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Proto-Turkic:*Ab
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hunt,chase
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ab(Orkh.),av(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:av(MK)
Turkish:av
Tatar:aw
MiddleTurkic:aw(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:v
Uighur:aw,dial.
Azerbaidzhan:ov
Turkmen:v
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:aw
Noghai:aw
Balkar:uw
Gagauz:av
Karaim:av
Kumyk:aw,haw
Comments:EDT3,VEWT1,62-64,TMN2,131,417-418.

Proto-Turkic:*ab-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocrowd,cometogether
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:av-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:av-(MK,KB)
Comments:EDT4,10,69.

2
Proto-Turkic:*abu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:handful
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:avut(MK),avut-a,avu-a(KB),avu(Tefs.)
Turkish:avu
Tatar:u
MiddleTurkic:avu(MA,Sangl.,..)
Uzbek:xwu
Uighur:o
Sary-Yughur:o
Azerbaidzhan:ovu
Turkmen:ovu,jan-avu
Khakassian:s
Shor:o
Oyrat:
Chuvash:vs
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:uws
Noghai:uvs
Bashkir:us
Balkar:uwu
Gagauz:au
Karaim:avu,uvu,uvuc
Karakalpak:uws
Salar:u
Kumyk:uvu

Proto-Turkic:*Abu-ka
Altaicetymology:
3
Meaning:1husband,oldman2foster-mother3eldersister4uncle
Russianmeaning:1,234
OldTurkic:ava,abua1,abuqa2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ava1(MK,KB)
Turkish:abu3dial.
Tatar:abuqa,awucqa1dial.(Sib.)
MiddleTurkic:abuqa,avuqa4(Abush.,Sangl.)
Khakassian:apsax,apax,Koib.absqa1
Shor:apj1,apaq'bear'
Oyrat:apjaq1;'bear'
Chuvash:obaka
Tuva:aaq1
Tofalar:anaq1
Kirghiz:abqa1
Kazakh:abqa1dial.
Bashkir:abqa1
Comments:1,60-61,EDT6,274-275,II282,
72.Chuv.isnotquiteregularandmaybeanearlyloanwordfrom
Tat.FormallytheTurk.wordmaybederivedfrom*aba'elderinthe
mother'sline'(+dimin.-).

Proto-Turkic:*Aburt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1cheek-pouch,insideofthemouth2gum3mouthful,gulp4
cheek5molar6totakeamouthful,swallow
Russianmeaning:12345
6
OldTurkic:a[vurt](?adurt)(OUygh.,latemed.textsTTII)
Turkish:avurt1
Tatar:urt2
4
MiddleTurkic:awurt(Sangl.)3,(MKypch.)ourt,owurt1,3(Houts.,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:urt(dial.)1
Turkmen:howurt(dial.)1,3
Khakassian:rt-a-6
Shor:rt-a-6
Oyrat:rt'throat',rt-a-6
Chuvash:url,dial.vrl5(.V320)
Yakut:omurt1,3
Tuva:rt-a-6
Kirghiz:rt
Kazakh:urt1
Noghai:uwrt1
Bashkir:urt1
Balkar:uwurt4
Gagauz:aurt1,4
Karakalpak:urt1
Kumyk:uvurt1,4
Comments:EDT65,1,407-409,225-226,115.
TheOldUyghurformispoorlyreadable,so--isdubious.Yak.-m-is
irregular:coulditbeatraceofPA*umV'drink',otherwiselostinTurkic?

Proto-Turkic:*a-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toopen
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:a-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:a-(MK)
Turkish:a-
Tatar:a-
MiddleTurkic:a-(Pav.C.)
5
Uzbek:-
Uighur:a-
Sary-Yughur:a-
Azerbaidzhan:a-
Turkmen:a-
Khakassian:as-
Shor:a-
Oyrat:a-
Chuvash:os-
Yakut:as-
Tuva:a'-
Tofalar:a'-
Kirghiz:a-
Kazakh:a-
Noghai:a-
Bashkir:as-
Balkar:a-
Gagauz:a-
Karaim:a-
Karakalpak:a-
Kumyk:a-

Proto-Turkic:*aaj/*eej
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1oldmanorwoman2mother3grandmother4sister(ofwoman)
5mother(ifthegrandmotherisstillalive)5mother(addr.toanelder
woman)6aunt,sisteroffather7elderbrother8uncle9ancestor10
Father!(totheGod)11oldman,elderman12husband13youngerbrother
offather'sfather14grandfather15father
6
Russianmeaning:1234
()5()5(.
)6,78910!
(.)11,1213
1415
OldTurkic:ei7,8(Orkh.),e9(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ei1(MK),e10(KB)
Turkish:au(dial.),ee11
Tatar:aa,ai,i5(dial.,22,551),azj,zi11,15(dial.,23,
540)
Uzbek:a,aa2,3
Uighur:aa6
Sary-Yughur:a4,aa12,15
Khakassian:aa7,8
Shor:aa7,8
Oyrat:Leb.a,aa7,aa13
Chuvash:aza15
Yakut:ehe14
Dolgan:ehe14
Tuva:aa15
Tofalar:a'a,aa7,15
Kirghiz:aaj5,aa11
Bashkir:s2
Kumyk:aaj5,eiw6
Comments:VEWT35,1,231-235,TMN2,15,35,
299,Clark1977,128,Stachowski43.Shortnessissuggestedby
pharyngealizationinTofalar,sothevariantswith--areprobablydueto
expressivegemination(*aV/*eV).

Proto-Turkic:*a-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1preciousgift;wellbeing2totend,makecomfortable,be
favourable3topity,havecompassion
Russianmeaning:1;2
,,3,

OldTurkic:a1,an-2
Turkish:a-3
Azerbaidzhan:a-3
Yakut:ahn-3
Dolgan:ahn-3
Balkar:a-3
Comments:EDT22,29,1,92(togetherwith*i-'bitter'),
Stachowski29.Turk.>WMong.au'wages,rent'(L8).Inmodern
languagestheroottendstobeconfusedwith*i-'bitter,bitterness'(v.sub
*p`i

`o),thustheOghuzvoicingmaybearesultofsecondary
contaminationandnotduetooriginalvowellength;butthetworootsare
ratherwelldistinguishedinOldTurkic,seeEDTibid.

Proto-Turkic:*Ada
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1danger2toendanger
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:ada(tuda)1,adart-2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Shor:aza'nameofanevilspirit'(.)
Yakut:ataast-'toinsult'
8
Tuva:adam'dashing,extraordinary'

Proto-Turkic:*adak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:foot
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:adaq(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:aaq(MK)
Turkish:ajak
Tatar:ajaq
MiddleTurkic:ajaq(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:jq
Uighur:ajaq
Sary-Yughur:azaq
Azerbaidzhan:ajaG
Turkmen:ajaG
Khakassian:azax
Shor:azaq
Oyrat:ad

aq
Halaj:hada:q,hadaq
Chuvash:ora
Yakut:ataq
Dolgan:atak
Tuva:adaq'bottompart'
Tofalar:adaq';'
Kirghiz:ajaq
Kazakh:ajaq
Noghai:ajaq
Bashkir:ajaq
Balkar:ajaq
9
Gagauz:ajaq
Karaim:ajax
Karakalpak:ajaq
Salar:aja(:)
Kumyk:ajaq

Proto-Turkic:*adal
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:friend,companion
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:ada(OUygh.-Buddh.,Man.)
Karakhanid:aa(MK,KB),aja(IM)
Yakut:atas
Kirghiz:aja
Comments:VEWT5,EDT72.Ahypothesisabout*adal<(compound)at-
dalwith'name'asthefirstcomponentisimpossible(inthatcasewewould
expect*ataland'namesake'astheearliestmeaning).Theformattais
attestedsinceMTurk.:atta'namesake'(Tefs.),ada'namesake'(Chag.
Sangl.),ata'namesake'(CCum.)-andcontaminateswith*adal.Modern
languagesforthemostpartreflectthecompound,seeI203-204.Cf.
Tuvaa'dak-lar'afatherwithhischildren'("namesakes";NB:
pharyngealizationasareflexof*-t-).Apossiblereflexof*adalisChuv.
ural-a--'toagreeaboutacquiringsmth.collectively,together'andural-a-n-
'toformalightcircle(ofastronomicalbodies)':botharesemanticallyquite
farfromura-la-n-'torecover'.

10
Proto-Turkic:*ad-r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toseparate
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:adr-(Orkh.,OUygh.);adn(OUygh.)'other'
Karakhanid:ar-(MK);an(MK)'other'
Turkish:ajr-
Tatar:ajr-
MiddleTurkic:ajr-(Abush.)
Uzbek:ajir-
Uighur:ajra-,ajri-(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:azr-
Azerbaidzhan:ajr-
Turkmen:ajr-
Khakassian:azr-
Shor:azr-
Oyrat:ajr-
Halaj:hadru-,hadur-
Chuvash:ojr-
Yakut:atr-;atn'other'
Dolgan:atn'other'
Tuva:adr-
Tofalar:adr-
Kirghiz:ajr-
Kazakh:ajr-
Noghai:ajr-
Bashkir:ajr-
Balkar:ajr-
Gagauz:ajr-
Karaim:ajr-
11
Karakalpak:ajr-
Kumyk:ajr-
Comments:VEWT6,EDT60,66-67,1,93,114-116,2,
270,Stachowski39.Turk.>MMo,WMong.aira-(see1997,94),
whenceagainUzb.ara-etc.(seeibid.).

Proto-Turkic:*Ag
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1treasure2silkbrocade
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:a(Orkh.,OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:a(MK,KB)2
Turkish:Osm.a,dial.a2
MiddleTurkic:a2
Comments:EDT78.Clausonpointsoutthattheoldestattestedmeaningis
'treasure',laterconcretizedto'silkbrocade'.

Proto-Turkic:*Agr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1mouth2lip,lips3mouthofariver,ofacleft
Russianmeaning:12,3,
OldTurkic:az(Orkh.)3,az,aaz(OUygh.)1,3
Karakhanid:az1,3
Turkish:az1,3
Tatar:awz1,3
MiddleTurkic:az1
Uzbek:iz1,3
Uighur:eiz1,3
Sary-Yughur:as1
Azerbaidzhan:az1,3
12
Turkmen:az1,3
Khakassian:s,axs(3P.)1,3
Shor:aqs1,3
Oyrat:s1,3
Halaj:az1,3
Chuvash:vr,ur-l3
Yakut:uos2
Dolgan:uos2
Tuva:s,aqs(3P.)1,3
Tofalar:

s,aqs(3P.)1,3
Kirghiz:ooz1,3
Kazakh:awz1,3
Noghai:awz1,3
Bashkir:aw1,3
Balkar:awu1,3
Gagauz:s1,3
Karaim:az1,3
Karakalpak:awz1,3
Salar:az1
Kumyk:awuz1,3
Comments:VEWT8,EDT98,1,81-83,.115,
224-225,Stachowski245.

Proto-Turkic:*aglak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1lonely,uninhabited(place)2unemployed,outofwork3field
Russianmeaning:12,
3,
OldTurkic:alaq1(OUygh.-Buddh.)
13
Karakhanid:alaq1(MK),ala-ju1(MK;deverb.from*ala-'tobe
deserted'(unattested)),ala-t-(MK)'tosendaway(people)'
Turkish:aylak2;alak(dial.)1
Tatar:awlaq1
Khakassian:alax1
Chuvash:ulax1
Kirghiz:laq1
Kazakh:awlaq1
Noghai:awlaq1
Bashkir:awlaq1
Balkar:awlaq1
Gagauz:ajlaq,hajlaq2
Karaim:awlaq1
Karakalpak:awlaq1
Kumyk:awlaq3
Comments:EDT84,85,VEWT8,1,64.Turk.>WMong.alaq,
alaaid.(KW3,1997,95).Tendstocontaminatewith*b-lag
'huntinglands'.

Proto-Turkic:*agsa-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tohobble,limp2lame
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:axsa-(MK)1,aqsaq,asa(MK)2
Turkish:aksa-1
Tatar:aqsa-1
Uzbek:qsa-1
Sary-Yughur:axsa-1
Azerbaidzhan:axsa-1
Turkmen:aGsa-1
14
Khakassian:axsa-1
Yakut:axsm2
Tuva:asqa-1
Kirghiz:aqsa-1
Kazakh:aqsa-1
Noghai:aqsa-1
Bashkir:aqha-1
Balkar:axsa-,asxa-1
Karakalpak:aqsa-1
Kumyk:aqsa-1
Comments:EDT95,76.Turk.>Mong.asag'(animal)lameness'.

Proto-Turkic:*agur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:colostrum
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:auz(MK),ouz(Tefs.)
Turkish:azst,dial.z,auz
Tatar:uz
MiddleTurkic:auz(Sangl.,Pav.C.,IM)
Uzbek:iz
Uighur:ouz
Turkmen:ovuz
Khakassian:s
Chuvash:rri(3Sg.)
Yakut:uosax
Tuva:-z(contaminationwith3dp.poss.)
Kirghiz:z
Kazakh:uwz
Noghai:uwz
15
Bashkir:w
Balkar:uwuz
Karakalpak:uwz
Kumyk:uwuz
Comments:1,405-407,EDT98,344.

Proto-Turkic:*Aj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torevolve,rotate,goround2totarry3tolead,leadround4to
speedup5todrive
Russianmeaning:1,,23
,45
Turkish:ajla-(n)-1,ajlak''
Tatar:jln-1
Uzbek:ajlan-1,2
Uighur:ajlan-1,2
Azerbaidzhan:ajlan-(dial.)1
Turkmen:ajla-3
Khakassian:ajn-t-4,ajla-,jl-1
Shor:ajlan-1
Oyrat:ajla-1,ajda-5
Yakut:ajg-s-n-'totarry;togo,visitfrequently'(*ajg--n-)
Kirghiz:ajlan-1,ajda-5
Kazakh:ajda-5,ajnal-1
Noghai:ajlan-1
Balkar:ajlan-1
Gagauz:ajla-,ajlan-1,(h)ajda-5
Karaim:ajlan-1
Karakalpak:ajlan-1,2
Kumyk:ajlan-'tomove,visit'
16
Comments:1,106-107,109-110.Theformsmeaning`rotate,go
round,walkincircles'arehardlyconnectedwithaj`moon'.

Proto-Turkic:*aja-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toesteem2topity,lookafter3very
Russianmeaning:12,3,
OldTurkic:aja-1,aj3(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:aja-(MK)1,2,aj3(KB)
Turkish:aj-2,aja-dial.1
Tatar:aja-2
MiddleTurkic:aja-1(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:aja-2
Uighur:aji-2
Azerbaidzhan:ajin'cult,ceremony'
Turkmen:aja-2
Khakassian:aja-2,aj3
Shor:aja-2(inajabn'remorseless')
Chuvash:oja-'tocare'
Tuva:aj'well'
Kirghiz:aja-2
Kazakh:aja-2
Noghai:aja-2
Bashkir:aja-2
Balkar:aja-2
Karaim:aja-2
Karakalpak:aja-2
Kumyk:aja-2
Comments:VEWT10-11,EDT267-8,1,101-102,2,298.
Deriving*aja-'torespect,esteem'from*aj'fear'(VEWT11)ishardly
17
plausible.Clauson(EDT182)thinksthatOUygh.aj'very'isanunusually
earlyexampleoftheelisionof-ginan 'evil',whichmeans'very'inmany
OUygh.texts,butthisishardlyplausiblephonetically;soitmaybelong
here,togetherwithKhak.aj'very'(althoughthefinalnarrowisaproblem).
SevortyanrelatesherealsoSUygh.aj'goodomen,goodluck',butthis
maybeareflexofOUygh.,Karakh.ajq'vow,promise'(EDT270).

Proto-Turkic:*aj-t-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosay2toprescribe,tell3toask,demand4toconcern
Russianmeaning:12,34
.-.
OldTurkic:ajt-3(OUygh.),aj-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:aj-,ajt-1(MK),ajt-3(KB)
Turkish:ait-4
Tatar:jt-1
MiddleTurkic:aj()t-1
Uzbek:ajt-1
Uighur:ejt-1
Turkmen:ajt-1
Khakassian:ajt-1(dial.),ajt-'sing'
Halaj:hj-1
Chuvash:jt-3
Yakut:j-2,jt-3
Dolgan:jt-3
Tuva:ajt-2
Tofalar:ajt-2
Kirghiz:ajt-1
Noghai:ajt-1
Bashkir:jt-1
18
Balkar:ajt-1
Karakalpak:ajt-1
Comments:VEWT10,1,99-100,111-112,342,EDT268-9,
Stachowski259.PT*ajt-isderivedfrom*aj-'topointout,prescribe'.Before
the11thc.ithadonlyacausativemeaning;themeaning'say,tell'
developedlater.

Proto-Turkic:*ajt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toruboff,peeloff
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:ajt-la-,ajk-la-
Uighur:ajt-
Comments:VEWT12,Radloff1,48,222.Cf.alsoKhak.aj'smooth,
polished'(VEWT11).

Proto-Turkic:*ajran
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:kumys
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:ajran(MK)
Turkish:ajran
Tatar:jrn
Uzbek:jrn
Uighur:ajran
Azerbaidzhan:ajran
Turkmen:ajran
19
Khakassian:ajran
Oyrat:ajran
Chuvash:ujran,dial.uran,oren(Anatri)
Kirghiz:ajran
Kazakh:ajran
Noghai:ajran
Bashkir:ajran
Balkar:ajran
Karaim:ajran
Karakalpak:ajran
Kumyk:ajran
Comments:1,111,EDT276,449,2,272.Chuv.
>ORuss.(4,167,350).Turk.>Russ.dial.ajran
78.

Proto-Turkic:*Ak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:white
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:aq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:aq(MK)
Turkish:ak
Tatar:aq
MiddleTurkic:aqa
Uzbek:q
Uighur:aq
Sary-Yughur:aq
Azerbaidzhan:a
Turkmen:q
Khakassian:ax
20
Shor:aq
Oyrat:aq
Tuva:aq
Tofalar:aq
Kirghiz:aq
Kazakh:aq
Noghai:aq
Bashkir:aq
Balkar:aq
Gagauz:aq
Karaim:aq
Karakalpak:aq
Salar:a
Kumyk:aq
Comments:VEWT12,TMN2,84-5,1,116-117,EDT75,
598-599.

Proto-Turkic:*Akana
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1gull2whitepartridge
Russianmeaning:12
Khakassian:aaja,aaja(Sag.,Kach.)'ak.ofbird'
Shor:aj1
Tuva:aanaq2
Comments:VEWT9.

Proto-Turkic:*al
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1lowerside,below2(asadj.)beingbelow,lower
Russianmeaning:1,2
21
OldTurkic:altn2(Yen.90,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:altn2(MK,IM),alt1(\X<1.193>Tefs.\x)
Turkish:alt1
Tatar:alt1(dial.,126)
Sary-Yughur:alt1(14)
Azerbaidzhan:alt1
Khakassian:alt1
Shor:alt1
Oyrat:ald1,alt2;alt1{(.)}
Halaj:a[:]lt1
Chuvash:old()'gusset'
Yakut:aln1
Dolgan:aln1
Tuva:a'ld1
Tofalar:aldn''(.153)
Kirghiz:ald()1
Gagauz:alt1
Karaim:alt1(K)
Comments:VEWT14,1,140-141,Stachowski32.VEWTconfuses
(afterBangandBrockelmann)theroots*al-'below'and*l'front'.Theyare
indeedmixedinKirgh.andOyr.lit.,wherewehaveald'front,below',but
aredistinguishedindialects(Tuba:ald'front',withavoicinginthe
consonantclusterafteranoldlongvowel,butalt'below').TheChuv.form
probablygoesbacktothecompound*koltukalt'axillaryconcavity,gusset'
(attestedinTur.,Gag.,Az.,see154).Mostlanguagesreflect*al-t-
(thesimpleformalisnotattested,seethediscussioninEDT121),butthe
realityoftheroot*alisprovedbyadifferentderivativeinYakut.Cf.also
Sib.-Tat.alaa'low,lowplace'(100).Anotherpossibleoldderivative
in-akmaybePT*al()ak(Karakh.aaq,Turkm.aqetc.,see1,
214-215)'below,bottompart;low,humble':itstraditionalderivationfrom
22
*l

-'tocross(amountain)'isunsatisfactorybothphoneticallyand
semantically.Acertainproblemistheattributionoftheadjective*al-ak
(see1,143-144,EDT129).Olderoccurrencesofalaq(MK,KB,
Tefs.,Rabg.etc.)presentthemeaning'modest,humble';cf.alsoSib.-Tat.
alcaq'valetudinarian'(101),Turkm.alak'affable'andperhapsTur.
alak'mean,vile',ala-'tooffend,humiliate'.Thisgroupofformsmayin
factreflectadifferentroot,otherwiserepresentedbyPT*Alg,seeunder
*

le'weak,tired'.Anothergroupofforms-Chag.alaq'bas'(Pav.C.),Tur.,
Az.,Crim.-Tat.(andOghuztextslikeKorkut)alaq'low,lowplace'probably
representsanOghuzinnovativederivationin-akfromtherootal-(whichis
why-l-didnotyield--here),perhapsinfluencedbyMong.ala-gar,ala-
n'stunted,undersized',derivedfromMong.alaji-'tospreadlegsapart'.

Proto-Turkic:*al-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totake
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:al-(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:al-(MK,KB)
Turkish:al-
Tatar:al-
MiddleTurkic:al-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:l-
Uighur:al-
Sary-Yughur:al-
Azerbaidzhan:al-
Turkmen:al-
Khakassian:al-
Shor:al-
Oyrat:al-
23
Halaj:al-
Chuvash:il-
Yakut:l-
Dolgan:l-
Tuva:al-
Tofalar:al-
Kirghiz:al-
Kazakh:al-
Noghai:al-
Bashkir:al-
Balkar:al-
Gagauz:al-
Karaim:al-
Karakalpak:al-
Salar:al-
Kumyk:al-
Comments:EDT124-125,VEWT14-15,1,127-128,68,
336,337,Stachowski259.

Proto-Turkic:*al-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobecomeweak2bad3tobevile(ofaman),toturnseptic(of
awound)4weak,inferior5upset6old,worn-out7crazy8lazyman9to
hurry10fool11togomad12todeceive13perplexed14dumb,foolish15
doubt,surprise16error17beindoubt,perplexed18absent-minded,
unattentive19weakness
Russianmeaning:123(),
()4,56,
7,8910
11121314,
24
15,1617,
,18,19,

OldTurkic:ala-a-d-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:al2(MK),alq-3(MK,KB)
Turkish:alk,(Osm.)alu4,alaz,alz4(dial.),alkn5(dial.)
Tatar:ala-ma2,6
MiddleTurkic:aluq7(Abush.27)
Uighur:alaq,ala7
Sary-Yughur:ala8(14)
Turkmen:al--a-sa-9
Khakassian:al10,alas5,al-n-,al-ax-11,(caus.)12
Shor:al-aq-tr-(caus.from*al-aq-)12,al-aq-qan13,al10,al-n-11
Oyrat:al(<ala)14,alu(<al)10,ala15,alas5,al-n-11
Yakut:alas16
Tuva:alq-17,ala15
Kirghiz:ala,ala-d18
Kazakh:ala18
Noghai:ala--a-s-ar18
Bashkir:alama2,6,al-jawu11
Balkar:aln-11
Gagauz:alq7,10
Karaim:alas19
Karakalpak:ala18
Comments:VEWT16-17,TMN2,116,EDT129,138,149,1,132,
145-146,Clark1977,128.SeealsoOghuz*al-aksub*al'below'.Tendsto
contaminatewith*l'red'and*la'variegated',cf.Uygh.al-gdn'naive'
('rednape'),Turkm.la-samsk'foolish'('variegatedfool'),Bashk.al-jot
'fool'('redfellow').KW7.Turk.*algaz>MMong.alasa-'faul,nachlassig
sein'(SH),thenMong.>Kirgh.,KBalk.,Kum.alasa(r)-,Nogh.alas-la-r-'to
25
becomeembarrassed',(Karaim)'tobescared'etc.DespiteSevortyan,
TokharianAls'iners,ignavus'(Poucha27),Bals-'besick'(Sieg-
Siegling91)not<Turk.,but<Sanskr.alasa.

Proto-Turkic:*Al
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:red,scarlet
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:al(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:al(MK,KB)
Turkish:al
Tatar:al
MiddleTurkic:al(Pav.C.,Houts.),al'brightred'(CCum.)
Uighur:al
Azerbaidzhan:al
Turkmen:l
Noghai:al
Bashkir:al
Gagauz:al
Karaim:al
Kumyk:al
Comments:EDT120-121,TMN2,94-95,1,125-126.Aloanwordin
Russ..

Proto-Turkic:*Al
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1device,trick,deceit2todeceive
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:al1(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.),al-ta-2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:l1(MK,KB),alda-(MK)
26
Turkish:a^l1,aldat-2
Tatar:alda-2
MiddleTurkic:al1,alda-2
Uzbek:alda-2
Uighur:aldi-2
Azerbaidzhan:al1(dial.),al-da-n-'tobedeceived,toerr'
Turkmen:l1,lda-2
Khakassian:alda-2
Shor:alda-2
Kirghiz:alda-2
Kazakh:alda-2
Noghai:alda-2
Bashkir:alda-2
Balkar:alda-2
Karakalpak:alda-2
Kumyk:al1,alda-2
Comments:EDT120-121,TMN2,93,1,126-127.Adiscussionof
albast(=Mong.albin)seeinTMN2,109-110.Turk.*l-da->Mong.alda-
'todeceive'(MA,cf.alsoTMN2,116,1997,97)>Evk.alda-etc.
(DoerferMT109).OnMong.alda-'tolose'see*

le'weak,tired'.

Proto-Turkic:*ala-n/*ala-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:levelground,plain
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:ala(MK)
Turkish:alan,dial.ala
Tatar:alan
MiddleTurkic:ala(Pav.C.)
Turkmen:ala,la
27
Chuvash:olx
Yakut:als,al
Dolgan:aln,al
Tuva:alq,aland
Kazakh:ala
Noghai:ala
Karaim:ala
Karakalpak:ala
Comments:EDT147,1,134-135,2,277,Stachowski32,
33.LengthintheTurkm.variantlaisnotclear.Yak.als>Russ.Siber.
alas(80-81).

Proto-Turkic:*Alar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofrat,jerboa
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:alar(MK)
MiddleTurkic:alaarat'grosrat'(Pav.C.30)
Turkmen:alaqa'gopher',alart'fieldmouse'
Comments:EDT149.

Proto-Turkic:*Alk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tofinish;destroy;(refl.)perish,beexhausted,cometoanend
Russianmeaning:,;
OldTurkic:alq-(Orkh.,OUygh.),alq-n-(refl.)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:alq-(MK,IM),alq-n-refl.(MK,IM),alq-'todestroyeach
other'(MK)
Turkish:alk-(dial.);alk--(OldOsm.)'todestroy(many)'
Kirghiz:alq-n-'toweaken'(I390),'torage'(.51)(?)
28
Kazakh:alq-n-'togetshortofbreath,chafe'(?)
Karakalpak:alq-n-'togetshortofbreath'
Comments:EDT135,137,138-139;VEWT17.Reflexesinmodern
languagesarenotquitesecure.Thereflexiveformalkn-'weaken'(butnote
thedifferenceinmeaningsinRandinmoderndictionaries)maybederived
bothfrom*alk-andfrom*alk-'todeteriorate,disintegrate'(EDT138),
whichbelongsratherto*Al'silly,weak',al'bad,weak,wicked'(inany
case,cannotbemorphologicallyidentifiedwith*alk-),thusmodern
languagesmayexhibitacontamination.

Proto-Turkic:*alk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobless,praise2blessing,praise3curse
Russianmeaning:1,2,
3,
OldTurkic:alqa-(OUygh.)1,alq(OUygh.,Yen.)2
Karakhanid:alq2(MK)
Turkish:alk2
Tatar:alq2
MiddleTurkic:alqa-1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:lqi2
Uighur:alqi2
Sary-Yughur:alqs2
Azerbaidzhan:alG2
Turkmen:alq2
Oyrat:alqa-1
Chuvash:lan3
Yakut:al-1,al2(<Tuva)
Dolgan:alg-'toshamanize'(<Tuva)
Tuva:a'l3
29
Kirghiz:alqa-1,alq2
Kazakh:als2;alqa-1(dial.)
Bashkir:alq2
Balkar:al2
Karaim:al2
Karakalpak:als2
Kumyk:al2
Comments:1,137-138,EDT137-138,343,Stachowski31,
.181(regardingtheYak.formasborrowed<Tuvabecause
ofitsvocalism).

Proto-Turkic:*alp
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1difficult,hard2warrior3hero4brave5giant6landlord
Russianmeaning:123456
,
OldTurkic:alp1,2,4(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.);alp-a-ut2(OUygh.).
Karakhanid:alp2,4(MK,KB,Tefs.,IM);alpaut2(MK)
Turkish:alp3,4
Tatar:alp3,5,alpawt2
MiddleTurkic:alp2,3(Sngl.)
Uzbek:alp3
Uighur:alpawut2
Khakassian:alp4,albx-'toactasameddler'
Shor:alp4
Oyrat:alp4
Chuvash:olp5,olbut2
Yakut:alp'witchcraft;partofsomenamesofspirits'
Tuva:albq-'topant,stifle',alb-'tolapseintooblivion'
Kirghiz:alp3,4,5,albt'hot-tempered'
30
Kazakh:alp5,albt,albrt'hot-tempered'
Bashkir:alpawt2,alpama5(fromAlpAma,afolklorename,=Tat.)
Karaim:alp'chief',alpawut'gentryman'
Karakalpak:alp3,5,albra-'beexhausted,embarassed'
Comments:EDT127-128,VEWT18,I139,2,276.
Clauson'shypothesisthatthereflexesof*alpawutinrecentlanguagesare
theresultofare-borrowingfromMong.(cf.Lit.Mong.albaut(Kow.84)<
Turk.),partlycontaminatedwithMong.alban'tax',isunnecessary:a
semanticshift'warrior'>'gentry'>'landlord'seemstobenatural.Cf.a
borrowingfromMong.alba-tuinTuva,Oyr.albatu,albat,Kirgh.albat'tax-
payers,people'.

Proto-Turkic:*Alu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:redclay,ochre
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:au(MK)
Turkish:a,dial.au,aur,Osmanliau
MiddleTurkic:a(AH6)
Comments:VEWT30,EDT256,376.

Proto-Turkic:*am-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1gentle,quiet2tolove,desire,rejoice3politeness4beloved5
tobequiet
Russianmeaning:1,2,3
4,5
OldTurkic:amul,aml1,amraq4,amr-,amran-2,amrl-5(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:amul1,amraq4,amrt-'tocalm',amrl-5(MK,KB)
Turkish:ml,umul1(dial.)
31
MiddleTurkic:mra4
Uighur:amraq4
Sary-Yughur:amr1,amra-5
Khakassian:amr1,amra-5
Oyrat:amr1,amra-5
Halaj:havul'good'(?)
Chuvash:mr'quietandgrey(weather)'
Yakut:amarax,amrax'compassionate'
Dolgan:amarak'compassionate'
Tuva:amr1,amra-2,amraq3
Kirghiz:amz'honour'
Balkar:amr'desire'
Kumyk:amraq'disposition,aptitude'
Comments:EDT160-161,162-163,164,VEWT19,1,59-60
(confusedwithabra-'tosave'<Mong.),Stachowski33,TMN2,125,
1,82.Turk.>MMong.amra'sweetheart',amura'friend'(IM),
amraqbol-'tofallinlove'(MA),amara-'sichlieben',amarah'Liebe'(SH),
Mgramura'friend'(..314)etc.;butmodernKypchakandSiberian
formsmaybereborrowed<Mong.

Proto-Turkic:*ama
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:plough
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:ama(MK)
Turkish:Osm.ama
MiddleTurkic:ama(Sangl.)
Uzbek:m
Uighur:ama
Turkmen:oma
32
Kirghiz:ama
Comments:EDT156,TMN2,124.Turk.>Pers.m(seeHorn11onthe
lackofIranianetymologyofthePersianword;thederivationinBailey326:
m<*mtaishardlycredible),despiteMolnar2001(suggestinga
differentdirection);butChag.(Sangl.)amaiscertainlyabackloan<
Persian.ThewordisalsopresentinArmen.ma'ploughhandle',whereit
ismostprobably<Iranian.

Proto-Turkic:*an-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:that(obl.cases)2here,look(part.)
Russianmeaning:(.)2,
OldTurkic:an-ta(loc.),a-ar(dat.)(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:an-da(loc.),o-a(dat.)(MK,KB)
Tatar:an-da(loc.),a-a(dat.),an-ar(dat.)(Mish.)
MiddleTurkic:an-da(loc.),a-a(dat.)(Babur)
Sary-Yughur:a(nom.)
Turkmen:ana2
Khakassian:an-da(loc.),a-aa(dat.)
Shor:an-da(loc.),a-()a(dat.)
Oyrat:an-da(loc.),o-()o(dat.)
Halaj:

r'thatside'(vocalismunderinfluenceofb

r'thisside')
Chuvash:on-da(loc.),n-a(dat.)
Yakut:ana-r2
Tuva:n-da(loc.),a()-a(dat.)
Tofalar:n-da(loc.),a()-a(dat.)
Kirghiz:an-ta(loc.),a-()a(dat.)
Bashkir:an-ta,an-da(loc.),a-a(dat.)
Balkar:an-da(loc.),a-a(dat.)
Karaim:an-da(loc.),an-ar(dat.)
33
Salar:an-d(loc.),a-a(dat.)
Comments:VEWT19,EDT165,1,147-150,157.InOTandmost
modernlanguagestheroota(n)-actsasanobliquestemforol'that'(as
wellasaderivingstemforpronominaladverbs).OnlyinSUygh.a-isthe
directstem.

Proto-Turkic:*An
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:onion,edibleroot
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:aj(Koib.)
Tuva:aj
Tofalar:aj
Kazakh:j,aj(Katanov)
Comments:VEWT10.

Proto-Turkic:*ana/*ene
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mother
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:anaene(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:anaene(MK)
Turkish:ana
Tatar:ana
MiddleTurkic:ana(Pav.C.)
Uighur:ana
Sary-Yughur:ana
Azerbaidzhan:ana
Turkmen:ene
Khakassian:in
34
Oyrat:ene
Chuvash:anne
Yakut:ije
Dolgan:ine
Tuva:ije
Kirghiz:ene
Kazakh:ene,ana
Bashkir:in
Balkar:ana
Gagauz:ana
Karaim:ana
Karakalpak:ene,ana
Salar:ana
Kumyk:ana

Proto-Turkic:*anak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1pot,cup2hole;mouth3(river)mouth
Russianmeaning:1,2;3()
OldTurkic:ajaq1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ajaq1(MK)
Turkish:ajak3
MiddleTurkic:ajaq1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jq1,3
Uighur:ajaq1
Sary-Yughur:ajaq1
Azerbaidzhan:ajak3
Turkmen:ajaq3
Khakassian:ajax1
35
Shor:ajaq1
Oyrat:ajaq1
Yakut:ajax1,2
Dolgan:ana,anak2
Tuva:ajaq1,3
Kirghiz:ajaq1
Kazakh:ajaq1
Noghai:ajaq1
Bashkir:ajaq1
Balkar:ajaq1,3
Karaim:ajaq1
Karakalpak:ajaq3
Kumyk:ajaq1
Comments:VEWT11,1,105,TMN2,171-2,EDT270,Stachowski
34.Turk.>MongorajaG'paquet'(SM16),ZMaj

q(14-2a);>Russ.Siber.
ajak(104).

Proto-Turkic:*anar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:clearsky;frost
Russianmeaning:;
OldTurkic:ajaz(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ajas(MK)
Turkish:ajaz
Tatar:ajaz
MiddleTurkic:ajaz(Sangl.),ajaz,ajas(CCum.)
Uzbek:ajz
Uighur:ajaz
Sary-Yughur:ajas
Azerbaidzhan:ajaz
36
Turkmen:ajaz
Khakassian:ajas
Shor:ajas
Oyrat:ajas;ajz(dial.)
Halaj:hajz
Chuvash:ojar
Tuva:ajas
Kirghiz:ajaz
Kazakh:ajaz
Noghai:ajaz
Bashkir:aja
Balkar:ajaz
Gagauz:ajaz
Karaim:ajaz/s
Kumyk:ajaz
Comments:1,102-3;VEWT11;TMN2,170;13,
2,298.AdifferentsuffixationisseeninTur.(dial.)ajam,Kaz.,Kirgh.ajq
'clear(weather').Aderivative*an-gr-(pointingtooriginal*-n-)isfoundin
Kaz.azaq,Turkm.azaq'coldwithdrywind'(seeibid.).

Proto-Turkic:*ankaj
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:youngofungulates(lessthan1-year-old)
Russianmeaning:()
Oyrat:anaj
Yakut:x'youngofungulatesandbears'
Tuva:anaj,Todzh.a'naj
Tofalar:anhaj
Comments:154.

37
Proto-Turkic:*Ant
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:oath
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ant(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:and(MK)
Turkish:ant(and)
Tatar:ant
MiddleTurkic:ant
Uzbek:nt
Uighur:ant
Azerbaidzhan:and
Turkmen:ant
Oyrat:ant-q-'totakeanoath'
Halaj:a:nd
Kirghiz:ant
Kazakh:ant
Noghai:ant
Bashkir:ant
Balkar:ant
Karaim:ant
Karakalpak:ant
Kumyk:ant
Comments:EDT176,VEWT20,TMN2,128,1,151.Originalvowel
lengthisprovedbyTurk.,Az.-d.

Proto-Turkic:*anu-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ready,certain2togetready
Russianmeaning:1,2
38
OldTurkic:anu-(OUygh.)2,anuq1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:anu-(MK),anut-(caus.)(KB,MK)2,anuq1(MK,KB)
Turkish:dial.ank1
Tatar:anq1
MiddleTurkic:anut-(caus.)(Qutb)2,anuq(IM,Qutb)1
Uzbek:niq2
Uighur:eniq
Turkmen:anq2
Kirghiz:anq1
Kazakh:anq1
Bashkir:anq1
Karaim:anq1
Karakalpak:anq1
Comments:EDT171,179,182,1,151-152.

Proto-Turkic:*A
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wildgame
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:a(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:a-d-'tohunt',a'hunter'(MK)
Tatar:a'elk,dear'(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:a
Uzbek:a'hunting'(dial.)
Uighur:a
Turkmen:ata-'tochase'
Khakassian:a
Shor:a'sable'
Oyrat:a
Yakut:'fenceforwildreindeer'
39
Tuva:a
Tofalar:a
Kirghiz:a
Kazakh:a
Noghai:a
Bashkir:ad-'totrack,waylay'
Karaim:a
Karakalpak:a
Comments:152,417,EDT166.Shoran,Khak.an'netfor
catchingsables'isacontaminationofthisrootand*ag'net'.Turk.>Mong.
aid.,seeClark1977,128-129.

Proto-Turkic:*a-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobewideopen2tobeperplexed,astonished3wideopen4
fool,simpleton5obtuse,stupid6astonished7tohaveone'smouthopened
8tobedrowsy,faint9tolookatwithsurprise10togape
Russianmeaning:12,
34,56
78,9
10
Karakhanid:alauq3(MK)
Turkish:(dial.)anuk,az4
Tatar:a-migebul-3;(dial.)al5
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)an6(AH)
Uzbek:araj-2,7
Turkmen:aal-2,aqar-2,7
Khakassian:aaj-'tomiss',amaj-2,7,amax'standingwithone'smouth
open'
Yakut:aar-8
40
Tuva:aada-2
Kirghiz:aqaj-,aar-1,9(<Mong.?),aq4,ar-2,araj-10
Kazakh:atar-,ar-2,aqaw4
Noghai:aq-tike'daffy',ara4,aaj-7
Karakalpak:aqaw4
Comments:EDT184,1,155,156-157.

Proto-Turkic:*Adur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1amedicinalshrub,elecampane2cypress,juniper3shrub,
bush
Russianmeaning:1,2,
3
Karakhanid:aduz1(MK)
Turkish:andz3
Tatar:andz2
MiddleTurkic:anduz1(Sngl)
Turkmen:andz'';aza'ak.ofmountainplant'
Kirghiz:qar-andz,qarndiz,antz(Southdial.)2
Kazakh:andz,and''
Noghai:andz2
Bashkir:and2
Balkar:andz2
Gagauz:andz3
Comments:VEWT21,EDT178,1,150-151.

Proto-Turkic:*A(k)t
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wildduck
Russianmeaning:
41
OldTurkic:at(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:at(MK)
Turkish:angut'',ankt(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:anqud(Sngl)
Uzbek:anirt'redduck'
Sary-Yughur:at
Azerbaidzhan:anGut-boGaz''
Turkmen:ak'redduck'
Khakassian:t
Karaim:anqt,ankit'ostrich,vulture,dragon'
Kumyk:haqut
Comments:VEWT21,172.Doerfer's(TMN2,129)PT*agrtisa
quiteartificialconstruct:itisbasedonoccasionalmodernforms(likeUzb.
airt)whichreflectacontaminationof*atandtheborrowedMong.ar
(withtheinfluenceofagrt'careless').Alloldsources(seeEDT176)
reflectonly*at.(Yak.nntla''(.),despiteVEWT,
<Evk.niltalbuki'ablackduckwithwhitehead,fromnilta-'toloosehair',lit.
'baldbird'I593;ann,and<TM*andi;anna,annarjardial.'ak.of
seabird,'(48)<Mong.agir).

Proto-Turkic:*Ap/*Ep
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:emphaticstrengtheningparticle
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:ap/ep(MK)
Turkish:ap(XIVc.),apak'quite,completely'
Azerbaidzhan:apG'however'
Kirghiz:apej'anemphaticinterjection'
Comments:EDT3.

42
Proto-Turkic:*apa
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mother,eldersister,aunt
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:apa(Yen.)
Karakhanid:epeapa(Oghuz=QarluqTrkmen,MK)
Turkish:aba(Ank.),dial.apa
Tatar:apa
MiddleTurkic:apa'eldersister'(Sangl.)
Uzbek:pa
Uighur:apa
Turkmen:apa,afa(dial.)
Shor:abie(<aba-ee)
Oyrat:abune(<aba-ene)
Tuva:ava
Tofalar:aba
Kirghiz:apa
Kazakh:apa
Noghai:aba
Bashkir:apa
Balkar:aba
Karaim:apaj(Q)
Karakalpak:apa
Kumyk:abaj,apaj
Comments:EDT5,1,158-159,290-291,300,301,
TMN2,3,90.Frontrowvariants(Tur.eve,Kaz.ebej,Yak.,Dolg.
ebeetc.,see1,220-221,Stachowski42)arerecentandmayhavea
Mong.origin.

Proto-Turkic:*apa-
43
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:grasshopper
Russianmeaning:
Shor:abaaq
Oyrat:abajaq
Chuvash:obalb'',obanrri'
()'
Comments:VEWT1.Contaminationswithaba'',aba'father>
bear'.

Proto-Turkic:*apa(*appa)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:father
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:apa(Orkh.,OUygh.)'ancestors'
Karakhanid:apa(MK)'father,bear'("Kypch."),(KB)'ancestor'
Turkish:aba
Tatar:aba(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:awa
Azerbaidzhan:aba(dial.)
Turkmen:aba(dial.)
Khakassian:aba
Oyrat:aba'father,bear'
Chuvash:oba'bear'
Tuva:ava
Kirghiz:aba
Bashkir:apa(dial.)
Balkar:appa,aba
Salar:aba(Kakuk),aba,apa()
44
Comments:EDT5,VEWT1,1,54-58,2,281,
305,71.f.also*bpa'grandfather,mother'sfather'(Turkm.bba
etc.,see2,10-13,294,305).Voicingof-p-inmany
languagesisprobablyduetoexpressivegemination.

Proto-Turkic:*apa,*apak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bogy2figuresetuptoaverttheevileye3idol
Russianmeaning:123
Karakhanid:aba1,abaq2(MK)
Turkish:apaq,abaq'jinn,ghoul'(dial.),'fool'
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)abaq'doll'(Houts.,At-Tuhf.)
Uzbek:pa-lar'femaleevilghosts'(lit."eldersisters")
Yakut:abh'evilghost'
Balkar:aba1
Karaim:abaq,abax3
Comments:VEWT1,2,EDT6,8.Quitedubiousisthehypothesis(see
71,TMN4,307-310,Clark1977,127)oftheTurkicformsbeing
borrowedfromMong.abui'receiver'(allthemoresobecausetheBur.
formisnotaba,butabaga,i.e.reflecting-g-,not--).Seeadetailed
discussioninStachowski2001.

Proto-Turkic:*apaka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1Alnusfruticosa;Labradortea2ak.offern
Russianmeaning:1;2
Karakhanid:apaba'Cannabissativa,itisaplantwhichgrowslike
Cucumissativusandhasathornystern,itiseateninthemountains'(MK
Qypch.)
Tatar:abaa2
45
Chuvash:uba-zarri2
Yakut:abaa1
Bashkir:abaa2
Comments:VEWT1,1986,92.OTandChuv.reflectafolk
etymology(confusionwithapa'bear').

Proto-Turkic:*Ap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tohide2tobecautious3caution,precautions
Russianmeaning:123,

Karakhanid:ab-,abt-(MK),abn-(refl.)(MK)1
Uighur:abajla-,avajla-(refl.)1
Kirghiz:abaj3
Kazakh:abajla-2
Bashkir:abajla-2
Karakalpak:abajla-2
Comments:EDT6,7,13.

Proto-Turkic:*Apl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hoe
Russianmeaning:
Shor:abl
Oyrat:abl,dial.l(Leb.)
Kirghiz:abl-qasm'oneofthepegsinaplough'
Comments:VEWT2.Despitelateandsparseattestationhardlyborrowed
fromMong.-forsemanticandphoneticreasons,despite73.

Proto-Turkic:*ar-
46
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1weft,woof2warp
Russianmeaning:1 2
OldTurkic:aruarqa(Ough.)1
Karakhanid:arqa(MK,IM)1,ar2
Turkish:ara(-)1,eri,Osm.ar2
MiddleTurkic:ara(Sangl.)1,ar(Sangl.)2
Uzbek:dial.ara1
Uighur:arqaq1
Azerbaidzhan:ara1,ri2
Turkmen:arGa1,arGa-'-',eri2
Khakassian:ara-''
Oyrat:ark1
Chuvash:ura1
Tuva:eri2
Comments:VEWT25,26(confusedwith*arka-),EDT216,239,1,
170,2,284,396.Turk.>WMong.arqa,Kalm.arx
(KW14,1997,101).Thefrontrowvariant*erilispeculiar:itmay
reflectamergerwithadifferentroot,reflectedinChuv.arla-`tospin',with
possibleparallelsinMong.ere-`towind,tieround',Nan.(Kur-Urm.)erin
`band,necking'(2,463).

Proto-Turkic:*Ar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:few,alittle
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:az(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:az(MK)
Turkish:az
Tatar:az,z
47
Uzbek:z
Uighur:az
Sary-Yughur:az
Azerbaidzhan:az
Turkmen:z
Khakassian:as
Shor:as
Oyrat:as
Halaj:haz
Tuva:as
Kirghiz:az
Kazakh:az
Noghai:az
Bashkir:a,
Balkar:az
Gagauz:az
Karaim:az
Karakalpak:az
Kumyk:az
Comments:EDT277,VEWT32,1,93-94

Proto-Turkic:*ar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tomakemagic,castspells2todeceive
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:ar-2(Orkh.,OUygh.),arv'magic'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ar-1(MK,KB),arva-1(MK)
Turkish:arpa'magic'(dial.)
Tatar:arb-1(Sib.,103)
MiddleTurkic:arba-1(Sangl.,.)
48
Uzbek:avra-1,2
Uighur:a(r)ba-1
Sary-Yughur:arva-1(16)
Turkmen:arvaxdial.'evilspirit'
Khakassian:arba-1
Shor:arba-1,arb'magic'
Oyrat:arba-n-'toscold'
Yakut:arb-1(.I139'topraiseformagicpurposes')
Kirghiz:arba-1,2
Kazakh:arba-1,2
Bashkir:arba-1
Karakalpak:arba-1,2
Comments:EDT193,199,VEWT24,I168-170.Turk.>MMong.
arba-'toputspells'(SH8);Turk.arb>Mong.arbis'knowledge'(Clark
1980,41).

Proto-Turkic:*Ar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gift
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:armaan(MK,Oghuz)
Turkish:armaan
MiddleTurkic:armaan
Azerbaidzhan:armaan
Kirghiz:arna-'todedicate,designfor'
49
Comments:EDT231,232,VEWT27.

Proto-Turkic:*ara-n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1shed2stable3fold4store-room
Russianmeaning:1234,
Karakhanid:aran1(MK)
Tatar:aran1
MiddleTurkic:aran1(Sangl.)
Turkmen:aram(dial.)3
Yakut:araas(<*aran-ga,Dimin.)4,dial.arn',
,'
Dolgan:araas4
Kazakh:aran3
Noghai:aran3
Bashkir:aran1
Karaim:aran3
Kumyk:aran1
Comments:VEWT23,66,EDT232,523-524.Turk.>Russ.
Siber.aran(92).Yak.>Evk.araas>Russ.Siber.arangas
(93).DespiteStachowski36,theYak.andDolg.wordisnot
borrowed<Mong.araga-whichcouldnotexplainthederivationsuffix-
butisratheraproductivederivativefromthecommonTurkicroot,witha
meaningvariant"auxiliarybuilding".

Proto-Turkic:*Argun *r
Meaning:1ermine2ak.ofweasel
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:as(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:as,az(MK)1,arun(MK)2
50
Turkish:a(r)s,Osm.as
Tatar:as1
Uzbek:as(Sangl.)2
Khakassian:as1
Shor:as1
Oyrat:a(a)s,s1
Chuvash:jos1
Tuva:as1
Kirghiz:ars1
Bashkir:a1
Karaim:as1
Kumyk:as1
Comments:EDT216,191,**AD2493.

Proto-Turkic:*ar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1clean,pure,tobeclean2toclean,purify
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:ar(Orkh.),ar-,ar(OUygh.)1,art-(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:ar-,ar(MK,KB)1,art-(MK,KB)2
Turkish:ar1,art-2,Osm.art-'towipe'
Tatar:aru1
MiddleTurkic:ar-(Abush.),ar(Abush.,Sangl.,Qutb),ar(Pav.C.)1,art-
(Sangl.,Qutb)2
Uzbek:dial.ari-1
Uighur:eriq1
Sary-Yughur:ar1
Azerbaidzhan:dial.ar1,art-2
Turkmen:arG1,art-2
Khakassian:ar1
51
Oyrat:aru1
Halaj:ar1,arut-2
Chuvash:r'good',irt-','
Yakut:rs1,rt-''
Dolgan:ras1
Tuva:ar1,art-2
Kirghiz:ar1
Kazakh:aru1
Bashkir:arw1
Balkar:arw1
Karakalpak:aruw1
Comments:EDT198,213,VEWT27,1,184-186,.
182,Stachowski261.

Proto-Turkic:*arg
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fang
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:az(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:az(MK)
Turkish:az
Tatar:azaw
MiddleTurkic:azu(Sangl.)
Uzbek:ziq
Sary-Yughur:az
Azerbaidzhan:az
Turkmen:az
Khakassian:az
Shor:azj
Oyrat:azu,az
52
Chuvash:*ora>Mariora-puj'id.'
Yakut:ah,dial.h
Tuva:az
Tofalar:az
Kirghiz:az
Kazakh:azuw
Bashkir:aaw
Balkar:azaw
Karakalpak:azuw
Kumyk:azuw
Comments:VEWT33,1,96-98,229.Turk.>Mong.*au
(auinUygh.script,seeClark1980,41).

Proto-Turkic:*arl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thill
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:dial.ar
Tatar:ar
MiddleTurkic:ar(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:dial.ari
Turkmen:ar
Kazakh:ars
Noghai:ars
Bashkir:ar
Balkar:ar
Karaim:ar
Karakalpak:ars
Kumyk:ar
53
Comments:VEWT26,TMN2,40-41,1,189-191,555.
Turk.>Kalm.ar'thill'(KW15).Thewordisattestedlate,andClauson
1965,166proposesaloan<Arab.aris.

Proto-Turkic:*ark
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:excrement
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:arq(MK)
MiddleTurkic:Kypch.arq(Houts.)
Turkmen:arq(-)
Khakassian:arx
Halaj:harq
Comments:EDT213,VEWT26.

Proto-Turkic:*Arka-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lasso,thickstring
Russianmeaning:,
Uzbek:arkan1
Turkmen:arqn
Comments:VEWT26,1,175-176.Turk.>WMong.arqala-,Kalm.
arxl-(KW14).

Proto-Turkic:*arka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:back
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:arqa(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:arqa(MK,KB)
54
Turkish:arka
Tatar:arqa
MiddleTurkic:arqa(Sangl.)
Uzbek:rqa
Uighur:a(r)qa
Sary-Yughur:arqa,harqa
Azerbaidzhan:arxa
Turkmen:arqa
Khakassian:ara
Shor:ara
Oyrat:arqa
Halaj:arq(arxa<Az.)
Chuvash:ora-lx'saddlestrips'
Yakut:ar,ara-s
Dolgan:arga-l-'toturnone'sbacktowardssmb.'
Tuva:a'ra'mountainforest'
Kirghiz:arqa
Kazakh:arqa
Noghai:arqa
Bashkir:arqa
Balkar:arqa
Gagauz:arqa
Karaim:arqa,arxa
Karakalpak:arqa
Salar:ara,arGa(292,293)
Kumyk:arqa1
Comments:EDT200-201,215,VEWT26-27,1,174-175,179-180,
267-268,2,288,Stachowski36.

Proto-Turkic:*Arkun
55
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:across-bredhorse
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:arqun(MK)
Uighur:a(r)un
Kirghiz:arn
Comments:EDT216,1,171.Cf.also*arga-mak'stallion'(>
WMong.arama,see1997,162).Theverbar-'torunswiftly(of
awell-bredhorse)'isattestedinKirgh.,Kum.andTuva(see1,172).
Turk.>Bur.arxan`bastard;cross-bredhorse'.Seealso.1,66(Osset.
aronaq'well-breddog'<Turkic).

Proto-Turkic:*arpa
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:barley
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:arpa(OUygh.),abra(lateOUygh.)
Karakhanid:arpa(MK,KB)
Turkish:arpa
Tatar:arpa
MiddleTurkic:arpa(Sangl.)
Uzbek:arpa
Uighur:a(r)pa
Azerbaidzhan:arpa
Turkmen:arpa
Khakassian:arba
Oyrat:arba
Halaj:arpa
Chuvash:orba
Kirghiz:arpa
56
Kazakh:arpa
Noghai:arpa
Bashkir:arpa
Balkar:arpa
Gagauz:arpa
Karaim:arpa
Karakalpak:arpa
Salar:arfa(292)
Kumyk:arpa
Comments:EDT198,VEWT27,1,176-177,TMN2,24,
460,27,2,286.Turk.>Hung.arpa,seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*aru
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:or
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:azu(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:azu(MK)
Tuva:az
Comments:EDT280.

Proto-Turkic:*as-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tohang
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:as-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:as-(MK)
Turkish:as-
Tatar:as-
MiddleTurkic:as-(Sangl.,Houts.)
57
Uzbek:s-
Uighur:as-
Sary-Yughur:as-
Azerbaidzhan:as-
Turkmen:as-
Halaj:has-
Chuvash:us-,os-
Tuva:a's-
Kirghiz:as-
Kazakh:as-
Bashkir:a-
Balkar:as-
Gagauz:as-
Karaim:as-
Karakalpak:as-
Kumyk:as-
Comments:VEWT28,EDT240,1,192-193,277,
2,289.

Proto-Turkic:*asg
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:profit
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:as(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:as(MK,KB)
Turkish:as
MiddleTurkic:as(IM),ass(Houts.)
Uzbek:dial.asgr-'tohelp'
Uighur:dial.ass
Chuvash:oz
58
Yakut:as
Comments:VEWT29,1,196-197,277,344,
2,290-291.Turk.>Mong.asi>Man.ajsi(TMN2,58-59,
1997,102).

Proto-Turkic:*at-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tothrow,shoot
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:at-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:at-(MK)
Turkish:at-
Tatar:at-
MiddleTurkic:at-(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:t-
Uighur:at-
Sary-Yughur:at-
Azerbaidzhan:at-
Turkmen:at-
Khakassian:at-
Shor:at-
Oyrat:at-
Halaj:hat-
Chuvash:vt-,dial.ut-
Yakut:t-
Dolgan:t-
Tuva:at-
Kirghiz:at-
Kazakh:at-
Noghai:at-
59
Bashkir:at-
Balkar:at-
Gagauz:at-
Karaim:at-
Karakalpak:at-
Kumyk:at-
Comments:EDT36,VEWT31,1,199-200,203,204,342,
2,469,Stachowski262.

Proto-Turkic:*at-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todawn
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:at-(MK,Tefs.)
Turkish:at-
Tatar:at-
MiddleTurkic:at-(Abush.)
Uighur:at-
Turkmen:at-
Khakassian:at-
Shor:at-
Oyrat:at-
Yakut:t-
Tuva:a't-
Tofalar:a't-
Kirghiz:at-
Kazakh:at-
Noghai:at-
Bashkir:at-
Balkar:at-
60
Gagauz:at-
Karakalpak:at-
Kumyk:at-
Comments:Usuallyconfusedwith*at-'toshoot,throw',butcertainly
distinct.

Proto-Turkic:*at
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:horse
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:at(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:at(MK,KB)
Turkish:at
Tatar:at
MiddleTurkic:at
Uzbek:t
Uighur:at
Sary-Yughur:a't
Azerbaidzhan:at
Turkmen:at
Khakassian:at
Shor:at
Oyrat:at
Halaj:hat
Chuvash:ut
Yakut:at
Dolgan:at
Tuva:a't
Kirghiz:at
Kazakh:at
61
Noghai:at
Bashkir:at
Balkar:at
Gagauz:at
Karaim:at
Karakalpak:at
Salar:at,ac
Kumyk:at
Comments:EDT23,VEWT30,1,197-198,TMN2,4-5,
441,.III,316-320,Stachowski38.

Proto-Turkic:*Ata/*Ete
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1father2uncle3ancestor
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:ata1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ata,ataq1(MK)
Turkish:ata3,dial.ede2
Tatar:ata,eti1,etkej2
MiddleTurkic:ata(Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:ta1
Uighur:ata1,3
Sary-Yughur:ata1
Azerbaidzhan:ata1
Turkmen:ata'father'sfather'
Khakassian:ada1
Oyrat:ada1,3
Tuva:a'da1
Tofalar:ada1,3
Kirghiz:ata1,3
62
Kazakh:ata1
Noghai:ata1,'male'
Bashkir:ata1,'male'
Balkar:ata1
Karaim:ata3
Karakalpak:ata3
Kumyk:ata1
Comments:EDT40,48,VEWT31,1,200-201,TMN2,5-6,9,
294,304.

Proto-Turkic:*atan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:acastratedcamel
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:atan(MK)
MiddleTurkic:atan(IM)
Turkmen:atan(dial.)
Tuva:adan
Kirghiz:atan
Kazakh:atan
Noghai:atan
Karakalpak:atan
Comments:EDT60,1,202-203.Turk.>WMong.atan'castrated
camel'.Cf.alsoYak.at'castrated',att-'tocastrate'-homonymouswithat
'horse',whichisprobablyasecondarymerger(thetworootsobviouslyare
tobekeptseparate).

Proto-Turkic:*At
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:(junior)nephew,grandson
63
Russianmeaning:(),
OldTurkic:at(Orkh.)
Uighur:dial.Lobn.ataj-m'oh,mychild!'
Sary-Yughur:at
Khakassian:adaj'dog'(<*'cub')
Comments:VEWT31,EDT40,1,79.

Proto-Turkic:*Atr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wateredfield,boundary
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:atz'anystripoflandbetweentwodikes'(MK)
Uighur:etiz
Turkmen:atz
Shor:ads'1/18'
Kirghiz:adr','
Kazakh:atz
Comments:VEWT31,EDT73.Turk.>Mong.atiz(1997,102).Cf.
also*tag'island'.

Proto-Turkic:*atkak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gills
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:atpax
Shor:attaq
Oyrat:atqaq
Comments:VEWT31.AlocalSiberianword;shouldbekeptdistinctfrom
*at(k)-'pinch,pinchful,handful'(q.v.sub*p`a

t`a(-kV)).

64
Proto-Turkic:*at(k-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1handful2pinch(ful)3barbofthefish-forkhook
Russianmeaning:1,23,

Turkish:atm2,atk'weft;woodenfork;straponfootwear,scarf'
Tatar:atqr(dial.)'cross-beam'
Uzbek:tim2
Azerbaidzhan:atG'cross-bar',atm2
Turkmen:atm2
Oyrat:atqaq3
Chuvash:dam'armful'
Tuva:adm1,atqaq3,atpaq'hangerforhorseharness',atpaq-ta-l-'tohitch
ontosmth.',atpana-'grasp(ofachild)'
Kirghiz:atm2
Comments:344,.85,VEWT31.Ifweexclude
obviousloansfromMong.adqu-,alltheotherformsclearlyfallintotwo
types.1)PT*atm'handful,pinchful'2)PT*Atk-'smth.hitched,clutching,
clinging'.Thelatter(Tuvaatkak)islinkedinEDT47withOUygh.atqaq
'vikalpa'.ThereisanumberofOUygh.Buddhisttermsthatcanbederived
fromastemmeaning'grasp,hitch':atqaq'1)vikalpa,attachmenttothe
materialworld(whenceborrowedinMong.atqa'illusion,prejudice'),2)
visaya,'idea,notion,subject',atqaq-l'appertainingtosmth.',atqa-n-'be
connected,clingingto(thematerialworld)',atqa-n-sz'devoidofsense
perceptions',atqanu'visaya',atqanu-lu'correlated'(cf.(alquqa)
atqanulututaql'correlated(witheverything)(and)grasping
(everything)'),see68,EDT47.Thisallseemstoindicateaprimary
root*at-meaningboth'tocling,hitchontosmth.,grasp'and'agrasp,
handful'(also'armful'ifwetakeintoaccounttheChuv.meaning).Notethat
inSiberianlanguagesthisroot(*at-ka-k)isadditionallyconfusedwiththe
65
localwordfor'gills'-whichhasaquiteseparateAltaicorigin(seeunder
*p`ata(kV)'fishfin').

Proto-Turkic:*
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hunger
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:a(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:a(MK)
Turkish:a
Tatar:a
MiddleTurkic:a(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:
Uighur:a
Azerbaidzhan:a
Turkmen:
Khakassian:as
Shor:a
Oyrat:a
Halaj:,

u-
Chuvash:vz
Yakut:s
Dolgan:a-k'hungry'
Tuva:a
Kirghiz:a
Kazakh:a
Noghai:a
Bashkir:as
Balkar:a
Gagauz:
66
Karaim:a
Karakalpak:a
Kumyk:a
Comments:EDT17,VEWT3,1,208-209,Stachowski28.

Proto-Turkic:*d-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosoberup2sober,conscious
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:adn-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:al-(MK,KB),an-(MK,KB)1,a(MK)2
Turkish:ajl-,dial.aj(h)-,Osm.ajn-1,ajk2
Tatar:dial.ajl-1,ajq2
MiddleTurkic:ajl-(Sangl.)1,ajq(Houts.,Pav.C.,IM)2,aj(IM,Qutb)2
Uzbek:dial.ajq2
Azerbaidzhan:ajl-1,ajG2
Turkmen:jl-1,dial.ajq2
Khakassian:aj2
Chuvash:orl-1,or2
Kirghiz:ajq-1
Kazakh:ajq-1,ajq2
Noghai:ajq-1
Bashkir:ajq-1,ajq2
Karakalpak:ajq-1,ajq2
Comments:1,113-114,EDT46,61,2,285.

Proto-Turkic:*g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:net
Russianmeaning:
67
Karakhanid:a(KB,IM)
Turkish:a;a,av(Osmanli)
Tatar:aw
MiddleTurkic:a(Sangl.)
Uzbek:(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:a
Turkmen:q(dial.)
Khakassian:a(Sag.)
Shor:a
Oyrat:a(dial.)
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:aw
Noghai:aw
Bashkir:aw
Balkar:aw
Karaim:av,uv
Karakalpak:aw
Kumyk:aw
Comments:VEWT7,20,1,117-118,152-153,418-419.
Onan(Shor),an(Khak.)v.sub*au.

Proto-Turkic:* gu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1poison2musk
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:au1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:au1(MK)
Turkish:au1
Tatar:au1
MiddleTurkic:au1
68
Uzbek:u1
Uighur:ai,oa1
Sary-Yughur:aa1
Azerbaidzhan:a1
Turkmen:v1
Khakassian:1
Yakut:2
Tofalar:1(.9)
Kirghiz:a2
Kazakh:audial.
Noghai:auw
Bashkir:aw
Balkar:au
Karaim:au
Kumyk:auw,au
Comments:VEWT9,13,1,67.TheKypch.formswith--(not
shiftedto-w-)and*-umaybeborrowedfromChag.

Proto-Turkic:*ja(<* a)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:palm(ofhand)
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:aja(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:aja(MK,KB)
Turkish:aja
MiddleTurkic:aja(Sangl.;MKypch.-Houts.,AH)
Sary-Yughur:aja,ajan
Turkmen:ja
Khakassian:aja
Kazakh:aja'centerofapalm'
69
Noghai:aja
Bashkir:aja'-;'
Balkar:ajaz(<3.)
Kumyk:aja
Comments:VEWT10,1,100-101,179-181,252.

Proto-Turkic:*l
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1front2forehead3infrontof4towardsthefrontof
Russianmeaning:123,4
OldTurkic:aln2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:aln2(MK,KB)
Turkish:al1(dial.),aln1,2;'face'
Tatar:al1,al-d-1,aln1
MiddleTurkic:al1(Abush.),aln-da'inthepresenceof'(Abush.),ald
(Babur)3
Uzbek:l-d-i1
Uighur:ajl,aldi1,al-dn3,al-a4
Sary-Yughur:al1,alm,aln1,2
Azerbaidzhan:aln2
Turkmen:ln1,2
Khakassian:aln1
Shor:aln1,aln-da3
Oyrat:ald,aln1
Halaj:hnl(),hll2
Chuvash:om1
Tuva:aln'face'
Tofalar:aln'face,mountainslope'
Kirghiz:al1,al-d-1
Kazakh:al-da3,al-d-1
70
Noghai:al-d-1
Bashkir:al,ald1
Balkar:al,all1,al-da3,al-a4
Gagauz:ann2
Karaim:al-d-1(K),aln1(T,H)
Karakalpak:al-d-1
Salar:ald-1
Kumyk:al1,al-dan3
Comments:EDT121,147;VEWT14(shouldbedistinguishedfrom*al-
'below'),TMN2,120,1,124-125,146,2,280,
198-199.SeeEDT121commentingontheabsenceofearlyattestationof
thesuffixlessform.

Proto-Turkic:*la
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:variegated
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ala(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ala(MK)
Turkish:ala
Tatar:ala
MiddleTurkic:ala
Uzbek:la
Uighur:ala
Sary-Yughur:ala
Azerbaidzhan:ala
Turkmen:la
Khakassian:ala
Shor:ala
Oyrat:ala
71
Halaj:hala-bula
Chuvash:ola
Yakut:ala
Tuva:ala
Tofalar:ala
Kirghiz:ala
Kazakh:ala
Noghai:ala
Bashkir:ala
Balkar:ala
Gagauz:ala-a
Karaim:ala
Karakalpak:ala
Salar:ala
Kumyk:ala
Comments:EDT126,VEWT15,1,129-130,TMN2,95-97,
2,274,607.

Proto-Turkic:*n(k)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:moon,month
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:aj(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:aj(MK,KB)
Turkish:aj
Tatar:aj
MiddleTurkic:aj;an(CCum.)
Uzbek:j
Uighur:aj
Sary-Yughur:aj
72
Azerbaidzhan:aj
Turkmen:j
Khakassian:aj
Shor:aj
Oyrat:aj
Halaj:hj
Chuvash:ojx
Yakut:j
Dolgan:j'month'
Tuva:aj
Tofalar:aj
Kirghiz:aj
Kazakh:aj
Noghai:aj
Bashkir:aj
Balkar:aj
Gagauz:aj
Karaim:aj
Karakalpak:aj
Salar:aj
Kumyk:aj
Comments:VEWT10,TMN2,169,EDT265,1,98-99(seethereon
thereasonsofreconstructing*-n),.178,2,271,
55,76-77,Stachowski258.

Proto-Turkic:*,*-la-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tounderstand2intelligence3tohear4todiscern(dial.)
Russianmeaning:12,34
(.)
73
OldTurkic:ala-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:ala-(MK,KB)1
Turkish:anla-1
Tatar:a-ar-1
MiddleTurkic:a2,ala-1(Sangl.)
Uighur:ala-3
Sary-Yughur:ana-3
Azerbaidzhan:anla-1
Turkmen:la-1,2
Khakassian:ad-'tolookattentively'
Halaj:ala-1(<Az.)
Chuvash:n2
Yakut:al-4
Kirghiz:a2
Comments:VEWT20,TMN2,130,EDT165,186,1,153-154.
WMong.a-ira-'toknow,understand'<TurkicSiberianlanguages(a-
sra-withtheaffixofincompleteverbquality);WMong.aqar-<Turk.*-
gar-.

Proto-Turkic:* r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobetired,exhausted2tobecomelean
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:ar-(Orkh.,OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:ar-(MK,KB)1
Turkish:ar-1
Tatar:ar-1
MiddleTurkic:ar-(Sangl.,Abush.,Pav.C.,AH,Qutb,IM)1
Uzbek:hri-1,(Khor.)hr-1
Uighur:ar-1
74
Azerbaidzhan:arG(Adj.)1
Turkmen:r-1
Khakassian:ar-2
Shor:ar-2
Oyrat:ar-1
Halaj:harqn,harqan(Ger.)1
Chuvash:r-1
Yakut:r-2
Tuva:ar-2
Kirghiz:ar-1
Kazakh:ar-1
Noghai:ar-1
Bashkir:ar-1
Balkar:ar-1
Karakalpak:har-1
Kumyk:ar-1
Comments:VEWT22,1,160-162,EDT193,343.

Proto-Turkic:*r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1togoastray,loseone'sway2tolosemind,gomad3tomiss
Russianmeaning:123,

OldTurkic:az-1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:az-1(MK,IM)
Turkish:az-1
Tatar:az-1
MiddleTurkic:az-(Sangl.,Houts.,Pav.C.,Qutb)1
Uzbek:z-1
Uighur:az-1
75
Sary-Yughur:az-1
Azerbaidzhan:az-1
Turkmen:z-1
Khakassian:as-1
Shor:as-1
Oyrat:as-1
Halaj:hz-1
Chuvash:or-2
Yakut:s-1,3
Tuva:as-1
Kirghiz:az-1
Kazakh:az-1
Noghai:az-1
Bashkir:a-1
Gagauz:z-(1955)1
Karaim:az-1
Karakalpak:az-1
Comments:EDT279,VEWT22,33,193,2,283,1,94-95.

Proto-Turkic:*r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wasp,bee
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:ar(MK)
Turkish:ar
MiddleTurkic:ar(Sangl.,Pav.C.,Qutb),aru(AH)
Uzbek:ari,tukliari'humble-bee'
Uighur:hr
Azerbaidzhan:ar
Turkmen:ar,r()
76
Khakassian:r,tktigr'hornet'
Oyrat:ar
Halaj:hr
Chuvash:tgld-ora'humble-bee'?(tgl'shaggy')
Yakut:ra
Tuva:ar,Todzh.har
Kirghiz:r
Kazakh:ara,tktiara'humble-bee'
Gagauz:r
Karakalpak:hrre
Comments:VEWT25,EDT196-197,TMN2,47,1,186-187,
186,.XV,23,2,213-214.Turk.>Mong.ari(not
viceversa,despite1997,100).

Proto-Turkic:*r-t
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1back2mountainpass
Russianmeaning:1,;2
OldTurkic:art1,2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:art1,2(MK,KB)
Turkish:art(-d)1
Tatar:art1
MiddleTurkic:art1(Pav.C.),2(..)
Uzbek:rt1
Uighur:art1
Sary-Yughur:ard;art1
Azerbaidzhan:ard1
Turkmen:rt1
Shor:art'shoal'
Oyrat:art1
77
Halaj:hrt1
Yakut:rtk2
Tuva:a'rt1
Tofalar:a'rt1
Kirghiz:art1,2
Kazakh:art1
Noghai:art1
Bashkir:art1
Balkar:art1
Gagauz:rd1
Karaim:art1
Karakalpak:art1
Salar:ard

i1
Kumyk:art1
Comments:EDT200-201,VEWT26-27,1,179-180.

Proto-Turkic:* rt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toload,carryonback
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:(?)ar-(OUygh.-USp.)
Karakhanid:ar'saddle-bag'(MK;<art-?)
Turkish:ard-(dial.),=Osm.
Uzbek:rt-
Uighur:a(r)t-
Sary-Yughur:art-
Khakassian:art-
Shor:arta-
Oyrat:art-art-
Chuvash:ort-
78
Yakut:rt-
Dolgan:rd-
Tuva:art-
Kirghiz:art-
Kazakh:art-
Noghai:art-
Bashkir:art-
Gagauz:rt-
Karakalpak:art-
Comments:VEWT27,EDT201,276,2,287,1,
180-181.Chuv.ort-mayberestructuredafter*ar-ka'back'.

Proto-Turkic:*t
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:name
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:at(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:at(MK)
Turkish:ad
Tatar:at
MiddleTurkic:at(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:t,dial.(Namangan)t
Uighur:at
Sary-Yughur:at
Azerbaidzhan:ad
Turkmen:t
Khakassian:at
Shor:at
Oyrat:at
Halaj:t
79
Chuvash:jat
Yakut:t
Dolgan:t
Tuva:at
Tofalar:at,(ad)
Kirghiz:at
Kazakh:at
Noghai:at
Bashkir:at
Balkar:at
Gagauz:t
Karaim:ad
Karakalpak:at
Salar:t
Kumyk:at
Comments:VEWT30-1,EDT32-3,1,198-199,355,
Stachowski41-42.

Proto-Turkic:*t-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tostep2towalk3step(n.)
Russianmeaning:123
Turkish:adm3,admat-,Osm.ad-1
Tatar:atla-1,adm3,at'step'
MiddleTurkic:adm(Pav.C.)3
Uzbek:dim,dial.adm3
Uighur:atli-1
Azerbaidzhan:admat-1,adm3
Turkmen:dial.t-,t-,t-le-1,dim,dial.dm3
Khakassian:alta-1,atx-'tojump'
80
Oyrat:alta-1(<atla-)
Chuvash:odm3,ot-2
Yakut:atll-1
Dolgan:atll-'tojump,hop'
Kirghiz:atta-1,adm3
Kazakh:atla-1,adm3
Noghai:atla-1,adm3
Bashkir:atla-1,am3
Balkar:atla-1
Karaim:adm3
Karakalpak:atla-1,adm3
Salar:a'tla-2
Comments:VEWT31,1,88-89,322,2,293-294,
Stachowski39.

Proto-Turkic:*tag
Meaning:island
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:ada
Tatar:ataw
MiddleTurkic:(CCum.)atov
Turkmen:da
Chuvash:od
Comments:VEWT31,1,87-88,TMN2,19,2,295.

Proto-Turkic:*t-al-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobemistaken,toerr
Russianmeaning:,
Tatar:ada-
81
MiddleTurkic:ada-
Uighur:ada-
Turkmen:da-(-)
Kirghiz:ada-
Kazakh:adas-
Noghai:adas-
Bashkir:aa-
Karaim:ada-
Karakalpak:adas-
Kumyk:ada-
Comments:VEWT5.Strangereflexesofthemedialconsonant(voicingin
Kypchak,inBashk.)maysomehowreflecttheoriginalcluster"resonant+
stop".

Proto-Turkic:*bAa-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tofast2fast
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:baa-1,baaq2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:baaq2(MK)
Comments:EDT293.Turk.baa-k'fast'>WMong.baag.

Proto-Turkic:*bAd-rak/*bAd-ruk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:banner,flag
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:badruq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:batraq(MK:'alancewithpieceofsilkatitshead')
Turkish:bajrak
Tatar:bajraq
82
MiddleTurkic:bajraq(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bajrq,(dial.)bajdaq
Uighur:bajraq,vajraq,(dial.)bajaq
Azerbaidzhan:bajraG
Turkmen:bajdaq
Kazakh:(dial.)bajraq
Noghai:bajraq
Bashkir:bajraq
Balkar:bajraq
Gagauz:bajraq
Karaim:bajraq
Karakalpak:bajraq
Kumyk:bajraq
Comments:EDT307,VEWT55,TMN2,385-387,33-34,36,
565.Turk.(Chag.)>Pers.,Arab.Clauson'shypothesisabout
borrowingfromSanskr.isunfoundedbecauseSanskritlacksanything
similar.

Proto-Turkic:*bAgatur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hero
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:baatur(Orkh.,n.pr.)
MiddleTurkic:(Xwar.)bahatur,CCum.baatur
Turkmen:btr
Oyrat:btr
Yakut:btr
Tuva:mdr
Kirghiz:btr
83
Comments:EDT313,VEWT55.Cf.thenameoftheXiongnushanyu,MC
ma^w-ton(*mau-tur).ThisTurkicwordwasborrowedintonumerous
surroundinglanguages(Iranian,Mongolianetc.,seetheliteraturein
).Modernformslikebatr,baturareback-borrowingsfromMong.;
formsofthetypebaxatir-back-borrowingsfromPersian.

Proto-Turkic:*baj( -n)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1holy2God3true,reliable,honest
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:bajat2(MK-Argu,KB),bajq(MKOghuz,IM)3
Turkish:bajat2,bajq(dial.)3
MiddleTurkic:bajat2(Abush.,Sangl.)
Oyrat:baj-lu1,maj-'firstpartinanumberoftheonyms',bajterek'world
tree'
Yakut:bajanaj'nameofaGod'
Kirghiz:bajterek'protection,advocacy'
Comments:EDT385.SeeVEWT56-57(forderivatives),TMN2,379.The
rootshouldbeprobablydistinguishedfrom*bj'rich'(v.sub*bu).An
unattestedTuvasource>Russ.dial.(Tuva)bajba'spiritofhuntingluck',
see109.Yak.>Russ.(Yak.)bajanaj,see125-126.

Proto-Turkic:*bAja
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:recently
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:baja,baja-q(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:baja(MK)
Turkish:baja,bajak
Tatar:baja
84
MiddleTurkic:baja(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bja
Uighur:baja
Sary-Yughur:pija
Azerbaidzhan:bajaG
Turkmen:bajaq,baja-q
Khakassian:paja
Shor:paja
Oyrat:baja
Halaj:bajaq<Az.
Chuvash:pazr
Tuva:bije
Tofalar:bij
Kirghiz:baja
Kazakh:baja-
Noghai:baja-
Bashkir:baja
Karaim:baja-,baja-q
Karakalpak:baja-
Kumyk:baja-
Comments:EDT384,385,VEWT56,2,30-32,83.The
Chuvashformisdifficult.

Proto-Turkic:*bAjr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1hill,2foot-hill3hummock
Russianmeaning:123
Turkish:bajr1
Turkmen:bajr1
Khakassian:pr2
85
Yakut:bar3
Gagauz:bajr'mountain'
Karaim:bajr1
Comments:2,37-38,VEWT57.Therootshouldbedistinguished
from*bgr'liver'(althoughtheremayoccursecondarymergers,cf.Tat.
bawur'slope').Ithasnorelationship(suggestedin)toMong.bajir
'place'(derivedfrombaji-'tobe'andborrowedinUzb.bajir'accustomedto
localconditions',Kirgh.bajr'attachmenttoaplace',Nogh.bajr'proper');
intermediate(notquiteclear)casesareChag.bajr'plain,desert'(Pav.C.),
Az.bajr'theexternalpartoftheinhabitedareaasopposedtotheinternal
part',Khal.bajir'uncultivated(place)'.

Proto-Turkic:*bAjk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:owl
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:bajku;bajkara'hawk'
MiddleTurkic:bajqu,bajqz
Turkmen:bjGu
Shor:pajoq'ak.ofbird'
Kazakh:bajz
Comments:VEWT57,2,32-33.Turk.>MMong.(ZM)beiqu.

Proto-Turkic:*bAj-ra-m/k,bAj-ga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1feast2horse-race3aprizeinhorse-race
Russianmeaning:123
Karakhanid:baram(MK),bajram(MKOghuz)1
Turkish:bajram1
Tatar:bjrm1,bjgi2
86
MiddleTurkic:bajram(..)1,baja1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bajram1,pajg(R)3,bajraq(dial.,Khorazm)3
Uighur:bajram1,(dial.-Lobn.)baja1
Azerbaidzhan:bajram1
Turkmen:bajram1,bajraq3
Khakassian:paj1(Sag.),pajram1
Shor:bajram1,paja1(R)
Oyrat:bajram1
Kirghiz:majram1,bajge2,3
Kazakh:mjram1,bjge2,3,(dial.)bajraq3
Noghai:bajram1
Bashkir:bajram1,bjgi2,3
Balkar:bajram1
Gagauz:bajram1
Karaim:bajram1
Karakalpak:bajram1,bjge2,3,bajraq3
Kumyk:bajram1
Comments:VEWT54,56,2,32,33-34(erroneouslyunder*barak
'flag'),35-36,TMN2,384-385.Hereoneshouldreconstruct*-j-(not*--),
dissimilatedbefore-r-accordingtoMudrak'srule.Formally*baj-ra-mand
*baj-ra-karedeverbativesfromahypothetical*baj-ra-'tocelebrate';*baj-ga
isadenominativewithausualEast.-Kypch.suffix.Menges'(1933,101)
hypothesisofbajga<Russ.isquiteunlikely(cf.thearealandtheChag.
fixation).AratherpopulartheoryofIranianoriginisalsoexcluded:theonly
acceptableetymologyofPers.bajramis<Turkic(seealso).
Becauseofsemantics,hardlyconnectedwithMong.baj'sign,goal,road
sign'.Turk.>Russ.Siber.bajga(109).

Proto-Turkic:*bak-
Altaicetymology:
87
Meaning:tolook,watch
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:baq-(MK,KB)
Turkish:bak-
Tatar:baq-
MiddleTurkic:baq-(Abush.)
Uzbek:bq-
Uighur:baq-
Azerbaidzhan:bax-
Turkmen:baq-
Khakassian:pax-
Oyrat:baq-
Chuvash:px-
Yakut:bk-'toappear,toarise'
Dolgan:bk-'tolookout'
Tuva:baq-q-la-'topeek,toarise'
Tofalar:ba'k-
Kirghiz:baq-'tolookafter'
Kazakh:baq-'tolookafter'
Noghai:baq-'tograze'
Bashkir:baq-
Balkar:baq-
Gagauz:baq-
Karaim:baq-
Karakalpak:baq-'tolookafter'
Salar:pax-,vax-(440,542)
Kumyk:baq-
Comments:EDT311,VEWT58,2,38-40,99,Stachowski
70.

88
Proto-Turkic:*bakan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1hoof2knucklebone3jointsinanimals'feet
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:baqanaq1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:baqanaq,baqajaq1(MK)
Turkish:bakanak,baknak1,2(dial.)
Tatar:bkl2
Uighur:baqalq'shinbone'
Azerbaidzhan:baana,baana3(dial.)
Khakassian:paajax,maxajax2
Tofalar:mahnq`metatarsus'(205)
Kirghiz:baqaj3
Kazakh:baqaj3
Noghai:baqaj3
Bashkir:bql3
Comments:VEWT58,EDT316-317,2,43-44,310,
286-287.

Proto-Turkic:*bAkan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:necklace,torque
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:baqan(MK)
Comments:EDT316.

Proto-Turkic:*bakr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1copper2patina
Russianmeaning:12,
89
OldTurkic:baqr1(Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:baqr1(MK,KB)
Turkish:bakr1
Tatar:baqr1
MiddleTurkic:baqr(MA,Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:baqir,paqir1
Uighur:paqir1
Sary-Yughur:paqr1
Azerbaidzhan:paxr2
Turkmen:baqr1
Khakassian:pr(Kyz.,Joki)1
Oyrat:baqras'brasskettle'
Chuvash:pgr1
Yakut:baara'potforboilingmilk'
Kirghiz:baqr1
Kazakh:baqr1
Noghai:baqr1
Bashkir:baqr1
Balkar:bar1
Gagauz:baqr1
Karaim:bar1
Karakalpak:baqr1
Kumyk:bar1
Comments:EDT317,VEWT58,2,45-46,405-406.Turk.>
WMong.baqar,baqur(Kalm.bar),seeKW29,1997,104.Turk.>
Russ.Siber.bakirka(111-112).

Proto-Turkic:*bakr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:cockle
90
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:baqra
Chuvash:poxra
Comments:1,441-442.Cf.Tel.par'alliumnutans',''(R).

Proto-Turkic:*bakna(-g-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:rungofaladder,stepofastaircase
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:bana(MK)
Comments:EDT316.

Proto-Turkic:*bal-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mud,clay
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:balq(MK,IM),bal()q(MK)
Turkish:balk
Tatar:balq
MiddleTurkic:balq(Pav.C.),palq(Sangl.)
Uzbek:baliq
Uighur:baluq
Azerbaidzhan:palG
Turkmen:palq
Khakassian:palax(Sag.)
Oyrat:bal-qa
Halaj:paloq(<Az.)
Chuvash:plk
Yakut:blk'sand,silt,broughtbywater'(.)
Tuva:bala,mala
91
Tofalar:ba'lxa
Kazakh:balq,balqa
Noghai:balq
Bashkir:balsq
Karaim:balq
Salar:palx(435.)
Kumyk:balq
Comments:EDT333,336,VEWT60,.179,374.
Turk.>Mong.balig(1997,103).InChuv.onewouldrather
expectpsx,sotheformmayreflectaslightlydifferentmorphologically
*bal-ak.

