript- , .
,
PostScript- PostScript- bitmap- . ,
QuickDraw
. , . .
PostScript-
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PostScript. Mac OS. Apple
Display PostScript.
.
(antialiasing). Adobe
Type Manager (ATM), , QuickDraw. ATM PostScript- ,
PostScript, .
, , () (300 dpi ). Adobe (hints),
. , ,-
,
. .
, Adobe .
PostScript Adobe. PostScript-, , -

41

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, PostScript ( Apple), Adobe


PostScript. Adobe
1, 3.
. Adobe .

TrueType
TrueType
TrueType scaler
TrueImage
Apple Microsoft
. , . , ,
. ,
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1987 , Microsoft. 1989 Apple,
(Sampo Kaasila),
.
Truelmage Microsoft ,
, .
, , ,
System 7
1991 TrueType.
Microsoft TrueType
Windows 3-1 1992 . TrueType
, Macintosh'ax.
Microsoft TrueType
Windows 3.1 : () , , ,

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, .
- , TrueType- PC , ,
, . 1995 Windows 95, TrueType Windows. Microsoft TrueType Windows.
Macintosh TrueType .

TrueType ,
PostScript .
. TrueType , PostScript
.
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-,
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TrueType , PostScript.
-,
, .
-, TrueType- PostScript- . TrueType-
TrueType scaler. Apple TrueType-.
Apple, :
Motorola, ,
Macintosh, TrueType scaler.
,
TrueType- PostScript PostScript. , , ,
, .

43

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, TrueType , PostScript , .
1, .

>
, Adobe PostScript PostScript-
1. PostScript , : PostScript
TrueType Windows.
, .
Adobe Microsoft .
, ...


, , (script)
ACSII
: DOS, Windows-1251, KOI-8r, Mac
, .
, , ,
.
44

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. , 256
(28). 128 ( 0 127)

45

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

( ), , . ( 128 255)
, () .
, .
, , . :
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Windows-1251 Microsoft Windows,
KOI-8r UNIX,
Mac Macintosh.

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0 232.
.

46

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, , .
, Unicode'e, U+.
. . , , ,
. ,
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: 0 1.
, , . ,
UNIX .
.
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/ . , , .
, UNIX-
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47

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, , .
.
UTF-8 ,
, UNIX-
. , UTF-8
Unicode-.
Unicode- . Unicode'a , . , 128 UTF-8 ( 00 7F ) , 128 ASCII-,
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,
. , / , , .
UTF-16 , . UTF-16
1. UTF-8

48

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16 ( ). 16- (2x2 ).
, UTF-32 , , .

32 ( ).
0 232 , , . ,
, 0 216
.
(Base Multilingual Plane, BMP).
U+0400 U+04FF 1024 1279 , , , 04,
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, , Unicode'e, , Unicode. , ,
Unicode . . ...


-

ASCII-
.

() . ,
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ASCII- , ASCII- , , ,
.
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49

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, . ,
,
, .
- Command
, Control,
Option (Alt), Shift, Caps Lock
ASCII- .
ASCII . -, .
Macintosh -, 32 (25)
, , 32
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.
Unicode Hex Input Unicode .
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. ,
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50

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

,
,

.

.
ASCII Unicode
, ,
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.
Unicode-
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bitmap- , PostScript-,
TrueType- OpenType- , .


(behavior)
, , , .

51

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

.
.
(, ),
, . , , .
, (behavior). ,
( )
. ,
.

(task scheduler)
(cooperative multitasking)
(preemptive multitasking)

, , . , , - ?
, ,-
. , ,
, . (, ) , , . , .
. . , (),

52

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, -
. ,
,
.
(task scheduler). ( , )
, , .
: ,
, -, .
. ? .
: , .
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. , ,
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53

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. , ,
, . , , . , .
. , , . , (preemptive multitasking), ,
.
, , . .
. .
Mac OS ( Mac OS 9)
, UNIX , Windows, . Mac OS
.

.
Macintosh'a ? ,
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, ,
. Macintosh'e . , , ,
,
. , , -

54

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. , ,
, .
.
, , . Mac OS ,
, , ,
.
. ,
, . ,
Mac OS .
, . .
, Windows 95/98/ME
Windows 2000/XP ( ) , Ctrl+Alt+Del, . , , Mac OS.
. , ,
.

, , ...
, , . ,
.
. .

55

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

ARPA

Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA)


National Science Foundation (NSF)
ARPAnet, NSFnet
(packet-switching)

ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency),


60- 70-.
,

. ,
.
:
1.
, , .
2. ,
.
(National Science Foundation, NSF) .
ARPAnet
NSFnet. , PDP-11, IBM-370,
Burroughs 6500, ILLIAC IV . 1983
ARPAnet , 1992
NSFnet,
.
,
.
,
ARPAnet -

56

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.

, ,
, . (packetswitching) - .
- ,
, ,
.
ARPAnet : , , . ,
, , ,
,
, ,
.

TCP/IP

Internet Protocol (IP)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
ARPA ,
, .
,
. TCP/IP.
TCP/IP ,
.
(Internet Protocol, IP) -

57

. . Mac OSX UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

TCP/IP. . . , .

(Transmission Control Protocol, TCP). -
, TCP . TCP
. TCP/IP
. .
, TCP/IP
.
, , . TCP/IP
.
, . :
. , . , . .
TCP/IP.
TCP/IP
ARPAnet. ( NSF).
UNIX. ,
UNIX'a BSD UNIX 4.2 TCP/IP , TCP/IP, .

58

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

IP-

(host)
IP-
(network ID)
(host ID)

,
TCP/IP, (host). . ,
, IP-.
, , ,
. IP- .
IP-,
. IP- 32- , .
, ,
. IP- . , IP- . IP- , .
, :
10101000 11011001 01111011 00000111
168.217.123.7

IP- , , : (network ID)
(host ID).
, . . .
IP-
IP-
IP-
I-. IP- -

59

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, . IP-.
.
1-126. , .
126 .
16 777 214 .
:
10.217.123.7

.
128-191. ,
.
16 384 , 65 534 .
:
168.217.123.7

.
192-223.
.
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:
192 . 2 1 7 . 1 2 3 . 7

D .
D. D
224-239. .
.
240-255. .
IP- . , IP-, 127, .
TCP/IP , .

60

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IP-, / ,
. 2 IP- IP-.
- , ,
. ,
( ) 256
8
(2 ) 00000000 11111111.
8
254 (2 2).

, ,

(router)

, ,
, , ,

IP- (. . 2 IP-).
, .
, . , IP-
. .
, 2. IP-

61

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. . Mac OS X UNIX

. , ,
TCP/IP,
, , ...
,
, - ( ) , -
, , . - . , , ,
. : (routers) , (internal traffic) , ...
,
, .
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, : 255.255.255.0. . IP- , :
10101000
11111111

11011001
11111111

01111011
11111111

00000111
00000000

168.217.123.7
255.255.255.0

IP-

IP-, ,
, , ,-

62

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. ? , ,
,
. , , , , , . , 168.217, 123,
.
IP- . ,
IP- , , , . , ,
() , . , , , ,

. ,
, , , .
, .

, ,
:
:
255.0.0.0
:
255.255.0.0
:
255.255.255.0


(port)
IP- . , , . ,

63

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

.
TCP/IP . , , . : , . , (port). 0 65 535, IP-,
, TCP/IP.
IP- :, :
192.168.10.7:80. ,

0 1024. .

DHCP
IP-
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
, IP-. , ,
254 , 300 , . , .
200 ?
, , 200
, , ,
,
. . , ,
, , . , , 200 . .
, IP- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
DHCP TCP/IP.
-
. , IP- DHCP-. -

64

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


DHCP-. , , , IP- . , .
.

IP-. IP-. , , IP- () . , , , IP- ,
IP-.
IP-
, IP- - -
IP-,
, ,
.
. DHCP- , ,
.

DNS

(Domain Name System, DNS)




DNS


DNS

TCP/IP , , ( ),
.

65

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. ,
. . , , ,
, . Domain Name System (DNS).
, , . (domain) DNS ,
. , - ,
, . . .
DNS.
. , :
.com ,
.edu ,
.gov ,
.mil ,
.org ,
.net ,
.int ,
.r ARPA, .
, 200 , , .
.ru :
.biz
,
.info
,
.name
Web-,
.pro
(, )
.museum ,
.aero
,
.coop
, , .

66

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

: Apple apple.com,
. -
www.apple.com. , ,
,
,
.
IP-. ? ,
? , ,
. , , . DNS, , , ,
.
DNS-
, . - ,
-. , DNS- ,
.
DNS .
, DNS, , , (, .com , ). ,
.
, . DNS, ,
,
. , .
,
:
, . DNS

67

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

.
. ,
, .
DNS , . DHCP, , , , , , DNS.
, , DNS -, . , DNS
Domain Name System ( ).
DNS , DNS Domain Name Server ( ).
, DNS Domain Name Service
( , , ).
, DNS, , .