Proto-Turkic:*bal
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:honey
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:bal(MKSuvar,Kypchak,Oghuz)
Turkish:bal
Tatar:bal
MiddleTurkic:bal(Sangl.)
Uzbek:bl
Uighur:bal
Azerbaidzhan:bal
Turkmen:bal
Khakassian:pal
Shor:pal
Chuvash:pl
Kirghiz:bal
Kazakh:bal
Noghai:bal
92
Bashkir:bal
Balkar:bal
Gagauz:bal
Karaim:bal
Karakalpak:bal,pal
Salar:pal
Kumyk:bal
Comments:VEWT59,EDT330,2,47.Turk.>Mong.bal(
1997,103).

Proto-Turkic:*bAla-(?)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:firtree
Russianmeaning:
Kirghiz:balat'youngfirtree'
Bashkir:balat(VEWT)
Balkar:balas(VEWT)
Comments:VEWT60(theBashk.andKBalk.formsareonlyfoundthere,
sotherootissomewhatdubious).

Proto-Turkic:*bAlak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ankle2trouserleg3footsole
Russianmeaning:123
Turkish:balaq2(dial.)
Tatar:balaq1,2
MiddleTurkic:balaq2(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:balaG2
Turkmen:balaq2
Kazakh:balaq2;'bird'sfoot'
93
Noghai:balaq2
Bashkir:balaq2
Balkar:balaq2,3
Karaim:balaq2
Karakalpak:balaq2
Kumyk:balaq2
Comments:VEWT59,TMN2,312,2,51,478.Turk.>
Russ.Siber.balaki(Pl.)(114).[Thelattercontainsamistake:balaq
''isnotattestedinKirgh.-itisfoundinRadloffmarkedasKirgh.,
whichmeansKazakh.ModernKazakhdictionariesdonotnotethis
meaning;accordingtothe(1,86)itmeans`atrouserlegfromthe
kneedownwards;horse'sankle;partofbird'slegfromthekneedowntothe
ankle'.InKirgh.arelatedstemmaybebalak-ta-'tohangloose(ofclothes,
particularlyofwidetrouserlegs)'.]

Proto-Turkic:*bAlbal
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:astonepillarerectedonagrave
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:balbal(Orkh.,Yen.)
Comments:EDT333.Borrowed(possiblyfromanunattestedBulgar
source)inOldRuss.bolvan,Hung.balvany'stoneidol'(suggestionof
Melioranski,evidentlypreferabletothehypothesisofKorsch-Dmitriev<
Pers.pahlavn,see84-85,114).

Proto-Turkic:*bal
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:head
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ba(Orkh.,OUygh.)
94
Karakhanid:ba(MK,KB)
Turkish:ba
Tatar:ba
MiddleTurkic:ba(Abush.,MA)
Uzbek:b
Uighur:ba
Sary-Yughur:ba
Azerbaidzhan:ba
Turkmen:ba
Khakassian:pas
Shor:pa
Oyrat:ba
Halaj:ba
Chuvash:pos
Yakut:bas;battaq'hairofhead'
Dolgan:bas;battak'headofreindeer;reindeerskin'
Tuva:ba'
Tofalar:ba'
Kirghiz:ba
Kazakh:ba
Noghai:bas
Bashkir:ba
Balkar:ba
Gagauz:ba
Karaim:ba
Karakalpak:bas
Salar:ba
Kumyk:ba
Comments:VEWT64,2,85-88,TMN2,250-253,EDT375-6,
1,452,.X,15,194,Stachowski54,55.
95

Proto-Turkic:*bAldak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1hilt2stalk,stem
Russianmeaning:12,
Turkish:baldak1
Tatar:baldaq1
MiddleTurkic:baldaq1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bldq1
Uighur:baldaq1
Turkmen:baldaq2
Kirghiz:baldaq1
Kazakh:baldaq1
Noghai:baldaq1
Bashkir:baldaq1
Karakalpak:baldaq1
Comments:VEWT60,2,52.Similarformsofthetype*balakmay
beborrowedfromMong.,whileWMong.balda,barda,Khalkhabaldag,
bardag,MongorbardaG'hilt'arerather<Turkic.

Proto-Turkic:*baldr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:beginningofthespringseason,lambingseason
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:baldr(MK)
Uighur:baldi(r)(dial.:23)'lastyear'
Comments:Theroottendstomixwith*bldur'lastyear',butisexplicitly
distinguishedbyMK(asbaldrvs.bldr).

Proto-Turkic:*balgn
96
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tamarisk,2viburnum
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:buluna,(dial.)maluna(MK)1
Tatar:balan2
Uzbek:balxi'whitemulberry'
Uighur:balan2(1956)
Azerbaidzhan:palan2(R)
Turkmen:balx'ak.ofwhitemulberry'
Shor:palan2(R)
Oyrat:balan2
Chuvash:(palan<Tat.),(*polan>Maripolan2)
Yakut:blax'whitewillow;willowbranchesasfodder'
Kirghiz:baln1'ak.ofbushsimilartoln'
Bashkir:balan2
Balkar:balan2(Karach.)
Comments:EDT338,2,52,VEWT59,324,.189,201.Turk.
>Mong.balu,baluna'tamarisk'.Formslikebalxmaybesecondarily
modified('Balkhmulberry'),butinanycasenot<Iranian.

Proto-Turkic:*bAlg
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wounded
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bal(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bal(MK,KB)
Khakassian:pal
Shor:pal
Oyrat:balu
Tuva:bal
97
Tofalar:bal
Comments:VEWT53,EDT335,2,88-89.Turk.>Bur.bala'bruise,
injury'.

Proto-Turkic:*bAlk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toshine,glitter
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:balk-(dial.)
Tatar:balq-
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.,Xwar.)balq-(CCum.,AH,Qutb)
Turkmen:balqlda-
Oyrat:malql,mall'bright,shining'
Kazakh:balq-
Bashkir:balq-
Karaim:balq-
Karakalpak:balq-
Kumyk:balq-
Comments:2,56-57.

Proto-Turkic:*bAlka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hammer
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:bala(Sib.)
Uzbek:bala(Chag.)
Kirghiz:bala
Comments:VEWT61,2,57-58.Turk.>Mong.balu,balig(KW31).

Proto-Turkic:*bAl-mak
98
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:boot,shoe
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:bamaq(MKOghuz),baaq(MKChigil),bamaq(IM)
Turkish:bamak,pamak
Tatar:bamaq
MiddleTurkic:bamaq(Sangl.,MA)
Uzbek:dial.(Khorazm)ba-lq'heel-pieceofaboot'
Azerbaidzhan:bamaG
Turkmen:bamaq,pamaq("heelofacamel;boot")
Kirghiz:bamaq-ta-'tosole(aboot)'
Noghai:bamaq
Bashkir:bamaq
Balkar:bamaq
Karakalpak:bamaq
Kumyk:bamaq
Comments:EDT382-383,2,93-95,369,TMN2,293-294.
Doerfer'sinneretymology(bamakwithvowelelision<*baa-makfrom
*baa-'tocut,makenotches')isimpossible:baa-isderivedfrom*bl

()
'wound'withalongvowel,whilebamakhasashortone.

Proto-Turkic:*baltar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sickle
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:batar(MK)
Comments:EDT378.

Proto-Turkic:*baltu
Altaicetymology:
99
Meaning:axe
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:baltu(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:baldu(MK,KB)
Turkish:balta
Tatar:balta
MiddleTurkic:baltu(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:blta
Azerbaidzhan:balta
Turkmen:palta
Khakassian:palt;malta(Sag.)
Shor:malta
Oyrat:malta
Yakut:balta,baltsax'arrowwithbluntend'
Tuva:ba'ld(112)
Kirghiz:balta
Kazakh:balta
Noghai:balta
Bashkir:balta
Balkar:balta
Karaim:balta
Karakalpak:balta
Kumyk:balta
Comments:VEWT61,EDT333,397,7.Modernformswith
-amayinfactbesecondaryloansfromMong.,seeTMN1,199-200.Yak.
baltsaxcanbeprobablyidentifiedwithTurkm.balak,Tur.balak'(sword)-
hilt'.

Proto-Turkic:*ban
Altaicetymology:
100
Meaning:fat
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:maj
MiddleTurkic:maj(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:mj
Uighur:maj
Turkmen:maj
Khakassian:sar-maj'butter'(Sag.)
Oyrat:maj
Yakut:as-majax(.)
Kirghiz:maj
Kazakh:maj
Noghai:maj
Bashkir:maj
Karaim:maj
Karakalpak:maj
Kumyk:maj
Comments:VEWT322,453-454.

Proto-Turkic:*ban-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1towave2tosway3club-footed4curved5tobend6tobe
bent,curved
Russianmeaning:123,4
56,
Karakhanid:maj-uq3(MK)
MiddleTurkic:majruq3,4(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:majriq3,dial.bajmaq3(R)
Uighur:majmaq3
Turkmen:majr-5,majrq'overstrained',maj-tq3,majmq4
101
Shor:majrq3,majrl-6
Oyrat:majrq4,3
Yakut:bajt-2,bajttan-1(.-withoutnasalization),dial.majax
'convolution'
Tuva:maj-qaq4,majrq,maj-ta-q3
Kirghiz:majrj-,maj-6,maj-tar-5,majrq3,majmaq3
Kazakh:majs-6,majr-5,majrq3,majmaq3
Noghai:majs-6,majr-5
Karaim:maj-6
Karakalpak:majs-6,majmaq3
Kumyk:majr-'towrench',majaj-'tomis-step',majmaq3
Comments:SeeH3,45-46.Turk.*ban-guk>WMong.majia,Kalm.
m(KW259)'club-footed'.

Proto-Turkic:*bAn-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sole(offoot)2footwear
Russianmeaning:1()2(,)
Turkish:maja'fleshypartofthepalm'(Vidin,Nemeth1965,SDD)
Tatar:majmaq'stable,steadfast'(ofananimal'spaw,hoof),dial.pajpaq
()2
Uzbek:pajpq2,'camel'sfoot',dial.mjlk'mitten'(19)
Azerbaidzhan:dial.maja''(Nakhich.)
Turkmen:dial.mja(Tek.)'aja'(124),pajpaq(144)2
Khakassian:majmax2
Tuva:majq1
Kirghiz:bajmaq'lowerpartofshank',bajpaq2,majpq'flat'(ofahorse's
hoof,bear'spaw)
Kazakh:bajpaq2
Karakalpak:bajpaq2
102
Comments:VEWT323.Cf.alsoOyr.majrk''etc.Formswith
themeaning'footwear'areexplainedbyBudagovascompoundswithan
iranism(paj-ba"footbandage"),whichdoesnotseemconvincing;weare
dealingratherwithadialectaldiffusionofthederivative*bn -mak.Cf.TMN
4,275,49,110,382,458.

Proto-Turkic:*banak-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:white-fish
Russianmeaning:
Yakut:majaas(.)

Proto-Turkic:*bAnak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dung
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:majaq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:majaq,bajnaq(MK,OghuzXIc.)
Uighur:majaq
Tuva:mjaq
Tofalar:mjaq
Comments:VEWT322,336,EDT350.

Proto-Turkic:*bAn-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1hare2marmot
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:bajbaq2
Oyrat:majq1
Chuvash:molgas/
103
Bashkir:bajbaq2
Comments:7,under*majmak'club-footed',1970.The
traditionaletymologyofChuv.(1,362,134-135)froman
unattestedUdm.*mu'earth'+ludke'fieldhare'isquiteincredible:the
Chuv.formiswellexplained<*ban-l-ka(adiminutive).{Chuv.maybe
rather<**bnl(k)q.v.}

Proto-Turkic:*bAn-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tofadeaway,disappear,weaken
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:maj-(MK)
Turkish:baj-l-
Azerbaidzhan:bajl-
Khakassian:majl-
Tuva:bajla-
Kirghiz:baj-
Gagauz:bajl-
Karaim:bajl-
Comments:2,50,EDT773,7.

Proto-Turkic:*ban-*bon-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:big,large
Russianmeaning:
Chuvash:mn
Comments:1,349.

Proto-Turkic:*bAnl
Altaicetymology:
104
Meaning:overripe
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:majl,majl-'tobecomeoverripe'(MK)
Comments:EDT772.Cf.alsoOyr.mnk'musty'.

Proto-Turkic:*bAnu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wildcat
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:manu(OUygh.)
Tatar:manul
Tuva:man
Comments:EDT767.Turk.>Kalm.manl,Dag.man(..153)
(probablycontaminatedwithMong.propermalur<*malulq.v.sub*male).
Uygh.molun'wildcat'maybeamongolism.

Proto-Turkic:*ba
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1totrot,ride2trot
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:ma'astep'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ma-(KB)1
Turkish:man-(dial.)1
MiddleTurkic:ma-(Sangl.)1
Uighur:ma-1
Sary-Yughur:ma2,ma-1
Khakassian:ma2
Shor:ma2
Oyrat:ma2
Yakut:maj-1
105
Tuva:ma-1
Tofalar:ma-1
Kirghiz:ma2,ma-1
Kazakh:ma2
Noghai:ma2
Comments:EDT766,767,VEWT326.

Proto-Turkic:*bAr(-s)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gad-fly
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:ms
Shor:ms
Oyrat:paas'gad-fly'(Leb.),mas'locust'(Oyr.)
Tuva:maas
Tofalar:ms
Comments:VEWT329,327.

Proto-Turkic:*bar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1towalk,go(away)2tocome,reach
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:bar-1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bar-1(MK)
Turkish:var-2
Tatar:bar-1
MiddleTurkic:bar-1(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:br-1,2
Uighur:ba(r)-1
Sary-Yughur:par-1
106
Azerbaidzhan:var-2
Turkmen:bar-1
Khakassian:par-1
Shor:par-1
Oyrat:bar-1,2
Halaj:var-1
Chuvash:pr-1
Yakut:bar-1
Dolgan:bar-1
Tuva:bar-1
Tofalar:bar-1
Kirghiz:bar-1
Kazakh:bar-1
Noghai:bar-1
Bashkir:bar-1
Balkar:bar-1
Gagauz:var-1,2
Karaim:bar-1
Karakalpak:bar-1
Salar:var-,br-,pr-1()
Kumyk:bar-1,2
Comments:VEWT62,2,64-65,EDT354,Stachowski52.Chuv.--
isunclear.

Proto-Turkic:*bAr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tohazard,makeadecision
Russianmeaning:,
Tatar:baz-
Uzbek:baz-(Sart.,R)
107
Yakut:bah-r-j-'tospeekinanexcessivelyloudandexcitedmanner(expr.)'
(?)
Kazakh:baz-
Noghai:baz-n-abatuv(gerundfromarefl.form)
Bashkir:ba-
Balkar:baz-
Karakalpak:baz-n-a''
Kumyk:baz-
Comments:VEWT66.

Proto-Turkic:*bAr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:stranger,foreign
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:baz(MK,KB)
Karaim:baz'some,someone'
Comments:EDT388.

Proto-Turkic:*bAr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:peace
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:baz(Orkh.)
MiddleTurkic:baz(Qutb,AH)
Bashkir:ba-a-'tobeshy'
Balkar:baz-a-ma'shelter,secureplace'
Karaim:baz;baz-la-'tocomfort,console'
Comments:EDT388(togetherwithbaz'analien'),VEWT62,66.

Proto-Turkic:*bArk
108
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thick,stout2astubbyman
Russianmeaning:1,2
Tatar:bazq2
MiddleTurkic:bazuq(OKypch.,AH,CCum.)2
Bashkir:baq1
Balkar:bazq1
Karaim:bazq/x(H,Q,T)1,2
Kumyk:bazq1
Comments:VEWT66.ThewordisexclusivelyKypchak(probablyalso
borrowedinChuv.pzkid.),butisapparentlyarchaic.

Proto-Turkic:*bArk(?)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:unclearsilhouette
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:barq(MK)
Yakut:bark,boruk'darkness'
Comments:84.Asomewhatdubiousetymon:theOTformisquoted
fromtheUzbekeditionofMK,notconfirmedbyClausonandDizin;the
senseofthepassageisratherobscure;theYak.formmaybesecondarily
builtonthebasisoftheborrowedbarj-,boruj-'bebadlyvisible'.Butcf.
perhapsKirgh.(ep.)burqu'variety'?

Proto-Turkic:*bas-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:topress
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bas-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bas-(MK)
109
Turkish:bas-
Tatar:bas-
MiddleTurkic:bas-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bs-
Uighur:bas-
Sary-Yughur:pas-
Azerbaidzhan:bas-
Turkmen:bas-
Khakassian:pas-
Oyrat:bas-,pas-
Chuvash:pos-
Yakut:batt-
Dolgan:batt-
Tuva:bas-
Tofalar:ba's-
Kirghiz:bas-
Kazakh:bas-
Noghai:bas-
Bashkir:ba-
Balkar:bas-
Gagauz:bas-
Karaim:bas-
Karakalpak:bas-
Salar:pas-
Kumyk:bas-
Comments:EDT370-371,VEWT64,TMN2,245-6,2,74-77,
393,571,1,448,Stachowski55.Turk.>Mong.basu->
Man.basu-,seeTMN2,246,DoerferMT135.

Proto-Turkic:*bAsa
110
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:also,aswell
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:basa'rightafter'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:basa'afterwards'(MK)
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)basa(AH,Ad-Durr.)
Uzbek:base'frequently,often'
Turkmen:basa
Khakassian:paza
Shor:paza
Oyrat:baza
Yakut:bha'inthecourseof'(?)
Tuva:baza
Kirghiz:basa
Kazakh:basa(R)
Comments:EDT371(butnotfrom*bas-'press'!).Turk.>Mong.basa
(Clark1980,39,1997,104).

Proto-Turkic:*basg
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:field,cornfield
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:ba^su-ra'fencedgarden,yard'(dial.Zonguldak-Eren182)
Tatar:basu;basaw(R,Kas.)
Chuvash:poz
Bashkir:baw
Comments:VEWT64(hardly<*bas-'topress'),I450-451.Turk.
>Maripasu,Udm.bus.

Proto-Turkic:*bas-g
111
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ak.oftax2acoin
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:bas(OUygh.)1
Tatar:bas,pas,bs'price',pas-l'valued,expensive'(Sib.,108,177)
Chuvash:pus2
Comments:EDT373,.X,4-5,1,449-450.TheOTformis
usuallyregardedasderivedfrom*bas-'topress'(v.sub*ppsi),butexternal
evidencesuggeststhatthisisoneofthenumerousinnerTurkicfolk-
etymologicalreinterpretations.Chuv.pus"copec"needssomeadditional
comments.Accordingto166itcaneitherbederivedfrompus-
'break'<Turk.*bas-(accordingtoZolotnitski),orbeborrowedfromPers.
pst"skin">Tur.post,Uzb.pust'id.'(TurkicformsseeinVEWT386).The
latterhypothesisisratherimprobablebecausetheformmeans'coin'onlyin
Chuv.,andbecausethisborrowingisabsentinotherlanguagesofthe
Volgaregion.VEWT387suggestsChuv.pus<Maripu'debt,tax'<pu-
'give'.ThewordisabsentfromtheMaridictionary,oneonlyfinds
'arrears';cf.,ontheotherhand,Udm.pus'sign,subscription'<Chuv.puz
id.<pus-'topress'.Thisetymologyis,therefore,equallydubious,andour
equationofChuv.pus=OTbasseemspreferable.

Proto-Turkic:*bAs-k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:stairway
Russianmeaning:
Uzbek:basq(Chag.)
Khakassian:pasxs
Tuva:basq
Comments:2,77(usuallyderived<*bas-'topress,trample').

112
Proto-Turkic:*bAs-trma
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:penthouse
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:bastrma(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:basturma(R-Zenker)
Uzbek:bstirma
Turkmen:bassrma
Kirghiz:bastrma
Kazakh:bastrma
Karakalpak:bastrma
Comments:528.Formallyderivedfrom*bastr-'tocausetopress'
-whichseemsratherfar-fetchedsemantically.Wemaydealhererather
withacompoundof*bas+*terme'wall,building',secondaryinfluencedby
*bastr-ma,*bastr-k'poleforfixinghayandsheaves',see2,76-77.

Proto-Turkic:*basu-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sledge-hammer,mallet
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:basu(MK)
Uzbek:baska
Khakassian:pasxa
Oyrat:masqa
Comments:VEWT64.

Proto-Turkic:*bat-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosink2tofitinto,getinto
Russianmeaning:12
113
OldTurkic:bat-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bat-1(MK)
Turkish:bat-1
Tatar:bat-1
MiddleTurkic:bat-1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bt-1
Uighur:bat-,pat-1
Sary-Yughur:pat-1
Azerbaidzhan:bat-1
Turkmen:bat-1
Khakassian:pat-1
Shor:pat-1
Oyrat:pat-1,2
Chuvash:pot-1
Yakut:bat-2,batar'into,deepinto'
Dolgan:batar'into,deepinto'
Tuva:ba't-1
Tofalar:ba't-1
Kirghiz:bat-1,2
Kazakh:bat-1
Noghai:bat-1
Bashkir:bat-1
Balkar:bat-1
Gagauz:bat-1
Karaim:bat-1
Karakalpak:bat-1
Salar:pat-1
Kumyk:bat-1
Comments:EDT298,VEWT65,2,78-80,TMN2,230-231,
1,455,Stachowski55.
114

Proto-Turkic:*bat-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tohide,conceal(trans.)2tohide(intr.)3togetlost
Russianmeaning:1,23
Karakhanid:batur-(MK)1
Tatar:bat-2
Uzbek:bt-2
Sary-Yughur:pat-2
Azerbaidzhan:bat-3
Chuvash:pdar-1,pdan-2
Kumyk:bat-3
Comments:173,I466-467,EDT308,2,78-79:the
rootshouldbedistinguishedfrom*bat-'tosink'(v.sub*pat`a).

Proto-Turkic:*bat-gak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:swamp,marsh
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bat-(inbat-daq'swamp-living'(ofdragons))(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bat(MK,KB)
Turkish:batak
Tatar:bat-qaq(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:bataq(Sangl.)
Uzbek:btqq
Uighur:patqaq
Azerbaidzhan:bataG
Turkmen:batGa
Khakassian:pat'marshy,marsh'
Halaj:bat-laq'Lehm,Morast'
115
Chuvash:put-kax,put-lx
Kirghiz:batqaq
Kazakh:batpaq;(dial.)bat'sedimentinwater'
Noghai:batpaq
Bashkir:batqaq
Balkar:batmaq,batxaq
Gagauz:bataq
Karaim:bataq
Karakalpak:batpaq
Kumyk:batmaq
Comments:EDT301,II79,80,VEWT65,169,.X42,
48.Traditionallyanalysedasderivativesfrom*bat-'tosink';thederivational
suffixesmaybeindeedbothdeverbativeanddenominative.Butthe
externalcognatesaretempting.

Proto-Turkic:*ba
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1eldersister2husbandsofsisters
Russianmeaning:12
()
OldTurkic:baa(OUygh.,late-Lig.VSOu)2
Karakhanid:baa-naq2(IM)
Turkish:ba1,baanak2
Tatar:paca()2
MiddleTurkic:bai1(R),baa2(MA,Pav.C.),baanaq2(Pav.C.,AH)
Uzbek:ba2
Uighur:baa2
Azerbaidzhan:ba1,baanaG2
Turkmen:ba1,ba2
Khakassian:paa2,pie1
116
Oyrat:bad

a2,'wivesofbrothers'
Chuvash:pozana2
Tuva:baa2
Tofalar:baa2
Gagauz:baanaq2
Salar:paa2()
Kumyk:baiw1
Comments:VEWT54,TMN2,682,2,24,26-27,310,
168,.X,33,1,453.Turk.>WMong.baa,Kalm.
baz,Khalkhaba,Bur.baz,Ord.baa'brother-in-law',whenceKirgh.,
KBalk.,Kum.,Yak.baa,Evk.baa,Kaz.,KKalp.,Nogh.,Bashk.baa.The
Khak.,Oyr.andTuvaformsmayalsobe<Mong.Cf.alsoORuss..

Proto-Turkic:*bj
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1rich,noble2many,numerous
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:baj1(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:baj1(MK,KB)
Turkish:baj1
Tatar:baj1,bajtaq2
MiddleTurkic:baj1
Uzbek:bj1
Uighur:baj1
Sary-Yughur:pj1
Azerbaidzhan:baj1
Turkmen:bj1
Khakassian:paj1
Oyrat:baj1,bajtaq2
Chuvash:pojan1
117
Yakut:bj1
Dolgan:bj,bjdak,bjdk1
Tuva:baj1
Kirghiz:baj1
Kazakh:baj1
Noghai:baj1
Bashkir:baj1
Balkar:baj1
Gagauz:baj1
Karaim:baj1
Karakalpak:baj1
Kumyk:baj1
Comments:EDT384,VEWT56,TMN2,259,2,27-29,36,
304,332,1,440,Stachowski55,56.Turk.>Mong.bajan'rich'
(KW29,1997,103),whenceEvk.bajanetc.(TMNibid.,Doerfer
MT37).

Proto-Turkic:*bkana
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sheepskin2lamb3baby
Russianmeaning:123
Turkish:baan1,(dial.)baalak,banak1,baana3
MiddleTurkic:baana1(R)
Uzbek:baana1(Khor.)
Azerbaidzhan:baana1
Turkmen:baana1
Kirghiz:balan,balan'lambthathasstoppedsuckling',baldr'wildlamb,
1-year-oldmountaingoat'
Kazakh:baana2
Karakalpak:balan'awell-fedearlylamb'
118
Comments:VEWT55,390.TheKypchakformbalan'lamb'has
hardlyanythingtodowithTat.,Kaz.baqlan'cormorant'(despiteTMN2,
298,112).

Proto-Turkic:*bla,*bl-dr,*bla-pan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1younganimal,nestling,2child3aman'swife'syoungersister4
youngerrelative
Russianmeaning:1,,23
4
OldTurkic:baldz(OUygh.)3
Karakhanid:bala1(MK),baldz3(MK);baldr'step-son,step-daughter'
(MK)
Turkish:bala1,2,baldz3,balaban'falcon'(dial.)
Tatar:bala1,2,baldz3
MiddleTurkic:bala1,2(Abush.,..),baldz3(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bla1,2,bldiz3,palapan1(dial.)
Uighur:bala1,2
Sary-Yughur:mla,mle2
Azerbaidzhan:bala,balaG1,2,baldz3
Turkmen:bla1,2,bldz3
Khakassian:pala2,past3
Shor:pala2,past3
Oyrat:bala1,2,pass3(Tel.,R)
Halaj:bala2
Chuvash:poldr3,4(A.IX282)
Yakut:bals3,4
Dolgan:bals3,4
Kirghiz:bala2
Kazakh:bala2,baldz3,balapan1(R)
119
Noghai:bala2,baldz3
Bashkir:bala2,bald3;belekej'small'
Balkar:bala2
Gagauz:baldsqa3
Karaim:bala2,baldz3
Karakalpak:bala2,baldz3
Salar:bala1,2
Kumyk:bala1,2
Comments:EDT332,334,VEWT59,60,2,47-50,53-54,
71,306-307,312,Stachowski51,52.Turk.>Kalm.baldr(KW30).Khak.
past<*bazl<*balzwithmetathesis.

Proto-Turkic:*blk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fish
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:balq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:balq(MK)
Turkish:balk
Tatar:balq
MiddleTurkic:balq,bal(MA,Pav.C.,..)
Uzbek:baliq
Uighur:beliq
Azerbaidzhan:balG
Turkmen:blq
Khakassian:palx
Shor:palq(R.)
Oyrat:balq
Chuvash:pol
Yakut:balk
120
Dolgan:balk
Tuva:balq
Tofalar:balq
Kirghiz:balq
Kazakh:balq
Noghai:balq
Bashkir:balq
Balkar:balq
Gagauz:balq
Karaim:balx
Karakalpak:balq
Salar:balu
Kumyk:balq
Comments:EDT335,2,59-60,177,1,443,
Stachowski52.

Proto-Turkic:*br
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thereis,thereare2existence,goods3all
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:bar1,2(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.),bara3
Karakhanid:bar1,2,bara3(MK,KB)
Turkish:var1,2
Tatar:bar1,2,3,bara3,bars3
MiddleTurkic:bar1,2,3,bara3
Uzbek:br1,2,bria3
Uighur:ba(r)1,2,3,bari3
Sary-Yughur:par1
Azerbaidzhan:var1,2
Turkmen:br1,3;bara3
121
Khakassian:par1,2,paran3
Oyrat:bar1,2,3
Halaj:vr1,2
Chuvash:por1,'any',3,'rich',por3
Yakut:br1,2,bar()3
Dolgan:br1,2,bar()3
Tuva:bar1,bar2
Tofalar:bar1
Kirghiz:bar1,'rich',bara3
Kazakh:bar1
Noghai:bar1,2,3
Bashkir:bar1,'rich',bar3
Balkar:bar1,'rich',bar3
Gagauz:var1,2
Karaim:bar1,2,3,barca,bara3
Karakalpak:bar1,2,bara3
Salar:br,par,vr1,bar,par'rich'()
Kumyk:bar1,3,'rich',bar3
Comments:VEWT62,EDT353,356-7,2,61-63,326-327,
332-333,1,444-445,Stachowski52,53,56.Syntacticallyitisan
abstractnounfrequentlyactingasapredicate.

Proto-Turkic:*be-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1I2(*bi-r)we
Russianmeaning:12(*bi-r)
OldTurkic:ben1(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.),men1(OUygh.),biz2(Orkh.,
Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:men1(MK,KB),biz2(MK,KB)
Turkish:ben1,biz2
122
Tatar:min1,bez2
MiddleTurkic:ben1(Abush.),biz2(Abush.)
Uzbek:men1,biz2
Uighur:mn1,biz2
Sary-Yughur:men1,pz2
Azerbaidzhan:mn1,biz2
Turkmen:men1,bz2
Khakassian:min1,ps2
Shor:men1,pis2
Oyrat:men1,mis2
Halaj:mn1,biz2
Chuvash:e-b1,e-br2
Yakut:min1,bihigi2(Poss.)
Dolgan:min1,bihigi2
Tuva:men1,bis2
Tofalar:men1,bi's2
Kirghiz:men1,miz2
Kazakh:min1,biz2
Noghai:men1,biz2
Bashkir:min1,be2
Balkar:men1,miz2
Gagauz:ben1,bis2
Karaim:men1,biz2
Karakalpak:men1,biz2
Salar:m(n)1,pise(r)2(128)
Kumyk:men1,biz2
Comments:EDT346(*be-n),388(*bir),2,129-130,VEWT77,333,
Stachowski60,179.

Proto-Turkic:*bEin
123
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:monkey
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bein(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bein(MK)
MiddleTurkic:bein(MA,Sangl.)
Sary-Yughur:piin
Turkmen:bin
Chuvash:(Bulg.)bexti''
Comments:VEWT66,EDT295-296,2,128-129,TMN2,382,
168.AllIEsources(EDT295,TMN2,382-383),likePers.bzna,
proposedforthiswordarequiteunclearetymologicallyandprobably
borrowedthemselves.{Cf.alsosomemodernwordsmeaning'cat':
MKypch.,Khor.ma,Uzb.mai,Tat.mi,see192,perhaps
borrowedfromTurk.intoSlovakandHungarian.}

Proto-Turkic:*bEdir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:paintedornamentation
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bediz(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:beiz(MK)
Comments:EDT310,VEWT67.

Proto-Turkic:*bEd-le(?)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:such,similar,so
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:bjle(Tefs.)
Turkish:bjle,(dial.)bele;(dial.)bile-m'myself'etc.
124
MiddleTurkic:bejle,bjle(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:bejl,bel,dial.bil-m'myself'etc.
Turkmen:bejle
Oyrat:bejde(Kumd.)
Halaj:bil-m,bil-si,bil-miz'myself,himself,ourselves'etc.(<Az.)
Comments:2,107-108.Cf.perhapsalsoYak.bet-tex(Dolg.bettek)
'here,closely',Yak.,Dolg.beter'this,nearestside'(althoughitmaygo
backto*bet'face';derivation<*be-r'thisside'in2,124,followed
byStachowski59,ishardlyplausible).Thesometimesproposed
explanationas*buile,i.e."togetherwithit"or"bymeansofit"isnotquite
acceptableforsemanticreasons.AsfortheOghuzvariantswitha
labializedvowels,theymayhaveanassimilativeorigin.Butonthewhole
theattributionoftheTurkicformisstilldubious(althoughthesemantic
derivation"similar,suchas"<"face,looks"seemstobequitecommonin
Altaic).

Proto-Turkic:*bEd-k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1big2high
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:bedk1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bek1(MK,KB)
Turkish:bjk1
Tatar:bijek2
MiddleTurkic:bejik1,2(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:bujuk1,2
Uighur:bjk1,2
Sary-Yughur:bezk1
Azerbaidzhan:bjk1
Turkmen:bejik2
125
Khakassian:pzk1,2
Shor:mzk2
Oyrat:bijik2
Halaj:bidik/bdk1
Tuva:bedik2
Tofalar:bedik2
Kirghiz:bijik1
Kazakh:bijik1
Noghai:bijik1
Bashkir:bejek1
Balkar:mijik1
Gagauz:bk1
Karaim:bjk

1
Karakalpak:bijik1
Kumyk:bijik2
Comments:VEWT67,EDT299-301,2,288-290.PT*bed-k'big,
high'isderivedfrom*bed-'tobecomebigger,grow'(OTbed-,Tur.bj-,
SUygh.pezi-,Az.bj-,Khal.bidi-,Tuvabedi-,Gag.b-,Karaimbj-).

Proto-Turkic:*bEgni
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:milletbeer
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:begni(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:begni(MK,IM)
Comments:EDT328.ThewordisalsopresentinsomeIranianlanguages
(Sogd.'ny,Osset.bgny,whereitismostprobablyaTurkicloanword,
despiteTMN2,311,Bailey320[withadubiousIranianetymology]).Turk.>
Mong.bekni,begni,see1997,193.

126
Proto-Turkic:*bEje
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:(foaled)mare
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:be(OUygh.-YB)
Karakhanid:be(MK,IM)
Tatar:bij
MiddleTurkic:beje(Sangl.);bej(CCum.)
Uzbek:bij
Uighur:bij(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:pie,pi
Khakassian:p
Oyrat:b
Yakut:bi
Tuva:be
Kirghiz:b
Kazakh:bije
Noghai:bije
Bashkir:bej
Karaim:bije
Karakalpak:bije
Comments:EDT291,VEWT75,2,133,443.Formsasbije
<*beje,showasecondaryvowelnarrowinginfrontof-j-;theKirgh.,Oyr.
andTuva-Tof.formspointto*E.

Proto-Turkic:*beji
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:brain
Russianmeaning:;
OldTurkic:meji,mei(OUygh.)
127
Karakhanid:mei(MK,KB)
Turkish:bejin
Tatar:mi
MiddleTurkic:miji(MA),mejn(Sangl.)
Uzbek:mija
Uighur:mi
Azerbaidzhan:bejin
Turkmen:bejni,mejni
Khakassian:m
Shor:m-s
Oyrat:m
Halaj:mein
Chuvash:mim
Yakut:mej
Dolgan:men'head'
Tuva:m
Tofalar:m
Kirghiz:m
Kazakh:mj
Noghai:mj
Bashkir:meje
Balkar:mije
Karaim:miji
Karakalpak:mij
Kumyk:miji
Comments:VEWT70,EDT348-349,2,106-107,TMN4,35,
195,Stachowski178.Turk.>MMong.mije,miji(1997,
105).

Proto-Turkic:*bek
128
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:firm,solid,stable
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bek(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bek(MK)
Turkish:pek
Tatar:bik
MiddleTurkic:bek,pek(Pav.C.)
Sary-Yughur:poq,pq
Turkmen:bek
Khakassian:pik
Shor:pek
Oyrat:bek,pek
Chuvash:pak'suddenly,abruptly'
Yakut:bige
Dolgan:bige
Tuva:be'k
Kirghiz:bek
Kazakh:bek
Noghai:bek
Bashkir:bik
Balkar:bek
Gagauz:pek
Karaim:bek
Karakalpak:bek
Kumyk:bek
Comments:EDT323,VEWT68,2,117-120,Stachowski60.Closed
-i-inYak.isprobablysecondary.

Proto-Turkic:*bekem
129
Meaning:woodhen
Khakassian:pigem''
Shor:pegem''
Oyrat:pegem''(..)
Comments:VEWT382.

Proto-Turkic:*bEkre
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sterlet
Russianmeaning:
MiddleTurkic:bekre(R)
Uzbek:bekre(dial.)
Turkmen:bekre,bekire(dial.)
Kazakh:bekire
Bashkir:bikre
Karakalpak:bekire
Comments:VEWT68,2,108.

Proto-Turkic:*bel
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofsalmon(Salmotaimen)
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:bil
Oyrat:bel
Yakut:bil
Tuva:bel
Comments:179.

Proto-Turkic:*beldir
Altaicetymology:
130
Meaning:cross-roads,separationoftworoadsorrivers
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:beltir(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:beltir(MK)
Tatar:pilter','()
Khakassian:piltr
Shor:peltir
Oyrat:beltir
Yakut:bilir
Tuva:beldir
Comments:VEWT69,EDT334,98.

Proto-Turkic:*belek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gift
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:belek(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:belek(MK)
Turkish:belek(dial.)
Tatar:blk
MiddleTurkic:belek(Sangl.)
Uighur:blk(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:pelek()
Oyrat:belek
Halaj:pelek
Chuvash:pil'blessing'
Yakut:belex
Dolgan:belek
Tuva:belek
Kirghiz:belek
131
Bashkir:blk
Karaim:belek''
Comments:VEWT69,TMN2,413,EDT338,2,112-113,
1997,78-79,348-349,Stachowski57.In160,1,
431theChuv.formisregardedasavariantofpexil'blessing'(<Pers.),
whichisinsecurephonetically.Derivationfrombele'swaddle'(Clark1977,
132)ishighlydubious.ThelabializedvowelinBashk.,Tat.isaresultof
contaminationwith*blek'part'.Turk.>WMong.beleg,Kalm.belg(KW
41;TMNibid.,1997,104),whenceEvk.beleketc.,seeDoerferMT
141(but127regardsEvk.belekasborrowed<Yak.).

Proto-Turkic:*belel
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:rowan
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:mile
Turkmen:mele
Oyrat:pl
Chuvash:pile
Bashkir:mil
Comments:VEWT338.

Proto-Turkic:*bElin
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hawk
Russianmeaning:
Uzbek:belin(Chag.)
Azerbaidzhan:beli-baGl
Karaim:beli
Comments:VEWT69.
132

Proto-Turkic:*bEli
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:panic,terror
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:beli(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:beli(MK),beli-le-'tobeterrified'(KB)
Turkish:belin'frightened'(dial.peli,peil-de-)
MiddleTurkic:beli-le-'tobeterrified'(Qutb)
Turkmen:belial-'tofear,bedisgusted'
Oyrat:peli'fakedillness'(R)
Tuva:beli-i,beli-ne-
Tofalar:beli-i'scary',beli-ne-'bestartled'
Kirghiz:belim-i'ahystericalwoman'
Kazakh:beli
Noghai:bele'scary'
Bashkir:bilen-d-'tobescared,startled'
Comments:EDT343,344,VEWT69,2,98(withadifferentTM
parallel).

Proto-Turkic:*benr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1swelling2scar,ulcer
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:bez(MK,IM)2
Turkish:bez2
Tatar:biz1,2
MiddleTurkic:bez(Sangl.),mez(Sangl.)1,2
Uzbek:bez2
Uighur:bz
133
Azerbaidzhan:bz,vz
Turkmen:mz2
Chuvash:pr'pus'
Tuva:bes1
Tofalar:bes1
Kirghiz:bez1,2
Kazakh:bez1,2
Noghai:bez
Bashkir:bi
Balkar:bez1,2
Karakalpak:bez1,2
Kumyk:bez1,2
Comments:VEWT72,EDT388,142,1,384,7.

Proto-Turkic:*be
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:moleontheface
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:me(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:me(MK)
Turkish:ben,benek
Tatar:bi
MiddleTurkic:me(Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan:bnk
Turkmen:me,menek
Khakassian:mi
Oyrat:me
Chuvash:mi(maybe<Tat.)
Yakut:me
Dolgan:me
134
Tuva:me
Kirghiz:me
Kazakh:me
Noghai:me
Bashkir:mi
Gagauz:ben,benek
Karakalpak:me
Salar:me
Kumyk:mi
Comments:VEWT70,334,EDT346,208,Stachowski178.

Proto-Turkic:*be
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bait,bird-seed
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:me(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:me(MK,KB)
Turkish:ben,be(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:me(MA)
Turkmen:me
Yakut:mei<*me-eg(dimin.)
Dolgan:mee
Comments:VEWT334,EDT766,Stachowski178.Turk.>WMong.me,
seeKW261.

Proto-Turkic:*bei
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:joy,pleasure
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bei,mei
135
Karakhanid:mei(MK)
Comments:EDT348,195(sub'brain').

Proto-Turkic:*bEir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1face2besimilar3openforestlessplaceonamountainslope
Russianmeaning:1,,23

OldTurkic:beiz(Orkh.),meiz(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:meiz1(MK,KB)
Turkish:beniz1,benze-2
MiddleTurkic:beiz,meiz1(Sangl.)
Uzbek:miz'cheek'
Azerbaidzhan:bniz1,bnz-2
Turkmen:meiz1,meze-2
Khakassian:ms1(.-Abak.)
Oyrat:ms3
Tuva:ms3
Tofalar:m

s3
Kazakh:meze-'toconsideruseful'
Gagauz:beniz1,benze-2
Karaim:bez1,beze-2
Karakalpak:megze-2
Comments:VEWT70,EDT352,208,7,207.In
Chuv.cf.eithermin'facecolour'(ifnot=min'redspotonface',see
208)or*pa>Proto-Perm.*ba(-37).Turk.>
MMong.meiz'comparison,metaphor'(1997,129).

Proto-Turkic:*bEr-
Altaicetymology:
136
Meaning:1southern,right2totheSouth,totheright
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:ber-din1(Orkh.,OUygh.),beri-je2,ber-gr2(Orkh.)
Comments:EDT359,364,370.Theformsber-din(abl.),ber-ije(adv.),ber-
ger(dir.)-fromaspatialnoun*ber.Theusuallyrelatedber'thisside,
here'etc.(EDT355,II124-125)shouldberatherkeptapart.Itis
unclearmorphologically(br<ber-rseemstobeauniquedevelopment)
andmaybederivedfromthedemonstrativebu'this',justlikenaru,aaru,
onaru'thatside,there'isderivedfromthedemonstrativesteman-'that'
(seeBrockelmann1954,134).

Proto-Turkic:*ber
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tunic2cloth,linen
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:ber-t'atunic',bert-le-n-'towearatunic'
Chuvash:pir2
Comments:EDT358,359(MK),VEWT71.

Proto-Turkic:*ber
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:swelling,gland
Russianmeaning:,
Turkmen:ber
Khakassian:mir
Chuvash:par
Yakut:bert/berge
Kazakh:beriek'thickpus'(R)

Proto-Turkic:*ber-
137
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toshiver,tremble;tohate,bebored,feelaversion
Russianmeaning:;,,

OldTurkic:bez-(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:bez-(MK)
Turkish:bez-
Tatar:biz-
MiddleTurkic:bez-(Qutb,CCum.)
Uzbek:bez-
Uighur:bz-
Azerbaidzhan:bez-,bezik-
Turkmen:bezik-
Yakut:bisk-
Kirghiz:bez-
Kazakh:bez-
Noghai:bez-
Bashkir:bi-
Balkar:bez-
Karaim:bez-
Karakalpak:bez-
Kumyk:bez-
Comments:EDT389,2,103-105,TMN2,387,.172
(- -,-e-).

Proto-Turkic:*berk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mighty
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:berk(OUygh.)
138
Karakhanid:berk(MK)
Turkish:berk
MiddleTurkic:berk(Pav.C.)
Sary-Yughur:perik
Azerbaidzhan:brk
Turkmen:berk
Chuvash:parga
Yakut:bert
Dolgan:bert
Kazakh:berik
Bashkir:birik
Comments:EDT361-362,2,116-120,Stachowski58.

Proto-Turkic:*bert-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobreak,damage,wound
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:bert-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bert-(MK)
Turkish:bert-
Tatar:birt-
MiddleTurkic:bertik'bone'(inthecontext:bonefracture)(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:prt-
Turkmen:berti-
Khakassian:pirtk'mutilation'
Shor:peret-
Oyrat:bert-in-(refl.)
Halaj:prt-l-`tothrow'
Chuvash:part'(imit.)crackling'
Tuva:bertik'mutilation'
139
Kirghiz:bertik'contortion',bertin-=mertin-(refl.)
Kazakh:mertik'contortion'
Noghai:mertik'contortion'
Bashkir:birt-
Gagauz:bert-
Karakalpak:mert-
Comments:VEWT71,EDT358,359,2,70-72.Turk.>Mong.berte-
.

Proto-Turkic:*bes
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hoar-frost
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:dial.besim,pese,pesen
Tatar:bs
Chuvash:pas
Bashkir:b
Comments:37-38.

Proto-Turkic:*bet
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1face2side,near
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:bet1(OUygh.)
Turkish:bet-beniz'facecolour'
Tatar:bit1,2
MiddleTurkic:bet1(Sangl.)
Uzbek:bet1,2
Uighur:bt1,2
Azerbaidzhan:bt-bniz'facecolour'
140
Oyrat:bet1
Chuvash:pat-2(pit1<Tat.)
Yakut:bet-2
Tuva:beti2
Tofalar:be't2
Kirghiz:bet1,2
Kazakh:bet1,2
Noghai:bet1,2
Bashkir:bit1,2
Balkar:bet1,2
Karaim:bet1
Karakalpak:bet1,2
Kumyk:bet1,2
Comments:VEWT72,EDT296,2,121-122,207.

Proto-Turkic:*b ken-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tofeeljoy,appreciate2tostrive,hope
Russianmeaning:1,2,

Karakhanid:biken-1
Turkish:been-1
Azerbaidzhan:bjn-1
Turkmen:begen-1
Chuvash:pigen-2
Kirghiz:bek'bigjoy,feast'
Comments:2,101.

Proto-Turkic:*b l(k)
Altaicetymology:
141
Meaning:1waist2mountainpass,ridge3back
Russianmeaning:12,3,
OldTurkic:bel(Yen.,OUygh.)1,2
Karakhanid:bel(MK,KB)1
Turkish:bel1,2,3
Tatar:bil1,2
MiddleTurkic:bel1(..,Sangl.)
Uzbek:bel1,2
Uighur:bl1
Sary-Yughur:pel1,2
Azerbaidzhan:bel3;1
Turkmen:bl1
Khakassian:pil3;1,2
Oyrat:bel3;1,2
Halaj:bel1
Chuvash:pilk1,2,3
Yakut:bl1
Tuva:bel1,2
Tofalar:bel1
Kirghiz:bel1,2
Kazakh:bel1,2,3
Noghai:bel1,2
Bashkir:bil1,2
Balkar:bel1
Gagauz:bel1
Karaim:bel1,2
Karakalpak:bel1,2,3
Salar:bil1
Kumyk:bel1
142
Comments:VEWT69,TMN2,416,EDT330,2,135-137,
268-269,160,1989,119-121.Turk.>Mong.bel.

Proto-Turkic:*br-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:togive
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ber-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ber-(MK,KB,IM)
Turkish:ver-
Tatar:bir-
MiddleTurkic:ber-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:ber-
Uighur:br-
Sary-Yughur:per-
Azerbaidzhan:ver-
Turkmen:ber-
Khakassian:pir-
Shor:per-
Oyrat:ber-
Halaj:ver-(<Az.)
Chuvash:par-
Yakut:bier-
Dolgan:bier-
Tuva:ber-
Tofalar:ber-
Kirghiz:ber-
Kazakh:ber-
Noghai:ber-
Bashkir:bir-
143
Balkar:ber-
Gagauz:ver-
Karaim:ver-
Karakalpak:ber-
Salar:be(r)-,ve(r)-,v(r)-
Kumyk:ber-
Comments:VEWT70,2,114-116,EDT354-5,Stachowski59.

Proto-Turkic:*biagr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:liver
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bar(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bar(MK)
Turkish:bar'breast,bosom'
Tatar:bawr
MiddleTurkic:bar(..,MA)
Uighur:beir
Sary-Yughur:bar
Azerbaidzhan:bar
Turkmen:baGr
Khakassian:pr
Chuvash:pver
Yakut:bar
Dolgan:bar'belly;liver'
Tuva:br
Tofalar:br
Kirghiz:br
Kazakh:bawr
Noghai:bawr
144
Bashkir:bawr
Balkar:bawur
Karaim:bar
Karakalpak:bawr
Salar:bar
Comments:VEWT55,EDT317,2,17-19,22-23,278,
Stachowski69.

Proto-Turkic:*b(i)ak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bad,evil
Russianmeaning:,,
Oyrat:baaj
Yakut:baaj'fool,monster'
Tuva:ba'q
Tofalar:ba'q
Comments:VEWT57.

Proto-Turkic:*bialk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:city,fortress
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:balq(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:balq(MK)
MiddleTurkic:balq(Pav.C.)
Sary-Yughur:balq,paluq
Halaj:baluq''
Chuvash:pler
Comments:TMN2,257,EDT335-336,2,59,3,91,
485,.194.
145
Proto-Turkic:*b(i)altr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:calfofleg
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:baltr(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:baldr(MK)
Turkish:baldr
Tatar:baltr
MiddleTurkic:baldr(MA),baltr(Sangl.)
Uzbek:bldir
Azerbaidzhan:baldr
Turkmen:baldr
Khakassian:paltr
Shor:paltr
Oyrat:baltr
Yakut:ballr
Tuva:ba'ldr
Tofalar:baldr
Kirghiz:baltr
Kazakh:baltr
Noghai:baltr
Bashkir:baltr
Balkar:baltr,baldr
Gagauz:baldr
Karaim:baldr
Karakalpak:baltr
Kumyk:baldr
Comments:VEWT61,2,54-55,283-284.

Proto-Turkic:*b(i)ar-k
146
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1house2home,household
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:barq1,2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:barq1,2(MK,KB)
Turkish:bark2
MiddleTurkic:barq2(Sangl.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:barq1
Azerbaidzhan:bar'fence'
Kumyk:baru'fence'
Comments:EDT359-360,VEWT63,66,II62.Barkistraditionally
linkedwithbr'thereis',bar'belongings',butcf.theAz.wordwhichcanbe
hardlyexplainedinthisway.

Proto-Turkic:*biarak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:finger,thumb
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:barmaq(Tefs.,IM)
Turkish:parmak,dial.barnak
Tatar:barmaq,dial.barnaq
MiddleTurkic:barmaq(Sangl.,MA)
Uzbek:barmq
Uighur:barmaq
Azerbaidzhan:barmaG
Turkmen:barmaq
Halaj:barmaq
Chuvash:prne
Kirghiz:barmaq
Kazakh:barmaq
147
Noghai:barmaq
Bashkir:barmaq,(Pallas)parnaq
Balkar:barmaq
Gagauz:parmaq
Karaim:barmaq
Karakalpak:barmaq
Salar:parmax
Kumyk:barmaq
Comments:VEWT63,2,66-68,319-320,253-255.

Proto-Turkic:*b(i)at
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bad,unworthy
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bat(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Tuva:pat
Comments:EDT296,VEWT65.

Proto-Turkic:*b(i)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobind2tofasten3bundle4bond,rope
Russianmeaning:1234
OldTurkic:ba-1,2,ba-3,4,'confederation'(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ba-1,2,ba-3,4(MK,KB,At.)
Turkish:ba-3,4,ba--la-1,2
Tatar:baw3,4,bj4
MiddleTurkic:ba4
Uzbek:b3,4
Uighur:ba3,4
Sary-Yughur:pa4
148
Azerbaidzhan:ba3,4
Turkmen:bG4
Khakassian:(dial.)pa(Kyz.)4
Shor:pa(R)4
Oyrat:b4
Halaj:v-1,ba4(bam.b.<Ogh.)
Chuvash:pjav4
Yakut:b-j-1,2,ba4
Dolgan:b-j-1,ba4
Tuva:ba-la-1
Tofalar:Ba4
Kirghiz:b3,4
Kazakh:baw3,4
Noghai:baw4
Bashkir:baw4,bj4
Balkar:baw4
Gagauz:b-la-(<*bag-la-)1
Karaim:ba3,4
Karakalpak:baw3,4
Salar:ba4
Kumyk:baw3,4
Comments:EDT292,310,2,13-17,VEWT53(*b,deriv.*b-g),
1,411,Stachowski55,69.Turk.*bg>Mong.ba(KW27,TMN
2,254),baa(>Man.baqsanetc.,seeDoerferMT142).Yak.hasa
standardverbalstemmodifier(-j-).

Proto-Turkic:*b(i)ka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:frog
Russianmeaning:
149
OldTurkic:baqa(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:baqa(MK)
Turkish:b
Tatar:baqa
MiddleTurkic:baqa(AH,Ettuhf.),baqqa(MA)
Uzbek:baqa
Uighur:baqa,paqa
Azerbaidzhan:baa
Turkmen:Gurba
Khakassian:paa
Shor:paa
Oyrat:baqa
Halaj:bqa'turtle'
Yakut:baa
Tuva:paa
Tofalar:baa
Kirghiz:baqa
Kazakh:baqa
Noghai:baqa
Balkar:maqa
Gagauz:qurb
Karaim:baqa
Karakalpak:baqa
Salar:paa
Kumyk:baqa
Comments:VEWT58,EDT311-312,646-647,2,40-41,6,160-161
(seeibid.ontheonomatopoeicnatureofthecomponent*Kur-),
179-180.Amoreprecisereconstructionwouldbeperhaps*b(i)kka,with
expressivegemination(suggestedbynon-voicinginKypchak).Turk.>
Hung.beka,seeGombocz1912.
150

Proto-Turkic:*bil

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wound
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ba(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ba(MK,KB)
Turkish:ba(dial.)
Turkmen:b
Chuvash:pz ek'scar'
Yakut:bs
Dolgan:bs
Tuva:bais(Krg.Castr.124)
Comments:EDT376,VEWT65,2,88-89,1,172,
.90,194,Stachowski57.Usuallyunitedwithbal'wound,wounded',
butcf.PA*m

li.

Proto-Turkic:*bit
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:swift,quick
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bat(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bat(MK)
Turkish:pat'suddenly'
MiddleTurkic:bat(Sangl.)
Uzbek:bt
Uighur:pat
Turkmen:bda'atonce'
Chuvash:pid(<*pd?)'most,very'
Tuva:pat'extremely'
151
Kirghiz:bat
Comments:VEWT65,EDT296,162,1,437.

Proto-Turkic:*bij-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sharpedge,knife
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bi(OUygh.)
Khakassian:pi-ze-'towhet,sharpen'
Yakut:b
Dolgan:b
Comments:EDT291,VEWT75,398,399-400,Stachowski61.

Proto-Turkic:*bil-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toknow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bil-(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bil-(MK,KB,IM)
Turkish:bil-
Tatar:bel-
MiddleTurkic:bil-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:bil-
Uighur:bil-
Sary-Yughur:bl-
Azerbaidzhan:bil-
Turkmen:bil-
Khakassian:pl-
Shor:pil-(R.)
Oyrat:bil-
152
Halaj:bil-
Chuvash:pel-
Yakut:bil-
Dolgan:bil-
Tuva:bil-
Tofalar:bil-
Kirghiz:bil-
Kazakh:bil-
Noghai:bil-
Bashkir:bel-
Balkar:bil-
Gagauz:bil-
Karaim:bil-
Karakalpak:bil-
Salar:bil-
Kumyk:bil-1
Comments:VEWT75,EDT330-331,2,137-139,Stachowski60.Cf.
also*belg'sign'(2,108-111)(=WMong.belge,seeTMN1,216,
1997,104).Turk.*bil-ig>Mong.bilig(TMN2,418,1997,
106).

Proto-Turkic:*bil-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobecomeboiled,ripe
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bi-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bi-(MK,KB)
Turkish:pi-
Tatar:be-,pe-
MiddleTurkic:bi-(Sangl.)
153
Uzbek:pi-
Uighur:pi-
Sary-Yughur:ps-
Azerbaidzhan:bi-
Turkmen:bi-
Khakassian:ps-
Shor:p-
Oyrat:b-
Halaj:b-
Chuvash:pis-
Yakut:bus-
Tuva:b-
Tofalar:b-
Kirghiz:b-
Kazakh:pis-
Bashkir:be-
Balkar:bi-
Gagauz:pi-
Karaim:bi-,pi-
Karakalpak:pis-
Kumyk:bi-
Comments:VEWT76,EDT376-377,2,161-164.Mong.bilaq,
basila'ak.ofhomecheese'<Turk.*bl-lak(Clark1980,42,
1997,107).

Proto-Turkic:*bili-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tostirup,churn(milk,butter)
Russianmeaning:,(,),
Tatar:pe-(.,180)
154
Uzbek:pikak'churnpestle'
Turkmen:piek'churnpestle',-le-'tochurn'
Chuvash:pz er-'tohit,beat'
Yakut:bis-'tosmear'
Dolgan:bis-'tosmear'
Kirghiz:b-/bi-;bikek'churn-staffforkumis'
Kazakh:pis-
Noghai:piskek'churn-staff'
Bashkir:bee-'tochurn;tobeat',bekk'churn-staff'
Karakalpak:pis-;piskek'abigchurn'
Comments:2,309-310,Stachowski61,.X,241-242.Inapart
oflanguagestherootmergeswith*bil-"toripen";itdiffersfromthelatter
byitsoriginaltransitivityandconsequentfrontvocalism.

Proto-Turkic:*bile-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosharpen2whetstone
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:bile-(MK)1
Turkish:bile-1
Tatar:belw2
MiddleTurkic:bile-1,bilew2(Pav.C.)
Uighur:bil-(Jarr.)1
Azerbaidzhan:blv,bilv2
Turkmen:bilev2
Khakassian:pl2(R)
Shor:pile2
Oyrat:bil2
Chuvash:plev2
Tuva:bili-(Castr.-Soj.)1
155
Kirghiz:bl2
Kazakh:bilew2
Noghai:bilew2
Bashkir:belw2
Balkar:bile-1,bilew2
Gagauz:bile-1,bil2
Karaim:bile-1,blew2
Kumyk:bile-1,bilew2
Comments:2,142-143,EDT332-333(<*bi'blade',denom.-but
Turkm.shortnesscontradictsthisderivation).Turk.*bile-g>Mong.*bile-
id.,see1997,106.

Proto-Turkic:*bile(bula)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:with,together,also
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:bile,bilen(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bile(MK,KB)
Turkish:bile'even'
Tatar:beln
MiddleTurkic:bile(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bilan
Uighur:biln
Sary-Yughur:bile(n)
Azerbaidzhan:bil(dial.)
Turkmen:bile,bilen
Khakassian:mna
Shor:mine'here,now'
Oyrat:bla(dial.,.)
Halaj:bil
156
Chuvash:-bala(n)
Yakut:-nan(?)
Tuva:bile
Kirghiz:minen
Kazakh:-ben
Noghai:-ben
Bashkir:-benen
Balkar:bla
Gagauz:-jlan
Karaim:bla
Karakalpak:benen
Salar:bile
Kumyk:bulan
Comments:EDT364-365,2,140-142.Phoneticvariantsare
explainedbythetransformationoftherootintoapostpositionand,further,
intoacaseending.Theformbileisattestedquiteearlyandthereforecan
behardlytreatedasanassimilation<bir-le(derivedfrombir'1',cf.bir-ge,
bir-ewithasimilarmeaning).

Proto-Turkic:*bilek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wrist,forearm
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bilek(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bilek(MK,KB)
Turkish:bilek
Tatar:belk
MiddleTurkic:bilek(..,Sangl.)
Uzbek:bilak
Uighur:bilk
157
Azerbaidzhan:bilk
Turkmen:bilek
Khakassian:plek
Shor:pilek(R,.)
Oyrat:belek
Yakut:belenik,belennik(dial.)
Tuva:bilek
Kirghiz:bilek
Kazakh:bilek
Noghai:bilek
Bashkir:belk
Balkar:bilek
Gagauz:bilek
Karaim:bilek
Karakalpak:bilek
Kumyk:bilek
Comments:EDT338-339,VEWT76,TMN2,314,2,145-146,
172-175(withdetailedanalysisofphoneticvariantsandderivatives),
256.Turk.*bilek-jrk>*bile(g)rk'bracelet'(EDT345,
Stachowski60)>Mong.bilg/bilisg/blg(seeClark1980,41).

Proto-Turkic:*bilik,*bEl-mek(e)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1wick2tinder,mushroom
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:bilik(MK)1
Tatar:mek2
Uzbek:pilik1
Uighur:pilik(Jarr.)1
Khakassian:miske2
158
Shor:meke2
Oyrat:meke2
Kirghiz:bilik1
Bashkir:bmk2
Karakalpak:pilik1
Comments:EDT339,VEWT69,72,VI.

Proto-Turkic:*binr(*bir)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:awl
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:biz
Tatar:bez
MiddleTurkic:biz(MA),bigiz(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bigiz
Uighur:biz
Sary-Yughur:pz-,puz-
Azerbaidzhan:biz
Turkmen:bijz/bz
Khakassian:ps
Shor:pis
Oyrat:mis
Tuva:bis
Tofalar:bis
Kirghiz:miz
Kazakh:biz,dial.bigiz
Noghai:biz
Bashkir:be
Balkar:miz
Karaim:biz
159
Karakalpak:biz
Kumyk:biz
Comments:VEWT75,2,130-131,TMN2,311.TheChag.form
bigizisquitestrange:perhapsitisaresultofdenasalizationof*biiz<*bir
(thiswouldthensuggestavelarnasalintheroot).

Proto-Turkic:*bir(*br)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:one
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bir(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bir(MK,KB,IM)
Turkish:bir
Tatar:ber
MiddleTurkic:bir(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:bir
Uighur:bir
Sary-Yughur:br
Azerbaidzhan:bir
Turkmen:bir
Khakassian:pr
Shor:pir
Oyrat:bir
Halaj:bi
Chuvash:pr
Yakut:br
Dolgan:br,bir
Tuva:bir
Tofalar:bir
Kirghiz:bir
160
Kazakh:bir
Noghai:bir
Bashkir:ber
Balkar:bir
Gagauz:bir
Karaim:bir/br
Karakalpak:bir
Salar:pyr,pir,pur(Kakuk)
Kumyk:bir
Comments:VEWT76,TMN2,383-4,EDT353-4,2,146-151,
157,I421-422,Stachowski61.Cf.alsoKhak.praj'all',
Tat.dial.prj'any'(179),Az.bir-di'one,alltogether'.

Proto-Turkic:*b-/*bi-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocut
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:b-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:b-(MK)
Turkish:bi-
Tatar:pi-
MiddleTurkic:bi-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bi-
Uighur:pi-
Sary-Yughur:p-
Azerbaidzhan:bi-
Turkmen:bi-
Khakassian:ps-
Oyrat:b-
Chuvash:ps-
161
Yakut:bs-
Dolgan:bs-
Tuva:b-
Tofalar:b'-
Kirghiz:bi-
Kazakh:pi-
Bashkir:bis-,bs-
Balkar:bi-
Gagauz:bi-
Karaim:bi-
Karakalpak:pi-
Kumyk:bi-
Comments:EDT292-293,VEWT73,2,158-160,Stachowski71.
Turk.>Hung.biczak'knife'(Gombocz1912).

Proto-Turkic:*bdk(*bdnk)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:moustache
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:bq(MK),bjq(IM)
Turkish:bjk
Tatar:mjq
MiddleTurkic:b,m(Sangl.)
Uzbek:mjq(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:b
Turkmen:mjq(dial.)
Oyrat:mjq
Chuvash:mjx
Yakut:btk
Dolgan:btk
162
Kirghiz:mjq
Noghai:mjq
Bashkir:mjq
Balkar:mjq
Gagauz:bjq
Karaim:mjx
Karakalpak:mjq
Kumyk:mjq
Comments:VEWT73,EDT301,2,304,223,Stachowski
71.

Proto-Turkic:*bkn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thigh
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bqn'hip'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bqn'hip,flank'(MK)
Turkish:bkn(dial.)
Tatar:bn(Sib.)
MiddleTurkic:bqn'hip,flank'(Sangl.)
Uzbek:biqin
Uighur:biqin
Turkmen:bqn
Khakassian:pxt
Oyrat:bqn,mqn
Tuva:bn
Kirghiz:mqn
Kazakh:mqn
Bashkir:bm
Balkar:bn
163
Comments:EDT316,VEWT73,TMN2,301,2,304-305,
280.TheKhak.formisarebuiltposessiveform.

Proto-Turkic:*bldur-(*buldr-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:abirdsmallerthanagreypartridge,quail
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:bldrn
MiddleTurkic:bldrn(Sangl.,Houts.,Bulgat)
Uzbek:bulduriq'Steppenhuhn'
Azerbaidzhan:bldrn(dial.)
Chuvash:pldran(dial.)
Yakut:blrt,bllrt'snipe'
Kirghiz:bulduruq
Kazakh:buldrq
Karakalpak:buldrq
Comments:EDT309,TMN2,312,VEWT73-74,2,305-306,
173.Turk.>Russ.Siber.buld'ur'uk(140).

Proto-Turkic:*bldur(/*buldr)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:pasttime,lastyear
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:bldr(MK)
Tatar:bltr
MiddleTurkic:bltr(AH),blr(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bultr
Uighur:bultu(r)
Sary-Yughur:ptr
Azerbaidzhan:bildir
164
Turkmen:bildir
Khakassian:pltr
Yakut:blr
Dolgan:blr
Kirghiz:bltr
Kazakh:bltr
Bashkir:bltr
Balkar:bltr
Gagauz:bldr
Karaim:bltr
Karakalpak:bltr
Kumyk:bltr
Comments:EDT334,VEWT74,2,139-140,71,
Stachowski70.

Proto-Turkic:*bnan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofgrass
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:bojan,mejan
Tatar:dial.mja
MiddleTurkic:bijan,CCum.bujan
Uzbek:mija
Uighur:buja
Azerbaidzhan:bijan
Turkmen:bujan
Chuvash:mjan
Kirghiz:mja
Kazakh:mja
Noghai:mja
165
Karakalpak:bojan
Kumyk:mija
Comments:131.Turk.>Kalm.buj'',Russ.Siber.bojal
''125.

Proto-Turkic:*bnl(k)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:cat
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:m(MK)
Turkish:pk(dial.),pisi
Tatar:pesi,dial.mq
MiddleTurkic:piik,muuq(Pav.C.,Abush.,MA)
Uzbek:muuk
Uighur:mk
Sary-Yughur:mi,miik
Azerbaidzhan:piik
Turkmen:piik
Oyrat:mq
Halaj:puuq
Kirghiz:mq
Kazakh:msq
Noghai:msq
Bashkir:bisj
Karakalpak:pq
Salar:miix
Kumyk:miik,biew
Comments:VEWT337,EDT772,7.Cf.,however,OUygh.mq<
Sogd.mwkyid.Tur.pisi,Tat.pesiareexpressivecallingforms,which
mayexplaintheirirregularity(medial-s-).
166

Proto-Turkic:*b
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thousand
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:b,bi(Orkh.,OUygh.),mi(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:mi(MK,KB)
Turkish:bin
Tatar:me
MiddleTurkic:mi(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:mi
Uighur:mi
Sary-Yughur:me
Azerbaidzhan:min
Turkmen:m
Khakassian:mu
Shor:mu
Oyrat:mu
Halaj:mi
Chuvash:pin
Yakut:mu
Tuva:mu
Kirghiz:mi
Kazakh:m
Noghai:mi,m
Bashkir:me
Balkar:mi
Gagauz:bin
Karaim:min
Karakalpak:m
167
Salar:mi
Kumyk:mi
Comments:VEWT76,MNT4,1742,EDT347-347,574.Cannot
be<Chin.(seeClauson1964,24-25).

Proto-Turkic:*bt(-n-,-d)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:Salmolenoc
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:mind-r'burbot'
Yakut:bjt
Tuva:mjt
Tofalar:miit
Comments:VEWT336,177.

Proto-Turkic:*brak-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tolet,toabandon2tosend3tothrow
Russianmeaning:123
Karakhanid:braq-,bra-(IM)1
Turkish:brak-1
MiddleTurkic:braq-(Pav.C.),(OKypch.)1
Azerbaidzhan:burax-1,2
Shor:purqa-(R)3
Oyrat:brk-ra-'toscatter,becomescattered'
Chuvash:prax-1,3
Yakut:brax-1,3
Dolgan:brak-1,3
Bashkir:braq-tr-'tothrowout'
Karaim:braq-(K)1,3
168
Kumyk:burax-(dial.)2
Comments:VEWT74,2,307-308,148,I399-400,
Stachowski71.

Proto-Turkic:*bt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:louse
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bit(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bit(MK)
Turkish:bit
Tatar:bet
MiddleTurkic:bit(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bit
Uighur:pit
Sary-Yughur:bt
Azerbaidzhan:bit
Turkmen:bit
Khakassian:pt
Shor:pit
Oyrat:bijt
Halaj:bit
Chuvash:pjd
Yakut:bt
Tuva:b't
Tofalar:b't
Kirghiz:bit
Kazakh:bi_t
Noghai:bijt
Bashkir:bet
169
Balkar:bit
Gagauz:bit

Karaim:bit
Karakalpak:bijt
Salar:bit
Kumyk:bit
Comments:VEWT76,EDT296,2,151-152,182.

Proto-Turkic:*bod
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1body,stature2self3kin,tribe4counterforpersons5length
Russianmeaning:1,,234.5

OldTurkic:bod1,2,4(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bod1(MK,KB),boj3(MK-Oghuz),bod4(KB)
Turkish:boj1
Tatar:buj5
MiddleTurkic:boj1(Sangl.,MA,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:boj1,5
Uighur:boj1,5
Sary-Yughur:poz1,4
Azerbaidzhan:boj1
Turkmen:boj1
Khakassian:pos2
Shor:pozu2
Oyrat:boj2,5
Halaj:bod1
Chuvash:p1,5
Tuva:bot2
Kirghiz:boj1,2,5
170
Kazakh:boj1,2,5
Noghai:boj1,5
Bashkir:buj1,5
Balkar:boj1,5
Gagauz:boj1,5
Karaim:boj1,2,5
Karakalpak:boj1,2,5
Salar:bojar(<bojagr)'pregnant'()
Kumyk:boj1,2,5
Comments:EDT296-297,VEWT77,TMN2,358-361,2,176-178,
265.

Proto-Turkic:*bodo-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1topaint,dye2dye
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:bodu2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:boo-(MK)1,boo(MK)2
Turkish:boja-1,boja2
Tatar:buja-1,bujaw2
MiddleTurkic:boja-(Abush.,Sangl.)1,boja/q2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:buja-1,bujq2
Uighur:boju-/a-1,bojaq2
Azerbaidzhan:boja-1,boja,bojaG2
Turkmen:boja-1,boja,bojaG2
Oyrat:pojo-1(),poju-(dial.-..)
Halaj:boda-1,boda2
Chuvash:pve-1
Yakut:butuj-1,butuk2
Tuva:budu-1,buduq2
171
Kirghiz:bojo-1,bojoq2
Kazakh:boja-1,bojau2
Noghai:boja-1,bojaq2
Bashkir:buja-1,harbujaq''(adyingplant)
Balkar:boja-1,bojaw2
Gagauz:boja-1,boja2
Karaim:boja-1,boja2
Karakalpak:boja-1,bojaq2
Salar:boja2(Kakuk)
Kumyk:boja-1,bojaw2
Comments:EDT300,VEWT77,2,178-179,155.Despite
EDT,Tel.bodu-isaMongolianloanword.Chuv.-v-insteadof*-r-isnot
quiteclearhere(perhapsitisatraceofthearchaic*-gd-cluster?).

Proto-Turkic:*bod-tak
Meaning:younglamb
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:bujdak2(bti<Chuv.?)
MiddleTurkic:bojda(R)12
Uzbek:bojdq2
Uighur:bojdaq2
Shor:posta,postu2
Oyrat:bojdo2
Chuvash:pod'ak,dial.put1,**AD
Tuva:botta2
Kirghiz:bojdok2
Kazakh:bojdaq1(;),2
Noghai:bojdak2
Bashkir:bujzaq2
Karaim:bojdax2,''
172
Karakalpak:bojdaq1(),2
Kumyk:bojdaq2
Comments:SeeVEWT77-8,1455**AD.Turk.>Kalm.bojdg
(KW49),Khalkha,Bur.bojtog'furboots'.Shorpostaseemstopointto
*bod-tak,butthisisprobablyasecondaryinfluenceof*bod>pos(theroots
aredifferentanyway,beingdistinguishednotonlyby*-j-*-d-,butalsoby
vowellength).**AD?.
*bo-,,,,,
-,(-.posta,postu,
.posta'').

Proto-Turkic:*bodu-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tofasten(withanail,arrow)2tobefastened,attached3
woodennailincamel'snoseforfasteningthetether4nail
Russianmeaning:1,(,)2
3
4
OldTurkic:bodu-1(OUygh.),bodul-2,budlu3(OUygh.-YB)
Karakhanid:bodu-1(MK),butlu(=budlu)3(MK)
Turkish:pojra'wheelhob',dial.bujru,bujlu
MiddleTurkic:bujla(MA)3
Uighur:bujla3
Turkmen:bjli3
Khakassian:poz4
Shor:pozu4
Kirghiz:bujla3
Kazakh:bujda3
Noghai:bojsqan(<*bod--kan)'woollenleadforfasteningcalvesduring
milking'
173
Bashkir:bujlq'abridledetail,'
Karakalpak:bujda3
Comments:EDT300,304,305,2,287.Theoriginalmeaningofthe
rootisclearly'tofasten,attach'.The-u-vowelinthenameofcamelharness
maybearesultofborrowinginKarakh.fromaKypchak-typedialect,with
furtherdispersionfromKarakh.urk.bujla>Mong.bujla'id.'>Tuvabujla.

Proto-Turkic:*bodun
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:people
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bodun(OUygh.,Orkh,)
Karakhanid:boun(MK)
Comments:EDT306,TMN2,812,316.

Proto-Turkic:*bog-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1totieup2tostrangle3tohinder4bundle
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:bo-2,bo4(MK)
Karakhanid:bo-2,bo4(MK)
Turkish:b-2,dial.bo4,boa-1
Tatar:bu-2
MiddleTurkic:bo-2,bo4(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bo-1,2
Uighur:bo-2
Sary-Yughur:po-1,2
Azerbaidzhan:bo-1,2
Turkmen:bo-1,2
Khakassian:po-1,2
174
Oyrat:p-,po-,b-,pu-1,2
Chuvash:pv-2
Yakut:buoj-3
Dolgan:buoj-3('topacify,appease')
Tuva:bo-1,2
Kirghiz:b-1,2
Kazakh:bu-2
Noghai:buw-2
Bashkir:bw-2
Balkar:buw-1,2
Gagauz:b-2
Karaim:bo-2
Karakalpak:buw-1,2
Kumyk:buw-2
Comments:EDT311,VEWT78,2,164-167,Stachowski66.

Proto-Turkic:*bogar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:pregnant(ofanimals)
Russianmeaning:()
Tatar:buwaz
MiddleTurkic:(tl)boaz(Oghuz-nama);boaz,bouz(MA)
Uzbek:buz
Uighur:boaz
Azerbaidzhan:boaz(dial.)
Turkmen:boaz
Khakassian:ps
Oyrat:poos
Halaj:poos
Yakut:buos
175
Dolgan:buos
Tuva:boos
Kirghiz:booz
Kazakh:buwaz
Noghai:buwaz
Bashkir:bwa
Balkar:buwaz
Karakalpak:buwaz
Kumyk:buwaz
Comments:VEWT78,2,169,Stachowski67.Turk.>WMong.
bous,Kalm.bs(KW54),Dag.bs(..127),seeClark1980,39.

Proto-Turkic:*bogum
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:joint
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:bom,boun(MK)
Turkish:boun,boum
Tatar:buwn
MiddleTurkic:boun(Sangl.,..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:buin
Uighur:boam
Turkmen:boGun
Khakassian:pun
Oyrat:mun,pn(dial.)
Kirghiz:mn
Kazakh:buwn
Noghai:buwn
Bashkir:bwn
Karaim:buvun
176
Karakalpak:buwn
Salar:puum(Kakuk)
Kumyk:bwn
Comments:EDT316,2,170-171,260,TMN2,348-349.

Proto-Turkic:*bogur,*bokur-dak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1throat2Adam'sapple
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:bouz1(OUygh.),boz(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:booz(MK,KB)1
Turkish:boaz1,bourdak,bourtlak(dial.)2
Tatar:buaz1(k),purtaq(dial.),prtaq(dial.)2
MiddleTurkic:bouz(Abush.,..)1,boqurdaq,boardaq(Sangl.)2
Uzbek:buiz1
Uighur:bouz1
Azerbaidzhan:boaz1
Turkmen:boGaz1,boqurdaq1
Halaj:boaz,bouz,boz1
Chuvash:pr1
Yakut:buosax1
Tuva:boos(bosqu)
Tofalar:boos(boqsu)
Kirghiz:boos'placewheretworiversmeet'(South.)
Kazakh:buaz,buz'shaft-bedinashovel'(dial.)
Noghai:boaz'doublechin;channel,strait',bordaq1
Bashkir:boa1,boaraq'trachea'
Balkar:boqqur2,bourdaq2
Gagauz:buwaz1
177
Karaim:booz,boaz1
Karakalpak:buwaz-aq'glassforakerosenelamp'
Salar:pota,pota1
Kumyk:boaz'channel,strait'
Comments:VEWT78,TMN2,344,2,167-168,184,230-
231.Thederivative*bokur-dakconsistentlydisplaysreflexesofvoiceless*-
k-;itispresentalsoinsomereflexesof*bogur(Kirgh.boos,Kaz.buaz,
Nogh.boaz,Bashk.boa,Kum.boaz)-allprobablyundertheinfluence
of*bokak'crop,craw'(v.sub*pu

k`a).

Proto-Turkic:*boj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobedilatoryandcareless2torage,rough-house3rampant4
torot,spoil
Russianmeaning:1,23
,4,,
Karakhanid:bojba-(MK)1
Uzbek:boj-la-4
Turkmen:bojna-2,bojnaq3
Tuva:boj-la-4
Kirghiz:buj-da-'tobeconfused'
Bashkir:buj-la-2
Karaim:boj-n'fainted'
Comments:EDT385.

Proto-Turkic:*bok
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dirt,dung
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:boq''(OUygh.)
178
Karakhanid:boq'mildewonbread'(MK),'dung'(IM)
Turkish:bok
MiddleTurkic:(OKypch.)boq(AH,Houts.)
Azerbaidzhan:po
Turkmen:boq
Khakassian:pox
Oyrat:boq
Chuvash:px
Tuva:boq
Tofalar:moq
Kirghiz:boq
Noghai:boq
Balkar:boq
Gagauz:boq
Karaim:boq
Karakalpak:boq
Comments:VEWT79,EDT311,2,183.Turk.>WMong.bo,Kalm.
bog(KW48-49;seeTMN2,349,1997,108).

Proto-Turkic:*bgen
Meaning:largeintestine
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:bgen(MK)
Turkmen:bven
Khakassian:p

n
Oyrat:m

n
Tuva:m

n
Kirghiz:m

n
Bashkir:bjn
Karakalpak:bjen
179
Comments:2,205,279,VEWT83,EDT328.

Proto-Turkic:*bgse(k)<*bs-ge(k)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:apartofhumanoranimaltrunk
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bgsig'somepartofbody(belly?)'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bkseg'woman'sbreast;upperpartofchest'(MK)
Tatar:bks'belly;birdcrop'
MiddleTurkic:bkse'thepartofahumanoranimalbodyabovethewaist'
(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:buksa'sidepartofthebodybelowthebreastanddowntothehip;
(dial.)lowerpartofbody'
Chuvash:pz exe'crop'
Yakut:bsk-j-'toappearabdominous'
Tuva:bskek'bird'sbreast'
Tofalar:bksek'bird'sbreast'
Kirghiz:bks'sideofbody;foot-hill'
Bashkir:bk'shortperson(abusive)'
Balkar:bksn'halfofanimalcarcass'
Comments:EDT329,VEWT84,83,2,213-214,278.
Formswithout-kmeaning'buttock'or'lowerpartofbody'aremostprobably
borrowed<Mong.*bgse,havingquitedifferentorigin(seeunder*pioko)-
althoughsomecontaminationswerenotexcluded.

Proto-Turkic:*bg
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wizard
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bg(Orkh.,OUygh.)
180
Karakhanid:bg(MK)
Turkish:bj
MiddleTurkic:bg(Pav.C.)
Gagauz:b
Comments:EDT324,VEWT83,2,293-294.Turk.>Mong.beid.,
seeTMN1,234.Turk.>Hung.bu'witchcraft'(<*b),seeGombocz
1912.

Proto-Turkic:*bgr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mountainslope
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:br
Turkmen:bvr'side'
Comments:2,207.Therootishistoricallydifferentfrom*bgr
'kidney',buttheyarehardtodistinguishwithinTurkic.

Proto-Turkic:*bgr,*bgrek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:kidney(s)
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bgr(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bgr(MK)
Turkish:bjrek,bbrek
Tatar:bjer,b

jirk
MiddleTurkic:bgrek(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bujrak
Uighur:brk
Azerbaidzhan:bjr,bjrk
Turkmen:bevrek,bvrek
181
Khakassian:pgrek,prek
Shor:prek
Oyrat:brk
Chuvash:pre
Yakut:br
Tuva:brek
Tofalar:b

rek
Kirghiz:bjrk
Kazakh:bjir,bjrek
Noghai:bjrek
Bashkir:b

r
Balkar:brek
Gagauz:br,b

rek,brek
Karaim:bgrek,bivrek
Karakalpak:bjir,bjrek
Kumyk:bjrek
Comments:EDT328,VEWT83,TMN2,353,2,205-207,
278,Stachowski68.

Proto-Turkic:*bk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobesatiated,full
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:bk-(MK)
Turkish:bk-
Sary-Yughur:pek-
Yakut:bx'satiated'
Dolgan:bgk'satiated'
Tuva:pk-
182
Tofalar:pk-(notetheabsenceofpharyngealization-pointingtoPT
length?)
Kirghiz:bk-
Kazakh:bk-
Noghai:bk-
Bashkir:bk-
Gagauz:bq-
Karaim:bq-
Comments:VEWT83(togetherwithbk-'tolock'),EDT324,2,211,
Stachowski63.

Proto-Turkic:*bk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todam,plug
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:bk-''(MK),bken-'()'
(At.)
Turkish:bke-(dial.)
Tatar:bki''
MiddleTurkic:bken''(R,Pav.C.173)
Uzbek:pukak''
Uighur:pok''
Oyrat:bk','
Chuvash:pg''
Kirghiz:bg-
Kazakh:bge-
Bashkir:bki''
Karaim:bk-l-(T)','
Karakalpak:bge-
183
Comments:EDT324,326,VEWT82,83,2,208-210,146.
Clausonprefersthereadingwith-g-,whichishardlyjustified.Avariantwith
*-g-(Tur.be-,Chuv.pv'dam',Turkm.bve-,bvet'id.',Yak.,Dolg.
b'plug')maybearesultoftheinfluenceof*bog-'tochoke,dam'(cf.
*bo-'dam'inTuva,Uzb.,Kum.,Nogh.,Oyr.,Tat.,Bashk.).

Proto-Turkic:*bke
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:abigsnake
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:bke(MK)
Comments:180,EDT324.ClausondoubtsMK'sderivationof
bke'warrior'from'bigsnake'(MKquotesafolk-taleaboutthesnakewith
sevenheadscalledbke,andsaysthatthewarriorsarecalledbyit);but
externalevidencerathersupportsKashgari'spointofview.Ifthisisthe
case,MMong.bk'warrior,wrestler'(whenceEvk.bukuetc.,seeDoerfer
MT235)mustbeaTurkicloanword(seeEDTibid.).

Proto-Turkic:*bkelek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gad-fly
Russianmeaning:
Azerbaidzhan:bjlk
Turkmen:bkelek
Yakut:bglex,bgje
Comments:2,212-213,185.

Proto-Turkic:*bl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:cedar,pinusSiberica
184
Russianmeaning:,
Oyrat:m,=dial.(.)
Yakut:bes'pine',dial.'larchbast'(181)
Tuva:p`,(Castr.Krg.)bj
Tofalar:b
Comments:VEWT71.

Proto-Turkic:*bl

k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:arelationbymarriage
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bk(OUygh.)
Comments:EDT380-381.

Proto-Turkic:*bk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tokick,buck
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:m-(MK)
Uighur:m-,mk-
Khakassian:mk-
Oyrat:mk-
Yakut:mx-
Tuva:mg-
Tofalar:m-(.207)
Kirghiz:mk-
Kazakh:mki-
Comments:EDT767,VEWT342,7.

Proto-Turkic:*bre-
185
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tohowl
Russianmeaning:(,)
OldTurkic:mre-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:mre-(MK)
Turkish:bgr-
Tatar:mgr-
MiddleTurkic:mura-(Sangl.)
Uighur:mri-
Turkmen:mr-,mre-
Khakassian:mre-
Oyrat:m

-
Yakut:mr-,mgr-
Tuva:m

re-
Kirghiz:m

-
Kazakh:mire-
Bashkir:mr-
Karaim:mvr-
Karakalpak:mr-
Comments:VEWT342,EDT770,7.Thevariant*bara-isalso
attested(seeVEWT327).

Proto-Turkic:*bs-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobreakthrough2rupture,hernia
Russianmeaning:12,
Tatar:bs-1,bser2
Uighur:bs-1
Comments:VEWT84.

186
Proto-Turkic:*bteke
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bird'scrop,craw2kidneysofanimals3vulva4bird'sstomach
Russianmeaning:123vulva4

Karakhanid:btege1(OKypch.,At-Tuhfat)
Tatar:btk1,bteg3
Azerbaidzhan:ptnk4
Turkmen:peteke1(perhapsaback-borrowing<Mong.?)
Chuvash:pudege1,2
Yakut:btg4
Kirghiz:btg/k4
Kazakh:btk2
Noghai:bteke,btege1
Bashkir:btg1
Karakalpak:bteke1,2
Kumyk:bteke1
Comments:EDT304(sub'egg-plant'),.X,44,VEWT84.Turk.>
Mong.betege'bird'scrop'.

Proto-Turkic:*b

g,*b

g-en,*b

g-ek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1insect2phalanx,tarantula3gad-fly4wolf
Russianmeaning:12,34
Karakhanid:bg,bj2(MK),bij2(MK-Oghuz)
Turkish:b2,be,be-lek3,bek1,(dial.)4
Tatar:bj2,bk1
MiddleTurkic:bew2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:bij2
Azerbaidzhan:bv2
187
Turkmen:m

j2,bij2,m

ek4
Chuvash:pvan3
Kirghiz:b

,bj,bj,bjn3
Kazakh:bji2
Noghai:bij2,'queenbee',bek'beetle'
Bashkir:bj2,bk1
Gagauz:bek1
Karaim:bij2
Karakalpak:mij2
Kumyk:mija2
Comments:EDT323,VEWT82-3,184.Partlycontaminatedwith
*bke-l'gad-fly'(v.sub*piu

k`i).Theformin-ekisadiminutive.Turk.>
Hung.bgly'gad-fly',seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*b

l-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todivide,separate
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bl-(Orkh.)
Turkish:bl-
Tatar:bl-
MiddleTurkic:bl-(Sangl.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bol-
Uighur:b(l)-
Azerbaidzhan:bl-
Turkmen:b

l-
Khakassian:pl-
Shor:pl-
Oyrat:bl-
Halaj:bel-
188
Chuvash:pl-
Tofalar:bl-
Kirghiz:bl-
Kazakh:bl-
Noghai:bl-
Bashkir:bl-
Balkar:bl-
Gagauz:bl-
Karaim:bl-
Karakalpak:bl-
Kumyk:bl-
Comments:VEWT84,EDT332,TMN2,323,2,214-217.Turk.>
Mong.blg,bleg'group,division'(seeTMN2,325,1997,109).

Proto-Turkic:*b

n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1stupid,foolish2togomad
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:mn-2(IM)
Turkish:bn1,2
Turkmen:m

n1(cf.alsomn'timidity')
Comments:3,53,55.In7andVEWT343-344confusedwith
othersimilarroots:*bn'defect',*bun-'madness'(q.v.sub*mune,*munu).

Proto-Turkic:*b

rk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hat,cap
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:brk(OUygh.-Lig.VSOu)
Karakhanid:brk(MK,KB)
189
Turkish:brk,(dial.)brk,prk
Tatar:brek
MiddleTurkic:prk(MA),brk(..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:burk
Uighur:brk
Sary-Yughur:prk,perik
Azerbaidzhan:brk(dial.)
Turkmen:b

rik
Khakassian:prk
Shor:prk
Oyrat:brk
Halaj:b^k(KhM),birgk
Yakut:bergehe
Dolgan:bergehe
Tuva:brt
Tofalar:b'rt
Kirghiz:brk
Kazakh:brik
Noghai:brk
Bashkir:brk
Balkar:brk
Karaim:brik(H),b'ork(T)
Karakalpak:brik
Kumyk:brk
Comments:EDT362,VEWT84,TMN2,289,2,221-223,
482,Stachowski58.InTuva,Tof.*-rk>rtisregular.Reconstructionof
lengthisnotquitecertain:Turkm.lengthisnotconfirmedbyKhalajand
contradictspharyngealizationinTofalar.Turk.>WMong.brg,Kalm.
brg(KW67),Khalkhabrx(althoughtheoreticallythismayaswellbean
190
indigenousderivativeofbr-,cf.similarTurkicforms:Tur.dial.br-me,
br-g'headgear').

Proto-Turkic:*b

r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wolf
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bri(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bri(MK,KB)
Turkish:br(dial.)
Tatar:bre
MiddleTurkic:bri(Sangl.,Abush.)
Uzbek:bori
Uighur:bri
Sary-Yughur:bji,peri
Turkmen:b

r
Khakassian:pr
Shor:pr(R)
Oyrat:br
Halaj:beri
Chuvash:pir
Yakut:br
Dolgan:br
Tuva:br,dial.(Todzh.)brk
Tofalar:br
Kirghiz:br
Kazakh:bri
Noghai:bri
Bashkir:bre
Balkar:br
191
Karaim:br
Karakalpak:bri
Salar:pre()
Kumyk:br
Comments:EDT356,VEWT84,TMN2,333,2,219-221,
160,Stachowski63.Thehypothesisofthewordbeingborrowedfroman
EastIraniansourcerunsintodifficulties,basicallybecauseofthelackof
earlyattestedformswith-k(onlyinTuvadialectsandthehypothetical
BulgarsourceofRuss.(cf.128-129)).Seealso.1,263
(isn'ttheEastIranianformitself<Turkic?)

Proto-Turkic:*bu-uk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:half
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:buq(MK,IM)
Turkish:buuk
MiddleTurkic:buuq(Sangl.,MKypch.-AH)
Comments:VEWT85,EDT294,2,283-284.Usuallyregardedas
derivedfrom*b-'tocut',whichisdubiousinthelightofexternalevidence.

Proto-Turkic:*bud-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tofreeze2tobesad,sorry
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:bu-(MK)'todieofcold'
Turkish:buj-,bij-,bj-,bujux-(dial.)1
Tatar:bojq-2
Uzbek:buj-ur-1,buju'cold'(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:bj-,bujux-(dial.)1
192
Turkmen:buj-1
Khakassian:puzux-2
Tuva:bq-2(borrowed?)
Kirghiz:bujuq-1
Kazakh:bujq-1
Bashkir:bojoq-2
Balkar:bujuq-1,2
Karakalpak:bujuq-1;''
Kumyk:bujuq-''
Comments:EDT298,2,242-243.

Proto-Turkic:*budur-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:quail
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:budursn(MK);bujurun,bujurn(AH)
Khakassian:(pudurun,pdrn)
Chuvash:prgan'wagtail'
Comments:EDT309,173,2,305-306.Therootwas
stronglyinfluencedby*bldur-(q.v.sub*pio

ltorV);thisexplainstheKhak.
form(onewouldexpectpuzur-).

Proto-Turkic:*bugu,-ra
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1deer(male)2camelstallion
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:buu1(13thc.),buura2(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:bura2(MK)
Turkish:buur2,dial.buu1
MiddleTurkic:buu1,bura,buur2(Pav.C.)
193
Uzbek:buu1
Uighur:buu1,(dial.)bura,bora2
Sary-Yughur:pra2
Azerbaidzhan:buur2
Turkmen:bura2
Oyrat:bura2
Yakut:br'malereindeer,male'
Dolgan:br'malereindeer'
Tuva:bra2,br'maleelk'
Kirghiz:bra2
Kazakh:bura2
Noghai:bora2
Balkar:b1
Karakalpak:buwra2
Comments:EDT317-318,2,235-238,152,446-
447,Stachowski67.Turk.bugura>Mong.buura(seeTMN2,296,
1997,110).1997,201considersTurkic*bugutobe
borrowedfromMongolianbuu'maledeer'(whichmaybetrueforsome
Kypchakforms:Kirgh.buu,Kaz.bu,Nogh.,KKalp.bu),butinfactone
canalsothinkofaloanintheoppositedirection:Turk.>Mong.buu(KW
58,MGCD166),further>Evk.buuetc.,seeDoerferMT78.Turk.>Russ.
Siber.bura'femalecamel';Mong.(Bur.)bra>Russ.Siber.buraid.,see
142.

Proto-Turkic:*bujur(*bjr)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:horn
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:mjz(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:mz(MK)
194
Turkish:bojnuz
Tatar:mgez
MiddleTurkic:mz,mgiz(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:mugiz
Uighur:mgz
Sary-Yughur:mos
Azerbaidzhan:bujnuz
Turkmen:bujnuz
Khakassian:ms
Shor:ms
Oyrat:ms
Chuvash:mjraga
Yakut:muos
Dolgan:muos
Tuva:mjs
Tofalar:miis
Kirghiz:mjz
Kazakh:mjiz
Noghai:mjiz
Bashkir:mg
Balkar:mjz
Gagauz:bujnus
Karaim:muguz
Karakalpak:mujiz
Salar:moz
Kumyk:mjz
Comments:VEWT347,EDT352,2,243,148,Stachowski
183.

Proto-Turkic:*bujur-
195
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toorder
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bujur-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bujur-(MK)
Turkish:bujur-
Tatar:bojr-
MiddleTurkic:bujur-(Sangl.,MA)
Uzbek:bujur-
Uighur:bujru-,bujur-(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:bujur-
Turkmen:bujur-
Oyrat:bujur-
Chuvash:pr-
Kirghiz:bujur-
Noghai:bujr-
Bashkir:bojor-
Balkar:bujur-
Gagauz:bujur-
Karaim:bujur-
Karakalpak:bujr-
Kumyk:bujur-
Comments:VEWT87,EDT387-388,2,245-247,TMN2,362.

Proto-Turkic:*buk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tolieinambush2tohide
Russianmeaning:12
MiddleTurkic:buq-(Pav.C.:Abu-l-Gazi)1
Uzbek:biq-1
196
Turkmen:buq-2
Yakut:bk-2(.)
Kirghiz:buq-2
Kazakh:buq-2
Noghai:buq-2
Balkar:buq-2
Karakalpak:buq-1
Comments:2,248.

Proto-Turkic:*buka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:perch
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:ala-boa
Khakassian:ala-bua
Kazakh:ala-bua
Comments:VEWT15,178(traditionallyregardedasacompound
*la'variegated'+*buka'bull',whichisdubiousbecauseoftheparallelism
inTat.:ala-balq'crucian':ala-boa'perch'-suggestingthatthesecond
partofbothcompoundsisoriginallyafishname).

Proto-Turkic:*bukagu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fetters,chain,string
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:buqau(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:buqau(MK)
Turkish:buka
Tatar:boaw
MiddleTurkic:buqau,buqaw(Sangl.,MA)
197
Uzbek:buw
Azerbaidzhan:buxov
Turkmen:buqaw
Chuvash:pav'ironmanacles'
Yakut:bakj(?)
Kirghiz:booo
Kazakh:buaw
Noghai:buaw
Bashkir:baw
Balkar:buow
Gagauz:buqaa,bqaa
Karaim:buqov,buuw
Karakalpak:buaw
Kumyk:buaw
Comments:EDT314,VEWT87,2,248-250,152,TMN2,
277-278.Turk.>Mong.,cf.MMong.buxa'u(SH)id.,seeTMNibid.,
1997,108.Yak.bakjiwithirregular-a-and-k-mayreflectsome
interdialectalloan.Turk.>Hung.beko(Gombocz1912).

Proto-Turkic:*bul-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1hoar-frost2frazil,icysurface
Russianmeaning:12
Uzbek:bulduriq1
Turkmen:buldurn1,buldura-'toglitter(ofdew,hoar-frost)'
Oyrat:pulu2(dial.,Leb.R)
Yakut:buls'glacier'
Tuva:buluq2
Comments:38.

198
Proto-Turkic:*bul-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tofind
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bul-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bul-(MK,KB)
Turkish:bul-
MiddleTurkic:bula-(Pav.C.174)
Halaj:bul-
Yakut:bul-
Dolgan:bul-
Gagauz:bul-
Karaim:bul-
Comments:EDT332,VEWT87,2,252-253,Stachowski65.

Proto-Turkic:*bul-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1corner,angle2direction
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:bulu2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bulu1(MK)
Tatar:boln'meadow'
MiddleTurkic:OKypch.bulu1(CCum.)
Uighur:bulu1
Khakassian:pulu1
Yakut:bulu1
Tuva:bulu1
Tofalar:bulu1
Kirghiz:bulu1
Kazakh:bulq'edge'
199
Bashkir:bolon1
Comments:VEWT88,EDT343,2,261-262.Turk.>Mong.bulu
(seeClark1977,133,1997,110),whenceEvk.bolon(DoerferMT
125).

Proto-Turkic:*bulak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:spring,well
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bulaq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bulaq(KB,IM)
Turkish:bulak
Tatar:bolaq
MiddleTurkic:bula(Abush.),bulaq(Sangl.)
Uzbek:bulq
Uighur:bulaq(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:bulaq
Azerbaidzhan:bulaG
Turkmen:bulaq
Khakassian:pulux(R-Sag.)
Shor:puluq(R)
Halaj:bula:G'well;tear'
Tuva:blaq
Tofalar:blaq(.)
Kazakh:bulaq
Noghai:bulaq
Balkar:bulaq
Karakalpak:bulaq
Kumyk:bulaq
200
Comments:EDT336,VEWT87,2,257-258,TMN2,355.Cf.Kaz.
bula-`toflow,gushforth'.Turk.>WMong.bula,Kalm.bulg(KW59;TMN
ibid.,1997,110),whenceEvk.bulak(DoerferMT125).

Proto-Turkic:*bulan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:elk
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:bulan'unicornfromtheKyfchakcountry'(MK)
Tatar:bolan
MiddleTurkic:bulan(Ettuhf.),bulnaq(AH)'onager'
Uzbek:buln
Khakassian:pulan
Shor:pulan
Oyrat:bulan
Chuvash:plan
Tuva:bulan
Kirghiz:bulan
Kazakh:bulan
Noghai:bulan
Bashkir:bolan
Comments:VEWT88,TMN2,356,EDT343,2,260,154.
Chineseorigin(1961,141-142)ishardlypossible;itiscuriousto
noteMK'smeaning:'unicornwithitshorncollectingsnowandrain'.Turk.>
Russ.(horsecolorname)';>Hung.ble ny'aurochs',see
Gombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*bulga-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tostir,stirup
201
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bula-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bula-(MK)
Turkish:bula-
Tatar:bola-
MiddleTurkic:bula-;bula-(Sangl.,Abush.)
Uzbek:bula-,bula-
Uighur:bulu-
Sary-Yughur:pola-,pula-
Azerbaidzhan:bula-
Turkmen:bula-
Khakassian:pula-
Shor:pula-
Oyrat:bula-
Halaj:bula-
Chuvash:plxa-n-'tobecometurbid'
Yakut:bul-,bulkuj-,bl-
Dolgan:bulkuj-
Tuva:bla-,(dial.)bula-
Tofalar:bulha-
Kirghiz:bula-
Kazakh:bla-,bula-
Noghai:bla-,bula-
Bashkir:bola-
Balkar:bula-
Gagauz:bula-
Karaim:bula-,bola-
Karakalpak:bla-
Kumyk:bula-
202
Comments:EDT337,VEWT88,2,253-256,.X,112,
Stachowski65.TheTurk.rootistheprobablesourceofMong.bula-'to
confuse,uprise'(seeTMN2,322-323,1997,110).

Proto-Turkic:*bulut(*bult)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:cloud
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:bulut(MK)
Turkish:bulut
Tatar:bolt
MiddleTurkic:bulut(MA)
Uzbek:bulut
Uighur:bulut
Sary-Yughur:plt
Azerbaidzhan:bulut
Turkmen:bulut
Khakassian:pulut
Shor:pulut
Oyrat:bulut
Halaj:bult
Chuvash:plt'sky,cloud'
Yakut:blt
Dolgan:blt
Tuva:bulut
Tofalar:bulut
Kirghiz:bulut
Kazakh:bu_lt
Noghai:bult
Bashkir:bolot
203
Balkar:bulut
Gagauz:bulut
Karaim:bulut
Karakalpak:bult
Salar:bu(:)lt
Kumyk:bulut
Comments:VEWT88(theconnectionwithPT*bulga-'tomix'isnot
obviousatall);TMN2,323;EDT333,2,262-264,24,
Stachowski71.Turk.>MMong.()bulut,see1997,163.
DerivedareKypch.formslikeKaz.,KKalp.buldr'foggy,cloudy',Kirgh.
buldur'fuzzy,cloudy',Nogh.buldr'id.'

Proto-Turkic:*bu(-n)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:this
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bu,bun-(Orkh.),bu,mun-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bu,mun-(MK)
Turkish:bu
Tatar:bu
MiddleTurkic:bu,mun-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:bu
Uighur:bu
Sary-Yughur:bu
Azerbaidzhan:bu
Turkmen:bu
Khakassian:pu
Shor:pu
Oyrat:bu
Halaj:bo
204
Yakut:bu
Dolgan:bu(mun-)
Tuva:bo
Tofalar:bo
Kirghiz:bu(l)
Kazakh:bu-l
Noghai:bu
Bashkir:b-l
Balkar:bu
Gagauz:bu
Karaim:bu,mu
Karakalpak:bu-l
Salar:bu,vu
Kumyk:bu
Comments:VEWT85,EDT291-292,2,225-228,Stachowski63.

Proto-Turkic:*bun-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobecomemad,foolish2mad,crazy3tobecomeold,senile
Russianmeaning:1,2,
3
OldTurkic:mun-1,muqul2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:mun-1,munduz2(MK,KB)
Turkish:buna-1
Turkmen:mun-3
Khakassian:munu-3
Yakut:mun-'togoastray'
Dolgan:mun-'goastray,loseone'sway'
Tuva:muaq'resentful',mn-3(Tod.),mudial.2(<*mun-k?)
Gagauz:bun-'tobetired,dissatisfied',bunaq'senileperson'
205
Karaim:buna-1,3
Salar:munax'irrational'()
Comments:VEWT514,EDT348,768,769,3,53,Stachowski181.

Proto-Turkic:*bunar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mist
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:monar
Kirghiz:munar
Kazakh:munar
Noghai:munar
Bashkir:munar,monar
Karakalpak:munar
Comments:35-36.AKypchakroot,buthardlyborrowedfrom
Mong.(becauseofthe-u-vocalism);perhapsitisratheramodificationof
indigenous*buar(*--wouldbeexpectedinTurkic)underMong.
influence.

Proto-Turkic:*bungak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:femalemaral
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:mujaq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:mujaq(MK),muaq(KB)
Khakassian:mjax
Oyrat:mjaq
Tuva:mjaq
Tofalar:mjaq
Comments:VEWT344,EDT772,153.
206

Forward:12050
Proto-Turkic:*bu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:suffering
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bu(Orkh.),mu(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:mu(MK)
Turkish:bun
Tatar:mo
MiddleTurkic:mu(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:mu
Uighur:mu
Turkmen:mu-l'sorrowful'(dial.)
Oyrat:mu
Yakut:mu
Dolgan:mu
Tuva:mu
Kirghiz:mu
Noghai:mu
Bashkir:mo
Gagauz:bun
Karakalpak:mu
Kumyk:mu
Comments:VEWT344,EDT347,2,73,7,Stachowski182.

Proto-Turkic:*bur-/*bor-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todamage,destroy
Russianmeaning:,
207
OldTurkic:buz-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:buz-(MK,KB)
Turkish:boz-
Tatar:boz-
MiddleTurkic:buz-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:buz-
Uighur:buz-
Sary-Yughur:puz-
Azerbaidzhan:poz-
Turkmen:boz-
Khakassian:pus-
Shor:puza-
Oyrat:bus-
Halaj:puz-(<Ogh.?)
Chuvash:ps-
Tuva:bus-
Kirghiz:buz-
Kazakh:buz-
Noghai:buz-
Bashkir:bo-
Balkar:buz-
Gagauz:boz-
Karaim:buz-(T,H,K)
Karakalpak:buz-
Kumyk:buz-
Comments:EDT389,VEWT91,TMN2,337,1404,150,
7.-s-inChuv.maybeexplainedeitherasaloanfromKypch.orasa
reflexoftheoldcluster-rs-(.98).

Proto-Turkic:*bur(a)-
208
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totwist,windround
Russianmeaning:,,
Turkish:bur-
Tatar:bor-
MiddleTurkic:bur-(Sangl.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bur-,bura-
Uighur:bur-
Azerbaidzhan:bur-
Turkmen:bur-
Khakassian:pur-
Shor:pur-
Oyrat:buru-
Halaj:burq-''
Chuvash:pr-
Kirghiz:bur-,bura-
Kazakh:bur-,bura-
Noghai:bur-,bura-
Bashkir:bor-
Balkar:bur-
Gagauz:bur-
Karaim:bur-
Karakalpak:bur-,bura-
Kumyk:bur-
Comments:VEWT89,EDT355,2,264-267.Turk.*bur(g)agu>
Kalm.bur,seeKW62.

Proto-Turkic:*bura(?)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:soulofasacrificialanimal(horse)
209
Russianmeaning:()
Khakassian:pura'pictureofamalemaralonashamandrum'
Oyrat:pura(dial.)'sacrificialanimal'
Comments:TheOyr.wordisusuallyidentifiedwithbura'camel'<PT
*bugra;theabsenceofvowellength(*brawouldbenormallyexpected)is,
however,bafflingandcouldindicateadifferentoriginoftheOyr.andKhak.
words.Cf.perhapsalsoYak.burgunas'youngcow,cowwithoutcalves'.

Proto-Turkic:*bura-gu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:calf
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:buzau(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:buzau(MK,IM)
Turkish:buzau;dial.buza-'tobearacalf',Osm.buza-la-'id.'
Tatar:bzaw
MiddleTurkic:buzau,buza,buzaw(Sangl.,MA,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:buzq
Uighur:mozaj
Azerbaidzhan:bzov
Turkmen:buzaw
Khakassian:pzo
Shor:puza(R)
Oyrat:bza
Chuvash:pru
Tuva:bz
Kirghiz:muz
Kazakh:buzau
Noghai:buzaw
Bashkir:baw
210
Balkar:buzow
Gagauz:buz
Karaim:bzuv,buzuv
Karakalpak:buzaw
Salar:puzo,pz(457)
Kumyk:buzaw
Comments:EDT391,VEWT74-5,2,239-242,438-439.
Bulg.*buru>Hung.borju,seeMNyTESz1,345-346.Thederivationfrom
*bor'grey'andassumptionofborrowingTurk.*buragu>Mong.birau
(1997,108)ishardlyplausible.

Proto-Turkic:*burak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bean,pea
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:buraq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:buraq(MK)
Turkish:burak
Tatar:boraq
MiddleTurkic:buraq(Sangl.)
Uzbek:burq
Uighur:poaq
Sary-Yughur:praq
Turkmen:buraq
Shor:mraq
Oyrat:mraq
Chuvash:prza,prz e
Kirghiz:[braq<Mong.]
Kazakh:buraq
Noghai:buraq
211
Bashkir:borsaq
Balkar:buraq
Gagauz:boraq
Karaim:burax
Karakalpak:buraq
Kumyk:buraq
Comments:EDT357,VEWT89,2,275-277.Turk.>WMong.
burag,Kalm.burcg(KW62,seeTMN2,281,1997,110).Chuv.
>Maripursa;Bulg.>Hung.borso,seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*burgu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1trumpet2pipe(ofaplant)
Russianmeaning:12()
OldTurkic:buru1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:boruj(MK)1
Turkish:boru1
Tatar:br(Tob.)1
MiddleTurkic:buru1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:buru1
Sary-Yughur:pra1
Azerbaidzhan:boru1
Khakassian:pr1,2,mr1
Shor:pr1
Chuvash:prx1
Tuva:muru1,2
Tofalar:muru1,2
Bashkir:boro1
Balkar:br1
Gagauz:boru1
212
Karaim:bor1
Kumyk:br1
Comments:EDT361,TMN2,286,2,194-195.Turk.>Mong.:
Khalkhaburguj'wireforpipecleaning',Bur.burg'drill'.Turk.>Russ.Siber.
borga(134-135).

Proto-Turkic:*burk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wrinkled
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:burq
Karakhanid:burq,burq'wrinkle'
Comments:EDT360.

Proto-Turkic:*bur-uk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1dust2smoke3tocurl(ofsmoke)4tochoke(insmoke)5to
blow(ofasnow-storm)6toproducesmokepuffs7soot
Russianmeaning:123()4(
)5()67
Uzbek:buruq-sa-3
Uighur:burux-t-unbolmaq4
Turkmen:buruG-sa-3
Khakassian:pr1,prn7,pur-la-3,purun-na-5
Shor:prn7
Yakut:buruo(<*burug)2
Dolgan:buruo2
Kirghiz:buruq-su-3,buret-3,bura-t-6
213
Comments:VEWT89,Stachowski67.Thesteminteractswiththe
derivativesof*bur-'tostink,smell'and*bur-'totwist'-see2,268-
271.

Proto-Turkic:*burun(*burn)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1nose2frontpart3before
Russianmeaning:123,
OldTurkic:burun1,2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:burun1,3(MK,KB)
Turkish:burun1
Tatar:born1
MiddleTurkic:burun1,3(Sangl.)
Uzbek:burun1
Uighur:burun1
Sary-Yughur:p'urn3
Azerbaidzhan:burun1
Turkmen:burun1
Khakassian:purun1,3
Shor:purnu,(.)purun1,3
Oyrat:burun3
Halaj:burn1
Yakut:murun1
Dolgan:munnu1
Tuva:murnu2
Tofalar:murnu2
Kirghiz:murun1
Kazakh:murn1
Noghai:burn1
Bashkir:moron1,boron3
214
Balkar:burun1
Gagauz:burnu1
Karaim:burun1
Karakalpak:murn1
Salar:purn1
Kumyk:burun1
Comments:VEWT90,EDT366-367,2,269-273,214-215,
Stachowski182.Cf.*bur-'tosmell'(VEWT89).

Proto-Turkic:*burut
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:moustache
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:murt(dial.,Sib.)
MiddleTurkic:burut(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:murt,murut
Uighur:burut
Turkmen:murt
Kirghiz:murut
Kazakh:murt
Noghai:murt,murut
Karakalpak:murt,murut
Comments:EDT301(subbk),VEWT90,TMN2,290-291,224
(withetymologicaldiscussion).

Proto-Turkic:*bus-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tohide,layanambush
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:bus-(OUygh.-Suv.)
215
Karakhanid:bus-(MK,KB,IM)
Turkish:pus-
Tatar:pos-
MiddleTurkic:bus-(Pav.C.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:pis-;pus-(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:pus-'toeavesdrop'
Turkmen:bus-
Halaj:bus-xo'Hinterhalt,Lauer'
Bashkir:bu-
Comments:EDT371,2,278-279,TMN2,291-292.

Proto-Turkic:*bus
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:steam,fog
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:bus(MK)
Turkish:pus
MiddleTurkic:bus(Ettuhf.,CCum.)
Uighur:bus(dial.)
Shor:pus
Chuvash:ps
Tuva:bus
Tofalar:bus
Noghai:pus
Bashkir:bo
Kumyk:pus
Comments:VEWT90,EDT370,2,277,34.Turk.>Russ.
dial.bus'drizzle,flourdust',see146.

Proto-Turkic:*buta-
216
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:12bast,bass(forropes)
Russianmeaning:12,()
Karakhanid:butar(MK)1(Clauson's'papyrusreed'ishardlycorrect;one
shouldrathertranslateitas'warpofcottoncloth')
Chuvash:pdr2
Comments:EDT307.Cf.also(89)batatu'cottonyarn',inamedical
text.

Proto-Turkic:*b-gak,-mak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:(outer)corner,angle
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:buaq(MK)'regionoftheworld,corner'
Turkish:buak
Tatar:pomaq
MiddleTurkic:buaq(Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan:bua
Turkmen:baq'lowerendsofawinebag'
Chuvash:ps mex
Gagauz:buaq
Karaim:buaq,buqaq
Comments:VEWT85,2,282-283.DespiteEDT294andClark
1980,38,notderived<*b-'cut'(becauseofsemanticandphonetic-
vowellengthandvowelquality-differences).

Proto-Turkic:*bg
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:steam,fog
Russianmeaning:,
217
Karakhanid:bu(MK,IM)
Turkish:bu'aroma'(poet.),buu'steam'
Tatar:bu,bu-la-n-'tovaporize'
MiddleTurkic:bu(Sangl.,Pav.C.),mu(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:bu,bu-la-'tosteam'
Uighur:bu
Azerbaidzhan:buG
Turkmen:bG
Oyrat:buu
Chuvash:pv
Kirghiz:b
Kazakh:buw;buw-la-'tosteam',bu-la-'totreatwithsteam(medically)'
Noghai:buw;buwaldr'hoar-frost'
Bashkir:bw
Balkar:buwaq'hoar-frost'
Gagauz:b
Karaim:buv
Karakalpak:puw
Kumyk:buaq'hoar-frost'
Comments:EDT292,VEWT86,2,229-230,37.The
behaviouroffinal-gafteralongvowelisprobablyregular(althoughthis
combinationisratherrare).Turk.>MMong.bu()'steam'(
1997,163).

Proto-Turkic:*bka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bull
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:buqa(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:buqa(MK,KB)
218
Turkish:boa
Tatar:bua(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:bua(Sangl.)
Uzbek:buqa
Uighur:bua,buqa
Sary-Yughur:puqa
Azerbaidzhan:buGa
Turkmen:buGa
Khakassian:pua
Shor:pua
Oyrat:buqa
Yakut:buga
Tuva:bua
Tofalar:buxa
Kirghiz:buqa
Kazakh:buqa
Noghai:bua
Bashkir:bua
Balkar:bua
Gagauz:bua,bua
Karaim:bua
Karakalpak:bua
Kumyk:bua
Comments:VEWT87,EDT312,2,230-232,Sinor1962,320-321,
437.Turk.>Mong.buqa(seeTMN2,299,1997,110),
whenceEvk.bukaetc.(seeTMNibid.,Poppe1966,194,DoerferMT99).
Turk.>Hung.bika,seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*bl

-
Altaicetymology:
219
Meaning:tobebad-tempered,irritable
Russianmeaning:,,
,
OldTurkic:bu-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bu-(MK,KB)
Tatar:po-
MiddleTurkic:bu-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uighur:pu-
Turkmen:b-la-'tobethefirsttocommunicategoodnews'
Khakassian:puzux-'tobesad',puzu-r-a-'tobeinflamed'
Chuvash:p-r-an-'tobeanxious,sad'
Tuva:buuran-'tobeanxious,angry'
Kirghiz:b-
Bashkir:bo-
Balkar:buuw'sadness'
Gagauz:b-
Karaim:buuran-'toargue,bedisgusted'
Kumyk:bu-
Comments:VEWT90,EDT377,2,284-285,.96,
152,1,410.ThedevoicinginanumberofKypch.
languagesmaybecausedbytheinfluenceofaPersianloanpuman,
puajman'remorse,regret'(1,97).

Proto-Turkic:*bn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:defect
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:mun(KB),muna-'bedefective';mun,mun-lu(IM)
Oyrat:dial.m-da-'becomeinsufficient'
Yakut:mn-'beinsufficient'
220
Kirghiz:munu'cripple'
Comments:3,55,VEWT344,7.EDT347doesnotseeback
vowelformsinoldtextsandrelatesalltheformsto*bn'defect'q.v.sub
*mune.

Proto-Turkic:*b(n)r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ice
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:buz(MK,KB,IM)
Turkish:buz
Tatar:boz
MiddleTurkic:buz,muz(Abush.,MA,Sangl.)
Uzbek:muz
Uighur:muz
Sary-Yughur:pz
Azerbaidzhan:buz
Turkmen:bz
Khakassian:pus
Shor:mus
Halaj:buzk
Chuvash:pr
Yakut:ms,bs
Dolgan:bs
Kirghiz:muz
Kazakh:muz
Noghai:buz
Bashkir:bo
Balkar:buz
Gagauz:buz
221
Karaim:buz
Karakalpak:muz
Salar:muz
Kumyk:buz
Comments:VEWT91,EDT389,2,238-239,17-18,TMN
2,336,Stachowski67.

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Proto-Turkic:*bt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thigh2leg,foot
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:but(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:but(MK)1
Turkish:but1
Tatar:bot1
222
MiddleTurkic:but(Abush.,Sangl.)1
Uzbek:but'groin'
Uighur:put2
Sary-Yughur:put2
Azerbaidzhan:bud1
Turkmen:bt1
Khakassian:put1
Oyrat:but2
Halaj:bt1
Yakut:bt1
Dolgan:bt1
Tuva:but2
Tofalar:but2
Kirghiz:but2
Kazakh:but1
Noghai:but1
Bashkir:bot1
Balkar:but2
Gagauz:but1
Karaim:but1
Karakalpak:put1
Kumyk:but2
Comments:VEWT90,EDT297,2,280-281,282,
Stachowski67.

Proto-Turkic:*bta-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tocutbranches2branch3nail
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:butq2(OUygh.)
223
Karakhanid:butq,butaq2(MK)
Turkish:buda-1,budak2
Tatar:bota-1,botaq2
MiddleTurkic:buda-1(Pav.C.),(MKypch.)buda-1(AH)
Uzbek:buta-1,butq2
Uighur:puta-1,putaq
Azerbaidzhan:buda-1,budaG2
Turkmen:pda-1,pdaq2
Khakassian:pdra-1
Oyrat:buda-1,budaq2
Halaj:(buta'bush'-abackloanfromPers.?)
Chuvash:pda3
Yakut:bt-1,butuk2(.);mut-1,mutuk2
Dolgan:mutuk2
Tuva:bu'duq2
Kirghiz:buta-1,butaq2
Kazakh:buta-1,butanaq2(buta'bush'<Iran.)
Noghai:bta-1,butaq2
Bashkir:bota-1,botaq2
Balkar:buta-1,butaq2
Gagauz:buda-1,budaq2
Karaim:buta-1,butaq2
Karakalpak:puta-1,putaq2
Salar:pu/tax2()
Kumyk:buta-1,butaq2
Comments:EDT301,302,VEWT90,TMN2,330,103,
Stachowski183.Turk.>WMong.butaq'branch'(see1997,111)
(butMong.butacanbehardlyexplainedasaloan).

Proto-Turkic:*bdi-
224
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todance2tojib3dance
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:bdi-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:bi-(MK)1
Tatar:bej-1
Oyrat:pije-le-1()
Yakut:bitij-1,2,bit''
Kirghiz:bij3,bij-le-1
Kazakh:bij3,bij-le-1,bji-1(dial.)
Noghai:biji-
Bashkir:beje-1
Karakalpak:bij3
Kumyk:bij3,biji-1
Comments:EDT300,VEWT91,2,131-132(thewordhasbeen
contaminatedwithanotherroot,reflectedinMong.bi-(KW54)[despite
1997,111,hardlyborrowedfromTurk.]-seePA*p

o.

Proto-Turkic:*bgde(--)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dagger
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:b/gde(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:b/gde(MK,KB)
Comments:EDT325,TMN2,294-295,566.Turk.>Pers.bogda
'bigknife'.

Proto-Turkic:*bk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobow,bend2tocurve,bend,wrapsmth.
225
Russianmeaning:1,2,,

Karakhanid:bk-1(MK)
Turkish:bk-2
Tatar:bg-2
MiddleTurkic:bk-1(Sangl.Pav.C.)
Uzbek:buk-2
Uighur:pk-2
Azerbaidzhan:bk-2
Turkmen:bk-2
Khakassian:pk-2
Shor:pk-2
Oyrat:bk-(-gV)2
Chuvash:pk-2
Yakut:bk'abend,flexion';bgl-2
Tuva:bk-'towrap'
Kirghiz:bk-(-gV-)2
Kazakh:bk/g-2
Noghai:bk-(-gV-)2
Bashkir:bg-2
Balkar:bk-(-gV-)2
Gagauz:bk-2
Karaim:bg-l-1(K)
Karakalpak:bk-(-gV-)2
Salar:px-2(454)
Kumyk:bk-(-gV-)2
Comments:EDT324,VEWT91-92,2,290-293.

Proto-Turkic:*bk
Altaicetymology:
226
Meaning:1wood,forest2hill3meadow4valleybetweenmountains
Russianmeaning:1234
Karakhanid:bk'bushes,underwood',bktir'rockymountaintop'(MK)
Turkish:bk'thicketatthewaterside'
Tatar:bk(dial.)3,pktr'snow-drift'()
MiddleTurkic:bk1(Pav.C.)
Uighur:bk'thick(wood,garden)'
Khakassian:pk3
Shor:pk3
Oyrat:bk4
Tuva:b'k4
Kirghiz:bk2,bktr'foot-hills'
Kazakh:bkter'steephill'
Comments:VEWT91,EDT324,325,2,291,94.

Proto-Turkic:*bk-tel-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mature
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:bktel(MK)
Comments:EDT325.

Proto-Turkic:*bl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobedestroyed,ruined2todestroy
Russianmeaning:1,2
Tatar:bl-1
MiddleTurkic:OKypch.bl-'toremove,fire'(AH)
Kirghiz:bln-'tobealarmed'
Kazakh:blin-1,bldir-2
227
Bashkir:bl-1
Karaim:bl-1
Comments:VEWT92,EDT332.

Proto-Turkic:*bn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:defect,sin
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:mn(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:mn(MK)
Tatar:min()
Kirghiz:mn,min
Kazakh:min
Noghai:min
Karakalpak:min
Kumyk:min-siz'flawless'
Comments:VEWT347,EDT347,767(confusedwithotherroots),
3,55-56,7.

Proto-Turkic:*bl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:angle
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:m(Rabg.)
Tatar:mje
MiddleTurkic:m(Sangl.)
Uzbek:muju,muj
Yakut:mu,munuk
Dolgan:mu,munnuk
Kazakh:mjis
228
Noghai:mjis
Bashkir:mge(dial.)
Balkar:mj
Karaim:mj,mv
Karakalpak:mje
Kumyk:muju,mj
Comments:VEWT344,EDT771,7,Stachowski182(onadifferent
etymologyofYak.munuqseeClark1977,133).

Proto-Turkic:*br
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bud2leaf3grain
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:br1(OUygh.)
Turkish:brk1,brtk3(dial.)
Tatar:br1
Khakassian:pr2
Chuvash:pre'grain,particle'
Yakut:burduk'flour'
Dolgan:burduk'flour'
Tuva:br2
Tofalar:br2
Kirghiz:br1
Noghai:brtik3
Bashkir:br1
Balkar:brtk3
Karaim:brtk3
Karakalpak:brtik3
Kumyk:brtk3
229
Comments:VEWT92,EDT354,114-115,Stachowski67.Turk.>
WMong.br,Kalm.br(KW67).

Proto-Turkic:*br-/*br-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towrinkle
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:br-(MK,KB),bz-(IM)
Turkish:br-(dial.),bz-
Tatar:br-
MiddleTurkic:br-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:buri-
Uighur:p(r)-
Azerbaidzhan:bz-,br-
Turkmen:br-,bz-
Khakassian:pr-
Chuvash:pr-
Kirghiz:br-
Kazakh:br-
Noghai:br-
Bashkir:br-
Karaim:br-
Karakalpak:br-
Kumyk:br-
Comments:VEWT92,EDT355,2,294-296(contaminateswith
*br-'tocover').157,1,421.

Proto-Turkic:*bre/*brge
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:flea
230
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:brge(MK,IM)
Turkish:pire
Tatar:br
MiddleTurkic:brge(MA,Pav.C.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:burga
Uighur:brg
Azerbaidzhan:pir
Turkmen:bre
Chuvash:prza
Kirghiz:brg
Kazakh:brge,bre(dial.),bura(dial.)
Noghai:bre
Bashkir:brs
Balkar:bre
Gagauz:pire
Karaim:bre
Karakalpak:brge
Kumyk:bre
Comments:EDT362,VEWT92,2,298-299,182-183.The
Kypch.form*breisadiminutive.

Proto-Turkic:*brkt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1aquilafulva2eagle
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:b

rkit1,2
MiddleTurkic:brkt(..,Abush.,Pav.C.)2
Uzbek:burgut1,2
Uighur:brkt1,2
231
Turkmen:brgt1,2
Oyrat:brkt,mrkt1
Chuvash:prgt1
Tuva:brgt1
Kirghiz:brkt1
Kazakh:brkit1
Bashkir:b

rk

t2
Karakalpak:brkit1
Comments:2,300,169,TMN2,331-333.Turk.>Mong.
brgd'eagle',Russ..Assuggestedintheoriginalstemmay
havebeen*br-(preservedinKaz.,KKalp.br-'tograspprey(ofan
eagle)').

Proto-Turkic:*br-,*br-ke-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocoverup
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:brn-'tobecovered'(MK,KB),brkek'cloudy',brkr-'to
becomecloudy'(MK)
Turkish:br-(alsoofclouds),brge,brg'kerchief,thincurtain'
Tatar:brk-
MiddleTurkic:brke-(MA,Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:burka-
Uighur:p(r)k-
Azerbaidzhan:br-
Turkmen:bre-
Khakassian:prge-
Shor:prge-
Oyrat:brke-
Chuvash:prke-
232
Yakut:brj-;brkj-'tobecomecloudy'
Dolgan:brj-;brkk'cloudy'
Tuva:brge-(alsoofclouds)
Tofalar:brh-
Kirghiz:brk-
Kazakh:brke-
Noghai:brke-
Bashkir:brk-n-'tobecovered',brk'stifling'
Gagauz:br-
Karakalpak:brke-
Kumyk:brke-(alsoofclouds)
Comments:EDT363,367,133,VEWT92,2,296-298,
Stachowski68.Theformin-ke-isanintensiveandcanhardlyberegarded
asamongolism.

Proto-Turkic:*br-lgen
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofberry
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:brlegen
Uighur:bl(r)gn
Chuvash:perlexen
Kirghiz:bldrkn
Kazakh:bldirgen
Noghai:b/ldirgen
Bashkir:brgn
Comments:VEWT93,139-140(formslikeKaz.bldirgenmay
reflectthesamestem:*brl-degen).Cf.alsoMong.forms:brelgene
'',b

rlgn''whichmaybeofTurkicorigin.

233
Proto-Turkic:*bt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toend,accomplish2tobeended3tocreate,build4toheal5
togrow,ripen
Russianmeaning:1,23,
45,
OldTurkic:bt-2,4,5(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bt-2,4,5(MK)
Turkish:bit-2,5
Tatar:bet-2,bet--4
MiddleTurkic:bt-2,4,5(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:bit-2,4,5
Uighur:bt-2
Sary-Yughur:pt-,put-1,2
Azerbaidzhan:bit-2
Turkmen:bit-2,4,5
Khakassian:pt-3,4
Shor:pd-r-3
Oyrat:bt-1,4,5
Halaj:bit-2
Chuvash:pt-2
Yakut:bt-1,2,4
Dolgan:bt-1,2
Tuva:b't-2,4
Tofalar:b't-2
Kirghiz:bt-1,2,4,5
Kazakh:bit-2,4
Noghai:bit-2,4,5
Bashkir:bt-2,bt--4
Balkar:bit-2,5;'toclose'
234
Gagauz:bit-2
Karaim:bit-2,5
Karakalpak:pit-2,4,5
Kumyk:bit-2,5
Comments:VEWT93,TMN2,267,EDT298-9,306,2,152-154,
302-303,Stachowski68.Cf.alsoPT*btn'all,whole'-aderivativefrom
*bt-.Turk.>Mong.*bte-,*bt-(KW69-70,TMN2,268-269,
1997,111).

Proto-Turkic:*bt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobelieve2sign,token
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:bt-1(MK,KB)
MiddleTurkic:bt-1(Pav.C.)
Uighur:pt-1(dial.)
Shor:pt-1
Oyrat:bt-1
Yakut:bit2
Comments:VEWT93,EDT298-299(togetherwithbt-'finish'),2,
279-280.

Proto-Turkic:*bt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tojoin,intertwine,adhere2towind,weave
Russianmeaning:1,,2
,
Karakhanid:bt-(MK)1
Turkish:biti-1
Tatar:bter-','
235
Uzbek:biti-1
Azerbaidzhan:biti-1
Turkmen:biti-1
Chuvash:pdr-2
Kazakh:bitis-''
Bashkir:btrgs''
Comments:EDT309-310.1,427

Proto-Turkic:*bt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toheal(ofawound)
Russianmeaning:()
OldTurkic:bt-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:bt-(MK)
Tatar:bet--
MiddleTurkic:bt-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:bit-
Turkmen:bit-;bitik'scar,cicatrice'
Khakassian:pt-
Oyrat:bt-
Yakut:bt-
Tuva:b't-
Kirghiz:bt-
Kazakh:bit-
Noghai:bit-
Bashkir:bt--
Karakalpak:pit-
Comments:EDT299(sub*bt-'finish'),2,154-155.Cf.alsoChuv.
pta''.

236
Proto-Turkic:*bn-(/*bn-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:torideon,tomount,torize
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:bin-(Orkh.),mn-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:mn-(MK,KB)
Turkish:bin-
Tatar:men-
MiddleTurkic:min-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:min-
Uighur:min-
Sary-Yughur:min-
Azerbaidzhan:min-
Turkmen:mn-;mn-(dial.)
Khakassian:mn-
Shor:mn-
Oyrat:min-
Chuvash:minder'pillow'
Yakut:mn-
Dolgan:mn-
Tuva:mun-
Tofalar:mun-
Kirghiz:min-
Kazakh:min-
Noghai:min-
Bashkir:men-
Balkar:min-
Gagauz:pin-
Karaim:min-
Karakalpak:min-
237
Salar:min-,mim-,mi-()
Kumyk:min-
Comments:VEWT338,TMN4,34,EDT348,7,Stachowski180.
ShortnessinTurkm.isnotclear.Onthederivative*bin-ig->*binge-l-'to
ridebehindsomeoneelseonthesamehorse'seeEDT771,Stachowski
178.Chuv.mindermaybe<Kypch.,cf.Turk.,Gag.,Turkm.,Nogh.minder,
Kum.minnir,Tat.,Bashk.mendr-see1,359.

Proto-Turkic:*bri
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:headofanarrow
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:bri'endofshaftinsertedintoarrowhead'(MK)
Yakut:br-ges(dimin.)'awl,arrowwithawl-likehead'
Dolgan:brges'einKampfpfeilmitpfriemfrmigerSpitze'
Comments:EDT356,VEWT71,Stachowski69.

Proto-Turkic:*A

b-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:whip-lash
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:av,a(MK)
Turkish:avun'leatherwhip'
Turkmen:v-la-'tolashwitharod,whip'
Chuvash:v'soundofthewhiporrod',va-la-'tolash'
Tuva:?av-la-'tolash(ofbranches)'
Comments:EDT395.Seealsounder*p.

Proto-Turkic:*Abul

()
Altaicetymology:
238
Meaning:militarycommander
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:abu(Orkh.,Yen.),avu(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:avu(MK)
Turkish:avu
MiddleTurkic:awu(Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan:ovu'leaderofapilgrimage'
Karaim:avu(K)'seniorworker'
Kumyk:awu'herald'
Comments:VEWT101,EDT399,TMN3,35-38.Criticismofthe
hypothesisoftheword'sIranianoriginseeinTMN.

Proto-Turkic:*Ad(b)an
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:scorpion
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:aan(MK,KB)
Turkish:ajan,jan''
Tatar:ajan,(R,.-Kas.)ejban'millipede'
MiddleTurkic:ajan,jan(Abush.,Sangl.),iban(R-Calc.Wb.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ajn
Uighur:ajan
Turkmen:ajn
Kirghiz:ajan
Kazakh:ajan
Noghai:ajan
Bashkir:sajan
Karakalpak:ajan
Comments:VEWT94,EDT403,64,184-185.Turk.>Kalm.caj
`crayfish'(?),see1997,111.
239

Proto-Turkic:*Ajr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:resin,tar
Russianmeaning:,
Tatar:jr
Kirghiz:ajr
Kazakh:ajr
Noghai:ajr
Bashkir:sajr
Balkar:ajr
Karakalpak:ajr
Kumyk:ajr
Comments:VEWT95.

Proto-Turkic:*Aj-na-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tochew2tobite
Russianmeaning:12
Turkish:ine-,ejne-1(R)
Tatar:jn-1,2
MiddleTurkic:ajna-1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ajna-1
Uighur:ajna-1
Azerbaidzhan:ejn-1
Turkmen:ejne-1
Khakassian:tajna-1
Shor:tajna-1
Oyrat:ajna-1
Tuva:dajna-1
240
Tofalar:tajna-1
Kirghiz:ajna-1
Kazakh:ajna-1
Noghai:ajna-1
Bashkir:sjn-1
Balkar:ajna-1
Gagauz:ne-1
Karaim:cajna-,ajna-,ejne-1
Karakalpak:ajna-2
Salar:ene-,in-1()
Kumyk:ajna-1
Comments:VEWT95,.168.Formswitht-insomeSiberian
languagesareratherenigmatic.

Proto-Turkic:*ak-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobind,fetters,harness
Russianmeaning:,,
Turkish:akl-'tobebound,fastened'(ofyokeanimals),aan'camel
fetters'
MiddleTurkic:aan'camelfetters'
Oyrat:aq'stickforbindinghorses'
Gagauz:aqldaq'ropeharness'
Comments:VEWT94,96(butOyr.akisregardedasborrowed<Mong.
aqu,onwhichsee*`ak`V).

Proto-Turkic:*A

ka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:new-bornchild
Russianmeaning:,
241
Turkish:aa(dial.);aa'youngofbirds'(OldOsm.XIVc.)
Tatar:aa
MiddleTurkic:aqa(Pav.C.),(Xwar.)aqa'youngofbirds'(2,
511)
Uzbek:aqalq,(Tashk.)aqa
Uighur:bala-aqa'children'(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:aa
Turkmen:Ga
Kirghiz:bala-aqa'children'
Kazakh:qzlaqa'quitenaked(ofyoungofanimals)'
Noghai:bala-aa'children'
Karakalpak:qzlaqa'quitenaked(ofyoungofanimals)'
Comments:VEWT96,1979,170.

Proto-Turkic:*akr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lightgrey,greyishblue
Russianmeaning:-,-
Karakhanid:aqr(MK,Tefs.)(ofeyes)
Turkish:akr
Tatar:ar(ofeyes)
MiddleTurkic:aqr(Sangl.)
Uzbek:air-qant'awhite-eyeddunbird,'
Uighur:eqir(ofeyes)
Turkmen:aqr'driedinthesun,bleached'
Halaj:aqr'yellow'
Kirghiz:ekir'grey(ofeyes),wall-eye'
Kazakh:ar'grey(ofeyes,horses)',egir'grey(ofeyes)'
Noghai:ar'colourless(ofeyes)'
Bashkir:ar'whitish'
242
Balkar:ar'variegated'
Gagauz:aqr
Karakalpak:egir(ofeyes)
Comments:VEWT96,TMN2,77,EDT409,2387.Despite
Fedotovokur'variegated'isnotrelated,itis<Mong.obkur(v.sub
*op`e).DespiteRsnenborrowedfromMong.canbeonlyYak.akr
'white(ofahorse)'(cf.alsoDolg.akr,seeStachowski72),andperhaps
thefront-rowforms(Kirgh.ekir,Kaz.egir,KKalp.egir-becauseoftheir
restrictiontotheKypch.area);butMong..akir/ekir'whitish'isitselfan
obviousTurkism(seeTMNibid.,Clark1977,134withdoubts).Theroot
shouldbedistinguishedfromnasalizedforms:Oyr.aqr,Chuv.senker,
Yak.egir,egir,Kirgh.enkil,alwiththesamesetofmeanings
('whitish,blue',oftenofeyes)=Mong.(Khalkha)cenxerid.;thoseshould
becomparedwithTokh.A,Btsem 'blue(ofeyes)',Pers.zangr'verdigris',
whenceTat.zgr(fromPers.zang'rust',furtherderivedwith*z'to
leave,remain',Sak.ysy'rust',Osset.zg,seeBailey348-349).Thisis
mostprobablyanIranianloanwordinTurkic,Tokh.andMong.(althougha
Chineseorigin-cf.MCchie'blue'-isalsopossible).Cf.VEWT104
(Turk.<Mong.),531.

Proto-Turkic:*al-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toknock(down),hit,agitate2towhet3toslaughter4tomow5
scythe6tosting,pierce7tosweep8tochop9ak.ofbroom10to
sharpen,whet11whetstone12mowing,haytime13totrip14blade
Russianmeaning:1,,,23
,456,7
8,9,-1011
121314,
OldTurkic:al-1(OUygh.)
243
Karakhanid:al-1(MK,KB)
Turkish:al-1,alg9,algora5
Tatar:al-1,3,al5
Uzbek:al-1,aliu rq5
Uighur:al-1,ala5
Sary-Yughur:al()-8
Azerbaidzhan:al-1,6,7,al9
Turkmen:al-10,7,6,alG5,11
Khakassian:sal-1
Shor:al5
Oyrat:al5
Halaj:al-1,6
Chuvash:sol-4,solk9
Yakut:sln-'tofallabruptly'
Tuva:al-10
Kirghiz:al-1,3,al5,aln12
Kazakh:al-13,al5,aln12
Noghai:al-1,3,4,al5
Bashkir:sal-3
Balkar:al-4,alq5
Gagauz:alm14
Karaim:cal-1,4,calq,cal5
Karakalpak:al-1,3,13,al5,aln12
Kumyk:al-1,4,al5
Comments:VEWT97,EDT417-418,206,2,132,133.
ThedifferenceinlengthbetweenTurkm.andYak.allowstosupposea
mergerofatleasttworoots,perhapsoriginallydistinguishedsemantically
andphoneticallyas*l-'toknockdown'(reflectedinYak.,notreflectedin
Turkm.)-*al-'tosharpen,whet'(reflectedinTurkm.,notreflectedinYak.).
244
Since"VerbadesSchlagens"aregenerallyvaguesemantically,inmost
languagesitisdifficulttodrawalinebetweenthem.

Proto-Turkic:*A

l
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:grey,grey-headed
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:al(MK,KB)
Turkish:al
Tatar:al'greyhair'
MiddleTurkic:al'havinggreyhairamidblackhair'(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:l'oldman'
Azerbaidzhan:al
Turkmen:l
Khakassian:al
Oyrat:al
Yakut:slr'light-bay(horse);pepper-and-salt(hair)'
Kirghiz:al
Kazakh:al'oldman'
Noghai:al
Bashkir:sal
Balkar:al
Karaim:al
Karakalpak:al
Kumyk:al
Comments:EDT417,VEWT96,TMN2,31,640.Turk.>WMong.
al,Kalm.cal,Khalkhacalbral'grey-haired,roan';Russ..

Proto-Turkic:*Al-
Altaicetymology:
245
Meaning:1noisy,talkativeman2blasphemy
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:o/ulvu(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:ala1(MK)
Comments:EDT418,420.

Proto-Turkic:*Am
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1abackbitingman2toexactafine3claim4reproach5tobe
offended6tobeangry
Russianmeaning:123,
(.)456
OldTurkic:am3(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:amuq1(MK)
MiddleTurkic:am-la-'tospeakwithdisgust'(R,Pav.C.)
Sary-Yughur:`imig'badly'
Oyrat:am(dial.,R)4,am-da-l-(dial.,R)5
Halaj:ammal-tur-'tolooknervous,angry'
Kirghiz:am-da-n-4
Kazakh:am'thatwhichcausesoffence',am-da-n-4
Noghai:am-la-n-6
Balkar:am'joke,mockery',am-la-n-6
Karakalpak:am-la-n-5,am-l'resentful,sensitive'
Comments:EDT421-422,423,VEWT98,D-T97.Atleastpartoftheforms
mayultimatelyhaveaChinesesource(MC

m'slander').Cf.alsoaman
'lazyhorse,dog';Tur.amurajat-'todeclinefrompayingadebt'(slang;lit.
'toliedownindirt'-perhapsareanalysisbasedontheanalogywithamur
'dirt',cf.alsoamur(metaph.)'low,humble').

Proto-Turkic:*Am
246
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1pinetree2fir-needle
Russianmeaning:12
Turkish:am1,amjapra2
MiddleTurkic:amaa1(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:am1
Khakassian:sabal2
Shor:abal2
Gagauz:am1
Karaim:am,cam1
Comments:VEWT97.Dmitrieva(1979,205)derivesthe
Oghuzwordfor'fir-tree'fromArab.am'candle',whichisdubious
phoneticallyandunlikelybecauseoftheKhak.andShorforms(pointingto
*amal);moreprobablyanoriginalTurkicroot,althoughlocalized.

Proto-Turkic:*A
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1morningdawn2mist
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:a()()1
Turkish:en2(dial.)(?)
Uighur:a2(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:n,dial.a2
Khakassian:samarax''
Chuvash:san-/savn-talk'weather,climate'(284-85;the
secondpart=Tat.twlek'day,24hours')
Bashkir:adaq'glowinthesky(fromcelestialphenomenaorfromfire)',
dial.sart''
Comments:139,35,36.Asomewhatdubiousroot.The
wordsmeaning'mist'maygobacktoaseparateroot,PT*e'dust'.Other
247
forms(includingthelateOTone)canbe<Mong.,butsemanticsisrather
againstassumingsuchaloan.

Proto-Turkic:*al
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:guelderrose,viburnum
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:sas,ss
Shor:a,aa
Oyrat:a
Kazakh:egel
Comments:VEWT99,401.

Proto-Turkic:*ap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobeat,hit2toattack,rob3chisel4hack,hoe,hatchet5to
chop6toscythe,mow7todig8tobreak9sharp10scythe11towhet,
sharpen(ascythe)12metalshavingsafterforging13trap14whetstonefor
sharpeningscythes15towhip16tohack,adze17shavings18booty19
currycomb
Russianmeaning:1,2,34
,,567()8
91011()12
1314151617
18,19
Karakhanid:ap-1(MK)
Turkish:ap-2,apla3,apa4,apak12
Tatar:ap/b-5,6,1,apq4
MiddleTurkic:ap-5,2(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:p-5,7,pqi4
248
Uighur:ap-5,6,apqu4
Sary-Yughur:a'p-1,5,8
Azerbaidzhan:ap-5,2
Turkmen:ap-5,2,apG4,apGr9
Khakassian:sap-1,5,6,saxp,sapx10
Shor:ap-1,6,apq13
Oyrat:ap-5,6,apq10,13
Halaj:ap-2
Chuvash:sup-1,11,sopkas14
Yakut:sab-1
Tuva:ap-1,2,ap-ta-15
Tofalar:ap-t17,apt-la-16
Kirghiz:ap/b-5,7,1,apq4,10
Kazakh:ap/b-5,6,2,apq4
Noghai:ap/b-5,apq4
Bashkir:sap/b-6,5,1,sapq4
Balkar:ab-2
Gagauz:apanaq18
Karaim:cap-1;ap-1,5,apa19
Karakalpak:ap/b-5,6,2
Salar:ap-,a'-1()
Kumyk:ap-5,ap4
Comments:VEWT99,EDT394,203,219,2,85,137-8,
.XII,247-249.

Proto-Turkic:*ap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toplaster2eyepus3topuncture(atumour,furuncle)
Russianmeaning:1,,23
(,)
249
Karakhanid:ap-1(MK)
Turkish:apak2
Uzbek:api-1
Uighur:ap-li-1,apaq2
Chuvash:sop-''
Tuva:ap-'topourwaterandstamp(ground)'(?)
Kirghiz:ap-ta-1,abaq-ta-3
Kazakh:abaq-ta-3
Gagauz:apaq2
Karakalpak:abaq-a-la-3
Kumyk:(aq)ap-'toblanch,pipeclay'
Comments:VEWT99,EDT394,.XII,248.Turk.>Hung.csipa'eye
pus'(<*apa),seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*Ap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ak.ofcloak2lap,skirt3usedclothing4beddingunderthe
saddle5woman'sgown6gown7gusset(inclothes)
Russianmeaning:12,3,
4,567
()
Karakhanid:aput'apaddedgarment'(MK)
Turkish:aput3,aprak4
Tatar:apan1,apraq4,abu2
MiddleTurkic:apan1(R;Pav.C.jamalapan'mendedcloak'),abuq2
(Pav.C.),(OKypch.)aput3(AH)
Uzbek:pn1
Uighur:apan1
Turkmen:abt5,apan6,ap'ornamentaltrimmingforclothes'lap'
Khakassian:sab7
250
Shor:abr6
Oyrat:abu7
Halaj:abu'trimmedsectiononawoman'stunic'
Tuva:av7
Tofalar:ab7
Kirghiz:ab7;apan6,apan-apqt'upperclothes',opqut'quiltedcoat
underarmour;expensivecostume'
Kazakh:abu2,apan6
Noghai:abuw'gusset-likefrontpartofgown'slaps'
Bashkir:sapan6,sabw2
Gagauz:apraq4
Karakalpak:abuw7,apan6,obt'usedthings',opqt'rags'
Kumyk:abw7,2
Comments:VEWT99,EDT396,TMN3,47,643.Several
derivationsareclearlydistinguishable:a)*ap-gut'upperclothes,garment'
(withlaterdevelopment>'usedclothes');b)*ap-rak'beddingunderthe
saddle';c)*ap-an'cloak,gown';d)*ap-gu'lap,gusset'-allclearlyrelated
toeachother.

Proto-Turkic:*ap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bigvessel,barrel,pail2basin
Russianmeaning:1,,,2,

OldTurkic:opun1(OUygh.,late-Suv.)
Turkish:opul2
Tatar:apaq1
MiddleTurkic:sapaq(AH)(OKypch.)
Khakassian:saban,sapax1
Shor:apaq1
251
Oyrat:apaq1
Chuvash:spse1
Yakut:sabaraj1
Tuva:opulaq'spoon'
Kirghiz:apaq1
Noghai:apaq1
Bashkir:sapsaq1
Balkar:apaq1
Karaim:capcaq,apaq1
Karakalpak:apaq'woodenvesselforshakingupmilk'
Kumyk:apaq1
Comments:VEWT99,153,223,2,148-149.Forms
with-u-inthesecondsyllabledemonstratevowelassimilation(opu-<
*apu-).Externalparallelsstronglysuggestthatthewordisnotderived
from*ap-'hit',butisanoriginalnoun.

Proto-Turkic:*ap-,*opur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1pock-marked,variegated2badlybred,sloppy3toappear(of
rash,furuncles)
Russianmeaning:1,2,3
(,)
Turkish:opur1
MiddleTurkic:ubar'chevalgrisdefer',ibar'grey,mottled(horse)'(Pav.
C.)
Uzbek:ipr1
Uighur:ipa(r)1
Azerbaidzhan:opur1
Turkmen:opur1
Tofalar:ubar1
252
Kirghiz:obur2
Kazakh:ubar1
Noghai:ubar1
Bashkir:sbrt-'toappear(ofrashonlips)',sbar1
Balkar:apr-3,ubar1
Gagauz:bar-3
Karaim:bar,cbar1
Karakalpak:ubar1
Kumyk:apr-3,opur1,ubar'variegated'
Comments:VEWT116,118-119,320,2,403.An
expressiveandlateattestedroot;appears,however,tobereconstructable
forPT.Theoriginalshapeisprobably*ap-(preservedinap-r-'toappear
(ofrash)',withfurtherlabialassimilationinto*opur.Thefrequentlyattested
variantupar>ubarismostprobablyaresultofcontamination*opurand
*ubar(reflectedinTat.uwar,Kirgh.rthatcanonlyreflect*-b-).

Proto-Turkic:*ar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1planetree2gooseberry3asptree4ak.ofpoplar
Russianmeaning:1234
Karakhanid:arun(MK)1
Uighur:araj2(?)
Tuva:arlan3
Kirghiz:arterek4
Comments:VEWT110,EDT430,1972,186.

Proto-Turkic:*ar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1snowdust2fog
Russianmeaning:12
253
Karakhanid:(MKypch.)as2
Turkish:(dial.)ars2
Tatar:as2(dial.)
Oyrat:dial.(Leb.)ara1
Bashkir:sar'animaltraceonsnow'
Balkar:ars2
Kumyk:ars2
Comments:29,35.Thederivative*ar-sissomewhatpeculiar
morphologicallyandcouldbealoanword-fromthe(unattested)Mong.
*ar-su(n)(?).{Oyr.armwasremovedfromthisetymology,butprobably
unjustly:theKomisourcecare m'snowcrust',aswellascarsid.aremuch
betterexplainedasborrowedfromTurkicthanviceversa.Theformis
tracedbacktoUr.*sarVinUEW464,buttheconsonantismisquite
irregular;otherparallelsproposedbyHelimskyareSaam.ar
a
va-with
irregularvocalism-andSelk.

rp,closelyresemblingTofalararp.A
complicatedcase,butexplanationoftheexistingscatteredUralicforms
fromTurkicisatleastnotpreferabletoviceversa.}

Proto-Turkic:*ar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1whetstone2sickle3towhet
Russianmeaning:123
Tatar:ar1,'millstone',ar-la-3
MiddleTurkic:ar-la-3(Pav.C.)
Shor:ar1
Oyrat:ar1
Chuvash:sorla2
Yakut:sardaa,sardna'shortheavyarrowwithabroadhead'(.)
Kazakh:ar1
Noghai:ar1
254
Bashkir:sar1
Karakalpak:ar1
Salar:r-'tocut,stickin'(:Udzh.)
Kumyk:ar1,'spool'
Comments:VEWT99-100,221,2,143(borrowing<FU
*sorva'horn'ishardlycredible).Bulg.>Hung.sarlo'sickle',seeGombocz
1912,MNyTESz3,494-495.Therootiscertainlygenuine,althoughsome
influenceoftheIranianark,arx'wheel'couldhaveexisted.

Proto-Turkic:*j
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1smallriver2sand,pebbles3flood,freshet4shallow
Russianmeaning:12,3,4

Turkish:aj1
MiddleTurkic:aj1,eke2
Azerbaidzhan:aj1
Turkmen:j1,ge2
Shor:ajq3
Oyrat:aj-r-am4
Yakut:aj2(?)
Bashkir:saj'ariverweed'(?)
Balkar:aj(inthehydronymqaraaj)
Comments:Thewordispoorlyattested(almostonlyinsomemodern
OghuzlanguagesandChag.,seeVEWT95,94;theYakut
parallelisphoneticallyunclear-borrowedfromTuvaorAltai?).Turk.*j-
ka(Turkm.ge,Chag.eke)>Kalm.cek

(KW426).Theforms(despite
semanticdifference)mayhaveanIranianorigin:Pers.(Pekhl.)h'well,
spring'<*a>Av.ta,Kurd.l,Bel.t,Osset.ad'lake',Wakhiot
'pond'(Horn97,.1,285,329,1990,191,130);a
255
certainPersianloanisKhal.'Brunnen,Grube'.Osset.'aj'well'is
regardedbyAbaevasaborrowingfromPers.throughGeorgian( a'well').
Therelationshiptotheverbalstemj-'toswill'(3,59-60)(<'wash
waterofffromthesurface'?)isyettobedetermined.

Proto-Turkic:*rba-(*rma-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1squirrel2sable,marten
Russianmeaning:12,
Khakassian:sarbax1
Shor:arbaq1
Oyrat:rbq1
Yakut:srba2
Comments:VEWT100,403.AregionalSiberianroot.

Proto-Turkic:*ebir-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1totwist,turn2round
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:evr-1(MK)
Turkish:evir-1
MiddleTurkic:ewr-1(Sangl.)
Uighur:bir-1
Azerbaidzhan:evir-1
Turkmen:vr-1
Chuvash:savar-/sar-1,savra2
Yakut:sebirij-'touncoil(ofatwistedrope)'
Noghai:jir-'totwiddleawhirligig'
Balkar:jr-'totuck',jre'contrariwise'
Gagauz:evir-1,evr2
256
Karaim:ivir-,evir-1,civre2
Kumyk:jr-'towrap'
Comments:VEWT102,EDT398,201-201,2,80.
DespiteVEWT,therearenoreasonstoregardtheChuv.wordasa
borrowing.

Proto-Turkic:*eek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1flower2chicken-pox
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:eek(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:eek(KB)1
Turkish:iek1,2
Tatar:k1,2
MiddleTurkic:eek(Sangl.)1
Uzbek:eak1,2
Uighur:ek1,2
Sary-Yughur:

`u

ug
Azerbaidzhan:ik1,2
Turkmen:eek1
Oyrat:eek1
Chuvash:seske','
Kirghiz:eek2;aqeek'ak.oftree',eekej'crystallinelens'
Kazakh:eek1,2
Noghai:eek1,eekej2
Bashkir:ssk2,ssk1
Balkar:eek2
Gagauz:iek1,2
Karaim:iek,eek1,2
Karakalpak:eek2
257
Salar:iex()1,'bud'
Kumyk:eek1,2
Comments:VEWT102,EDT400-401,120.Turk.>Mong.eeg,
seeTMN3,57,1997,112.Kypch.>Chuv.ee,eek(see
322,2,408-409);someTurkicforms(Tuvaeek,
perhapsalsoOyr.eekandsomeoftheKypchakforms)maybeborrowed
back<Mong.

Proto-Turkic:*E

k-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1wovencottonfabric2cottonshirt3woollencloth4ak.ofupper
clothes(jacket,trousers,cloak)
Russianmeaning:123
4(,,)
OldTurkic:ekrek2(OUygh.-XIVc.)
Karakhanid:ekrek2(MK)
Turkish:ekmen,pkn4
Tatar:ikmn4
MiddleTurkic:ekmen4,1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:akmn4
Uighur:kmn4
Turkmen:kmen'gown'
Oyrat:ekpen,epken3,4
Tuva:ekpen3,4
Tofalar:ekpen3
Kirghiz:ekmen,epken3,4
Bashkir:skmn4
Balkar:epken3,4
Karaim:cekmen,ekmn3
Comments:VEWT103,EDT416,413.
258

Proto-Turkic:*Ek-(-i-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:silkbeadembroidery
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:ikin'embroideredbrocade'(MK)
Tatar:igen'goldenembroidery'(R-Kas.);ig-'toembroider'
MiddleTurkic:ikin'floraldesignsembroideredinsilk'(Sangl.)
Bashkir:sige-'toembroider'
Balkar:ijtigi''
Comments:EDT415-416,143.DespiteClauson,cannotbe<Chin.

Proto-Turkic:*e ke
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1temple2cheekbone
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:(MKypch.)eke1(At-Tuhf.)
Tatar:ig1
MiddleTurkic:eke'backofhead'(Vam.)
Uzbek:akka1,2
Uighur:ek1
Turkmen:ekge1,2
Chuvash:ig1
Kirghiz:eke1
Kazakh:eke1
Noghai:eke1
Bashkir:sik1
Karaim:ege1
Karakalpak:eke1
Kumyk:eke1
259
Comments:VEWT103,TMN3,87f,326,203.Despitethe
lackofancientattestation,therootisevidentlyarchaic.

Proto-Turkic:*Eke-t
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1coniferousforest2pistacionut3(fruit)stone,seed4hazel-nut
5wildjujube6youngconiferousgrowth7bush,shrub8firbranch
Russianmeaning:1()23,
4567
8
Karakhanid:eki-r-tk2(MK)
Turkish:eki-r-dek3
Tatar:iki4(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:eke-r-dek,ekid5(Pav.C.,R-Babur)
Shor:et7(R)
Oyrat:etaa6
Tuva:et6
Kirghiz:ege-dek,ege-l-dek8
Noghai:ege-r7
Balkar:eget'forest,wood'(Karach.),'North'(Balk.)
Gagauz:ekerdek3
Karaim:egirdek,ekirdek3,eger'blackthorn'
Comments:VEWT102,EDT867-868.Morphologically-t-isacollective
suffix,-dak/-dk-adenominativesuffix.ThewordisattestedinMK,butin
anaberrant(dialectal)shapewith-,andthemeaning'nut'isprobably
secondary,theoriginalmeaningoftherootbeing'coniferoustree,branch'.
Severalotherplantnamesmayberelated,cf.:Chag.ek'berriesfoundin
theFerganamountains';Uzb.akanda'',Uygh.
knd'abushwithredfruits'(R3,1947Taranchi,mod.akanda'ak.of
thornybush'),Az.kil'mulberry';Kirgh.South.ekende';
260
;'(itspseudoberriesareedible;
despiteYudakhin,not<Iranian-thewordisnotattestedinPersian).Turk.
>Pers.kldk'blackberry'().

Proto-Turkic:*ekin
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:differentweedkinds
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:ikin/ekin'aplantgrowingamongthevinesandeatenby
cattle'(MK)
Tatar:kn'corncob'(<Chuv.?)
MiddleTurkic:ekin'greens,grass;aweedonricefields,withblackseeds
andsharpawns'(Pav.C.,Sangl.),ekil-dam'tulipbulb;arootsimilarto
wildgarlic'(Pav.C.,fordamcf.Uzb.dam'pungency,bitterness'<Pers.)
Uzbek:akalak'bushthicket'(orperhapstoPT*eke-t?)
Khakassian:sgen'drygrass'
Chuvash:akan'reedmace'
Kirghiz:eken''
Bashkir:skn'corncob'(<Chuv.?)
Karakalpak:igin'weedgrowingonricefields,',igildik
'reed'
Comments:VEWT111,EDT415,.277,316.Chuv.
akan,despite1997,52-53andRo na-Tas,isnotconnected
with*jeken'reed'(v.sub*dek`a).Cf.othergrassnames:Chuv.iken
kurk'geranium'(accordingto.,grasshelpingfromcolics-
1997,56);sikkakurk'camomile'(accordingto.ithosts
aplantlouse,tosummonwhichthechildrensay"sikka!"-1988,
51);Uygh.ig'plantfibre,wildhemp(VEWT),Yak.sige'
,'.Tuvasigen'hay'(Tuva),(Tof.'grass')hasanirregulars-,
soperhapsshouldberegardedasborrowedfromKhak.
261

Proto-Turkic:*ekn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:partofshoulderbetweentheneckandshoulderblade
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ikin(OUygh.)
Turkish:ekin,dial.ein,en
MiddleTurkic:ikin(Abush.,Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan:ijin
Turkmen:igin
Halaj:n
Chuvash:san'body'
Comments:EDT415,VEWT103,129-130,238-239(see
thereaboutdetailsofphoneticreconstruction).

Proto-Turkic:*Ekk/*Ek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hammer
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:ekk(MK:Oghuz),ek(IM)
Turkish:eki
Tatar:ke
MiddleTurkic:ek,k(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:o ki'hack'
Azerbaidzhan:k
Turkmen:eki
Noghai:ki
Bashkir:ske
Balkar:g
Gagauz:eki
262
Karaim:cokuc,cekic,k
Kumyk:k
Comments:VEWT103,EDT415.(<Iran.,seeTMN3,85-86?).Despite
EDT,hardlyderivedfromek-'topull'.Thecontroversyconcerningthe
IranianoriginoftheTurkicwordvs.theTurkicoriginoftheModernPersian
one(seeDoerfer,Clauson),shouldbeprobablyresolvedasfollows:Old
Persian(=Av.caku-'axe/hammerforthrowing')>Pers.aku'hammer';
butPers.eko,ekoarephoneticallyaberrant(seeHorn99)andshould
beregardedasTurkisms;Pers.ekuisamixedform.ThesourceofPers.
ekoisTurk.ek-adiminutivein-fortheformekk.Turkicformsin-
(Khal.kku,Kirgh.k,KKalp.kki,possiblyalsoNogh.ki,
Bashk.ske)maybeiranisms.Turk.>Mong.ek(see1997,
112).

Proto-Turkic:*ek-rtke
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:locust,grasshopper
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:ekrge(MKOghuz;Tefs.)
Turkish:ekirge
Tatar:ikertk
MiddleTurkic:egrtke,ewrtke(Sangl.)
Uzbek:igirtka
Uighur:ektk
Azerbaidzhan:ekirtge
Turkmen:ekirtge
Khakassian:sartx
Yakut:saxsra'fly'
Dolgan:haksrga'fly'
Tuva:ergi
263
Kirghiz:egirtke
Kazakh:egirtke
Noghai:egertki
Bashkir:siertk
Karaim:egirtke
Karakalpak:egirtke
Comments:VEWT103,EDT416-417,187,Stachowski94.Forms
likeTat.dial.sikertkearearesultofcontaminationwith*sk-'jump'(v.sub
*s

ki).

Proto-Turkic:*El
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1film,membrane2albugo3mucusdischargedbytheeye4
unhuskedrice5thinbread,cake6huskingrain
Russianmeaning:1,,23
456
Karakhanid:elpek3(MK)
Turkish:el-tik4;elpik3(Red.only)
Tatar:cilen'cow'safterbirth'(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:elpek5(Sangl.)
Uzbek:alpak5
Uighur:lpk5
Azerbaidzhan:l-tik4
Turkmen:elpek5,el-tik6
Oyrat:el1,2
Halaj:l-tik4
Kirghiz:el1,2,elpek5
Kazakh:el2,'fatunderskin',elpek5
Noghai:el-te-'tohuskgrain'
Karakalpak:elpek5
264
Comments:VEWT103,EDT418-419,392.Ogh.el-tik>Pers.
altuk,altk(despiteVEWT104).Turk.elpek>Pers.alpak(TMN3,
1111).Themeaning'eyepus,mucus'in*el-pekdevelopedunderthe
influenceofthesimilar*apak(seeunder*ap-'plaster'),butthetworoots
shouldbeclearlydistinguished(despiteEDT418).

Proto-Turkic:*Emirik
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:cartilage,gristle
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:mj'knucklebone'
Oyrat:amaj'cheekbone'
Kirghiz:emirek''
Kazakh:emirek
Noghai:emirek
Karakalpak:emirek
Comments:VEWT251.WidelyspreadformslikeChag.kmirkare
probablyduetocontaminationwith*kEmk'bone'(v.sub*k`iome).

Proto-Turkic:*ee
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:jaw
Russianmeaning:
MiddleTurkic:aa,ee(Pav.C.,AH)
Azerbaidzhan:n
Turkmen:ene(dial.)
Halaj:n
Yakut:seie
Gagauz:en
Karaim:cege
265
Kumyk:ene
Comments:220.Despite.1,483-484,D-T98thePers.nah
'lowerjaw'cannotbethesourceofTurkicforms;itdoesnothaveany
IranianetymologyandisitselfmostlikelyaTurkism.
Proto-Turkic:*epil

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ahalf-yearor1-year-oldkid
Russianmeaning:()
Karakhanid:epi(MK)
Turkish:epi,epi
Uighur:ivi
Azerbaidzhan:pi
Turkmen:ebi
Halaj:api(<Az.?)
Kirghiz:ebi
Balkar:emi
Kumyk:ebi
Comments:VEWT105,EDT399,1961,120.Cf.alsoChag.iber
'mountaingoat'(R).Thereflex-b-inTurkm.andUygh.maybean
indicationoforiginalvowellength(?)Shcherbak'shypothesisoftheword
beingborrowed<Iranianisdubious;Pers.api,apuitselfmaywellbe
borrowed<Turkic.Inanycase,thePersianformcannotbearegularIE
matchforLat.caper.Cf.WH1,157,subcaper:"Np.api...lautlich
unmglich";indeed,CommonIranian-p-(<IE-p-)>Mod.Pers.andNW-
Iran.-b-,inexceptionalcases-v-(114-115);aparallel
forcapermayperhapsbefoundinSak.cau ,Osset.cv'goat'(see.1,
307,Bailey105).Oneshouldmentiontheproblematic"Wanderformen"
Rum.cap,Alb.tsap,Ital.dial.cappo,Crim.-Goth.stap,Slav.*ca

p'he-
goat';cf.alsoOyr.p'oneyear-oldroebuck'(<Mong.?).See
266
1960,89-90,Orel47withliterature;noteespeciallyHubschmid's(1954,49)
hypothesisoftheTurkicoriginofthisWanderwort.

Proto-Turkic:*eprek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1rag,patch2worn,usedclothing
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:opra(perhaps=pre)2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:pr-epr;opra(br)2(MK)
Tatar:prk1
MiddleTurkic:(OKypch.)prek1(Houts.)
Turkmen:prek'oakum'
Khakassian:sbrek1
Shor:brek1
Oyrat:eberek,ibirek1
Kirghiz:prek,prek-apraq1
Noghai:iberek,berek1
Bashkir:seprk1
Karaim:iprek,ciprek,prk1
Karakalpak:berek1
Kumyk:prek1
Comments:EDT398,VEWT118(confusedwith*p'dirt'),677.
Perhaps(assuggestedinEDT398)connectedwithKarakh.(MK)pr
'goat'shair',Chag.,Turkm.prid.

Proto-Turkic:*e r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bodilyheaviness,constipation(euphem.)2rotten,foul3torot4
illness5dirt6tobesick,ill7rot8glue9anguish,sorrow
267
Russianmeaning:1(.)2,34
56,7,89,

Karakhanid:er1(MK),er-le-n-'tobeconstipated;tosuppurate(ofeyes)'
(MK)
Turkish:er4,irk5,iri'flourpaste'
Tatar:ir4,irl-4,ere-3,erek7
MiddleTurkic:ir'tumeur,clou',ire-'sede gou

ter'
Uzbek:iri-3,irik2,irk'snuff;hardenedwheelointment'
Uighur:iri-3,irik2
Azerbaidzhan:r'horse'sheartattack',rl-6,irk5
Turkmen:irk'(dirty)spot;insult',errik'illness(ofcattle)'
Oyrat:iri-3,irik2
Chuvash:ir,dial.e r4,sr-3,6,srk2
Kirghiz:er9,'hardtumour',erle-'tobeanguished',iri-3,irik2,iren8
Kazakh:er4,9,iri-3,irik2
Noghai:er4,iri-3,irik2
Bashkir:sir4,sere-3,serek2
Balkar:iri-3,irik2
Gagauz:iri8
Karaim:ciri-,iri-3,cirik,irik2,r8
Karakalpak:er9,ir-3,irik2,iri'slime'
Kumyk:er4,9,iri-3,irik2,irkew'maggotsinrottenfood'
Comments:VEWT105,EDT427,430,TMN1077,211-212,326,
2,111-112,420.AsDoerfernotes,Turkicformsofthetypeirkin
'dirty,nasty,ugly'(Chag.,Tur.,Gag.,Tat.,Uzb.)areratherborrowedfrom
Persianirkin(whichitselfisderivedfromirk,borrowed<Turkic).

Proto-Turkic:*ert-
Altaicetymology:
268
Meaning:1tocut(offedges),makenotches2toclick3topinch4topinch
(amusicalinstrument)
Russianmeaning:1(),23
4
Karakhanid:ert-1(MK)
Tatar:irt-2,3,rdk-l-'tohew'
Uzbek:ert-2,4
Azerbaidzhan:rt-1,2
Turkmen:irt-1,3
Khakassian:sirte-2
Shor:irte-2
Oyrat:ert-1,2
Halaj:irt-2
Chuvash:sart'adentforinsertingbottomintobandedvessels'
Kirghiz:ert-2,4
Kazakh:ert-2,4
Noghai:ert-2,3,4
Bashkir:sirt-2,3
Balkar:ert-'tomark'
Karakalpak:ert-2,4
Kumyk:ert-1,2,4
Comments:VEWT105,EDT428,2,87-88.Thesemantic
developmenthereis'tomakenotches,indents'>'breaktheedge','pinch'
(whence'toclickwithfingers')-notonomatopoetic,assuggestedby
Clauson.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)ak-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tostrikefire2flint,firesteel
Russianmeaning:12,
269
OldTurkic:aq-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:aq-(MK)1
Turkish:ak-1
Tatar:aq-1
MiddleTurkic:aq-(Sangl.)1
Uzbek:aq-1
Uighur:aqmaq-ta2
Sary-Yughur:a'q-1
Azerbaidzhan:ax-1
Turkmen:aq-1
Khakassian:sax-1
Shor:an'spark'
Oyrat:aq-1
Halaj:aqmaq2
Yakut:sax-1
Tuva:aq-1
Tofalar:a'q-1
Kirghiz:aq-1
Noghai:aqpa2
Bashkir:sa-/saq-1
Balkar:a-/aq-'toproducesparks,shootfromaflintgun'
Gagauz:aq-1
Karaim:aq-1
Karakalpak:aq-1
Kumyk:aq-'topullthetrigger',aqma2
Comments:VEWT95,TMN3,80-81,373.Kypch.>Chuv.akma
'firesteel',whence>Mari,Udm.(2,387).Theverbisusually
regardedasoneofthemeaningsof*ak-'hit,strike',butthesemantics
'strikefire'isattestedquiteearlyandallowstousetheTurkicmaterialinthe
Altaiccomparison.
270

Proto-Turkic:*(i)al-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1turban2noose,lasso3toplait,wrap4tobindbythrowingthe
rope5tobecomeentangled6toentangle7band,strap8tobindaround,
wraparound9toplait
Russianmeaning:12,3,4
,567,
8,9
Turkish:alma1
Tatar:al-4,alma1
MiddleTurkic:alma1,'flaskfastenedtothesaddle'(Pav.C.,Sangl.),
'apron'(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:al-(mq)4,alma1;band,facing
Uighur:al-ma--5
Azerbaidzhan:alma1
Turkmen:alma1,al-3,alq'entangled(ofarope)'
Khakassian:salba(Sag.)''
Oyrat:alma2,dial.(Leb.)al-6
Tuva:alba2
Tofalar:alqaq'criss-crossing'
Kirghiz:al-4,al7,alma2
Kazakh:al-8
Noghai:alma1,aluw7
Bashkir:sal-8,salma1
Balkar:alma1,al-9,alman'wattle'
Gagauz:al-8,alma1
Karaim:cal-8,calma1,calman'wattle'
Karakalpak:al-8
Kumyk:al-9,alma1
271
Comments:EDT420,VEWT97,395.Turk.>Mong.alma,salma
'lasso',seeTMN4,316-317,1997,163(althoughthemeaning
'lasso'isnotwidelyspreadinTurkic,Doerfersuggeststhatitmayhave
beentheoriginal,pre-Islamic,meaningofthederivative*al-ma).Note
Chuv.la-'toentangle'-usuallyderivedasaloanword<Tat.ula-<
PT*og-la-,butinthiscaseonewouldratherexpectula--sotheChuv.
formmayactuallyreflectPT*ial-.Therootisattestedlate,butdoesnot
seemtobeborrowed,oraspecializeddevelopmentof*al-'hit,chop'(as
suggestedinTMN).