ICANN
IP-,
: NIC, InterNIC, IANA, ICANN, ARIN, RIPE, APNIC
IP- ,
.
, (Stanford Research
Institute),
ARPAnet, , , . Network Information Center (NIC). ,
, InterNIC.
, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
, IP-, ,
DNS,

68

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers


(ICAAN), , , IANA. ICAAN .
(ARIN , RIPE , APNIC
), , , . , IP-,
,- .


- (Point-to-Point Protocol, PPP)

, TCP/IP, , , . , , ,
?
, (, ),
- (Point-to-Point Protocol, PPP).

: ,
( ),

.
(-) ( ), , ,
( ),
. : , (). , , ? ?

69

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

-, (
, )
. .
-,
.
-, ,
, .
.
, , , .
, .
, ,
.

FTP, , WWW
, , ...
? - ?
FTP

(File Transfer Protocol, FTP, ftp)


, 70-... 1983 , - , ... , ,- () . TCP/IP (File Transfer Protocol, FTP).

,
. -

70

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

,
. FTP , , .

,
HyperText Transfer Protocol, HTTP, http
HyperText Markup Language, HTML, html
(browser)
Netscape, Netscape Navigator
(World Wide Web, Web, WWW)
Web-,
FTP . , ,
.
- . . , ,
.
, , , . .
( ), . . ( ) . , . , .
, .

TCP/IP
(HyperText Transfer Protocol, HTTP). ,
(HyperText
Markup Language, HTML) ,
(browsers), -

71

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, .
,
. ,
, . ( ) , Web-,
.
, . , , Web-. , , .
,
,
. ,
.
, , NeXT CERN
(). , Netscape
Netscape Navigator. ,
Microsoft,
, , . . ,
, , ... -, ,
. - .
,
,
(World Wide Web, Web, WWW).
Web-. Web-, -,- ,
.

72

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

( Index.html Default.html), . . Web-, :


, .
URL


Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
, . , . ,
, ,
.
, (. , , ). ,
:
IP- , , .
. , ,
,
, Web-. , Uniform Resource Locator (URL).
URL ,
- . URL . URL /,
. HTTP FTP, , gopher.
://. IP- (, www.apple.com 17.254.0.91).

73

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

,
. , .
UNIX'a /. ,
, , :
http://www.apple.com:80/news/audio.mp3

URL Web-, (Address).


LJRL , , URL , . , HTTP- Index.html Default.html.

Proxy

(cashing) Web-
proxy-
Proxy
. :
,
. , .
Web-. , , , . , . , . ,
Proxy-, ,
,
.
, Proxy-, , . ,

74

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

,
, .
Proxy- ,
. , , TCP/IP. ,
HTTP 80, FTP- 20 21.
Proxy- . ,
, . . . , , . (cashing). Proxy-
Web- .
Proxy-,
- . .

MIME
- . ASCII- (US-ASCII).
, .
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
-. , , - .

75

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

,
, , . , .
.
, , , , - , .

, , ,
, , .
, ,
,
, .
, ,
, .
, , - ,
, . ,
, .
Macintosh
AppleShare
LocalTalk
AppleTalk
Apple

AppleShare.

76

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

LocalTalk, RS-422 .
, AppleTalk, .
,
Ethernet. Ethernet AppleTalk
Macintosh.

Macintosh AppleShare
.
TCP/IP .
TCP/IP
,
, TCP/IP , ,
, Macintosh'ax.
Macintosh' () , Windows NT
Microsoft Netware Novell.
AppleShare IP,
AppleShare, TCP/IP, AppleTalk.
Mac OS 9
AppleShare over TCP/IP TCP/IP- .
Macintosh- AppleShare - ,
-.

77

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X
AQUA 83
.
Classic, Carbon, Cocoa 111
Mac OS X
114
. (Domains) 119
. (Inspector) 126
130
130
.
131
. Print Center 132
. 150
151
: AppleScript. 157
159

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X
Mac OS X .

AQUA
Aqua

.
Macintosh . - . Apple
.
, , . Aqua . Aqua
: , , , . , , , , ... , ?
Apple , ,
.
, , .

83

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Finder
(Desktop)
Finder
, ,
.

(Desktop) ,
. ,
. Finder. , ,
Finder'o.
Finder Mac OS, , .
Finder
.
Windows
Explorer.
Finder'a
Finder Macintosh
Mac OS. Mac OS X ,
, , Mac OS X , ,
.

84

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Finder'a, ,
(Toolbar).

- Computer, Home, Favorites,


Applications : , -, ,
; ;
; , .
Back Path .
Finder'a . , , .
Finder'a Customize Toolbar... View,
Finder'a.


, -,
.
85

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

- ,
(drag) .
- , .

.
, (default set).
Show : + (Icon & Text), (Icon
Only), (Text Only).
- 3
Finder'a.
- Finder'a , . , Finder'a.
Done ()
Finder'a. Finder .
Finder'a, View View:
- (View as Icons).

86

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

3. Finder'a

87

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, , , (View as List).

(View as Columns).
. , - .

Mac OS X ( 255 ). , , -

88

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

. , . - , , / .
,
Option. .
Finder'a.
Macintosh'e ,
. Mac OS X .
Finder'a
.
, - .
PC ,
Windows, OpenStep (NEXTstep) Windows.
Path ( ),
.

- - Finder'a
,
. , ,
. Show (Hide) Toolbar
View, Finder'a.
,
Finder'a Web-,
,
, .
, .

89

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, Finder Mac OS X Finder'y Mac OS,


.
Finder'a ,
.
Finder'a
, , . Finder'a , , (. Finder'a).

Show Status
Bar View.
,
,- Go ,
Finder'a. ,
.
Finder Mac OS X .
, ,

90

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

, , .
,
, .
/
.
Finder'a.
Mac OS X . , :
Ctrl+F2
,
Ctrl+F3

Ctrl+ ,
Ctrl+F5
,
Ctrl+F6
,
. Ctrl+F6 .
Ctrl+F7
, , .

Ctrl+ ( , d , t , ) .
Tab
-

. , ,
,

. Tab .

(System Preferences, Keyboard, Full
Keyboard Access). , . , / Ctrl+Fl.
Mac OS X , Macintosh'a
, . ,

91

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X, Mac OS, ,


UNIX'a Windows. Macintosh'e
, , . , , Finder'a. . , ,
, Windows, , ;

. Macintosh'e ,
(. OS X).
Finder'a
Max OS X , Finder'a.
Finder'a

. Macintosh'e ,
. Finder'a , .
Finder'a,
Preferences... Finder.

,
Show these items on the Desktop
( )
:
Hard disks ,
Removable media (such as CDs) -,
Connected servers .

92

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Finder'a ( ) (),
Computer.
New Finder Window shows ( Finder'a ).
Always open folders in a new window ,
.
Keep a window's view the same when opening other folders in the
window
, .
Show warning before empting the Trash .
Always show file extensions , , Open SaveAs.
.

93

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, Finder'a,
View, Show View Options
Icon Size
. , Mac OS X
.
Icon Arrangement
:
None ,
Always snap to grid
,
Keep arranged by :
(Name),

(Date Modified),
(Date Created),
(Size),
(Kind).
Finder'a
.
Background ():
White .
Color .
ColorPicker, .

94

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Picture -,
, Select... , .
This window only/Global ( /) Finder'a.

(Menu)
Mac OS X
, .
. Mac OS X Finder.
Mac OS X
Mac OS, .

, , Apple.

Aqua. . Apple ,
Finder'a,
Finder'y, : Sleep, Restart, Shut
Down . , Apple , .
, Go.
, Mac OS X

.
Apple
, (. . 4 Apple).

95

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Finder
Finder. ,
Finder'a (. . 5 Finder).

96

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

5. Finder

File
Finder'a (. . 6 File).
Edit
, Finder'a (. . 7
Edit),

97

. . Mac OS X UNIX
6. File

98

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

7. Edit

View
. ,
, Finder'a ( , , , , ) (. . 8
View).
Go
.
Finder'a. (. . 9
Go).
Window
.
Window.

99

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

8. View

. , Window (. . 10 Window).
Help
.
.
.

100

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

9. Go

10. Window

(status bar). , , -

101

. . Mac OSX UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, AirPortBase Station.
,

,
. , ,
(drag) .
.
Mac OS X ,

:
Hide Application ( ),
Minimize Window ( ).

(Dock)
(Dock)
Mac OS X
(Dock). (taskbar) Windows, , .

.
, ,
, .
, .
, , Finder'oM: , , ,
Web-.
.
. , , -

102

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

,
, ,
, .
() .
,
.
.
, .
, .
, ,
.
, >>
(magnification): ,
.

,
, . ,
, . - Mac OS 9.
,
.

, (Trash), .

103

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

( ), .

.
,
.
,
, .

Dock Size .
,
,
, .
( ),
.
Magnification () / .
, Magnification.
Automatically hide and show the Dock ( ) , , , .

104

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Position on screen ( ) ,
(Left), (Bottom), (Right).
Minimize using ( ) ,
:
Genie Effect . , .
Scale Effect /,
.
Animate opening application ( )
.
:
Dock
/ (Turn Magnification
On/Off),
/ /
( Hiding On/Off),
(Dock Preferences...),
.
(System Preferences)
Dock .
, , Dock

Option, . , , , .
Option, - Finder'. .

. , , , .

105

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. , .
Tab
.
- , - Mac OS 9 (pop-up windows).
Shift , / .

, .
,
. , , ,
. ,
, . , Mac OS X, .

(Windows)

,
. , . , , . Mac OS .
, . , - . , , , .
. , ,
, , , , . -

106

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

, ,
. ,
. , , .
,
,- . , , - , , . , , , ,
, (
)
, . Mac OS X , , , .
,
, .
: . , , , . ,
Windows -
.
-
.
, , . , -, -
.

() .
.
(zoom box) Mac OS.
( ), , .
. , ,

107

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


,
.
, .


:
,
, . , .
Open
( TextEdit).


, , ,
RTF (Ignore rich text commands),
, .

108

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

(Sheets)
(Sheets)
,
,
. Mac OS X (Sheets). - ,
. ,
, . , , .

(Icons)
Mac OS X
? , ,
. ,
Mac OS X .
, , . :
, .
: .
.
Mac OS X ,
128 128 , . , ,

Mac OS X. .
, .
Mac OS X, , .

109

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

(Controls)
Mac OS X
Mac OS X Mac OS 9, , , .
Aqua.
(Buttons)
Mac OS X ( ). , .

(Check boxes)

(Sliders)

(Scroll bars)

Pasteboard ()
Pasteboard
Mac OS X, Mac OS,
Pasteboard

110

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

/
(Copy/Paste) / (Cut/Paste). Clipboard. ,
Pasteboard'a. , , Pasteboard , Clipboard'e.

.
Classic, Carbon, Cocoa

Classic, Carbon, Cocoa
Mac OS (Extensions)
... ,
, .
. ,
, , , Mac OS, ,
. , , , .
Mac OS X .
Mac OS X
, :
, Mac OS 8 Mac OS 9. Classic;
, Mac OS X. Carbon;
, Mac OS X.
Cocoa.
Mac OS X
, .

111

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, Mac OS X ,
:
Java,
BSD.
BSD Apple . ,
. ,
BSD. UNIX'e
Macintosh , , Terminal, Mac OS X,- , .
Java, , Java- Mac OS,
Mac OS X - . , , Apple .
Java Java-.
Java Macintosh'ax?
-, .
Mac OS X Java-
Application Program Interfaces (API) Cocoa. , , Mac OS X Object-C, , Java.
, , Mac OS X,
Java.
Mac OS X. , Java UNIX'a PC,
Macintosh Java- ,
Macintosh'a.
Mac OS X Apple Java 2 Java Development Kit (JDK),

112

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Java Virtual Machine (JVM). , Java Macintosh'ax Java-. Macintosh Java-.


UNIX- Mac OS X Sun Solaris
Java-.
Classic, Classic ,
.
, Classic- Mac OS 9.x1

Mac OS X. Classic,
, Mac OS X, , , Mac OS 9.
. , , , , Mac OS X Mac OS 9.x, Mac OS X. Classic
, : Classic Environment
starting from < >.

, Classic .
, , ,
, Mac OS 9.x.
Mac OS 9.x , ,
. , , Mac OS X: ,
. Classic Apple , - .
1

Mac OS 9, Classic, -

OS X. Mac OS X 10.0 Mac OS 9.1,


Mac OS X 10.1 Mac OS 9.2.1 (. .).

113

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS 9-, Mac OS, (Extensions). , , , , , . ,


, . ,
Mac OS, , Classic. Classic- , . - , .
Classic- Mac OS 9.x -
. .

Mac OS X



(home)
(login)
, root

Mac OS X . , . , (
) . .
Mac OS X
(login),
(Name) (Password). -

114

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

. ,
.

: , , . , .
.
,
.
, .

, Mac OS X .
, System
Administrator, root,
. , ,
, root
. root'
,
root -

115

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. root'a .
! root , root'a. , , root
(. root (. .).

.
,
, , admin , staff , , .
, , , Finder'e, , staff.
, , . (home). () . .



. ,
.

Users.

Users
,
.

116

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Name .
Kind (, Admin ).
New User... .
Edit User... ( ).
Delete User...
.
(New User... Edit User...)
/. , , . , : Identity Password.
Identiy
Name .
Short Name , , . ,
.
Login Picture


( ),

(login),
,
.
.

117

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, .
-, Choose...
(drag-and-drop) Login Picture Finder'a.
Password
Password .
Verify . , , .
Password Hint . ,
, (. ,
Login).
: , , .
Allow user to administer this computer .

118

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

,
.

.
(Domains)

System, Local, Network, User
BSD: /bin, /etc, /usr

. , .
.
,
. , , , .
Mac OS X . . . . . Finder'a
.
,
Mac OS X , .
(domain) ,
, ,
. , ,
. : User, Local, Network, System.

119

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

User (). ,
. .
, . , .
Local (). , , ,
. , .
.
Network (). , ,
.
.
System (). , Apple. .
, .
, .
root
System.

System Local
System Local
System Local :
Mac OS X
Applications
Library
System
Mac OS X Mac OS X.
Mac OS X ,
Mac OS 9-, :
Mac OS X
Mac OS 9 Files
System Folder
/ Mac OS 9x/

120

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Applications (Mac OS 9)
Documents
/ OS 9x/
Volumes
, Mac OS 9.x ,
Users Mac OS 9- .
Mac OS X
, ,
(. . 11 System Local). ...
Library .
Library . , , , ,
.
[.
(Bundles)].
Library , . 1 1 . System Local

121

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

12. Library

122

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

12. Library ()

13. Network

Library. , , Local Network, User (.


. 12 Library).
Classic
Mac OS X
Applications (Mac OS 9)
, , Mac OS X
.

123

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Network
Network
Network , . ,
, , . , (. . 13 Network).
,
. .

User
User
(~)
. ,
.
: Desktop, Documents, Library, Movies,
Music, Pictures, Public, Sites.
Desktop , Finder
.
Documents .
Library .
Movies QuickTime
.
Music .3,
.aiff .
Pictures .
Public , .
Sites (URL')
Web-. Web-.

124

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

14.

Applications , . - , ,
Applications . (. ).

Mac OS X
Users
<__>
Apple ~
(. . 14 ).
Public
Shared, ,
, .
Shared
Mac OS X
Users
Shared
() Shared. .
,
() BSD, /bin, /etc, /usr.
.

125

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

.
(Inspector)
. Inspector.
Inspector Finder'a
Get Info Mac OS. ,

, , .
, Inspector'o,
. ,
Inspector'o, . : (volume), (folder), (application),
(document), (alias). (, , ,
), .
Inspector'a .
Inspector'a ,
, .
/
,

-.
General Information
General Information (.
. 15 Inspector. ).
Stationery Pad
( -).

126

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

15. Inspector.

Locked .
Name & Extension
Name & Extension
/ .
Hide extension Finder'a
Open () SaveAs ( ).
Mac OS X Inspector'a.
Open with application
Opent with application
, .
,
, , ,
.
, .
, , Other.
.

127

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Change All...
.

Finder'a Mac OS X
Mac OS X
.
Preview
Preview preview .
Privileges
Privileges .
Owner
() .
Group , .
, (. . 16 ).
(. .. 17 ).
, , .
, , Inspector
.
16.

128

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

(volume)
:
Format () Mac OS Standard, Mac OS
Exended, UFS,
Capasity () ,
Available () ,
Used ()
.
, (Encoding). Roman MacRoman.
Mac OS X .
Privileges

, . Apply.
(application)
.

Web- 17.

129

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

(Plug-Ins)
.
(alias)
Select New Original...
, ,
- (,
) .



Fonts , . :
System Local Network Users.
, Mac OS X
System Folder
Fonts
Classic .
, ,
, . .
, , . , , , ,
, , , .
.

130

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X


,
, . ,
, :
Users Local
Network
System.
, . , , .

.



Information Property List
Mac OS X .
, .
, . , , ,
, .
(Information Property Lists), , Mac OS X ( ).
, [. . (Domains)]. .

131

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, ( )
, .
Finder'a,
.
, , , .
, .
- , ,
, , ,
, ,
. , .

.
Print Center


: Chooser () PrintMonitor
Print Center
: Page Setup, Print

PDF-

Mac OS. OS X

. :
, , .