Proto-Turkic:*(i)al-(gan)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bush,shrub2nettle3thorn
Russianmeaning:123
Turkish:al1
MiddleTurkic:alaan2(R-Vam.)
Uzbek:alw''
Azerbaidzhan:al1
Turkmen:al''
Shor:aln,(R)alanaq2
Oyrat:alqanaq2
Halaj:alu'einePflanzezumVerbrennen'
Kirghiz:alqan2
Gagauz:al'blackthorn;thorn'
Comments:VEWT97,110.Clauson(EDT420)relateshereOT
()alqan'spreadofaninjury'whichisnotquiteprobable(rathera
derivativefromthepolysemical-).

Proto-Turkic:*(i)b
Altaicetymology:
272
Meaning:fame,goodreputation,news
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:av(MK,KB)
Turkish:av
MiddleTurkic:aw(Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan:ov
Turkmen:v(arch.)
Khakassian:sab-la'renowned'
Shor:ap-t'renowned'
Oyrat:ap
Halaj:ov(maybe<Az.)
Tofalar:a
Comments:VEWT93,EDT393.Final-pinSiberianlanguagesisnotquite
clear.

Proto-Turkic:*ik
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1time,measure2precisely,exactly
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:aq1,2(lateOUygh.)
Karakhanid:aq2(MK)
Turkish:a1
Tatar:aq1,2
MiddleTurkic:(OKypch.)aq'when(conj.)'
Uzbek:q1,qum'certainly'
Uighur:aq2
Azerbaidzhan:a1
Turkmen:G1
Khakassian:sax2
Oyrat:aq1
273
Chuvash:ox1
Yakut:sax1,saa'about(thetimewhen,thesizeof)'
Dolgan:haga'about(thetimewhen,thesizeof)';sagna'while'
Tuva:aq1,2
Kirghiz:aq1,2
Kazakh:aq1,2
Noghai:aq1,aq-l'thismuch'
Bashkir:saq1,2
Balkar:aq1,aq-l'thismuch'
Gagauz:q,aq'upto'
Karaim:a(K),caq(H)1
Karakalpak:aq1,2
Kumyk:aq1,2
Comments:VEWT95,327,67,EDT404,139,
2,425,Stachowski92-93,208.FormslikeChag.a,Uygh.a
orTof.a'time'areborrowed<Mong.,butthiscannotbeassumedfor
mostotherformsquotedabove.

Proto-Turkic:*ib
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1nail,peg2corner3penis4fir
Russianmeaning:1,,23penis4

OldTurkic:/iv2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:(i1MK-amiswritinginstead*iv?)
Turkish:ivi1
Tatar:j'wedge,cotter'
Uzbek:uv1
Uighur:3(R,byanimals),iv'spacebetweenlegsabovetheknees',
iviln'backsaddlegirth'(fixedwithawoodenpeg)
274
Azerbaidzhan:iv1
Turkmen:j1
Oyrat:ii'wedge'
Noghai:j1
Bashkir:sj1
Balkar:j1
Gagauz:ivi1
Karaim:j,w,(K)ivij1
Karakalpak:j1
Kumyk:j1
Comments:VEWT110,121,EDT393-394,396,125,398.
Becauseofwellknownsemanticcorrelationsofthetype'penis':'thorn':'fir
(needle)'itistemptingtocomparealsothenameofthefir-tree:Tat.dial.
()ivi,cv,Khak.sb,Shorbe,Oyr.ibi(Tubab),Tuvaivi,Tof.
ibi.However,theintermediateformmeaning'thorn'isnotattested,andthe
medialconsonanthereisrather*-p-(unlesswesupposeinterdialectal
loans),soitmaybeunrelated.

Proto-Turkic:*iig(/*g)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1breast(fem.)2femalesheep3sheeptail4roastedsheeptail5
roastedfat
Russianmeaning:1()234
5
Tatar:q(R,.-Kas.),q(R-Tob.)5
MiddleTurkic:ii2,3(R-Vam.),,q4(R-Zenker)
Chuvash:1
Comments:VEWT110.Anonomatopaeicroot,attestedlate-butpossibly
archaicbecauseoftheexternalevidence.Theassumedsemantic
275
developmentinChag.andTat.is'udder'>'roastedudder'>'fatroasted
pieceofmeat'.

Proto-Turkic:*igit/*gt(-k-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:cottonseed(s)
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:igit(MK-Argu)
Turkish:t,iit'seed;freckle'
MiddleTurkic:igit(Sangl.,Pav.C);t'spotsonapregnantwoman's
face'(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:igit
Uighur:igit
Azerbaidzhan:ijid
Turkmen:igit'seed'
Kirghiz:igit
Kazakh:ijit
Karakalpak:igit
Comments:EDT414,TMN2,88,116.

Proto-Turkic:*ije-
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ak.ofberry
Azerbaidzhan:ijelek'strawberry'
Turkmen:ije'cherry'
Kirghiz:ije'cherry'
Kazakh:ije

Proto-Turkic:*ir-
Altaicetymology:
276
Meaning:todraw
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:/iz-(OUygh.)
Turkish:iz-
Tatar:sz-
MiddleTurkic:iz-,sz-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:iz-(mq)
Uighur:siz-(maq)
Azerbaidzhan:iz-
Turkmen:z-
Khakassian:sz-r-'toscrape,plane'
Halaj:i/z-
Chuvash:r-'todraw,scrape,tear'
Kirghiz:z-,sz-
Kazakh:sz-
Noghai:sz-
Bashkir:h-
Balkar:sz-
Gagauz:iz-
Karaim:cz-,z-
Karakalpak:sz-
Kumyk:sz-
Comments:VEWT112,EDT432,323,2,413-414.The
variant*sr-isprobablyduetoassimilation.

Proto-Turkic:*g-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1totieup(aparcel)2tosew(withsmallstitches)3parcel,pack
4knot5totieinaknot
277
Russianmeaning:1(,)2(
),3()45
Karakhanid:-1
Turkish:k,kn3
MiddleTurkic:ik4(Pav.C.),(OKypch)q-1(AH)
Uighur:ig-5,igik4
Sary-Yughur:ig-,ik-5
Turkmen:ig-5,igin4
Khakassian:s-la-2
Oyrat:i-de-2
Halaj:(tnu)qn'smallparcelsinwomen'sworkingroom'
Kirghiz:ije4
Gagauz:q3
Karakalpak:ije'tightlybound'
Comments:EDT405,VEWT94.Formsapparentlypointingto*k-most
probablyreflectacontractionofthesuffixedform*g-k-.

Proto-Turkic:*g(--)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1reed2reedmat3thingswovenfromreed
Russianmeaning:1,23,
()
OldTurkic:(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:(MK)'reedscreen'
Turkish:,i'reedpartition'
MiddleTurkic:2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:ij1,3
Uighur:i1
Sary-Yughur:i1
Oyrat:ij1
278
Kirghiz:ij1,3
Kazakh:ij1,3
Noghai:ijboj''(?)
Balkar:ij2
Karakalpak:ij2
Comments:VEWT107,110;EDT404,412.Turk.>MMong.(HY20)ix,
WMong.ig,Khalkhaig,Ord.ig'bambooscreen'.TheNogh.formmay
beacompound;forthesecondpartcf.*bnan.

Proto-Turkic:*ganak
Meaning:
Russianmeaning:juniper
Tuva:naq
Tofalar:anaq(.89.)
Balkar:ana(q)'thorn'
Comments:VEWT107.

Proto-Turkic:*gr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tostamp,ram(ground)2stampedsnow3boundary,limit4
smallpath
Russianmeaning:1,()23
4
Karakhanid:ru-1,r4(MK)
Turkish:r4,'coomb,traceofanavalanche'
Tatar:r3
MiddleTurkic:r'thawedspot'(Sangl.),'snowstampedbystrongwind'
(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ijir'trace'
Uighur:iirjol4
279
Turkmen:Gr3
Halaj:r'badroad'
Tuva:r2
Tofalar:r'spotonsnoworgroundwithmanytracks'
Kirghiz:jr,ijir4
Kazakh:jr'stamped'
Balkar:jr-t-'tostampsnow,grass'
Comments:VEWT95,107,EDT409,410.Cf.perhapsalsoPT*ig-'to
drawaline'(VEWT110).Turk.>Mong.Khalkhaijr'stampedroad',Kalm.
r'eatenandstampedgrass'(KW443).

Proto-Turkic:*j,*j-k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1wet,soaking,moist2dew3moisture4raw
Russianmeaning:123,4
Karakhanid:i/3(MK),-la-'tomoisten'(MK),q-'toabsorbmoisture'
(MK),-la-n-'tobehalf-cooked'(MK),ig4(IM)
Turkish:i,ij1,2
Tatar:q2
Uzbek:iq2(dial.),1(Xrazm)
Azerbaidzhan:ij'raw'
Turkmen:g1,G2
Khakassian:sx1,3
Shor:q3,qt1
Oyrat:ij4,q3
Yakut:sk2,3
Dolgan:hk2
Tuva:q3,'meadow',qt1
Tofalar:q1
Kirghiz:ij-ki4,q2,3
280
Kazakh:q2
Noghai:ij4,q2
Bashkir:sej4,sq2
Balkar:ij4,q2
Gagauz:ij1,2
Karaim:j,cij4,x2,'hoar-frost'
Karakalpak:q2
Salar:x-u2()
Kumyk:ij4,q2
Comments:EDT393,406,408,413,418,VEWT107,39,
Stachowski106.Theactualreflexesarebestexplainedifwepostulatean
opposition*j'wet,raw'-*j-k'dew,moisture'(withfurthercontractions).
Someforms,however,couldbesecondarilyborrowedfromMong.(seeKa.
MEJ34).

Proto-Turkic:*k-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:togoout,comeout
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:q-(MK,KB)
Turkish:k-
Tatar:q-
MiddleTurkic:q-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:iq-
Uighur:iq-
Azerbaidzhan:x-
Turkmen:q-
Khakassian:sx-
Shor:q-
Oyrat:q-
281
Yakut:sarj-'tomove,bedisplaced'(?)
Kirghiz:q-
Kazakh:-/q-
Noghai:-/q-
Bashkir:sq-
Balkar:-/q-
Gagauz:q-
Karaim:q-
Karakalpak:-/q-
Kumyk:-/q-
Comments:EDT405-406,VEWT107-108.

Proto-Turkic:*ka-n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:smallfinger
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:canaqparmaq(Sib.)
Chuvash:aGan'cock'sspurs,knotsonhorse'sfrontlegs'
Yakut:kja(withirregularphonology)
Bashkir:sanaq,sansaq(dial.)
Balkar:qanaj
Comments:323,257.

Proto-Turkic:*kanak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lock,pivot
Russianmeaning:,
Tatar:canak(Sib.)
Oyrat:anak,dial.naq(.)
Bashkir:sanaq,dial.sansaq
282
Comments:171.ItisalsonecessarytonoteKaz.ege,Kirgh.ege
'nail',possiblygoingbacktothesameroot.

Proto-Turkic:*kan(ak)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:elbow,forearm
Russianmeaning:,
Tatar:canaq(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:aanaq(Sangl.,CCum.,AH)
Uzbek:eknk(dial.)
Uighur:jnk
Sary-Yughur:ikenek
Khakassian:anax
Shor:anaq
Oyrat:aanaq
Chuvash:ike'cubit'
Tuva:enek
Tofalar:e'henk
Kirghiz:qanaq
Kazakh:anaq'bay'
Noghai:anaq
Bashkir:sanaq(dial.)
Balkar:na
Karaim:canaq
Karakalpak:anaq
Comments:VEWT96,EDT404,325,249.

Proto-Turkic:*m-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1topinch2apinch,thimbleful
283
Russianmeaning:1,2,
Turkish:imdik,imik2
Tatar:eme-t-,eme-n-1,emek2
MiddleTurkic:imdi-1,imdik2(Pav.C.),(CCum.)md-1
Uzbek:im-,imi-,imi-la-,imdi-,imi-t-1,imdi-m2
Uighur:imdi-,imqi-1,mdim2
Sary-Yughur:

ume-'topickout,pullout'
Azerbaidzhan:imdik-le-1,imdik2
Turkmen:mmk2
Khakassian:m-la-1,mx2
Shor:imi-1,imik2
Oyrat:m-1,m-m2
Chuvash:bt-1,ptm,pkm2(?)
Tuva:m-1,mm2
Tofalar:m-1,mm2
Kirghiz:m-,m-la-1,mm2
Kazakh:m-,m-la-1
Noghai:mt-1,mqm2
Bashkir:semte-1,semte-m2
Balkar:imdi-1
Gagauz:imdik2
Karaim:imde-1,imdik2,cmda-,mda-'tobite'
Karakalpak:m-,m-la-1,m,mm2
Comments:VEWT108,TMN3,99,323,2,413.Chuv.
bt-isphoneticallystrange;itmayreflectasecondarydenasalization
(.50),butmayactuallybeatraceofadifferentroot,cf.PA
*`ip`uor*`abo.

Proto-Turkic:*m
Altaicetymology:
284
Meaning:1turf2meadow3variouskindsofgrass(withseeds)
Russianmeaning:12,3
Karakhanid:/im1,imgen1,2
Turkish:imen2,im1;emen';'
Uzbek:aman2,im1
Uighur:im1,imn2
Azerbaidzhan:mn2,im1
Turkmen:emen2,'bundle,bouquet'
Khakassian:m-olaj'(anediblebulbousplant')
Oyrat:emene''
Halaj:mn,imn2(<Pers.?)
Chuvash:emem/n','(-
VII,49)
Kirghiz:m1;emirek''
(cf.alsomldq'',mldrq,mndq(dial.)'')
Kazakh:m1
Noghai:m1
Gagauz:im1,imen1,2
Comments:Theprimaryrootis*m'turf',whence*im-gen'meadow',
borrowedinPers.aman(seeEDT423;notviceversa,despiteTMN2,99-
100);butmanyofthemodernformsmeaning'meadow'or'bouquet'are
alreadybackloansfromPersian.

Proto-Turkic:*m-/*um-(*om-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1top,upperpart2staff(withaknob)3lump,pompon,knob
Russianmeaning:12()3,
,
Karakhanid:omaq2
Uighur:omak1
285
Azerbaidzhan:omaG2
Turkmen:mmek1
Chuvash:mak3
Comments:VEWT115,TMN2,94-95,EDT422.TheChuv.reflexpointsto
*--.

Proto-Turkic:*m-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:smallfinger
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:amuq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:amuq(MK)
Uzbek:imalq
Uighur:imalik
Khakassian:smalx,malx
Shor:malq
Oyrat:mal(dial.)
Tuva:uma
Kirghiz:malaq
Comments:322-323,256.Seeibid.anumberofother
forms,probablygoingbacktothesamestem,butrestructuredphonetically
becauseoftheroot'sexpressivenature.

Proto-Turkic:*mur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1buds2lily3sphere,globe,fist
Russianmeaning:123,,
Oyrat:omur2
Chuvash:mr3
Tofalar:omur1(.89,231)
286
Comments:TheChuvashformpointsto*--.Therootisverylocalized,but
seemstobedistinctfrom*m-/*um-'top;stickwithaknob'(althougha
contaminationwasofcoursepossible).

Proto-Turkic:*pk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sparrow
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:(MKypch.)apuq,pq(AH),pq(Ettuhf.)
Turkish:imek,(dial.)abk,pk
Tatar:pq,dial.pj
MiddleTurkic:puq,upuq(MA,Abush.,Pav.C.),imik(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:umuq
Uighur:tumuuq
Turkmen:mq,dial.pq
Shor:imige'titmouse'(.,Upper-Kond.)
Oyrat:ibilik(dial.)'ak.ofbird'(R,.,Kumd.)
Kirghiz:mq;imeldirek(South.)'asmallgreenbird'
Kazakh:bq
Noghai:mq
Bashkir:spseq'wagtail;(dial.)sparrow',spqaj'-'
Karaim:cfcq
Karakalpak:mq
Kumyk:imiq,dial.imik
Comments:VEWT109,176.Turk.>Mong.ipiqaj(TMN3,123,
1997,113).

Proto-Turkic:*gan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1poor2mischief3impolite,rough
287
Russianmeaning:12,3,
OldTurkic:an(Orkh.),aj(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:aj(MK),an(MK-Argu)1
Turkish:aj,an(dial.)1
MiddleTurkic:aj(R),an(R,Pav.C.)1
Khakassian:sj2
Shor:j2
Karaim:jr2(withanunexplained-r)
Kumyk:n3
Comments:VEWT107,EDT408-409,334.Chuv.uxan'poor'
maybeofdifferentorigin(cf.anaberrantreflexof*g),cf.ux'mediocre',
ux'poor'(<*jok?).

Proto-Turkic:*p
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:branch
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:p,bq(MK)
Turkish:bk,ubuk
Tatar:bq[brq'lash']
MiddleTurkic:ubuq(Sangl.)
Uzbek:iviq
Uighur:iviq
Azerbaidzhan:ubuG
Turkmen:bq
Khakassian:smx
Shor:mq
Oyrat:bq
Chuvash:bk'lash'
Tuva:vq
288
Tofalar:bq
Kirghiz:bq
Kazakh:bq
Noghai:bq
Bashkir:sbq
Balkar:bq'lash'
Gagauz:bq
Karaim:cbuq,cubuq,ubuq'lash'
Karakalpak:bq
Kumyk:ubuq
Comments:EDT393,395,VEWT106,TMN3,1059,118-119,
320,2,403-404.Formsmeaning'lash'reflecta
contaminationwithPT*Abk'lash'(v.sub*`bV).

Proto-Turkic:*pgan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1furuncle2rash,pimple
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:bqan(MK)1
Turkish:ban1
Tatar:uwan1,ebi''
MiddleTurkic:ban(Sangl.)1
Uzbek:ipqn1
Azerbaidzhan:iban1,ivz2
Turkmen:ban1
Shor:bran2
Oyrat:btqan,(dial.-.)ibike2
Chuvash:sban,svan1
Tuva:iviki2
Tofalar:ibiki2,1
289
Kazakh:jqan1
Noghai:jqan,dial.uba1
Bashkir:sbrt-'',sebeke''
Gagauz:ban1
Karaim:cban,ban1
Comments:VEWT106,EDT396,TMN3,1151,208,2,
96.TheKaz.andNogh.formsmaybe<Mong.(althoughtheydiffer
semantically).

Proto-Turkic:*pn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1fly2gad-fly3mosquito4bee
Russianmeaning:1234,
Karakhanid:bn1,3(MK)
Turkish:ibin1,3
Tatar:eben1,2
Uzbek:ibin3
Uighur:ivin1,2
Azerbaidzhan:ibin1,2
Turkmen:bn3
Oyrat:(dial.)mn4
Kirghiz:mn1,2
Kazakh:bn1,2
Bashkir:seben-le-'tobeannoyedbyfly-bites(ofanimals)'
Balkar:ibin1,2
Kumyk:ibin1,2
Comments:VEWT110,EDT838,TMN3,53,186.

Proto-Turkic:*ok
Altaicetymology:
290
Meaning:1many,very2vile,hooligan3togather,multiply4group,crowd
Russianmeaning:1,2,,3
(),()4,
Karakhanid:oq1(-KB),q2(MK-Oghuz),o-al-3
Turkish:ok(-u)1,oal-3
MiddleTurkic:oq1(Sangl.,Oghuz-nama,AH),oq-3(Abush.)
Azerbaidzhan:ox1,oxal-3
Turkmen:oq(-qu)4
Khakassian:sox2
Oyrat:oq-3
Tuva:o2
Kirghiz:oq1
Kazakh:or4
Noghai:oq''
Gagauz:oju4,oq-la-n-3
Karaim:oq1,o4(K)
Karakalpak:oq2,4
Comments:VEWT113,EDT405,406.TheOghuzadverb'much',inthe
12thc.(KB)'very,extremely',isprobablythesamewordasoq'bad,
vile'(Ogh.11)(cf.alsotheTuvaparallel).Turk.>Mong.(Khalkha)coxin
coxxara'veryblack'.Theidentificationofoq-(la-)'gather,collect'witho-
la-'tobind,pack'()oroq-'tobend'(EDT)isratherdubious.Vocalic
lengthisunclear(cf.thevoicingof-k-inWesternOghuz).

Proto-Turkic:*ok-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1topeck2todelve,dig3topickat4tostab5topick(eyes)6
pitfall,delve
Russianmeaning:12,34
5()6,
291
OldTurkic:oq-4(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:oq-'torushattheprey(ofabird)'(MK)
Turkish:oku-1,ukur6
Tatar:uq-1,oq-2
MiddleTurkic:o/uqu-(Sangl.,Pav.C.(5));uqur6(Sangl.;startingwith
OldKypch.);ux-la-3(MA137)
Uzbek:u qi-1,uqu-la-2,3,uqur6
Uighur:oqu-1
Azerbaidzhan:uxur6
Turkmen:oq-1,uqanaq,uxur6
Khakassian:sox-la-1
Oyrat:oqu-1,3
Kirghiz:oqu-1,uqu-3
Kazakh:oq-1,uq-1,3
Noghai:oq-1,uq-2,3
Bashkir:suq-1,soqo-2,3
Gagauz:uqur6
Karaim:oq-'tosting',o-1(K),/uqu/r6
Karakalpak:oq-1,uq-2,3
Kumyk:oqu-1
Comments:VEWT114,119,EDT406.Kypchaklanguagessuggesta
distinctionbetween*ok-'topeck'and*uk-'todig,delve',absent
elsewhere,andpossiblyaresultofinterdialectalloans.

Proto-Turkic:*ok-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1topray2tosacrifice3tobaptize4toworship5bailment,
pledge
Russianmeaning:1234
5,
292
Tatar:uqn-3
Uzbek:o qin-3,1(disapprovingly),4
Uighur:oqun-3
Sary-Yughur:oqet-1()
Turkmen:oqun-3
Khakassian:on-1(Sag.-R2,2014)
Shor:oqta-'tobesprinkleidolswithanexclmationoq!'R4,1024)
Oyrat:or-2(Lebed.R3,2014),oqto-'tobesprinkleidolswithan
exclamationoq!'(R3,2009)
Chuvash:sk5
Kirghiz:oqun-3,4
Noghai:oqn-3
Bashkir:suqn-3
Karakalpak:oqn-3
Kumyk:oqun-3
Comments:VEWT113-114,328,2,426-427.Rsnen's
attempttoexplaintheverbas"baptismthroughimmersion"(linkingKypch.
oqur'pit'andTaranchioqur-'tosink'(R3,2007)appearsunconvincing.
Theformerwordisderivedfromok-'todelve',andthelattershouldbe
correctedtokr-accordingtomoremodernsources.Thesemantic
transferofapaganceremonytotheChristianoneseemsquitenaturalinan
islamicizedsociety.Thesamerootmayberepresentedbytheexclamation
(madeduringalibation),Oyr.oq!,Shoroq!,andfurther-theapprobatory
exclamationKirgh.ok!,Kaz.oq!etc.Quiteunlikelyisthehypothesisofa
loanfromHebrew(Y.Malov,quotedin).Infact,themeaningin
Chuv.('pledge')andtheexternalparallelssuggestthatthereligious
componentinthemeaningof*ok-isrelativelylate(havingevolvedafter
theseparationofBulgars):'pledge'>'sacrifice'>'praying'>'baptizing'.
Turk.>Hung.csk'sacrifice',seeGombocz1912.

293
Proto-Turkic:*ol-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1crippled2todeteriorate,dwindle3defect4short-statured
Russianmeaning:1()2,3
,4,
OldTurkic:oluq(OUygh.)1,ol-2,olmaq3(OUygh.late-Suv.)
Karakhanid:oluq(MK)1;olquj'worn(ofasole),crippled(ofanarm,
hand)'(MK)
Turkish:olak;olpa'unskilful,awkward'
Tatar:ulaq
MiddleTurkic:olaq(Sangl.)
Uzbek:o lq'handless,lame',o ltq4;'bungler,unskilledperson'
Uighur:olaq1,4
Azerbaidzhan:olaG1
Turkmen:olaq1
Oyrat:oltuq4
Halaj:olaq'handless,lame'
Tuva:oluq'sensitive,huffish'
Kirghiz:olu-'topullout,pickout',oluj-'becomecurved,warp',oloj-
'becomeshort,limbless',oloq1,4
Kazakh:olaq4,oltj-'toshorten'
Noghai:olaq1;olta-la-'tomoveasideangrily'
Bashkir:sulaq1
Balkar:olaq1
Gagauz:olaq1
Karaim:olaq(K)1
Karakalpak:olaq1,4
Kumyk:olaq1
Comments:EDT419-420,VEWT115,TMN3,89,152.Turk.>
Mong.olaq(1997,113).Theexistingformsarederivedfroma
294
verb*ol-'becomedefective'(cf.theattestedOUygh.ol-andformslike
Kirgh.olu-).

Proto-Turkic:*om-/*m-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todive2toswim3toscoop4toimmerse,dip5scoop
Russianmeaning:1,2,3
45,
OldTurkic:om-=m-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:om-,m-1(MK),me5(MKOghuz)
Turkish:me5
Tatar:um-1,me5
MiddleTurkic:om-1(Abush.)
Uzbek:u m-(mq)1,u mi5
Uighur:om-,om-ul-(pass.)1,m5
Sary-Yughur:om5()
Azerbaidzhan:m5
Khakassian:som-1,2,somnax'spoon'
Shor:om-2
Oyrat:m-1,4,omjaq'panniermadeofbirchbark'
Chuvash:m-1(<Tat.?;m'jar'maybe<Pers.,see2,401)
Yakut:som-us-3
Tuva:m-n-(refl.)1
Tofalar:om-1,omuq'asmalltroughmadeofbirchbark'
Kirghiz:omul-/ml-1,2,m-1,m-4,m5
Kazakh:om-l-(pass.)1,2,mi5
Noghai:om-l-(pass.)1,2,omaqa,mi5
Bashkir:sum-1,smes5
Balkar:m5
295
Karaim:(K)m-1,(T)om-1,2,(H)com-1,'toflow';(K)om,(T)
m5
Karakalpak:om-l-(pass.)1,2,mi5
Salar:um-(m-)1,2()
Kumyk:om-4,omu5
Comments:VEWT115,TMN3,95-99,EDT422,319.Cf.also
*amak/--'bigspoon'(VEWT98;<*om-ak?).Variousformsmeaning
'tosquat'maybelonghereaswell(cf.:Tur.mel-,Az.ml-,Gag.
mel-,Turkm.ommal-,Tat.m-,Kaz.mej-,KBalk.mel-('trip
over';cf.alsomel-t-'toturnover;dipsomeoneintowater'),witha
secondarysemanticdevelopment('dip,dive'>'fallorsitdown,squat');cf.
similarsemanticshiftsinPT*k-.

Proto-Turkic:*ortan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1eel2pike
Russianmeaning:12
Turkish:ortan1
Tatar:urtan2
Uzbek:u rtan1
Turkmen:ortan2
Khakassian:sortan2
Shor:ortan2
Oyrat:orton2
Chuvash:srdan,srtan2
Yakut:sordo2
Dolgan:hordo2
Tuva:ortan2
Kirghiz:orton2
Kazakh:ortan2
296
Noghai:ortan2
Bashkir:sortan2
Karakalpak:ortan2
Kumyk:ortan2
Comments:VEWT116,178,Stachowski108.

Proto-Turkic:*ka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1youngpig2child,boy3pig
Russianmeaning:12,3
Karakhanid:ouq(MK)1
Turkish:ouk2
Tatar:uqa3
MiddleTurkic:oa1(Sangl.),(OKypch.)oqa(Houts.)1
Uzbek:uuq2
Uighur:oqa3
Azerbaidzhan:oGa1,3
Turkmen:uq1(cf.colloq.a'camel')
Khakassian:sosxa3
Shor:oqa3
Oyrat:oqo3
Tuva:oqa3
Kirghiz:oqo1
Kazakh:oqa1
Noghai:oqa3
Bashkir:sosqa3
Balkar:oxa3
Gagauz:ouq2
Karaim:(K)oqa3,ouqjata'afterbirth';(T)oxa'youngboy(nota
Karaim)',(H)cocka2
297
Karakalpak:oqa3
Kumyk:oqa3
Comments:VEWT113,4,28,EDT400.SeeStachowski1985with
anextensivelistofmaterialbutwithastrangeconclusionthattheword
"onomatopoetischerHerkunftistundsomitdurchAutogenesezustande
kam".

Proto-Turkic:*g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:glowingheat,glowingcoals
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:o(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:o(MK)
MiddleTurkic:o(Vam.)
Uzbek:u
Uighur:oq,o
Sary-Yughur:o
Turkmen:g
Khakassian:so
Shor:o
Oyrat:oq
Yakut:suos
Dolgan:huos
Kirghiz:oq
Kazakh:oq
Comments:VEWT113,114,366-367,EDT405,Stachowski113
(Yak.suos=Tur.oga'sunheat').Turk.>WMong.o,Kalm.cog(KW
429,TMN2,119,1997,113).Mong.>Yak.ox.

298
Proto-Turkic:*k-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tokneeldown2tosink3tosit
Russianmeaning:12,3,

OldTurkic:k-2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:k-1(MK)
Turkish:k-1
Tatar:k-1
MiddleTurkic:k-1(Sangl.)
Uzbek:u k-1,2
Uighur:k-1,2
Sary-Yughur:oGe-3
Azerbaidzhan:k-2
Turkmen:k-1,2
Shor:k-2
Oyrat:g-d-1
Chuvash:sk-'tofall',sg-n-1
Yakut:sgrj-1
Kirghiz:k-1,2
Kazakh:k/g-1,2
Noghai:k/g-1,2
Bashkir:sk/g-1,2
Balkar:k/g-1,2,3
Gagauz:k-1,2,3
Karaim:k-,cok-1
Karakalpak:k/g-1,2
Salar:k-,x-1()
Kumyk:k/g-1,2,3
299
Comments:VEWT117,TMN3,120-122,EDT413-4,205,
2,90-91.Turk.>WMong.k(le)-,Kalm.kl-(KW444;TMN2,
121,1997,113).

Proto-Turkic:*l
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:steppe,desert
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:lig'nameofacountry'(Orkh.)
Proto-Turkic:*dal-g-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wave
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:dalga2
MiddleTurkic:tala'Wellenschlag',talum,talqum'seawaves'
Azerbaidzhan:dala2
Comments:KW94,VEWT458,487.AnOghuzword.

Proto-Turkic:*dam
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1drop2todrop
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:tam-2(MK)
Turkish:dam-2
Tatar:tam-2
MiddleTurkic:tam1(Abush.),tam-2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tm-
Uighur:tam-2
Azerbaidzhan:dam-2
Turkmen:dam-2
300
Oyrat:tam-2
Chuvash:tom-la-2
Yakut:tammax1
Tuva:dam-d1
Tofalar:tam-d1
Kirghiz:tam-2
Kazakh:tam-2
Noghai:tam-2
Bashkir:tam-2
Balkar:tam-2
Gagauz:dam-na1
Karaim:tam-2
Karakalpak:tam-2
Kumyk:tam-2
Comments:VEWT459,EDT503,3,139-140,2,245.
Thereisalsoavariant*dm'wetness'(3,294).

Proto-Turkic:*damor
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1vein,artery2root
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:tamar,tamr1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tamur(MK,KB),tamar(MK-Oghuz)1
Turkish:damar1
Tatar:tamr2
MiddleTurkic:tamur1,2(Sangl.,Abush.,MA)
Uzbek:tmir1,2
Uighur:tomur,temir1,2
Sary-Yughur:tamr1
Azerbaidzhan:damar1
301
Turkmen:damar1
Khakassian:tamr1,2
Oyrat:tamr1,2
Chuvash:tmar1,2
Yakut:tmr1
Dolgan:tmr1
Tuva:damr1
Tofalar:damr1
Kirghiz:tamr2
Kazakh:tamr1,2
Noghai:tamr1,2
Bashkir:tamr1,2
Balkar:tamr1,2
Gagauz:damar1
Karaim:tamur1,2
Karakalpak:tamr1,2
Salar:tamr1
Kumyk:tamur1,2
Comments:VEWT460,EDT508,3,143-144,107-108,
264-265,Stachowski238.Therearealsosomeformswith-o-:Oyr.tomur-
'touproot',Kirgh.tomor'nameofaplant,fromtherootofwhichdyeis
produced',Kaz.tomarid.,KKalp.tomar'root'-possiblycontaminationswith
*Tomar'block,log'(v.sub*t`ome).

Proto-Turkic:*da-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobindtogether
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:ta-(MK)
MiddleTurkic:ta-(Abush.,Sangl.)
302
Sary-Yughur:ta-
Turkmen:da-
Oyrat:ta-
Yakut:ta-
Dolgan:ta-'toputon'
Tuva:do-na-
Kirghiz:ta-
Kazakh:ta-
Karakalpak:ta-
Comments:VEWT461,EDT514,3,145-146,Stachowski216.Turk.
>Kalm.tan-'toplait,knot'.

Proto-Turkic:*dAr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:vulture
Russianmeaning:
Uighur:tasqara(dial.,Malov-Xami)
Turkmen:dazzarkel
Khakassian:tasxa'owl'
Oyrat:tasqu(.)
Tuva:das
Kirghiz:tazqara
Kazakh:tasqara
Bashkir:taara
Comments:Turk.>Kalm.tas(KW381-382).

Proto-Turkic:*dar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1togoapart,scatter,spread2tobranch,beforked3branch4
claw5finger
303
Russianmeaning:1,,2
,345
Karakhanid:tarmaq4,tarmaqla-2,tar-1(MK)
Turkish:darga-1(dial.)
Tatar:tar-1(dial.),tarmaq3
MiddleTurkic:tar-'toputanendtosmth.'(Qutb)
Uzbek:tarvaj-2,tarmaq3
Uighur:tarmaq3
Sary-Yughur:tarmaq5
Azerbaidzhan:darma-dan'scattered'
Turkmen:dara-1
Khakassian:tarba-2
Chuvash:torat3
Yakut:tarbax5,tar-1
Dolgan:targat-1(tr.)
Tuva:darba-2
Kirghiz:tarba-2,tarmaq3
Kazakh:tarmaq3
Noghai:tarma-2,tarmaq3
Bashkir:tarba-2,tarmaq3
Karakalpak:tarba-2,tarmaq3
Kumyk:tarmaq3
Comments:VEWT463,EDT529,3,150-151,312,
256,2,251,Stachowski218.WidelyspreadmodernKypchak
formslikeKirgh.tara-,tarqa-'tobecomescattered'etc.aremostprobably<
Mong.tara-,tarqa-(seeunder*t`ajri),sincethe(ratherscanty)Oghuz
evidencepointsto*d-,soClauson(EDT529)mayberightinthinkingthat
thereisnoetymologicalconnectionbetweenPT*dar-andMong.tara-,
tarqa-'disperse'.ItisalsoprobablethatthecommonTurkicderivatives
*darma-'toscrape,rakeup;toscatter,disperseindifferentdirections',as
304
wellas*dara-'tocomb'(3,147-149,Stachowski217)canbelong
here-althoughbothrootstendtocontaminateactivelywithPT*dra-'to
scrape'(q.v.sub*iu ru).

Proto-Turkic:*dar(--)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bald
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:taz(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:taz(MK)
Turkish:daz
Tatar:taz
MiddleTurkic:taz(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tz
Uighur:taz
Azerbaidzhan:daz
Khakassian:tas
Shor:tas
Oyrat:tas
Tuva:tas
Tofalar:tas
Kirghiz:taz
Kazakh:taz
Noghai:taz
Bashkir:ta
Karaim:taz
Karakalpak:taz
Salar:taz()
Comments:VEWT467,EDT570,3,124.Turk.>Hung.tar'bald',
seeMNyTESz3,847.
305

Proto-Turkic:*dar-g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:millet
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tar(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tar(MK)
Turkish:dar
Tatar:tar
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)tar(CCum.,AH)
Uzbek:tariq
Uighur:teriq
Sary-Yughur:tar
Azerbaidzhan:dar
Turkmen:dar
Khakassian:tar
Shor:tar(possibly<Mong.)
Oyrat:taral'angelica'(?)
Chuvash:tr'corn'
Tuva:tar(possibly<Mong.)
Tofalar:dar(possibly<Mong.)
Kirghiz:tar
Balkar:tar
Gagauz:dar
Karaim:tar,dar
Karakalpak:tar
Salar:dar
Kumyk:tari
Comments:VEWT464,EDT537-538,TMN2,480-482,3,157,
456-457.Turk.>Hung.dara'grain,groats',seeGombocz1912.
306

Proto-Turkic:*dart-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:topull;tohang
Russianmeaning:;,
OldTurkic:tart-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tart-(MK,KB)
Turkish:tart-
Tatar:tart-
MiddleTurkic:tart-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:trt-
Uighur:ta(r)t-
Sary-Yughur:tart-
Azerbaidzhan:dart-
Turkmen:dart-,tart-
Khakassian:tart-
Shor:tart-
Oyrat:tart-
Chuvash:tort-
Yakut:tart-
Dolgan:tart-
Tuva:t'rt-
Tofalar:t'rt-
Kirghiz:tart-
Kazakh:tart-
Noghai:tart-
Bashkir:tart-
Balkar:tart-
Gagauz:dart-
Karaim:tart-
307
Karakalpak:tart-
Salar:ta't-()
Kumyk:tart-
Comments:VEWT465,EDT534,3,154-156,2,254,
Stachowski218.

Proto-Turkic:*dg
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mountain
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ta(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ta(MK,KB)
Turkish:da
Tatar:taw
MiddleTurkic:ta(MA),ta,ta(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:t
Uighur:ta
Sary-Yughur:ta
Azerbaidzhan:da
Turkmen:dG
Khakassian:ta
Shor:ta(.)
Oyrat:t
Halaj:t
Chuvash:tu
Yakut:ta'taiga,wood'
Dolgan:ta'land,tundra'
Tuva:da
Tofalar:da,ta
Kirghiz:t
308
Kazakh:taw
Noghai:taw
Bashkir:tau
Balkar:tau
Gagauz:d
Karaim:da
Karakalpak:taw
Salar:d
Kumyk:taw
Comments:VEWT454,TMN2,439-440,EDT463,3,117-118,
94,111,Stachowski236.

Proto-Turkic:*dj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:uncle
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:taaj'maternaluncle'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:taaj'maternaluncle'(MK)
Turkish:daj
MiddleTurkic:taaji'maternaluncle'(Sangl.,MA)
Uzbek:ta
Uighur:taa
Sary-Yughur:taj
Azerbaidzhan:daj
Turkmen:dj
Khakassian:taj,taj,tj
Shor:taj
Oyrat:tj,taj
Yakut:tj
Tuva:dj
309
Kirghiz:taj,taa
Kazakh:taa(dial.)
Karakalpak:daj
Kumyk:daj
Comments:VEWT455-456,TMN3,196,EDT474,3,127-129,
296.Someformsgobacktoasuffixed*dja-kaj.

Proto-Turkic:*dl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tolosestrength,tofaint,loseconsciousness
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:tal-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:talanig'epilepsy'(MK)
Turkish:dal-
Tatar:tal-
MiddleTurkic:tal-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:tl-
Uighur:tal-
Turkmen:dl-(dial.)
Shor:tal-
Oyrat:tal-
Yakut:tl-
Tuva:dal-
Tofalar:dal-
Kirghiz:tal-,tal-
Kazakh:tal-
Noghai:tal-
Bashkir:tal-
Balkar:tal-
Karaim:tal-
310
Karakalpak:tal-
Kumyk:tal-
Comments:VEWT457,EDT490,3,133-134.

Proto-Turkic:*dl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosink2ocean
Russianmeaning:1()2,
OldTurkic:taluj1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Turkish:dal-1
Tatar:tal-1(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:tal-,dal-1
Turkmen:dl-1(dial.)
Tuva:tal-(Castr.)`swim'
Gagauz:dal-1
Karaim:dal-1
Comments:3,133-134(tobeseparatedfrom*Tal-`tofaint');EDT
502(theChineseetymologyofOTtalujseemshardlyplausible:the
compoundMCda^ j-lwiisnotattested,andwewouldexpect*Tajluj,not
*Talujanyway).

Proto-Turkic:*dla-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobite
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:dala-
Tatar:tala-
MiddleTurkic:tala-(MKypch.:AH,Ettuhf.)
Azerbaidzhan:dala-
Turkmen:dla-
311
Chuvash:tula-,recipr.tola--
Gagauz:dala-
Comments:3,134-136,.XIV,120.Thisrootshouldbestrictly
distinguishedfromPT*tla-'torob',withwhichitisconfusedinVEWT458
andinEDT492.

Proto-Turkic:*dp-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totrample
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:tabr-'tojumpabout(aboutacamel)'(MK)
Tatar:tapa-(dial.)
Turkmen:dbala-'totrample'(ofacamel),dbra-'toride,stamp'
Oyrat:tabar-'tofallupon'
Yakut:tabj-'tohitwithfronthooves'(ofahorse)
Dolgan:tabn-'toscratchwithahoof'
Kazakh:tapa-
Bashkir:tapa-
Karakalpak:taplda-
Comments:EDT443,3,111-112,Stachowski214.TheTat.,Kaz.,
Bashk.andKKalp.reflectavariant*dapa-(orperhapsexpressive*dppa-,
toaccountforthelackofvoicing-p->-b-afteralongvowel).

Proto-Turkic:*dpan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:foot,sole
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:taban(MK)
Turkish:taban
Tatar:taban
312
MiddleTurkic:taban(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tbn
Uighur:tapan
Sary-Yughur:tawan
Azerbaidzhan:daban
Turkmen:dban
Oyrat:taman
Chuvash:toban
Tuva:davan
Tofalar:daman
Kirghiz:taman
Kazakh:taban
Noghai:taban
Bashkir:taban
Balkar:taban
Gagauz:taban
Karaim:taban
Karakalpak:taban
Kumyk:taban
Comments:VEWT462,EDT441,3,110-112,289,
2,249.

Proto-Turkic:*dr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totouch,fallupon,attack
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:(Osm.)dar-(14c.)
Tatar:tar-
MiddleTurkic:dar-(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:dara-
313
Turkmen:dra-
Yakut:trj-
Bashkir:tar-
Comments:3,149.DespiteVEWT133,hardlyamongolism(but
Kaz.,Nogh.,KKalp.dar-areprobably<Mong.daari-).Oneshould
perhapslinkalso*dAr-n-,*dAr-l-'tobecomeangry,offended'(3,
161-162-pass.ormedialforms,i.e.*'tobetouched,approached').

Proto-Turkic:*dt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1totaste2taste3sweet,tasty4togetaccustomed
Russianmeaning:1(1)23,
4
OldTurkic:tat-1,1a(OUygh.),tat2(OUygh.),tat-l3(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tat-l3(MK),tat-1(MK,KB),tat2(MK,KB),tat-l3(MK)
Turkish:tat-(tatar)1a,tat(-d-),tadm,tatk2,tatl3,dad-a-'tobait,lure',
dad-a-n-4
Tatar:tat-1,1a,tat2,tatl3
MiddleTurkic:tat-1a(Abush.,Pav.C.,Sangl.),tat2(Sangl.),tat-l3
(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tt-1a,tati-1,1att2,ttli3
Uighur:teti-1,1a,tatq2,tatliq3
Sary-Yughur:tat-1a,tat3
Azerbaidzhan:dad-1a,dad2,dadl3,dadan-4
Turkmen:dt/d-1a,dt2,dt-l3
Khakassian:tad-1,tad2,tadl3
Shor:tatq2
Oyrat:tatu2,3
Halaj:tt-1
Chuvash:tuda-l-1,tuda-n-1a,tod2,tut-l3
314
Kirghiz:tat-1a,tat-1,tatq2,tattuw3,tatq-a-n-4
Kazakh:tat-1,1a,ttti3
Noghai:tat-1,1a,tatq2
Bashkir:tat-1a,tat2,tatl3
Balkar:tat-1a,tatw2,tatl3
Gagauz:dat-1a,dat2,datl3,dad-a-n-4
Karaim:tat-1a,tat-1,1a,tat(K),tatuv(T,H,K)2,tatl(T,H,K)3,tatan-(K)
4
Karakalpak:tat-1a,tat-1,1a,tatl3
Kumyk:tat-1,tatw2,tatli3
Comments:VEWT466,EDT449-450,452,454,3,162-164,
2,256-257.Oghuz(Osman)devoicingissecondary.Turk.>
Mong.*tati->tai(ja)-'becomeaccustomed'(KW385)>TMtati-id.(
2,170.)

Proto-Turkic:*debe
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:camel
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tebe(Orkh.),teve(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:teve(tevej)(MK)
Turkish:deve
Tatar:d

j
MiddleTurkic:deve(Pav.C.),teve(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:tuja
Uighur:tg
Sary-Yughur:te,ti
Azerbaidzhan:dev
Turkmen:dje
Khakassian:tibe
315
Oyrat:t

,tebe
Chuvash:tve
Yakut:taba'deer'
Dolgan:taba'deer'
Tuva:teve
Tofalar:tebe(.)
Kirghiz:t

Kazakh:tje
Noghai:tje
Bashkir:d

j
Balkar:tje
Gagauz:dev
Karaim:tje,deve
Karakalpak:tje
Salar:tje,tv,tvi
Kumyk:tje
Comments:EDT447-448,VEWT468,3,313-315,445,
Stachowski214.Turk.>Hung.teve,seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*debir-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocapsize,subvert
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:tevir-(OUygh.)
Turkish:devir-
Azerbaidzhan:devir-
Gagauz:devir-
Comments:3,172-173.

Proto-Turkic:*deg-
316
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tocost,tobeworth2price3tochange,exchange4allotment,
portion5worth6change,exchange
Russianmeaning:1,23(),
4()5,6
,
OldTurkic:teg-im1,teg-im-lig5,teg-ir4(OUygh.),teg--il-,teg--r-3
(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:teg-1(MK-),teg-ir4(MK),teg-i5(KB),'givenin
exchange'(MK),teg--t'exchangeprice'(MK),teg--r-l-3(KB)
Turkish:de-1,dejer2,de-im(dial.)2,deji6,deji-3
MiddleTurkic:(Xwar.)deg-1,(OKypch.)deg-ir2,teg-i2(Sangl.),teg-i-3
(Sangl.)
Uighur:tegi-3
Azerbaidzhan:djr2,dji-3
Turkmen:deg-1,degi-3
Chuvash:tivs 'debt'
Gagauz:d6,d-3
Karaim:tij-1,degi-3
Kumyk:tij-1
Comments:EDT482,485,487,488,3,181-182,179-180,
338.Usuallyregardedasadevelopmentof*deg-'totouch,reach',whichis
somewhatdubioussemantically;externalparallelsalsoseemtoindicate
thatthetworootsareoriginallydistinct.

Proto-Turkic:*deg-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totouch,toreach
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:teg-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
317
Karakhanid:teg-(MK,KB)
Turkish:dej-
Tatar:tij-
MiddleTurkic:teg-(Sangl.,Abush.)
Uzbek:deg-
Uighur:tg-
Azerbaidzhan:dj-
Turkmen:deg-
Khakassian:tig-
Shor:teg-
Oyrat:tij-
Halaj:tj-
Chuvash:tiv-
Yakut:t-j-
Dolgan:tj-
Tuva:deg-
Tofalar:deg-
Kirghiz:tij-
Kazakh:tij-
Noghai:tij-
Bashkir:tej-
Balkar:tij-
Gagauz:di-
Karaim:tij-
Karakalpak:tij-
Kumyk:tij-
Comments:VEWT468-469,EDT476,3,173-175,Stachowski224.
Sal.de-,dial.te-,teji-'toburn'mustbederivedfromthesameroot("to
reachfire").AverycomplicatedissueistherelationshipofthisroottoPT
*dk,*dki-'to,upto'(usuallyactingasapostposition)-see2,182-
318
185,EDT477(addedshouldbealsoYak.dieki'inthedirectionof',Dolg.
diek,diegi'side',seeStachowski79).Thephonologyhereisquitepuzzling:
onewouldbetemptedtoregardthemedial-k-asanarchaism(seebelow
ontheirregularityof*-g-inTurkic),buttheopenlong*--presentsgreat
difficulties(sincetheverbalrootitselfmostdefinitelyhasashortclosed*-e-
).Apossiblesolutionistocorrectthereconstruction*dk(i)to*dege-kiand
regardthe*-k(i)asanoriginallocativesuffix;thisseemsplausiblebecause
anotherattestedformofthepostpositionis*degi-n(cf.especiallyreflexes
likeTat.dial.ti,KKalp.dejin,Kaz.dejin,Nogh.dejim).

Proto-Turkic:*deg-/*dg-/*dog-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:round
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tegirmi(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tegirme(MK)
Turkish:degirmi'circle'
Tatar:tgrk
MiddleTurkic:tekirme,tekirmi(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:tugarak
Uighur:dglk
Sary-Yughur:doGr
Azerbaidzhan:djirmi
Turkmen:tegelek,toGalaq
Khakassian:tolax
Shor:toalaq
Oyrat:tooloq
Chuvash:tgr'mirror'
Yakut:trem(poet.)'round',tier-'toturnround'
Dolgan:tier-'toturnround'
319
Tuva:tgerik
Tofalar:t

rej
Kirghiz:tegerek
Noghai:tgerek
Bashkir:trk
Balkar:tgerek
Karaim:togerek
Karakalpak:dgelek
Comments:3,176-179,281-282,Stachowski222,227.Oneof
severalexpressivecommonTurkicrootsmeaning'round'anddisplaying
phoneticirregularities.SomemodernTurkicforms(notlistedabove)are
probablyborrowedfromMongolian:cf.,inparticular,Yak.tgr,tgrk,
Dolg.tgrk(>Evk.tuuruk).Cf.also400(withformsreflecting
PT*teker).Bulg.>Hung.tkr'mirror',seeMNyTESz3,1010.

Proto-Turkic:*dEgi
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:squirrel
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:teji(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:tegi(MK-erroneouslyglossed'sable',seeEDT),teji(KB)
Turkish:dejin,dein(dial.)
Tatar:tijen
MiddleTurkic:tejin(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tijin
Uighur:tijin
Oyrat:tiji
Yakut:t
Dolgan:t
Tuva:d
320
Kirghiz:tjn
Kazakh:tijin,tjn
Bashkir:tejen
Comments:VEWT470,EDT569,3,180-181,164-165,
Stachowski224.Criticismoftheborrowing(<Ugrian)theoryseein
165,546-547.

Proto-Turkic:*degl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:isnot
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:tegl(MKOghuz)
Turkish:degl,dejil
Tatar:tgil
MiddleTurkic:degl(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:dejil
Turkmen:dl
Kirghiz:tgl
Kazakh:tgil
Noghai:tuwl
Bashkir:tgil
Karaim:dugul
Karakalpak:twe
Kumyk:tgl
Comments:EDT480,3,213-214.

Proto-Turkic:*del-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toborethrough2tocut3toopen
Russianmeaning:12
321
OldTurkic:tel-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tel-1(MK)
Turkish:del-2
MiddleTurkic:tel-1(Sangl.,Abush.)
Sary-Yughur:telk'opening'
Azerbaidzhan:dl-2
Yakut:tel-3
Tofalar:del-1
Gagauz:del-1
Karaim:del-1
Comments:VEWT471,EDT490,3,185-186,TMN2,657.

Proto-Turkic:*del-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tomakeholes
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:te-(MK)
Turkish:de-
Tatar:ti-
MiddleTurkic:te-(Sangl.,Abush.)
Uzbek:te-
Uighur:t-
Azerbaidzhan:de-
Khakassian:tis-
Oyrat:te-
Yakut:tes-
Dolgan:tes-
Tuva:de-
Tofalar:de-
Kirghiz:te-
322
Kazakh:tes-
Noghai:tes-
Bashkir:ti-
Balkar:te-
Gagauz:de-
Karaim:te-
Karakalpak:tes-
Kumyk:te-
Comments:VEWT476,EDT559,3,210-212,TMN2,657,
Stachowski221.

Proto-Turkic:*dele(g)
Meaning:squirrel
Russianmeaning:
Azerbaidzhan:dl
Turkmen:dle(dial.)
Comments:Pers.dal<dala''=Sanglechi,'marmot'Yigdha,
''..,..200+.<*dar.
.-.166-.,.

Proto-Turkic:*delim
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:many
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:telim(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:telim(MK)
Turkish:delim(Osm.)
Comments:VEWT472,EDT499-500.

Proto-Turkic:*degil
323
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:axle
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:dingil
Tatar:teel()
MiddleTurkic:tigil(MA)
Chuvash:tnl
Gagauz:dingil
Karaim:tegil
Comments:VEWT474,3,235-236,2,216-217.Turk.
>Hung.tengely'axle',seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*depre-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tomove,stir,shake
Russianmeaning:(),()
OldTurkic:tepre-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tepre-(MK,KB)
Turkish:depre-,tepre-
Tatar:tibrn-
MiddleTurkic:tepre-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tebra-
Uighur:twr-
Sary-Yughur:terwe-
Azerbaidzhan:dbr-,trpn-
Turkmen:depre-,terpen-
Khakassian:tibre-
Halaj:tepre-
Chuvash:tapra-n-
Kirghiz:terbe-l-
324
Kazakh:terbe-l-;tebire-n-''
Noghai:terbe-l-
Bashkir:tirb-l-
Balkar:tebre-
Gagauz:depre-,tepre-
Karaim:tebre-
Karakalpak:terbe-
Kumyk:terbe-n-
Comments:VEWT474,3,201-202,EDT443-444,2,173-
174.

Proto-Turkic:*der
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sweat
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ter(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ter(MK,KB)
Turkish:ter
Tatar:tir
MiddleTurkic:ter(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ter
Uighur:tr
Azerbaidzhan:dr(dial.)
Turkmen:der
Khakassian:tir
Shor:ter
Oyrat:ter
Halaj:ter
Chuvash:tar,ter(NW)
Yakut:tir-it-'tosweat'
325
Tuva:der
Kirghiz:ter
Kazakh:ter
Noghai:ter
Bashkir:tir
Balkar:ter
Gagauz:ter
Karaim:ter
Karakalpak:ter
Salar:ter
Kumyk:ter
Comments:VEWT474,EDT528,3,203-204.Chuvashdialects
showavariationbetweene/e.

Proto-Turkic:*derek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1poplar2tree
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:terek1(MK)
Turkish:tirek(dial.)2
Tatar:tirk1
MiddleTurkic:terek1(Abush.,Sangl.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:terak1
Uighur:derk1
Sary-Yughur:terek2
Turkmen:derek1
Khakassian:tirek1
Shor:terek1
Oyrat:terek1
Chuvash:tirek1
326
Yakut:tirex1
Tuva:terek1
Kirghiz:terek1
Kazakh:terek1,2
Noghai:terek1
Bashkir:tirk1
Balkar:terek2
Karaim:terak2
Karakalpak:terek1
Kumyk:terek2
Comments:VEWT475,EDT543,3,205-206,105,134-
135.Iranianoriginisquiteimprobable.

Proto-Turkic:*deri
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:skin
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:teri(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:teri(MK)
Turkish:deri
Tatar:tire
MiddleTurkic:teri(MA,Abush.)
Uzbek:teri
Uighur:ter
Sary-Yughur:ter
Azerbaidzhan:dri
Turkmen:deri
Khakassian:tr
Shor:tere
Oyrat:tere
327
Halaj:teri
Chuvash:tir
Yakut:tir
Dolgan:tir
Tofalar:tere(.)
Kirghiz:teri
Kazakh:teri
Noghai:teri
Bashkir:tire
Balkar:teri
Gagauz:deri
Karaim:ter
Karakalpak:teri
Salar:cry
Kumyk:teri
Comments:VEWT475,EDT530,3,207-208,383,
Stachowski223.

Proto-Turkic:*deri
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:deep
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:teri(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:teri(MK)
Turkish:derin
Tatar:tirn
MiddleTurkic:teri(Sangl.),tere(MA)
Uzbek:teran
Azerbaidzhan:drin
Turkmen:der(dial.)
328
Khakassian:tire
Shor:tere
Oyrat:tere
Chuvash:tarn
Yakut:diri
Tuva:tere
Tofalar:dere
Kirghiz:tere
Kazakh:tere
Noghai:teren
Bashkir:trn
Balkar:teren
Gagauz:derin
Karaim:teren
Karakalpak:tere
Kumyk:teren
Comments:VEWT475,EDT551,3,208-209,2,179.

Proto-Turkic:*det-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tostrive,exert2bold,hero3clever,reasonable4cheerful,
vigorous
Russianmeaning:1,,2
,3,,4
OldTurkic:tetik(OUygh.)3
Karakhanid:tet-,tetin-(MK)1,tetik,teti-l-'tobecomeclever'(MK)
Turkish:didin-1,tetik3
Tatar:tti'good'(nurseryword)
MiddleTurkic:tetik(Abush.,Sangl.)3
Uzbek:tetik4
329
Uighur:tetik4
Turkmen:tetrik'support,help'(?)
Khakassian:ttn-1
Oyrat:tidim2,ted'satisfied,sorrowless'
Yakut:tetinex4
Tuva:didin-1,didim2
Tofalar:titim2
Kirghiz:tetik3
Bashkir:ttj'goodthing'(nurseryword)
Gagauz:didin-1
Kumyk:tetek'pleasure'
Comments:VEWT476,EDT450,455,456,3,218.Cf.perhapsalso
Kaz.etc.tetik"device,mechanism",Tat.,Bashk.tte'(gun's)cock',Gag.
tetik'id.;virgin'shymen',KKalp.tetik'mechanism,essence',Az.ttig
'trigger'.Someformsrevealsecondaryassimilatorydevoicing.

Proto-Turkic:*d-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosay
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:te-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:te-(MK,KB)1
Turkish:de-
Tatar:di-
MiddleTurkic:di-(Abush.),te-(MA)
Uzbek:de-
Uighur:d-
Sary-Yughur:di-
Azerbaidzhan:de-
Turkmen:d-
330
Khakassian:t-
Shor:te-
Oyrat:de-
Chuvash:te-
Yakut:die-
Dolgan:die-
Tuva:de-
Tofalar:de-
Kirghiz:te-
Kazakh:de-
Noghai:de-
Bashkir:ti-
Balkar:de-
Gagauz:de-
Karaim:de-
Karakalpak:de-
Salar:dij-
Kumyk:de-
Comments:VEWT467-8,EDT433-4,3,221-224,Stachowski79.
Kypchakandsomeotherlanguagespreservevoicedd-duetotheword's
grammaticalizedusage.

Proto-Turkic:*d l(b)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mad,stupid
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:telve(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:telve(MK,KB);tel(MK-Oghuz)
Turkish:deli
Tatar:tile,()tilb
331
MiddleTurkic:telve(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:telba
Uighur:tlv'sporty'
Azerbaidzhan:dli
Turkmen:dli,telbe
Chuvash:tiler-'tobecomemad,enraged'
Tofalar:telemir,tele
Kirghiz:teli;delbe'stagger'
Kazakh:delbe'stagger'
Noghai:teli;delbe'stagger'
Bashkir:tile,tilb'stagger'
Balkar:teli
Gagauz:deli
Karaim:deli,teli
Karakalpak:delbe'stagger'
Kumyk:deli
Comments:EDT493,VEWT472,3,214-216,TMN3,660-662.The
formsmeaning'stagger'revealsomeirregularities(notably,voicedd-in
someKypchakforms),perhapsduetointerdialectalborrowing.

Proto-Turkic:*dmin
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1enough2immediately
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:temin2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:temin(MK)2
Turkish:demin2
Halaj:temi1
Chuvash:taman1,2
Tuva:dem2,demin2
332
Tofalar:d:min2
Gagauz:demin2
Karaim:demin(K)2
Comments:EDT507,3,187-188.

Proto-Turkic:*dr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocollect,gather
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ter-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:t r-(MK,KB)
Turkish:der-
Tatar:tir-,tijr-()
MiddleTurkic:ter-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:ter-
Uighur:tr/j-
Sary-Yughur:ter-
Azerbaidzhan:dr-,der-
Turkmen:tr-
Khakassian:tir-,tr-
Shor:tr-
Oyrat:ter-
Yakut:terij-
Dolgan:terij-
Tuva:deri-''
Kirghiz:ter-
Kazakh:ter-
Noghai:ter-
Bashkir:tir-
Karakalpak:ter-
333
Salar:tre-()
Comments:EDT529,VEWT475,3,204-205,Stachowski221.
Turkm.hasanirregulardevoicing(oldKypchakinfluence?).

Proto-Turkic:*d(i)ablku
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1Spiraea2jujube
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:tavlqu1(OUygh.-YB)
Karakhanid:tavlqu,tavlu2(MK)
Turkish:davlga,davulgu(dial.)1
Tatar:tubl1
MiddleTurkic:tabulu,tubulu(Pav.C.)'
'
Azerbaidzhan:tuvulu(dial.)
Khakassian:tabl1
Oyrat:tabl1
Yakut:tobuluoskaj1
Kirghiz:tabl1
Kazakh:tobl1
Bashkir:tubl1
Kumyk:toburu1
Comments:EDT441,134.Turk.>Mong.tabilqa,tabilaid.,
whenceagainmostmodernTurkicforms(Tat.tubl,Turk.tabulga,Yak.
tamlan,Chuv.tuplxa);see(somewhatdifferently)521.

Proto-Turkic:*d(i)ak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1additionally,andothers,plus2again,oncemore
334
Russianmeaning:1,,,,
2,
OldTurkic:taq1,2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:taq1(MK)
Turkish:daha1,birdaha2(takasaclitic)
Tatar:tan2,'inorderto'
MiddleTurkic:dax,taq1(Abush.,Sangl.),da(MA)1
Uzbek:tain2
Uighur:texi1,2
Sary-Yughur:ta'qi,dai2
Azerbaidzhan:dxi'too'
Turkmen:daG1
Khakassian:t,d1
Oyrat:daa'although'()
Halaj:taq1,2
Yakut:daan1
Tuva:d1,dn'wholly,always',tn'very,excessively'
Kirghiz:daa,da,ta1,2
Kazakh:ta2
Noghai:ta1,2
Bashkir:ta2
Balkar:da-da1,2
Gagauz:t1,2
Karaim:daa(K)1,2,da(H,T)1,2,dan(H,K)2,dax(K)1,daxa(K)1,
2
Karakalpak:da'although',ta1,2
Salar:t,taxi1,2()
Kumyk:da1,2
Comments:VEWT457,EDT466,3,122-123.Phonologyis
somewhatuncertainbecausethestemisfunctioningasaclitic.
335

Proto-Turkic:*dil

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:stone
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ta(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ta(MK)
Turkish:ta
Tatar:ta
MiddleTurkic:ta(MA)
Uzbek:t
Uighur:ta
Sary-Yughur:das
Azerbaidzhan:da
Turkmen:d
Khakassian:tas
Shor:ta
Oyrat:ta
Halaj:t

Chuvash:ol
Yakut:ts
Dolgan:ts
Tuva:da
Tofalar:ta,da
Kirghiz:ta
Kazakh:tas
Noghai:tas
Bashkir:ta
Balkar:ta
Gagauz:ta
336
Karaim:ta
Karakalpak:tas
Salar:da
Kumyk:ta
Comments:VEWT466,TMN2,437-8,EDT557,3,167-168,
326,2,421-422,Stachowski219.

Proto-Turkic:*d(i)lak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:spleen
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tal(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:talaq(MK)
Turkish:dalak
Tatar:talaq
MiddleTurkic:talaq(Sangl.)
Uzbek:talq
Azerbaidzhan:dalaG
Turkmen:dlaq
Yakut:tl
Kazakh:talaq
Noghai:talaq
Bashkir:talaq
Balkar:talaq
Gagauz:dalaq1;''
Karaim:talaq
Karakalpak:talaq
Kumyk:talaq
Comments:VEWT457,EDT495,3,137-138,279.Tat.>
Chuv.talak.
337

Proto-Turkic:*d(i)l

()-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tooverflow
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:ta-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ta-(MK)
Turkish:ta-
Tatar:ta-
MiddleTurkic:ta-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:t-
Uighur:ta-
Sary-Yughur:tas-
Azerbaidzhan:da-
Turkmen:d-
Khakassian:tas-
Oyrat:taqn'flood'
Yakut:tahj-
Tuva:da-
Kirghiz:ta-
Kazakh:tas-
Noghai:tas-
Gagauz:ta-
Karaim:ta-
Karakalpak:tas-
Kumyk:ta-
Comments:VEWT466,EDT559,3,169-170.

Proto-Turkic:*d(i)r
Altaicetymology:
338
Meaning:narrow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tar(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tar(MK)
Turkish:dar
Tatar:tar
MiddleTurkic:tar(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:tr
Uighur:tar
Sary-Yughur:tar
Azerbaidzhan:dar
Turkmen:dr
Khakassian:tar
Shor:tar
Oyrat:tar
Halaj:t

r
Yakut:tr
Tuva:tar
Tofalar:dar(.),tar
Kirghiz:tar
Kazakh:tar
Noghai:tar
Bashkir:tar
Balkar:tar
Gagauz:dar
Karaim:tar
Karakalpak:tar
Salar:dar
Kumyk:tar
339
Comments:VEWT463,EDT528,3,146-147,159-160;cf.
2,179.

Proto-Turkic:*dik-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toplantvertically2vertical
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:tik-1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tik-1,tik2(MK)
Turkish:dik-1,dik2
Tatar:tek-1,tek2
MiddleTurkic:tik-1,tik2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tik-1,tik2
Uighur:tik-1,tik2
Sary-Yughur:tk-1
Azerbaidzhan:dik2,dik--l-(refl.)1,tik-'tobuild'
Turkmen:dik-1,dik2
Khakassian:tk-'tosetupahouse'
Halaj:tik-1
Chuvash:ik-1
Yakut:tik-,tk-'tosting;tosew'
Dolgan:tik-'tosew'
Kirghiz:tik-1,tik2
Kazakh:tik-1,tik2
Noghai:tik-1,tik2
Bashkir:tek2,tek-','
Balkar:tik''
Gagauz:dik-1,dik2
Karaim:tik-1,tik2
Karakalpak:tik-1,tik2
340
Kumyk:tik-1,tik2
Comments:EDT475-476,3,224-227,325,2,417-
418,Stachowski223.

Proto-Turkic:*dil-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosplit,cutinslices
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:til-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:til-(MK)
Turkish:dil-,dil'thinslice'
Tatar:tel-
MiddleTurkic:til-(Sangl.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:til-
Uighur:til-
Azerbaidzhan:dilim'slice'
Turkmen:dil-
Khakassian:tl-
Oyrat:til-
Halaj:tilim'slice'
Chuvash:l-
Tuva:dil-
Kirghiz:til-
Kazakh:til-
Noghai:til-
Bashkir:tel-
Balkar:til-
Gagauz:dil-
Karaim:dilim(K)'slice'
Karakalpak:til-
341
Kumyk:til-
Comments:VEWT480,EDT490-491,TMN2,553,3,230-231,
322,76.

Proto-Turkic:*dili
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1female2woman
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:tii1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tii(MK,KB)1
Turkish:dii1
MiddleTurkic:tii(Abush.,Sangl.)1
Sary-Yughur:tese1
Azerbaidzhan:dii1
Khakassian:tz1
Shor:tii1
Oyrat:tii1
Halaj:tii1
Yakut:th2
Dolgan:th2
Tuva:dii1
Balkar:tii1
Gagauz:dii1
Karaim:dii,tii1
Kumyk:tii1
Comments:VEWT482,EDT560-561,3,244-245,315,
Stachowski237.

Proto-Turkic:*dir-
Altaicetymology:
342
Meaning:1tobead,string2arrangeinarow
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:tiz-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:tiz-(MK,KB)1
Turkish:diz-1,2
Tatar:tez-1,2
MiddleTurkic:tiz-,tz-(Abush.,Sangl.)1
Uzbek:tiz-1,2
Uighur:tiz-1,2
Azerbaidzhan:dz-1,2
Turkmen:dz-1,2
Khakassian:ts-,s-1
Oyrat:tis-1
Halaj:tiz-1
Chuvash:tir-1
Yakut:tis-1
Dolgan:tis-1
Tuva:dis-1
Kirghiz:tiz-1,2
Kazakh:tiz-1,2
Noghai:tiz-1,2
Bashkir:tee-1,2
Balkar:tiz-1,2
Gagauz:diz-1,2
Karaim:tiz-1,tz-1,2
Karakalpak:diz-1,2
Kumyk:tiz-2
Comments:VEWT482,EDT572,3,218-220,Stachowski223.The
word(withthemeaning'toarrangeinarow')interactswith*dr'even,level'
(v.sub*iuri).
343

Proto-Turkic:*dl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tooth
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ti(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:t(MK),ti(KB)
Turkish:di
Tatar:te
MiddleTurkic:ti(MA,Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:ti
Uighur:ti,i
Sary-Yughur:ds
Azerbaidzhan:di
Turkmen:d
Khakassian:ts
Shor:ti
Oyrat:di
Halaj:t
Yakut:ts
Dolgan:ts
Tuva:di
Tofalar:di
Kirghiz:ti
Kazakh:tis
Noghai:tis
Bashkir:te
Balkar:ti
Gagauz:di
Karaim:t
344
Karakalpak:tis
Salar:ci
Kumyk:ti
Comments:VEWT481,EDT557,564-5,3,242-244,228,
Stachowski224.Cf.alsoPT*dl

-le-'tobite'.

Proto-Turkic:*dr(*dr)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:knee
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tiz(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:tizle-(MK)'topresswithone'sknees'
Turkish:diz
Tatar:tez
MiddleTurkic:diz(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:tiz
Uighur:tiz
Sary-Yughur:dz
Azerbaidzhan:diz
Turkmen:dz
Khakassian:tzek
Shor:tize(R.,.)
Oyrat:tize
Halaj:tz
Chuvash:r-pussi
Yakut:thex
Tuva:diskek
Tofalar:tiskek
Kirghiz:tize
Kazakh:tize
345
Noghai:tiz
Bashkir:te
Balkar:tiz
Gagauz:dis
Karaim:tz
Karakalpak:dize
Salar:tzy,tizy
Kumyk:tiz
Comments:VEWT482,EDT570,3,336-337,323,
284.

Proto-Turkic:*dre-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosupport2support
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:tirek2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tire-1(MK),tirek2(Tefs.,IM)
Turkish:dire-1,direk2
Tatar:ter-1,terk2
MiddleTurkic:tire-1,tirek2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tira-1,tirak2
Uighur:tirk2
Azerbaidzhan:dir-1,dirk2
Turkmen:dre-1,drek2
Khakassian:tre-1,treg2
Chuvash:arak2
Yakut:tir-,tirex2
Kirghiz:tire-1
Kazakh:tire-1,tirek2
Noghai:tire-1,tirew2
346
Bashkir:ter-1,terk2
Gagauz:direk2
Karaim:direk2
Karakalpak:tire-1
Salar:tirk2(Kakuk)
Kumyk:tire-1,tirew2
Comments:VEWT481,EDT533,543,TMN2,655,3,237-239,
317,2,392.

Proto-Turkic:*dri-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tolive2alive3torevive
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:tirig2,tiri-l-3(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tirig2,tiri-l-3(MK,KB)
Turkish:diri2,diri-l-3
Tatar:tere,terek2
MiddleTurkic:tiri(Abush.),tirik,tirig(Sangl.)2,tiri-l-3(Sangl.),(MKypch.)
tiri1(AH)
Uzbek:tirik2
Uighur:tirik2
Sary-Yughur:terik2
Azerbaidzhan:diri2,diri-l-3
Turkmen:dri2
Khakassian:trg2
Shor:tirig2,tiri-l-3
Oyrat:tir2,tiri-l-3
Chuvash:r2
Yakut:tilin-'torevive'
Dolgan:tillij-'torevive'
347
Tuva:dirig2,diri-l-3
Tofalar:dirig2
Kirghiz:tiri,tirik,tir2,tiri-l-3
Kazakh:tiri2
Noghai:tiri2
Bashkir:tere2
Balkar:tiri2
Gagauz:diri2
Karaim:tiri2
Karakalpak:tiri2
Kumyk:tiri2
Comments:VEWT481,EDT529,543-544,547-548,3,240-242,
324,414,Stachowski223.

Proto-Turkic:*dl/*dil
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tongue;language
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tl(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tl(MK,KB)
Turkish:dil
Tatar:tel
MiddleTurkic:til(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:til
Uighur:til
Sary-Yughur:dl
Azerbaidzhan:dil
Turkmen:dil
Khakassian:tl
Shor:til
348
Oyrat:til
Halaj:til
Chuvash:le;lx''
Yakut:tl
Dolgan:tl
Tuva:dl
Tofalar:dl,tl
Kirghiz:til
Kazakh:til
Noghai:til
Bashkir:tel
Balkar:til
Gagauz:dil
Karaim:tl,til
Karakalpak:til
Salar:cil
Kumyk:til
Comments:VEWT478,EDT489-90,3,228-229,323,
227,Stachowski237.

Proto-Turkic:*dm-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobesilent2silently
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:t-k'silentperson'()
MiddleTurkic:tn-1(.-..,MKypch.-Ettuhf.)
Turkmen:dm-1
Khakassian:tml-1,tm2
Oyrat:tm-1,tm2
Chuvash:tamal-2(withaberrantvocalism)
349
Kirghiz:tim,tm2
Kazakh:tm2
Bashkir:dm-1
Karakalpak:tm2
Comments:VEWT478,3,340-341.

Proto-Turkic:*d
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1very,strongly2strong,powerful3healthy4power5compact,
dense(ofearth)6tobecomestrong7virginsoil
Russianmeaning:1,,2,,
34,5,()6
7
OldTurkic:tirki'recent'(OUygh.-)
Turkish:din1,din2,3
Uzbek:tin-ka4,ti5
Uighur:ti5
Turkmen:di1,die'only'
Khakassian:t2
Shor:t1
Oyrat:t2
Chuvash:tnk'crammed,stuffed'
Yakut:t2
Dolgan:t2
Tuva:d1,dz2
Tofalar:dz-6
Kirghiz:t2,t-6
Kazakh:t2,7,t-aj-6
Gagauz:din2
Karakalpak:t7
350
Kumyk:tn7
Comments:VEWT478,Stachowski238.Turk.>WMong.i,ia(KW
437,441),whenceNan.i qi etal.(2,397).Derivativeswiththe
meaning'healthy'in3,344-345areerroneouslyattributedtodn-
'rest';Yak.t,d'strained,tense'belongsnothere(despiteVEWT,butto
t-'pull,stretch').

Proto-Turkic:*dla-/*dile-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tolisten2tohear3toconsider,meditate
Russianmeaning:123,
OldTurkic:tla-1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tla-1(MK,KB)
Turkish:dinle-1
Tatar:tma-1
MiddleTurkic:dile-,tla-1(Pav.C.)
Uighur:tila-2
Sary-Yughur:tnna-2
Azerbaidzhan:dinl-1
Turkmen:dile-1
Khakassian:tna-1
Oyrat:tda-1
Chuvash:nla-3
Tuva:dna-2
Tofalar:dna-2
Kirghiz:ta-1
Kazakh:tda-1
Noghai:tla-1
Bashkir:tla-1
Balkar:tla-1
351
Karaim:dinle-,tla-2
Karakalpak:tla-1
Kumyk:tla-1
Comments:Theverbalstem*dla-isderivedfromthenoun*d(OTt,
Turkm.di'reason,mind,cleverness').SeeVEWT478,EDT522,3,
236-237.

Proto-Turkic:*dr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torunaway2tostrive3toflounce,squib4todash,race5
tumble-weed
Russianmeaning:12,3,
45-
Tatar:tz-bzkil-3
Azerbaidzhan:dzx-1
Turkmen:dza-2
Kirghiz:tzqoj-4
Kazakh:tzlda-4
Noghai:tzban5
Bashkir:tzdapkit-1
Karakalpak:tzlda-4

Proto-Turkic:*dra-k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:finger-nail,claw
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:traq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:traq(MK,KB)
Turkish:trnak
Tatar:trnaq
352
MiddleTurkic:traq/tra(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tirnq
Uighur:tirnaq
Sary-Yughur:drmaq
Azerbaidzhan:drnaG
Turkmen:drnaq
Khakassian:trax
Shor:traq
Oyrat:trGaq
Halaj:trnaq
Chuvash:rne
Yakut:trax
Dolgan:trak
Tuva:draq
Tofalar:draq'comb'
Kirghiz:trnaq
Kazakh:trnaq
Noghai:trnaq
Bashkir:trnaq
Balkar:trnaq
Gagauz:trnaq
Karaim:trnax
Karakalpak:trnaq
Salar:rna(:)
Kumyk:trnaq
Comments:DerivedfromPT*dra-'toscratch,scrape'.SeeVEWT465,
479,TMN3,200(therearenoreasonstopostulatedifferentrootshere:we
haveobviouslyacaseofacomplicatedbehaviourofthemedial--);EDT
551,549-50,III345-349,324,312,323-325,
258,Stachowski238.
353

Proto-Turkic:*dd-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tohinder,obstruct
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:td-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:t-(MK)
Tatar:tj-
MiddleTurkic:tj-(Sangl.,Abush.)
Uzbek:tij-
Turkmen:dj-,d-'stop'
Khakassian:ts-
Oyrat:tijin-'torestrain(oneself)'
Chuvash:ar-
Yakut:tt-'touch'
Dolgan:tt-'touch'
Kirghiz:tj-
Kazakh:tj-
Noghai:tj-
Bashkir:tj-
Balkar:tj-
Karaim:tj-
Karakalpak:tj-
Comments:VEWT477,EDT450,.36,2,391,
Stachowski239.

Proto-Turkic:*dn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1spirit,breath2rest3torest4topant5tobreathe6quiet7
sultriness
354
Russianmeaning:1,2345
67
OldTurkic:tn1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tn1(MK,KB),tn2(MK)
Turkish:tin1,din-le-3
Tatar:tn1
MiddleTurkic:tn-3(Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:tin1,tin-3
Uighur:tin1,tin-3
Azerbaidzhan:tn-x-4,din2
Turkmen:dn2
Khakassian:tn1,tn-5,tn-a-n-3
Shor:tn1,tn-5,tn-a-n-3
Oyrat:tn1,2,tn-5
Halaj:tin6
Chuvash:m1
Yakut:tn1,tn-5
Dolgan:tn1,tn-5
Tuva:tn1,tn-5
Tofalar:tn1,tn-5
Kirghiz:tn1,tn-3,5
Kazakh:tn-s1,2
Noghai:tn-s1,tn--q-4,tn--a-j-3
Bashkir:tn1,tn-s-w7
Balkar:tin1,tn---'torot,addle',tn--aj-3,tn-m2
Gagauz:din-ne-n-3
Karaim:tn-5,tnc2
Karakalpak:tn1,tn-3
Kumyk:tn-1,tn--aj-3
355
Comments:VEWT478,EDT512,3,341-345,.38-39,
Stachowski238,239.SomeOghuzreflexeshavevoicelesst-,probably
becauseofKypchakinfluence;stillthereconstructionof*d-seems
preferable.

Proto-Turkic:*dod-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:becomesatiated,full
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:tod-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:to-(MK)
Turkish:doj-
Tatar:tuj-
MiddleTurkic:toj-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:toj-
Uighur:toj-
Sary-Yughur:toz-
Azerbaidzhan:doj-
Turkmen:doj-
Khakassian:tos-
Shor:tos-
Oyrat:toj-
Halaj:tod-
Chuvash:tran-
Yakut:tot-
Dolgan:tot-
Tuva:to't-
Tofalar:do't-
Kirghiz:toj-
Kazakh:toj-
356
Noghai:toj-
Bashkir:tuj-
Balkar:toj-
Gagauz:doj-
Karaim:toj-
Karakalpak:toj-
Salar:toj-
Kumyk:toj-
Comments:VEWT483,EDT451,3,251-252,Stachowski227.

Proto-Turkic:*dogan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:falcon
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:toan(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:toan(MK)
Turkish:doan
MiddleTurkic:toan(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uighur:toan
Gagauz:duan
Karaim:tuan
Comments:VEWT483,TMN3,351-352,3,247-248,169.
Cf.also*Togrl'huntingfalcon'(VEWT484,TMN3,346-347).

Proto-Turkic:*dogra-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocutintoslices,smallpieces
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:tora-(MK)
Turkish:dra-
357
Tatar:tura-
MiddleTurkic:tora-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tora-
Uighur:tora-
Sary-Yughur:tora-
Azerbaidzhan:doGra-
Turkmen:doGra-
Khakassian:tora-
Shor:tora-
Oyrat:tura-
Halaj:tora-
Chuvash:tura-
Yakut:trot-
Tuva:dra-
Tofalar:dra-
Kirghiz:tra-
Kazakh:tura-
Noghai:tuwra-
Bashkir:tura-
Balkar:tuwra-
Gagauz:dora-
Karaim:doGra-,tuvra-
Karakalpak:tuwra-
Kumyk:tuwra-
Comments:EDT472,3,248-249,.XIV,151,2,251.

Proto-Turkic:*doku-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toweave
Russianmeaning:
358
OldTurkic:toqu-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:toqu-(MK)
Turkish:doku-
Tatar:tuq-
MiddleTurkic:toqu-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:toqi-
Uighur:toqu-
Sary-Yughur:toq-
Azerbaidzhan:toxu-
Turkmen:doqa-
Halaj:toqu-
Kirghiz:toqu-
Kazakh:toq-
Noghai:toq-
Bashkir:tuq-
Balkar:?toustun'.,.'
Gagauz:doqu-
Karaim:tox-
Karakalpak:toq-
Comments:VEWT484-5,EDT467,3,253-254(todistinguishfrom
*tok-'tobeat'),395.Turk.>WMong.toki-,Kalm.tok-'toplait'
(KW398).

Proto-Turkic:*dolga-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totwist,towrapround
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:tola-(MK)
Turkish:dola-
Tatar:tola-n-(refl.)
359
MiddleTurkic:tola-(Abush.,MA)
Uzbek:tola-
Uighur:tolu-
Azerbaidzhan:dola-
Turkmen:dola-
Shor:tolaj'turn'
Oyrat:tolo-
Halaj:tola-n-'towalkaround'
Chuvash:tla,tlla'cloth,petersham'
Tuva:dola-
Tofalar:dola-
Kirghiz:tolo-
Kazakh:tola-
Bashkir:tula'cloth'
Karaim:tola-
Kumyk:dola-n-'totinkerwithsmth.'
Comments:VEWT486,EDT497,3,259-260,2,187-188,
.XIV,254-255,259.

Proto-Turkic:*dolu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hail
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tol(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tol(MK,KB)
Turkish:dolu
MiddleTurkic:tol(MA),tolu(Sangl.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:duli
Uighur:tol(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:dolu
360
Turkmen:dol,(-)dl
Khakassian:to-dol(to-'frozen')
Halaj:to^l
Yakut:tolon
Dolgan:tolot
Tuva:dolu
Kazakh:dol(dial.)
Gagauz:tolu
Comments:VEWT486,EDT491,3,260-261,31-32,
Stachowski226.Cf.also*Tol'ice'(Tuvado,Tof.do",Oyr.to
18,VEWT491,3,267).

Proto-Turkic:*do
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1cold2frost3frozen4freeze,befrozen
Russianmeaning:1234
OldTurkic:to-4(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:to2,3(MK)
Turkish:don2
Tatar:tu2
MiddleTurkic:to-4(Pav.C.)
Uighur:to-4,to2,3
Sary-Yughur:tot1
Azerbaidzhan:don2,don-4
Turkmen:do3,do-4
Khakassian:t-r-4
Chuvash:tm2'frost'
Yakut:to-4,to3
Dolgan:to-4,to3
Tuva:do3,do-4
361
Tofalar:do3,do-4
Kirghiz:to2,to-4
Comments:VEWT488,EDT513,515,3,265-267,17,
Stachowski226.

Proto-Turkic:*dour
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:pig
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:touz(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:touz(MK)
Turkish:domuz
Tatar:duz
MiddleTurkic:touz(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tonis
Uighur:touz
Sary-Yughur:doiz
Azerbaidzhan:donuz
Turkmen:douz
Kirghiz:douz
Kazakh:doz
Noghai:doz
Balkar:touz
Gagauz:domuz
Karaim:touz,domuz
Karakalpak:doz
Salar:toas
Kumyk:douz
Comments:VEWT488,EDT527,3,267-268,TMN2,585-586.

362
Proto-Turkic:*dl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:full
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tolu(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tolu(MK)
Turkish:dolu
Tatar:tul
MiddleTurkic:tola(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:tula
Uighur:tola,tolan
Sary-Yughur:tolo
Azerbaidzhan:dolu
Turkmen:dl
Khakassian:tol-(v.)
Shor:tol-dr-(v.)
Oyrat:tolo
Halaj:tol-(v.)
Chuvash:tol-(v.),tolli
Yakut:tuol-(v.),toloru
Dolgan:tuol-(v.),toloru
Tuva:dolu
Tofalar:dolu
Kirghiz:tolo
Kazakh:tol
Noghai:tol
Bashkir:tul
Balkar:tolu
Gagauz:dolu
Karaim:tol
363
Karakalpak:tol
Salar:doli(:);t`ol(Kakuk);tl-v.()
Kumyk:tolu
Comments:VEWT486,EDT491-492,3,257-259,2,242-
243,Stachowski226,231.PT*dl-isderivedfrom*dl-'togetfilled'.

Proto-Turkic:*dtak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lip
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:dudak
Azerbaidzhan:dodaG
Turkmen:ddaq
Chuvash:toda,tuda
Gagauz:dudaq
Salar:totax,totx
Comments:VEWT491,TMN2,603-604,3,251,2,256,
226.

Proto-Turkic:*dk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:topourout
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:tk-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tk-(MK,KB)
Turkish:dk-
Tatar:tk-
MiddleTurkic:tk-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tok-
Uighur:tk-
364
Sary-Yughur:tk-
Azerbaidzhan:tk-
Turkmen:dk-
Khakassian:tk-
Shor:tk-
Oyrat:tk-
Halaj:tk-,tek-
Chuvash:tk-
Yakut:tox-
Dolgan:tok-
Tuva:t'k-
Tofalar:t'k-
Kirghiz:tk-
Kazakh:tk-
Noghai:tk-
Bashkir:tk-
Balkar:tk-
Gagauz:dk-
Karaim:tk-
Karakalpak:tk-
Salar:t'-()
Kumyk:tk-
Comments:VEWT492-493,EDT477,3,273-274,Stachowski225.