132

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

- ,
, , , .
Mac OS Chooser' (). Chooser . Chooser / AppleTalk, ,
. , , . Chooser
Finder'a , . , PrintMonitor.
Mac OS X

Print Center,
Utilities:
Mac OS X
Application
Utilities

, Print Center
.
, .
Print Center :
,
.
Mac OS X ,
- .

133

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, ,
,
.
,
. , , , , .
,
. , : , ,
.

.
, . Mac OS Chooser'a . -
,
.

Print Center (Name), (Kind)


(Status). .
, (default), .
Make Default
Printers
.
Delete
.
Add Printer... .
Mac OS X :
, AppleTalk;
, LPR
TCP/IP (LPR Printers using TCP/IP);

134

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

, Mac OS X Server'y, NetInfo- (Directory Services);


, USB- .
.
Mac OS X USB- ,
, ,
, , .

PostScript- Mac OS X ,
, - PostScript Printer
Description (PPD). PPD- - . Mac OS X PPD- ,
Apple, Hewlett-Packard, Tektronix, Lexmark, Xerox.
PPD- ,
- - PPD-, Mac OS,
. PPD-
Library
Printers
PPDs
Contents
Resources
en.lproj
/English/

135

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


[. .
(Domains)-)].
/ PostScript-
, - , ,
, ,- , PPD, ,
PPD- Generic. ,
PrintCenter'a
Delete .
, Add Printer...
, Printer Model
, , , PPD-.


PPD- PostScript ,
AppleTalk. ,
.
LPR-, UNIX TCP/IP, PPD-
.
(, ) .
PostScript-,

136

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

. , USB- , , ,
. , . - -
.
, USB-. , Mac OS X.
, ,
Printers : .
,
Print Center.

,
.
Hold
.
Resume
.
Delete
.

137

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Stop Queue Queue.


- , . :

Stop Job ,
Stop Queue
,
Delete Job
.
, ,
Page Setup
Print .

Page Setup , Mac OS. , Mac OS X .

138

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

,
.
.
Format for , .
Paper Size .
Orientation .
Scale ( ).
.
Cancel , Page Setup.
, ,
Print File

Print.
Copies .
Pages , :
All ,
From...to , , From, ,
to.
Preview
Viewer
,
.
Cancel
. , .
Print . ,
Return .
Layout

139

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, .
Output Options

PDF
PostScript.

Save as File
Format . ,
.
Paper Feed

.
Error Handling

.
Summary .
, Save
Custom Setting .

, ,

.


- -

140

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

, Print Center
.
Macintosh Macintosh'eM, . Printer Center , ,
, , . .


Netlnfo
Netlnfo
() (Sharing)
Public
Mac OS X Web-
FTP
, telnet

Mac OS X .
Mac OS, , , .
Mac OS X .
, . , Netlnfo. , , NetInfo-.
Netlnfo :
, , , NFS,
, .
, Mac OS X, Netlnfo.
.

141

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Users .
NetInfo, NetInfo Manager.
NetInfo- NetInfo
, NetInfo.
NetInfo- Mac OS X Server .

Macintosh, , .
. ,
.
, , TCP/IP File Sharing.
, ()
, Public
Shared.
Public Drop
Box Write Only ( ).
- .

Public .
, ,
,
Public. root,
, ,
.
Shared , , - .
, .
, - DHCP-,
Windows NT
Windows 2000, TCP/IP .

142

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Mac OS X
Web- Apache. Web-.

Sites. HTML index.html.
Web-,
Sharing, File & Web, Web Sharing Off, Start 1.
Web- - (URL):

, FTP. ,
Allow FTP access ( FTP)
Sharing, File & Web.
FTP
Public. (
). ,
.
, , ,
(
Allow remote login Sharing, Application).
Mac OS X 10.0.1, telnet Secure Shell (SSH). , ,
, :
1. , Allow remote login
.
2. ( , ).
1

, IP-

(. .}.

143

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

3. :

, .
, .
, .
Mac OS X ?
-, Macintosh'aM TCP/IP AppleTalk.
Mac OS 9 Mac OS X, TCP/IP;
, AppleTalk'y
-,
WebDAV. ,
, iDisk Apple.
, Mac OS X
SAMBA , Windows NT 2000, UNIX-, SAMBA.
Macintosh'y , :
1. Go
Connect to Server...
2. -
AppleTalk.
3. -
.
4.
Connect.
Windows, :

144

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

1. Go Connect to Server...
2. Address
, .
3. Connect.
(URL)
SAMBA :
/
:

DNS- ,
IP-.
SAMBA Mac OS X TCP/IP.
NetBIOS .
, Finder'a
Computer . - ,
.
, , , , . Windows, UNIX'a,
Mac OS X.
, c
OS X, , ,
.

,
,
Public
.

,
Public, -

145

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. , ,
Drop Box Write Only
( ).
, Public,
Drop Box.
, ,
Public
. .
, ,
.
Mac OS X TCP/IP ,
AppleTalk , (legacy). AppleTalk TCP/IP, Mac OS 9 AppleShare over
TCP/IP.


TCP/IP, UNIX- ping,
traceroute , .
Mac OS X Network Utility.
Network Utility

, TCP/IP.
Info /I--

146

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

: - (Hardware Address), IP-, (Link Speed),


.
Netstat ,
, .

Ping () . ping,
.

Lookup DNS
().

147

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Traceroute IP-
().

148

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Whois . Please enter a domain address


to look up its whois information.
, .
Finger , -
.

Port Scan ,
TCP/IP .
.

, , . , , !

149

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


Internet Connect

( ) ,
Mac OS X Internet Connect.

Internet Connect ,
.
Configuration
.

150

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Telephone Number (
Network).
Password .
Show modem status in menu bar / () .
, ,
Internet Connect, , Network .
- ,
Edit... Network.
Connect -.
Internet Connect
.

Apple Type Solution, ATS



,
Mac OS X
,

Mac OS Mac OS X

Mac OS X , Apple Type


Solution (ATS). ATS
, ,
1, TrueType,
bitmap.

.
-

151

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. Font

Format , . , , , .
Collection () , .
. ATM, ( Adobe
sets), /,
Mac OS X , . /, / .
(. ). ,
Mac OS X
.
Family () ,
.
Typeface :
Regular ,
Italic
,
Bold
,
Bold Italic .

152

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Sizes () .
.

,
, Extras... ().
Add to Favorites Favorites ().
Edit Collections...
. .
Collections .
,
Rename , .

.

.
Done .

Edit Sizes...
, ,
.
Fixed List, 8, 9, 10, 12 .

153

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

.
New Size,

Adjustable Slider,
.
Size Min Size ( ). .
Done .

. .
, , , .
Color, . .
, ,
, : RGB, CMYK .
Mac OS X Apple
, Lucida Grande, :
Lucida Grande Regular 13 pt.
System Font
Lucida Grande Bold 13 pt.
System Font (Emphasized)
Lucida Grande Regular 11 pt.
Small System Font
Lucida Grande Bold 11 pt.
Small System Font (Emphasized)
Lucida Grande Regular 13 pt.
Application Font
Lucida Grande Regular 10 pt.
Label Font
, Mac OS X
.
Mac OS X , .

154

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

, , .
Classic (). :

Apple ,
.
William Caslon , 1700- , .
Didot
, 1/72 .

.
John Baskerville ,
. Baskerville.
Fun (, ). :

Modern (). , :

PDF. ,
PDF:
155

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Courier,
Helvetica,
Symbol,
Times,
Zapf Dingbats.
Web. , Web-:
Andale Mono,
Arial,
Arial Black,
Brush Script MT,
Comic Sans MS,
Georgia,
Impact,
Times New Roman,
TrebuchetMS,
Verdana,
Webdings.
, Lucida Grande (Hiragino, Osaka)
Unicode-, .
, Local:
Mac OS X
Library
Fonts

Local, .
, Apple, System:
Mac OS X
System
Library
Fonts
. Local System , System -

156

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

root.
Lucida Grande .
Mac OS X
Classic,
ATS
Fonts, System Folder Mac OS 9x, .
, , Mac OS X, Mac OS 9-.
,
Classic,

Mac OS X
Library
Fonts
, ,
Mac OS X
Users
<__>
Library
Fonts

:
AppleScript.



AppleScript
(Services)

. Mac OS X
.

157

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, , ,
. AppleScript.
AppleScript , , , .
AppleScript . Mac OS X
AppleScript , .
AppleScript-, Finder. AppleScript'a , Print
Center, Internet Connect Terminal. , AppleScript Mac OS X
-, SOAP XML. ,
.
AppleScript- Apple Apple Script Studio. , -
Mac OS 9, . ,
- , .
(Services), , Mac OS . ,
,
. , Services.
. ,
.
, .
, .
, , , : , , , , ,
,

. ,

158

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

. , . .
, , .
, . . ,
UniSpell Mac OS X, . , , , , , .


... , .
,
. ...
, , ,
. ,
,
, , . ,
...
System Preferences . Mac OS Control Panels.
.
System Preferences
.
System Preferences...
, Applications, .

159

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

System Preferences :
( Finder'a),
, .
, -. ,
- .
.
.
Personal .
: Desktop, Dock, General, International, Login, Screen Saver, Universal Access.
Hardware , : ColorSync, Display,
Energy Saver, Keyboard, Mouse, Sound.
Internet & Network ,
: Internet, Network, QuickTime, Sharing.
System : Classic, Date & Time, Software Update,
Speech, Startup Disk, Users.

160

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

, .
. , Show All
.
, .
, .
-.
,
(User Authentication). . , , ,
, System Preferences.
.
- -
, . ,
.
.

Classic
Classic Classic.

161

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Start/Stop (/):
, Mac OS 9.x (Select
a startup volume for Classic). , . , Mac OS 9.x Classic
( ), , , ( ).
Classic
.
Start up Classic on login to this computer.
() Classic Start
(Stop). Mac OS 9.x,
Mac OS X.
, , .
Classic.
Classic Restart, -
Mac OS 9 .
Classic Force
Quit. .
Advanced ():
Classic (Sleep) (Put Classic to sleep when it is inactive for). .
Mac OS 9.x (Desktop DB)
Rebuild Desktop. , Finder'a, ,
.
Restart Classic Classic
(Turn Off Extensions).
, Classic - Mac OS 9-x.

162

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

(Open Extensions Manager). ,


Classic.
, Classic (Use Key Combination). , ,
.

ColorSync
ColorSync .
:
, .

Device Profiles ICC- .


: Input (),
Output (), Display () Proof ().
, , ,
,
, , .

163

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, , Document Profiles : RGB Default, CMYK Default, Gray Default, Lab Default.
CMMs (Preferred CMM). (Automatic).
: Web-
.
. Export Workflow... Import
Workflow... ( ) .

164

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Date & Time


. / / ,
, ,
.
: .
Network Time ( ) Use network time
server ( ). NTP
Server (Apple Americas, Apple Asia, Apple Europe) Set

165

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Time Now ( ). ,
.

. Date & Time
.
.
, / .
: ,
. ,
.
.
,
( ).
: (Current Time), ,
-
, . , , . ,
: , .
.

.
Save .
Revert .
, .
, .
.
, Time Zone.
, .

166

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

, .
. , . , Russia-Moscow. , , MSD.
Menu Bar Clock ( ).
Show the clock in the menu bar / . Options ,
: (View as Text) (View as Icon).

167

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Display the time with seconds / .


Append AM/PM to the time / AM (do ) ( ),
.
Show the day of the week / .
Flash the time separators / () , , .

Desktop
Desktop.
Mac OS X .
Collection
, (Choose
Folder...). .

Displays
Display
: (Resolutions), (Colors), (Refresh Rate).

. Apple

168

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X


(. .17 ).
17.

Color . , , Calibrate.

169

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Dock
Dock .
Dock Size ( ).
Magnification .
Automatically hide and show the Dock , .
, .
Position on screen :
Left , Bottom , Right .
Animate opening applications /
.
Minimize using -
.
Genie Effect .
Scale Effect /.

Energy Saver
Energy Saver . , .

170

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

.
, , (sleep).
5 .
,
.

General
General .

Appearance
, , .

171

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Highlight color .
Place scroll arrows - :
At top and bottom ,
Together .
Click in the scroll bar to :
Jump to next page ,
Scroll to here ,
.
Number of recent items ,
(Recent items). ,
.
rn off text smoothing for font sizes ... and smaller , ( ) .

International
International
.
Language .
, .
(Language) .
,
. Finder
,
. () .
, ,
Mac OS X, -

172

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

.
, Languages. , .
! Mac OS X
. -,

, .
,
Russian Languages . !
Edit... ,
.
Script
, Behaviors ,
, , .
Date , , ,

173

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. . , , ,
, (). ,
.
Leading zero for day , .
Leading zero for month .
Show century .

(). - ,
.
Time .
24-Hour clock/12-Hour clock 24- 12 .
Before Noon After Noon , (AM, PM).
Separator -
( ).
Use leading zero for hour .

174

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Numbers .
- Decimal -
.
- Thousands -
.
Symbol Currency () ,
, $ . . Before number ( -

175

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

)/fter number ( ) .
Keyboard Menu
. ,
.
.
Options... ,
.

+ ,
+ti+ .
Font and keyboard synchronization .
, Cancel .

Internet
Internet ,
.
iTools Apple. iTools , Apple -

176

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Macintosh'e, Mac OS X. iTools , 20 Apple (iDisk), .


Web-
Apple, iTools.
,
:
iTools Memeber Name .
Password iTools.
iTools,
, Free Sign Up ( ). ,
.
Email .
Default Email Reader , . .
Use iTools Email account iTools .
Email Address . Use iTools Email

177

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

account, ,
.
Incoming Mail Server , IP- , .
Account Type , . I (Internet Mail Access
Protocol). , .
IMAP , . , , (Internet Service Provider, ISP).

User Account ID ,
Password .
Outgoing Mail Server IP- , .
/, .
.
.
Web Web- .
Default Web Browser , . .
Page (URL) ,
.

178

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Search Page (URL) Web-,


.
Download Files To (
), , .
Select... ,
.
News (News).
.
. ,
, , -

179

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

- ,
, , -
. , - .
, .
Default News Reader , .
News Server IP- .
Connect As , : (Registered User), , (Guest).
,
. ,
User Account ID , Password .

Keyboard
Keyboard .

Repeat Rate .
. - , , , .

180

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

.
, , , ,
.
Delay Until Repeat .
Key Repeat Rate
.
Type here to test settings .
- . , .

Full Keyboard Access


.
rn on full keyboard access / .
Ctrl+Fl.
For windows and dialogs, highlight , :

181

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Text input fields and lists only .


Any control .
Ctrl+F7 , ,
.
Use Control with ,
Ctrl :
Function keys (F2, F3, F5, F6),
Letter keys (m, d, t, u),
Custom keys , .
, :
Ctrl+F2 ,
Ctrl+F3 ,

Ctrl+ ,
Ctrl+F5 ,
Ctrl+F6 ,
.

Login
Login
Mac OS X (login).

182

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Login Items , .
Add... .
Remove .
Hide , .

Login Window
(login).
Automatically login
- ,
Name () Password () .
, . ,
,
.
Display Login Window as :
Name and password entry fields
.
List of users with accounts on this computer , .
Show Other User in the list for network users
, .

183

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, , .
Disable Restart and Shut Down buttons .
Show password hint after 3 attempts to enter a password . Users .
Login
/ , ,
- .

Mouse
Mouse
(Tracking Speed) , ,
(Double-Click Speed).
Double-click here to test .

Network
Network . Configure
: Ethernet (Built-in Ethernet) o (Modem Port).
Ethernet'y
.

.
Ethernet.
TCP/IP TCP/IP.
Configure TCP/IP-: (Manually),
(BootP) DHCP-.

184

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

DHCP-cep IP- :
.
Domain Name Servers DNS,
IP-
, DHCP- , DHCP-, .
, :
IP Address IP- ;
Subnet Mask .
,
;
Router , ,
- (
);
Domain Name Servers DNS, ;
Search Domains , .
TCP/IP (-) . :

185

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, -. ,
.
AppleTalk
AppleTalk ( Make AppleTalk Active) , AppleTalk- , ,
(AppleTalk Zone).

186

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Proxies Proxy ( ).
(Modem Port).
TCP/IP, Ethernet, TCP/IP.
Configure
(Manually) (Using PPP).

187

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, TCP/IP .
.
Service Provider -.
.
Telephone Number ,
.

.
Account Name - .
Password .
Save Password ,
.
Options...
-, :

Connect automatically when starting TCP/IP application - , -

188

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

TCP/IP, Web- .
Prompt every <...> minutes to maintain connection
<...> . , .
-
.
Disconnect if idle for <...> minutes
.
Disconnect when user logs out
(logout).
Redial if busy :
Radial <...> times ,
Wait <...> seconds before redialing ( ) .
Send echo packets - .
Use TCP header compression TCP/IP, .
Connect using a terminal window (command line)
. ,
SecurID RSA Security.
Use verbose logging
(log-),
. , :
1. Console ( Application/Utilities).
2. Open log File.
3. Go to /private/tmp.
4. Open.
5. Open log ppplog. Open.

189

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. Console
, (log-).
/var/log/.
, a Cancel .
Proxies Modem Port , Ethernet, Proxy-.

Modem .
Modem ,
.
Sound /
.
, .
Dialing Tone/Pulse , ( ).
Wait for dial tone before dialing (), .

190

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Active Network Ports . ?


Ethernet-, , . , , Ethernet- , Ethernet-.
, . - , (On) .