Proto-Turkic:*dl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mountainslope
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:d(dial.)
Uzbek:tu
365
Uighur:t
Azerbaidzhan:d
Khakassian:ts
Tuva:d'
Kirghiz:t
Noghai:ts
Comments:3,287.Therootshouldbekeptdistinctfrom*d

'breast'
q.v.sub*t`l

i(see1970,197).

Proto-Turkic:*dl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1progeny,breed2new-bornanimals
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:tl1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tl(MKOghuz.)'seasonwhenanimalsgivebirthtotheir
young;thenewbornyoung'
Turkish:dl1
Tatar:tl'birdovary'
MiddleTurkic:tl2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tol2
Uighur:tl2
Azerbaidzhan:dl2
Turkmen:dl2,'sperm'
Khakassian:tl1
Shor:tl1
Oyrat:tl-d-'tobreed'
Tuva:tl1
Kirghiz:tl2
Kazakh:tl2
Noghai:tl2
366
Bashkir:tl';'
Balkar:tl2,'generation'
Karakalpak:tl2
Kumyk:tl2
Comments:3,274-276;EDT490.Turk.>Mong.tl'new-bornyoung
animals'.

Proto-Turkic:*dl

e-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tospreadout(asmat)2mat,mattress
Russianmeaning:1()2,,
OldTurkic:te-1,tek2,(?)tlet2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:te-1,tek2(MK)
Turkish:de-1,dek2
Tatar:t-1,tk2
MiddleTurkic:te-1,tek2(Sangl.,Abush.)
Uzbek:toak2
Uighur:tk,k2
Sary-Yughur:tsek2
Azerbaidzhan:d-1,dk2
Turkmen:de-1,dek2
Khakassian:tze-1,tzek2
Shor:te-1,tek
Oyrat:t-1,tk2
Chuvash:tek2
Tuva:de-1,dek2
Tofalar:t'he-n-1,t'hek2
Kirghiz:t-1,tk2
Kazakh:ts-1(R)
Noghai:tse-1,tsek2
367
Bashkir:t-1,tk2
Balkar:tek2
Gagauz:de-1,dek2
Karaim:te-1,tek2
Karakalpak:tse-1,tsek2
Kumyk:tek2
Comments:EDT494,561,563,VEWT495,TMN2,617,3,333-
335.

Proto-Turkic:*dle-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tranquil,sedate,quiet
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:tlek(MK)
Turkish:dle-k,dlen-
Uzbek:tlek(Chag.)
Chuvash:tlek
Comments:EDT498,VEWT504.

Proto-Turkic:*dr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosuffer,endure
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:tz-(MK)
Turkish:dz-(dial.)
Tatar:tz-
MiddleTurkic:tz-(MA,Pav.C.)
Sary-Yughur:tz-
Azerbaidzhan:dz-
Turkmen:dz-
368
Oyrat:tznk`patient'
Kazakh:tz-
Noghai:tz-
Bashkir:t-
Balkar:tz-
Karaim:tz-
Comments:3,272-273,EDT572.Turk.Bulg.>Hung.tr-,see
Gombocz1912,MNyTESz3,1014(Chuv.ts-<Tat.).

Proto-Turkic:*d

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:breast
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:t(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:t(MK,IM)
Turkish:d
Tatar:t
MiddleTurkic:t(Pav.C.,MKypch.-CCum.,AH)
Uzbek:to
Uighur:t
Sary-Yughur:ts
Azerbaidzhan:d
Turkmen:d

Khakassian:ts
Shor:t
Oyrat:t
Chuvash:l-lk''
Yakut:ts
Dolgan:ts
Tuva:t,Todzh.d
369
Tofalar:d
Kirghiz:t
Kazakh:ts
Noghai:ts
Bashkir:t
Balkar:t
Karaim:t
Karakalpak:ts
Kumyk:t
Comments:VEWT495,TMN2,615,EDT558,3,286-287,
326,271-272,Stachowski235.

Proto-Turkic:*d

rt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:four
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:trt(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:trt(MK)
Turkish:drt
Tatar:drt
MiddleTurkic:trt(..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:tort
Uighur:t(r)t
Sary-Yughur:drt,trt
Azerbaidzhan:drd
Turkmen:d

rt
Khakassian:trt
Shor:trt
Oyrat:trt
Chuvash:tvad
370
Yakut:trt
Dolgan:trt
Tuva:drt
Tofalar:{drt}
Kirghiz:trt
Kazakh:trt
Noghai:drt
Bashkir:drt
Balkar:trt
Gagauz:drt
Karaim:drt
Karakalpak:trt
Kumyk:drt
Comments:EDT534,VEWT495,3,284-286,Stachowski235.

Proto-Turkic:*duj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toperceive(byearsornose),notice
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:tuj-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tuj-(MK)
Turkish:duj-
Tatar:toj-
MiddleTurkic:tuj-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tuj-
Uighur:tuj-
Sary-Yughur:tuj-
Azerbaidzhan:duj-
Turkmen:duj-
Chuvash:tuj-,refl.tojn-
371
Kirghiz:tuj-
Noghai:tuj-
Bashkir:toj-
Gagauz:duj-
Karaim:duj-,tuj-
Karakalpak:tuj-
Comments:VEWT497,EDT567,3,290-291,.XIV,92-94,
2,241.Chuv.maybe<Tatar.

Proto-Turkic:*dula-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tohobble2hobble
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:tu'abeltbuckle'(MK,KB),tua-1(KB),tuaq2(MK)
Turkish:dua-(dial.)
Tatar:taw2
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)tua-1,tuaq2(AH)
Uzbek:tuw2
Uighur:u-1
Turkmen:duaq2
Khakassian:tuza-1
Shor:tua-1
Oyrat:tua-1
Chuvash:tl2
Yakut:thta'clothingbuckle'(?)
Tuva:du`a-1
Tofalar:dua-1
Kirghiz:tua-1
Kazakh:tusa-1
Noghai:tsaw2
372
Bashkir:ta-1
Karakalpak:tusa-1
Comments:3,306,EDT558(OTtu'buckle'),561,562.Turk.>
MMong.tuaa,WMong.tua-,tusi-'hobble',seeClark1980,42,
1997,159,whenceEvk.tusetc.,seeDoerferMT131,190.

Proto-Turkic:*dul(k)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:widow,widower
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:tul(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tul(MK)
Turkish:dul
Tatar:tul
MiddleTurkic:tul(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:tul
Uighur:tul
Azerbaidzhan:dul
Turkmen:dul
Shor:tul
Oyrat:tul
Chuvash:tlx'orphan'
Yakut:tuljax'orphan'
Dolgan:tuljak'widow;orphan'
Tuva:dulujaq
Tofalar:tulunaq
Kirghiz:tul
Kazakh:tul
Bashkir:tul
Gagauz:dul
373
Karaim:tul
Karakalpak:tul
Kumyk:tul
Comments:EDT490,VEWT497,3,292-293,293,.
XIV,258-259,2,189,Stachowski230.

Proto-Turkic:*dum
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1cold2cold,flu
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:tuml1(OUygh.),tumau2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tum,tuml1(MK),tumau(MK)2
Turkish:duma,duma2,(Osm.)tumlu1
Tatar:tomaw2
MiddleTurkic:tumaq2(MA)
Uighur:tumu2
Turkmen:dmev2
Khakassian:tmo2
Yakut:tmn1,tum2
Dolgan:tmn1
Tuva:dum2
Tofalar:tum2
Comments:VEWT498,EDT503,505,506,3,326,14-15,
Stachowski238.Turk.>WMong.tomuu,Khalkhatom'influenza'.A
probablederivativeisTurk.*duman'fog'(3,295-296,33,
Stachowski230),seeTMN2,568.

Proto-Turkic:*dur-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tostand
374
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tur-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tur-(MK,KB)
Turkish:dur-
Tatar:tor-
MiddleTurkic:tur-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:tur-
Uighur:tur-
Sary-Yughur:dur-
Azerbaidzhan:dur-
Turkmen:dur-
Khakassian:tur-
Shor:tur-
Oyrat:tur-
Halaj:tur-
Chuvash:tr-
Yakut:tur-
Dolgan:tur-
Tuva:tur-
Tofalar:dur-
Kirghiz:tur-
Kazakh:tu_r-
Noghai:tur-
Bashkir:tor-
Balkar:tur-
Gagauz:dur-
Karaim:tur-
Karakalpak:tur-
Salar:dr-
Kumyk:tur-
375
Comments:VEWT500,EDT529-530,3,296-301,Stachowski232.
Turk.>WMong.toru-'getsmwh.,arrivesmwh.'(KW402).

Proto-Turkic:*durunja
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:crane
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:turunja
Karakhanid:turna(MK)
Turkish:turna
Tatar:torna
Azerbaidzhan:durna
Turkmen:durna
Chuvash:trna,(dial.Verkh.)trne
Yakut:turjuja
Tuva:duruj
Tofalar:duruj,turuja
Kirghiz:turuna
Kazakh:trna
Comments:VEWT501,TMN3,199,EDT551,3,301-302,
173.

Proto-Turkic:*dl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1companion2aim3meeting4side,direction5match,equal6
oppositeside
Russianmeaning:1234,5
,6
OldTurkic:tu1
Karakhanid:tu5,6
376
Turkish:d(dial.)3
Tatar:t

4
MiddleTurkic:tu(Pav.C.)3
Azerbaidzhan:tu3
Turkmen:d3
Khakassian:tus4
Oyrat:tu3,6
Chuvash:tl2
Yakut:tus4
Dolgan:tus4
Tuva:du4,6
Kirghiz:tu4,6
Kazakh:tus6
Noghai:tus4
Bashkir:t

(dial.)4
Karakalpak:tus6
Comments:VEWT501,EDT558,3,303-305,Stachowski233,
2,214.Alsoaverb*dl

-'tomeet'(>WMong.tus(u)-,Kalm.tus-,
KW412).

Proto-Turkic:*dr(*--)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:salt
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tuz(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tuz(MK,KB)
Turkish:tuz
Tatar:toz
MiddleTurkic:tuz(MA)
Uzbek:tuz
377
Uighur:tuz
Sary-Yughur:duz
Azerbaidzhan:duz
Turkmen:dz
Khakassian:tus
Shor:tus
Oyrat:tus
Halaj:tz
Chuvash:tvar
Yakut:ts
Dolgan:ts
Tuva:dus
Tofalar:tus
Kirghiz:tuz
Kazakh:tu_z
Noghai:tuz
Bashkir:to
Balkar:to
Gagauz:tuz
Karaim:tuz
Karakalpak:duz
Salar:duz,dz,tuz
Kumyk:duz
Comments:VEWT502,EDT571,3,288-289,Stachowski234.

Proto-Turkic:*dg-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:topound
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:tg-(MK)
378
Turkish:dv-
Tatar:tj-
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)tw-(AH),tj-(At-Tuhf.)
Azerbaidzhan:dj-
Turkmen:dv-
Chuvash:t-/tv-
Kazakh:tj-
Noghai:tj-
Bashkir:tj-
Balkar:tj-
Gagauz:d-
Karaim:tj-
Karakalpak:tj-
Kumyk:tj-
Comments:EDT477,3,270-272,VEWT492.

Proto-Turkic:*dg-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1totieinaknot,makealoop2button3knot
Russianmeaning:1,23
OldTurkic:tg-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tg-(MK)1
Turkish:dj-
Tatar:tj-m2
MiddleTurkic:tg-1(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tug-1
Uighur:tg-1
Azerbaidzhan:dj-
Turkmen:dv-1
Khakassian:tme2
379
Shor:tn3
Oyrat:tj-1
Halaj:tin3
Yakut:t-m-1,timex2
Dolgan:tmk'knot',timk,timek2
Tuva:dj-1
Tofalar:d-1
Kirghiz:tj-1
Kazakh:tj-1
Noghai:tj-1
Bashkir:tjn3
Balkar:tj-1
Gagauz:d-m-k3
Karaim:tjm3
Karakalpak:tj-1
Kumyk:tj-1
Comments:EDT477,3,307-308,VEWT503,Stachowski223.On
Mong.loansseeSKE264,TMN3,203.

Proto-Turkic:*dl

-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tofall,movedown
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:t-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:t-(MK)
Turkish:d-
Tatar:t

-
MiddleTurkic:t-(..,Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:tu-
Uighur:t-
380
Sary-Yughur:ts-
Azerbaidzhan:d-
Turkmen:d-
Shor:t-
Oyrat:t-
Yakut:ts-
Dolgan:ts-
Tuva:d-
Kirghiz:t-
Kazakh:ts-
Noghai:ts-
Bashkir:t

-
Balkar:t-
Gagauz:d-
Karaim:t-
Karakalpak:ts-
Kumyk:tu-
Comments:EDT560,VEWT507,3,330-333,Stachowski235.Turk.
(Bulg.)>Hung.dol(MNyTESz1,668-669).

Proto-Turkic:*dl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:noon
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:t(MK,KB)
Turkish:d(dial.)
Tatar:t
MiddleTurkic:t(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:tu
Uighur:
381
Turkmen:d(dial.)
Oyrat:t
Tuva:d'
Tofalar:d
Kirghiz:t
Kazakh:ts
Noghai:ts
Bashkir:t
Balkar:t
Karaim:t
Karakalpak:ts
Kumyk:t
Comments:VEWT507,EDT559,78-79.Turk.>Hung.del
'South,noon',seeMNyTESz1,606-607.

Proto-Turkic:*dl

-n-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tothink,understand
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:t-t-le-n-il-(OUygh.),tn-(OUygh.-USp.)
Turkish:dn-
Tatar:ten-
MiddleTurkic:dn-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:tuun-
Uighur:tn-,n-
Azerbaidzhan:dn-
Turkmen:dn-
Oyrat:t-met'intelligent,reasonable'
Yakut:ts'serious,reasonable'
Kirghiz:tn-
382
Kazakh:tsin-
Noghai:tsin-
Gagauz:dn-
Karaim:tn-
Karakalpak:tsin-
Kumyk:tn-
Comments:VEWT507,EDT562,335-336.

Proto-Turkic:*dm-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:drum
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:tmrg(MKOghuz.)
Turkish:dmr(Osm.),dmbek
MiddleTurkic:dmbek
Comments:EDT509,VEWT504-505.

Proto-Turkic:*dr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:arelativebymarriage
Russianmeaning:1,,2

OldTurkic:tr2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tr2(MK)
Turkish:dnr1,dial.dn''
Yakut:tr2
Gagauz:dnr''
Comments:EDT523,1955,172.Yak.>Evk.,Evn.tuur2(
2,217).

383
Proto-Turkic:*dr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:even,level
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:tz(Orkh.,OUygh.)1,tz-(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:tz1,tz-2(MK,KB)
Turkish:dz1,dz-2
Tatar:tz1,tz-2
MiddleTurkic:tz1(MA),tz-2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:tuz-2
Uighur:tz-2
Sary-Yughur:tz1,tz-2
Azerbaidzhan:dz1,dz-2
Turkmen:dz1,dz-2
Khakassian:ts1,tz-e-t-2
Shor:ts1,tz-e-t-2
Oyrat:ts1,tze-2
Chuvash:tr,tr(NW)1
Tofalar:ds
Kirghiz:tz1
Kazakh:tz-e-2
Noghai:tz-2
Bashkir:t-2
Balkar:tz1,tz-e-t-2
Gagauz:dz1,dz-2
Karaim:tz,tiz1,tz-,tz-2
Karakalpak:dz1,dz-,dze-,tze-2
Salar:tz,tiz1
Kumyk:tz1
384
Comments:See3,309-312,VEWT508,EDT571,572.Thewordis
interactingwith*dir-'tostring,thread'(v.sub*iu ru).

Proto-Turkic:*dr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sort,kind,shape2various
Russianmeaning:1,,2
OldTurkic:trlg1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:trlg1(MK,KB)
Turkish:trl1,2
Tatar:trli2
MiddleTurkic:trlg1(Sangl.)
Uzbek:turli2
Azerbaidzhan:drl(dial.)2
Turkmen:drli2
Chuvash:trl2
Kirghiz:tr1
Kazakh:trli2,tr1
Noghai:trli2
Bashkir:trl2
Balkar:trl2
Gagauz:trl1,2
Karaim:trl2
Karakalpak:trli2
Kumyk:trl2
Comments:EDT546-547,3,327-328(loanofformslikeKaz.tr<
Mong.driishardlyacceptable,despiteEDTibid.).

Proto-Turkic:*dl

(/*dl)
Altaicetymology:
385
Meaning:dream
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tl;te-'todream'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:t;te-'todream'(MK)
Turkish:d,dial.t
Tatar:t

MiddleTurkic:t(..,Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:du
Uighur:t,
Azerbaidzhan:t(dial.)
Turkmen:d
Khakassian:ts
Shor:t
Oyrat:t
Chuvash:tlk
Yakut:tl;th-'todream'
Dolgan:tl;th-'todream'
Tuva:d
Tofalar:d
Kirghiz:t
Kazakh:ts
Noghai:ts
Bashkir:t

Balkar:t
Gagauz:d
Karaim:t
Karakalpak:ts
Salar:tel
Kumyk:t
386
Comments:VEWT507,TMN3,211,EDT559,561,490,3,323-
324,Stachowski234,236.SeealsoRona-Tas1972onOldUyghurtlek
'supernaturalpower'.

Proto-Turkic:*dp
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bottom;root
Russianmeaning:;;
OldTurkic:tp(tb)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tp(tb)(MK)
Turkish:dip
Tatar:t

p
MiddleTurkic:tb(Pav.C.),tp(Abush.)
Uzbek:tub
Uighur:tp
Sary-Yughur:tp,top
Azerbaidzhan:dib
Turkmen:dp
Khakassian:tp
Shor:tp
Oyrat:tp
Chuvash:tp
Yakut:tgex(?)
Dolgan:tgek(?)
Tuva:dp
Tofalar:dp
Kirghiz:tp
Kazakh:tp
Noghai:tp
Bashkir:t

p
387
Gagauz:dip
Karaim:tp
Karakalpak:tp
Kumyk:tub
Comments:EDT434-435,VEWT505,3,317-319,TMN2,652-654(
>Mong.tb,tb),108-109,Stachowski234.

Proto-Turkic:*dr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tofold,rolltogether
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:tr-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:tr-(MK)
Turkish:dr-
Tatar:tr-
MiddleTurkic:tr-(MA,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:turmak-la-
Uighur:t(r)-
Azerbaidzhan:drmk''
Turkmen:djr-
Khakassian:tr-
Shor:trgek''
Oyrat:tr-
Yakut:tr-
Tuva:dr-
Tofalar:dr-
Kirghiz:tr-
Kazakh:tr-
Noghai:tr-
Bashkir:tr-
388
Gagauz:dr-
Karakalpak:tr-
Salar:tr-
Comments:VEWT506,EDT530-531,3,319-320.Turk.>Hung.tur-
'totuck',seeGombocz1912.
Proto-Turkic:*dtk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:pipe
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:ttek'aspoutofanewer'(MK),ddk'reedpipe,flute'(IM)
Turkish:ddk
MiddleTurkic:(OKypch.)ddk(AH)
Uzbek:tutak
Azerbaidzhan:ddk
Turkmen:tjdk
Kirghiz:ttk
Kazakh:ttik
Noghai:ddik
Gagauz:ddk
Karakalpak:tte
Salar:ttlx()
Kumyk:ddk
Comments:VEWT507,EDT455.

Proto-Turkic:*eb
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:house
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:eb(Orkh.),ev(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ev(MK),v(KB)
389
Turkish:ev
Tatar:j
MiddleTurkic:j(Pav.C.,..)
Uzbek:uj
Uighur:j
Sary-Yughur:j
Azerbaidzhan:ev
Turkmen:j
Khakassian:ib
Shor:em,(Kond.)j
Oyrat:j
Halaj:h

v
Chuvash:av-la-n-'tomarry'
Tuva:g
Tofalar:
Kirghiz:j
Kazakh:j
Noghai:j
Bashkir:j
Balkar:j
Gagauz:jev
Karaim:j
Karakalpak:j
Kumyk:j
Comments:VEWT34,EDT3-4,1,287-288,513-514,21,
500.Thewordfor'woman'insomelanguagesgoesbacktoPT
*eb-i("housewife"),seeEDT6;borrowedinMong.asebsi'femaleofabig
bear',seeClark1980,43).

Proto-Turkic:*ebin
390
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:grain,seed
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:evin(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:evin(MK,KB)
Turkish:Osm.evin,Anat.efin
MiddleTurkic:evin(Qutb)
Oyrat:ebin
Chuvash:avns ap-'toflail',avnkarti'cornfloor'>Mari(Low)avn,Mari
(High)n.
Comments:VEWT34,EDT12,.82.

Proto-Turkic:*ebir-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toturn
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ebir-(Orkh.),evir-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:evr-(MK)
Turkish:evir-
MiddleTurkic:evir-,iber-(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:wr-(dial.)
Turkmen:wr-
Khakassian:ibir-
Shor:ebir-
Oyrat:ebir-
Chuvash:avr-
Kazakh:jir-
Bashkir:wir-
Comments:EDT14,VEWT34,1,498-500,20.

391
Proto-Turkic:*ebi-s-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towinnow,blow
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:evs-(MK)
Turkish:evis-
Azerbaidzhan:s-
Turkmen:vs-,s-
Halaj:hp(i)s-,hs-
Chuvash:avs-
Comments:EDT15,VEWT49,1,553-554.Theformes-,attested
alreadyinMK(seeEDT240,ibid.)ispossiblyacontractionof*ebs-.

Proto-Turkic:*ebren
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:snake
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:(Osm.)evren'dragon',cf.mod.'heavenvault'(<`snake-rainbow'
?)
MiddleTurkic:MKypch.ewren'adder'(Houts.)
Chuvash:vres len'dragon'(lit.'hotsnake'),vereni(Bulg.)
Gagauz:ievrem'fierysnake'
Comments:EDT14.

Proto-Turkic:*Ebr(d)ek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:duck
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:direk(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:(MK)rdek
392
Turkish:rdek
Tatar:rdk
MiddleTurkic:evrek,evek(Qutb)
Uzbek:ordak
Uighur:(r)dk
Sary-Yughur:jrdek
Azerbaidzhan:rdk
Turkmen:rdek
Khakassian:rtek
Shor:rtek
Oyrat:rtk
Halaj:irdk
Yakut:rdkn'-'
Tuva:drek,edirek
Tofalar:drek
Kirghiz:rdk
Kazakh:jrek
Bashkir:jrk
Gagauz:jrdek
Karaim:rdek,erdek
Karakalpak:jrek,rdek
Kumyk:rdekdial.
Comments:EDT205,1,547-548,TMN2,31,172.

Proto-Turkic:*ed-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totan(leather)
Russianmeaning:()
Azerbaidzhan:ejm'leatherbagwithclabber'
Turkmen:ej-
393
Chuvash:ir-z'skinner'
Yakut:etirik`skinscraper'
Comments:1,236-237,335-336,.171,377.

Proto-Turkic:*Eder-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tofollow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:eder-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:eer-(MK)
Tatar:ijr-
Uzbek:ejr-(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:ezer-
Turkmen:ejer-
Khakassian:izert-
Chuvash:jer-
Tuva:eder-
Kazakh:ijer-
Bashkir:ijr-
Kumyk:ijer-
Comments:EDT67,VEWT36,1,242-245,61-62.

Proto-Turkic:*Edi
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:host
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:edi(idi)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ii(MK)
Turkish:ije,s,is
Tatar:ij
394
MiddleTurkic:eje(..,Abush.),ije(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:j(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:ise
Azerbaidzhan:jij
Turkmen:eje
Khakassian:
Shor:
Oyrat:
Yakut:ii
Dolgan:ii
Tuva:(<Oyr.orKhak.)
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:ije
Noghai:ije
Bashkir:ij
Balkar:ije
Karaim:ije,je
Karakalpak:ije
Kumyk:jeje
Comments:1,237-241,TMN2,176,EDT41,324-325,
Stachowski122.Someforms(Tur.s,is,Yak.iietc.)gobacktoa
suffixed*ede-si;theKhak.andShorformsshouldbeexplainedasa
haplologyofthesameform.

Proto-Turkic:*ed,*ed-g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thing,goods2good,excellent3goodaction,benefit
Russianmeaning:1,,2,3

OldTurkic:ed1(OUygh.),edg2
395
Karakhanid:e1,eg2(MK,KB)
Turkish:iji2
Tatar:ige,ijge
Turkmen:ejgi-lik3
Yakut:t2
Dolgan:t2
Tuva:eki2
Tofalar:e'kki2
Kirghiz:ijgi-lig3
Noghai:ijgi1
Balkar:igi,izgi1
Salar:1
Comments:1,245-247,248-249,329-330,VEWT35-36,EDT33,
51,Stachowski201.PT*ed-gisderivedfromPT*ed'thing,goods'
(326)(>Mong.ed,MMong.(SHetc.)ed,see1997,
113).Mong.edege-'tofeelbetter,recover'(Dag.edge-)isalsopossibly<
Turkic.

Proto-Turkic:*e de-r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:saddle
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:eer(MK)
Turkish:eyer
Tatar:ijr
MiddleTurkic:eger
Uzbek:egar
Uighur:eg(r)
Sary-Yughur:ezer
Azerbaidzhan:jhr
396
Turkmen:ejer
Khakassian:izer
Shor:ezer
Oyrat:r
Chuvash:jner
Yakut:r
Dolgan:r
Tuva:ezer
Tofalar:e'zer(.183)
Kirghiz:r
Kazakh:er
Noghai:ijer
Bashkir:ejr
Balkar:ijer
Gagauz:jr
Karaim:jer
Karakalpak:jer
Salar:eer(Kakuk)
Kumyk:er
Comments:EDT63,VEWT36,1,241-242,658-659,539,
Stachowski261.Reflexesoftheclusterarecomplicatedbyborrowings:
e.g.Tuva,Tof.is<Khak.Turk.*eder-ak'packsaddle'>MMong.
iiraq,WMong.jairaqid.(TMN2,128-129,1997,164,
88).

Proto-Turkic:*eg-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobend
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:eg-(OUygh.)
397
Karakhanid:eg-(MK)
Turkmen:eg-
Halaj:j-,jri
Chuvash:av-,aj-
Yakut:iex-
Dolgan:iek-
Comments:EDT99,VEWT37,1,330-332,19,Stachowski
122(Yak.iex-<*eg-ik-).

Proto-Turkic:*eg-d
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:acurvedknife
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:egd(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:egd(MK)
Turkish:egdi(dial.)
Turkmen:egdi
Chuvash:avd
Yakut:it
Kirghiz:ijdi
Comments:EDT102,VEWT37.Thesemanticsmusthavebeen
secondarilyinfluencedby*eg-'tobend,curve'.

Proto-Turkic:*egin
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:shoulder
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:egin(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:egin(MK)
Turkish:ein,ejin'back'
398
MiddleTurkic:egin(Abush.,Pav.C.),in(Pav.C.)'back'
Uzbek:egin
Sary-Yughur:igen
Azerbaidzhan:jin'body'
Turkmen:egin(dial.)
Khakassian:ini
Shor:in,egini
Oyrat:ijin
Chuvash:avn,an
Yakut:ien
Tuva:ein
Kirghiz:ijin
Kazakh:ijin
Noghai:ijin
Karaim:n,in
Karakalpak:ijin
Comments:EDT109,VEWT37,1,225-227,26,
239,1,42-43.

Proto-Turkic:*egir-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totwist,spin
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:egir-(MK)
Turkish:ejir-
Tatar:ir-(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:egir-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jigir-
Uighur:jiger-,igir-
Azerbaidzhan:jir-
399
Turkmen:egir-
Khakassian:r-
Shor:r-,egir-
Oyrat:ijir-
Halaj:hjir-
Chuvash:avr-la-
Yakut:r-is-'';ieregej'humming-top'
Dolgan:ieregej'drill'
Tuva:r-
Kirghiz:ijir-
Kazakh:ijir-
Noghai:ijir-
Balkar:ijir-
Karaim:ijir-
Karakalpak:ijir-
Salar:ier-
Kumyk:ijir-
Comments:EDT112,1,227-231,TMN2,192,1,27,
Stachowski122.TheChuv.formreflectsapartialmergerwith*ebir-(v.sub
*i

pV).

Proto-Turkic:*ej-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lowerside
Russianmeaning:
Chuvash:aj
Comments:AChuvashisolate(seeVEWT38,1,28),buthaving
probableexternalparallels.

Proto-Turkic:*ejek
400
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:side,upperrib
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:ejeg(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ejeg(MK,KB)
Turkish:eje;(Osm.)ejegi
MiddleTurkic:ejeg,jegi(Sangl.)
Chuvash:ajk
Yakut:ojoos(<*ajaku-?)
Dolgan:ojogos
Tuva:gi
Tofalar:gi
Comments:VEWT38,EDT272,38,.64,
275,Stachowski190.

Proto-Turkic:*Ej-men-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobeshy,timid,afraid
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:ejmen-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ejmen-(MK)
Turkish:imen-
Tatar:imn-
MiddleTurkic:ejmen-(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ijmn-
Uighur:jmn-
Azerbaidzhan:ejmn-(dial.)
Turkmen:ejmen-
Oyrat:ijmen-
Kirghiz:ijmen-
401
Kazakh:ijmen-
Noghai:ijmen-
Karaim:emen-
Karakalpak:ijmen-
Comments:VEWT10,EDT273,1,249-251.Turk.>WMong.
ajman-(1997,96);butMong.*aju-canbehardlyregardedasa
Turkism.

Proto-Turkic:*ek-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todecrease,beinsufficient2common,ordinary,lowclass;
fault,faulty
Russianmeaning:1,2,
;,
OldTurkic:egs-1,egil2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:egs-1(MK)
Turkish:eksi-,eksil-1,eksik2
MiddleTurkic:eks-1(Abush.),ks-,ksl-1(Pav.C.),ksk2(Abush.,
Pav.C.)
Uighur:gs-1(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:skik2
Turkmen:egis-,egsil-1,egsik2
Chuvash:iksl-1,jksek2
Kirghiz:ks-1,ksk2
Gagauz:jisil-1
Karaim:eksil-1,eksik2
Comments:1,257-258,77,.199;EDT106,
117.TheChuv.Anlautisnotquiteclear(iksl-<*jksl-?;oneofthecases
withprotheticj-,sotheopenness/closednessofthevowelinPTremains
402
unknown);1,193derivesChuv.jksikfromPT*jek(v.sub
*l

k`e),butthisisphoneticallyimpossible.

Proto-Turkic:*ek-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosow2toscatter
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:ek-(LateOUygh.)1
Karakhanid:ek-(MK,KB)1,2
Turkish:ek-1
Tatar:ik-1
MiddleTurkic:ek-(Abush.,Sangl.)1
Uzbek:ek-1
Uighur:ek-1
Azerbaidzhan:k-1,2
Turkmen:ek-1
Halaj:hk-1
Chuvash:ak-1
Kirghiz:ek-1
Kazakh:ek-1
Noghai:ek-1
Bashkir:ik-1
Gagauz:ek-1
Karaim:ek-1
Karakalpak:ek-1
Salar:ex-1
Comments:EDT100,1,251-252.Turk.>Hung.eke'plough'(<
*k),seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*eke
403
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:eldersister
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:eke(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:eke(MK);ege-t'femaleservantofbride'(MK)
Turkmen:ekei
Chuvash:akka
Comments:VEWT38,1,222-224,TMN1,190,2,91-92,EDT100,
102,23.

Proto-Turkic:*eker
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:huntingdog
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:igr(Sib.)
MiddleTurkic:iger(.)
Shor:eger
Oyrat:eger
Halaj:eger
Chuvash:agarjtti(>Hung.agar,seeGombocz1912)
Noghai:eger(Kum.)
Bashkir:igr'abastardofawolfandadog'
Comments:VEWT38,23.

Proto-Turkic:*ek(k)i
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:two
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:eki(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:eki(MK)
404
Turkish:iki
Tatar:ike
MiddleTurkic:iki(AH,IM)
Uzbek:ikki
Uighur:ikki
Sary-Yughur:ig
Azerbaidzhan:iki
Turkmen:iki
Khakassian:eke
Shor:igi
Oyrat:eki
Halaj:kki,kki
Chuvash:ikk
Yakut:ikki
Dolgan:ikki
Tuva:iji
Tofalar:ixi
Kirghiz:eki
Kazakh:eki
Noghai:eki
Bashkir:ike
Balkar:eki
Gagauz:iki
Karaim:ek
Karakalpak:eki
Salar:iky
Kumyk:eki
Comments:VEWT39,EDT100-1,1,337-339,67-68,
Stachowski124.

405
Proto-Turkic:*ek-li-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sour,acid,bitter2tobesour,bitter
Russianmeaning:1,2,
Karakhanid:ekig(MK)1
Turkish:eki1,eki-2
MiddleTurkic:eki1,eki-2(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:ki1
Turkmen:egit-2
Chuvash:jks(<*jks )1
Gagauz:i1,i-2
Karaim:eki1,eki-2
Comments:EDT118,1,259-260,.199.

Proto-Turkic:*el-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towalk,trot,amble
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:e-(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:e-(MK)
Turkish:e-
Tatar:t-(dial.)
Oyrat:e-(dial.)
Chuvash:i-
Yakut:is-
Dolgan:is-
Gagauz:ie-
Comments:EDT255,1,316,Stachowski129.

Proto-Turkic:*elge-
406
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosift;2sieve
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:elge-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:elge-1(MK),ele-1(IM),elek2(IM)
Turkish:ele-1,elek2
Tatar:il-1,ilk2
MiddleTurkic:ele-1,elek2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:ela-1,elak2
Uighur:gli-1,lgk2
Azerbaidzhan:l-1,lk2
Turkmen:ele-1,elek2
Khakassian:ilge-1,ilgek2
Shor:ele-1,elek2
Oyrat:elge-1,elgek2
Halaj:hjl-1,hjlk2
Chuvash:alla-1,alla2
Tuva:egle-/elge-1
Tofalar:elge-1,elgek2
Kirghiz:ele-,elge-1,elek,elgek2
Kazakh:ele-1,elek2
Noghai:ele-1,elek2
Bashkir:ile-1,ilek2
Balkar:ele-1,elek2
Gagauz:iele-1,ielek2
Karaim:ele-,le-1,elek,lek2
Karakalpak:ele-1,elek2
Salar:elex2(324)
Kumyk:ele-1,elek2
407
Comments:EDT143,VEWT40,1,261-263,24.The
behaviouroftheinternalclusterisphoneticallynormal(notonamorphemic
boundary).Turk.*elgek>WMong.elgeg,Kalm.elgg(KW119,TMN2,
118,1997,114).

Proto-Turkic:*elgek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:donkey
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:egek(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:egek,ejek(MK)
Turkish:eek
Tatar:ik
MiddleTurkic:eek(..,Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ek
Uighur:ek
Azerbaidzhan:ek
Turkmen:eek
Oyrat:etek
Chuvash:aak
Kirghiz:eek
Kazakh:esek
Noghai:eek
Bashkir:ik
Balkar:eek
Gagauz:ieek
Karaim:eek
Karakalpak:eek
Kumyk:eek
Comments:1,317-318,TMN2,65,EDT260.
408

Proto-Turkic:*eli
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lady,beg'sconsort
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:i/ei(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:i/ei(MK)
Comments:SeeEDT256,TMN2,182-183.Thewordisborrowedin
Mong.:MMong.esi(HY),WMong.esi'empress',Kalm.i'mother'(KW
210),OrdosiiGatu'nomd'unsanctuaire,eiqatun'(DO389),seeClark
1980,41.

Proto-Turkic:*elik
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:roebuck,wildgoat
Russianmeaning:(.)
OldTurkic:elik(OUygh.-YB)
Karakhanid:elik(KB)
Turkish:elik(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)elik(Houts.,AH)
Khakassian:ilk
Shor:elik
Oyrat:elik
Yakut:elik''
Tuva:elik
Tofalar:elik
Kirghiz:elik
Kazakh:elik
Bashkir:ilek
Karakalpak:elik
409
Comments:EDT142,VEWT40,1,265-266,153.

Proto-Turkic:*elit-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tohear
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:eid-(Orkh.),eit-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:eit-(MK,KB)
Turkish:iit-
Tatar:iet-;dial.(Mishar)i-'hear'(156),(Bar.)in-'listen'(
140)
MiddleTurkic:eit-(Abush.63)
Uzbek:eit-
Uighur:eet-(Kashg.,109)
Azerbaidzhan:eit-,pass.eidil-
Turkmen:eit-,pass.eidil-
Khakassian:is-/ist-
Halaj:it-
Chuvash:ilt-
Yakut:ihit-,pass.ihilin-
Dolgan:ihit-,pass.ihilin-
Kirghiz:eit-
Kazakh:est-
Noghai:esit-
Bashkir:iet-
Balkar:et-
Gagauz:iit-
Karaim:it-
Karakalpak:esit-
Salar:iti-
410
Kumyk:eit-
Comments:VEWT51,EDT257-8,1,318-319,69,
Stachowski123.Note-d-inRunicandthevoicingof-tbeforeavowelin
Az.andTurkm.Khak.hastwoformsofstem(is-andiste-,
morphonologicallydistributed,sothatis-<iste-;thesamehistorical
processcouldhaveoccurredwith.Kr.-,Kach.e-(R1,905);sothe
onlyclearevidenceforthestem*el-areTatardialectalreflexes(inwhich
case-tmaybeacausativesuffix,seeBang1925,Zajaczkowski1932).
Shoreste-'tohear',estel-'tobeheard'donotbelonghere,beingderived
from*es>is'mind,memory',likeMod.Uygh.ala-'tohear'<a'mind'.

Proto-Turkic:*el,-ig
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hand
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:elig(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:elig(MK)
Turkish:el
MiddleTurkic:el,elig(Abush.,MA,..,Sangl.)
Uzbek:ilik(arch.)
Uighur:ilik(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:l
Azerbaidzhan:l
Turkmen:el
Shor:ilik(.),ilgilik'mitten'
Halaj:

l
Chuvash:al
Yakut:il,el
Dolgan:il
Tofalar:eldik'mitten'
411
Gagauz:jel
Salar:el
Comments:VEWT39,EDT140-1,1,260-261,251,
24,Stachowski125-126.

Proto-Turkic:*Eltiri
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:skinofkidorlamb
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:elri,eldiri(MK)
Turkish:elteri(dial.)
Tatar:iltir
MiddleTurkic:eltirik(IM)
Uighur:lter
Turkmen:elteri,elter(dial.)
Kazakh:eltiri
Noghai:eltiri
Bashkir:iltir
Balkar:eltiri,eltir
Karakalpak:eltiri
Kumyk:eltir
Comments:EDT135,1,269-270.

Proto-Turkic:*el-t-,--
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobring,carry2tolead,drive,send
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:elt-(Orkh.,OUygh.)1,2
Karakhanid:elt-,elet-(MK)1
Turkish:ilet-1,2
412
Tatar:ilt-1
MiddleTurkic:elt-(Houts.)2,ilet-(Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:elt-1
Uighur:ilt-(dial.)1
Sary-Yughur:elt-1,2
Turkmen:elt-1,2
Chuvash:jes-,les-2
Yakut:ilt-1,2
Bashkir:ilt-1
Balkar:elt-1,2
Karaim:elt-1,2
Kumyk:elt-1,2
Comments:EDT132,VEWT41,1,267-269,Stachowski125,126.
Turk.>Mong.elde-,Kalm.eld-(KW119).

Proto-Turkic:*elk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mockery,ridicule
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:elk(MK)
Turkmen:ilgezik'glib,jaunty'(?)
Khakassian:elk
Karaim:elik
Comments:1,264-265,EDT142.Turk.>WMong.eleg,ileg,
Khalkhaeleg(KW119).

Proto-Turkic:*em-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:now
Russianmeaning:
413
OldTurkic:emti(OUygh.)
Turkish:imdi
Tatar:indi
MiddleTurkic:imdi(AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:endi
Uighur:mdi
Azerbaidzhan:indi
Turkmen:indi,-ndi
Oyrat:emdi
Chuvash:nd
Kirghiz:emi,endi
Kazakh:endi
Noghai:endi
Bashkir:indi
Balkar:endi
Karaim:endi
Karakalpak:endi
Kumyk:endi
Comments:EDT156-157,VEWT41,1,357-358,65,
83(withconfusionof*em-and*am-q.v.sub*amV).

Proto-Turkic:*eme
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1female2oldwoman
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:oma(MK"Tibetan")1(?)
Turkish:dial.eme2
Azerbaidzhan:dial.m2
Chuvash:ama1
Kirghiz:eme2
414
Comments:VEWT42,220,25,EDT156(a"nursery"word,
spreadalsoinotherAltaiclanguages).

Proto-Turkic:*emge-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosuffer,betortured2bother,worry,pains
Russianmeaning:1,2,
,
OldTurkic:emge-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:emge-1,emgek2(MK)
Turkish:emen-1,emek2
Tatar:imgn-1,imgk2
MiddleTurkic:emgen-(AH,Pav.C.)1,emgek(AH,Abush.),emek(Pav.
C.)2
Uzbek:dial.emgk2
Uighur:dial.mgn-1,mgk2
Azerbaidzhan:mk2
Turkmen:emgen-1,emgek2
Chuvash:aman-1,amak'illness'
Yakut:emek'decrepit'
Tuva:ebek'chronicillness'
Kirghiz:emgek2
Kazakh:ebek2
Noghai:embek2
Bashkir:imgn-1,imgk2
Karaim:emgen-1,emgek2
Comments:EDT159,VEWT42,1,272-275,25-26.Turk.>Mong.
emge-(1997,114).

Proto-Turkic:*Emgek-
415
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocrawl
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:mgekle-(OUygh.)
Turkish:emekle-
MiddleTurkic:emgekle-(..,Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:emkl-
Uighur:ikl-(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:imkl-
Turkmen:imekle-
Khakassian:imekte-,nimekte-
Shor:emekte-
Oyrat:emekte-,emgekte-
Kirghiz:emgekte-
Kazakh:ebekte-
Gagauz:mekle-
Comments:EDT160,VEWT42,1,275.Thenoun*emgek'crawling'
ispreservedinTur.dial.imek,Chag.emgek'crawlingchild'(and,despite
Clausonibid.itcertainlyhasnothingtodowith*emgek'worry,pains',see
*emge-).Cf.alsoformslikeTurkm.ekej-'bow'andYak.,Dolg.k-'to
bow'(contractions?);seeStachowski251.

Proto-Turkic:*em-ig,*em-ek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1breast(fem.)2tosuck3nipple
Russianmeaning:1(.)23
OldTurkic:emig1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:em-2(MK),emig1(MK)
Turkish:em-2,emik1
Tatar:im-2,imk1
416
MiddleTurkic:em-2(Pav.C.),emek1(Abush.)
Uzbek:emak1
Uighur:m-2,mk1
Sary-Yughur:em1
Azerbaidzhan:mk3
Turkmen:em-2,emek1
Khakassian:em-2,imek1
Halaj:m-2
Chuvash:m-2
Yakut:em-2,emj1
Dolgan:emij1
Tuva:em-2,emig1
Tofalar:em-2,emij'udder'
Kirghiz:emek1
Noghai:emek1
Bashkir:imsk1
Karakalpak:emek1
Comments:VEWT41-2,EDT158-9,1,271-272,63,
273-274,Stachowski45.PT*em-igand*em-ek(thelatterformis
firstattestedinthe13thc.)arederivedfrom*em-'tosuck'.

Proto-Turkic:*en
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:not(prohibitiveparticle)
Russianmeaning:()
Chuvash:an
Comments:26-27,1,43-45.AnisolatedChuv.form,but
probablyarchaic(cf.theexternalevidence).Cf.alsoKarakh.(MKOghuz)
a'anexclamationmeaning"no"'(seeEDT165)-butitisahapax,occurs
417
onlywithinareduplicationaa,doesnotregularlycorrespondtoChuv.an
andmaybejustonomatopoeic.

Proto-Turkic:*En
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1earmark(ondomesticanimals)2tomakeanearmark3to
castrate
Russianmeaning:1()2
3
Karakhanid:ene-2(MK),3(MK-Kypch.)
Turkish:enek1,(dial.)en1,ene-3
Tatar:in-(dial.)2
MiddleTurkic:en(.),in(Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:en(dial.)1
Uighur:n1
Azerbaidzhan:en(dial.)1
Khakassian:in1
Kirghiz:en1
Kazakh:en1,dial.ene-2
Noghai:en1
Bashkir:in,inw1
Karakalpak:en1
Comments:1,177-278,EDT166,171.

Proto-Turkic:*En
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tranquil,atpeace
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:en;ensire-'tobeuneasy'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:en(MK,KB),enr-n-'toliveinpeace'(KB)
418
Tatar:in'peace'(dial.,Bar.,139)dial.
Sary-Yughur:inek-t'quiet'(32)
Oyrat:en1,enik-'togetaccustomed',enik'habit',eni-le-'tosoothe'
Comments:EDT171-172,173,174,VEWT172,43.

Proto-Turkic:*enk(*nek)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:youngofawildanimal,puppy
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:enk(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:enk(MK)
Turkish:enik,enek
MiddleTurkic:enk(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:enk(Chag.)
Azerbaidzhan:nix(dial.)
Shor:nege
Oyrat:nege
Chuvash:ank
Yakut:nges
Dolgan:nges
Tuva:enik
Gagauz:jenik
Comments:EDT183,VEWT44,1,281-283,29,Stachowski
251.

Proto-Turkic:*e
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:very
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:e(Orkh.,OUygh.)
419
Karakhanid:e(KB)
Turkish:en
Tatar:i
Uzbek:e
Uighur:
Sary-Yughur:je
Azerbaidzhan:n
Turkmen:i
Khakassian:i,dial.ni
Shor:e
Oyrat:e
Yakut:ein'diverse,various'
Dolgan:ein-ein'diverse'
Tuva:e
Kirghiz:e
Kazakh:e
Noghai:e
Bashkir:i
Balkar:e
Gagauz:he
Karaim:ek
Karakalpak:e
Comments:VEWT45,EDT166,1,365-366,Stachowski43.Turk.>
Mong.e,seeTMN2,130.

Proto-Turkic:*e-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobeperplexed2stupid3bashful,gauche4totorture,pester
Russianmeaning:123,
4,
420
Karakhanid:e-1;(caus.)eit-,etr-(MK);endik2(MK)
Turkish:(dial.)endik3
MiddleTurkic:(Xwar.)entik2(Qutb)
Uzbek:enka-tenkasiniiqar-4
Khakassian:ide-t-'toflounder(ofthoughts)'
Chuvash:ank-mink'stupidity,madness'(butmaybe<Tat.,see*a-)
Yakut:?eej-'tolookgreedilyonfood,waitforasop'
Kirghiz:en

'',ente-'tobecomeconfused',eke'stupidperson'
Comments:EDT168,179,181,1,155,156-157(sub*a-
'perplexed,silly').

Proto-Turkic:*eir-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tospin2tosurround
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:eir-(OUygh.)1
MiddleTurkic:eir-(.)2
Tuva:

r-1
Comments:EDT113,VEWT37.

Proto-Turkic:*ese
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:backoftheneck
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:ense
MiddleTurkic:ese,s(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:ens
Turkmen:jese
Oyrat:eze
Chuvash:nze,jnze
421
Kirghiz:ese
Kazakh:ese
Noghai:ese
Gagauz:jens
Karaim:ese,ense
Karakalpak:ese
Kumyk:ese
Comments:4,190-191,65,237-238.

Proto-Turkic:*Ep-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toblow2movementofair,breeze3energy,tempo4gusty
(wind)
Russianmeaning:1,2,3,
,4()
Tatar:ip-1(Seb.)
Uzbek:pkin(dial.)2
Oyrat:epkin2
Kirghiz:epkin3
Kazakh:epkin2
Noghai:epkinli4
Karakalpak:epkin3
Comments:42.

Proto-Turkic:*Epej
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bakedbread
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:ipi
Bashkir:pj
422
Comments:Formslikeepmekmaybelongherebutcontaminatedwith
*etmek(v.sub*ite).

Proto-Turkic:*er-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobe(aux.)
Russianmeaning:(.)
OldTurkic:er-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:er-(MK,KB)
Turkish:i-
Tatar:i-(i-ken(perf.)'itappears',i-me(evident.)'...saysthatitis')
MiddleTurkic:er-(Abush.)
Uzbek:e-,er-r(fut.)
Uighur:e-
Sary-Yughur:er-
Azerbaidzhan:i-
Turkmen:er-
Khakassian:i-
Shor:e-
Oyrat:e-
Halaj:r-(D.GCh182)
Yakut:e-/er-
Dolgan:e-/er-
Tuva:e-/ir-
Kirghiz:e-
Kazakh:e-
Noghai:e-
Bashkir:i-
Balkar:e-
Gagauz:i-/ir-
423
Karaim:e-
Karakalpak:e-
Salar:ir-(Kakuk182)
Kumyk:e-
Comments:EDT193-194,VEWT46,1,218-220,Stachowski42,46.
Theverbfrequentlyoccursase-,withoutthefinal-r-(seeibid.).

Proto-Turkic:*er-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1coquetry2cockering,endearment3cockered,beloved4
entertainment,joke
Russianmeaning:12,3,
4,
Turkish:erke(dial.)3
Tatar:irk3,(dial.)irmk4
MiddleTurkic:erke1,2,3(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:erk1,3,ermak4
Uighur:rk3,ermk4
Azerbaidzhan:rk(dial.)2,3
Turkmen:ermek4(dial.)
Khakassian:irk3
Shor:erke3,erbek4
Oyrat:erke3,ermek,erbek4
Chuvash:jrgn`wriggler,trickster'(Ashm.)
Yakut:erke2
Tuva:ere2
Kirghiz:erke3,ermek4
Kazakh:erke3,ermek4
Noghai:erke3
Bashkir:irk3,irmk4
424
Balkar:erke3
Karakalpak:erke3,ermek4
Kumyk:erke3
Comments:VEWT48,1,296-297,300-301,TMN2,181-182.The
rootiswidelyspread,althoughunattestedinoldersources;itsrelationship
to*eril-'contest'(suggestedin297)isdubious.

Proto-Turkic:*er-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toscratch,scrape2toknead,press3togrind,crush4tosoak,
dilute5torub,smear
Russianmeaning:1,2,3,
4,5,
Karakhanid:ez-(MK)1
Turkish:ez-2,3,4
Tatar:iz-2
MiddleTurkic:ez-(..,Pav.C.)5
Uzbek:ez-2,5
Uighur:z-2,3
Azerbaidzhan:z-2
Turkmen:ez-4
Halaj:z-2
Chuvash:ir-2,4
Kirghiz:ez-2
Kazakh:ez-2,4
Noghai:ez-2
Bashkir:i-2
Balkar:ez-2,3
Gagauz:ez-2,3
Karaim:ez-2,3
425
Karakalpak:ez-2
Kumyk:ez-3
Comments:EDT279,1,235-236,71,1,170.

Proto-Turkic:*eren
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wormwood
Russianmeaning:
Chuvash:arm
Kazakh:izen(R)
Comments:VEWT48,346,1,57-58.Turk.(Bulg.)>
Hung.rm,seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*Eren
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:man,mankind
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:eren(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:eren(MK)
Tatar:irn(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:eren(Pav.C.)
Uighur:ejen(Lob.)
Sary-Yughur:eren
Khakassian:iren
Kirghiz:eren
Kazakh:eren
Karaim:eren
Comments:1,290-291.

Proto-Turkic:*erge
426
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1partoftheyurtclosetothedoor2threshhold3stairs
Russianmeaning:123
MiddleTurkic:irgene'smth.belongingtothetent'(Sangl.)
Khakassian:irkn2
Oyrat:irge2
Chuvash:arg`lap'
Yakut:ergene,ergine3
Kirghiz:ergilek1
Kazakh:erge,irge1
Comments:VEWT47,1,56-57.

Proto-Turkic:*eri-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tomelt
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:er-(MK)
Turkish:eri-
MiddleTurkic:eri-(Abushk.)
Uzbek:eri-
Uighur:iri-
Azerbaidzhan:ri-
Turkmen:ere-
Khakassian:ir-
Oyrat:eri-
Chuvash:irl-
Yakut:ir-
Dolgan:ir-
Tuva:eri-
Kirghiz:eri-
427
Kazakh:eri-
Bashkir:ire-
Balkar:eri-
Gagauz:jeri-
Karaim:iri-
Karakalpak:eri-
Salar:iri-
Kumyk:iri-
Comments:1,289-290,Stachowski128,EDT198.

Proto-Turkic:*Erig
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:rough,large
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:erig(OUygh.)'wild'
Karakhanid:erig(MK)'lively,energetic'
Turkish:iri
Tatar:iri
MiddleTurkic:iri(..),irik(..,Pav.C.),erig(Qutb.)
Uzbek:jirik
Uighur:irik,jirik
Azerbaidzhan:iri
Turkmen:ri
Kirghiz:iri
Kazakh:iri
Noghai:iri
Bashkir:iri
Karaim:iri
Karakalpak:iri
428
Comments:EDT221,222,1,371-372.Modernlanguagesreveala
secondaryvowelnarrowing.Turk.>Hung.reg.

Proto-Turkic:*Erin
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lip
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:erin(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:erin(MK)
Turkish:erin(dial.)
Tatar:irin
MiddleTurkic:iren(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:irin
Turkmen:erin
Khakassian:irin
Oyrat:erin
Halaj:

rin
Tuva:erin
Tofalar:erin'chin'
Kirghiz:erin
Kazakh:erin
Noghai:erin
Bashkir:irin
Balkar:erin
Karaim:erin
Karakalpak:erin
Kumyk:erin
Comments:EDT232-233,VEWT48,1,292-293,226-227.
Seealsonotesto*Erneg'edge'.

429
Proto-Turkic:*er-kek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1man2husband3male
Russianmeaning:123
Karakhanid:erkek1(MK,KB)
Turkish:erkek1
Tatar:irkk3
Uzbek:erkak1
Azerbaidzhan:erkk1
Turkmen:erkek1
Oyrat:erkek1,2
Halaj:hirkk1
Yakut:irgex3
Dolgan:irgek3
Tuva:irgek3
Tofalar:i'rxek3
Kirghiz:erkek1
Kazakh:erkek1
Noghai:erkek1
Bashkir:irkk3
Balkar:erkek1
Gagauz:erkek1
Karaim:erkek1
Karakalpak:erkek1
Salar:rkex1
Kumyk:erkek1
Comments:VEWT46,TMN2,178-9,EDT192,1,297-298,321-
322,303,561,30,Stachowski46,128.Wefollow
Clauson(EDT223-4)inseparating*rfrom*er-kek.
Proto-Turkic:*Erneg
430
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:edge(ofadish)
Russianmeaning:,()
Turkish:ernek(dial.)
Tatar:irnw
MiddleTurkic:ernek(Pav.C.)
Turkmen:erek
Kirghiz:erd

Kazakh:ernew
Bashkir:irne-'toborder'
Karakalpak:ernek
Comments:1,301.Therootisattestedlateandmaybetheoretically
derivedfrom*Erin'lip'(v.sub*i

re );however,thelattercanalsomean'edge
(ofadish)'insomelanguagesandonecansuspectthatPTactually
merged*Erin'lip'and*Erin'edge',whiletheform*Ernegwasderivedonly
fromthelatter.

Proto-Turkic:*erek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:finger,thumb
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:erek(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:erek,dial.ernek(MK)
MiddleTurkic:ernek(Pav.C.)
Khakassian:irgek
Oyrat:ergek
Yakut:erbex
Dolgan:erbek'peg'
Tuva:ergek
Comments:EDT234,1,299,253-255,Stachowski47.
431

Proto-Turkic:*erk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1plum2apricot
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:erk1,2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:erk1,2(MK)
Turkish:erik1
Tatar:

rik2
MiddleTurkic:erk(AH)'peach',rk(Abush.)1
Uzbek:orik2
Uighur:rk2
Azerbaidzhan:rik2
Turkmen:erik2
Kirghiz:rk2
Kazakh:orik2
Bashkir:

k2
Balkar:erik1
Gagauz:ierik1
Karaim:erik1
Karakalpak:erik2
Salar:rx1
Kumyk:erik1
Comments:EDT222,1,291-292.

Proto-Turkic:*es
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1memory,mind2topity,regret
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:es1(OUygh.)
432
Karakhanid:es1(KB),esirge-2(MK)
Tatar:is1
MiddleTurkic:es1(AH,KW)
Uzbek:es1
Uighur:s1
Azerbaidzhan:ksi(<s-ki)'clever'
Turkmen:es1
Oyrat:es1
Chuvash:as1
Kazakh:es1
Noghai:es1
Bashkir:i1
Balkar:es1
Karaim:es1
Karakalpak:es1
Kumyk:es1
Comments:EDT252,VEWT49,50,1,310,33,1,
61.Turk.>WMong.esi,Kalm.i'allowing,etiquette'.

Proto-Turkic:*es-(k)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:old,ancient
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:eski(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:eski(MK,KB)
Turkish:eski,dial.esgi
Tatar:iske
MiddleTurkic:eski(Sangl.,Pav.C.,AH,IM)
Uzbek:eski
Uighur:eski,ski
433
Azerbaidzhan:ski,silli'grownup'
Turkmen:esgi
Oyrat:eski
Chuvash:as-l'great',az-(-atte,-anne)'grandfather,grandmother'
Yakut:sk'ancienttimes'
Kirghiz:eski
Kazakh:eski
Noghai:eski
Bashkir:ike
Balkar:eski
Gagauz:ieski
Karaim:eski
Karakalpak:eski
Kumyk:esgi,eski
Comments:VEWT50,1,306-308,86,EDT246,
1,63-64.Cf.alsoTurk.*as-'old,lastyear's'(VEWT29).

Proto-Turkic:*esr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobecomedrunk
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:esr-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:esr-(MK)
Turkish:esri-
Tatar:isir-
MiddleTurkic:esri-(AH)
Uzbek:sir-(dial.)
Turkmen:esre-
Khakassian:izir-
Shor:ezir-
434
Oyrat:ezir-
Chuvash:zr-
Yakut:itir-
Dolgan:itirikt-'torejoice,haveafeast'
Tuva:ezir-
Tofalar:e`siri-
Kirghiz:esir-
Kazakh:esir-
Noghai:esir-
Bashkir:iir-
Balkar:esir-
Karaim:esir-
Karakalpak:esir-
Kumyk:esir-
Comments:EDT251,VEWT50,1,309-310,Stachowski130.

Proto-Turkic:*et
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:meat
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:et(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:et(MK)
Turkish:et
Tatar:it
MiddleTurkic:et(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:et
Uighur:t
Sary-Yughur:jeht
Azerbaidzhan:t
Turkmen:et
435
Khakassian:it
Shor:et
Oyrat:et
Halaj:t(<Az.?)
Chuvash:t
Yakut:et
Dolgan:et
Tuva:e't
Tofalar:e't
Kirghiz:et
Kazakh:et
Noghai:et
Bashkir:it
Balkar:et
Gagauz:jet'
Karaim:et
Karakalpak:et
Salar:ht
Kumyk:et
Comments:VEWT52,EDT33,1,311-312,455,
Stachowski48.

Proto-Turkic:*Etek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lap,edgeofcloth
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:etek(MK)
Turkish:etek
Tatar:itk
MiddleTurkic:etek(..,Abush.,Pav.C.)
436
Uzbek:etk
Uighur:etk
Azerbaidzhan:tk
Turkmen:etek
Khakassian:idek
Shor:edek
Oyrat:edek
Halaj:htk
Tuva:e'dek
Kirghiz:etek
Kazakh:etek
Noghai:etek
Bashkir:itk
Balkar:etek
Gagauz:ietek
Karaim:etek
Karakalpak:etek
Kumyk:etek
Comments:EDT50,VEWT52,1,313.

Proto-Turkic:*et-mek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bread
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:tmek(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:etmek(MK),epmek(MK-Oghuz,Qypch.)
Turkish:etmek,ekmek
Tatar:ikmk
MiddleTurkic:etmek,tmek(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:ppk
437
Turkmen:(dial.)ekmek,epmek
Khakassian:ipek
Shor:itpk
Oyrat:tpk
Noghai:tpek
Bashkir:ikmk
Balkar:tmek
Gagauz:iekmek
Karaim:ekmek,etmek,tmek
Kumyk:ekmek
Comments:EDT12,60,VEWT376,1,254-256.Theoldestformis
clearly*et-mekwithvarioussubsequentassimilations.

Proto-Turkic:*b-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tohurry2quick
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:evk(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:ev-(KB)1,evek2(MK,KB)
Turkish:ev-1
MiddleTurkic:ev-(MA,IM,Qutb.,Houts.)
Turkmen:v-1
Khakassian:ibek2
Shor:ibek2
Chuvash:ava-1;avk'moment;quick'
Comments:EDT4,8-9,VEWT34,19(1,25-26-
differently).

Proto-Turkic:*-(-)
Altaicetymology:
438
Meaning:tosubmit
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:iik-(Orkh.,OUygh.),eik-(Yen.)
Karakhanid:eik-(MK)
Uighur:ein-'torepent,regret'
Turkmen:ez'weak,fenceless'
Khakassian:is-'toobey'
Comments:EDT25.

Proto-Turkic:* dil
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:vessel
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:edi(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ed/i(MK),iji(IM)
MiddleTurkic:edi(Abush.,Sangl.),ii(Qutb)
Turkmen:di(dial.)
Khakassian:dial.edis
Halaj:hid
Yakut:ihit
Tuva:idi
Tofalar:idi
Kirghiz:idi
Kazakh:ds
Karakalpak:ds
Comments:VEWT36,EDT72,1,328-329.Turk.>Mong.idi(see
1997,119).Yak.ihit<isit<itis;mostoftheothermodernforms
areprobablybackloans<Mong.

Proto-Turkic:* g-id-
439
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1togrow,bringup2high,raisedup3huge
Russianmeaning:1,2,3

OldTurkic:igid-,egid-1,ediz(<*dgir)2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:igi-1,eiz2(MK)
Turkmen:girt3
Yakut:t-1
Dolgan:t-1
Comments:EDT73,103,VEWT36,169,1,224-225,Stachowski
131.

Proto-Turkic:* ke-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tofile2file(n.)
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:ike-(ege-)1(MK)
Turkish:eje2
Tatar:ig-1,igw2
MiddleTurkic:ekk2(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:egw2
Uighur:ekk,igk2
Azerbaidzhan:j2
Turkmen:ge2
Khakassian:ige-1
Oyrat:ege-1,eg2
Chuvash:jgev'whetstone'
Yakut:ig2
Dolgan:ig2
Tuva:ee-,e-1,e2
440
Kirghiz:ege-,g-1,eg

,g

2
Kazakh:ege-1,egew2
Noghai:ege-1,egew2
Bashkir:ig-1,igw2
Balkar:egew2
Gagauz:ija2
Karaim:ege,egew2
Karakalpak:ege-1,egew2
Kumyk:egew2
Comments:EDT101,VEWT38,1,326-328,TMN2,93,77,
399,Stachowski123.

Proto-Turkic:*ke-(-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobeinsolent,quarrel
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:ike-,ike-(MK)
Turkish:ige-
Tatar:ege-
Turkmen:gen-'toscold,growlat'
Yakut:ee'faultfinding',eel-'tofindfaults'
Tuva:egen-'tofeeluncomfortable'
Kirghiz:ege-
Kazakh:eges-
Noghai:eges-
Comments:EDT101,118-119.

Proto-Turkic:*l

-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todig2totear,ripopen3torow4toswim5tothrowaway
441
Russianmeaning:12345
Turkish:e-1
Tatar:i-2
MiddleTurkic:e-1(Abush.)
Azerbaidzhan:e-2
Turkmen:ij-gek`oar'
Khakassian:is-3
Halaj:h-
Chuvash:alt-1
Yakut:es-,is-5
Tuva:eti-4,e-3
Tofalar:e-,e'hit-3
Kirghiz:e-1
Comments:VEWT51,EDT255-6,1,315-316,.95.
Chuv.i-'torow;toswim;todemolish,tear'isevidentlyborrowedfromTat.
(asopposedtothegenuineal-t-).Khal.h-isunclearhere(external
evidenceclearlypointsto*0-).

Proto-Turkic:*l
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1peace2people,country
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:el2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:el1,2(MK)
Turkish:il,el2
Tatar:il2
MiddleTurkic:il(AH),el(Abush.,Pav.C.)2
Uzbek:el2
Uighur:il,l2
Azerbaidzhan:el2
442
Turkmen:l2
Khakassian:il2
Oyrat:el2
Chuvash:jal2
Yakut:il2
Kirghiz:el2
Kazakh:el2
Noghai:el2
Bashkir:il2
Balkar:el2
Gagauz:iel2
Karaim:el2
Karakalpak:el2
Kumyk:el2
Comments:EDT121-122,VEWT39,TMN2,194,1,339-343,
352,316.Themeaning"peace"attestedinMKisprobably
themostarchaic(cf.theexternalparallels;typologicallycf.alsoSlavic
*mir'peace'>'world'),suggestingadevelopment*'peace'>'peaceful
people,realm,country'.

Proto-Turkic:*l

-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tospin,twist
Russianmeaning:,,
Tatar:i-
MiddleTurkic:e-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:e-
Uighur:-
Azerbaidzhan:e-
Turkmen:-
443
Tuva:e-
Kirghiz:e-
Kazakh:es-
Bashkir:i-
Balkar:e-
Karaim:e-
Karakalpak:es-
Kumyk:e-
Comments:1,396.

Proto-Turkic:* l
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:friend,companion,mate
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:e(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:e(MK)
Turkish:e
MiddleTurkic:e(Sangl.)
Chuvash:j'family'
Tuva:e
Tofalar:e
Comments:EDT253-254,1,313-314,83,314.

Proto-Turkic:*l

-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tocover2(door)curtain>door
Russianmeaning:12()>
Karakhanid:e-1,eik/ek2(MK)
Turkish:eik2
Tatar:iik2
444
MiddleTurkic:iik2(AH,IM),ik(IM),eik2(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:eik2
Azerbaidzhan:eik2
Turkmen:ik2
Khakassian:zik,izik2
Shor:eik2
Oyrat:eik2
Halaj:^k2
Chuvash:alg,alk2
Tuva:eik2
Kirghiz:eik2
Noghai:esik2
Bashkir:iik2
Balkar:eik2
Gagauz:jeik2
Karaim:eik2
Karakalpak:esik2
Kumyk:eik2
Comments:EDT256,260,TMN2,183-184,24,1,396-398,
511-512,517.
Proto-Turkic:*n-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:togodown
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:en-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:en-(MK)
Turkish:in-,dial.en-
Tatar:in-,i-
MiddleTurkic:en-(MA,IM,Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:en-
445
Turkmen:n-
Khakassian:in-
Shor:en-
Oyrat:en-
Halaj:^n-
Chuvash:an-
Yakut:enie
Kazakh:en-,dial.e-
Noghai:en-
Bashkir:in-
Gagauz:jin-
Karaim:en-
Karakalpak:en-
Kumyk:in-
Comments:VEWT43,1,353-354,26.

Proto-Turkic:*n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:breadth,width
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:en(MK,KB)
Turkish:en
Tatar:i
Uzbek:en
Uighur:n
Azerbaidzhan:en
Turkmen:n
Khakassian:in
Oyrat:en
Halaj:hn,hn
446
Chuvash:an
Yakut:ien
Dolgan:ien
Kirghiz:en
Kazakh:en
Noghai:en
Bashkir:i
Balkar:en
Karaim:en
Karakalpak:en
Kumyk:en
Comments:EDT165,VEWT43,1,352,26,Stachowski
122.

Proto-Turkic:*n-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosuffer2tobeabashed,distressed4colic5togrizzle,slug6
(birth)pains,labours7impatience8drag,disturbance9flaw,fault10
obtuse,absent-minded11totorture,offend
Russianmeaning:12,
45,6,7
8,9,10,
11,
OldTurkic:eneg4(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:enik-'tolosefeelings'(MK,KB),eneg4(MK),enit-(AH)2
Turkish:ini-1
Tatar:intek-1,ene-le-5
MiddleTurkic:entk-1
Uzbek:entik-1
Uighur:inik6
447
Azerbaidzhan:ini-1
Oyrat:eni6,enik7
Halaj:ini-1
Chuvash:andx-1,7,anzux'dumb,scleroticperson'
Yakut:enn'e-lik8,eni9
Kirghiz:ente-le-2,entik-'tosufferfromdyspnoea',en

10
Noghai:enew4
Bashkir:intek-1,inte-11
Balkar:ini-1
Gagauz:enek'newborn'
Karaim:int-,init-11(T)
Kumyk:ini-1
Comments:EDT174,184,1,283,29.Doerfer(Khal.)
suggestsArabicorigin,whichisquiteimprobable.Vowellengthis
suggestedbythevoiced--ofthesuffixinseverallanguages.

Proto-Turkic:*n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1fief,landandvassalspresentedbytheruler2gift,dowry
Russianmeaning:1,,
2,
OldTurkic:in(/anu)1(OUygh.)
Tatar:ine2
MiddleTurkic:en1(Abush.82)
Uzbek:inu1
Uighur:ni1(dial.)
Turkmen:ni2
Khakassian:ini2
Oyrat:eni1,2
Yakut:ennie2
448
Kirghiz:eni1,2
Kazakh:eni2
Bashkir:inse2
Balkar:eni`own'
Karakalpak:eni2
Kumyk:eni-li'own'
Comments:VEWT44,EDT173,1,361-362,347-348,
1997.Turk.>MMong.en,WMong.ine,Kalm.in(KW208,
296).Mong.ine'dowry'maybeinfactawordofdifferent(Chinese)origin,
seeHaenisch82,TMN2,224,EDTibid.,andmodernTurkicformsmay
reflectaconfusionoftheoriginalformandthelatermongolism.

Proto-Turkic:*
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1cheeks2jaw,chin
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:e1,eek1,2(MK)
Turkish:enek2
Tatar:ijk2
MiddleTurkic:eek,enek2(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:engk2
Uighur:ik2
Sary-Yughur:iek2
Azerbaidzhan:2
Turkmen:'lowerjaw',eek2
Khakassian:ek2
Shor:k2
Oyrat:k2
Chuvash:ana2
Yakut:i2
449
Kirghiz:k2
Kazakh:ijek2
Noghai:ijek2
Bashkir:ijek2
Karakalpak:ijek2
Comments:EDT166,183,VEWT45,1,284-285,218-219,
1,45.

Proto-Turkic:*e-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tolookaftersmb.
Russianmeaning:-.
Turkmen:et-
Yakut:eej-
Kirghiz:ene-',(.)'

Proto-Turkic:* r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toreach2topass
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:er-(OUygh.)1,er-t-(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:eri-(MK)1
Turkish:er-,dial.r-,ir-1
Tatar:ire-1
MiddleTurkic:er-(Pav.C.,AH)1,ert-(CCum.)2
Uzbek:eri-1
Khakassian:irt-2
Shor:ert-2
Oyrat:dial.eri-1,ert-2
Halaj:^r-1
450
Chuvash:irt-2
Yakut:ird-2
Bashkir:ire-1
Karaim:er-1
Karakalpak:eris-1
Comments:1,288-289,303,1,172-173.Rsnen(VEWT
46)connectsalsoPT*eril-'tocontest,challenge'(1,293-294)-
which,togetherwithMong.*eri-'toseek,search'(HYere-`tohope'),should
beratherkeptapart(possiblyaseparatePAroot*erV).Turk.>Hung.er-'to
reach',seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:* r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1early2earlyinthemorning3tomorrow4(morningsun)>
sunnymountainslope
Russianmeaning:1234()>

OldTurkic:[irer4,er-kenin,]erte2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:erte2(MK)
Turkish:er,erte2
Tatar:irt2
MiddleTurkic:er1(.),erte2(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:erta2
Uighur:(r)t'morning'
Sary-Yughur:erte2
Azerbaidzhan:ert2
Turkmen:r1,erte2
Khakassian:irte'morning'
Oyrat:erte2
Chuvash:ir3
451
Yakut:erde1
Dolgan:erin1
Tuva:erte2
Kirghiz:erte2
Kazakh:erte2
Noghai:erte2
Bashkir:irt2
Balkar:ertte2
Gagauz:ierte'nextday'
Karaim:erte2
Karakalpak:erte2
Kumyk:ert2
Comments:EDT202-203,VEWT46,1,302-306,369-370,
70,79,Stachowski47.

Proto-Turkic:*r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:man
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:er(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:er(MK,KB)
Turkish:er
Tatar:ir
MiddleTurkic:er(Pav.C.)
Uighur:r
Sary-Yughur:jer
Azerbaidzhan:r'husband'
Turkmen:r
Khakassian:ir
Shor:er
452
Oyrat:er
Halaj:hr
Chuvash:ar
Yakut:er
Dolgan:er
Tuva:er
Bashkir:ir
Balkar:er
Karaim:er
Karakalpak:eradam
Salar:er
Kumyk:er
Comments:VEWT46,TMN2,178-9,EDT192,1,290-291,
303,561,30,Stachowski46,128.

Proto-Turkic:*t-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toorganize,tomake
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:et-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:et-(MK)
Turkish:et-
Tatar:it-
MiddleTurkic:et-(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:et-
Uighur:et-,t-
Sary-Yughur:et-,jet-,it-
Azerbaidzhan:et-
Turkmen:deg'keeping'(''),et-
Khakassian:it-
453
Oyrat:et-
Chuvash:at-
Tuva:et-
Kirghiz:et-
Kazakh:et-
Noghai:et-
Bashkir:it-
Balkar:et-
Gagauz:et-
Karaim:et-
Karakalpak:et-
Kumyk:et-
Comments:EDT36-37,1,312-313,.56,1,67.
ShortnessinTurkm.et-isnodoubtsecondary:cf.thederivativedeg,and
alsoregularintervocalicvoicing-t->-d-inallOghuzlanguages(pointingto
originallength),seeEDTibid.

Proto-Turkic:*tk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:boot
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:etk(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:etk(MK)
Turkish:edik
Tatar:itik
MiddleTurkic:etk(Pav.C.),tk(..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:(dial.)dik,tik,tk
Uighur:tk
Turkmen:dik
Khakassian:dk
454
Oyrat:dk
Chuvash:ad
Yakut:eterbes
Dolgan:eterbes
Tuva:idik
Tofalar:idik
Kirghiz:tk
Kazakh:etik
Noghai:etik
Karakalpak:etik
Salar:tix,itix
Kumyk:etik
Comments:EDT50,VEWT52,1,319-321,36,
479,Stachowski48.

Proto-Turkic:*geb-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1soft,mild,gentle2tobecomeweak3empty
Russianmeaning:1,23
OldTurkic:kevek(OUygh.)1,kevil-2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kevek(MK)1,kevil-2(MK)
Turkish:gevek1
MiddleTurkic:kewek1(Pav.C.),(MKypch.)kewil-2(AH)
Azerbaidzhan:kvek1
Turkmen:gvl'dilapidated'
Khakassian:kpsek1
Chuvash:kb1,kava-2
Yakut:kp1
Tuva:kgr-gej',(,)'
Kirghiz:kp-2
455
Gagauz:keve-2
Comments:VEWT244,291,EDT689,691,3,9-10(theroottends
tocontaminateeitherwith*geb-'chew'orwith*kp'foam').

Proto-Turkic:*gebde
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:upperpartofbody
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kvd(OUygh.)
Turkish:gvde
Tatar:gwd(dial.)
Uzbek:gavda
Azerbaidzhan:gvd
Turkmen:gvde,gvre
Chuvash:xevte,xvt'power'
Kirghiz:k

d,k

dn
Kazakh:kewde
Noghai:kewde
Karaim:gvde
Karakalpak:gewde,kewde
Comments:EDT688,VEWT259,3,52-53,297,2,
339-340,5,267.

Proto-Turkic:*geb-re-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobecomeweak,fragile2fragile
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:kevre-1,kevrek2(MK)
Turkish:gevre-1,gevrek2
Tatar:kjrk2()
456
Uzbek:kuwrak2
Azerbaidzhan:kvrk2
Khakassian:kibrek2
Chuvash:kavraj-1
Yakut:kebir-1(possibly<Mong.)
Kirghiz:kjr-1
Kazakh:kjrek2
Bashkir:kwert'atreerotteninside'
Gagauz:gevrek1
Comments:VEWT244,245,EDT691,3,7-9.Turk.>Hung.koro
'fragile'Gombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*gEbre
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1corpse2todie(ofanimals)
Russianmeaning:12()
Karakhanid:kvre'carrion'(MK)
Turkish:geber-,(dial.)gevre-2
Azerbaidzhan:gbr-2
Turkmen:gvre1
Oyrat:qavraj-','(.6,19)(?)
Gagauz:geber-2
Karaim:geber-2
Comments:VEWT244,EDT690,3,36.Therootisconfusedhere
with*gp-'toswell(ofbelly),becomepregnant'(withwhichitindeed
contaminatesinOghuzlanguages).

Proto-Turkic:*ge-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:topass,wade
457
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:ke-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ke-(MK,KB)
Turkish:ge-
Tatar:ki-
MiddleTurkic:ke-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:ke-
Uighur:k/e-
Sary-Yughur:ke-
Azerbaidzhan:ke-
Turkmen:ge-
Khakassian:kis-
Shor:ke-ir-'toferryacrosstheriver'
Oyrat:ke-
Halaj:k-
Chuvash:kas-
Yakut:kes-
Tuva:ke'-
Tofalar:ke'-
Kirghiz:ke-
Noghai:ke-
Bashkir:ki-,kis-
Gagauz:ge-
Karaim:ke-
Karakalpak:ke-
Kumyk:ge-
Comments:VEWT245,EDT693-694,3,32-34,TMN3,584.

Proto-Turkic:*gE-
Altaicetymology:
458
Meaning:ak.offlower
Russianmeaning:
Turkmen:geemek'',geigei''.
Chuvash:kk'catkins,aglets,flowerbuds'(>Marikike'willowbuds'?)
Kirghiz:kk'catkins,aglets,flowerbuds'
Comments:1,264.Notquitesecure,sincetherootis(folk-
etymologically?)contaminatedeitherwithgee'goat'orwith*gk
'puppy'.

Proto-Turkic:*ged
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:back,after
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kedin(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kein(MK,KB)
MiddleTurkic:kijin(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kejin
Uighur:kejin,kjin
Khakassian:kizin
Shor:kzin
Oyrat:kijin
Chuvash:kaj
Yakut:ke-lin;ketex'backofhead'
Dolgan:ke-lin;ketek'backofhead'
Kirghiz:kijin
Kazakh:kejin
Karakalpak:kejin
Comments:EDT704,VEWT246-247,5,23-24,Stachowski144,
146.FormslikeYak.ketex'backofhead'clearlyshowthattherootwas
*ged-;themonosyllabic*ge-(observableinYak.ke-linandperhapsChuv.
459
kaj)ismostprobablyaresultofsecondaryreinterpretationofthestems
*gedinand*ger(thelatter<PA*keroq.v.).Itisexactlythis
reinterpretationthatallowstoreconstruct*g-inPT*ged-(therootisnot
attestedinOghuzlanguages).

Proto-Turkic:*ged-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toputon
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ked-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ke-(MK)
Turkish:gij-
Tatar:kij-
MiddleTurkic:kej-(AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:kij-
Uighur:kej-,kij-
Sary-Yughur:kez-
Azerbaidzhan:gej-
Turkmen:gej-
Khakassian:kis-
Shor:kes-
Oyrat:kij-
Halaj:kd-
Yakut:ket-
Dolgan:ket-
Tuva:ket-
Kirghiz:kij-
Kazakh:kij-
Noghai:kij-
Bashkir:kij-
460
Gagauz:g-
Karaim:kij-
Karakalpak:kij-
Salar:kij-
Kumyk:gij-
Comments:EDT700,VEWT246,3,12-13,472-473,
Stachowski146.

Proto-Turkic:*ged
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:very,extremely
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:ked(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ke(MK,KB)
Turkish:kej(Osm.)
Azerbaidzhan:gej
Comments:EDT700(withaquitedubioushypothesisofborrowing<
Sogd.).

Proto-Turkic:*gEgrek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lowersoftribs
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:gerek
Turkmen:gejrek
Comments:3,14,307,276.

Proto-Turkic:*gejik
Altaicetymology:
461
Meaning:1wildanimal2bird3roe
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:kejik1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kejik1
Turkish:gejik3
Tatar:qjq1
MiddleTurkic:kejik1(..),kijik(MA,Abush.)
Uighur:kijik1
Turkmen:kejik1
Khakassian:kk1
Chuvash:kajk1,2
Kirghiz:kijik1
Bashkir:qjq1
Salar:kijyx'wildgoat'()
Comments:VEWT247,EDT755,5,21-23,151-152.

Proto-Turkic:*gekir-dek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:throat,trachea,cartilage
Russianmeaning:,,
Turkish:gegirtlek(dial.)
Tatar:kikertk()
MiddleTurkic:kekirtek(MA)
Uzbek:kekirdak
Uighur:keki(r)dk
Turkmen:kekirdek
Chuvash:kagr
Kirghiz:kekirtek
Noghai:kekirdevik
Bashkir:kigerlk(dial.)
462
Karakalpak:kegirdek
Comments:VEWT248,5,26,232.Inmanylanguagesthe
wordwasinfluencedbytheverb*gkir-'tobelch'.

Proto-Turkic:*gel-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocome
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kel-(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kel-(MK,KB)
Turkish:gel-
Tatar:kil-
MiddleTurkic:kel-(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kel-
Uighur:kl-/kil-
Sary-Yughur:kel-
Azerbaidzhan:gl-
Turkmen:gel-
Khakassian:kil-
Shor:kel-(R)
Oyrat:kel-
Halaj:kl-
Chuvash:kil-
Yakut:kel-
Dolgan:kel-
Tuva:kel-
Tofalar:kel-
Kirghiz:kel-
Kazakh:kel-
Noghai:kel-
463
Bashkir:kil-
Balkar:kel-
Gagauz:gel-
Karaim:kel-
Karakalpak:kel-
Salar:gel-,gej-
Kumyk:gel-
Comments:VEWT248;EDT715,3,14-16,31-32,Stachowski143.
TheChuv.andYak.vowelscorrespondirregularly.

Proto-Turkic:*gele-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1towoo2toask3messenger,in-between4parentshaving
espousedtheirchildren5apromisedbride
Russianmeaning:1,2,3
,4,5

Turkish:(dial.)geleik4
Tatar:kile-1,kl5;(Mishar)kel-2,()kln-'toannoy,pester'
MiddleTurkic:(Xwar.)kelei3(Qutb)
Turkmen:geleik4,gele'attention,care'
Khakassian:kle-2,klen-'tobeg'
Chuvash:kalas-1;kle-2
Bashkir:kl5
Balkar:kelei3
Karaim:keli-1,kl'a-,kl'an-'towish,befavourablyinclined'
Kumyk:gele-1,gelei3
Comments:VEWT248,5,32-33,112-114,
105,1,270-271.Somelanguagesmayreflectamergerwith
*kele-'speak'(v.sub*k`iali).Turk.>Russ..
464

Proto-Turkic:*gelin
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bride,daughter-in-law
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:keli-n(Orkh.,Coll.),kelin(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kelin(MK,KB)
Turkish:gelin
Tatar:kilen
MiddleTurkic:kelin(Sangl.,Pav.C.,..)
Uzbek:kelin
Uighur:kelin
Sary-Yughur:kelin(Malov)
Azerbaidzhan:glin
Turkmen:gelin
Khakassian:kiln
Shor:kelin
Oyrat:kelin
Halaj:klin(glin<Az.)
Chuvash:kin,kiln-
Yakut:kijt(*plur.)
Tuva:kelin
Tofalar:helin,henni-
Kirghiz:kelin
Kazakh:kelin
Noghai:kelin
Bashkir:kilen
Balkar:kelin
Gagauz:gelin
Karaim:kelin
465
Karakalpak:kelin
Salar:kein,kiin()
Kumyk:gelin
Comments:VEWT248,EDT719,3,16-18,302.

Proto-Turkic:*gEmr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tognaw
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:kemr-(MK)
Turkish:gemir-,kemir-
Tatar:kimer-
MiddleTurkic:kmr-(Sangl.,Abush.)
Uzbek:kemir-
Uighur:kemi(r)-
Azerbaidzhan:gmir-
Turkmen:gemir-
Khakassian:kimr-
Oyrat:kemir-
Yakut:kmr'spongybone'
Tuva:xemir-
Tofalar:xemir-
Kirghiz:kemir-
Kazakh:kemir-
Noghai:kemir-
Bashkir:kimer-
Balkar:kemir-
Gagauz:kemir-
Karaim:kemir-
Karakalpak:kemir-
466
Kumyk:gemir-
Comments:VEWT251,EDT723,3,18-19,262.

Proto-Turkic:*gEmrgen
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wildonionorgarlic
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kvrgen(MK),kmrgen(MK-Oghuz)
Turkish:gmren
Khakassian:kbrgen
Oyrat:kbrgen
Tuva:kgrn(dial.)
Tofalar:kgirhen
Kirghiz:kbrgn
Gagauz:kmren
Comments:EDT691,3,100;VEWT285;124.Sometimes
explainedasderivedfromkbr-'tofoam'(seeVEWTibid.);thisseemsa
folketymology,butmayexplaintheirregular-b-insomeoftheforms.

Proto-Turkic:*gEn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:young,child
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:ken(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ken(MK,KB)
Turkish:gen/-
Azerbaidzhan:gn
Gagauz:gen/-
Karaim:gen
467
Comments:EDT727,3,20-21,VEWT252(not<Pers.,despite
Rsnen;seeTMN1,488).