QuickTime
QuickTime QuickTime.
Plug-In QuickTime
(Plug-In) Web-.
Play
movies automatically Web-
-

191

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, ,
.
Save movies in disk cache -, .
Enable kiosk mode . , -, .
MIME Setings... -
, QuickTime (QuickTime
Plug-In),

Connection ( Connection Speed), QuickTime


,
on-line.
allow multiple simultaneous streams , . .
Transport Setup... (stream) .
Auto Configure .
Music
MIDI . QuickTime
Music Synthesizer.
, Make Default.

192

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Media Keys () .
Update QuickTime.
Update or install QuickTime software ( QuickTime) Install new 3rd-party
QuickTime software (

193

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

) , :
QuickTime ,
QuickTime.
Update Now...
. Apple
, .
Check for updates automatically
QuickTime.

Screen Saver
Screen Savers
(Screen Savers).
Screen Savers .

Screen Savers .
Configure
.
Test Screen Saver .
Open Energy Saver , .
Activation .

194

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS

Time until screen saver starts ,


.
Password to use when waking the screen saver :
Do not ask for a password .
Use user account password
.

Hot Corners ( )
()
.
, ,
: .
, ,
- -

195

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, , .

Sharing
Sharing () .

File & Web .


Start File Sharing Off Public . , Start Stop,
.
Start (Stop),
Web Sharing Off (On), ()
Web-, Sites.
Allow FTP access FTP .
Computer Name , .
IP- ( ) . -

196

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

, , -
Web-.
Edit...
TCP/IP, .
Application
.
,
Allow remote login.

Allow Remote Apple events (Apple events),


. .
Allow Mac OS 9 computers to use remote Apple events Apple events , Mac OS 9.

Software Update
Software Update , .
Update Software (Manually)
(Automatically) .

197

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Check for updates : (weekly), (monthly) .


Update Now
.
Show Log (Log-).

Sound
Sound .

Alerts (alerts).
Choose an alert sound .

198

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Alert Volume - .
Main Volume .
Play alerts through
-. -
.
Mute .
Show volume in menu bar
( ).

Output
( ), .
Settings for selected device
.

Speech
Speech
.
Speech Recognition .
Mac OS X, Mac OS, . , -

199

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, Apple Speakable Items. Speakable Items.


Mac OS X
, . Speech Commands . , : Open Speech Commands Window (
), (. ).

. Esc . ,
.
On/Off /
.
Apple Speakable Items is On/Off
/ .
Open Speakable Items at log in .
Play sound when recognized
,
.
Speak text feedback ,

.

200

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Open Speakable Items Folder


.
Helpful Tips-
, .
Listening .
Listening Method Listen only while key is pressed
Change Key...

.
Key toggles listening on and off : ,
.

Text-to-Speech
.
Voice , .
:
Language
,
Gender
, ,
Age
,
Description .
Rate .
Play

201

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Startup Disk
Startup Disk .

Macintosh , . , , .
Macintosh'e ,
Option.
,
Startup Disk. .
,
Restart.

Universal Access
Universal Access , .

202

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

Keyboard ,
.
Sticky Keys
(shortcuts).
Set Key Repeat... ,
(. Keyboard).
Show pressed keys on screen .

when a modifier key is set


-.
Mouse , .
Mouse Keys / , 4
,6
8
,2
,5 ( ).
Option / .
control mouse pointer movement (Initial Dilay)
(Maximum Speed).

Users
Users .
. ,
.

203

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Users.

Users , .
Name .
Kind (, Admin ).
New User... .
Edit User... ( ).
Delete User... .
(New User... Edit User...)
/. , , . , : Identity Password.
Identiy
Name .
Short Name , .
,
.
Login Picture ( ),
(login),

204

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X

, .
.
, .
- Choose...
(drag-and-drop) Login Picture Finder'a.
Password
Password .
Verify . , , .
Password Hint . , , (. , Login).
:
, , .
Allow user to administer this computer .
,
.

205

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


Darwin 208
223
226
Mac OS X 227
233

206

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


.
. .

Mac OS X

- . ,
, . ,
- .
.
. -.
,
.
Mac OS X 4- .
Aqua.
: Classic, Carbon, Cocoa, Java.
: Quartz, OpenGL,
QuickTime. , , , - , Darwin.
...

207

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Darwin
,
Darwin, Mach 3.0, BSD 4.4
. , Darwin.
,
, , . Mac OS X . c
OS X ,
. Darwin , : Mach 3.0;
BSD 4.4-Lite; , ; - (I/O Kit); .
Darwin , .

Mach

Mach ( Carnegie-Mellon University)


Darwin, . , ,

208

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, .
. Mach ,
-
. :
, , .
.
. Mach
, , ,

.
. Mac OS X 4 .
. Mach

.
, ,
. , , ,
. Mach , .
. , ,
Mach .

BSD

BSD


BSD-,

Mach, BSD Mac OS X BSD 4.4-Lite


(Berkeley Software Distribution, University of California at Berkeley).
BSD Darwin Mac OS X . , BSD :

209

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, ,
,
BSD- ,
BSD sockets,
(POSIX threads),

Application Program Interface (API) .

- (I/O Kit)

-
plug-and-play



- (I/O Kit) -
. , , . :
plug-and-play,
( ),

18.

210

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

,
, ,
.


OpenTransport
BSD- TCP/IP
AppleTalk
multihoming
(multicast)
(routing)

Ethernet
(AirPort)



Mac OS X OpenTransport. OpenTransport Mac OS X
, Mac OS 8 9,
- .
, Mac OS X :
TCP/IP BSD 4.4,
IP AppleTalk,
IP-
(multihoming),
(routing),
multicast,
AppleTalk socket,
Mac OS Classic,
(OpenTransport),
Carbon.
Mac OS X (. . 18
).

211

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X (.

. 19):
19.

Network
Kernel Extensions. , () , .
Mac OS X: Web Apache Mac OS X .

212

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


Mac OS X


URL- AppleShare- Web-

HFS, HFS+, UFS
' CD /DVD- UDF, ISO 9660
AFP, NFS
Mac OS X . BSD ,
(Virtual File System, VFS). ,
Mac OS:
, (ID),
, USB Firewire-).
URL ,
AppleShare- Web-.
( 255 , 755 UTF-8).
- ,
(. ),
Mac OS X .
, Mac OS X,
20 .

. , HFS MacRoman- . HFS+
Unicode 2.1 UTF-16, 16- . UFS
Unicode 2.1, UTF-8. , ,

213

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

20.

2 1 .

HFS Mac OS X, , .
Mac OS X ,
(. . 21
).
Mac OS X . ,
.
.

214

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

HFS, HFS+:

(resource fork), (data fork)
/ Mac-; BinHex-

Finder'a
(type), (creator)
HFS HFS+
, (forks).
(resource fork) , , , , , , .
.
(data fork) . .
- ; - :
, , .
,
.
, Macintosh-
. .
, :
, Mac- BinBex. . - HFS HFS+
. .
Apple HFS HFS+, , . , ,
Mac OS X, .dfont, , ,
, .
, Max OS X , -

215

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

[. (bundles)].

, Finder'a. Finder'o
().
Mac OS X , Finder'oM.
:
(bundle bit),
(invisible bit),
- (type & creator),
(custom icon).
, Findre'OM:
,
(view),
(label).
, (creator) (type). Finder'y
() .
-, Finder'a :
, ,
.
- . Finder - . , . : , .
, ,
. , , . , , , , .
, ,
,
, . -

216

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, .

: ,
.
Mac OS X

Mac OS X
Mac OS ,
Macintosh'ax, PC, a Mac OS X , UNIX'OM. ,
.
,
. ,
.doc Microsoft Word.
, ,
, Finder , .
Mac OS File Exchange :
, .
( ), .
.
.
, type
creator , , . , , , Apple, .
, . ?
Mac OS X , . Finder Mac OS X -

217

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

HFS HFS+,
. Apple
.
Macintosh'e . Mac OS X 10.1, Apple
(File extension hidden flag).
, , . , ,
: , (What you see is what
you type), , Finder'o, ,
Save
Finder'e :
,
. , Finder , , Image.jpg.
, MyPicture, .jpg , Finder'oM
MyPicture.
, , MyPicture.jpg.
.

Use... , .
Keep... .
, ,
. Finder'a ,
. Finder'a, ,

218

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, ,

Inspector'o
.

Mac OS X
Mac OS X
HFS HFS+ . UFS . Mac OS X , ,
,
, , . Finder , . Finder ,
. ,
.
Mac OS X BSD-
.


: , , ,
Mac OS X, UNIX'OB, () .
/ . , ,
. .
, , . , , , .

219

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

,
. . Mac OS X

BSD.
, . :
quota
-
/ ,
edquota - (/) ,
quotaon - ,
edquota.
, UNIX'a, man:
man quota, man edquota, man quotaon.

(Bundles)
(bundle)
:
(application)
(framework)
(bundle)
()
Mac OS X (bundle). .
.
,
, , .
, , . .
, ; ,
. -

220

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

. , . Finder . , , drag-and-drop. , , ,
Finder . ,
Finder , ,
.
.
. Mac OS X : (applications), (frameworks) (bundles). , ,
, .
, -
. , : Palette Plug-In. ,
,
.
: . -,
.framework , .bundle
.
.kext. Finder . - -.

(Kernel Extensions)
(Kernel Extension, KEXT)
(Network Kernel Extension, NKE)
(KMOD)
Mac OS X , .
(Kernel Extension, KEXT).
, . ,

(Network Kernel Extension, NKE), - .

221

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

(bundles), , Finder'o . :
(Information property list) XML, ,
.
.
(KMOD). Mach ( Mach-O), , . KMOD ,
.
KMOD. Information property list
KMOD .
(resources) , .
.
, , , .
:
System
Library
Extensions
,
, , ,
. .
Apple , ,
, ,
, , (Plug-In)
(, QuickTime). , , Extensions Mac OS 9, Mac OS X.
, .

222

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

(Plug-Ins)
(Plug-Ins)
Mac OS X (Plug-Ins),
.
, .

, ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
.
, , .
. ,
.

Mac OS X
: Quartz, OpenGL, QuickTime.

Quartz
Quartz
Core Graphics Rendering
Quartz
Quartz Mac OS X,
. Quartz : Core Graphics Services Core Graphics

223

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Rendering. Core Graphics Services


, , .
(2D-Rendering),
, , Core
Graphics Rendering, .
, , : , . Portable
Document Format (PDF). PDF PostScript'a,
: ,
,
, , , ,
(runtime support).
Core Graphics Rendering
, , , PDF-
22. Quartz

224

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

PDF , , bitmap, , PostScript.


PDF . , Preview .
Quartz (. . 22 Quartz).

OpenGL
OpenGL
OpenGL D-. , , , .
OpenGL Rendering- , Core Graphics Rendering Quartz".

QuickTime

QuickTime Mac OS X



QuickTime

QuickTime .
, , , , , ,
, . QuickTime
: PICT, BMP, GIF, JPEG,
PNG. : AVI, AVR, DV, M-JPEG, MPEG-1, OpenDML. QuickTime HTTP,
RTP, RTSP.
QuickTime , ,
.
Rendering- Core Graphics Rendering.

225

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

QuickTime 6 MPEG-4, AAC (Advanced Audio Coding), Flash 5 .

Core Audio Hardware Abstraction Layer



MIDI
32 / 96
Macintosh , , . Macintosh'e - . Mac OS X
. .
, ,
, , , . Macintosh 10 . . ,
(Core Audio Hardware Abstraction Layer), 1 ,
.
Mac OS 9
. . Mac OS X , , , , Surround sound .
MIDI (Musical Instrument
Digital Interface).
(Music Services)
, , (Cut),
(), (Paste), (Repeat), .
Mac OS X 24 / 96 . , Core Audio -

226

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

32- . , , 32- .

Mac OS X
Mac OS X
Mac OS. , Mac OS X .

Finder
.


, .hidden
Finder'a
HFS+ UFS
UFS- , , (preferences). UNIX'e .
Mac OS Apple

.
.
Mac OS X , HFS HFS+, UFS.
, , , Finder .
, .hidden, , .
, , :

227

. . Mac OSX UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Desktop DB
Desktop DF
bin
dev
usr
Finder , ,
. Finder'a, - , :
:
1. ?
, Finder , ;
(. . 4).
2. (bundle)?
, , .
. , , (frameworks) Apple .
3. ?
Finder - ,
-. ( , ) Finder .
- , Finder
,
.
, , .
4. ?
- ( )
Finder ., , (application's information
property list), . , .
.
Finder . , .

228

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, Finder ( HFS, HFS+)


( UFS). ,
, .
,
.
, Finder ,
.
.
, , (
HFS HFS+), Finder .
, , , Finder , ,
. - Open, .
Finder Mac OS X. Finder'a ,
AppleScript BSD-.
?
Finder ,
, .
Finder HFS HFS+, , . UFS-.
HFS, HFS+ UFS
.
Finder , ( Finder'a,
), , ,
, ._.
. , ,
MyPicturejpeg HFS+ UFS, -

229

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

._MyPicture.jpeg ,
MyPicture.jpeg.

Finder UFS- HFS+ HFS,


, ._, ,
Finder Finder'a , . , , , , , .
HFS, HFS+ NTFS FAT32 Windows. , .
. UFS ,
. HFS+ ,
.
UFS HFS+.
Desktop Folder
Finder Mac OS X , Finder Mac OS 9, Desktop Folder. Mac OS 9 , Mac OS X
(home). , Mac OS X
. Mac OS 9 Desktop
Folder'OB . Mac OS X Desktop Folder ,
, .

.
Mac OS , ,
(layer). Mac OS X .
, ,
.

230

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO


PDF

preview

Mac OS X . ,
.
. Page Setup Print, .
Mac OS X:
Print Center , , , .
PDF .
PDF. Print
Print Center. PDF-
( ) ,
Classic.
: PostScript- 1, 2 3, (, )
.
.
Mac OS X .
: . :
Print Center, ,
.
,
.
: , , , -.

231

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, - ,
. .
-
,
USB, AppleTalk, Directory Services, LPR. .
Print Center, (, , )
: ,
, . .
Print Print
, . ( , job tickets) .
, Print
Center'a . ,
PDF . .
PDF , , PostScript. , ,
- .
.

, Mac OS X

antialiasing Mac OS X
Mac OS X :
Macintosh TrueType font suitcase,
Windows TrueType TTF/TTC,
PostScript OpenType Roman,
PostScript OpenType CID Chinese,
232

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

PostScript Type 1 Macintosh- bitmap-


(LWFN),
Macintosh PostScript Type 1 font suitcase (SFNT),
Macintosh PostScript Type 1 CID (SFNT/CID).
Mac OS X PostScript Type 1 Multiple Master.
PostScript Apple
(antialiasing) ATM Light Adobe,
Mac OS X Adobe Type Manager.
ATM Mac OS X .



. .
, Disk Utility
(Open Disk Utility...).

, . ,
()
.
,
. , . ,
- ? ?
Reset Password... -.
, , ,
- .

233

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Reset Password ,
.

root
Apple ,
root ,
root.
, , .
Apple , , root. , Installer () Updater ( ).
, , root , . -

,
root. :

.
NetInfo Manager,
Applications/Utilities .
Enable Root User Domain, Security.
root, .
. Change Root Password Domain, Security.

234

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, root, Disable Root User


Domain Security.




, __> Deleted, (owner) . ,
. <__> Deleted , , :

(startup).
(login)
, Mac OS X
, ,
. , ,
, (.
. 23 ).
Verbose. .
PC
1

sudo .

235

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

23.

24.

Windows. Macintosh'e , ,
.
Single User. Verbose. ,
, Verbose, BSD, UNIX'a.
Open Firmware. Open Firmware IEEE-
.

, .
- ,
,
. Open Firmware > set-defaults bye.

236

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

+Option+Shift+Delete, , Mac OS, , - , , , .


Mac OS X . root . .
System Administrator. root UNIX' , System
Administrator Macintosh'e. . ,
, (. . 24 ).


, . Mac OS X
( , )
, Mac OS, CCL-.
, CCL- Mac OS 9 ( ), Mac OS X.
Mac OS X
Library
Modem Scripts
CCL- ,
Communication
Command Language (CCL).
, , Apple , Apple Remote Access.
***
Mac OS X .
, , , .
.

237

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

1.
(Install).
(Uninstall)

Mac OS X Macintosh
:
Power Mac G4 ( Cube),
Power Macintosh G3,
PowerBook G4,
PowerBook G3 ( G3),
iMac,
iBook.
:
128 (RAM);
Apple
: IXMicro, ATI, nVidia;
1,5 .


1. Mac OS X PowerBook G3 ( USB), Power Macintosh G3 (Beige) iMac , , , D, 8 (), , ,

239

. . Mac OS X UNIX

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

240

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Mac OS X, 8 .
Mac OS X USB- FireWire-
.
SCSI- Apple, ,
.
Mac OS X firmware , .
. - Mac OS X Firmware Updater, .
,
Firmware Updater ,
.
Mac OS X ,
Mac OS 9.x ( ), ,
HFS+. ,
Mac OS 9.x, , !
Mac OS X Mac OS 9. Classic-
.
Mac OS 9.
Mac OS X. .
- Mac OS 9.
Mac OS X.
Mac OS 9.x
Classic, , , .
, Mac OS X Mac OS 9.x.
Mac OS X Mac OS 9.. ,
- , Mac OS X
Classic.
Mac OS 9.,
( Mac OS X).