Proto-Turkic:*gEne
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tick,nameofdifferentparasites
Russianmeaning:,.
Turkish:gene,kene
Uzbek:kana
Azerbaidzhan:gn
Turkmen:gn
Kazakh:ken
Karakalpak:kene
Comments:VEWT251,TMN3,615-616,5,63-64,183.
Voiced*g-andfrontrowvocalismspeaksagainstthetheoryofTurk.being
<Pers.kana(althoughsomeformslikeKhalajkanaandTurkm.dial.kn
mayhavebeeninfluencedbythePersianword-whichitselfhassofarno
IranianetymologyandmustberegardedasaTurkicloanword).

Proto-Turkic:*gEne
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:again,also,however
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:kene(MKypch.)
Turkish:gene
Azerbaidzhan:gn
Comments:4,115.

Proto-Turkic:*[g]ent(-nd-)
Altaicetymology:
468
Meaning:self,himself
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kent(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kend(MK)
Turkish:kendi,dial.gend
Azerbaidzhan:gendi
Yakut:kini'he'
Dolgan:gini'he',gien'own'
Comments:EDT728-729,5,38-39,1953,Rsnen1957,
18,Stachowski86.

Proto-Turkic:*gee-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toadvise2advice
Russianmeaning:1()2
OldTurkic:kee2,kee-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kee-'tosettleone'saffairswithsomeone'(MK,KB),kene2,
kee-1(MK,KB)
Turkish:genge-1(dial.)
Tatar:ki2
MiddleTurkic:kee2,kee-1(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uighur:k-1(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:kees-1,keis2
Azerbaidzhan:gn-1(dial.)
Turkmen:gee-1,gee2
Oyrat:kee-1(.)
Chuvash:kana2,kana-la-1
Kirghiz:kee2,kee-1
Kazakh:kees2,kees-1
Noghai:kees2
469
Bashkir:k2
Balkar:kenge'counsel'
Karaim:kenes,kene2,kene-1
Karakalpak:kees2,kees-1
Kumyk:genge'counsel'
Comments:VEWT253,EDT727,734,3,21-22,TMN3,613-614.

Proto-Turkic:*geir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:nasalcavity
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:geniz
Azerbaidzhan:gniz,gnzik
Turkmen:gez-ew'nasal'
Yakut:keer'bridgeofnose'
Kirghiz:keiler
Comments:5,27,216.

Proto-Turkic:*gEr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towalk,walkthrough
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kez-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kez-(MK,KB)
Turkish:gez-
Tatar:giz-
MiddleTurkic:kez-(Sangl.,MA,..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kez-
Uighur:g/kz-
Azerbaidzhan:gz-
470
Turkmen:gez-
Halaj:kz-
Tofalar:kes-
Kirghiz:kez-
Noghai:kez-
Bashkir:gi-
Balkar:[kezik'']
Gagauz:gez-
Karaim:gez-
Karakalpak:gez-
Salar:gez-(Kakuk)
Kumyk:gez-
Comments:VEWT260,EDT757,3,10-11.Cf.also(with-r-)Yak.
kerij-'walkaround'.ThederivedTurk.*gerik'turn,order'(<*'going
through')>MMong.keik(SH),WMong.kesig'wake,turn'(seeTMN1,
467-468,Clark1980,40).Theverbitselfwasalsoborrowed,cf.WMong.
kes-,Khalkha,Bur.xese-,Dag.kese-'towander,roam'.

Proto-Turkic:*ger
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1notchofanarrow2aim(ofagun)
Russianmeaning:12()
Karakhanid:kez(MK)1
Turkish:gez2
MiddleTurkic:kez'arrowshaft'(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:gz1
Turkmen:gezlik'smallknife'
Tuva:kes1
Tofalar:kes1
Kazakh:kez1
471
Bashkir:kie(dial.)1
Gagauz:kz2
Comments:EDT756,760,VEWT260,5,20-21,TMN4,2-4.

Proto-Turkic:*ger-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tospreadout,tohang
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:ker-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ker-(MK,KB)
Turkish:ger-
Tatar:dial.kr-()
MiddleTurkic:ker-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ker-
Uighur:ker-
Azerbaidzhan:gr-
Turkmen:ger-
Khakassian:kir-
Oyrat:ker-
Chuvash:kar-
Tuva:xer-
Tofalar:ker-
Kirghiz:ker-
Kazakh:ker-
Noghai:ker-
Bashkir:kir-
Balkar:ker-
Gagauz:ger-
Karaim:ger-
Karakalpak:ker-
472
Kumyk:ger-
Comments:VEWT254,EDT735,3,23-24.

Proto-Turkic:*gErek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tent,yurt2gratingoftheyurt
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:kerek2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kerek1(MK)
MiddleTurkic:gerege2(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:keraga2
Turkmen:gerege2
Oyrat:kerege2
Kirghiz:kerege2
Kazakh:kerege2
Noghai:kerege2
Bashkir:kirg2
Karakalpak:kerege2
Comments:VEWT255,TMN3,592,EDT744,3,24-25,
503.

Proto-Turkic:*gerge-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toneed2necessity,necessary3tostayaway,darenot
Russianmeaning:12,3

OldTurkic:kerge-1(OUygh.),kergek2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kerge-1,kerek2(MK,KB)
Turkish:gerek2
Tatar:kirk2
473
MiddleTurkic:kerek2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:kerak2
Uighur:kerk2
Sary-Yughur:kerek2
Azerbaidzhan:grk2
Turkmen:gerek2
Khakassian:kirek2
Shor:kerek2
Oyrat:kerek2
Halaj:kerek2
Chuvash:kir-l2
Yakut:kerej-3,kerex2
Dolgan:kerek2
Tuva:xerek2
Tofalar:xerek2
Kirghiz:kerek2
Kazakh:kerek2
Noghai:kerek2
Bashkir:krk2
Balkar:kerek2
Karaim:kerek2
Karakalpak:kerek2
Kumyk:gerek2
Comments:VEWT256,EDT742,743,3,25-26,Stachowski145.
Turk.>Mong.kereg(see1997,127).

Proto-Turkic:*gErtme
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:pear
Russianmeaning:
474
Turkish:germeik'cornussanguinea'
MiddleTurkic:kertme','(OKypch.:AH,Houts.,CCum.),kirni
'quince'
Noghai:kertpe
Balkar:kertme
Karaim:gertme
Kumyk:gertme
Comments:VEWT257.Perhaps<*grt-me,cf.theattestedOT(MK-Osm.,
seeEDT738)krt'mountaintreeformakingbows,Pyrus';(AH)krt
'quince'.

Proto-Turkic:*ger-t
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:true,truth
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kert,kert-gn-'believe'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kert'oath,truth',kert-gn-'believe'(MK,KB)
Turkish:ger-ek
Azerbaidzhan:ger-k
Turkmen:ger-ek
Khakassian:kirt-n-'believe'
Yakut:kirdik,kirik
Dolgan:kirdik
Noghai:kerti
Balkar:kerti
Gagauz:ger-ek
Karaim:kerti,ker-ek
Kumyk:gerti
Comments:VEWT257,EDT738,741,3,28-31,Stachowski149.

475
Proto-Turkic:*gEr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:back
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:ker(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ker(MK)
Turkish:geri
Tatar:kire
MiddleTurkic:ker(MA)
Azerbaidzhan:geri
Kirghiz:keri
Kazakh:keri
Noghai:keri
Balkar:kire
Gagauz:gri
Karakalpak:keri
Kumyk:geri
Comments:3,27.Turk.>MMong.geru(SH)'backside'.

Proto-Turkic:*gErl

-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toquarrel,fight,wrestle
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:keri-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:keri-(MK),kre-(MK,KB)
Turkish:gre-
Tatar:kr-
MiddleTurkic:kre-(MA),gre-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:kura-
Uighur:kr-
476
Azerbaidzhan:gl-
Turkmen:gre-
Khakassian:kres-
Shor:kre-
Oyrat:keri-,kre-
Chuvash:kre-
Yakut:kres'wrestling'
Tuva:xres-
Tofalar:xire-,xre-;xire-'tostartafight'
Kirghiz:keri-,kr-
Kazakh:keris-,kres-
Noghai:kres-
Bashkir:kr-
Balkar:kre-
Gagauz:gre-
Karaim:kre-
Karakalpak:keris-,gres-
Kumyk:kre-(dial.)
Comments:EDT747-748,3,79-81,5,50-51,1,280.The
peculiarvariationofkeri-andkre-inoldsourcesallowsperhapsto
reconstructtheoriginalshape*gerl

-.

Proto-Turkic:*gb-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tochew
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kev-(MK)
Turkish:gev-
Tatar:k-
MiddleTurkic:kevi'cud'(MA,Pav.C.)
477
Uzbek:kawa-
Uighur:kji-
Azerbaidzhan:gj'cud'
Turkmen:gv-'cud'
Khakassian:kipse-n-
Shor:kepe-n-
Oyrat:kepe-
Halaj:kvi'cud'
Chuvash:kavle-
Yakut:keb-
Tuva:kege-n-
Tofalar:kege-
Kirghiz:kj---
Kazakh:kjis'cud'
Noghai:kjze-
Bashkir:kj'cud'
Gagauz:geve-
Karaim:kve-n-
Karakalpak:gjse-
Salar:k-
Kumyk:gje-
Comments:VEWT244,EDT687,3,5-7.

Proto-Turkic:*g(-e)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1longtime2late3belate4night5evening6yesterday
Russianmeaning:123456

OldTurkic:ke1,2,ke-3,kee4,5(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ke1,2(KB,MK),ke-3(MK),ke4,5(KB,MK)
478
Turkish:ge2,gee4
Tatar:ki5,ki5,6
MiddleTurkic:gee4(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kea4,6
Uighur:k5
Sary-Yughur:kie4(Mal.)
Azerbaidzhan:ge4
Turkmen:g2,ge4
Khakassian:ki6
Shor:keik5(.)
Oyrat:ke2,5,kee6
Halaj:ke4
Chuvash:kas5
Yakut:kiehe5
Dolgan:kiehe5
Tuva:ke5
Tofalar:kee5
Kirghiz:ke2,ke4,5
Kazakh:ke2,5,ke5,6
Noghai:ke2,5
Bashkir:kis5,kis5,6
Balkar:ke5,kee
Gagauz:ge4
Karaim:gee4
Karakalpak:ke2,5
Salar:gi4
Kumyk:gee4
Comments:VEWT245,EDT692-3,694-5,3,40-41,50-51,
82,Stachowski147.

479
Proto-Turkic:*g(j)t-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:togo(away)
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ket-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ket/-(MK,KB)
Turkish:git-
Tatar:kit-
MiddleTurkic:ket-(Abush.,Sangl.,MA)
Uzbek:ket-
Uighur:kt-
Azerbaidzhan:get-
Turkmen:git-
Oyrat:ket-(dial.)
Chuvash:kajt-
Kirghiz:ket-
Kazakh:ket-
Noghai:ket-
Bashkir:kit-
Balkar:ket-
Gagauz:get-
Karaim:ket-
Karakalpak:ket-
Salar:G/i-(Kakuk)
Kumyk:get-
Comments:VEWT258,EDT701,3,39-40,49-50.Vowellengthcan
bereconstructedonindirectevidence(voicing-t->-d-informslikeAz.
gedi'goingaway'etc.).

Proto-Turkic:*gkir-
480
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobelch
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kekir-(MK)
Turkish:gejir-
Tatar:kiker-
MiddleTurkic:gegir-(Pav.C.),kekir-(MA)
Uzbek:kekir-
Uighur:keki(r)-
Sary-Yughur:kekirt-()
Azerbaidzhan:gjir-
Turkmen:ggir-
Khakassian:kigr-
Oyrat:kegir-
Halaj:ggr-
Chuvash:kagr-
Yakut:kegert-
Tuva:keir-
Tofalar:keir-
Kirghiz:kekir-
Kazakh:kekir-
Noghai:kekir-
Bashkir:kiker-
Balkar:kekir-
Gagauz:gr-
Karaim:kekir-
Karakalpak:kekir-
Kumyk:kekir-
Comments:VEWT248,EDT712,3,37,232.

481
Proto-Turkic:*g mi
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:boat
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kemi(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kemi(MK,IM)
Turkish:gemi
Tatar:kim
MiddleTurkic:keme(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:kema
Uighur:kem
Azerbaidzhan:gmi
Turkmen:gmi
Khakassian:kime
Shor:kebe
Oyrat:keme
Chuvash:kim
Tuva:xeme
Kirghiz:keme
Kazakh:keme
Noghai:keme
Bashkir:km
Balkar:keme
Gagauz:gemi
Karaim:gemi
Karakalpak:keme
Salar:kim
Kumyk:geme
Comments:VEWT251,TMN3,668-669,EDT721-722,3,37-38.
Turk.>Mong.keme(1997,126).
482

Proto-Turkic:*g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wide
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ki(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ke(MK)
Turkish:gen
Tatar:ki
MiddleTurkic:ke(Sangl.,Abush.,..),ge(Sangl.)
Uzbek:ke
Uighur:k
Sary-Yughur:ke
Azerbaidzhan:gen
Turkmen:g
Shor:ke
Oyrat:ke
Halaj:keg
Yakut:kie
Dolgan:kie
Kirghiz:ke
Kazakh:ke
Noghai:ke
Bashkir:ki
Balkar:ke
Karaim:ke,ken
Karakalpak:ke
Kumyk:ge
Comments:EDT724-725,VEWT253,EDT724-725,3,46-47,
Stachowski147.
483

Proto-Turkic:*gp
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:form,example,image
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:kep(-i-)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:keb(-i-)(MK)
MiddleTurkic:kp(AH)
Sary-Yughur:kep
Turkmen:gp
Khakassian:kip
Shor:kp
Oyrat:kep
Chuvash:kap
Yakut:kiep
Tuva:xep
Kirghiz:kep
Noghai:kep
Karakalpak:kep
Kumyk:kep
Comments:EDT686,VEWT253,5,44-45(>Mong.keb,see
1997,127).Bulg.>OldSlav.kap.Turk.>Hung.kep'image',see
Gombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*gp-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toswell,swollen(ofbelly)2tobecomepregnant,pregnant3to
bearrogant,inflated
Russianmeaning:1()2,3
,
484
Turkish:gebe2
Tatar:kpr-,kprj-3
MiddleTurkic:gebe2(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:gbiz`constipation'
Turkmen:gbe1
Chuvash:kabar'insatiable,gluttonous'
Yakut:kiebir-3
Tuva:xever-1
Kirghiz:kebee,keber1
Kazakh:kebee1
Bashkir:kpj-1,kprj-3
Gagauz:gebe2
Karakalpak:kep-,gebee1
Comments:3,36.Therootispartiallyconfused(andcontaminated)
with*gebre-'todie,corpse'(v.sub*kapi).

Proto-Turkic:*gt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toindent,notch,crack
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:ked-(OKypch.,AH)
Turkish:get-
Tatar:kit-
MiddleTurkic:ket-(MA)
Uzbek:ketk(n.)
Turkmen:gt-
Halaj:ktk`indent'
Chuvash:kat-
Kirghiz:ket-
Kazakh:ketik(n.)
485
Noghai:ketik(n.)
Bashkir:kit-
Karakalpak:ketik(n.)
Comments:VEWT259,3,30-31,5,65-66,EDT700-701.

Proto-Turkic:*gr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toenter
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kir-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kir-(MK,KB)
Turkish:gir-
Tatar:ker-
MiddleTurkic:kir-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:kir-
Uighur:kir-
Sary-Yughur:ker-
Azerbaidzhan:gir-
Turkmen:gr-
Khakassian:kr-
Shor:kir-
Oyrat:kir-
Chuvash:kr-
Yakut:kr-
Dolgan:kr-
Tuva:kir-
Tofalar:kir-
Kirghiz:kir-
Kazakh:kir-
Noghai:kir-
486
Bashkir:ker-
Balkar:kir-
Gagauz:gir-
Karaim:kir-
Karakalpak:kir-
Salar:kir-()
Kumyk:gir-
Comments:VEWT271,EDT735-736,3,47-48,Stachowski149.

Proto-Turkic:*gr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ak.ofbox2tohide3mystery
Russianmeaning:123
Karakhanid:kiz1,kizle-2(MK)
Turkish:gizle-2,giz3
Azerbaidzhan:gizl-2
Turkmen:gzle-2
Yakut:kist-2
Dolgan:kist-2
Comments:EDT756,760,VEWT273,3,43,Stachowski149.

Proto-Turkic:*g-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tomigrate,nomadize2nomadizing
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:k-1(MK,KB),k2(KB)
Turkish:g-1,g2
Tatar:k-1,k2
MiddleTurkic:k-1,k2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:ko-1,ko2
487
Uighur:k-1,k2
Sary-Yughur:k-1
Azerbaidzhan:k-1,k2
Turkmen:g-1,g2
Khakassian:ks-1
Shor:k-1,k2
Oyrat:k-1
Halaj:ke-1
Chuvash:kos-1
Yakut:ks-1,ks2
Dolgan:ks-1,ks2
Tuva:k'-1,k'2
Tofalar:k'-1,k'2
Kirghiz:k-1,k2
Kazakh:k-1,k2
Noghai:k-1,k2
Bashkir:ks'',ks-1
Balkar:k-1
Gagauz:g-1,g'luggage'
Karaim:k-1
Karakalpak:k-1,k2
Kumyk:g-1
Comments:EDT693,694,489,3,88-90,TMN3,622,
1,315,Stachowski158.

Proto-Turkic:*gjke
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:kestrel,windhover,hawk
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kekk'abirdofprey'(OUygh.-IrqBitig)
488
Karakhanid:kekk'al-zummac,abirdthebonesofwhichareusedin
conjurationsandsorcery'(MK)
MiddleTurkic:kjkenek(Pav.C.,Abushk.)
Turkmen:gvenek
Khakassian:kjkenek
Kirghiz:kjk
Comments:VEWT288,EDT710,5,133-134,170.Turk.>
Mong.kjknek.

Proto-Turkic:*gj-il
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:heart,mood
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kl(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kl(MK,KB)
Turkish:gn-l;gjn,gjn(dial.)
Tatar:kl
MiddleTurkic:kl(Sangl.,MA)
Uzbek:koil
Uighur:kl
Sary-Yughur:kl
Azerbaidzhan:knl
Turkmen:gvn,k-l(arch.-borrowedfromTrki)
Khakassian:k

l,kn-
Shor:kn-
Oyrat:kn
Halaj:kil
Chuvash:kml
Yakut:kl'will,freedom'
Dolgan:kl'permission'
489
Tofalar:x

l
Kirghiz:kl
Kazakh:kil
Noghai:kil
Bashkir:kl
Balkar:kl
Gagauz:gn
Karaim:knl,kln
Karakalpak:kil,kewil
Salar:gjy
Kumyk:gl
Comments:VEWT291,EDT731,3,75-77,274,
Stachowski156.Almostalllanguagesreflectasuffixedform(a
substantivizedadjectivein-il,seeGabainAG75).Khak.,Shorreflecta
nominalizedattributiveformofkl.

Proto-Turkic:*gj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1capers2fermentformilk3ak.offermentedmilkdrink
Russianmeaning:123

Turkmen:gjl1
Chuvash:kvelek2,kve-'toferment'
Yakut:kjrg2,krex3;kjn-'toferment'(der.k

nn r-)
Kirghiz:k

rk3
Comments:103.Kirgh.>Kalm.k

rcg(seedifferentlyinKW244,
451).

Proto-Turkic:*gkr(/*ggr),*Kkrek
Altaicetymology:
490
Meaning:1breast2middleoftheback3reason,sense,emotion4female
breast
Russianmeaning:12,3
OldTurkic:kgz1,3(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kgz1(MK)
Turkish:gs1,kkrek1(dial.)
Tatar:kgs1(dial.,),kkrk1,4
MiddleTurkic:kgs,kgs(Sangl.),kks(MA)1,kkrek(Abush.,.
.)1
Uzbek:kuks1,3,kkrk1,4
Uighur:kks1,kkrk1
Sary-Yughur:kks,g

s1
Azerbaidzhan:kks,kks1
Turkmen:gvs1,kkrek1
Khakassian:kgis1
Shor:kgs1
Oyrat:kgs1,3
Chuvash:kgr1
Yakut:ks2
Dolgan:kks'back'
Kirghiz:kkrk1
Kazakh:kkirek1
Noghai:kkirek1
Bashkir:kkrk1
Balkar:kkrek1
Gagauz:gs1
Karaim:kkis1,kkrk1
Karakalpak:kkirek1
Salar:gfrix4?
Kumyk:kkrek1
491
Comments:EDT714,VEWT288,3,54-55,5,136-137,
272-274,Stachowski155.TheOghuzformswithk-(Turkm.kkrek,Tur.
dial.kkrek)maybe<Kypchak,cf.--insteadof--inTurkm.

Proto-Turkic:*gl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1woodenboard2woodblock3cross-bar(overfire)
Russianmeaning:123
()
Turkmen:gle1
Khakassian:klbe2
Oyrat:klzk''(?)
Chuvash:kle''
Yakut:kl3
Comments:Differentetymologiesin1,271(Chuv.kle-hardlyto
kilit);VEWT289(Yak.kl-notto'harness'kl-).
Proto-Turkic:*gle
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1heifer2cow
Russianmeaning:12
Turkish:gle(dial.)1
Turkmen:gle1
Salar:klex2

Proto-Turkic:*gm-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobury
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:km-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:km-(MK,KB)
492
Turkish:gm-
Tatar:km-
MiddleTurkic:km-(MA),gm-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:kom-
Uighur:km-
Sary-Yughur:km-
Turkmen:gm-
Khakassian:km-
Shor:km-
Oyrat:km-
Yakut:km-
Dolgan:km-
Tuva:xm-
Tofalar:xm-
Kirghiz:km-
Kazakh:km-
Noghai:km-
Bashkir:km-
Balkar:km-
Gagauz:gm-
Karaim:km-
Karakalpak:km-
Salar:km-()
Kumyk:gm-
Comments:VEWT289,EDT721,3,70-71,Stachowski155.

Proto-Turkic:*gml-drk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:breaststrap
Russianmeaning:
493
Karakhanid:kmldrk(MK)
Turkish:gmldrk
Tatar:kmltk()
MiddleTurkic:kmldrk(Pav.C.)
Turkmen:gmldrk
Tofalar:hmndrk
Kirghiz:kmldrk
Bashkir:kmldrk
Comments:VEWT289,EDT723,3,71-72,552-553.Turk.
>Mong.kmldrge(1977,128).FormslikeUygh.mldrk,
Bashk.melderek(see1,530,553)maybederivedfrom
thesamestem,underaninfluenceof*mgen'upperpartofbreast'q.v.
sub*emo;aseparateetymologysee,however,under*p`ome.

Proto-Turkic:*gpe(ne)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:haystack
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:geben
Tatar:kbe
Chuvash:koba
Tuva:xpn
Bashkir:kb
Kumyk:keben
Comments:5,15,80,1,308-309.Turk.>Hung.kepe
'sheaf',seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*gr(=*gr-s)/*gr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1eye(*gr)2tosee,look(*gr-)
494
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:kz1,kr-2(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kz1,kr-2(MK,KB)
Turkish:gz1,gr-2
Tatar:kz1,kr-2
MiddleTurkic:gz(Sangl.,Pav.C.),kz(Vam.)1,kr-(MA,Abush.,
Sangl.)2
Uzbek:kuz1,kur-2
Uighur:kz1,kr-2
Sary-Yughur:kz1,gr-1
Azerbaidzhan:gz1,gr-2
Turkmen:gz1,gr-2
Khakassian:ks(Sag.)1,kzenek(Kzil.)'window',kr-2
Shor:ks(R)1
Oyrat:ks,dial.kz1,kr-2
Halaj:ker-2
Chuvash:kos1,kor-2
Yakut:kr-2;khn-'tobeseen'
Dolgan:kr-2;khn-'tobeseen'
Tuva:kstk'eye-glass',ksk'visible,good-eyed',kskenek'window',
kr-2
Tofalar:kskt-'toshow',kr-2
Kirghiz:kz1,kr-2
Kazakh:kz1,kr-2
Noghai:kz1,kr-2
Bashkir:k1,kr-2
Balkar:kz1,kr-2
Gagauz:gz1,gr-2
Karaim:goz/koz1,kor-2
Karakalpak:kz1,kr-2
495
Salar:g(:)z1,gr-2
Kumyk:gz1,gr-2
Comments:VEWT292,TMN3,637f,EDT756(*gr),736(*gr-),
1,310,314,3,60-64(*gr),77-79,81-84(*gr-),
209,Stachowski155,156.TheChuv.reflexrequiresasuppositionofafinal
cluster(*rs)inthenominalstem;thismaybeasuffixeddeverbative.OT
krg'glance;image'>MMo,WMong.krg'image'.

Proto-Turkic:*gt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:torise,raise
Russianmeaning:()
OldTurkic:ktr-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ktr-(MK,KB)
Turkish:gtr-
Tatar:ktr-
MiddleTurkic:kter-(Abush.,MA)
Uzbek:kotar-
Uighur:ktr-
Sary-Yughur:kter-()
Azerbaidzhan:gt-
Turkmen:gter-
Khakassian:kdr-
Shor:kdr-
Oyrat:kdr-
Halaj:ketr-,ketir-
Yakut:kt-;ktr'bird'
Dolgan:kt-'tofly;run'
Tuva:kdr-
Tofalar:k'tr-
496
Kirghiz:ktr-
Kazakh:kter-
Noghai:kter-
Bashkir:ktr-
Balkar:ktr-
Gagauz:gtr-
Karaim:kter-
Kumyk:gter-
Comments:VEWT294,EDT706,3,86-88,Stachowski158.Cf.also
Karakh.ktki'hill',kt'theroofofahouse'(MK,EDT701).

Proto-Turkic:*gt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:anus,buttocks
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:kt(MK)
Turkish:gt
MiddleTurkic:kt(MA,Pav.C.),MKypch.kt(CCum.,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:ket
Chuvash:kot
Kirghiz:kt
Gagauz:gt
Karaim:kt
Comments:VEWT294,EDT700,3,84-85,TMN3,618,50,
281,1,316.Cf.also*gtk'tailless'.

Proto-Turkic:*g

k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1blue2green("macro-blue"accordingtoWierzbicka)
Russianmeaning:12
497
OldTurkic:kk1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kk1(MK,KB),2(KB)
Turkish:gk1
Tatar:kk1
MiddleTurkic:kk1(MA)
Uzbek:kok1,2
Uighur:kk1,2
Sary-Yughur:kk1,2
Azerbaidzhan:gj1
Turkmen:g

k1,2
Khakassian:kk1
Shor:kk1,2
Oyrat:kk1,2
Halaj:kek2
Chuvash:kvak1
Yakut:kx1,2
Dolgan:kk1
Tuva:kk1
Tofalar:kk1
Kirghiz:kk1
Kazakh:kk1
Noghai:kk1
Bashkir:kk1
Balkar:kk1
Gagauz:gk1
Karaim:kk1
Karakalpak:kk1
Salar:Gux1
Kumyk:gk1
498
Comments:VEWT287,TMN3,640-642,EDT708-9,3,66-68,
60,604,Stachowski165.Inmostlanguagestherootalsomeans
'sky'.Turk.>Hung.kek'blue',seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*g

l-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toharness2harnessedanimal
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:kl-1(OUygh.-YB),klk2(Orkh.,OUygh.),'avehicle'
(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:klk2(MK)
Turkish:glk2
MiddleTurkic:klk2(Sangl.)
Turkmen:g

lk(dial.)'vehicle';gle2
Khakassian:kl-1,klgNom.Act.
Oyrat:klk2(possibly<Mong.)
Chuvash:kl-1
Yakut:kl-j-1,kl,klg2(thelattermaybe<Mong.).
Dolgan:klj-1
Tuva:xl,xlge2(thelatterisrather<Mong.)
Tofalar:hlle-1
Kirghiz:klk2
Kazakh:klik2
Noghai:klik2
Karakalpak:klik2
Comments:VEWT288,EDT715,717,3,69-70,1,320-
321,Stachowski155(followingKa.MEJ18andderivingYak.,Dolg.<
Mong.).

Proto-Turkic:*g

li-
499
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobury
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kli-(MK)
Turkmen:g

le-
Comments:EDT716.DespiteClauson,notconnectedwithkle-'toshade'.

Proto-Turkic:*g

n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tannedskin,leather
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kn(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kn(MK)
Turkish:gn
Tatar:kn
MiddleTurkic:gn(Sangl.),kn(Nahc.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kon
Uighur:kn
Azerbaidzhan:gn
Turkmen:g

n
Oyrat:kn
Kirghiz:kn
Noghai:kn
Bashkir:kn
Balkar:gn
Karaim:gn
Karakalpak:kn
Kumyk:gn
Comments:VEWT290-291,EDT724,3,72-73,384,476-
477.Cf.also*g

nk'anornamentonshirt'(5,106).
500

Proto-Turkic:*g

p-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1awoodenhammerforprocessingbootseams2tohit,pound
Russianmeaning:12
,
Turkmen:g

be1
Khakassian:kp-le-t-'toknock'
Chuvash:kpke-2
Yakut:kbrg-'tohiticewithapounder'
Kirghiz:kb-'toshake,shakeoff'
Karakalpak:kpilde-'tolumber,rumble'
Comments:Modernexpressiveformations,buttherootseemstobe
archaic.

Proto-Turkic:*g

pek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:navel
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kbek(IM)
Turkish:gbek
Tatar:kbk(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:kbek(Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan:gbk
Turkmen:g

bek
Chuvash:kvaba
Gagauz:gbek
Karaim:kbek
501
Comments:VEWT285,EDT688,3,52,1,247.Cf.also
probablyfromthesameroot:Chuv.kps a'vagina',Tat.kp'pipe-like
stalk'.

Proto-Turkic:*gb-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobeproud,arrogant,enjoyself-respect2tohope3proud
Russianmeaning:1,23
OldTurkic:kvez3,kven-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kvez3,kven-1(MK)
Turkish:gven-1,2
MiddleTurkic:kven-1(Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan:gvn-1,2
Turkmen:gvne-'toapprove'
Noghai:kjez3
Bashkir:kj3
Comments:VEWT306,EDT690,3,91-92.

Proto-Turkic:*gbe
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fryingpan;earthenwarepot
Russianmeaning:;
Karakhanid:kve((MK)
Turkish:gve
Uzbek:kv(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:gv
Turkmen:gwe
Oyrat:k

'skull'(.)
Gagauz:gve
Comments:VEWT151,286,EDT687-688,3,53-54.
502

Proto-Turkic:*gi-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:eagle
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:gen,ggen
Tatar:kcgn(Sib.)
MiddleTurkic:kigen(Houts.)
Oyrat:kgen(Tel.)
Chuvash:kajk-kk,kajk-k'animalsandbirds'
Kirghiz:kgen
Kazakh:kigen
Bashkir:ksgn(dial.)
Karakalpak:kigen
Comments:TMN3,631,5,130.TheChuv.formishardlyderived
from*Kul'bird',despite1,289.

Proto-Turkic:*gde-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1son-in-law2guest
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:kdeg1,kden2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kdeg1,kden2(MK,KB)
Turkish:gveji1
Tatar:kijw1
MiddleTurkic:kjew1(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:kujw1
Uighur:kjoul1(*kj-oul)
Sary-Yughur:kuze1
Azerbaidzhan:gijev1
503
Turkmen:gijev1
Khakassian:kz1
Shor:kze1
Oyrat:kj1
Halaj:kideji1
Chuvash:kr1
Yakut:kt1
Dolgan:kt1
Tuva:kd1
Tofalar:hd1
Kirghiz:kj

1
Kazakh:kjew1
Noghai:kijew1
Bashkir:kejw1
Balkar:kijew1
Gagauz:gv1
Karaim:gijav1
Karakalpak:kjew1
Salar:kui1()
Kumyk:gijev1
Comments:EDT703,704-705,3,43-45,297-298,
Stachowski166.Turk.>Mong.kdeg;Yak.>Evk.kut.

Proto-Turkic:*gl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1vestibule,innerporch2house,hut3home,dwelling-place
Russianmeaning:1,2,3
Turkish:gil'family(asasecondpartofcompound)',(dial.)3
Azerbaidzhan:gil'family(asasecondpartofcompound)'
Chuvash:kil,kl2
504
Yakut:kl1
Comments:VEWT270,112,1,291-292.Yak.klis
secondarilyborrowedfromTungus,seeVEWT270;butklemaybe
inherited.

Proto-Turkic:*gn e/*guna
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:moth
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kj(MK)
Turkish:gve
Tatar:kj
Uzbek:kuja
Azerbaidzhan:gv
Turkmen:gje
Khakassian:k
Shor:quja'Kellerwurm'
Oyrat:kje,quja
Chuvash:kve
Yakut:kjr,kjr
Kazakh:kje
Noghai:kje
Bashkir:kj
Balkar:kje
Karakalpak:kje
Comments:VEWT297,3,94,186.Kirgh.kbisrather<
Mong.kibeid.

Proto-Turkic:*gn(el)/*gunal
Altaicetymology:
505
Meaning:1sun2day3sunnyplace4sun-heat
Russianmeaning:1234
OldTurkic:kn1,2(Orkh.,OUygh.),kne3(YB),isigquja4(OUygh.-
Br.)
Karakhanid:kn1,2,quja4(MK),kne3(Tefs.)
Turkish:gn2,gne1,(dial.)guja1
Tatar:kn1,2,qoja1
MiddleTurkic:quja1(Sangl.,Abush.,Pav.C.),kne1(Pav.C.,Abush.,
..),kn1,2(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:kun1,2,quj1
Uighur:kn1,2,(dial.)qoja1
Sary-Yughur:kun1,2
Azerbaidzhan:gn1,2,gn1
Turkmen:gn1,2,gne1,4,quj1(dial.)
Khakassian:kn1,2
Shor:kn1,2,quja1
Oyrat:kn1,2,dial.quja1(Kumd.,Leb.)
Halaj:kin,kn1,2,kin'sonnig'
Chuvash:kon2,xvel1
Yakut:kn1,2,kujs'heat'
Dolgan:kn1,kuns'heat'
Tuva:xn1,2
Tofalar:xn1,2
Kirghiz:kn1,2
Kazakh:kn1,2
Noghai:kn1,2,qjas4
Bashkir:kn1,2,kns4,qoja1
Balkar:kn1,2
Gagauz:gn1,2,gne1
Karaim:kn1,2,kne1,quja,qujas1
506
Karakalpak:kn1,2,quja1
Salar:gn1,2
Kumyk:gn1,2gne1
Comments:VEWT301,309(Rsnenseparates*gnand*gun'al',which
ishardlyjustified);EDT679,725,734,3,100-104,6,112-113,
20-21,64-65,77-78,1306-307,Stachowski161,164.
Theforms*gn el

and*gunalmustbeolddialectalvariants.
Proto-Turkic:*gni
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1co-wife2envy,jealousy3jealous,enviousperson4tobe
jealous,envy
Russianmeaning:12,3
,4,
OldTurkic:kni(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:kni(MK)1
Turkish:gn,gn1,2
Tatar:knd1,kn-e3,kene(dial.)2
MiddleTurkic:kni(MA,Pav.C.)1,2
Uzbek:kunda1,kuni3
Uighur:knd1,kn-l-4,kn-i3
Sary-Yughur:kunbol-4()
Azerbaidzhan:gn1
Turkmen:gni1
Khakassian:kn-ne-4,kni3
Oyrat:kn2
Yakut:kn2
Tuva:xn-ne-4
Kirghiz:kn,knd1,kn-l-'tobejealous(ofwomen)'
Kazakh:kndes1,kn-de-4
Noghai:kndes1,kn-le-4
507
Bashkir:knd1,kn-l-4,kn-s3
Karaim:knde1,kn-le-,kn-le-,kn-le-4
Karakalpak:kndes1,kn-le-4
Kumyk:gn-3
Comments:VEWT307,309,EDT727,3,104-105,76,
1,269.Cf.perhapsalsoYak.kijt,Dolg.kint'sister-in-law'(?).

Proto-Turkic:*g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:femaleslave
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:k(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:k(MK,Tefs.,IM)
MiddleTurkic:k(MA),(MKypch.)k(CCum.)
Uzbek:gu'voicelessfemaleslave'
Sary-Yughur:k()
Turkmen:g'aTurkmanibornfromaPersianwoman'(.)
Chuvash:xr-m
Kirghiz:k
Kazakh:k
Karakalpak:k
Comments:VEWT309,EDT726,5,142,317.TheUzb.
meaningwasinfluencedbyPersiangung'deaf-and-dumb'.

Proto-Turkic:*gr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1stout-hearted,courageous2thick,dense,abundant3wide,
broad4wellfed
Russianmeaning:12,,3
4
508
Karakhanid:kr1(MK,KB)
Turkish:gr2
Tatar:kr1,4
Azerbaidzhan:gr2
Turkmen:gr2
Khakassian:kr1
Chuvash:kr1,2
Yakut:kr3
Tuva:xr'healthy,wellfed'
Kirghiz:kr'powerful'
Noghai:kr'friendly'
Bashkir:kr1,4
Gagauz:gr2
Karaim:kr2
Kumyk:kr1
Comments:VEWT310-311,EDT735,3,106,1,277-278.
Turk.>WMong.kr,Kalm.kr(KW246).

Proto-Turkic:*gr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tolace,bind2partofloom
Russianmeaning:1,2
MiddleTurkic:kzk(IM)2
Turkmen:gze-1
Oyrat:kzg2(dial.North.)
Chuvash:kr2
Kirghiz:kzk2
Comments:VEWT312-313,5,131.

Proto-Turkic:*grel
509
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:beautiful
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:gzel
MiddleTurkic:kzel(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:guzal
Uighur:gzl
Azerbaidzhan:gzl
Turkmen:gzel
Kirghiz:kzl
Noghai:kzel
Gagauz:gzl
Karaim:guzal(K)
Comments:3,63-64,VEWT295.

Proto-Turkic:*g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:power
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:k(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:k(MK,KB)
Turkish:g
Tatar:k
MiddleTurkic:k(Sangl.,Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:ku
Uighur:k
Sary-Yughur:ku
Azerbaidzhan:g
Turkmen:g
Khakassian:ks
510
Shor:k
Oyrat:k
Halaj:ki
Yakut:ks
Dolgan:ks
Tuva:k
Tofalar:k
Kirghiz:k
Kazakh:k
Noghai:k
Bashkir:ks
Balkar:k
Gagauz:g
Karaim:k
Karakalpak:k
Kumyk:g
Comments:VEWT306,EDT693,3,96-98,Stachowski166.

Proto-Turkic:*gd-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1towait2toattend3torespect4tograze
Russianmeaning:1234
OldTurkic:kd-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:k-1,3(MK,KB)
Turkish:gt/d-4
Tatar:kt-1,4
MiddleTurkic:kt-'toleadcattleawayfrompasture'(Pav.C.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:kut-1,2
Uighur:kt-1
Azerbaidzhan:gt/d-
511
Khakassian:kzet-4
Oyrat:kj-1,kt-2,4
Yakut:kt-1
Dolgan:kt-1
Kirghiz:kj-1,kt-1,2
Kazakh:kt-2
Bashkir:kt-1,4
Balkar:kt-4
Gagauz:gt-4
Karaim:kt-4
Karakalpak:kj-,kt-1,2
Kumyk:kt-''
Comments:EDT701,VEWT306,312,3,107-108(thevariant*gt-
ismorphologicallysecondary,actually=*gd-t-).Theproposedderivation
(see108)from*g-(*k-),attestedonlyintheOUygh.doubletk-
kze-'protectandkeep'(seeEDT686)isfarfromcertain(themeaningof
k-hereisnotquiteclear;kze-isprobably<*gr-'see,eye'=Yak.,
Dolg.kht-'wait';Khak.kzet-abovecanreflectboth*-r-and*-d-).

Proto-Turkic:*gl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totether,bindfeet
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:kl-tr-(MK)
Turkish:gl-(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:k'ul-
Turkmen:gjl-
Oyrat:kl-
Tuva:xl-
512
Comments:VEWT308,EDT717(incorrectlytokl-'harness'),3,
95-96.

Proto-Turkic:*gr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:autumn
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kz(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kz(MK)
Turkish:gz
Tatar:kz
MiddleTurkic:gz(Sangl.)
Uzbek:kuz
Uighur:kz
Sary-Yughur:kuz
Azerbaidzhan:gz-m'autumnwool'
Turkmen:gz
Khakassian:ks
Shor:ks
Oyrat:ks
Chuvash:kr
Yakut:khn
Dolgan:khn
Tuva:ks
Tofalar:ks
Kirghiz:kz
Kazakh:kz
Noghai:kz
Bashkir:k
Balkar:kz
513
Gagauz:gz
Karaim:kz
Karakalpak:kz
Kumyk:gz
Comments:VEWT312,EDT757,TMN4,10,3,94-95,75,
Stachowski164.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)aba
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:poison;evil
Russianmeaning:;,
Yakut:aba;aba-r-'tobeangry'
Dolgan:abal-'tobeangry'
Tuva:'poison;ferret'smusk'
Comments:VEWT9,1955,67,I67,Stachowski27.The
rootisveryclosetoanotherone,*gu(v.sub*

gi),withthesame
meaning;thereflexesmaybephoneticallydistinguishedinYak.andTuva
(Tuva*agu>,cf.Tof.'poison'),inotherlanguagesthetworootsmust
havecoincided.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)ab-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toenjoyoneself,behappy(refl.)2tocomfort(caus.)
Russianmeaning:1,2,

OldTurkic:abnq'consolation'(USp.43),avn-u'concubine'(YB1)
Karakhanid:avn-1(MK),avt-2(KB)
Turkish:avun-1,avut-2,'todeceive'
MiddleTurkic:awut-2,awun-'tofindcomfort'(Sangl.)
Uzbek:vun-1,vut-2
514
Azerbaidzhan:ovun-1,ovut-2
Khakassian:abt-'tolull'
Shor:abt-'tolull'
Halaj:avun-1,avut-2
Yakut:a-hax'play'
Dolgan:a-hak'play'
Tuva:aat-'tolull'
Tofalar:aat-'tolull'
Gagauz:aut-'todeceive'
Karaim:avun-,uvun-'tobeconsoled',uvut-2
Comments:EDT7,12;VEWT2,1,66,Stachowski257.The
meaning'tolull'maybelongtothehomonymic*(i)abu-'tobend,swing',on
whichseeunder*i

p [o].

Proto-Turkic:*(i)ab-
Meaning:1tobend,fall2toroll,sway,swing
Russianmeaning:1,,2
,
Tatar:avu-1
Oyrat:ab-2
Tuva:-t-tn-2
Kirghiz:-1,2,-n-3
Kazakh:awu-1,awn-2
Noghai:av-1,avna-2
Bashkir:aw-1,awn-2
Balkar:aw-1,awan-2
Karaim:avd-2
Kumyk:avun-2
Comments:Therootshouldbedistinguishedfrom*(i)ab-`toenjoyoneself,
behappy'q.v.
515

Proto-Turkic:*(i)ag
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1spacebetweenthelegs2wedgebetweentrouserlegs
Russianmeaning:12

OldTurkic:a(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:a(MK)1
Uzbek:2
Uighur:a2
Azerbaidzhan:a(dial.)2
Kazakh:aw2
Noghai:aw2
Gagauz:2
Karaim:aw1
Comments:EDT75,1,67-68,Clark1977,127.

Proto-Turkic:*iagr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:heavy
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ar(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ar(MK,KB)
Turkish:ar
Tatar:awr
MiddleTurkic:ar(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ir
Uighur:eir
Azerbaidzhan:ar
Turkmen:aGr
516
Khakassian:r
Halaj:a r
Chuvash:jvr
Yakut:ar
Dolgan:ara-kan
Tuva:r
Tofalar:

r
Kirghiz:r
Kazakh:awr
Bashkir:awr
Balkar:awur
Karakalpak:awr
Salar:ar
Comments:VEWT8,EDT88-9,1,85-87,82-83,
338-339,Stachowski258.

Proto-Turkic:*iak-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toflow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:aq-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:aq-(MK)
Turkish:ak-
Tatar:aq-
MiddleTurkic:aq-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:q-
Uighur:aq-
Sary-Yughur:aq-
Azerbaidzhan:ax-
Turkmen:aq-
517
Khakassian:ax-
Oyrat:aq-
Chuvash:jox-
Tuva:aq-
Kirghiz:aq-
Kazakh:aq-
Noghai:aq-
Bashkir:aq-
Balkar:aq-
Gagauz:aq-
Karaim:aq-
Karakalpak:aq-
Kumyk:aq-
Comments:EDT77,VEWT12,1,118-120,352,2,
495.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)akuru-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:slowly,quietly,gradually
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:aquru(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:aqru,aqrun(MK),aqru(KB)
Turkish:arqun(Osmanli)
Tatar:kren,kerten;kert(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:aqrn(Sangl.),arn(..)
Khakassian:rin,arn,artn
Shor:arn
Oyrat:aqqrn,aqqr-aqqr
Yakut:arj,orj
Kirghiz:aqrin
518
Kazakh:aqrn
Bashkir:aqrn
Balkar:aqrn,aqrn,aqrtn
Karaim:arqtn
Karakalpak:aqrn
Comments:VEWT14,1,123-124,EDT89-90.Theformswith-n
and-tnareoldformsofInstr.andAbl.cases,sothePTwordisanoun.
Yak.reflectsthe-uofthesecondsyllable.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)al-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1seed,cereals,crops;2graft,3vaccine,4pus(primarily-asa
materialforvaccinacion?)5tanningmatter,6starch
Russianmeaning:1,,234
(-?)56
Karakhanid:a-lq1(alqtarnar'cropsspring')(MK;IM)
Turkish:a2,3
Tatar:a-lq1,a1,4dial.(Sib.,107),a-la-'tostarch'
MiddleTurkic:ai2(Pav.C.),'pollen'(ZenkerI56)
Uzbek:5,-liq1
Uighur:a-lq1,a-la-'totan'
Azerbaidzhan:a,a3,5
Turkmen:a-Gar5
Khakassian:as1,as-ta-n-'tobewareofadisease'('tovaccinateoneself'?)
Shor:a1
Oyrat:a1
Yakut:as4,as,ahlk'fruitofsomewildplants,berry'
Dolgan:ahlk'berry'
Kirghiz:a'fruitofsomewildplants,berry',atq1,aa-'totan'
Kazakh:astq1
519
Noghai:as'agrain,aseed',aslq1
Bashkir:alq1,ala-'tograft',dial.a'pus'(hhIII26)
Balkar:a-lq1,a-g'oneofcerealcultures'
Gagauz:ha-la-'toplantoutseedlings;tograft;tovaccinate'
Karaim:a-lq1,a-la-'tograft'
Salar:a-lq1(296)
Kumyk:a1(C.73),a-la-'topollinate;totan'
Comments:VEWT30,1,211-212,216,Stachowski29.Alotof
etymologicalconfusionhere.Formsmeaning'totan,tanningmatter;starch'
maybeeitherborrowedfromPersianor,rather,derivedfrom*(i)al'meal'(v.
sub*iole),see378.Thelatterroot,duetoitsphoneticsimilarity
(orevenidentity)hasingeneralinfluencedthepresentone:'cereals'are
influencedby'porridge'and*(i)al-la-'tograft,topollinate'by*(i)al-la-'to
fertilize'(='tofeed').Itseemsneverthelessimpossibletounitethem
completely.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)al()uk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1anklejoint,knucklebone2die
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:auq1(MK)
Turkish:auq2(Osmanli),ak1,2
Tatar:aq2
MiddleTurkic:auq1,'boneoftheelbow'(Abush.)
Uzbek:iq2
Uighur:ouq1,2
Azerbaidzhan:aG2
Turkmen:aq2
Oyrat:aq2
Halaj:uaq2
520
Kirghiz:aq2
Kazakh:asq1,2
Noghai:asq1,2
Bashkir:aq2
Balkar:aq1,2
Karaim:aq2
Karakalpak:asq2
Kumyk:aq2
Comments:EDT259,VEWT30,1,216-217,TMN2,64-65,
288.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)al,*(i)al-a-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1meal,food2toeat3porridge4tofeed
Russianmeaning:1,234
OldTurkic:a1,aa-2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:a1,aa-2(KB)
Turkish:a1
Tatar:aa-2
MiddleTurkic:a1(Pav.C.)
Uighur:a1
Azerbaidzhan:a3
Turkmen:a1
Khakassian:as1
Halaj:,

1
Yakut:as1
Dolgan:as1,as-2
Tuva:a'1,a-4
Tofalar:aa-4
Kirghiz:a1
521
Noghai:aa-2
Bashkir:aa-2
Balkar:aa-2
Karaim:aa-2
Comments:VEWT29-30,1,210-212,TMN2,61-62,EDT253,256,
Stachowski38.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)am
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:vulva
Russianmeaning:vulva
Karakhanid:am(MK-Oghuz,Kypch.)
Turkish:am
Tatar:am(.1,90)
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)am(CCum.,AH,At-Tuhf.)
Turkmen:am
Oyrat:am(R)
Halaj:h

m
Yakut:abas'vulva';amanax'fatinthegroinsofcows,horses'
Kirghiz:am(R)
Kazakh:am(R)
Comments:VEWT18,EDT155,R1643.
Proto-Turkic:*(i)am-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1now2recent
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:am-t1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:am-d1(MK,KB)
Sary-Yughur:am-o,am-d-ko2(15)
Khakassian:am1,am-d-,am-2
522
Shor:am,amd1,amd2,am-oq'atonce'
Yakut:an(<*am-d)1
Dolgan:an1
Tuva:am1,am2,amd(<amd)'thesame'
Tofalar:am,amd,am2
Comments:VEWT18,41,EDT156-157,I357,Stachowski34,
83(withsomeconfusionof*am-and*em-q.v.sub*ime).

Proto-Turkic:*(i)anduk(-nt-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.oflynx
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:andk'',Osm.anduq
MiddleTurkic:andq'especedeloupcervier'(Pav.C.)
Comments:VEWT20,159.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)ang
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sin,evil
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:an(Orkh.,OUygh.),aj(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:aj(MK)
Yakut:aj
Dolgan:an
Comments:VEWT20,EDT182,1,113,Stachowski34.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)ar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:stubble-field
Russianmeaning:,
523
Karakhanid:az(MK)
MiddleTurkic:az(Sangl.)
Comments:EDT191-192.

Proto-Turkic:*i-g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bitter,acid
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:a(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:a(MK)
Turkish:a
Tatar:a
MiddleTurkic:a(Abush.)
Uzbek:ai,i(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:a
Turkmen:,
Oyrat:au
Halaj:hu,huq
Chuvash:jz
Yakut:ah
Dolgan:ah
Tuva:a
Tofalar:a
Kazakh:a
Noghai:a
Bashkir:as
Balkar:a
Gagauz:ai
Karaim:a,a
Karakalpak:a
524
Salar:
Kumyk:a
Comments:1,89-93,82,115,Stachowski30.In
mostlanguagesalsoattestedasaverbalstem*i-'tobecomebitter,
sour'.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)g-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:torise
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:a-(Yen.,OUygh.),a-tur-(aus.)(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:a-(MK,KB)
MiddleTurkic:a-
Turkmen:-'tooverflow'
Bashkir:awa-la-(ofthesun)
Gagauz:-'tovaporize'
Comments:EDT77,1,68-70.isprobablyrightin
distinguishingtheroots*(i)g-(:-I)'torise'and*ig-(:II)'toturnover,
fall',althoughtheformerisonlysparselyrepresentedinmodernlanguages,
havingforthemostpartdissolvedwithinthereflexesofthelatter.InOTthe
stemsa-'torise'andana-'totumble,rollonone'sback'arequiteclearly
distinct.

Proto-Turkic:*ig-,*ig-na-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torollover,fallover2toclimbover3totumble4toturnover,
capsize,letfall
Russianmeaning:1,,2
3,4,
OldTurkic:ana-3(OUygh.)
525
Karakhanid:ana-3(MK,KB)
Turkish:a-1,adr-2,an-3
Tatar:aw-1,awdar-4,awna-3
MiddleTurkic:ana-3
Uzbek:-1,na-3
Uighur:a-1
Sary-Yughur:ana-3(11)
Azerbaidzhan:ana-3
Turkmen:-1,2,-dar-4,na-3
Khakassian:a-dar-4
Shor:a-dar-4
Oyrat:a-tar-4,a-da-(<*a-na-)3
Halaj:ha,h

a'back,intheback'
Chuvash:jvan-1,4
Yakut:-na-3
Tuva:ada-r-4,ada--3
Kirghiz:-1,na-3
Kazakh:aw-dar-4,awna-3
Noghai:av-1,av-dar-4,avna-3
Bashkir:aw-1,awdar-4,awna-3
Balkar:aw-1,2,aw-la-'toskim',awdar-4,awna-3
Karaim:avdar-4,av-a-la-n-3
Karakalpak:aw-1,2,awdar-4,awna-3
Kumyk:av-1,avdar-4,av-la-n-'toturnover,incline',avna-3
Comments:EDT86-87,VEWT7,1,69-70,73-76.Formslikea-
dar-arenotquiteclear-caus.fromtherefl.*ig-n-?(buttherefl.formis
herenot*ig-n-butrather*ig-na-).

Proto-Turkic:*(i)ka
Altaicetymology:
526
Meaning:1elderbrother;elderuncle;father;grandfather2respectful
address3elder
Russianmeaning:1;;;2
3
OldTurkic:aqa1(OUygh.,fromI-thalfofXIIIcentury,see)
Turkish:aa1,2
Tatar:aa1,2
MiddleTurkic:aqa1(Oghuz-nama),aa1(Abush.),aqa(Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:a1
Uighur:aa1
Sary-Yughur:aqa1,2,qzaa''(11,13)
Azerbaidzhan:aa2
Turkmen:Ga1
Khakassian:aa1('father'sfather')
Shor:aqqa'father'sfather'
Oyrat:aqa1,2
Halaj:aa2
Yakut:aa1('father'),3
Dolgan:aga'father'
Tuva:aq1
Tofalar:aa1
Kirghiz:aa1
Kazakh:aa1,3
Noghai:aa1,2
Bashkir:aaj1,2
Gagauz:aa1,2
Karaim:aqa2(K),aa2,3(K,T)
Karakalpak:aa1,2
Kumyk:aa1,2
527
Comments:VEWT13,1,70-71,121-122,291,Stachowski
28.Notetheexpressivegeminationofthemedial-k-inTuvaand
elsewhere.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)l

-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tocross(amountain)2tosurpass
Russianmeaning:1()2
OldTurkic:a-1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:a-1(MK)
Turkish:a-1
Tatar:a-2
MiddleTurkic:a-1,2
Uzbek:-1,2
Uighur:a-1,2
Sary-Yughur:as-1
Azerbaidzhan:a-1
Turkmen:-1,2
Khakassian:as-1,2
Shor:as-1,2
Oyrat:a-1,2
Halaj:-1
Yakut:s-1,2
Dolgan:s-'togoby'
Tuva:a-1,2
Kirghiz:a-1,2
Kazakh:as-1,2
Bashkir:a-2
Gagauz:a-'togobeyondtherangeofvision'
Karaim:a-1,2
528
Karakalpak:as-1
Comments:VEWT30,1,212-214,EDT255,Stachowski41.TheOT
gerundaru'havingcrossedover,exceeded>very'>Mong.asuru(Clark
1980,42,1997,102-103).

Proto-Turkic:*(i)ra
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1spacebetween2onone'sway,underway
Russianmeaning:1,2,

OldTurkic:ara1Orkh.,OUygh.
Karakhanid:ara(MK)
Turkish:ara
Tatar:ara
MiddleTurkic:ara(Abush.)
Uzbek:ra
Uighur:ara
Sary-Yughur:ara
Azerbaidzhan:ara
Turkmen:ra1
Khakassian:ara
Shor:ara
Oyrat:ara
Halaj:hra
Yakut:ra2
Dolgan:ra-k-'togoaway',r-'nottoreach'
Tuva:ara
Kirghiz:ara
Kazakh:ara
Noghai:ara
529
Bashkir:ara
Balkar:ara
Gagauz:ra
Karaim:ara
Karakalpak:ara
Kumyk:ara
Comments:EDT196,VEWT22,TMN2,24,1,162-164,Stachowski
41.Derivedisprobably*rk'island;arik,ditch;thicket'id.(VEWT23,25,
1,167,187-188,95,110,Stachowski37).

Proto-Turkic:*(i)tag
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sacrifice2price,sale3engagement,votive4gift
Russianmeaning:12,3,
4
Turkish:ada1,3,4
Azerbaidzhan:adax3
Turkmen:daG3
Shor:ada1
Yakut:at2
Comments:VEWT5.Allthelistedformsmaybederivedfrom*ta-`to
name'(<*t`name'),butthespecificmeaningsrathersuggestasecondary
contamination.

Proto-Turkic:*i-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todrink
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:i-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:i-(MK)
530
Turkish:i-
Tatar:e-
MiddleTurkic:i-(..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:i-
Uighur:i-
Sary-Yughur:-
Azerbaidzhan:i-
Turkmen:i-
Khakassian:s-
Shor:i-,e-(R.,.)
Oyrat:i-
Halaj:i-
Chuvash:s-
Yakut:is-
Dolgan:is-
Tuva:i-
Tofalar:i-
Kirghiz:i-
Kazakh:i-
Noghai:i-
Bashkir:es-
Balkar:i-
Gagauz:i-
Karaim:i-
Karakalpak:i-
Salar:-
Kumyk:i-
Comments:VEWT168,EDT19,1,391,66,Stachowski
129.

531
Proto-Turkic:*i
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1interiorofsmth.2intestines3belly
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:i(Orkh.,OUygh.)1,ieg2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:i1(MK,KB)
Turkish:i1
Tatar:e1
MiddleTurkic:i1(Pav.C.,..)
Uighur:i1
Sary-Yughur:hiig3
Azerbaidzhan:i1
Turkmen:i1,iege2
Khakassian:isker1
Halaj:i1,igr2
Chuvash:1
Yakut:is1
Dolgan:is1
Tuva:i'in3
Tofalar:i'ti1,2
Kirghiz:i1,iegi2
Kazakh:i1
Balkar:i1
Karakalpak:i3
Comments:VEWT168,EDT17,25,1,388-391,392-393,
Stachowski128-129.

Proto-Turkic:*ide(/*ede)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:very,ofcourse,emphaticadverb
532
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:idi(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ii(KB);irig'anythinghard'(MK-Argu)
Tatar:eje
Khakassian:ze
Shor:eze
Chuvash:ara
Yakut:iti
Tuva:ide
Kirghiz:iji
Kazakh:ije
Bashkir:eje
Comments:EDT41,65,1,335.Tat.,Chuv.ije'yes',erroneously
relatedherein,havedifferentconnections,cf.Khak.ja'yes',Tof.
ijen,ijne,MTurk.Xwar.,Kypch.,Osm.ine,inen(EDT42);theKypchak
formsabove,becauseofthemergerof*-d-and*-j-,canhaveeitherorigin.

Proto-Turkic:*ijik
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:spindle
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:ik,jik,ijik(MK)
Turkish:i,ij,iji
MiddleTurkic:ik(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ik,jik,ik
Sary-Yughur:ik
Azerbaidzhan:ij
Turkmen:k
Shor:k
Oyrat:k,ijik
533
Chuvash:jge
Kirghiz:ijik
Gagauz:
Karakalpak:ijik
Comments:VEWT170,EDT99,1,336-337,77.Az.,Turk.,
Gag.haveasecondaryvoicingduetoearlycontraction*-iji->*--.Turk.>
Mong.ig'spindle'(1997,123);thederivative*ijik-lig(Chag.ikli
'violin',cf.Khak.kid.(seeVEWT179)>Kalm.ikl

(KW206).

Proto-Turkic:*iler-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobedimlyvisible
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:iler-(MK)
Oyrat:eles'silhouette,ghost',eleste-'bedimlyvisible'
Comments:EDT150.TheformattestedinMKcannotbeamongolism
(primarilyforsemanticreasons);however,Mong.ilere-alsocannotbea
Turkism,beingratherderivedfromMong.ile.ModernTurkicforms-Tuva
ilere-,Oyr.iler-'tobecomevisible'areobviouslatemongolisms.

Proto-Turkic:*il(i)k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:front,before,East
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:ilki(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ilk(MK)
Turkish:ilk
Tatar:ilik
MiddleTurkic:ilk(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:ilk
534
Azerbaidzhan:ilk,ilki
Turkmen:ilki
Halaj:ilgr
Chuvash:lk
Yakut:il-in,il-i(ilik'onewhoisnotyet...')
Dolgan:ilin;ilik'notyet',iligine'before'
Tuva:elek
Bashkir:ilik
Gagauz:jilk
Karaim:ilk
Comments:EDT140,VEWT170,1,347-350,62-63,
Stachowski125.

Proto-Turkic:*ilme
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1asp-tree2elm-tree
Russianmeaning:12,
Tatar:elm2
Chuvash:jlme2
Noghai:elmen1
Balkar:elme1
Kumyk:elme2
Comments:VEWT338,78,1,194,189,
126.Thewordisattestedlate(likemanytreenames),but
borrowingfromRuss.ishardlypossible;theRussianword,usually
consideredaGermanism(MHGilmeetc.),mayequallywellbeexplained
asaTurkism(seeibid.).TheresemblanceofPT*ilmeandPIE
*l mo-/*olmo-isinteresting,butprobablyaccidental(iftheTurkicword
indeedgoesbacktoPA*p`iule).

535
Proto-Turkic:*im-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1publicgathering2togather3collectivework
Russianmeaning:123,

OldTurkic:imer-2
Karakhanid:imren(MK)1
Turkish:imee3
Comments:1,633-634.

Proto-Turkic:*imen
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:oaktree
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:imn
Uzbek:eman
Turkmen:imen
Oyrat:ermen
Chuvash:joman,NWman
Comments:VEWT42,348,124,2,485.Cf.
Mong.imanbor'ak.ofreddishtree(withblackbarkandroundleaves)'
(maybeaTurkism).

Proto-Turkic:*imiti(*mt)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofhawthorn
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:imiti(Rach.)(canalsobereadasmt)
Comments:209.AttestedonlyinOldUyghur,buthavingpossible
parallelsinTung.andJpn.Turk.>Mong.imidi(thewordhasbeenpointed
536
outbyStefanGeorg,whofounditoutin:
(1908.),339);cf.alsoWMong.imdij,Khalkhaimdij
''().TheTurkicwordis,ofcourse,not
fromMongolian(whichcertainlyhasaborrowedshapewith-d-infrontof-
i).

Proto-Turkic:*in-gek(/*n-gak),*in-ken
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1cow2femalecamel
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:ingek(Orkh.,OUygh.)1,ingen2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ingek1,ingen2(MK)
Turkish:inek1
Tatar:ink1(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:inek1(AH),inen2(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ink,inj1(dial.)
Uighur:ink1,(dial.)ingan,igan2
Sary-Yughur:inek,enek1
Azerbaidzhan:ink1
Turkmen:inek1(),inen2
Khakassian:inek1
Shor:inek,nk1
Oyrat:inek,ijnek1
Chuvash:ne1
Yakut:nax1
Tuva:inek1,egin2
Kirghiz:inek1,igen2
Kazakh:inek1,igen2
Balkar:inek,ijnek1
Gagauz:inek1
537
Karaim:inek1
Karakalpak:igen2
Kumyk:inek1
Comments:EDT184,VEWT172,1,358-361,64,
436,447-448).Turk.>Mong.igen'femalecamel';Hung.no 'heifer'
(Gombocz1912).

Proto-Turkic:*ini
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:youngerbrother
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ini(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ini(MK)
Turkish:ini
Tatar:ini
MiddleTurkic:ini(..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ini
Uighur:ini
Sary-Yughur:ini,n
Azerbaidzhan:ini(dial.)
Turkmen:ini
Oyrat:ini,n
Yakut:ini,in
Dolgan:ini-b
Kirghiz:ini
Kazakh:ini
Noghai:ini
Bashkir:ini
Karakalpak:ini
Kumyk:ini
538
Comments:EDT170,VEWT172,TMN2,226,1,362-363,
292,Stachowski126.

Proto-Turkic:*(i)m
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:trousers
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:m(OUygh.)(=m)
Karakhanid:m(MK)
Turkish:im(Osm.)
MiddleTurkic:m(Kypch.Houts.)
Sary-Yughur:m,jm,jm
Halaj:^m
Chuvash:jm
Comments:EDT155,VEWT520-521,78,1,195,
119,478.

Proto-Turkic:*iri-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torot2pus3toturnsour,coagulate
Russianmeaning:123,
OldTurkic:jir-1(OUygh.),iri2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:iri-1,iri2(MK)
Turkish:irin2
Tatar:iri-3,irin2
MiddleTurkic:iri2
Uzbek:iri-1,jiri2
Uighur:iri2
Azerbaidzhan:irin2
Turkmen:iri2
539
Khakassian:iri-1,3,irin2
Oyrat:iri-3,iri2
Yakut:iree2
Dolgan:iree2
Tuva:iri-1,iri2
Kirghiz:iri-1,3,iri2
Kazakh:iri-1,3,irin2
Noghai:irin2
Bashkir:iri-3,irin2
Balkar:irin2
Gagauz:jirin2
Karaim:irin2
Karakalpak:iri-1,3,iri2
Comments:EDT198,233,1,372-374,Stachowski128.

Proto-Turkic:*irk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:togather
Russianmeaning:()
Karakhanid:irk-(MK)
Turkish:irk-
MiddleTurkic:irk-(Pav.C.)
Turkmen:irik-(dial.)
Kirghiz:irk-il-
Kazakh:irk-
Comments:EDT221,1,378-379.

Proto-Turkic:*iske-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1topinch,pluckout2pincers3chisel
540
Russianmeaning:12,3,
Karakhanid:iske-(MK)1
Azerbaidzhan:iskn3
Turkmen:iskew2,isgn3
Yakut:iskex2
Comments:EDT246,VEWT174(Tadzh.iskanaprobably<Turk.),
1,382-383.

Proto-Turkic:*it-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:topush,hit
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:it-(MK)
Turkish:it-
Tatar:it-
MiddleTurkic:it-(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:itar-
Uighur:itr-
Sary-Yughur:it-
Turkmen:it-
Khakassian:it-
Shor:it-
Oyrat:it-,ijt-
Yakut:t-
Dolgan:it-,t-
Tuva:it-
Kazakh:ijter-
Bashkir:it-
Gagauz:jitir-
Karaim:it-
541
Karakalpak:ijter-
Comments:EDT38,VEWT174,1,386-387,Stachowski129,254.

Proto-Turkic:*itelg
Meaning:abirdofprey
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:tlg
Uzbek:itlg
Turkmen:itelgi
Comments:VEWT175.Turk.>Kalm.itl(KW211).[rather<Mong.]

Proto-Turkic:*g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:illness,decease
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ig(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ig(MK,KB,Tefs.)
Turkish:iil
MiddleTurkic:ig(Sangl.,Houts.)
Turkmen:gli'rickety'
Chuvash:jx'leprosy,scrofula'
Comments:EDT98-99,76-77,1,189,73,
.157,VEWT169.

Proto-Turkic:*jn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hollow,pit,lair
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:in(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:in,jin(MK)
542
Turkmen:hn
Halaj:h n
Chuvash:jn
Yakut:n
Dolgan:n
Kirghiz:ijin
Comments:EDT166,VEWT172,79,Stachowski131.

Proto-Turkic:*l-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tohangon(smth.)2hook
Russianmeaning:1(-.)2
OldTurkic:il-(OUygh.)1,ilin-(refl.)(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:il-(MK)1,ln-(refl.)(MK)1
Turkish:dial.il-1,ilmek2
Tatar:el-1
MiddleTurkic:l-(Abush.,Sangl.),ln-(refl.)(Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:il-1,ilmq2
Uighur:il-1,ilmaq2,'loop'
Azerbaidzhan:ilmk2
Turkmen:l-1
Khakassian:l-
Oyrat:il-1,ilmek2
Chuvash:jl,jlmak'loop'
Yakut:l-1
Tuva:il-1
Tofalar:il-1
Kirghiz:il-1,ilmek2
Kazakh:il-1
Noghai:il-1
543
Bashkir:el-1
Balkar:ilin-(refl.)1
Karakalpak:il-1,ilmek2
Kumyk:il-1
Comments:VEWT170,1,343-346,73-74.

Proto-Turkic:*l

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:work,deed
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:i(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:(MK)
Turkish:i
Tatar:i
MiddleTurkic:i(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:i
Uighur:i
Sary-Yughur:is,s
Azerbaidzhan:i
Turkmen:
Oyrat:i
Halaj:
Chuvash:s
Yakut:s
Tuva:i
Kirghiz:i
Kazakh:is
Noghai:is
Bashkir:i
Balkar:i
544
Gagauz:i
Karaim:i
Karakalpak:is
Kumyk:i
Comments:EDT254,VEWT174,1,395-396,66.

Proto-Turkic:*r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:shame,beashamed,frightenaway
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:ir-,iril-(MK)
Turkmen:r-
Khakassian:irk-'tolanguish,bebored'
Chuvash:jrn-
Yakut:r-'torave,becomecrazy'
Comments:EDT192,VEWT173,(incorrectin)80.

Proto-Turkic:*r/*r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1trace2furrow
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:iz1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:iz1(MK)
Turkish:iz1
Tatar:iz1,zan2
MiddleTurkic:iz1(..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:iz1
Uighur:iz1
Sary-Yughur:is1
Azerbaidzhan:iz1
545
Turkmen:z1
Khakassian:is1
Oyrat:is1
Chuvash:jr1,jran2
Tuva:is1
Kirghiz:iz1
Kazakh:iz1
Noghai:z1,zan2
Bashkir:i1,an2
Balkar:z1
Gagauz:jiz1
Karaim:iz,z1
Karakalpak:iz1
Kumyk:hzan2
Comments:EDT277,1,383-385,646,647,VEWT175,79,
75.Thereexistsaverbalderivative*r-te-'tofollowone'stracks',attested
asiste-asearlyasinOUygh.(seeEDT243)andinmanymodern
languages(see1,383);butsimultaneouslythereisavariant*r-te-
(with*-r->-r-accordingtoHelimski'srule),attestedalreadyinMK(see
EDT208)andinYak.,Dolg.ird-,seeStachowski128.

Proto-Turkic:*-,*-gn-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tolose,disappear
Russianmeaning:(),
OldTurkic:n-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:n-(MK),-(KB)
Tatar:qn-
MiddleTurkic:qn-(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Khakassian:sxn-
546
Shor:qn-
Oyrat:qn-,qn-
Yakut:hgn-
Tuva:qn-
Kirghiz:qn-
Noghai:qn-
Bashkir:sqn-
Balkar:xn-
Kumyk:in-
Comments:VEWT164,1,672-673,216.

Proto-Turkic:*duk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sacred
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:duq(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:uq(MK)
Khakassian:zx
Oyrat:jq,ijik
Chuvash:jrx
Yakut:tq
Tuva:dq
Kirghiz:jq
Balkar:jq
Comments:EDT46,1,649-650,80,199,TMN
230-231(mostsourcesgiveadubiousinnerTurkicderivation<*d-'to
send',basedontheoldglossinMK-mostprobablyafolketymology).

Proto-Turkic:*ja-la-
Altaicetymology:
547
Meaning:tocry,weep
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:ala-'tocry,howl(ofadonkey)'()(?)
Turkish:inle-,dial.iile-
Tatar:egelde-
MiddleTurkic:OKypch.ile-(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:ingala-
Azerbaidzhan:inl-
Turkmen:ile-
Khakassian:la-
Shor:la-
Oyrat:jla-
Halaj: ln-
Yakut:jla-
Tuva:jla-,la-
Kirghiz:jla-
Kazakh:nql-da-
Bashkir:jla-
Gagauz:inne-
Karaim:inle-
Karakalpak:l-da-
Comments:VEWT172,EDT186,1,366-367.

Proto-Turkic:*js
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1smoke2soot,dirtysmoke3scent,odour4fumes
Russianmeaning:12,3,4
Turkish:is2
Tatar:is3
Uighur:is1
548
Azerbaidzhan:his2
Turkmen:s3
Chuvash:js3
Yakut:s1,2
Dolgan:s1,2
Kirghiz:is4
Noghai:ijis3
Karakalpak:ijis3
Comments:1,379,76,Stachowski263.Theoriginal
meaningmusthavebeen'smell,odour',seenotesto*l()(cf.the
oppositions'soot'-ijis'smell'inNogaietc.).

Proto-Turkic:*,*-(n)ga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tree
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:a(Orkh.,OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:ja(MK)1
Turkish:aa1
Tatar:aa1
MiddleTurkic:aa(Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:j1
Uighur:jaa1
Sary-Yughur:jia1
Azerbaidzhan:aa1
Turkmen:aGa1
Khakassian:aas1,2
Shor:aa1,2
Oyrat:aa1,2
Halaj:haa1
549
Chuvash:jvs1
Yakut:mas1
Dolgan:mas1
Tuva:ja1,2
Tofalar:n1
Kirghiz:a1
Kazakh:aa1,2
Noghai:aas1,2
Bashkir:aas1
Balkar:aa1,2
Gagauz:1
Karaim:aa,-c1
Karakalpak:aa1
Salar:aa,-1()
Kumyk:aa1,2
Comments:VEWT7,1,71-73,TMN2,73f,EDT79-80,83,
104,Stachowski176.TheformcontainsperhapsPT*'bush,tree'
asthefirstcomponent(forOTseeEDT1),cf.theOTcombinationa;
butthesecondelementisyetunclear.

Proto-Turkic:*lan-/*ilen-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobelieve,trust
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:ien-(MK,KB)
Turkish:an-(dial.)
Tatar:an-
MiddleTurkic:an-(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:in-
Uighur:ian-,in-
550
Sary-Yughur:isen-
Turkmen:an-
Khakassian:izen-
Oyrat:ien-
Chuvash:an-,en-(NW)
Yakut:isen-(.)
Kirghiz:ien-
Kazakh:sen-
Noghai:sen-
Bashkir:an-
Balkar:ian-
Karaim:an-
Karakalpak:isen-
Comments:EDT264,VEWT174,1,673-674.

Proto-Turkic:*l-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torub,scrape2jack-plane
Russianmeaning:1,2
Tatar:-1,q2
Balkar:i-1
Comments:VEWT167,1,667.Despitesomemergerswith*jl-(v.
sub*nilu),cf.Bashk.j-,jq,thisappearstobeaseparateroot.

Proto-Turkic:*m
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sign
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:im(m)(MK)
Turkish:im
551
Tatar:m
MiddleTurkic:m(Pav.C.)
Turkmen:m
Oyrat:um
Yakut:im
Dolgan:imnk'signed'
Tuva:im
Kirghiz:m
Kazakh:m
Noghai:m
Bashkir:m
Karakalpak:m
Kumyk:jum
Comments:EDT155,VEWT171,1,278,632-633,Stachowski126.

Proto-Turkic:*na-
Meaning:totrust,relyon
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:na-n-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:na-n-(MK)
Turkmen:nan-
Chuvash:nen-
Comments:1,654-656,VEWT165(cf.also*n-gaj'direction').Turk.
*na-k>WMong.ina(seeTMN2,219,1997,163).

Proto-Turkic:*-na-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:that
Russianmeaning:
Turkmen:na-ru
552
Halaj: na
Tuva:nda`there',nd'such'
Tofalar:nda`there'

Proto-Turkic:*n-tk(*e-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobreatheheavily
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:intek-'tobecometired,exhausted'
Chuvash:andx-
Tuva:ndnn'panting,alarmed'
Kirghiz:ntq-
Kazakh:nt-
Bashkir:intek-
Comments:29,1,49.

Proto-Turkic:*r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dusk
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:iir(r)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:iir(MK),imir(MKOghuz)
Turkish:inirik,irik(dial.),mez'fog'
Tatar:igir
Uzbek:mr,imir
Sary-Yughur:ier,jir
Turkmen:mr,irik
Khakassian:r
Shor:r,nar
Oyrat:iir,r,nr
553
Halaj:

gr,

g r
Chuvash:nrk;ner'yesterday'
Yakut:im'morningandeveningdawn'
Dolgan:im'morningandeveningdawn'
Tuva:imir
Kirghiz:iir,rt,iirt
Kazakh:iir,mrt,imirt
Bashkir:iir
Balkar:iir
Karaim:iir,r
Karakalpak:iir,mrt
Comments:EDT162,188,VEWT172,1,354-356,64-65,
34-35,81,83.Mudrak(83)separatesformswith-m-,
comparingthemwithEvk.umulge'shadow'.

Proto-Turkic:*ra-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toneigh2tobellow,purr
Russianmeaning:12,,
Karakhanid:ra-(MK)
Turkmen:ra-
Chuvash:nr-2
Yakut:ran-1
Bashkir:ran-1
Comments:1,658,65,73.

Proto-Turkic:*r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1prediction,luck2omen3premonition
Russianmeaning:1,23
554
OldTurkic:rk1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:rk1(MK)
Turkish:rk1
Sary-Yughur:rq1
Khakassian:rx1,rs1
Shor:rs1
Oyrat:rs1
Chuvash:rex'soul;expedience'
Yakut:r3
Kirghiz:rk'welfare',rs1
Kazakh:rq1
Noghai:rk3,rs1
Bashkir:r1(dial.)
Balkar:rs1
Karaim:rz'dignity'
Karakalpak:rs1
Kumyk:rs1
Comments:VEWT166,167,EDT213,3,119-120,1,665.

Proto-Turkic:*r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:song
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:r(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:r(MK)
Turkish:r(dial.)
Tatar:r(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:r(Pav.C.,AH)
Turkmen:r(dial.)
Khakassian:r
555
Oyrat:r
Yakut:ra
Dolgan:ra
Tuva:r
Tofalar:r
Kirghiz:r
Comments:EDT192,VEWT166,201,610,Stachowski261.The
rootshouldbekeptdistinctfrom*jr,althoughactivelycontaminating.

Proto-Turkic:*r-/*ir-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:omen
Russianmeaning:;
OldTurkic:ir(OUygh.)
Turkish:rm(dial.)
Tatar:rm
MiddleTurkic:rm(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:irim
Uighur:irim
Turkmen:rm
Khakassian:rm(R)
Shor:rm(R)
Oyrat:rm
Tuva:rm''
Kirghiz:rm
Kazakh:rm
Noghai:rm
Bashkir:rm
Karakalpak:rm
556
Comments:EDT197,VEWT166,3,120,1,666.Backrowin
modernlanguagesmaybeduetocontaminationwith*r-,q.v.sub*p`iru.

Proto-Turkic:*ra
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:character,disposition
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:ra
Tatar:raj(dial.)
Oyrat:ra
Kirghiz:raj
Karakalpak:raj
Comments:1,659-660.

Proto-Turkic:*ra-k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:far,distant
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:raq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jraq(MK,KB)
Turkish:rakadv.
Tatar:jraq
MiddleTurkic:jraq(Pav.C.,MA),raq(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jirq,irq
Uighur:jiraq
Sary-Yughur:jiraq,jrq
Azerbaidzhan:iraGadv.
Turkmen:rq(.)
Khakassian:rax
Oyrat:raq,raq
557
Halaj:hrq
Yakut:rx
Dolgan:rk
Tuva:raq
Tofalar:raq
Kirghiz:raaq
Kazakh:raq
Bashkir:jraq
Gagauz:jraq
Karaim:jraq
Karakalpak:raq,raq
Salar:jrax
Kumyk:jraq
Comments:PT*ra-k-isderivedfrom*ra-'tobefar'.SeeEDT198,214,
4,286-287,Stachowski261.

Proto-Turkic:*rgaj
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1nameofaplant(irga)2honeysuckle,woodbind3juniper
Russianmeaning:123
Uighur:iraj1
Oyrat:jjra3
Tuva:raj1
Kazakh:raj3
Comments:VEWT166.

Proto-Turkic:*sg/*isig
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1hot2warm
Russianmeaning:12
558
OldTurkic:isig1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:isig1(MK,KB)
Turkish:sak1
Tatar:esse1
MiddleTurkic:isti2(Pav.C.),s(..,Abush.)
Uighur:issiq1
Azerbaidzhan:isti2
Turkmen:ss1
Khakassian:zg1
Oyrat:iz1
Halaj:hiss ,hisk1
Chuvash:2
Yakut:it,iiges(<*isi-ge)2
Dolgan:it,iiges2
Tuva:izi1
Tofalar:i'si1
Kirghiz:sq1,s'heat,hotwind'
Kazakh:ss1
Noghai:issi1
Karaim:issi1,2(HK),saq2(K),s-t-(K)'towarm'
Karakalpak:ss1
Salar:hss2
Comments:Derivedfrom*s-/*isi-'tobehot'.SeeVEWT173-4,TMN
2,182,EDT246,1,668-671,19-20,Stachowski123,130.

Proto-Turkic:*sr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobite
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:sr-(MK)
559
Turkish:sr-
MiddleTurkic:sr-,sur-'tobite,toeat'(Abush.,Sangl.)
Khakassian:zr-
Yakut:tr-,st-
Dolgan:tr-,st-
Tuva:zr-
Tofalar:'sr-
Kirghiz:sr-
Karaim:sr-
Kumyk:sr-
Comments:VEWT167,EDT251,1,671-672,Stachowski262,263.

Proto-Turkic:*t/*it
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dog
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:t(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:t(MK,KB)
Turkish:it(arch.)
Tatar:et
MiddleTurkic:t(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:it
Uighur:it
Sary-Yughur:t
Azerbaidzhan:it
Turkmen:it
Halaj:it
Chuvash:jd
Yakut:t
Dolgan:t
560
Tuva:'t
Tofalar:'t
Kirghiz:it
Kazakh:i_t
Noghai:ijt
Bashkir:et
Balkar:it
Karakalpak:ijt
Salar:it
Comments:VEWT174,TMN2,173-4,EDT34,1,385,83,
188,Stachowski262.

Proto-Turkic:*d-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosend
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:d-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:-(MK)
MiddleTurkic:ij-(AH)
Turkmen:j-
Khakassian:s-
Shor:s-
Oyrat:ij-,s-
Chuvash:jar-
Yakut:t-
Dolgan:t-
Tuva:t-
Tofalar:t-
Kirghiz:ij-
Balkar:ij-
561
Karaim:ij-
Comments:EDT37-38,VEWT164,1,332-333,354,
Stachowski263.

Proto-Turkic:*l()
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1smoke2soot,dirtysmoke3scent,odour4fumes
Russianmeaning:12,3,4
Karakhanid:2(MK),'mist'(KB)
Sary-Yughur:s1
Khakassian:s2
Oyrat:1,2
Yakut:s4
Tuva:1
Tofalar:1
Noghai:s2
Karakalpak:s2
Comments:Therootoriginallymeant'soot,smoke'andshouldbestrictly
keptdistinctfromPT*jd-'smell'and*js'smell,odour,fumes',although
theyhaveanaturaltendencytomerge.SeeVEWT167,170,EDT254,
883,1,379-382,370-371.

Proto-Turkic:*jAb-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bad,coarse,wicked2tobecomebad,weak3heavy,difficult,
severe4tasteless,insipid
Russianmeaning:1,2,3,
,4,
OldTurkic:jabz1(Orkh.),javz1(OUygh.),javan1(OUygh.),jablaq
(Orkh.)3,javlaq(OUygh.)3
562
Karakhanid:javr-2,javra-'tobecomerough,coarse',javz1,javan1,
javlaq3(MK)
Turkish:javuz1,javan4
Tatar:jawz1
MiddleTurkic:javlaq(R)'very',javuz(Ettuhf.,AH)1
Uzbek:jwuz1,jan4(dial.)
Uighur:javuz1
Sary-Yughur:jus1
Azerbaidzhan:javan4
Turkmen:jovuz1,3,juwan4(dial.)
Khakassian:aban4
Yakut:suos3
Kirghiz:an4
Kazakh:awz1
Bashkir:jaw-1
Gagauz:javan4
Karakalpak:awz1
Comments:VEWT176,EDT879,881-882,4,47-48,51.Turk.>
WMong.abqai,abaan(KW468),whenceagainsomeTurkicforms
(Kirgh.abqetc.,see4,9-10).OnecouldperhapsalsonoteKaz.
awra-,Uzb.wra-'tosufferfromcold,shiver'(4,20)whichmaybe
=Karakh.javra-,javr-andthusshouldnotbecomparedtoMong.daara-
(despiteKW82).

Proto-Turkic:*jaba
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:2wildonion3onion-likeedibleplant
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:java2(?)(OUygh.)
563
Karakhanid:java(MK)'al-turt_t_'[Bib.-Kaz.:'areddishedibleplant',Belot:
'amedicinalgrass',Lane:'cynomorium'];'aplantthejuiceofwhichisused
tocolournoodles'.
Turkish:juwa2
Tatar:juwa,Sib.juwa2
MiddleTurkic:jawaOKypch(Houts.)2,'leek'
Turkmen:juva2
Khakassian:ama'mountaingarlic'
Tuva:t'cudbear,lichen'
Tofalar:t'horse-tail'
Kirghiz:ua2
Kazakh:uwa2
Noghai:juwa2
Bashkir:jwa2
Karakalpak:uwa2
Comments:EDT871-872,4,240.TheOUygh.wordisattestedina
Buddhisttextdescribingblossomingspringplants:zlerdekizeklerdeki
javaigidem"thejavaandthecrocusesinvalleysandravines";so,despite
Clauson414,thisiscertainlynotamushroom;probablysomeonion-like
plant(?).

Proto-Turkic:*jaba
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:very
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:jaba
Tuva:,ab-

Proto-Turkic:*jabal
Altaicetymology:
564
Meaning:soft,mild;slow,quiet
Russianmeaning:,;,
OldTurkic:jaba(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:java(MK)
Turkish:java
Tatar:juwa,jua
MiddleTurkic:java(AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jww,juw
Uighur:java,juva,juga(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:java
Turkmen:juva
Khakassian:abas
Shor:aba,oba
Oyrat:d

obo
Tuva:
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:uwas
Noghai:juwas
Bashkir:jwa
Balkar:uwa
Gagauz:java
Kumyk:java,juva
Comments:SeeVEWT175,4,51-52,TMN4,207-208.Cf.also
(withdifferentsuffixation)Karakh.jav-l-'tobecomesoft',java(jer)'warm,
cosyplace';Yak.samaa-n'warm,favourable(ofsummer)'.