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, - Mac OS X Mac OS 9- Startup


Disk.
Web- Apple. ,
.
Mac OS X, (System
Preferences) Startup Disk .
, . .
7. ... - - , -
Mac OS X , , -. Mac OS X . Mac OS 9.x.
, -t-Option+Shift+Delete,
,
.

(install)
Mac OS X
-. .
.
- ,
:
, - , ( - ). , Install Mac OS X . Restart.
, - , . -

241

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Startup
Disk. -
Restart.

, , - ,
, .
,
(Preparing Installation...).
: . . , . ,
,
. , .
:
1. .
Select language ( ).
, :
Use English for the main language.
Continue, .
2. .
Welcome to the Mac OS X Installer.
. . , .
Introduction () ,
. Continue.
Read Me () ,
Mac OS X, . Continue , Go Back
.
License () .
Continue. .

242

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Select Destination ( ) , , ,
Mac OS X.
, - .
, ,
,
1,1 ,
.
Erase destination and format as Mac OS Extended ( Mac OS Extended,
HFS+) . , . , ,
, .
Installation Type ( ) : (, Easy) (Custom).
BSD UNIX (BSD Subsystem)
(Additional Print Drivers).
,
Install.
Installing (). ,
, -
. . .
, Pause.
Finish Up ( ) ,
. 30- .
,
Restart.
,
, ,
, .

243

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

1. Welcome ().
, . ,
, . ,
Show All ( ) .
2. Personalize Your Settings ( ).
, ,
. , ,
.

Continue.
3. Registration Information ( ).

, , ,
.
4. A Few More Questions ( ):
?
Where will your primarily use this computer?
.
?
What best describes what you do?
.
Apple , ?
/ would like Apple to contact me with important news and infornmation
related to my purchase.
(Yes), (No).
?
/ would companies with related products to contact me.
(Yes), (No).
Continue.
5. Create Your Account ( ).
Mac OS X ,
( ) . .
:

244

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

(Name),
(Short Name),
(Password),
(Verify),
(Password Hint).
, .
, .
6. Get Internet Ready ( ).
, -, .
I'll use my existing Internet service ( -).
not ready to the Internet ( ).
7. How do you connect? ( ?)
, , :
(Telephone modem),
(Local area network),
(Cable modem),
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line),
AirPort (AirPort wireless).
Continue .
.

, ,
(DHCP), IP-. TCP/IP, IP-, , , DNS
( ), Proxy- ( ).
8. Get Wools ( Wools). , Mac OS X, Apple

( ) 20 . iTools.
iTools . -

245

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

iTools,
iTools Web- Apple.
iTools , ,

iTools.
I'd like to create my iTools account ( iTools).
I'm already using iTools ( iTools).

(User Name) (Password) iTools.
not ready for iTools (
iTools).
, Continue .
9. Now you're ready to connect ( ). , iTools. , Apple
.
10. Setup ( ). Mac OS X
. ,
Apple. ,
.
Use mac.com email account (
Apple).
Add my existing email account ( , ).
:
(Email Address),
( IP-) , (Incoming Mail Server), (POP, IMAP),
(User Account ID),
(Password),
( IP-) ,
(Outgoing Mail Server).
Continue .
11. Select Time Zone ( ).
, -

246

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

.
Russia-Moscow.
Continue.
12. Thank You (). ,
. .
Go -.
,
Mac OS X.

(uninstall)
, Apple Mac OS X
(uninstall). Mac OS X :
1. (backup) .
Mac OS , , / .
2. , , ,
Mac OS X.
3. ResEdit
.
4. Startup Disk Mac OS X
Mac OS . ,
Mac OS.
5. , Mac OS X, , Applications (Mac OS 9) , , System Folder, Mac OS , Mac OS X.
6. ResEdit invisible () :
automount, bin, dev, mach_kernel, Network, private, sbin, usr,
Volumes, .Trashes.
.
1. ,
.

247

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

2. , UNIX'a:
cores, etc, trap, var. . Mac OS X ,
, tmp (Mac OS 9), var (Mac OS 9),
. ! , root'a
Terminal.
:
cd

; ,
.

248

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

2.

Apple
.

, -

Apple

249

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Apple ()

Finder ( Finder) , Finder'a.


Finder

File Finder'a.
File

250

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

File ()

251

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Edit Finder'.
Edit

View
. , ,
Finder'a ( , , , ,
).
View

252

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

View ()

Go Finder'a.
.
Go

253

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

Go ()

Window. .
Window

Help. .

254

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

3.
Mac OS 9 Mac OS X
, Mac OS X, ,
Mac OS 9, Mac OS X.

255

. . Mac OS X UNIX
()

256

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

4,
Windows Mac OS
, Windows, , Mac OS.

257

. . Mac OS X UNIX
()

258

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

5.
BSD
UNIX' Mac OS X, Apple

Macintosh'e, ,
. , . , UNIX, .
Terminal BSD UNIX'a.
(single user).
, .
single user,
Mac OS X +S.

BSD UNIX'a, Mac OS X. . UNIX'OM,
. man
.

259

. . Mac OS X UNIX
()

260

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

()

261

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, Graphical
User Interface

,
sheets

Mac OS X

,
dialog box

,
volume

, Dock

Mac OS X

IP-,

IP-,

,
hierarchical file system

,
icon

262

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

,
.

IP-

IP-

,
clipboard


Mac OS

,
pasteboard


Mac OS X

,
,

,
,
hard drive

,
,
()

,
router

32- IP-,

263

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

menu

,
mounting

,
,

,
style

,
window

,
alert box

,
,

, bundle

Mac OS X

,
folder

, ,

IP-,
-

264

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

, , ,

,
raster

, ,

, host

, , TCP/IP

, font

, controls

, . :
, , , ,
,

AirPort

802.11b .
Apple

Apache

Web-

AppleScript

265

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

AppleShare

Mac OS

AppleTalk

Mac OS

Aqua


Mac OS X

ARPA

, 60- 70- ,

ATS, Apple Type


Solution


Mac OS X

bitmap

BSD

Unix, Mac OS X

Classic, Carbon,
Cocoa


Mac OS X

Darwin

Mac OS X

DHCP, Dynamic Host


Configuration
Protocol

IP-

DNS, Domain Name


Syatem

IP-

266

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

File Sharing

Finder

Mac OS,

FTP, File Transfer

, TCP/IP

Protocol
HTTP, Hypertext
Transfer Protocol

HTML, Hypertext
Markup Language

ICAAN

, IP-

ISO 9660

(CD-ROM)

LocalTalk

Macintosh'a

login

Mach

Mac OS X

MIME

Netlnfo

, Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, OpenSTEP

NeXT

267

. . Mac OS X UNIX

SPECIAL FOR NETZ TEAM FROM OPCTXO

OpenGL

OpenStep, NeXTStep

NeXT

OpenTransport

Mac OS,

OpenType

,
PostSript TrueType
. Adobe
Microsoft

POP3

PostScript

Print Center

Mac OS X

Proxy

Quartz

Mac OS X,

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Mac OS

TCP/IP

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268

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Apple
Microsoft

UDF

DVD-

UFS

UNIX

Unicode

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URL, Uniform
Resource Locator

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UTF-8, UTF-16,
UTF32


Unicode, 8-, 16- 32-

world wide web, www

WYSIWYG, What You


See Is What You Get

269

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AirPort 102
Apache 143
Apple Type Solution
AppleScript 158
AppleShare 77
AppleTalk 77
Aqua 207
AREA 56
ATS 151

bitmap 38
BSD 58

Carbon 111
Classic 111
Clipboard 34
Cocoa 111

Darwin 208
Desktop 84
DHCP 64
DNS 66

File Sharing 142


Finder 84
FTP 70

H
HTML 71
HTTP 71

I
ICAAN 69
Inspector 126
ISO 9660 213

J
Java 112
L
LocalTalk 77
Login 114

270

Mach 208
MIME 75
151

NetInfo 141
NeXT 9

Object-C 112
OpenGL 225
OpenTransport 211
OpenType 44

Pasteboard 110
POP3 178
PostScript 40
Print Center 133
Proxy 74
Q
Quartz 223
QuickTime 225
T
TCP/IP 57
TrueType 42

UDF 213
UFS 20
UTF-8 48

www 72
WYSIWYG 39

14
14
21
71

215
215

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10

36
71

25


23
102

109

18

53


20
59
59
25

50
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IP- 60
34

53

18
62
62
30
23

220
19
53
28
64
20

38
221

21
158
24
45
24
24
84

22
216

150
114

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124
21

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59

36

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36

27
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. Mac OS X UNIX .: , 2002. 272 .: .



Apple Mac OS X.
.


.

.
. 05983 3 2001 .
5.03.2002. 16.03.2002
3 000 .
.
.: (095) 203-1084; 203-1008; 203-1937.

123308, , / 20
./: (095) 203-1084; 203-1008; 203-1937.
e-mail: macup@macup.ru
www. macup.ru