Proto-Turkic:*jab-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:in-between,matchmaker
Russianmeaning:
565
Tatar:jaw
MiddleTurkic:jav(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:aw(dial.),wi
Oyrat:d

,j
Kirghiz:u
Kazakh:aw
Noghai:jaw
Bashkir:jaws
Karakalpak:aw
Comments:VEWT176,4,34.Turk.>WMong.abu(l)i,Khalkha
id.(hardlyviceversa,despiteRona-TasKMII125-126).

Proto-Turkic:*jablan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wormwood
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:japan,javan(MK)
MiddleTurkic:jawan
Turkmen:jovan
Tuva:apan
Comments:4,53-55,EDT872.

Proto-Turkic:*jabr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:youngofbirdsandanimals
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:javru,javr
MiddleTurkic:javr(Ettuhf.)
Chuvash:svr,sur
Gagauz:javru
566
Comments:VEWT176,4,53,168-169,2,140-
141,TMN4,220.

Proto-Turkic:*jaan-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:beashamed,embarrassed
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:jaan-(MK)
Turkish:(Osm.)jaan-
MiddleTurkic:jaan-(CCum.)
Chuvash:szen-'tobeshocked'
Comments:EDT882,VEWT176,(incorrectly)2,151.

Proto-Turkic:*jAd-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tospread
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jad-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ja-(MK)
Turkish:jaj-
Tatar:jaj-
MiddleTurkic:jaj-(Pav.C.,AH)
Uzbek:jj-
Uighur:jaj-
Azerbaidzhan:jaj-
Turkmen:jj-
Oyrat:jaj-,d

aj-
Tuva:at-
Kirghiz:aj-
Kazakh:aj-
567
Noghai:jaj-
Bashkir:jj-
Gagauz:jaj-
Karaim:jaj-
Karakalpak:aj-
Kumyk:jaj-
Comments:VEWT177,4,76-77,80,EDT883-884.

Proto-Turkic:*jAdna-(-j-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tolongfor
Russianmeaning:,
Turkmen:jajna-dial.'tosuffer,worry'
Shor:ajna-
Oyrat:jajna-,d

ajna-'topine'
Comments:VEWT179,4,80.Thestemseemstobedistinctfrom
thehomonymous*jadna-(*jajna-)'tobespread;bewideopen(eyes)'
whichmaybederivedfrom*jAd-'spread'q.v.sub*dV(see4,79);
letusnote,however,thatmanyofthereflexesofthelattermayactually
reflectour*jadna-'tolongfor,miss'(cf.especiallyKirgh.ajna-'tostare
withenvyandhope',Tur.jajna-'toliveinprosperity'etc.).

Proto-Turkic:*jag-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torain2rain
Russianmeaning:1()2
OldTurkic:ja-1(Orkh.),jamur2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ja-1(MK,KB)
Turkish:j-1,jmur2
Tatar:jaw-1,jar,jawm2
568
MiddleTurkic:ja-1,jamur/jamur2(Pav.C.,AH,Ettuhf.,MA),jan2
(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:j-1,jmir,jin2
Uighur:ja-1,jamu(r),jamur,jein2
Sary-Yughur:ja-1,jamir
Azerbaidzhan:ja-1,jamur,ja,jan2
Turkmen:ja-1,jamr,ja,jan2
Khakassian:a-1,namr2
Shor:a-,-1,nabr,namr2
Oyrat:j-,d

a-1,d

amr,d

2
Halaj:ja-1
Chuvash:su-1,somr2
Yakut:samr2
Dolgan:hamr2
Tuva:a-1,a's2
Tofalar:a-1
Kirghiz:-,au-1,amr,n2
Kazakh:aw-1,abr,awn2
Noghai:jaw-1,jamr
Bashkir:jaw-1,jamr,jawun2
Balkar:awun,anur
Gagauz:j-1,jmur2
Karaim:jamur2
Karakalpak:aw-1,awn,amr2
Salar:ja-1,jamur2
Kumyk:jaw-1,jaur,jaur,jawn/jawun2
Comments:VEWT177,EDT896,903-4,908,4,57,25,
2,135,Stachowski95.

Proto-Turkic:*jag
569
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:enemy,war
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:ja(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ja(MK)
Turkish:ja
Tatar:jaw
MiddleTurkic:ja(Houts.)
Uzbek:jw,(dial.)jaw,j
Uighur:jaw,ja,j(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:ja
Azerbaidzhan:ja
Turkmen:ja
Khakassian:
Shor:
Oyrat:j,d

u
Halaj:ja
Chuvash:su'heathen'
Yakut:sa-kr'rogue,villain'
Tuva:
Tofalar:
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:aw
Noghai:jaw
Bashkir:jaw
Balkar:aw,aw,zaw
Karakalpak:aw
Kumyk:jaw
Comments:VEWT178,4,55-56,561,2,129(?).

570
Proto-Turkic:*jAgr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1chap,saddle-gallonbackofananimal2wound,chafeon
humanbody
Russianmeaning:12,

Karakhanid:jar1(MK)
Turkish:jar1
MiddleTurkic:jar1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jair2
Uighur:jei(r)1
Azerbaidzhan:jar1
Turkmen:jar1
Oyrat:d

r1
Kirghiz:r1
Kazakh:awr1
Noghai:jawr1
Karakalpak:awr1
Comments:4,65,TMN4,183.Externalevidencesuggeststhatthis
rootshouldbekeptdistinctfrom*jagr,*jagrn'back,shoulderblade'(v.sub
*dagV).

Proto-Turkic:*jagr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:brown
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jaz(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jaz(MK)
Turkish:jaz,jaz
MiddleTurkic:jaz(AH),jowuz(Ettuhf.)
571
Turkmen:jaz
Chuvash:sr()
Gagauz:jz
Kumyk:jawuz
Comments:4,64-65,EDT909.DespitePoppe61,
267andClauson(EDT909)Mong.dajir'brown'-withwhichtheywouldlike
tocomparetheTurkicform-doesnotexist.

Proto-Turkic:*jagr,*jagrn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:back,shoulderblade
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:jar,dial.jar,jar
Tatar:jawrn,jawrn,awr(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:jarn(Pav.C.,AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jarin
Turkmen:jarn;jarn,jarn(dial.)
Noghai:jawrn
Bashkir:jawrn(dial.)
Salar:jar(Kakuk)
Kumyk:jawrun
Comments:VEWT178,4,65-67,139-141,242.

Proto-Turkic:*jaglk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:kerchief
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:jalk
Tatar:jawlq
Uighur:jaliq
572
Azerbaidzhan:jajlG
Turkmen:jalq,dial.jlq
Chuvash:sulk
Kirghiz:luq
Kazakh:awlq
Noghai:jawlq
Bashkir:jawlq
Gagauz:jlq
Karaim:jalq
Karakalpak:awlq
Kumyk:jawluq
Comments:4,61(withTurkm.jGlq),27,.XII,224,
2,132-133.Derivationfrom*jag'fat'(TMN4,179)seemsquite
improbable.

Proto-Turkic:*jagu-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todrawnear2near
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:jau-(OUygh.)1,jauq(Orkh.)2
Karakhanid:jau-(MK,KB)1,jauq(MK)2
Turkish:javuk2
Tatar:jawuq,juwq(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:javu-(Pav.C.)1,javuq(Abush.)2
Uzbek:jvuq2
Azerbaidzhan:jav-1(dial.),jowuG2
Turkmen:jovu-1(dial.),jowuq2
Oyrat:j-,d

u-1,jq,d

q2
Chuvash:svx2
Yakut:ugas2
573
Dolgan:hugas,ugas2,hugah-1
Tuva:q2
Kirghiz:-1,q2
Kazakh:uw-1,uwq2
Noghai:juw-1
Balkar:uwuq,zuwuq
Karakalpak:uw-1,uwq2
Kumyk:juwuq2
Comments:4,62-63,EDT898,901,Stachowski75,110.

Proto-Turkic:*jaj-**AD
Meaning:1tosing2tomakenoise3noise
Russianmeaning:12
Uzbek:jjla-','
Sary-Yughur:jajna-','
Comments:2129**AD..-
(-
,-),-.600.

Proto-Turkic:*jAja
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1buttocks2thigh3waist
Russianmeaning:123
Karakhanid:jaja(MK)1
Uzbek:aja1
Khakassian:aja3
Tuva:aj2
Kirghiz:aja1
Kazakh:aja1
Comments:EDT980,VEWT179,4,12,281.
574

Proto-Turkic:*jajak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1cheek2jaw
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:jaaq(MK)2
Turkish:janak1
Tatar:jaaq1
MiddleTurkic:jaaq(Abush.,Sangl.)1,2
Uzbek:jnq2,(Kypch.dial.)a1,2
Uighur:jaaq2
Sary-Yughur:jaaq,jaq1
Azerbaidzhan:janaG1
Turkmen:jaaq1
Khakassian:nx1
Shor:nq1
Oyrat:d

k1,2
Yakut:sx1,2
Dolgan:hk1,2
Tuva:k1,2
Kirghiz:q2
Kazakh:aq1,2
Bashkir:jaaq1,2
Balkar:jaq1,2
Gagauz:janaq1
Karaim:janax,jajax,jaaq1,2
Karakalpak:aq1,2
Salar:jaax()2
Kumyk:jajaq1,2
575
Comments:EDT948,VEWT187,4,123,219-220,
Stachowski119.

Proto-Turkic:*jak-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toburn(tr.)2light,ray3toproducefire
Russianmeaning:12,3
Karakhanid:jaq-1(MK)
Turkish:jak-1
Tatar:ja-1,jaqt2
MiddleTurkic:jaq-1(Abush.)
Uzbek:jq-1,jdu2
Uighur:jaq-1
Azerbaidzhan:jax-1
Turkmen:jaq-1,jat2
Halaj:ja:q-1
Chuvash:sot-1,so-d2
Yakut:saq-1
Tofalar:a'q-3
Kirghiz:aq-1
Kazakh:aq-1
Noghai:jaq-1
Bashkir:jaq-1,jaqt2
Gagauz:jaq-1
Karaim:jaq-1
Karakalpak:aq-1,aqt2
Kumyk:jaq-1
Comments:VEWT180,TMN4,201-202,EDT897,4,62,81-82,
2,146,362.Thisstemshouldbedistinguishedfrom
*jan-'toburn(intr.)'.
576
Proto-Turkic:*jAk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tocomenear2near3tocomeneartoeachother,pass3good
Russianmeaning:123,
4
OldTurkic:jaq-(OUygh.)1,jaqn(OUygh.)2,jaq-(OUygh.)3
Karakhanid:jaq-(MK,KB)1,jaqn(MK)2,jaq-(MK)3,ja(MK)4
Turkish:jakn2,jak-3,jak4
Tatar:jaqn2,jax4
MiddleTurkic:jaqn(MA)2,ja4(MA)
Uzbek:jaqin2,jaxi4
Uighur:jaq-1,jeqin2,jaqi4
Sary-Yughur:jahGn2,jax(i)4
Azerbaidzhan:jaxn2,jax4
Turkmen:jaq-1,jaqn2,jaG4
Khakassian:an2,axs4
Tuva:'closeto'
Tofalar:'xa-'topressto'
Kirghiz:aqn2,aq4
Kazakh:aqn2,aqs4
Noghai:jaqn2,jax4
Bashkir:jaqn2,jaq4
Gagauz:jaqn2,jaq-3
Karaim:jaqn2,jaq4
Karakalpak:aqn2,aqs4
Salar:jan2,ja4
Comments:VEWT178,180,EDT896-9,901,904,908-9,4,63-64,
81,84,TMN4,179.

Proto-Turkic:*jaka
577
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:collar;edge
Russianmeaning:;
OldTurkic:jaqa(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jaqa(MK)
Turkish:jaka
Tatar:jaqa
MiddleTurkic:jaqa(Pav.C.,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jqa
Uighur:jaqa
Azerbaidzhan:jaxa
Turkmen:jaqa
Khakassian:aa
Shor:aa
Oyrat:d

aqa
Halaj:jaqa
Chuvash:soa
Yakut:saa
Tofalar:aa(.)
Kirghiz:aqa
Noghai:jaa
Bashkir:jaa
Balkar:aa,aa
Salar:jaxa
Kumyk:jaa
Comments:VEWT180,82-83,EDT898,4,82-84,2,146-
147.Turk.>WMong.aqa,iqa,Kalm.zax(KW463-464;TMN4,103-
104,1997,122),whenceEvk.aka(DoerferMT125).

Proto-Turkic:*jaka
578
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:rent,lease
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jaqa(OUygh.)
Comments:EDT898.

Proto-Turkic:*jakl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofsmallhawk
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:jalbaj
MiddleTurkic:jalabaj(Ettuhf.)
Khakassian:albaj
Oyrat:jaalbaj'siskin'
Kirghiz:aalmaj
Kazakh:aaltaj
Bashkir:jalbaj
Comments:VEWT186,4,10-11.

Proto-Turkic:*jaku
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:coat
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:jaqu(MK)
Oyrat:jaqq,d

aqq,jaqa,d

aqa
Yakut:sannax
Tuva:a
Kirghiz:aq(dial.)
Kazakh:aq(dial.)
Bashkir:jaq
579
Comments:4,60-61,476.Theformjaquisnotreally
attested:itisafolketymologyrelatedbyMK.Turk.>Russ.jega,see
195,721.

Proto-Turkic:*jal-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toclose,hide
Russianmeaning:(),()
OldTurkic:ja-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ja-(MK)
MiddleTurkic:ja-(AH)
Sary-Yughur:jas-
Azerbaidzhan:ja-(dial.)
Turkmen:ja-
Yakut:sas-
Comments:VEWT192,4,160-161.Verywidelyspreadarealsothe
derivatives*jaln-,*jalr-,seeibid.

Proto-Turkic:*jal-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:differentgrassnames
Russianmeaning:
Uzbek:jalpiz'mint'
Oyrat:jal''
Kirghiz:albz'mint'
Comments:VEWT183,TMN4,55.

Proto-Turkic:*jal-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toburn,blaze2flame
580
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:jal-1(OUygh.),jaln2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jal-1(MK),jaln2(MK)
Turkish:jaln2
MiddleTurkic:jaln2(..)
Uzbek:jal2(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:jaln2
Turkmen:jaln2
Khakassian:aln2
Oyrat:jaln,d

aln2
Chuvash:solm2
Tuva:aln2
Kirghiz:aln2
Kazakh:aln2
Noghai:jaln2
Gagauz:jaln2
Karaim:jaln2
Karakalpak:aln2
Kumyk:jaln2
Comments:VEWT181,EDT918,929,4,106-107,23,
356-357,363,2,133-134,TMN4,187.Cf.alsoKypch.jalgavu
'fryingpan'(4,13).Turk.*jaltr-'toflash,blazed'(4,94)>
Mong.iltira-id.;*jaltrm(4,281)'lightning'>Mong.jildurumid.
(1997,121).

Proto-Turkic:*jAl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobeafraid2tosuspect,slander3slander
Russianmeaning:12,3
OldTurkic:jala3(OUygh.)
581
Karakhanid:jala-2,jala3(MK)
Turkish:jl-1,Osm.jal-
Tatar:jala3
MiddleTurkic:jala3(MKypch.-CCum.)
Oyrat:d'ala'fine,charge'
Yakut:jula3
Kirghiz:ala3,ala-2
Kazakh:ala3
Noghai:jala3
Bashkir:jala3
Karakalpak:ala3
Comments:VEWT200,EDT918-919,4,87,2,483.

Proto-Turkic:*jala-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sacredband2flag3tie,strap
Russianmeaning:1,,
()2,3
,
Tatar:jalaw(dial.)2,jala3
MiddleTurkic:jalaw(..)2
Uzbek:jalw2
Uighur:ala(dial.)3
Sary-Yughur:ala3
Turkmen:jalow(dial.)2
Khakassian:ala()ma1,al3
Shor:ala3,alaba1
Oyrat:jalaa,d

alaa3,jalama,d

alama1
Yakut:salama1
Tuva:al3,alama1
582
Kirghiz:alau2
Kazakh:alaw2
Karakalpak:alaw2
Comments:4,99-100,VEWT181.Turk.*jala-gu,*jala-gaand*jala-
maseemtobederivedfromacommonroot,thusitismostprobablethat
Mong.alama'sacredstrips'andalaa'tassel,thicksilkthread'are
borrowedfromTurkicandnotviceversa.

Proto-Turkic:*jAla
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1suspicion,falseaccusation2lie
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:jala1(OUygh.),jalan2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jala1(MK),jalan2(MK)
Turkish:jalan2
Tatar:jala1,jalan2
MiddleTurkic:jalan2(AH),jalqan2(MA)
Uzbek:jln2
Uighur:jalan2
Azerbaidzhan:jalan2
Turkmen:jalan1,2
Oyrat:jala,d

ala1
Kirghiz:ala1,alan2
Kazakh:ala1,alan2
Noghai:jala1,jalan2
Bashkir:jala1,jalan2
Balkar:alan,alan2
Gagauz:jalan2
Karaim:jalan,jalan2
Karakalpak:ala1,alan2
583
Salar:jalan2
Kumyk:jalan2
Comments:VEWT181,183,EDT918-919,926,4,87,91-92.Turk.
>Mong.jala(KW214).

Proto-Turkic:*jala
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:field,steppe
Russianmeaning:,
Tatar:jalan,dial.jala
Uzbek:jala
Khakassian:jala
Shor:ala
Oyrat:d

ala
Halaj:ala
Kirghiz:ala(dial.)
Bashkir:jalan
Comments:VEWT181,4,91.Turk.>Russ.jelan,see197.

Proto-Turkic:*jalauk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:person
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jalauq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jaluq(MK,KB)
Chuvash:sn()
Comments:VEWT182,EDT930.

Proto-Turkic:*jal()-
Altaicetymology:
584
Meaning:1toblaze,flame2lightning
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:jau-1,jan2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jau-1,jan2(MK)
Tatar:jen2
MiddleTurkic:jan2(AH),jaq'sun'(R.)
Uzbek:jain2
Khakassian:azn2
Shor:an2
Oyrat:jan,d

n2
Chuvash:sis-1,sizm2
Noghai:jasn2
Bashkir:jen2
Kumyk:jan2
Comments:EDT977,979,VEWT192,4,149-150,22-23.
Turk.*jaln>Mong.jain'lightning'(1997,123).

Proto-Turkic:*jal-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:belazy,emaciated,weak,quiet
Russianmeaning:,;,,
MiddleTurkic:jaq(adj.)(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jiq(adj.)
Uighur:jeiq(adj.)
Khakassian:az(adj.)
Oyrat:ja-(R),d

aq(adj.)
Yakut:shj-
Tuva:a-
Kirghiz:a-
Kazakh:as-
585
Bashkir:jaq(adj.)
Karakalpak:as-
Comments:VEWT192,4,20-21,TMN4,173.

Proto-Turkic:*jal
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1naked2single,lonely
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:jal1,jalus2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jal1,jalus2(MK)
Turkish:jaln1,jalnz,dial.jalaz2
Tatar:jalan1(dial.),jalz2
MiddleTurkic:jal1(Pav.C.),jalan,jalnaq1(Ettuhf.),jalz,jalqz2
(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jal1,jlliz2
Uighur:jala1,jaluz2
Sary-Yughur:jal,ja1,jas2
Azerbaidzhan:jaln1,jalnz2
Turkmen:jala1,jalaa1,jalz2
Khakassian:ala1,als2
Shor:ala1,as,nas,nas2
Oyrat:d

ala1,jas,d

as2
Halaj:jaluz2
Yakut:snax,sgnnax1
Dolgan:hgnnak1
Tuva:as2
Kirghiz:ala1,alz,az2
Kazakh:ala1,alz2
Noghai:jala1,jalz2
Bashkir:ja2
586
Balkar:alan,zalan1,anz,zanz2
Gagauz:jaln1,jalnz2
Karaim:jaln,jalan1,jalz2
Karakalpak:ala1,alz2
Kumyk:jalan1,jaz,jaz2
Comments:VEWT182,EDT929,930,4,97-98,104-106.Turk.>
Kalm.jal(KW214).Cf.also*jalk'single'(4,95),Stachowski106,
118.Yak.sgnnax<*jaln-ak;sootox<*jalorak.

Proto-Turkic:*jal-k-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosufferpain,benauseated,hate
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:jalq-(MK)
MiddleTurkic:jalq-(Pav.C.)
Yakut:sal-t-
Comments:EDT924,VEWT183,4,14-15.Notethatmodern
Kypch.andSib.formsmeaning'lazy,belazy'(jalq-,alq-)donotbelong
herebutareratherborrowed<Mong.alka-havingaquitedifferentorigin
(seeunder*el

o).Ontheotherhand,cf.thecommonTurkicderivative*jal-
ta-,perhapsreflectedintheaboveYak.form,aswellasinTurkm.jalta,
Shoraltak,Khak.alt'lazy',Tur.jaltak'bootlicker'etc.(see4,101-
102).

Proto-Turkic:*jAlk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toglitter2flame,ray
Russianmeaning:1,2,,
Turkish:jalkn2
Tatar:jalq-1(dial.),jalqn2
587
MiddleTurkic:jalqun2(R)
Uzbek:jlqin2
Uighur:jalqun2
Turkmen:jalqm2
Oyrat:d

alqn2
Kazakh:alqn2
Bashkir:jalqn2
Comments:VEWT181,4,106-107,357.Usuallyunited
with*jal-(v.sub*iale),butseemstohaveadistinctAltaicorigin.

Proto-Turkic:*jAl-k-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1shallow2wave
Russianmeaning:12
Turkmen:jalpaq1
Tuva:al1,aljaq2
Comments:(?)Cf.alsoChag.jalin'Salzsteppe'etc.(<'shallowplace'?),
seeVEWT183.

Proto-Turkic:*jAlma
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:athickquiltedcoat
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jalma(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jalma(MK)
Comments:EDT929,TMN4,190-192.
Proto-Turkic:*jalp
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1broad,flat2blade,paddle3shallow
Russianmeaning:1,2,3
588
Karakhanid:jalb1(MK)
Turkish:jalpk1
Tatar:lpk1
MiddleTurkic:jalpaq1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jlpq1
Uighur:jalpaq1
Turkmen:jalpa2,jalpaq1,3
Khakassian:elbax,nalpax1
Oyrat:jalbaq,d

albaq1
Yakut:salbax2
Dolgan:halbax'span;foot'
Tuva:albaq1
Tofalar:albaq1
Kirghiz:alpaq1
Kazakh:alpaq1
Noghai:jalpaq1
Bashkir:jalpaq1
Gagauz:jalpaq1
Karaim:jalpaq1
Karakalpak:alpaq1
Kumyk:jalpaq1
Comments:EDT919,VEWT182,4,14,100-101,Stachowski94.
Thisrootshouldbedistinguishedfrom*japur-gak'leaf'andfrom*jalp-/
*jelpi-'toshake,sway'.

Proto-Turkic:*jAm
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:largeearthenwarevessel
Russianmeaning:
MiddleTurkic:jam(Pav.C.)
589
Uzbek:jm
Kirghiz:am
Comments:VEWT183.RsnencomparesalsoKr.jam-'zubereitetes
Leder'(R3,308)-whichispossibleiftheoriginalmeaningwas"alarge
vesselfortanningskins".OnecanalsomentionYak.sma'largeleather
bag'(.2,2455suggestsborrowing<Russ.,butinthatcase*sm
wouldbeexpected).

Proto-Turkic:*jam
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1pieceofdust2litterfloatingonthesurfaceofwater
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:jam(MK)1
Tuva:am2
Comments:VEWT205.

Proto-Turkic:*jam-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1groin2pubichair
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:jamz(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:jamz(MK)1,jamdu(MK)2(EDT:jemd)
Turkish:jamz(dial.)1
Tatar:jams(dial.)1
MiddleTurkic:jambuz1(R.)
Azerbaidzhan:janbz'side,hip'
Turkmen:jamz1
Yakut:sms1
Noghai:jamz1
Balkar:amz1
590
Comments:VEWT184,EDT935,940,4,110-111.Turk.>MMong.
(MA)amiz(1997,122).

Proto-Turkic:*jam
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:poststation
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jam(lateOUygh.)
Turkish:jam(Red.)
Tatar:jam(possiblyfromRussian)
MiddleTurkic:jam(Abush.,Sangl.)
Comments:VEWT183,EDT933.Turk.>MMong.am'poststation',
WMong.am'way,street,road'(hardlyviceversa;seethediscussionin
1997,195).Mong.>Man.gamun,Nan.jamo,Ul.jamu(n),see
DoerferMT142(withastrangeinitialreflex,suggestingratheran
unattestedMong.variant*jam;ChineseoriginsuggestedbyDoerferTMN
4,110-118isimprobable-forpurelyphoneticalreasons:theactualMiddle
Chineseformwasnot"*g amoderhnlich",assuggestedibid.,buttem;
eventhelaterfricativizedshapeam(Zhongyuanyinyun)canhardlyhave
yieldedMong.am,tosaynothingoftheTMvariantswithj-).

Proto-Turkic:*jama-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:topatch
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:jama-(MK)
Turkish:jama-
Tatar:jama-
MiddleTurkic:jama-(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jama-
591
Uighur:jama-
Sary-Yughur:jama-
Azerbaidzhan:jama-
Turkmen:jama-
Khakassian:nama-
Shor:naba-
Oyrat:jama-,d

ama-
Yakut:sam-
Dolgan:ham-
Tuva:ama-
Kirghiz:ama-
Kazakh:ama-
Noghai:jama-
Bashkir:jama-
Balkar:zama-
Gagauz:jama-
Karaim:jama-
Karakalpak:ama-
Salar:jama-
Kumyk:jama-
Comments:VEWT184,EDT934-935,4,108,Stachowski94.Turk.
>WMong.ama-,Kalm.zam-(KW466).

Proto-Turkic:*jAma
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sideofamountain
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:jama
MiddleTurkic:jama,jama(R,Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:jama
592
Turkmen:jama(dial.)
Gagauz:jama
Comments:VEWT184,4,111.

Proto-Turkic:*jAmak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:helper
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:jamak
MiddleTurkic:jama(R)
Comments:VEWT184.

Proto-Turkic:*jAman
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bad,wicked2sickness,inflammation
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:jaman1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jaman1(MK)
Turkish:jaman1
Tatar:jaman1
MiddleTurkic:jaman(AH)1
Uzbek:jmn1
Uighur:jaman1
Sary-Yughur:jaman1
Azerbaidzhan:jaman1
Turkmen:jaman1,2
Oyrat:jaman,d

aman1,2
Kirghiz:aman1
Kazakh:aman1
Noghai:jaman1
593
Bashkir:jaman1
Balkar:aman1
Karaim:jaman1
Karakalpak:aman1
Salar:jaman1
Kumyk:jaman1
Comments:VEWT184,EDT937,4,109.Cf.Yak.smja'lie,deceit'.
Themeaning'baddisease'isattestedalreadyinOldTurkic.

Proto-Turkic:*jAmk>*jnk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:pocket,sash,bag
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:januq(MK)
Turkish:jank
Tatar:janq
MiddleTurkic:januq(Houts.,AH)
Uzbek:jniq
Uighur:januq
Turkmen:jnq
Khakassian:nan,nandx
Oyrat:janq,d

anq
Tuva:anq
Bashkir:jansq
Karaim:janq,janx
Salar:jenux
Kumyk:janiq
Comments:VEWT185,EDT945,4,118(relatedto*jn'side'by
folk-etymology).TheoldformispreservedinOsm.jam'raincoat'etc.
(VEWT184,4,110;Turk.>Mong.ami,ai).
594

Proto-Turkic:*jAn-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toturnback2again
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:jan-1(Orkh.,OUygh.),jana2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jan-1(MK),jana2(MK)
Turkish:jine,jene2
Tatar:jan-1,jn2
MiddleTurkic:jan-1,jana2(..,Abush.)
Uzbek:jn-1,jana2
Uighur:jan-1,jana2
Sary-Yughur:jan-1
Azerbaidzhan:jen2
Turkmen:jene2
Khakassian:nan-1
Shor:nan-1
Oyrat:jan-,d

an-1
Tuva:an-1
Kirghiz:an-1,ana2
Kazakh:ne2
Noghai:jana2
Bashkir:jn2
Karaim:jana,jan,jane2
Karakalpak:ne2
Comments:EDT941-942,943,4,111-112,114-115.

Proto-Turkic:*jan-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torout2toleadsmth.aside3totakesmb.along
595
Russianmeaning:1,2
3-.
OldTurkic:jaj-(Ongin)1,jan-
Yakut:sajs-3
Tuva:aj-2
Comments:EDT942.Cf.also*jaj-ra-'tofallapart'(VEWT179,4,
80);therootissomewhathardtodistinguishfrom*jj-'toshake'-but
seemstobedistinct.

Proto-Turkic:*jan-/*jen-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocrush
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jan-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jan-,jen-(MK)
Turkish:jen-
Tatar:jne-
MiddleTurkic:jen-(R.)
Uzbek:jn-
Uighur:jn-
Turkmen:jen-
Shor:na-
Yakut:ss-/sn-
Kirghiz:an-
Kazakh:an-
Noghai:jan-
Karaim:jan-,jen-,janc-
Karakalpak:en-
Kumyk:jan-
596
Comments:EDT944,4,184-185.Turk.>WMong.ani-,jani-,KW
466,1997,122.Seealsonotesto*jn(u)-'threaten'.

Proto-Turkic:*jan-,*jan-tr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toburn(itr.),blazeup2toburn(tr.)3tokindle4toshine
Russianmeaning:1,234
Karakhanid:jan-1(MK)
Turkish:jan-1
Tatar:jan-1,jandr-2
MiddleTurkic:jan-1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jn-1
Uighur:jan-1(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:jan-1,jandr-2
Turkmen:jan-1
Chuvash:son-1,sondar-2
Yakut:san-dr-4
Kirghiz:an-1
Kazakh:an-1
Noghai:jan-1,jandr-2
Bashkir:jan-1
Balkar:an-1
Gagauz:jan-1
Karaim:jan-1
Karakalpak:an-1
Kumyk:jan-1
Comments:VEWT184,EDT942,947-948,4,112,2,136,
362.

Proto-Turkic:*jAnka-
597
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toshake,bringintomotion
Russianmeaning:(),
OldTurkic:jajqa-n-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jajqa-l-(MK)
Turkish:jajka-
MiddleTurkic:jajqa-l-(Sangl.,Pav.C.)
Uighur:(dial.)jajqa-
Turkmen:jajqa-
Khakassian:ajxa-,dial.najxal-
Oyrat:d

ajqa-,dial.d

aja-
Tuva:a'ja-
Tofalar:a'jha-(.77)
Kirghiz:ajqa-
Kazakh:ajqal-
Noghai:jajqa-l-
Karaim:jajqa-
Comments:3,58-59,4,77-78,EDT981.PT*janka-is
usuallytreatedasderivedfrom*jj-'toshake,rinse'(seee.g.4,75-
76,EDTibid.),butthelatterdoesnotseemtoshowanytracesofnasaland
maybeseparatelycomparedwithMong.aji-lu-'torinse',aji-mu-'to
shake,stir',seeKW471.

Proto-Turkic:*ja
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1echo2sound,resound3tosound,pronounce
Russianmeaning:12,3
OldTurkic:jaqu1(OUygh.),jara-(Orkh.)3
Karakhanid:jaqu1,jara-3(MK)
Turkish:jank1
598
Tatar:jara-3
MiddleTurkic:jaqu1(AH)
Uzbek:jagra-3
Turkmen:ja2,jara-3
Oyrat:d

au1,d

ar-3
Yakut:saa2
Dolgan:haa2
Tuva:a1
Kirghiz:ar-3
Noghai:jara-3
Bashkir:jara-3
Karakalpak:ar-3
Kumyk:janr-3
Comments:EDT949,952,4,119,122,124,Stachowski96.Turk.>
WMong.ja'melody'(1997,164).

Proto-Turkic:*jAak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:doorpost
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:(qapu)jaaq(MK)
Tatar:jaaq
Oyrat:jq
Tuva:q
Bashkir:jaaq
Comments:DT948,4,123-124.Therootistraditionallyconsidered
merelyavariantof*jajak'cheek,jaw'(v.sub*zi

ni),butitmaybepossible
toseparatethemetymologically.Tat.>Chuv.janax>Mari,Udm.janak
(2,500).

599
Proto-Turkic:*jAgak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:walnut
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jaaq(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:jaaq(MK)
Tatar:jaaq,aaq(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:jaaq(Pav.C.,..)
Uzbek:jq
Uighur:jaaq,jaaq
Turkmen:jaaq,jaaq(dial.)
Halaj:jaq
Kirghiz:aaq,aaq
Kazakh:aaq
Karakalpak:aaq
Comments:VEWT186,4,59-60,112.Turkic>Hung.dio
(seeMNyTESz1,641).

Proto-Turkic:*ja/*jei
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:new
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ja(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ja(MK)
Turkish:jeni
Tatar:jaa
MiddleTurkic:ja(MA,Abush.)
Uzbek:jangu
Uighur:jei
Sary-Yughur:ja
600
Azerbaidzhan:jeni
Turkmen:ja'just,recently'
Khakassian:n
Shor:na(.)
Oyrat:d

a
Halaj:jgi
Chuvash:sn
Yakut:saa
Dolgan:haa;hiil'young'
Tuva:
Tofalar:n

Kirghiz:a
Kazakh:aa
Noghai:ja
Bashkir:ja
Balkar:an
Gagauz:jeni
Karaim:jg
Karakalpak:aa
Salar:ja
Kumyk:ja
Comments:VEWT185(Rsnenisderivingthiswordfrom*jn'side'
whichisquiteimprobable),EDT943-4,4,124-125,85,
Stachowski96,104.Turk.>MMo,WMong.agi,Kalm.zg 'news'(KW
470;doubtsaboutthisborrowinginTMN1,281,basedontheearly
attestationofthemeaning"discussion"inMong.,arehardlyfounded).

Proto-Turkic:*jAl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1mistake,fault2toerr,makeamistake
601
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:jal-2,jaluq1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jal-2,jaluq1(MK)
Turkish:janl1,janl-2
Tatar:jal-2
MiddleTurkic:jal-(..,Ettuhf.,Pav.C.)2
Uzbek:jali-2
Uighur:jeil-,jali-2
Sary-Yughur:jal1
Azerbaidzhan:janl1
Turkmen:jal1,jal-2
Shor:nl-2
Oyrat:jal-,d

al-2
Kirghiz:al-2
Kazakh:al-2
Bashkir:jal-2
Gagauz:jann1
Karaim:jal-,jal-2
Kumyk:jal-,jal-2
Comments:VEWT186,EDT950,951,4,120-121.Suffixless*jais
poorlyattestedandprobablydoesnotexist.
Proto-Turkic:*jar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lonely,single
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jaus(Yen.)
Sary-Yughur:jas
Turkmen:jaz(dial.)
Khakassian:as,nas
Oyrat:d'as
602
Yakut:sootox
Tuva:as;jas(Todzh.)
Tofalar:ns
Kirghiz:az
Bashkir:jaz
Balkar:az
Comments:VEWT187,235,4,98.Usuallyregardedasa
contraction<jalauz,whichisprobablywronginthefaceofexternal
evidence.

Proto-Turkic:*jAp-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tomake,create,arrange
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:jap-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jap-(MK)
Turkish:jap-
Tatar:jap-(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:jap-(Ettuhf.)
Uighur:jap-(dial.)
Gagauz:jap-
Comments:EDT870-871;4,126-127,whereargumentsaregivenin
favourofseparatingthisverbfrom*jap-'tocover'.

Proto-Turkic:*jap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocover;toclose,shut(thedoor)
Russianmeaning:;()
Karakhanid:jap-(MK)
Tatar:jap-
603
MiddleTurkic:jap-(AH,Ettuhf.,..)
Uzbek:jp-
Uighur:jap-
Azerbaidzhan:jap-(dial.)
Turkmen:jap-
Khakassian:ap-
Shor:ap-
Oyrat:jap-,d

ap-
Yakut:sap-
Dolgan:hap-
Tuva:p-
Kirghiz:ap-
Kazakh:ap-
Noghai:jap-
Bashkir:jap-
Balkar:ap-,ap-,zap-
Karaim:jap-
Karakalpak:ap-
Kumyk:jap-
Comments:VEWT187,EDT870-871;4,127-128(withacareful
distinctionof*jap-'create,make'and*jap-'cover'),Stachowski96-97.
Derivatesmean'cloth,covering'(see545).

Proto-Turkic:*jap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosmooth,level2flat
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:japur-(MK)1
MiddleTurkic:japalaq2(R.)
Uighur:japilaq2
604
Azerbaidzhan:japG2
Tuva:`pt2
Kirghiz:apalaq2
Karaim:japalaq2
Kumyk:japalaq2
Comments:4,16-17,130,EDT879.

Proto-Turkic:*jap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tolap2greedy3lickerish
Russianmeaning:1,23
Khakassian:jabl2R3,281(Koib.,Kach.);apla-t-1,apsx3
Oyrat:japla-t-1
Yakut:sabr-1
Comments:AlocalSiberianroot.

Proto-Turkic:*jAp-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:amassofhairorwool
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:jap,japut,japaqu(MK)
Turkish:japa
Tatar:jabaa
MiddleTurkic:japaq(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:abiqa
Azerbaidzhan:japaq,japa(dial.)
Turkmen:japaG
Kirghiz:abaa
Kazakh:aba
Noghai:jaba
605
Bashkir:jaba
Balkar:aba,zaba
Gagauz:jap
Karaim:japaa
Karakalpak:aba
Kumyk:jaba
Comments:EDT870,874-875,4,125-126.Turk.>Hung.gyapju(<
*apau),seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*japal
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:spleen
Russianmeaning:
Tuva:avana,Todzh.(.,194)'val
Tofalar:a'p`al
Comments:AnisolatedSayanroot.

Proto-Turkic:*jap-l-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toglue,stickto
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jap-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:japu-,jap-(MK)
Turkish:jap-
Tatar:jab-
MiddleTurkic:jap-(AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jpi-
Uighur:jepi-,jopu-
Azerbaidzhan:jap-
Turkmen:jap-
606
Halaj:japu-
Chuvash:sbs-
Yakut:ssn-b-'toplaster,smear'
Tuva:'pn-
Kirghiz:ab-
Kazakh:abs-
Noghai:jabs-
Bashkir:jbe-
Balkar:ab-
Gagauz:jap-
Karaim:jap-,japu-,jabu-
Karakalpak:abs-
Kumyk:jabu-,jab-
Comments:VEWT187,4,132-133,EDT880-881.Thederiving
stem*jap-isprobablypreservedinKarakh.(MK)jap-'stickto',Az.jap-'to
modeldungfordrying'and*jap-ma'modelleddung'(see4,130,
133);thustheanalysisof*jap-l-asreciprocalfrom*jap-'make,create'or
'cover'(EDTibid.)iscertainlyincorrect.

Proto-Turkic:*japlgak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1smalllouse2nit3ak.ofgad-fly4leech
Russianmeaning:1234
Tatar:jabqaq2,3
Turkmen:japaq1
Oyrat:japq,d

apq3
Bashkir:jbekk1,2
Gagauz:japqan4
Comments:4,134.

607
Proto-Turkic:*japtak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:withoutsaddle
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jabtaq(MK)
Turkish:japldaq(dial.)
Uighur:jawdaq
Sary-Yughur:jabtaq
Turkmen:japbllaq
Khakassian:abdax
Shor:abdaq
Oyrat:d

abdaq
Yakut:sbdax
Tuva:awdaq
Gagauz:jalburdaq
Comments:EDT873,4,49-50.

Proto-Turkic:*japur-gak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:leaf
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:japraq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:japuraq(MK)
Turkish:japrak
Tatar:jafraq
MiddleTurkic:japran(Abush.),j[a]praq(MA)
Uzbek:japrq
Uighur:jopurmaq
Azerbaidzhan:jarpaG
Turkmen:japraq
608
Oyrat:d

albraq
Yakut:sebirdex
Dolgan:hebirdek
Tuva:vree'bark'
Tofalar:'pr'bark'
Kirghiz:albraq
Kazakh:apraq
Noghai:japraq
Bashkir:japraq
Balkar:apraq
Gagauz:japraq
Karaim:japrax
Karakalpak:apraq
Salar:jrf
Kumyk:japraq
Comments:VEWT188,EDT879-80,4,130-132,111-112,
Stachowski100.Clausonderives*japur-gakfrom*japur-'tosmoothe,
level',whichisanobviouscontamination-justasthecontaminationwith
*jalp-'flat'(v.sub*de

lp`a)insomelanguages.

Proto-Turkic:*jar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toshine2todawn3light4candle
Russianmeaning:1234
OldTurkic:jaru-1,jaruq3(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jaru-1,jaruq3(MK)
Turkish:jark3(dial.)
Tatar:jarq3(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:jar-(AH),jaru-(Abush.)1,jaruq3(..,Abush.)
Uzbek:jri-1,jru3
609
Uighur:joru-1,joruq3
Turkmen:jarq3(dial.)
Khakassian:ar-1,arx3
Shor:ar-,ar-1
Oyrat:jar-,d

ar-1,d

arq3
Chuvash:sor-da4
Yakut:sar-2(butalsosrd-)
Dolgan:hrd-2
Tuva:r-1,arq3
Kirghiz:ar-,ar-1,arq3
Kazakh:arq3
Noghai:jarq3
Bashkir:jarq3(dial.)
Balkar:arq3
Karaim:jar-1,jarq,jarx3
Karakalpak:arq3
Salar:jarux3
Kumyk:jarq3
Comments:EDT956,962,963,4,134-135,VEWT189(thereare
hardlyreasonstoconsidertheChuv.wordaborrowing),2,145,
Stachowski119.Turk.(Bulg.?)>Hung.gyertya'candle',seeGombocz
1912.

Proto-Turkic:*jar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1order2announcement,call3judge4law,justice
Russianmeaning:12,34,

OldTurkic:jar-l1,2(OUygh.),jaran3
Karakhanid:jar-l1,2(MK)
610
Turkish:jar,ar2(dial.)
Tatar:jar2,jarlq1
MiddleTurkic:jar2(Abush.),jar-l1,2(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jaru4,dial.ar2
Uighur:ar2
Azerbaidzhan:ar2(dial.)
Turkmen:jarlq1,dial.ar2
Oyrat:d

ar2
Chuvash:srlx1
Tuva:ar2
Kirghiz:ar2
Kazakh:ar2
Karakalpak:ar2
Comments:VEWT188-9,EDT966-7,4,18-20(onecanhardly
agreewithClausonthatjarlisaloanfromanunknownsource).Mong.
loansfromTurk.arewidelyspread:Mong.ar'announcement',arqu,
aru'judgement,court',arliq'order',arui'judge'(seeTMN1,278,4,
58-66,157,1997,123).

Proto-Turkic:*jar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towrite
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jaz-(MKOghuz.)
Turkish:jaz-
Tatar:jaz-
MiddleTurkic:jaz-(Pav.C.,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jz-
Uighur:jaz-
Azerbaidzhan:jaz-
611
Turkmen:jaz-
Halaj:jaz-
Chuvash:sr-
Kirghiz:az-
Kazakh:az-
Noghai:jaz-
Bashkir:ja-
Balkar:az-,zaz-
Gagauz:jaz-
Karaim:jaz-
Karakalpak:az-
Kumyk:jaz-
Comments:VEWT193,4,70-71,EDT984.Turk.>Hung.ir-
(MNyTESz2,227-228).

Proto-Turkic:*jAr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thin,lean2poor3flat
Russianmeaning:1,23
OldTurkic:jarl2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jarl2(MK)
Tatar:jarl2
MiddleTurkic:jarl2(R.,.)
Turkmen:jarl2(dial.)
Oyrat:jartaq3
Tuva:ar-da-1
Kirghiz:ar1,ard,arl,arl2
Kazakh:ara-1,ar()l2
Noghai:jarl-2
Bashkir:jarl2
612
Balkar:arl,zarl2
Karaim:jarl2
Karakalpak:arl2
Kumyk:jarl2
Comments:EDT967,VEWT189,190,4,143,334-335.
Themostwidelyspreadform,attestedsinceOldUyghur,is*jar-l(g)'poor';
theevidenceofOyr.,Tuva,Kirgh.andKaz.,however,suggeststhe
existenceofaprimarystem*jar()-'thin,lean'.Turk.>Hung.gyarlo'sinful'
(<*jarl),seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*jar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:armour
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jarq(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:jarq(MK)
MiddleTurkic:jarq(AH)
Comments:EDT962,VEWT190,4,147.Modernlanguageswidely
reflect*jarak'weapon,armour'(Kirgh.araq,Uygh.jaraqetc.,see4,
139).Thisseemstobeacontaminationoftheearlierattested*jarag
'readiness,opportunity'(derivedfrom*jara-'tobefit,suitable'q.v.sub
*a

ra;seeEDTibid.)and*jark'armour'.

Proto-Turkic:*jar-/*jer-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bat
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jersg,jerise(MKChigil)
Turkish:jarasa,jarask
Tatar:jar-qanat
613
MiddleTurkic:jarasa(AH),jar-qanat(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jr-qant
Azerbaidzhan:jarasa
Turkmen:jarasa(dial.),jarnat
Khakassian:ar-xanat
Oyrat:jar-anat,d

ar-anat
Chuvash:sara-serzi
Yakut:sarknat
Tuva:a'sq
Kirghiz:ar-anat
Kazakh:ar-qanat
Noghai:jar-anat
Bashkir:jar-anat
Gagauz:jarasa
Karaim:jeriqanat
Karakalpak:ar-anat
Salar:jeresen
Kumyk:jar-qanat
Comments:EDT972,VEWT189,TMN4,143,4,140-141,
168.Thewordisetymologicallydifficultbecauseoftheunclearsuffix*-sa/
*-seattestedinearlyformsandsomeofthemodernreflexes.Inmost
modernlanguagesthewordisfolk-etymologicallyrebuiltas*jar-Kiajnat
'film-wing'(or'nakedsparrow'inChuv.).

Proto-Turkic:*jara-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobebeneficial,useful,successful
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:jara-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jara-(MK)
614
Turkish:jara-
Tatar:jara-
MiddleTurkic:jara-(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jara-
Uighur:jara-
Sary-Yughur:jara-
Azerbaidzhan:jara-
Turkmen:jara-
Khakassian:ara-
Shor:ara-
Oyrat:jara-,d

ara-
Halaj:jara-
Chuvash:soras-'toreconcile'
Kirghiz:ara-
Kazakh:ara-
Noghai:jara-
Bashkir:jara-
Balkar:zaras-
Gagauz:jara-
Karaim:jara-
Karakalpak:ara-
Salar:jara-
Kumyk:jara-
Comments:EDT956,VEWT189,4,137-139,TMN4,56-57,144,
2,141.Turk.caus.*jarat->Hung.gyart-'toproduce'(Gombocz
1912).

Proto-Turkic:*jara
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wound
615
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:jara
Tatar:jara
MiddleTurkic:jara(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jara
Uighur:jara
Azerbaidzhan:jara
Turkmen:jara
Halaj:jra
Kirghiz:ara
Kazakh:ara
Noghai:jara
Balkar:ara,ara,zara
Gagauz:jara
Karakalpak:ara
Kumyk:jara
Comments:VEWT189,4,139-140.Turk.>WMong.jara,Kalm.jar
(KW215,1997,123,TMN4,54-55).Usuallyregardedasderived
from*jr-'split'(q.v.sub*p`i

rV),whichmaybepossibleifKhalajlengthis
original;however,shortnessinTurkm.jara,aswellastheprobable
connectionwithMong.*sirka'wound'iscontradictingit.

Proto-Turkic:*jargun
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:somekindofwildquadruped
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jarun(Orkh.,OUygh.-YB)
Khakassian:arn'2-year-oldbear-cub'(.)
Tuva:ar'aproducentreindeer'
Kirghiz:jarn'amongrelofayakandcow'
616
Comments:EDT963.

Proto-Turkic:*jar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1leather2pellicle
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:jar2
MiddleTurkic:jar(AH)1
Turkmen:jar1
Shor:ar1
Oyrat:jar1
Yakut:sar1,2
Dolgan:har2
Bashkir:jar2
Kumyk:jari2
Comments:4,146;384,Stachowski98.

Proto-Turkic:*jar-n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1morning2tomorrow3nextyear
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:jarn1(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:jarn2(MK)
Turkish:jarn2
MiddleTurkic:jarn1,2(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jarn3(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:jarn3
Chuvash:ran2
Yakut:sarsn1
Dolgan:harsn1
617
Bashkir:jarn3(dial.)
Gagauz:jrn1,2
Karakalpak:arn3
Comments:EDT970,VEWT190,4,147-148,343,
80,Stachowski97.Rsnenderivesthestemfrom*jar-'toshine,glitter',
butthisisdubiousbothforphoneticreasons(OThasjaru-'toshine',but
jarn'morning')andbecauseofexternalevidence.

Proto-Turkic:*jarn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:shoulder,shoulderblade
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jarn(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jarn(MK)
Sary-Yughur:jarn
Khakassian:arn
Shor:arn
Oyrat:jarn,d

arn
Chuvash:sorm
Yakut:sarn
Dolgan:sarn,sann
Tuva:arn
Comments:EDT970,4,66,242,139-141,
2,142,Stachowski209.Formsgoingbackto*jagrnareduetoamerger
with*jagr(v.sub*dagV).

Proto-Turkic:*jar-,*jar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1flat2steppe,flatground3tospread,spreadout,flattenfolds
618
Russianmeaning:12,3,

OldTurkic:jaz-3(OUygh.)jaz1,2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jaz-3(MK,KB),jaz2(MK)
Turkish:jaz2
Tatar:jaz-3
MiddleTurkic:jaz-3(Pav.C.),jaz2(Ettuhf.,AH)
Uzbek:jz-3
Uighur:jaz-3,jazi,jezi2(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:jaz-3
Azerbaidzhan:jaz2(dial.)
Turkmen:jaz-3,jaz2
Khakassian:az2
Oyrat:jas-,d

as-3,jaz,d

az1,2
Yakut:sh2
Tuva:as-3
Kirghiz:az-3,az1,2
Kazakh:az-3,az2(dial.)
Noghai:jaz-3,jaz2(dial.)
Bashkir:ja-3
Gagauz:jaz-3
Karakalpak:az-3
Kumyk:jaz-3
Comments:VEWT194,EDT983,984,4,69-70,73,97.

Proto-Turkic:*jarkak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:skin(tanned,withouthair)
Russianmeaning:(,)
Tatar:jaraq
619
MiddleTurkic:jaraq(Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:raq(dial.)
Uighur:ja(r)aq
Turkmen:jaraq
Oyrat:jaraq,d

araq
Chuvash:sorax'film,membrane'
Tuva:ara'hairless(skin);placenta'
Kirghiz:araq
Kazakh:araq
Noghai:jaraq
Bashkir:jaraq
Karakalpak:araq
Kumyk:jaraq(dial.)
Comments:VEWT190,4,141-142,385,.XII,277-
278,2,145-146.Turk.>WMong.ara,Kalm.zarg(KW467).

Proto-Turkic:*jAr-man-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toclimbup
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jarma-,jarman-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jarman-(MK)
Tatar:jarpa-'toputonairs'
MiddleTurkic:jarman-(Sangl.)
Turkmen:jarma-
Khakassian:arban-
Shor:arban-
Oyrat:jarman-(.)
Halaj:jarmalaq'seesawforchildren'
Kirghiz:jarma-
620
Kazakh:armas-'toclingto'
Karakalpak:armas-'toclingto'
Comments:VEWT190,EDT969.

Proto-Turkic:*jartuk/*jatruk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1pillow2toproponapillow
Russianmeaning:12()
OldTurkic:jastuq'pillow-shapedingotofsilver'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jastuq1,jasta-2
Turkish:jastk1,jasta-2
Tatar:jastq1
MiddleTurkic:jastuq1(AH)
Uzbek:jstiq1
Uighur:jastuq1
Sary-Yughur:jastq1
Azerbaidzhan:jassx(dial.)1
Turkmen:jassq1
Khakassian:astx1,asta-2
Shor:astq1,asta-2
Oyrat:jastq,d

astq1
Halaj:jastuq1
Chuvash:sdr1
Yakut:sttk1,stta-2
Dolgan:httk1
Tuva:srtq,sstq1
Kirghiz:azdq,astq1,azda-,asta-2
Kazakh:astq1,asta-2
Noghai:jastq1
Bashkir:jatq1
621
Balkar:astq,zastq1
Gagauz:jastq1
Karaim:jastq1
Karakalpak:dastq1,asta-,dasta-2
Salar:jastux1
Kumyk:jastq,jastuq1
Comments:PT*risindicatedbytheChuv.formandprobablyalso(with
rotacism)Tuvasrtk.Otherformsforthemostpartreflectanassimilated
*jaz-t->*jast-.SeeVEWT191,4,154-155,EDT974,Stachowski
121.

Proto-Turkic:*jAs-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:flatandbroad
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jas(MK)
Turkish:jass
Tatar:jass,jast
MiddleTurkic:jass(AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jassi
Azerbaidzhan:jast
Turkmen:jas
Bashkir:ja
Balkar:ass
Gagauz:jas
Kumyk:jass
Comments:VEWT191,EDT973-974,4,153-154,155-156(see
therethelistofotherderivativesoftheroot*jAs-),98.

Proto-Turkic:*jAsa-
622
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todetermine,govern2tocreate
Russianmeaning:1,2
Turkish:jasa-1
Tatar:jasa-1,2
MiddleTurkic:jasa-1(Ettuhf.,Pav.C.,Abush.)1,2
Uzbek:jasa-2
Uighur:jasa-2
Turkmen:jasa-2
Khakassian:aza-2
Shor:aza-2
Oyrat:jaza-,d

aza-1,2
Tuva:aza-2
Kirghiz:asa-1,2
Kazakh:asa-2
Noghai:jasa-2
Bashkir:jaha-1,2
Karaim:jasa-1,2
Karakalpak:asa-2
Salar:jasa-2
Kumyk:jasa-2
Comments:VEWT191,4,150-152.Theverbhasbeenalsoreadin
theKl-Tegininscription(8thc.),butClauson(EDT974)conteststhe
reading.Turk.>Mong.asa-id.(KW468),whenceEvk.asa-etc.,see
DoerferMT61;TMN4,92-96,EDTand1997,204,however,
regardtheTurkicformsasMongolisms).

Proto-Turkic:*jas-muk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lentil
623
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jasmuq(OUygh.)
Turkish:jasmk
Tatar:jasmq
MiddleTurkic:jasmuq(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jsmiq
Uighur:jesimuq
Turkmen:jasmq(dial.)
Kirghiz:asmq(dial.)
Kazakh:asmq(dial.)
Bashkir:jamq
Salar:jasmux
Comments:EDT975,VEWT191,4,154,464-465.

Proto-Turkic:*jat-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tolie,tosleep
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jat-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jat-(MK)
Turkish:jat-
Tatar:jat-
MiddleTurkic:jat-(MA)
Uzbek:jt-
Uighur:jat-
Sary-Yughur:jat-
Azerbaidzhan:jat-1,2
Turkmen:jat-
Khakassian:at-
Shor:at-(R)
624
Oyrat:d

at-
Halaj:jat-
Yakut:st-
Dolgan:ht-
Tuva:'t-
Tofalar:'t-
Kirghiz:at-
Kazakh:at-
Noghai:jat-
Bashkir:jat-
Balkar:at-
Gagauz:jat-
Karaim:jat-
Karakalpak:at-
Salar:jaht-
Kumyk:jat-
Comments:VEWT192,EDT884,4,156-158,Stachowski120.

Proto-Turkic:*jAt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:winterrye
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:ad'bush'(Sag.)
Shor:jadan(.)
Oyrat:d

adaan
Tuva:ada'lowplant'
Comments:VEWT177.

Proto-Turkic:*jg
Altaicetymology:
625
Meaning:1fatn.,butter2lard3thick,fat(adj.)
Russianmeaning:1,23,
OldTurkic:ja1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ja(MK)
Turkish:ja1
MiddleTurkic:ja1(MA)
Uzbek:j1
Uighur:ja1
Sary-Yughur:ja1
Azerbaidzhan:ja1
Turkmen:j1
Khakassian:a1
Shor:a1
Oyrat:d

1
Halaj:j1
Chuvash:su,sv1
Yakut:sa1
Dolgan:ha1
Tuva:a2
Tofalar:a2
Kirghiz:oo-n3
Balkar:au1
Gagauz:j1
Karaim:ja1
Salar:ja1
Kumyk:jav1
Comments:VEWT177,EDT895,4,58-59,453,
2,127,Stachowski117.

Proto-Turkic:*j(j)
626
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ja(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ja(MK)
Turkish:jaj
Tatar:jj,j
MiddleTurkic:jaj(Ettuhf.),ja(Houts.)
Uzbek:jj
Uighur:ja
Sary-Yughur:ja'arrow'
Azerbaidzhan:jaj
Turkmen:jj
Khakassian:-ax
Shor:nan'bow',jan-ak'smallbow'
Oyrat:d

'arrow'
Chuvash:su(inok-su)
Yakut:s
Dolgan:h,s
Tuva:a
Tofalar:a
Kirghiz:aj,
Kazakh:aj
Noghai:jaj
Bashkir:jj,jan
Balkar:aja
Gagauz:jaj,jaj
Karaim:jaj
Karakalpak:aj
627
Comments:VEWT186,EDT869,TMN4,121-122,4,75,
570,2,274,Stachowski99,209.

Proto-Turkic:*jj
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1summer2summerpasture3spring
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:jaj(Orkh.,OUygh.)1,3
Karakhanid:jaj(MK)1,3
Turkish:jaj-la2
MiddleTurkic:jaj1(AH,Ettuhf.)
Sary-Yughur:jaj1
Azerbaidzhan:jaj1,jajla2
Turkmen:jj-la2
Khakassian:aj1
Shor:aj1
Oyrat:jaj,d

aj1
Chuvash:su,sv1
Yakut:saj1
Dolgan:hajn1
Tuva:aj1
Tofalar:aj1
Kirghiz:aj1
Noghai:jaj3(dial.)
Bashkir:jej1
Balkar:aj,aj,zaj1
Salar:jij1
Kumyk:jaj1
Comments:VEWT179,4,74,78-79,EDT980,74,
2,128,Stachowski93.
628

Proto-Turkic:*jjn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sheat-fish2salmon
Russianmeaning:12,
Turkish:jajn2
Tatar:jen1
MiddleTurkic:jajn2(AH)
Turkmen:jjn1
Chuvash:sojn,soin(dial.)1
Kirghiz:ajn1
Kazakh:ajn1
Noghai:jajn1
Bashkir:jjen1
Karakalpak:ajn1
Comments:VEWT179,4,80-81,178,2,129.

Proto-Turkic:*jk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:side
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:jaq,aq
MiddleTurkic:jaq(R),jaq(LOQ)
Uzbek:jq
Uighur:jaq
Sary-Yughur:jaq
Turkmen:jq(dial.)
Kirghiz:aq
Kazakh:aq
Noghai:jaq
629
Bashkir:jaq
Karakalpak:aq
Kumyk:jaq(dial.)
Comments:VEWT180,4,82.

Proto-Turkic:*jl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:age;year
Russianmeaning:;
OldTurkic:ja(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ja(MK)
Turkish:ja
Tatar:ja
MiddleTurkic:ja(Ettuhf.,AH)
Uzbek:j
Uighur:ja
Sary-Yughur:jas
Azerbaidzhan:ja
Turkmen:j
Khakassian:as
Shor:a
Oyrat:ja,d

a
Halaj:j
Chuvash:sol
Yakut:ss
Kirghiz:a
Kazakh:as
Noghai:jas
Bashkir:j
Gagauz:ja
630
Karaim:ja
Karakalpak:as
Salar:ja
Kumyk:ja
Comments:EDT975-6,4,161-163,2,130,TMN4,97,
84.

Proto-Turkic:*jl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fresh,raw
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:ja(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ja(MK)
Turkish:ja
MiddleTurkic:ja(AH,Ettuhf.)
Azerbaidzhan:ja
Turkmen:j
Khakassian:as
Oyrat:ja,d

a
Tuva:a
Kirghiz:a
Kazakh:as
Noghai:jas
Bashkir:j
Balkar:a,a,za
Gagauz:ja
Karaim:ja
Comments:4,161-163,EDT975-976,VEWT192(oneofseveral
*jl

roots).WithinTurkicinteractsactively(infactalmostcompletelymerges
631
with*jl

'green'and*jl

'young'-butallthreeroots,and,additionally,*jl

'tear'and*jl

'age'-seemtohavedifferentAltaicorigins.

Proto-Turkic:*jl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tear
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ja(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ja(MK)
Turkish:ja
Tatar:j
MiddleTurkic:ja(AH,..)
Uzbek:j
Uighur:ja
Sary-Yughur:jas
Azerbaidzhan:ja
Turkmen:j
Khakassian:as
Oyrat:d

a
Halaj:j
Chuvash:kos-sol
Tuva:a
Kirghiz:a
Kazakh:as
Noghai:jas
Bashkir:j
Karaim:ja
Karakalpak:as
Salar:ja
Kumyk:ja
632
Comments:VEWT192,EDT975-976,.VII,32,4,161-163
(becauseofexternalevidenceshouldbedistinguishedbothfrom*jl''age'
and*jl''fresh,green').

Proto-Turkic:*jl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:young
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:ja
Tatar:j
MiddleTurkic:ja(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:j
Uighur:ja
Sary-Yughur:jas
Turkmen:j
Khakassian:as
Oyrat:ja,d

a
Tuva:a
Tofalar:e
Kirghiz:a
Kazakh:as
Noghai:jas
Balkar:a,a,za
Karaim:ja,je
Karakalpak:as
Salar:ja
Kumyk:ja
Comments:4,162,VEWT192(oneofseveral*jl

roots;within
Turkichardlydistinguishablefrom*jl

'greenvegetables;green',but
historicallydifferent).
633

Proto-Turkic:*jl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mane,counter,scruff
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:jal(MK)
Turkish:jal(dial.)
Tatar:jal
MiddleTurkic:jal(AH)
Uzbek:jl
Uighur:jal
Azerbaidzhan:jal
Turkmen:jl
Shor:al
Oyrat:jal,d

al
Halaj:jl
Yakut:sl
Tuva:al
Tofalar:al
Kirghiz:al
Kazakh:al
Noghai:jal
Bashkir:jal
Balkar:al
Karaim:jal;jalda-'toswimgraspingthehorse'scounter;toswim'
Karakalpak:al
Kumyk:jal
Comments:220-222,EDT916,4,85-86,93-94(for*jl-da-),
146-147.

634
Proto-Turkic:*jl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toask,require2tohire,lease3price4servant5envoy6tobe
satisfied7togivesatisfaction
Russianmeaning:1,23,,
456,7

OldTurkic:jalvar-,jaln-(OUygh.)1,jalaba(Orkh.,Yen.),jalava(OUygh.)
5,jal-t-7(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jalvar-1,jalava,jalavar5(MK)
Turkish:jalvar-1,jalava5
Tatar:jalvar-,jaln-1,jalla-2,jal(.)3
MiddleTurkic:jalbar-1(MA),jaln-1(Abush.),jal(.)3,jalava(AH)5,
jal-6,7(Ettuhf.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jlwar-,jalin-1,jll-2,jli-6
Uighur:jalb(r)-,jalvar-,jelin-1,jali-6
Azerbaidzhan:jalvar-1
Turkmen:jalbar-,jaln-1,jllav3,jl4(dial.)
Khakassian:al3
Oyrat:jal,d

al3,jalbar-,d

albar-,jaln-,d

aln-1
Tuva:ala-,alwar-,aln-1
Kirghiz:albar-,aln-1,al3,al-6
Kazakh:albar-,aln-1,al3
Noghai:jalbar-,jaln-1
Bashkir:jalbar-,jaln-1,jals-6
Balkar:aln-,zaln-1,zal3
Gagauz:jalvar-1
Karaim:jalbar-,jalvar-1,jal3,jal-6
Karakalpak:albar-1,al3,al-6
Kumyk:jalbar-,jaln-1
635
Comments:VEWT181-183,EDT920,921,922,931,4,84-85,89,
92-93,102-103,107;TMN4,108,1997,121(Turk.jalbar->
Mong.albari-).Therootisnodoubtarchaic,butpresentssomeproblems:
thederivingsimplestem*jlisattestedlate,andthereseemstobeno
vowellengthinthederivatives*jaln-,*jal-bar-(althoughthismaybealater
secondaryshortening).Thepeculiarsuffixationinjalbar-,jalaba,jalabar
causedsomeauthors(see,e.g.,ClausoninEDT)tosuspectaloanword,
butitssourceisunclearandtheformsmayaswellbegenuine(asare
certainlytheforms*jl,*jaln-).

Proto-Turkic:*jlga-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tolick
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jala-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jala-,jalva-(MK)
Turkish:jala-
Tatar:jala-
MiddleTurkic:jala-(Pav.C.,MA,AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jal-
Uighur:jala-
Sary-Yughur:jala-,jala-
Azerbaidzhan:jala-
Turkmen:jla-
Khakassian:ala-
Shor:ala-
Oyrat:jala-,d

ala-
Halaj:jala-
Chuvash:sula-/svla
Yakut:sal-
636
Dolgan:halan-
Tuva:la-
Tofalar:la-
Kirghiz:ala-
Kazakh:ala-
Noghai:jala-
Bashkir:jala-
Gagauz:jala-
Karaim:jala-
Karakalpak:ala-
Salar:jala-
Kumyk:jala-
Comments:VEWT182,EDT926-927,4,87-88(withTurkm.jala-),
2,132,Stachowski94.Thederivingstemcanperhapsbefound
inTurkish,Gag.,Az.jal'food,mashgiventodogs,animals'(see4,
85);cf.also*jalgak(4,90)'dishforfeedinganimals';*jalma-'tolick'
(4,95).

Proto-Turkic:*jl

-l
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1green2yellow
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:jal(Orkh.,OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:jal(MK,KB)1
Turkish:jeil1
Tatar:jel1
MiddleTurkic:jal(MA)1
Uzbek:jail1
Uighur:jeil1
Sary-Yughur:jahsl1
637
Azerbaidzhan:jal1
Turkmen:jl1
Khakassian:azl1
Shor:al(R.)1
Oyrat:d

al1
Halaj:ja:l1
Chuvash:sulza,sula,svls'leaf'(=Bashk.jels'greens,vegetables')
Yakut:saha-r-2
Dolgan:haha-r-2
Kirghiz:al1
Kazakh:asl1
Noghai:jasl1
Bashkir:jel1
Balkar:ail1
Gagauz:jeil1
Karaim:jeli1
Karakalpak:asl1
Salar:jil1
Kumyk:jal1
Comments:DerivedfromPT*jl

'young,greenvegetables'(OUygh.ja,
MKja,Turkm.j,see4,162,EDT975,976,2,134,
Stachowski93).Thisrootisoftenmixedwithhomophonous*jl

'tear'and
*jl

'age,year',see4,161-164(allthreerootshavedifferentAltaic
etymologies).Turk.>Mong.jasil'buckthorn'(Clark1980,41).

Proto-Turkic:*jn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:side
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jan(Orkh.,OUygh.)
638
Karakhanid:jan(MK)
Turkish:jan
Tatar:jan
MiddleTurkic:jan(Bor.Bad,Abush.)
Uighur:jan
Sary-Yughur:jan
Azerbaidzhan:jan
Turkmen:jn
Khakassian:nan,an
Shor:an
Oyrat:jan,d

an
Halaj:jn
Chuvash:som
Tuva:an
Kirghiz:an
Kazakh:an
Noghai:jan
Bashkir:jan
Balkar:an,an,zan
Gagauz:jan
Karaim:jan
Karakalpak:an
Salar:jan
Kumyk:jan
Comments:VEWT184,EDT940,4,113,118-119,TMN4,120,
2,135.Thewordhasananatomicalmeaning('hip')inold
sources,butthemeaning'side'isalsoattestedandmustbemorearchaic,
tojudgefromexternalevidence;themoreabstractmeaninginChuvash
('vicinity')alsosupports'side'astheoriginalmeaning.

639
Proto-Turkic:*jn(u)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tothreaten
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jan-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jan-(MK)
Tatar:jana-,dial.janu-
Uzbek:jan-
Uighur:onu-
Azerbaidzhan:jan-(dial.)
Turkmen:jn-a-'toreproach'
Yakut:sn-
Bashkir:jana-
Balkar:an-,a-,an-,zan-
Gagauz:jn-
Comments:VEWT184,EDT942,4,114,564.Turk.>
WMong.anu-,Kalm.zan-(KW466).TheTurkm.formisrelatedto*jen-
'crush'in185;thelatterhasalsoavariant*jan-,andtheTurkm.
formmayinfactreflectacontaminationofthesetworoots.

Proto-Turkic:*jp
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:canal,ditch
Russianmeaning:
MiddleTurkic:jap(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jp
Turkmen:jp
Kirghiz:ap
Kazakh:ap
Karakalpak:ap
640
Comments:VEWT187,4,129(withsuggestionofanIraniansource:
Khwar.yb'water').

Proto-Turkic:*jpa(k)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1woodenfork2shovel
Russianmeaning:12
Turkish:jaba1,dial.2
Tatar:jaba
MiddleTurkic:japa(Pav.C.)2
Uzbek:jwa(dial.)1
Azerbaidzhan:jaba1
Turkmen:jbaq,jba1
Kazakh:aba(dial.)1
Gagauz:jaba1
Karaim:aba2
Karakalpak:aba1
Salar:jwa,jowa1
Comments:VEWT187,4,45.Notquitecleararefrontedcognates:
Yak.seb,Kumd.jep,Tat.,Bashk.jp'fork,bifurcation'.

Proto-Turkic:*jr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1spring2summer
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:jaz2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jaz2(MK)
Turkish:jaz2
Tatar:jaz1
MiddleTurkic:jaz(AH1,Ettuhf.2)
641
Uzbek:jz2
Uighur:jaz2
Sary-Yughur:jaz1
Azerbaidzhan:jaz1
Turkmen:jz1
Khakassian:as1
Oyrat:jas,d

as1
Halaj:jz2
Chuvash:sor1
Yakut:ss1
Dolgan:hs1
Tuva:as1
Tofalar:a1
Kirghiz:az1
Kazakh:az2
Noghai:jaz2
Bashkir:ja1
Balkar:zaz2
Gagauz:jz2
Karaim:jaz1
Karakalpak:az2
Salar:jaz1
Kumyk:jaz1
Comments:VEWT193,4,71,EDT982,73,2,
138-139,Stachowski100.

Proto-Turkic:*j r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:precipice,steepbank
Russianmeaning:,
642
Karakhanid:jar(MK)
Turkish:jar
Tatar:jar
MiddleTurkic:jar(Ettuhf.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ar
Uighur:jar
Azerbaidzhan:jar-Gan
Turkmen:jr
Khakassian:ar
Oyrat:d

ar
Chuvash:sr
Yakut:sr
Dolgan:hr
Kirghiz:ar
Kazakh:ar
Noghai:jar
Bashkir:jar
Gagauz:jar
Karaim:jar
Kumyk:jar
Comments:EDT953-954,VEWT188-9,4,17-18,Stachowski121.

Proto-Turkic:*j r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tomiss,sin
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jaz-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jaz-(MK)
Turkish:jazk(n.)
Tatar:jaz-
643
MiddleTurkic:jaz-(Pav.C.,AH)
Uzbek:jz-
Azerbaidzhan:jazG(n.)
Turkmen:jz-,jzq(n.)
Khakassian:as-
Oyrat:jas-,d

as-
Yakut:ss-
Dolgan:hs-
Tuva:as-
Kirghiz:az-
Kazakh:az-
Noghai:jazq(n.)
Bashkir:ja-
Balkar:az-
Gagauz:jazq(n.)
Karakalpak:az-
Kumyk:jazq(n.)
Comments:VEWT193(shouldbedistinguishedfrom*r-),4,72-73,
TMN4,162,EDT983-984,Stachowski121.

Proto-Turkic:*jr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosplit2split,crack
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:jar-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jar-1(MK)
Turkish:jar-1
Tatar:jar-1
MiddleTurkic:jar-1(AH)
Uzbek:jr-1
644
Uighur:ja(r)-1
Sary-Yughur:jar-1
Azerbaidzhan:jar-1,jar-G2
Turkmen:jr-1
Khakassian:ar-1
Shor:ar-1
Oyrat:jar-,d

ar-1
Chuvash:sor-1
Yakut:sar-kx(adj.)'split'
Dolgan:sar-kk(adj.)'split'
Tuva:ar-1
Kirghiz:ar-1
Kazakh:ar-1
Noghai:jar-1
Bashkir:jar-1
Balkar:ar-1
Gagauz:jar-1
Karaim:jar-1
Karakalpak:ar-1
Salar:jar-1
Kumyk:jar-1
Comments:EDT954-955,VEWT188-189,4,135-137,2,
139,Stachowski209.Verywidespreadarethederivatives*jrk,*jrma
'crack,split'(seeibid.);Turk.*jrm'half'(4,147)>Mong.
arim,arimduq(KW470,1997,123).

Proto-Turkic:*js
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1loss,damage2shame
Russianmeaning:1,2
645
OldTurkic:jas1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jas1(MK)
Chuvash:*sos(>Mariss"Gedchtnisfeier",Hung.gyasz,seeGombocz
1912)
Yakut:st2,ss-tx(folkl.)'enemy'
Dolgan:htnnar-'toshamesmb.'
Comments:VEWT191,4,150,EDT973(inmodernlanguageshard
todistinguishfromtheborrowedArab.ya's'despair,grief'-butinOld
Turkicnodoubtgenuine),Stachowski100.

Proto-Turkic:*jt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:foreign(er)
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jat(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jat(MK)
Turkish:jat(dial.)
Tatar:jat
MiddleTurkic:jat(Pav.C.,AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jt
Uighur:jat
Azerbaidzhan:jad
Turkmen:jt
Khakassian:at
Oyrat:jat,d

at
Kirghiz:at
Kazakh:at
Noghai:jat
Bashkir:jat
Karaim:jat
646
Karakalpak:at
Kumyk:jat
Comments:EDT882,VEWT192,4,158-159,564.Turk.>
WMong.ad,Kalm.zad(KW462,1997,123).

Proto-Turkic:*jebe-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1cemetery,grave2soulofthedeceased3ghost4funeral
Russianmeaning:1,23,
4
Sary-Yughur:ever2
Khakassian:nebeg1,ibrg4
Chuvash:sva1
Yakut:sibien3
Tuva:eveg1
Comments:VEWT197.

Proto-Turkic:*jebi-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobecomewet,soak
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jebe'dampness'(MK)
Tatar:ebe-
Uzbek:ivi-
Uighur:ivi-
Shor:ibi-
Oyrat:d

ibi-
Chuvash:sve'whey'
Yakut:sibn-'fresh'
Kirghiz:ibi-
647
Kazakh:ibi-
Noghai:jibi-
Bashkir:jebe-
Karaim:jibi-,ibi-
Karakalpak:ibi-
Kumyk:jibi-
Comments:EDT872,VEWT202,4,196-197.ExceptUzb.,Uygh.,
Chuv.andpossiblyYak.alllanguagesactuallyreflect*jep-(*jip-);theInlaut
stopmaybearesultofsecondarygemination,orreflectamergerwith
someotherroot.Originalvoiced*-b-(>-v-),however,iswellpreservedin
thederivative*jebil()'wet'(Karaimjv,Tat.jwi,Bashk.jivi).Turk.>
Kalm.-'durchntwerden'(KW114;althoughphonologyissomewhat
strange:onewouldratherexpectKalm.iw-).

Proto-Turkic:*jEe
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:asbefore,previously
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jee(Orkh.)
Comments:EDT882.

Proto-Turkic:*jeg-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1better2upperpart,surface
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:jeg1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jeg1(MK)
Turkish:je,jej1
MiddleTurkic:jik1(AH)
Azerbaidzhan:jeg(dial.)1
648
Turkmen:jeg1
Chuvash:si,sije2
Comments:EDT909-910,VEWT194,4,165-166,TMN4,184-185,
2,115-116.

Proto-Turkic:*jEgin
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:nephew
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jegen,jegin(OUygh.)
Turkish:jn,jegen,jejen
Tatar:ijn
MiddleTurkic:jeken,jegen(R.)
Uzbek:ijn
Sary-Yughur:jegen
Turkmen:jegen
Khakassian:n
Shor:n
Oyrat:jn,d

n
Yakut:sien
Tuva:n
Kirghiz:n
Kazakh:ijen
Noghai:jijen
Bashkir:jejn
Karakalpak:ijen
Comments:EDT912-913,VEWT194,4,166-167,293.
Proto-Turkic:*jEgit/*jigit
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:youngman,braveman
649
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jigit(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jigit(MK)
Turkish:jijit
Tatar:jeget
MiddleTurkic:jigit(AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jigit
Uighur:jigit
Sary-Yughur:jigit,jigt,jgt
Azerbaidzhan:igit
Turkmen:jigit
Khakassian:t
Shor:iet
Oyrat:d

t
Tofalar:nt
Kirghiz:igit
Kazakh:igit
Noghai:jigit
Bashkir:jeget
Balkar:igit,zigit
Gagauz:t
Karaim:igit
Karakalpak:igit
Salar:jihit,iit
Kumyk:jigit,igit
Comments:EDT911,VEWT203,TMN4,185,4,198-199,
301.Turk.>WMong.jigede,Kalm.jd(KW218).

Proto-Turkic:*[j]eglek
Altaicetymology:
650
Meaning:stork
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:leglek
Azerbaidzhan:ljlk
Comments:VEWT316(hardlyfromArab.)

Proto-Turkic:*jegn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sleeve
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:je(MK,KB)
Turkish:jen
Tatar:in
MiddleTurkic:je(Ettuhf.,..)
Uzbek:je
Uighur:j
Sary-Yughur:ji,in
Azerbaidzhan:jeng(dial.)
Turkmen:je
Khakassian:n
Shor:ne,n
Oyrat:j,d

e
Chuvash:savn
Yakut:siex
Dolgan:hiek,hien
Tuva:e
Kirghiz:e
Kazakh:e
Noghai:je
Bashkir:je
651
Balkar:e,ze
Gagauz:jen
Karaim:jeng,jeg,ji
Karakalpak:e
Kumyk:je,jeg
Comments:VEWT197,TMN4,203,EDT940,4,186,2,
84,Stachowski103.

Proto-Turkic:*jegre-n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1yellow(ofahorse)2deer,antelope
Russianmeaning:1()2,,

OldTurkic:jegren1(Orkh.)
Turkish:eran,eren(DS)1,2
Tatar:iren1,jrd(Tar.)1
MiddleTurkic:ejren(.)1,eren2(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ijrn1
Uighur:irn1,dial.eren,rrn,egren2
Sary-Yughur:iger,jiger,ir,jir2
Turkmen:jegren,jergen1,dial.eren1,2
Khakassian:igren,dial.igr1
Shor:eren,egren,ergen(R)1
Oyrat:jeren,jren,d

ren1,2
Chuvash:sren1
Yakut:sier1
Tuva:ren2
Kirghiz:ejren1,2,rde1
Kazakh:ijren1
Noghai:jijren1
652
Bashkir:jeren1
Karakalpak:ijren1
Comments:4,22-24,36.Turk.>Mong.eir-,eerde(TMN1,289,
4,184)>Sol.egere 'antelope',Man.erde(seeDoerferMT136)>MKor.
jrta(mar)(seeLee1958,119).Pers.ejran(<Turk.orMong.)iswidely
borrowedbackintoTurkic(Tur.,Az.ejranetc.).

Proto-Turkic:*jek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1demon,evilspirit2bad,evil3tohate,despise4toscold
Russianmeaning:1,2,3
,4
OldTurkic:jek1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jek1(MK)
Tatar:ik2,iker-4
MiddleTurkic:jek1(AH),2(Pav.C.),jigir-3(R.)
Uzbek:ekir-4
Uighur:jkl-3,ekir-4
Turkmen:jekir-3,jek(dial.)2
Shor:ek1
Oyrat:jek,d

ek1,2,jikir-3
Kirghiz:ek2,ekte-3,ekir-4
Kazakh:ek2,ekir-4
Noghai:jekir-3
Bashkir:jek2,jeker-3
Karaim:jek1,2
Karakalpak:ek2,ekir-4
Kumyk:jekir-3
Comments:EDT910,VEWT194,4,170-171,173-174.Loanfrom
Prakr.yakkha(throughsomeunattestedSogdianintermediary)cannotbe
653
excluded,butalsocannotbeascertained.Turk.>MMong.(MA)ikir-'hate,
abhor'.

Proto-Turkic:*jEk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toharness
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:ik-
Oyrat:jek-,d

ek-
Kirghiz:ek-
Kazakh:ek-
Noghai:jek-
Bashkir:jek-
Balkar:ek-
Karaim:jek-,jik-
Karakalpak:ek-
Kumyk:jek-
Comments:VEWT195,4,172.

Proto-Turkic:*jEken
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofgrass,reed
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jigen(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jigen(MK)
Tatar:jegn(dial.),ikn
MiddleTurkic:jekn(R.),jign(AH)
Uzbek:jkn
Uighur:jekn
Turkmen:jeken
654
Oyrat:jeken,jekken,d

ken
Kirghiz:eken
Kazakh:eken
Noghai:jeken
Bashkir:jekn
Balkar:zegen
Karakalpak:iken
Comments:EDT913,VEWT195,4,172-173.Turk.>Mong.eken,
ege-sn(KW472,1997,123);Hung.gyekeny(MNyTESz1,
1125).

Proto-Turkic:*jel
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wind
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jel(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jel(MK,KB)
Turkish:jel
Tatar:il
MiddleTurkic:jel(MA)
Uzbek:jel
Uighur:jl
Sary-Yughur:jel
Azerbaidzhan:jel
Turkmen:jel
Khakassian:il
Shor:el
Oyrat:jel,d

el
Halaj:jel
Chuvash:sil
655
Yakut:sillie'storm,whirlwind'
Kirghiz:el
Kazakh:el
Bashkir:jel
Balkar:el
Karaim:jel
Karakalpak:el
Salar:jel
Kumyk:jel
Comments:VEWT195,EDT916-917,4,174-175,40.
Bulg.>Hung.szel'wind',seeGombocz1912,MNyTESz3,705-706.

Proto-Turkic:*jEl(b)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofshortcoat
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:jelek
Tatar:iln,ilbgj
MiddleTurkic:jelk(Pav.C.,..)
Uzbek:elk
Azerbaidzhan:jelk,jeln(dial.)
Turkmen:jelek(dial.),jelbegej
Kirghiz:elek,elbegej,dial.elegej
Kazakh:elek,ele,elbegej,elegej
Noghai:jele
Bashkir:jeln,jelbgj
Karaim:jelek
Karakalpak:elek,ele,elbegej
Kumyk:jelbegej
Comments:VEWT196,4,177,178.
656

Proto-Turkic:*jelbe
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofsmallbird
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:jelve
MiddleTurkic:jlv(AH)
Khakassian:jelbegej'ak.ofbird'(.)
Oyrat:d

elei'titmouse'
Comments:VEWT196,TMN4,192.

Proto-Turkic:*jelbi
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sorcery,witchcraft
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jelbi(Orkh.),jelvi(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jelvi(MK)
Khakassian:lbgen'monster'
Shor:ilbi
Oyrat:jilbi,d

ilbi'sorcery',jlbgn'monster'
Yakut:ilbi'demoniac,possessed'(borrowedfromaj-language?)
Tuva:ilbi
Comments:EDT919-920,4,202-203,VEWT196(>Mong.ilbi).

Proto-Turkic:*jeli-m
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:glue
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jelim(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jelim(MK)
657
Turkish:jilim
Tatar:ilem
MiddleTurkic:jelim(Ettuhf.),jilim(AH)
Uzbek:jelim
Uighur:jelim
Sary-Yughur:jilm
Turkmen:jelim
Shor:elim
Oyrat:jelim,d

elim
Chuvash:silm
Yakut:silim
Dolgan:hilim
Kirghiz:elim
Kazakh:elim
Noghai:jelim
Bashkir:jelem
Balkar:jelim,elim,elim
Karakalpak:elim
Comments:EDT928-929,VEWT196,4,179-180,TMN4,189,
Stachowski103.

Proto-Turkic:*jelin
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:udder
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jelin(MK)
Turkish:jelin
Tatar:ilen
MiddleTurkic:jelin(R.,.),jilin(AH)
Uighur:jelin,jilim,ilim
658
Azerbaidzhan:jelin
Turkmen:jelin
Oyrat:jelin,d

eli
Chuvash:sil
Yakut:silin
Kirghiz:elin
Kazakh:elin
Noghai:jelin
Bashkir:jelen
Balkar:jelin,elin,elin
Gagauz:jelin
Karakalpak:elin
Kumyk:jelin
Comments:EDT930,4,180-181,148.

Proto-Turkic:*jElme-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bladeorupperpartofsabre
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:jelme,jlman,jalman,jalm
MiddleTurkic:jalman(..)
Kazakh:alman(dial.)
Comments:VEWT196,4,103-104,412(butrelatinghere
jalma'quiltedcoat'isdubious).

Proto-Turkic:*jel
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tether,ropeforcalves
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:jel(MK)(jalu)
659
Turkish:ele(DS)
Tatar:jele(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:ele(Pav.C.)'string,bow-string'
Uzbek:el
Uighur:ili(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:l
Oyrat:jele,d

ele
Yakut:sele
Tuva:ele
Kirghiz:ele
Kazakh:eli
Bashkir:jele(dial.)
Karakalpak:elle
Comments:EDT919,4,21-22.Turk.>WMong.ele(ratherthan
viceversa,despiteVEWT125).

Proto-Turkic:*jelpi-/*jalp-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toflap,winnow2toshake,sway3fan
Russianmeaning:1,2,3,
Karakhanid:jelpit-1(caus.)(MK)
Turkish:jelpaze3
Tatar:ilpe-1
MiddleTurkic:jelpi-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:jelpi-1
Uighur:jlp-1
Azerbaidzhan:jelpik3
Turkmen:jelpe-1
Khakassian:elbe-,albra-2
Oyrat:jelbi-,d

elbi-1,jalbra-2
660
Yakut:salbr-2
Tuva:elbi-,elwi-1
Kirghiz:elpi-,elbire-1
Kazakh:elpi-1
Noghai:jelpi-1
Bashkir:jelpe-1
Karaim:jelpi-1
Karakalpak:elpi-1
Kumyk:jelpi-1
Comments:EDT920,VEWT182,196,4,182.Derivationfrom*jel
'wind'ishighlyimprobable(atthemostwecanspeakofasecondary
contaminationofroots).

Proto-Turkic:*jem-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1moreover,and2addition
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:jeme1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jeme1(MK)
Yakut:semse2
Comments:EDT934.

Proto-Turkic:*jem-kek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sinciput2fontanelle
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:mgk2(MK)
Turkish:imik1
Tatar:jmk(Bar.)1
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)jimk(AH)1
661
Azerbaidzhan:mgk2
Khakassian:mek(dial.)1
Shor:nbk(R)1
Oyrat:emgek(R-Tel.),jmk(R-Oyr.)2,(.)nmek1
Chuvash:samga'forehead'
Tuva:vek1
Kirghiz:emgek2
Kazakh:ebek2
Gagauz:imik'brain'
Karakalpak:ebek2
Comments:VEWT42,208,171,521,1,352,202,
201-202.Chuv.>Bashk.suqa'humpoftheoccipitalbone'.

Proto-Turkic:*jem-r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tocrush,destroy2tocurse,reproach
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:jemir-(OUygh.)1,2
Karakhanid:jemr-(MK)1
Tatar:imer-1
MiddleTurkic:jimir-,jmr-(R.,.)1
Uighur:jimir-1
Azerbaidzhan:jmr-1
Turkmen:jemir-1
Shor:nebir-1
Oyrat:jemir-,d

emir-1
Chuvash:smr-2,1
Tuva:emir-1
Kirghiz:emir-2,1
Noghai:jemir-1
662
Bashkir:jemer-1
Karaim:jemir-1
Karakalpak:emir-1
Kumyk:jemir-1
Comments:EDT937,VEWT197,4,183-184,210.The
meaning'crush,destroy,widespreadinmodernlanguages,mustbea
secondarydevelopmentfromtheoriginalmoreabstract'harm'(whence
also'curse,reproach').

Proto-Turkic:*jE
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:frazil
Russianmeaning:,
Khakassian:ne
Oyrat:ne(dial.)
Tuva:e
Comments:VEWT197(ifnot<unattestedSouth.-Sam.?)
Proto-Turkic:*je-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towin
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:je-(MK)
Turkish:jen-
Tatar:i-
MiddleTurkic:je-(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:je-
Uighur:j-
Azerbaidzhan:jen-,jin-(dial.)
Turkmen:je-
Khakassian:i-
663
Shor:ne-,neg-
Oyrat:je-,d

e-
Halaj:jeg-
Chuvash:sn-
Kirghiz:e-
Kazakh:e-
Noghai:je-
Bashkir:je-
Balkar:e-
Gagauz:jen-
Karaim:jeg-,jen-
Karakalpak:e-
Kumyk:je-
Comments:EDT942,4,187,576.Ramstedt'shypothesis
of*je-beingderivedfrom*jeg-'better,top'couldbeaccepted,buttheUd.
paralleldie-makesitquestionable.Weprefertoregard--hereasthe
rootconsonant.

Proto-Turkic:*jee
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:elderbrother'swife
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jege(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jege(MK)
Turkish:jege
Tatar:ig
MiddleTurkic:jege(Pav.C.),jinge(AH)
Uighur:jege
Sary-Yughur:jege,jige,ige
Azerbaidzhan:jeg
664
Turkmen:jee
Khakassian:nige
Shor:nee
Oyrat:jee,d

ee
Halaj:nee
Yakut:saas
Dolgan:haas
Tuva:ege
Kirghiz:ee
Kazakh:ege
Noghai:jege
Bashkir:jege
Karakalpak:ege
Salar:jeGo,jeko,jagu
Comments:EDT950,VEWT197-8,4,189-190,313,
Stachowski96.

Proto-Turkic:*jeg-l,jei-k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:light
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jenik,jl(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jl(Tefs.,IM),jenik'light',jeni-'tobecomelight'(MK,KB)
Turkish:jeni,jnl,jejni
Tatar:iel
MiddleTurkic:jegil(Sangl.),jngl(MKypch.-Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jeil
Uighur:jenik,jeil
Sary-Yughur:ig(<*jeig)
Azerbaidzhan:jngl,jejin
665
Turkmen:jeil
Khakassian:nk(<*jeik)
Oyrat:d

eil
Halaj:jigil,jejin
Chuvash:sml
Tuva:k(<*jeik)
Tofalar:nie
Kirghiz:eil
Kazakh:eil
Noghai:jeil
Bashkir:jeel
Balkar:egil,engil,zengil
Gagauz:jilin
Karaim:jeil,jegil,jenil
Karakalpak:eil
Kumyk:jeil
Comments:EDT948,950,VEWT198,4,188,184,340.
Turk.>Hung.gyenge'weak',seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*jer
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:earth,land
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jer(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jer(MK),jer(KB)
Turkish:jer
Tatar:ir
MiddleTurkic:jer(MA)
Uzbek:jer
Uighur:jr
666
Sary-Yughur:jer
Azerbaidzhan:jer
Turkmen:jer
Khakassian:ir
Shor:er(R.)
Oyrat:d

er
Halaj:jer
Chuvash:sr
Yakut:sir
Dolgan:hir
Tuva:er
Tofalar:er
Kirghiz:er
Kazakh:er
Noghai:jer
Bashkir:jer
Balkar:er
Gagauz:jer
Karaim:jer
Karakalpak:er
Salar:jer
Kumyk:jer
Comments:VEWT198,EDT954,4,191-192,53,
Stachowski104-105.Bulg.>Hung.szer'place'(intoponyms),seeSinor
1990.

Proto-Turkic:*jEr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:copper
Russianmeaning:
667
Karakhanid:jez(TT)
Tatar:iz
Uzbek:ez
Uighur:z
Sary-Yughur:es
Khakassian:is
Shor:es
Oyrat:jes,d

es
Tuva:es
Tofalar:es
Kirghiz:ez
Kazakh:ez
Noghai:jez
Bashkir:je
Balkar:zez
Karaim:jez
Karakalpak:ez
Kumyk:jez
Comments:EDT982,VEWT199,4,168-169,404-405.
Turk.>Mong.jez,esid.(Clark1980,39,1997,123).

Proto-Turkic:*jer-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tohate
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jer-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jer-(MK)
Turkish:jer-
MiddleTurkic:jer-(AH)
Azerbaidzhan:jer-
668
Turkmen:r-
Oyrat:jeri-
Yakut:sir-
Kirghiz:eri-
Kazakh:er-
Karakalpak:eri-
Comments:EDT955,4,193,VEWT198.Yakutshowsthatthe
Turkm.lengthissecondary(r-=jir-).

Proto-Turkic:*jerne
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:son-in-law,sister'shusband
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:jezne(MK)
Tatar:izn,izni
MiddleTurkic:jezn(Houts.)
Uzbek:ezn,ezd
Sary-Yughur:jezde
Azerbaidzhan:jezn
Turkmen:jezne(dial.)
Khakassian:iste
Shor:este
Oyrat:jeste,d

este
Tuva:este
Kirghiz:ezde
Kazakh:ezde
Noghai:jezde
Karakalpak:ezde
Comments:EDT988,VEWT199,TMN4,165,4,169-170,
298.Cf.alsoChuv.sarmk'young,youngman'(>Hung.gyermek).
669

Proto-Turkic:*jerk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1alder2cedar
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:jerek,jrek1
Shor:jrgek2
Oyrat:jrk2
Chuvash:sirk1
Bashkir:jerek1
Balkar:erk1
Comments:4,206-207,VEWT204,130-131.Turk.>
Hung.gyuru'maple'.

Proto-Turkic:*jet-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toreach
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jet-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jet-(MK)
Turkish:jet-
Tatar:it-
MiddleTurkic:jet-(Pav.C.,..),jt-(AH)
Uzbek:jet-
Uighur:jt-
Sary-Yughur:jet-,jit-
Azerbaidzhan:jet-i-
Turkmen:jet-
Khakassian:it-
Shor:et-
670
Oyrat:jt-,d

et-
Chuvash:sit-
Yakut:sit-
Dolgan:hit-
Tuva:e`t-
Kirghiz:et-
Kazakh:et-
Noghai:jet-
Bashkir:jet-
Balkar:et-,zet-
Gagauz:jet-
Karaim:jet-
Karakalpak:et-
Salar:jet-
Kumyk:jet-
Comments:EDT884-885,VEWT199,4,193-194,Stachowski105.

Proto-Turkic:*jet(t)i
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:seven
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jeti(Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jeti(MK)
Turkish:jedi
Tatar:ide
MiddleTurkic:jedd(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jetti
Uighur:jtti
Sary-Yughur:jeti,jiti,et
Azerbaidzhan:jeddi
671
Turkmen:jedi
Khakassian:itt
Shor:etti
Oyrat:jeti
Halaj:jieti,jtti(<Az.?)
Chuvash:si
Yakut:sette
Dolgan:hette
Tuva:edi
Tofalar:edi
Kirghiz:eti
Kazakh:eti
Noghai:jeti
Bashkir:jete
Balkar:jeti,eti,eti
Gagauz:jedi
Karaim:jedi
Karakalpak:eti
Salar:jitti
Kumyk:jetti
Comments:EDT886,VEWT199,4,167-168,TMN4,139,
Stachowski102.

Proto-Turkic:*j-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toeat
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:je-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:je-,je-(MK,KB)
Turkish:je-
672
Tatar:im'food'
MiddleTurkic:je-(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:je-
Uighur:j-
Sary-Yughur:ji-
Azerbaidzhan:je-
Turkmen:ij-
Khakassian:e-
Shor:-
Oyrat:d

e-
Halaj:ji-
Chuvash:si-
Yakut:sie-
Dolgan:hie-
Tuva:i-
Tofalar:i-
Kirghiz:e-
Kazakh:e-
Noghai:je-
Bashkir:je-
Balkar:eje-(arch.)
Gagauz:i-
Karaim:je-
Karakalpak:e-
Salar:ji-
Kumyk:je-
Comments:VEWT194,EDT869-70,1,333-335,Stachowski102.

Proto-Turkic:*jbke
Altaicetymology:
673
Meaning:wolverine
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:jekpe
Yakut:siegen
Dolgan:hiegen
Tuva:ekpe
Comments:VEWT195,Stachowski103.

Proto-Turkic:*jl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1mane2feather
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:jel1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jel1(MK)
Turkish:jele1
Sary-Yughur:el1
Azerbaidzhan:llk2
Turkmen:jelek2
Khakassian:ilen1
Halaj:jlk2
Chuvash:sile1
Yakut:siel1
Tuva:el1
Tofalar:el1
Gagauz:jel1
Karaim:lelek2
Comments:VEWT181,TMN4,188-189,EDT916,4,85-86
(confusedwith*jl,v.sub*d

lV),147,566.TheOghuznameof
'feather'(jelek/lelek,see4,179)isprobablyderivedfromthisroot;
674
perhapsalso*jel-ke'backofhead(includingtheneck)',seeVEWT196,
4,181.

Proto-Turkic:*jl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toride,trot
Russianmeaning:(),
OldTurkic:jel-(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:jel-(MK,KB)
Turkish:jel-
Tatar:il-
MiddleTurkic:jel-(Pav.C.,MA,Ettuhf.),jil-(AH)
Uzbek:jel-
Azerbaidzhan:jel-li`quickly'
Turkmen:jel-me`trot'
Shor:el-
Oyrat:jl-,d

el-
Yakut:siel-
Tuva:el-
Kirghiz:el-
Kazakh:el-
Noghai:jeli-
Bashkir:jel-
Karakalpak:el-
Comments:EDT918,VEWT195,4,176-177.

Proto-Turkic:*j mil

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:vegetable,fruit
Russianmeaning:,
675
OldTurkic:jemi(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jemi(MK)
Turkish:jemi
Tatar:jime
MiddleTurkic:jemi(Sangl.)
Uighur:jemi
Azerbaidzhan:jemi
Turkmen:ijmi
Khakassian:nimis
Chuvash:sims
Tuva:emi'nutkernel'
Kirghiz:ime
Kazakh:emis
Bashkir:jeme
Balkar:emi
Karakalpak:emis
Comments:EDT938,VEWT197.Turk.>MMong.(HY)emii(seeClark
1980,42),Hung.gymlcs(Gombocz1912).

Proto-Turkic:*(j) n-ik
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1shin,shank2shinbone3boot-topstrap4heel
Russianmeaning:123
4
Karakhanid:jinik2(IM)
Turkish:inik1
Tatar:jinik1()
MiddleTurkic:inik'coudepied'(Pav.C.)
Turkmen:nik1,2
Shor:enik4
676
Oyrat:enik4(Leb.)
Yakut:innix1(.1941)
Tuva:inik3
Bashkir:jensek1
Balkar:inik2
Karaim:inik,inik1
Salar:inix()
Comments:VEWT172,203,286.

Proto-Turkic:*(j)p-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1beonone'sway2send
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:ibr-2
Uzbek:ibr-,jubr-2
Uighur:ebr-2
Turkmen:ber-2
Chuvash:jabal-1
Yakut:p-1
Kirghiz:iber-2
Kazakh:iber-2
Noghai:jiber-2
Bashkir:jebr-2
Karaim:jeber-
Karakalpak:iber-
Comments:1,322-324,.198.Theexplanation<*d-
bar-'leadandtake'isclearlyunsatisfactory.

Proto-Turkic:*jib-
Altaicetymology:
677
Meaning:1instrument,equipment2toprovide,equip
Russianmeaning:1,2,

OldTurkic:jivig1,jivit-2(OUygh.)
Comments:EDT872,875.

Proto-Turkic:*jib
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1seam2tosew
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:ji1(MK)
Turkish:jiv1
Tatar:j1,j-2
Azerbaidzhan:jiv1
Chuvash:sv-2,sv1
Bashkir:jj1,jj-2
Karakalpak:jj1
Comments:EDT911,4,197-198,VEWT202-203.Onthederived
*jib-sek(>*jb-sek,*jg-sek)'thimble'see4,257-258,Stachowski
117.Bulg.>Hung.szu-inszu cz'furrier,tailor'(*jib-i),cf.MNyTESz3,810.

Proto-Turkic:*jidge,*jidge-lek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1jujube2strawberry,berry
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:jigde1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jigde1(MK)
Turkish:ijde1
Tatar:ilk,jelk(dial.)2
MiddleTurkic:igde(Pav.C.)1
678
Uzbek:ijda1
Uighur:igd1
Azerbaidzhan:ijd1
Turkmen:igde1
Khakassian:istek,sestek2
Oyrat:d

ilek2
Chuvash:srla2
Kirghiz:ijde1
Kazakh:ijde1,idek2
Noghai:jelek2
Bashkir:jelk2
Balkar:ilek2
Karakalpak:ijde1
Kumyk:ijelek2
Comments:EDT911,VEWT202,1,325-326,122,140.
Turk.(Bulg.)>Hung.szolo'grape'(<*sile),seeGombocz1912,
MNyTESz3,794.Turk.*jigde>Mong.igde,egde(1997,123);
buttheTMformsarenotborrowed,despiteDoerferMT73.
close

Proto-Turkic:*jigi/*jg
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thick,dense
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jigi(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jigi(MK)
Turkish:j
Turkmen:j
Oyrat:jik
679
Tuva:'q
Kazakh:iji
Noghai:jj
Karakalpak:iji
Comments:EDT911,VEWT202,4,272.

Proto-Turkic:*(j)igne
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:needle
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jine(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jigne(MK)
Turkish:ijne
Tatar:in
MiddleTurkic:igne(..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ign
Uighur:ign,jin,jign
Sary-Yughur:jine
Azerbaidzhan:ijn
Turkmen:igne,ine
Khakassian:ie
Shor:ing
Oyrat:ijne
Halaj:n(<Az.)
Yakut:inne,ine
Dolgan:ine,ine,inne
Tuva:ine
Kirghiz:ijne
Kazakh:ijna
Noghai:ijne
680
Bashkir:in
Balkar:ijne
Gagauz:n
Karaim:ijne
Karakalpak:ijne
Kumyk:ine
Comments:EDT110,VEWT169,1,367-369,106.

Proto-Turkic:*jigren-(-e-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tohate,abhor
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jigren-(MK)
Turkish:ijren-
Tatar:irn-
MiddleTurkic:jigren-(Ettuhf.,AH)
Uzbek:jirgn-,irgen-
Azerbaidzhan:ijrn-
Turkmen:jigren-
Yakut:sirgen-
Kirghiz:erin-,iren-,ijirken-
Kazakh:ijren-
Noghai:jijren-
Bashkir:jern-
Gagauz:ren-
Karaim:iren-
Karakalpak:ijren-,ijirken-
Kumyk:irgen-
Comments:EDT914-915,4,200-201.

681
Proto-Turkic:*jilik
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:marrow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jilik(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jilik(MK)
Turkish:ilik
Tatar:jelek,elek
MiddleTurkic:jilik(AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:ilik
Uighur:jilik
Azerbaidzhan:ilik
Turkmen:jilik
Oyrat:d

ilik
Yakut:sil
Tuva:ilig
Kirghiz:ilik
Noghai:jilik
Bashkir:jelek
Balkar:ilik
Karaim:ilik
Karakalpak:ilik
Salar:ileh()
Kumyk:jilik
Comments:EDT927,928,VEWT203,TMN2,214,4,265,
263.Turkm.andUzb.dialectaljlk'marrow'mayreflectacontamination
with*jlk/*juluk'juice'q.v.sub*dilu.

Proto-Turkic:*jin(/*jn)
Altaicetymology:
682
Meaning:faecalmasses(contentofintestines)
Russianmeaning:()
OldTurkic:jin(ji)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jin(MK)
Tatar:endial.
Sary-Yughur:jin,ji
Khakassian:nn
Oyrat:jin,d

in
Tuva:in
Kirghiz:in
Kazakh:n
Bashkir:jen
Karakalpak:in
Comments:EDT941,VEWT203,4,27-28,148-149.

Proto-Turkic:*(j)ingek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:milt,roe
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:ini,jinc(Sib.)
Yakut:iskex
Dolgan:istek
Comments:VEWT172,203,151,Stachowski129.

Proto-Turkic:*jint-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosearch,seek
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jind-(MK)
Khakassian:nindi-
683
Tuva:indi-
Comments:EDT946,VEWT203.

Proto-Turkic:*ji-ge
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thin
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jinge(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jinke(MK)
Turkish:ine
Tatar:nek
MiddleTurkic:ike(Pav.C.),inge(..)
Uzbek:ingika
Uighur:inik
Sary-Yughur:ige
Azerbaidzhan:in
Turkmen:ne(<jine)
Khakassian:niske
Chuvash:sinze
Yakut:sinniges
Dolgan:hinniges
Tuva:ige
Tofalar:nige
Kirghiz:ike
Noghai:jiike
Balkar:inge
Gagauz:in
Karaim:in
Karakalpak:iike
Salar:lgi
684
Comments:VEWT203,EDT944-5,1,364-365,Stachowski104.

Proto-Turkic:*(j)ip-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:violet-coloured,purple
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jipin,jipgin
Karakhanid:jipkil(MK)
Chuvash:jpkn'deep-coloured'
Tuva:kpe
Karaim:ipkin
Comments:EDT877,874,1,197.

Proto-Turkic:*jir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:Artemisiaabrotonon
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jiz(-e-)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jiz(-e-)(MK)
Comments:EDT982,VEWT204.

Proto-Turkic:*jit-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobelost
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jit-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jit-(MK)
Turkish:jit-
MiddleTurkic:jit-(Pav.C.,AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jit-
685
Uighur:jit-,jt-
Azerbaidzhan:it-
Turkmen:jit-
Khakassian:t-
Chuvash:st-
Yakut:st-
Dolgan:ht-
Tuva:it-
Kirghiz:it-
Kazakh:it-
Karaim:jt-
Karakalpak:it-
Comments:EDT885,VEWT204,4,204-205,Stachowski116.

Proto-Turkic:*jiti
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sharp
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jiti(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jitig(MK,KB)
Turkish:iti-(v.)
Tatar:ete
MiddleTurkic:iti(AH,Ettuhf.),itik(Pav.C.),iti-v.(Pav.C.)
Uighur:itik
Azerbaidzhan:iti
Turkmen:jiti
Khakassian:tg
Shor:idig
Halaj:jitti
Chuvash:siv(?)
686
Yakut:st
Dolgan:ht
Tuva:idig,idi-(v.)
Kazakh:iti
Balkar:t
Karaim:jiti,iti
Kumyk:itti
Comments:EDT889,4,205-206,Stachowski121.Cf.alsoTur.jat
'weapon',jataan'ak.ofsword'(VEWT192,TMN4,52).

Proto-Turkic:*jk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:seam
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:ek,dial.jek
Khakassian:k
Oyrat:jik,d

ik
Yakut:sk
Kirghiz:ik
Kazakh:ik
Bashkir:jek(dial.)
Balkar:ik
Karakalpak:ik
Kumyk:jik
Comments:VEWT195,202,4,197-198,257-258.Therootshould
bedistinguishedfrom*jibq.v.sub*ziupi.

Proto-Turkic:*jr-/*jr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosplitlengthwise2tobreak,tear
687
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:je/ir-1(MK)
Turkish:jir-2(dial.)
Tatar:jr-2
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)jir-1(AH)
Uzbek:jir-1
Uighur:jir-,ir-1
Turkmen:jir-1,2
Khakassian:r-1
Yakut:sr-2
Tuva:ir-1
Kirghiz:r-2
Kazakh:r-2
Noghai:jr-2
Bashkir:jr-2
Gagauz:jir-2
Karakalpak:r-2
Kumyk:jr-'todigthrough'
Comments:VEWT198,EDT955,4,203-204.

Proto-Turkic:*jd
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:smell
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jd(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:j(MK)
Turkish:ij
Azerbaidzhan:ij
Khakassian:js
Yakut:st
688
Dolgan:ht
Tuva:t
Karaim:ij
Comments:EDT883,1,380-382(confusedwith*js),Stachowski
120.

Proto-Turkic:*jdruk/*judruk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fist
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jdruq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:juruq(MK)
Tatar:jodrq
Sary-Yughur:uzruq
Turkmen:judruq(dial.)
Khakassian:nuzurux
Shor:nuzruq
Oyrat:d

udruq
Yakut:suturuq
Tuva:uduruq
Kirghiz:uduruq
Kazakh:udrq
Bashkir:joroq
Karaim:juduruq,judurux
Karakalpak:udrq
Comments:EDT892,182-183,4,248-249,253.
Turk.>Kalm.udr-x'mitderFaustdieHautabziehen,dieHautunddas
Fleischzwngenundsoabhuten'(KW115).Manymodernlanguages
reflect(suchasTurkm.jumruqetc.)reflectsecondaryforms*jumrukor
*jumduruk-anobviousresultofcontaminationwith*jum-'round'.
689

Proto-Turkic:*jg-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocollect
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:j-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:j-(MK)
Turkish:j-
Tatar:j-
MiddleTurkic:j-(Pav.C.,MA,AH)
Uzbek:ji-
Uighur:ji-
Sary-Yughur:j-,ji-,jiq-
Azerbaidzhan:j-
Turkmen:j-
Khakassian:-
Shor:-
Oyrat:j-,d

u-
Tuva:-
Kirghiz:j-
Kazakh:j-
Noghai:jj-
Bashkir:jj-
Balkar:j-
Gagauz:jv-
Karaim:j-
Karakalpak:j-
Salar:ji-
Kumyk:j-
Comments:EDT897,VEWT200,4,271-272,272-273,TMN4,183.
690

Proto-Turkic:*jg-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toprevent,obstruct,restrain
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:j-(KB,AT,Tefs)
MiddleTurkic:j-(Abush.)
Uighur:ji-
Comments:VEWT200,EDT897.

Proto-Turkic:*jk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocrush,grind;overthrow
Russianmeaning:,;
OldTurkic:jq-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jq-(MK)
Turkish:jk-
Tatar:jq-
MiddleTurkic:jq-(MA,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jiq-
Uighur:jiq-
Azerbaidzhan:jx-
Turkmen:jq-
Khakassian:juq-
Oyrat:jq-,d

q-
Halaj:juq-
Chuvash:sx-(dial.)
Kirghiz:q-
Kazakh:q-
Noghai:jq-
691
Bashkir:jq-
Gagauz:jq-
Karaim:jq-,jx-
Karakalpak:q-
Kumyk:jq-,jix-
Comments:VEWT200,EDT897,4,273-274.

Proto-Turkic:*jl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:year
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jl(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jl(MK)
Turkish:jl
Tatar:jl
MiddleTurkic:jl(MA),il(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jil
Uighur:jil
Sary-Yughur:jil
Azerbaidzhan:il
Turkmen:jl
Khakassian:il
Shor:l
Oyrat:d

l
Yakut:sl
Dolgan:hl
Tuva:l
Tofalar:l
Kirghiz:l
Kazakh:l
692
Noghai:jl
Bashkir:jl
Balkar:l
Gagauz:jl
Karaim:jl
Karakalpak:l
Salar:jel
Kumyk:jl
Comments:VEWT200,EDT917,4,275,70-71,
Stachowski118.
Proto-Turkic:*jl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:torub,polish
Russianmeaning:,
Tatar:j-(Sib.)
Khakassian:s-
Oyrat:j-
Comments:VEWT202,1,667.

Proto-Turkic:*jl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1mountainforest,thicket2spine
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:j1(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:j'highground'(MK)
Tatar:j1
Khakassian:s1
Oyrat:d

1
Yakut:sis1,2
Dolgan:his1,2
693
Kirghiz:1
Bashkir:j1
Karakalpak:s1
Comments:EDT976,VEWT202,4,44,94-95,Stachowski
105.

Proto-Turkic:*jldr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:root
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jltz(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jldz(MK)
MiddleTurkic:iltz(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ildiz
Uighur:iltiz
Sary-Yughur:jlds
Khakassian:ilege(?)
Yakut:silis
Comments:VEWT201,EDT922,1,350,109.

Proto-Turkic:*jlgun
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tamarisk
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jlun(MK)
Turkish:ln
MiddleTurkic:jln(Houts.),julun(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:julun
Uighur:ulun
Sary-Yughur:julum,jolam
694
Azerbaidzhan:julun
Turkmen:jlun,jln
Kirghiz:ln,lam
Kazakh:l
Karakalpak:l
Comments:VEWT165,200,EDT926,4,277-278,134.
Kaz.>Russ.dial.dengil',see183-184.

Proto-Turkic:*jl-g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:warm
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jl(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jl,l(MK)
Turkish:lk
Tatar:l
MiddleTurkic:lq,jlq(Abush.,..)
Uzbek:iliq
Uighur:ilman
Sary-Yughur:il
Azerbaidzhan:ilG'warmish'
Turkmen:jl
Khakassian:l
Shor:l-(v.)
Oyrat:d

lu
Yakut:sls
Dolgan:hls
Tuva:l
Tofalar:l
Kirghiz:luu
695
Kazakh:l
Noghai:jl
Bashkir:jl
Balkar:l
Gagauz:l
Karaim:jl
Karakalpak:ll
Salar:jili
Kumyk:jl
Comments:Derivedfrom*jl-'tobewarm'.SeeVEWT200,EDT919,925,
4,275-276,21,Stachowski118.

Proto-Turkic:*jlm
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:net
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:lm
MiddleTurkic:ilim(CCum.)
Uzbek:jlm(dial.)
Turkmen:jlm
Chuvash:silm
Yakut:ilim
Dolgan:ilim
Kirghiz:lm
Kazakh:lm
Noghai:jlm
Bashkir:jlm
Karakalpak:lm
Kumyk:jlm
696
Comments:VEWT200,4,282-283,Stachowski125.Turk.>Hung.
gyalom,seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*j[]l-nga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tastelessfood
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jlna(MK)
Comments:EDT931.

Proto-Turkic:*jlk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:age;aged(grown-up)animal
Russianmeaning:;
OldTurkic:jlq(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jlq(MK)
Tatar:jlq
MiddleTurkic:jlq(AH,Ettuhf.),lq(..,Abush.)
Uzbek:jilqi
Uighur:i(l)qa,ilqi
Azerbaidzhan:ilx,lx(dial.)
Turkmen:jlq
Khakassian:l
Shor:l
Oyrat:d

lq
Yakut:sl
Tuva:l
Kirghiz:lq
Kazakh:lq
Noghai:jlq
697
Bashkir:jlq
Balkar:lq,zlq
Karaim:jlq
Karakalpak:lq
Kumyk:jlq,jilq
Comments:EDT925-926,4,281-282,444.

Proto-Turkic:*jmga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wildmountainshe-goat
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ma(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ma,jma(KB),ma(IM)
Turkish:OldOsm.ime,ma'goat',dial.'deerwithstraighthorns'
MiddleTurkic:ma(Sangl.)
Turkmen:umGa
Oyrat:d

uma
Tuva:uma
Comments:VEWT165,EDT158,154-155.Yak.maga(because
ofmedial-g-)ismostprobably<Evk.

Proto-Turkic:*jm-la-k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:soft,mild
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jmaq(Orkh.),jumaq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jumaq(MK)
Turkish:jumak
Tatar:jomaq
MiddleTurkic:jumaq(AH,Ettuhf.,..)
698
Uzbek:jumq
Uighur:jumaq
Sary-Yughur:jumsaq
Azerbaidzhan:jumaG
Turkmen:jumaq
Khakassian:max,nmzax
Shor:ma-
Oyrat:jmaq,d

maq
Chuvash:semze
Yakut:smna-as
Dolgan:hmna-gas
Tuva:maq
Tofalar:ma-'tobecomesoft'
Kirghiz:umaq
Kazakh:umsaq
Bashkir:jomaq
Balkar:umaq,umuaq
Gagauz:jmaq
Karaim:jmaq,jmax
Kumyk:jmaq
Comments:EDT938,VEWT201,4,252-253,Stachowski118.The
derivingstem*jm-la-'tobesoft'isalsopresentinmostoftheabove
languages.

Proto-Turkic:*jmurt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bird-cherry
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jumua'medlar'(MK)
Turkish:jumurt(dial.)
699
Uzbek:umurt
Azerbaidzhan:umurt''
Khakassian:nmrt
Shor:nbrt
Oyrat:jmrt,d

mrt
Chuvash:smrt
Comments:EDT881,VEWT211,4,283,211,136.
NotquiteclearistherelationofOTjemen'ak.ofwildfruit,berry'(EDT
939).

Proto-Turkic:*jak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:side,direction
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jaq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jaq(MK)
Comments:VEWT201,EDT949.AssuggestedbyClauson,mergedwith
jaakinlaterTurkic.

Proto-Turkic:*jp/*jip
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thread
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jp(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jp(MK)
Turkish:ip
Tatar:ep
MiddleTurkic:jip(AH,Ettuhf.),ip(Pav.C.,AH)
Uighur:jip
Sary-Yughur:jip,jep
700
Azerbaidzhan:ip
Turkmen:jp
Khakassian:p
Shor:ip
Oyrat:jip,d

ip
Halaj:jip
Chuvash:sip
Yakut:sip'hookonafishingrod',sippe'thread'
Kirghiz:ip
Kazakh:ip
Bashkir:jep
Balkar:ib,zip
Gagauz:jip
Karaim:jip
Karakalpak:ip
Salar:jip
Kumyk:jip
Comments:EDT870,VEWT204,4,268-269.Cf.alsothederivative
*jipekid.(4,269-270).

Proto-Turkic:*jpar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:smell,perfume,musk
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:jpar(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jpar(MK)
Turkish:jpar(dial.)
Tatar:jifar,ufar
MiddleTurkic:jpar(Houts.),ipar(AH),jbar(Pav.C.)
Yakut:sbar
701
Kirghiz:par
Kazakh:upar
Bashkir:jofar
Karakalpak:upar
Salar:ju'ar,juar
Comments:EDT878-879,VEWT201,4,284.

Proto-Turkic:*jr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:song
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jr(MK)
Turkish:jr
Tatar:r
MiddleTurkic:jr(R.)
Uzbek:ir
Sary-Yughur:jr,jer
Azerbaidzhan:jr(dial.)
Turkmen:jr(dial.)
Kirghiz:r
Kazakh:r
Noghai:jr
Bashkir:jr
Balkar:zr,r,r
Karaim:jr,ir
Karakalpak:r
Salar:jr
Kumyk:jr
702
Comments:EDT192,VEWT201,4,285,TMN4,233.Theroot
shouldbedistinguishedfrom*r(v.sub*iru),althoughactively
contaminating.

Proto-Turkic:*jr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:left,North
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jr-aru(Orkh.),ir-,jir-(OUygh.)
Comments:VEWT201,EDT954,959,973.

Proto-Turkic:*jg-(la-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toweep,cry
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:-la-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:la-,jla-(MK),jla-(KB)
Tatar:jla-
MiddleTurkic:jla-(Sangl.)
Uighur:ala-
Sary-Yughur:jila-
Turkmen:-la-
Khakassian:
Shor:la-
Oyrat:jla-
Kazakh:la-
Balkar:zla-
Karakalpak:la-
Kumyk:jila-
Comments:VEWT8,1,79-81.
703

Proto-Turkic:*jl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tocreep2snake
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:jlan2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jlan(MK)2
Turkish:jlan2
Tatar:jl-1,jlan2
MiddleTurkic:jl-1(Vam.),jlan2(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:il-1,iln2
Uighur:ilan2
Sary-Yughur:jilan2
Azerbaidzhan:ilan2
Turkmen:jln2
Khakassian:l-1,lan2
Shor:lan2
Oyrat:d

l-1
Chuvash:slen2
Yakut:sl-1
Tuva:l-1,lan2,dial.ulan
Tofalar:l-1,ulan2
Kirghiz:l-1,lan2
Kazakh:lan2
Noghai:jlan2
Bashkir:jlan2
Balkar:lan2
Gagauz:jlan2
Karaim:jlan2
Karakalpak:lan2
704
Salar:jiln2
Kumyk:jlan2
Comments:VEWT200,EDT930-1,4,40-41,277,180.
Turk.>MMong.(MA)jilan(see1997,164).Mong.ilu-,ulu-'roll
away,moveaway'mayberelatedorborrowed<Turk.

Proto-Turkic:*jn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:skin,body
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jn(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jn(MK)
Yakut:sn
Comments:VEWT203,EDT941,266-267.

Proto-Turkic:*job-
Meaning:1tooverwhelmwithkindness2collectivework
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:jov-,jovsa-1,jvtr-(caus.)(MK)
Turkish:jrum''
Turkmen:jovar2
Oyrat:?d'o''
Yakut:sobolo'paymentforwork'
Comments:EDT871,873,880
Proto-Turkic:*job-la(*jabu-la)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:finegoat'shair
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jovla(MK)
Comments:EDT870.
705

Proto-Turkic:*jod-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todestroy
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jod-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jo-(MK)
Tatar:uj-
MiddleTurkic:joj-(Houts.),juj-(AH)
Turkmen:joj-
Shor:os-
Yakut:sot-'towipeout'
Dolgan:hot-'towipeout'
Tuva:ot-
Kirghiz:oj-
Kazakh:oj-
Noghai:joj-
Bashkir:juj-
Karaim:oj-
Karakalpak:oj-
Kumyk:joj-
Comments:EDT885,VEWT204,4,210,Stachowski109.

Proto-Turkic:*jogan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thick
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:joan(Orkh.),joun(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:joun(MK)
Turkish:joun
706
Tatar:juvan
MiddleTurkic:joan(MA)
Uzbek:jon
Uighur:joan'big'
Sary-Yughur:jon,joun
Azerbaidzhan:joun
Turkmen:jon
Khakassian:n
Shor:n
Oyrat:jn,d

n
Halaj:joun
Yakut:suon
Tuva:n
Tofalar:nn
Kirghiz:n
Noghai:juvan
Bashkir:jwan
Karakalpak:uwan
Comments:VEWT205,EDT904,4,208-209.

Proto-Turkic:*jogdu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hairincamel'sbeard
Russianmeaning:,..
Karakhanid:jodu,joru(j)(MK),odu(Oghuz.,Kypch.MK)
Khakassian:odr
Shor:jodra'tassel'(.)
Tuva:odur
Kirghiz:odor
707
Comments:EDT899,270,Clark1977,165.Turk.>WMong.odur
id.

Proto-Turkic:*jo(g)ta
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thigh,shank2body,stature
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:jota(OUygh.)1
Uzbek:ta(dial.)2
Uighur:jota1
Sary-Yughur:jota,javta,jovta1
Khakassian:oda1
Shor:oda1
Oyrat:jodo,d

odo1
Yakut:soto1
Tuva:oda1
Kirghiz:ota1
Kazakh:ota1
Karakalpak:ota2
Comments:VEWT207,4,29-30,282-283.

Proto-Turkic:*jogurgan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:blanket
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jourqan(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jourqan(MK)
Turkish:joran
Tatar:juran
MiddleTurkic:joran(Ettuhf.),juran(Houts.),jawurqan(MA)
708
Uighur:jo(r)tqan
Azerbaidzhan:joran
Turkmen:joran
Khakassian:oran
Oyrat:d

rqan
Halaj:jorn
Yakut:suoran
Dolgan:huorgan,suorgan
Tuva:ran
Kirghiz:rqan
Noghai:jurqan,juwrqan
Bashkir:juran
Balkar:uwuran,ran,uwuran,zuwuran
Gagauz:joran
Karaim:joran
Salar:joran
Kumyk:jowuran
Comments:EDT907,VEWT205,4,225-226,Stachowski112.

Proto-Turkic:*jog-urt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:curdled,coagulatedmilk
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jorot,jurut,jurut(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jurut,jourt(MK)
Turkish:jourt,jourt
MiddleTurkic:jaurt(Houts.,AH)
Uzbek:urt(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:jourt,juurt
Azerbaidzhan:jourt
709
Turkmen:jourt
Yakut:suorat
Kirghiz:rat
Noghai:juwrt
Balkar:uwurt,uwurt,zuwurt
Gagauz:jrt
Kumyk:juwurt
Comments:EDT905,4,207-208.Forsemanticreasonsderivation
from*jogur-'toknead'(TMN4,173)seemshardlyplausible.

Proto-Turkic:*jok-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1up,above2hill,elevation
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:joqaru1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:joqaru1,joq2(MK)
Turkish:jukar1,joku2
Tatar:juar1
MiddleTurkic:joqaru(AH),juqar(Pav.C.)1,joqu(AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:juqri1
Uighur:juqari1
Azerbaidzhan:juxar,dial.uxar1,joxu2
Turkmen:joqar1
Khakassian:oar1
Halaj:juqqar1
Yakut:sooru,sour'South;centre'
Dolgan:sogur'South'
Kirghiz:oor(u)1
Kazakh:oar1
Bashkir:juar1
710
Balkar:oar1
Gagauz:juqar()1
Karaim:joar1,joqu,joq2
Karakalpak:oqar1
Comments:EDT896,906,4,213-214,215,Stachowski211.

Proto-Turkic:*jol-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totearout,pickout,pluck
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:jol-jul-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jol-jul-(MK)
Turkish:jol-,jul-
MiddleTurkic:jul-(R.),jul-(Houts.)
Uzbek:jul-
Uighur:jul-,ul-
Sary-Yughur:jul-
Azerbaidzhan:jol-
Turkmen:jol-
Khakassian:ul-
Shor:ul-
Oyrat:jul-,d

ul-
Halaj:jilu-
Chuvash:sl-
Yakut:suluj-
Tuva:ul-
Kirghiz:ul-
Kazakh:ul-
Bashkir:jolo-
Balkar:ul-
711
Gagauz:jol-
Karaim:jul-,julu-
Karakalpak:ul-
Comments:EDT918,4,216;oftenconfusedwith*jl-'shave'(v.sub
*zuli).Turk.formslike*julk-(VEWT210)maybeborrowedfromMong.

Proto-Turkic:*jola
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:redclay
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:joa(SDD)
MiddleTurkic:jua(MA)
Oyrat:joo
Yakut:soho
Kirghiz:oo
Comments:VEWT128,4,31.Turk.>MMong.(MA)ua,WMong.
osa'redclay,redearth'(ratherthanviceversa,despiteVEWT128-
althoughformswith-s-likeKaz.,KKalp.osaarereborrowedfromMong.).

Proto-Turkic:*jolbars
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:panther,leopard,tiger
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:jolbars(OUygh.:Suv.)
Tatar:julbars
MiddleTurkic:jolbars(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jolbars
Uighur:jolbars
Turkmen:jolbars
Kirghiz:olbars
712
Kazakh:olbars
Noghai:jolbars
Bashkir:julbar
Karakalpak:olbars
Comments:4,219,157.TheTurkicformisanalysedas
'roadpanther'whichismostprobablyafolketymology(undertheinfluence
oftheborrowedbars'panther'):evenifonetakesjolwithasecondarylate
attestedmeaning'line,stripe',shortnessof-o-inTurkm.contradictsthe
etymology(*jl'road'hasalongvowel).

Proto-Turkic:*jom-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bignumber,quantity,all2tocometogether,assemble
Russianmeaning:1,,2()
OldTurkic:jom(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:jom(MK)1,jomt-(MK)2
Turkish:jumu-2(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:jomut-2(Houts.)
Sary-Yughur:jumt-,jumut-2
Karaim:jom-,jomul-,jumul-2
Comments:EDT935,4,219-220.

Proto-Turkic:*jom(?/*jo)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1turf2weed
Russianmeaning:12
Oyrat:jo1
Chuvash:som2
Comments:VEWT206,2,135.Cf.also*jom-suk,*jom-sul'weed,
moss'(4,231,withavarietyofdialectalreflexes:Tur.josun,jomsuk,
713
Chag.josun,Kum.jansawetc.).Turk.>Hung.gyom'weed',seeMNyTESz
1,1132.

Proto-Turkic:*jom,*jom()ak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tale,legend2luck,omen3word4riddle
Russianmeaning:1,2,
34
Turkish:jom2(dial.)
Tatar:omaq4
MiddleTurkic:jumaq1(Ettuhf.),jom2(AH)
Uzbek:umbq4
Sary-Yughur:lomaq1
Turkmen:jomaq'joke'
Khakassian:nmax1,x3
Shor:nbaq1
Yakut:nomoq1(possibly<Mong.)
Kirghiz:omoq1
Kazakh:umbaq4
Noghai:jumaq4
Bashkir:jomaq4
Balkar:omaq,zomaq4
Karaim:jomaq1
Karakalpak:u mbaq4
Kumyk:jomaq1
Comments:4,220-221,VEWT206,119(onerootintwodifferent
places).Despitelateattestationtherootisnodoubtarchaic(itmusthave
originallypertainedtoashamanisticritual).

Proto-Turkic:*jon-rka
714
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:clover
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:joruna(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jorna(MK)
Turkish:jona
Tatar:jona
MiddleTurkic:jona(AH),jna(Houts.),joqa,jorunqa(R.)
Uzbek:umruqa
Azerbaidzhan:jona
Turkmen:joruna
Halaj:jovun
Kirghiz:ouqa
Kazakh:o(r)qa
Bashkir:jonsa
Gagauz:jona
Karakalpak:joqa
Kumyk:jonurqa
Comments:VEWT207,TMN4,228-229,EDT971,4,227-228,
126-127.

Proto-Turkic:*jo
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1accusation2toaccuse
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:joa-(OUygh.)2,jour-(Orkh.)'toembroil'
Karakhanid:joa-(MK)2
Turkmen:jo'indisposition'
Khakassian:o
Oyrat:jo1
715
Yakut:so'enforcement'
Comments:EDT944,VEWT206,4,223.

Proto-Turkic:*jor-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toexplain,interpret(adream)
Russianmeaning:()
Karakhanid:jor-(MK,KB)
Turkish:jor-,jora-
Tatar:jura-
MiddleTurkic:jor-(AH,Pav.C.)
Uighur:oru-
Turkmen:jor-
Kirghiz:oro-,oru-
Kazakh:or-
Noghai:jor-
Bashkir:jura-
Karaim:jor-,jora-
Karakalpak:or-
Comments:EDT955,VEWT208,4,223-224.Turk.>Mong.jor-
(1997,125).Therootshouldbedistinguishedfrom*j

r-'tountie,
release'(Yak.sr-,OTjr-)-thelatterisdifferentbothphoneticallyand
semantically,althoughitcan,throughcontamination,alsoattainthe
meaning'tointerpret'(thusinMKandOUygh.).

Proto-Turkic:*jor-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totire,tired
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:jor-,jorul-,jorun
716
MiddleTurkic:jorul-(Ettuhf.,AH),jorun(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:jor-,jorul-,jorun
Turkmen:jor-,jorun
Gagauz:jorul-,jorun
Karaim:jorul-,jorun
Kumyk:jorul-
Comments:VEWT207,4,223.

Proto-Turkic:*jor-/*jri-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towalk
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jor-(Orkh.,OUygh.),jri-(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:jor()-(MK,KB),jri-jri-(KB)
Turkish:jr-
Tatar:jr-,jr-
MiddleTurkic:jri-jri-(MA),jr-(AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jur-
Uighur:r-(jr-),jr-
Sary-Yughur:jor-,or-,jr-,jr-
Azerbaidzhan:jeri-,jr-
Turkmen:jr(e)-
Khakassian:r-
Shor:r-
Oyrat:d

or-
Chuvash:sre-
Yakut:srt-
Dolgan:hrt-
Tuva:or(u)-
Tofalar:oru-
717
Kirghiz:r()-
Kazakh:r-
Noghai:jr()-
Bashkir:jr-
Balkar:r()-
Gagauz:jr-
Karaim:juru-,jr-
Karakalpak:r-
Salar:jr-
Kumyk:juru-,jr-
Comments:VEWT207,213,EDT957-8,4,229-231,TMN4,217-
218,Stachowski120.Clausonregardsbothformstogether,butnotesthat
jor-isattestedearlierthanjr(i)-.

Proto-Turkic:*jorukan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1badger2suslik
Russianmeaning:12
Khakassian:oraxa(R)
Oyrat:joroqon(R)
Comments:VEWT207.Turk.>WMong.oruan,oruqan,Kalm.zorn,
zorxn(KW476).

Proto-Turkic:*josun
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:manner,custom,method
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:josun(KB)
Tatar:josuq
MiddleTurkic:josun(Abush.,Pav.C.)
718
Uzbek:j sin
Uighur:josun
Azerbaidzhan:josun(dial.)
Oyrat:jozaq,jozoq,jozor
Tuva:o`zu(dial.)
Kirghiz:oun
Kazakh:osn,osaq(dial.)
Comments:4,31-32.Alsoreflectedisaform*josuk,*josak.Clauson
(EDT975)andDoerfer(TMN1,555-557)followRamstedtKW219and
regardtheTurkicformsasborrowed<Mong.,whichissomewhatdubious
becauseofthepeculiarphonologyofMong.josun(wordswith*jo-are
extremelyrareinMong.).PT*josuk(*josak)alsostrengthensthethesis
abouttheTurkicoriginofMong.josun;Doerfer'shypothesisthatTat.josuq,
Oyr.jozaqetc.reflectacontaminationof*jasakand*josunisnotvery
plausible(*jasakhasusuallyaquitedifferentmeaning'impost,tax'etc.),
andthereisalsoacompletelyunexplained(asaMongolism)formOyr.,
Tel.jozor.AllthismakesusratherthinkofTurk.*josun>Mong.*josun>
Manchujoso,Evk.josoetc.(1,347).

Proto-Turkic:*jj
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1cunning,lying2todefame,disgrace3troubles,noise
Russianmeaning:1,2,3
,
Khakassian:oj,j1
Shor:j1
Oyrat:joj,d

oj1
Chuvash:soj3
Yakut:sj-2
Kirghiz:oj1
719
Comments:VEWT205,4,210,2,129.

Proto-Turkic:*jk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:isnot,thereisnot
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:joq(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:joq(MK)
Turkish:jok
Tatar:juq
MiddleTurkic:joq(Pav.C.,AH)
Uzbek:joq
Uighur:joq
Sary-Yughur:joq,oq
Azerbaidzhan:jox
Turkmen:jq
Khakassian:ox
Shor:oq
Oyrat:d

oq
Halaj:jq
Chuvash:sok,soal-
Yakut:suox
Dolgan:huok
Tuva:oq
Kirghiz:oq
Kazakh:oq
Noghai:joq
Bashkir:juq
Balkar:oq,oq,zox
Gagauz:joq
720
Karaim:joq,jo
Karakalpak:oq,aq
Salar:jox
Kumyk:joq
Comments:EDT895-896,VEWT205,4,211-212,333,
2,129-130,Stachowski112.

Proto-Turkic:*jl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:road
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jol(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jol(MK,KB)
Turkish:jol
Tatar:jul
MiddleTurkic:jol(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:jul
Uighur:jol
Sary-Yughur:jol
Azerbaidzhan:jol
Turkmen:jl
Khakassian:ol
Shor:ol
Oyrat:d

ol
Halaj:jul
Chuvash:sol
Yakut:suol
Dolgan:huol
Tuva:ol'fate'
Tofalar:ol'fate'
721
Kirghiz:ol
Kazakh:ol
Noghai:jol
Bashkir:jul
Balkar:ol
Gagauz:jol
Karaim:jol
Karakalpak:ol
Salar:jol
Kumyk:jol
Comments:VEWT205-6,EDT917,4,29,217-218,531,
2,131,Stachowski112.

Proto-Turkic:*jn-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toadze,plane
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jon-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jon-(MK)
Turkish:jon-
Tatar:jun-
MiddleTurkic:jon-(AH,Ettuhf.,..),jn-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jon-
Uighur:jonu-
Azerbaidzhan:jon-
Turkmen:jn-
Shor:non-
Oyrat:jon-,d

on-
Chuvash:son-
Yakut:suor-
722
Dolgan:huor-
Tuva:on-
Kirghiz:on-
Kazakh:on-
Noghai:jon-
Bashkir:jun-
Balkar:on-
Gagauz:jon-
Karaim:jon-
Karakalpak:on-
Kumyk:jon-
Comments:EDT942;VEWT206,4,221-222,2,136,
Stachowski112.Final-r-inYak.issomewhatstrange-perhapsanearly
contaminationwith*jr-q.v.sub*iuri(?).

Proto-Turkic:*jnak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:saddleblanket
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jonaq(MK)
MiddleTurkic:jona,juna(Houts.,Pav.C.)
Sary-Yughur:junaq
Turkmen:jna
Oyrat:jonoq
Tuva:onaq
Kazakh:ona(dial.)
Karakalpak:ona
Comments:VEWT206,211,EDT949,4,222-223,543.

Proto-Turkic:*jke
723
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lime-tree
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:ge(DS)
Tatar:jk,dial.k
Uzbek:o k
Azerbaidzhan:k
Chuvash:sga
Kazakh:ke
Noghai:jke
Bashkir:jke
Karakalpak:ke
Kumyk:jge
Comments:VEWT207,4,32,51,128-129.

Proto-Turkic:*j

n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1side,direction2tobedirectedtowards,headtowards3reason,
method,cause4regular,easy5cheap6origin
Russianmeaning:1,2,
3,,4,
56
OldTurkic:jon3(OUygh.)
Turkish:jn1,3,jnel-2
Tatar:jn3,5,jnl-2
MiddleTurkic:jn1(..)
Uzbek:jonal-2,o n4(<Kypch.orMong.)
Uighur:jnl-2
Azerbaidzhan:jn1
Turkmen:j

nel-2
724
Kirghiz:n1,4,6,n-2
Kazakh:n1
Noghai:jne-2
Bashkir:jn3,4,jnl-2
Balkar:ne-2
Karaim:jne-2
Karakalpak:n1
Comments:VEWT208,EDT941,4,232-234.Tat.>Chuv.jn
'cheap'(1,204-205).

Proto-Turkic:*ju(b)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towash;tobathe,toswim
Russianmeaning:;,
Karakhanid:ju-(MK)
Turkish:ju-
Tatar:ju-
MiddleTurkic:ju-(Pav.C.,AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:juw-
Uighur:juw-,juj-
Sary-Yughur:juw-,ju-
Azerbaidzhan:ju(w)-
Turkmen:juw-
Khakassian:u-
Halaj:j-
Chuvash:su-
Yakut:s-j-
Dolgan:h-j-
Tuva:-
Tofalar:u-
725
Kirghiz:-
Kazakh:uw-
Noghai:juw-
Bashkir:jw-
Balkar:uw-,uw-,zuw-;n-
Karaim:juw-
Karakalpak:uw-
Salar:ju-
Kumyk:uw-
Comments:EDT870,VEWT209,4,238,Stachowski114.

Proto-Turkic:*juba-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobecomforted,consoled,entertained2tocomfort,entertain
Russianmeaning:1,2,
Turkish:juwat-(dial.)2
Tatar:juwan-1
MiddleTurkic:uwat-2(R)
Uzbek:juwan-(dial.)1
Bashkir:jwan-1
Karaim:juwan-,juwun-1,juwut-2
Comments:4,240.Someforms,likeKum.jban-,Uzb.jupan-reflect
rather*jupa-;thevariationof*-b-and*-p-isnotquiteclearinthisroot.

Proto-Turkic:*jub-ga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bastard,adoptedson
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:juva(MK,KB)
726
Comments:EDT874,VEWT209(erroneouslyunitedwithjuvqa'soft,
weak').

Proto-Turkic:*jubka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thin,slender,unsubstantial
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:juqa(OUygh.),jujqa(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:jupqa,juvqa(MK),juva(MK,KB)
Turkish:jufka
Tatar:juqa
MiddleTurkic:jufqa(AH),juqa(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jupqa
Uighur:jupqa,juqa,upqa,uqu
Sary-Yughur:juqa
Azerbaidzhan:juxa
Turkmen:jqa
Khakassian:ua
Shor:oa
Oyrat:d

uqa
Chuvash:se
Tuva:ua
Tofalar:ua
Kirghiz:upqa,uqa
Kazakh:uqa
Noghai:juqa
Bashkir:joqa
Balkar:uqa
Gagauz:jufqa,jfqa
Karaim:juwa,jufqa
727
Karakalpak:u qa
Salar:joba
Kumyk:juqqa
Comments:VEWT209,TMN4,211-212,EDT874,4,241-242.

Proto-Turkic:*jubug(*jabug)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:boulderswhichatorrentcarriesdown;bouldersdisplacedand
fallingtothebottomofthevalley
Russianmeaning:,;
Karakhanid:juvu(javu)(MK)
Comments:EDT873.

Proto-Turkic:*jubut-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toswallow
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jut-(MK)
Turkish:jut-(judum'gulp')
Tatar:jot-
MiddleTurkic:jout-(CC)
Uzbek:jut-
Uighur:jut-
Azerbaidzhan:ud-
Turkmen:juvut-
Oyrat:d

ut-
Chuvash:st-
Kirghiz:ut-
Kazakh:ut-
Noghai:jut-
728
Bashkir:jot-
Balkar:ut-
Gagauz:jut-(judum'gulp')
Karaim:jut-
Karakalpak:ut-
Kumyk:jut-
Comments:4,242-243,VEWT212,EDT885,203.The
Turkm.andKomanforms,aswellasreflexesofsecondarylengthin
Oghuz,pointunmistakablyto*-ubu-,contractedinothersources.

Proto-Turkic:*jugak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofwaterbird(diver,goose)
Russianmeaning:(,)
Karakhanid:juaq(MK,KB)
Comments:VEWT243,EDT901,171.

Proto-Turkic:*jugur-(--)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toknead
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jour-(juur-)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:juur-(MK)
Turkish:jour-
MiddleTurkic:juur-(MA,Houts.),jour-(AH)
Uighur:juu(r)-,uu(r)-
Sary-Yughur:juur-,jour-
Azerbaidzhan:jour-
Turkmen:jur-,juur-
Khakassian:ura-
729
Shor:r-
Oyrat:jura-,d

ura-
Halaj:jor-
Chuvash:sr-
Kirghiz:r-
Gagauz:jur-
Salar:juur-
Comments:VEWT205,4,243-244,TMN4,173,EDT906.Turk.>
Hung.gyur-(Gombocz1912,MNyTeSz1,1138).

Proto-Turkic:*juk/*jok
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1resin,gum2residuesoffoodondishes,stickysubstance3to
stickto
Russianmeaning:12;,
3
Karakhanid:juq2(MK)
Turkish:jok2(dial.)
Tatar:joq-3
MiddleTurkic:juq-3(R.)
Uzbek:juq2,juq-3
Uighur:juq-3
Turkmen:joq2,joq-3
Khakassian:ux1,ux-3
Oyrat:juq-,d

uq-3
Chuvash:sr'liquidmire,sludge'(dial.)
Tuva:uq1
Tofalar:uq1
Kirghiz:uq2,uq-3
Kazakh:uq-3
730
Noghai:juq-3
Bashkir:joq-3
Karaim:juq-,jux-3
Karakalpak:uq2,u q-3
Kumyk:juq2,juq-3
Comments:EDT895,VEWT119,4,211,117,.XIII,
52.

Proto-Turkic:*jul
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:stream,brook,fountain
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jul(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jul(MK)
Khakassian:ul
Oyrat:jul
Chuvash:sl
Salar:jul
Comments:EDT917-918,VEWT209-210,4,244.

Proto-Turkic:*jul-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toransom2ransom
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:julu2
Karakhanid:jul-1,julu2
Yakut:sul2
Balkar:uluv2
731
Comments:VEWT210.Turk.>Mong.oli-'toransom'(KW476;
1997,164:MMong.olia,WMong.oli<Turk.julu),whenceMan.olian
etc.(see1,263).

Proto-Turkic:*jula
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:light,torch
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jula(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jula(MK,KB,IM)
Khakassian:ula(R)
Oyrat:jula(R)
Tuva:ula'lamp'(Tuva,ifnot<Mo)
Balkar:ula''
Kumyk:jula'gunbarrel;wick'
Comments:VEWT210,EDT919.Turk.>Mong.ula(KW479,
1997,125),whenceEvk.ula(DoerferMT125).

Proto-Turkic:*jular
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:halter
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jular(MK)
Turkish:jular
MiddleTurkic:jular(Pav.C.,Houts.),jolar(AH)
Oyrat:d

ular
Yakut:sular
Tuva:ular
Gagauz:jular
Salar:

ulur
732
Comments:EDT932,VEWT210,4,244-245,556.

Proto-Turkic:*jul-dur(*-dr)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:star
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jultuz(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:julduz(MK)
Turkish:jldz
Tatar:joldz
MiddleTurkic:julduz(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:julduz
Uighur:jultuz
Sary-Yughur:julds
Azerbaidzhan:ulduz
Turkmen:jldz
Khakassian:lts
Shor:lts
Oyrat:d

lds
Halaj:julduz
Chuvash:sldr
Yakut:sulus
Dolgan:hulus
Tuva:slds
Tofalar:slts
Kirghiz:ldz
Kazakh:u_ldz
Noghai:juldz
Bashkir:jondo
Balkar:ulduz
733
Gagauz:jlds
Karaim:jldz
Karakalpak:uldz
Salar:jyldus
Kumyk:julduz
Comments:VEWT210,TMN3,260-1,EDT922-3,4,279-280,
53,Stachowski111.

Proto-Turkic:*jul-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1topillage,attack2thief,scoundrel
Russianmeaning:1,2,,
OldTurkic:jul-(Orkh.,OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:jul-(MK)1
Tatar:jolq2
Khakassian:ulus(Sag.),ulas(Koib.,Kach.)2
Shor:ulu2
Tuva:ul-1
Kirghiz:ulu--'tofight(ofwomen)'
Bashkir:jolqo2
Comments:EDT919.Shouldbeseparatedfrom*jol-'pickout'(v.sub
*no

lo).

Proto-Turkic:*jul/*jl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:marrow,spinalmarrow
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:julun(MK)
MiddleTurkic:jln(MA),julun(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jl(dial.)
734
Uighur:julun(dial.)
Khakassian:l
Shor:l
Oyrat:jln,d

l
Yakut:sln
Dolgan:hnn
Tuva:n
Kirghiz:ln,ulun
Kazakh:uln
Noghai:juln
Bashkir:jlm,dial.jelen,jelem,jolon
Karakalpak:uln
Comments:EDT930,4,266,263,Stachowski115.

Proto-Turkic:*jum-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1round2ballofwool,thread
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:jumaq2(MK)
Turkish:jumak2,jumru1
Tatar:jomr1,jomaq2
MiddleTurkic:jumru1(Pav.C.),jumqaq2(MA)
Uzbek:jumalq1
Uighur:jumlaq1
Azerbaidzhan:jumru1,jumaG2
Turkmen:jumaq2,jumr1
Khakassian:nmax2
Oyrat:jumaq2
Chuvash:sma2
Kirghiz:umuru1
735
Kazakh:umaq2
Bashkir:jomoro1,jomaq2
Gagauz:jumaq2
Karaim:jumaq2
Karakalpak:umr1,umaq2
Salar:jumax2
Kumyk:jummaq2
Comments:OneofexpressivecommonTurkicrootsmeaning'round,
spherical'.SeeVEWT210,EDT871,873,877,936,937-8,4,246-
247,249-250.Theroothasalsoavariant(expressive?)*jub-,see4,
237-238,Stachowski114.

Proto-Turkic:*jumra-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1gopher2ground-squirrel
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:jomran1
MiddleTurkic:jumran'mole'(AH)
Uzbek:jumrn1
Uighur:jumran1
Turkmen:jumran1(dial.)
Oyrat:jmran,jbran2
Bashkir:jomran1
Balkar:uburan1
Comments:VEWT210,4,247-248,165-166.Turk.>
Mong.urum,urama,Khalkhauram,urma,Dag.ombor,(..
145)umbr(seeMGCD464,KW481,TMN4,220),whenceMan.umara
etc.,seeDoerferMT102,Rozycki127.Cf.also*jamlan/*jalman(VEWT
183,4,97;>Mong.jalman).Turk.>Russ.dial.jevranandsimilar
forms,see195,199,205.
736

Proto-Turkic:*jumul
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:work,service,necessity
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:jumu(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:jumu(MK)1
Turkish:jumu
Tatar:jom
Uzbek:jumu1
Turkmen:jumu
Khakassian:nms
Oyrat:jumu,numu
Chuvash:sml
Tuva:m
Kirghiz:umu
Kazakh:ums
Bashkir:jom
Balkar:zumu
Karaim:jumu
Karakalpak:ums
Comments:VEWT211,4,251,EDT938(withahighlydubious
derivationfrom*jum-'round').

Proto-Turkic:*jumur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bowels,intestines
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:jumur(MK)
Tuva:umur'maw'
737
Tofalar:numur'maw'
Comments:EDT937-8.Historicallytherootshouldbeprobablykept
distinctfrom*jum-'round'and*jumurtka'egg'-althoughinternal
contaminationswereofcourseinevitable.

Proto-Turkic:*jumurtka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:egg
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jumurta,jumura(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jumurta(MK)
Turkish:jumurta
Tatar:jomrqa
MiddleTurkic:jumurta(Sangl.)
Uzbek:jumurtqa(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:jomut
Azerbaidzhan:jumurta
Turkmen:jumurtGa
Khakassian:nmrxa
Shor:nbrtqa,nuburtqa(.)
Oyrat:d

mrtqa
Halaj:jumurqa
Chuvash:smarda
Yakut:smt
Dolgan:hmt
Tuva:uura
Tofalar:numurxa
Kirghiz:umurtqa
Kazakh:u_mrtqa
Noghai:jumrtqa
738
Bashkir:jomortqa
Balkar:zumurtqa
Gagauz:jmrta
Karaim:jmrta,imrtxa
Karakalpak:umurtqa
Salar:jym(r)dda
Kumyk:jmrtqa
Comments:VEWT211,EDT938,4,250-251,149,
Stachowski118.

Proto-Turkic:*junt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:horse,mare
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:junt(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:junt(MK)
Turkish:jont
MiddleTurkic:junt(Ettuhf.),junad(AH)
Sary-Yughur:jut,jot
Yakut:sono-os'younghorse'
Comments:EDT946,VEWT211,4,253-254,TMN4,199-200.
DespiteSinor1965,312,hardlyaborrowingfromSamoyed.

Proto-Turkic:*ju
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1wool2smallfeathers,down3feather4fadedfur
Russianmeaning:1234
OldTurkic:ju1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ju1(KB),2,3(MK)
Turkish:jn1
739
Tatar:jon3
MiddleTurkic:ju1(..),j1(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:ju1
Uighur:ju,u1
Sary-Yughur:ju,j,jun3
Azerbaidzhan:jun1
Turkmen:j1
Khakassian:n2
Shor:um2
Oyrat:j,jum,jm,d

u1
Halaj:ju1
Chuvash:sm1
Yakut:su4
Tuva:1
Kirghiz:n1,2,3
Kazakh:n1
Noghai:jn1
Bashkir:jn3
Gagauz:jn1
Karaim:jn,jun1
Karakalpak:n1
Salar:ju1
Kumyk:jn1
Comments:VEWT211,EDT941,4,267-268,146.This
rootshouldnotbeconfusedwith*jg'feather'(v.sub*d[e]gi).

Proto-Turkic:*jur-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:patchofcloth,rag
Russianmeaning:,
740
OldTurkic:jurun(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jurun(MK)
Tatar:joron(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:jurun(Abush.,Sangl.)
Khakassian:urux
Oyrat:d'urun
Chuvash:sorm'bundleofflaxorhemp'
Tuva:uruq
Tofalar:uruq
Kazakh:urn(dial.)
Bashkir:jorqaq,joron
Balkar:urun
Karaim:jurq-'topinch(hair)'
Karakalpak:urnd
Comments:VEWT211,EDT970,4,255-256,.XII,270.

Proto-Turkic:*jut
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1badweather,badharvest2hunger,trouble
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:jut(Orkh.)1
Karakhanid:jut(MK)1
MiddleTurkic:jut(Pav.C.,AH,..)1
Uzbek:jut1
Uighur:ut,t2
Sary-Yughur:t'lean,meagre'
Khakassian:ut1
Shor:ut1
Oyrat:jut,d

ut1,2
Yakut:sut2
741
Tuva:ut2
Kirghiz:ut2
Kazakh:ut2
Noghai:jut1,2
Bashkir:jot2
Karakalpak:u t2
Kumyk:jut1
Comments:EDT883,VEWT211-212,4,256-257.Turk.>Mong.
*ud,*uta-(KW481,TMN4,210,1997,125).

Proto-Turkic:*jrt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dwellingplace,camping-site
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jurt(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jurt(MK)
Turkish:jurt(dial.)
Tatar:jort
MiddleTurkic:jurt(Pav.C.,Houts.,AH)
Uzbek:jurt
Uighur:ju(r)t
Sary-Yughur:jurt
Azerbaidzhan:jurt
Turkmen:jrt
Khakassian:urt
Shor:urt
Oyrat:jurt,d

urt
Halaj:jrt
Chuvash:sort
Yakut:surt
742
Dolgan:hurt
Tuva:u`rt
Kirghiz:urt
Kazakh:urt
Noghai:jurt
Bashkir:jort
Balkar:urt
Karaim:jurt
Karakalpak:urt
Kumyk:jurt
Comments:EDT958,VEWT211,TMN4,212-213,4,254-255,
490-491,494,2,144-145,Stachowski113.

Proto-Turkic:*jrtu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hole,needlehole
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:ignejurdusu''
MiddleTurkic:jurdu',,'(Pav.C.)
Chuvash:srda',,
'
Comments:VEWT211,EDT958(subjurt),208,2,98.

Proto-Turkic:*j-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1load2toload,carry
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:jk1,j-d-2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jk1,j--2(MK)
Turkish:jk1
743
Tatar:jk1
MiddleTurkic:jk1(Houts.,AH)
Uzbek:juk1
Uighur:jk1
Sary-Yughur:jk1
Azerbaidzhan:jk1
Turkmen:jk1
Khakassian:k1
Shor:k1
Oyrat:jj-2,jk,d

k1
Chuvash:sk1
Yakut:sk-2
Tuva:`k1,dr-2
Kirghiz:k1
Kazakh:k1
Noghai:jk1
Bashkir:jk1
Balkar:k,k,zk1
Gagauz:k1
Karaim:jk,juk,jik,ik1
Kumyk:jk,juk1
Comments:EDT885,910,VEWT212,4,262-263,520.

Proto-Turkic:*jg
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:feather
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jg(MK,KB)
Turkish:jg,jv(dial.),Osm.jg
Khakassian:g
744
Tuva:g
Comments:EDT910,150.Rsnen(VEWT211b)confusesthis
rootwith*ju'wool',buttheyarecertainlyunrelated(althoughmaytendto
contaminate).

Proto-Turkic:*jg-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1upwards2torise3hill4high
Russianmeaning:1,234
OldTurkic:jger(Orkh.,OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:jkse-2(MK)
Turkish:jksel-2,je,(dial.)jg,jek,jgek,jvek3
MiddleTurkic:jkst-2(Houts.),je4(AH)
Azerbaidzhan:jksl-2,ua4
Gagauz:sel-2
Karaim:ksel-2
Comments:EDT915,4,263-264.Theform*jgerisreplacedin
mostmodernlanguagesbyabackrowvariant*jokaru,*jokgaru(see
4,213-214);thismaybeduetoacontaminationwithasynonymousroot
*jok"up,above"(see4,215).

Proto-Turkic:*jgen
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bridle
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:jgn(MK,IM)
Turkish:ojan
Tatar:jgn
MiddleTurkic:ujan(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:jugan
745
Uighur:jgn
Sary-Yughur:jun()
Azerbaidzhan:jjn
Turkmen:jen,ujan
Khakassian:gen
Shor:gen
Oyrat:jgen
Chuvash:jven
Yakut:n
Tuva:en
Kirghiz:gn
Kazakh:gen
Noghai:jwen
Bashkir:jgn
Balkar:gen
Karaim:ijgen,jgen
Karakalpak:wen
Kumyk:jgen
Comments:VEWT212,EDT913,1,577,77,556.

Proto-Turkic:*jgr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tohurry,run
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jgr-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jgr-(MK)
Turkish:jgr-,jjir-(dial.)
Tatar:jger-
MiddleTurkic:jgr-(Houts.,MA,AH),jwr-(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jgir-,jugur-
746
Uighur:g(r)-
Azerbaidzhan:jjr-
Turkmen:jwr-(dial.),jgr-
Khakassian:gr-
Shor:gr-
Oyrat:jgr-,d

gr-
Yakut:sr-
Dolgan:hr-
Tuva:gr-
Kirghiz:gr-
Kazakh:gir-
Noghai:juwr-
Bashkir:jger-
Karaim:juwur-,uwur-
Karakalpak:gir-,uwr-
Salar:jugur-,j'kr-()
Comments:EDT914,VEWT212,4,258,Stachowski116.

Proto-Turkic:*jgr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1millet2sorgho3corn,maize
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:jr(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:jgr,gr(MK),jr(KB)1
Tatar:gr2
Chuvash:vir1
Yakut:re1
Tuva:rgene'ak.ofbuckwheat'
Kirghiz:gr2,3
Kazakh:geri3
747
Balkar:geri3
Karakalpak:weri2,3
Comments:EDT275,458.Turk.>Mong.gr,Pers.uvr.

Proto-Turkic:*jkn-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobow
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:jkn-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jkn-(MK)
Turkish:jken-,jgn-(dial.)
Tatar:jgen-,jegen-(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:jkn-(AH,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:jukun-
Uighur:jkn-
Yakut:sgn-'togotothebridegroom'shome'
Kirghiz:gn-
Kazakh:gin-
Bashkir:jgn-
Karaim:jgn-,jugun-
Karakalpak:gin-
Kumyk:jgn-
Comments:EDT913,4,264.

Proto-Turkic:*jl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toshave2totearoff,scrapeoff
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:jli-1(MK)
Turkish:jl-1,2
748
Tatar:jle-(dial.)2
MiddleTurkic:jl-1(Ettuhf.)
Turkmen:jl-me-1
Yakut:sl-2
Dolgan:hl-2
Tuva:l-1
Balkar:l-1
Karaim:l-,l-,ili-1
Kumyk:jl-1
Comments:EDT919,VEWT213,4,216(confusedwith*jol-q.v.
sub*no

lo),Stachowski115.

Proto-Turkic:*jlk/*juluk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:juice
Russianmeaning:
Oyrat:juluq,d

uluq,jlk
Tuva:uluq
Comments:VEWT212,EDT927-928,4,266,263-264.
Therootshouldbedistinguishedbothfrom*jilikandfrom*jul(v.sub*lale,
*dilu),althoughallthreetendtocontaminate.

Proto-Turkic:*jm-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bow,arrow
Russianmeaning:,
Chuvash:smren,smrlen
Comments:2,108-109.

Proto-Turkic:*jm-/*jum-
749
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toclose(eyes,mouth)
Russianmeaning:(,)
Karakhanid:jm-(MK)
Turkish:jum-
Tatar:jom-
MiddleTurkic:jum-(Pav.C.,MA,AH)
Uzbek:jum-
Uighur:jum-,um-
Sary-Yughur:jum-
Azerbaidzhan:jum-
Turkmen:jum-
Oyrat:d

um-
Halaj:jim-
Yakut:sim-
Kirghiz:um-
Kazakh:um-
Noghai:jum-
Bashkir:jom-
Balkar:um-,um-
Gagauz:jum-
Karaim:jum-
Karakalpak:um-
Salar:jum-
Kumyk:jum-
Comments:EDT934,VEWT210,4,245-246.

Proto-Turkic:*jr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toswim,float
750
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jz-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jz-(MK)
Turkish:jz-
Tatar:jz-
MiddleTurkic:jz-(AH,Ettuhf.),z-(..,Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:juz-
Uighur:z-
Azerbaidzhan:z-
Turkmen:jz-
Khakassian:s-
Shor:s-
Oyrat:js-,d

s-
Yakut:st'bathing',stl-'tobathe'
Dolgan:htl-,htl-'tobathe'
Kirghiz:z-
Kazakh:uz-
Noghai:jz-
Bashkir:j-
Balkar:z-,z-
Gagauz:jz-
Karaim:jz-,z-
Karakalpak:z-
Kumyk:juz-
Comments:VEWT214,EDT984,4,261.

Proto-Turkic:*jr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1fingerring2joint3stirrup(*reg<*jreg)
Russianmeaning:1()2()3
751
Karakhanid:jzk1(MK),ze3(KB)
Turkish:jzk1,zengi3
Tatar:jzek1
MiddleTurkic:jzk1(AH,Ettuhf.),zk1(Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:uzuk1
Uighur:zk1
Azerbaidzhan:zk1
Turkmen:jzk1,zei3
Khakassian:stk1
Shor:stk1
Oyrat:jstk,d

stk1
Chuvash:sr1,jrana3
Yakut:shx2,ihee3
Dolgan:hhk2
Tuva:'stk1,s2
Kirghiz:zk1
Kazakh:zik1
Noghai:jzik1
Bashkir:jk1
Balkar:zk,zzk1
Gagauz:jzk,zk1
Karaim:jzk,zk,ezik,izik1
Karakalpak:zik1
Kumyk:jzk1
Comments:EDT986,VEWT214,TMN2,146,147-148,1,623-625,
4,260,261-262,212,548-549,Stachowski115.Turk.>
Hung.gyuru(seeLig.MNyTK77-79).Thereasonof*j->0-inthePT
nameof"stirrup"(<*"ring-formed")isunclear(irregularchangeinalong
form?).

752
Proto-Turkic:*jr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:topeeloff(skin),toskin
Russianmeaning:()
Karakhanid:jz-(MK)
Turkish:jz-
Turkmen:jz-
Gagauz:jz-
Comments:EDT984,4,261.

Proto-Turkic:*jrek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:heart;courage
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jrek(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jrek(MK,KB)
Turkish:jrek
Tatar:jrk
MiddleTurkic:jrek(MA)
Uzbek:jurak
Uighur:jrk
Sary-Yughur:jrek
Azerbaidzhan:rek
Turkmen:jrek
Khakassian:rek
Shor:rek(R.,.)
Oyrat:d

rek
Halaj:jirek
Chuvash:re
Yakut:srex
753
Dolgan:hrek
Tuva:rek
Tofalar:rek
Kirghiz:rk
Kazakh:rek
Noghai:jrek
Bashkir:jrek
Balkar:rek
Gagauz:jrek

Karaim:jrek
Karakalpak:rek
Salar:jyrx
Kumyk:jrek
Comments:VEWT213,EDT965,4,270-271,324,
276,Stachowski116.Chuv.-isirregular:acontaminationwithr'alive'.

Proto-Turkic:*jrm
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:grape
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:zm(OUygh.-med.)
Karakhanid:zm(MK),jzm(IM)
Turkish:zm
Tatar:jzem
MiddleTurkic:zm(Pav.C.),jzm(Houts.)
Uzbek:uzum
Uighur:zm
Sary-Yughur:m(<Mong.?)
Azerbaidzhan:zm
Turkmen:zm
754
Chuvash:izm
Kirghiz:zim
Kazakh:zm
Noghai:jzim
Bashkir:jm
Balkar:zm
Gagauz:jzm
Karaim:izim,jzm
Karakalpak:zim
Kumyk:jzm
Comments:EDT288,VEWT214,1,625,1,173.Turk.>
Mong.m'grapes',seeTMN2,54,Clark1980,40.

Proto-Turkic:*jl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobemad,crazy2anger3tobesexuallyexcited
Russianmeaning:123

Oyrat:d

l-1
Chuvash:sil2
Yakut:sl-3
Comments:VEWT213,4,33.Chuv.>Hung.gyull'beangry'.
FormslikeKirgh.l-,Uygh.l-'togomad,speakinone'ssleep'are
obviously<Mong.ele-,buttheChuv.andYak.forms,aswellasthe
Oyr.formd

l-seemtobearchaic.

Proto-Turkic:*jr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:face
Russianmeaning:
755
OldTurkic:jz(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jz(MK)
Turkish:jz
Tatar:jz
MiddleTurkic:jz(MA,AH,Ettuhf.)
Uighur:jz
Sary-Yughur:jz
Azerbaidzhan:z
Turkmen:jz
Khakassian:s
Oyrat:js,d

s
Halaj:jz
Chuvash:svar'mouth'
Yakut:ss'forehead'
Dolgan:hs'forehead'
Kirghiz:z
Kazakh:z
Noghai:jz
Bashkir:j
Gagauz:jz,z
Karaim:jz,juz,jiz,iz
Karakalpak:z
Salar:jz,jiz
Kumyk:jz
Comments:VEWT213-4,4,259-260,206,.
154,Stachowski117.Khalajjz=Yak.ssprovethatTurkm.jzis
secondary.Turk.>MMong.(MA)jz'surface'(1997,196).

Proto-Turkic:*jr
Altaicetymology:
756
Meaning:hundred
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:jz(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:jz(MK)
Turkish:jz
Tatar:jz
MiddleTurkic:jz(MA,AH)
Uzbek:juz
Uighur:juz
Sary-Yughur:juz,jz
Azerbaidzhan:jz
Turkmen:jz
Khakassian:s
Shor:s
Oyrat:js,d

s
Halaj:jz
Chuvash:sr
Yakut:ss
Dolgan:hs
Tuva:s
Tofalar:s
Kirghiz:z
Kazakh:z
Noghai:jz
Bashkir:j
Balkar:z,zz
Gagauz:z
Karaim:jz,juz,jiz,iz
Karakalpak:z
Salar:jz
757
Kumyk:jz,juz
Comments:EDT983,VEWT213,4,260(Turkm.jz),574,
Stachowski117.

Proto-Turkic:*Kab-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bark2shell3husk4bran
Russianmeaning:1234,
OldTurkic:qavq4(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qavq,qavuq(MK,KB)4
Turkish:kavuz3,kavza2
Uzbek:qvuz3
Uighur:qovzaq1
Azerbaidzhan:Gavz(dial.)3
Khakassian:xx4
Shor:qq3,4
Chuvash:xvx4
Tuva:x-tar'ak.ofmilletwithsaggingpanicles'
Kazakh:qavz4
Noghai:qavz4
Karakalpak:qavz4
Kumyk:quvq3
Comments:VEWT217,EDT583,5,173-174,178-179,
.62.Therootshouldbedistinguishedfrom*K(i)ab-'peeledskin,peel'
(v.sub*k`i

bu).

Proto-Turkic:*Kab-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tounite,bringtogether2bebroughttogether
Russianmeaning:1,2
758
OldTurkic:qavr-1(OUygh.),qav-2(Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qavur-1(MK,KB),qav-2(MK)
Turkish:kavu-2
Tatar:qaw-2
MiddleTurkic:qavu-2(Qutb,..)
Uzbek:qwu-2
Uighur:dial.qavu-2
Sary-Yughur:qaws-2
Azerbaidzhan:Govu-2
Turkmen:Govur-1,Govu-2
Oyrat:qabr-1
Chuvash:>DanubeBulg.koubraton'collector,unifier(oflands)'
Tuva:xavr-1
Tofalar:xabr-1
Kirghiz:q-2
Kazakh:qaws-2
Noghai:qaw-2
Bashkir:qaw-2
Gagauz:qau-2
Karaim:qavu-2
Karakalpak:qaws-2
Comments:VEWT216,EDT585,588,6,14-16.OTalsohasquvra-
'cometogether,assemble',witharatherstrangevocalism(seeEDT586-
butmodernformslikequra-arenotrelated,beingborrowedfromMong.
qura-,qurija-).

Proto-Turkic:*KAbuk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bladder
Russianmeaning:
759
OldTurkic:qavuq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qavuq(MK)
Turkish:kavuk
Tatar:quwq
MiddleTurkic:qavuq(AH,MA)
Azerbaidzhan:GovuG
Turkmen:Govuq
Khakassian:xx
Shor:qq
Oyrat:kk
Yakut:xabax
Kazakh:quwq
Noghai:quwq
Bashkir:qwq
Balkar:quwuq
Gagauz:qawuq
Comments:5,174,EDT583.

Proto-Turkic:*KA-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1panicanddisorder2crazy3(toact)inimically,cattily4
annoyance5joke6tomock
Russianmeaning:123()
,456
Karakhanid:qa1(MK)
Turkish:kak2
Khakassian:xaa-3,xaa4
Shor:qaa5
Oyrat:qaa3(adj.)
Tuva:qrt-6
760
Comments:VEWT217,EDT593.MK'sglossisanalysedasareciprocal
derivative<*Ka-'toflee',butthisisobviouslyafolketymology.

Proto-Turkic:*KA-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:torunaway,flee
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qa-(Orkh.,Yen.)
Karakhanid:qa-(MK,KB)
Turkish:ka-
Tatar:qa-
MiddleTurkic:qa-(Houts.,AH,IM,MA)
Uzbek:q-
Uighur:qa-
Azerbaidzhan:Ga-
Turkmen:Ga-
Khakassian:xas-
Shor:qa-
Oyrat:qa-
Tuva:qa-
Kirghiz:qa-
Kazakh:qa-
Noghai:qa-
Bashkir:qas-
Balkar:qa-
Gagauz:qa-
Karaim:qa-
Karakalpak:qa-
Kumyk:qa-
Comments:VEWT217,5,340-342.
761

Proto-Turkic:*Ka-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:slanting
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kak
Tatar:qaaj-(Sib.)
Khakassian:xa-,xasxax'bentbackward'
Shor:qazr-'tobend'
Chuvash:xos-'tobend'
Tuva:xaj-tr
Comments:VEWT217,.XVI,242-246.

Proto-Turkic:*KAa-,*KAa-gu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tochisel,chisel
Russianmeaning:,,
Tatar:qaau(Sib.)
Kazakh:qaa-,qaau
Bashkir:qasau
Comments:VEWT217.

Proto-Turkic:*KA-(g)a
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:Chinesebrocade,wovenfabric
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qaa(MK)
Comments:EDT590.

Proto-Turkic:*Kad
762
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wind,whirlwind
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qa(MK)
Turkish:kaj'rainyweather'
MiddleTurkic:qaj(AH,Pav.C.,Abush.)
Turkmen:Gaj
Khakassian:xas
Yakut:xat-'tobecoldinspring'
Tuva:xat,xad-'tobefrozen',
Tofalar:qat
Kirghiz:qaj-'tobefrozen'
Comments:EDT593,5,193-194,46.Borrowing<Sam.
*kacu'whirlwind'ishardlycredible,despiteHelimski1995.

Proto-Turkic:*Kadgu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sorrow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qadu(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qau(MK,KB)
Turkish:kaj
Tatar:qaj
MiddleTurkic:qaj(Qutb.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qj(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:Gaj
Turkmen:GajG
Chuvash:xoja
Kirghiz:qaj
Kazakh:qaj
763
Noghai:qaj
Bashkir:qaj
Karaim:qaj
Karakalpak:qaj
Kumyk:qaj
Comments:VEWT217,5,201-203,2,352-353.

Proto-Turkic:*Kad
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:pinetree
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:xara-xaz
Chuvash:xr
Yakut:ktan'juniper'
Tuva:xad
Tofalar:xad
Comments:5,291-292,.179.Mostlanguagesreflect
thecompound*Kara-kad(borrowedinMong.asqaraai'larch').

Proto-Turkic:*KAdk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:woodentrough
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qaq(MK:Argu)
Comments:EDT597.Theform,althoughisolated,isclearlydifferentfrom
*K(i)aj-guk(v.sub*ggja),attestedbothinOldTurkicandmodern
languages.

Proto-Turkic:*Kad
Altaicetymology:
764
Meaning:birchtree
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qa(MK),qaj(KB)
Turkish:kajn'beechtree'
Tatar:qajn
MiddleTurkic:qajn(Houts.)
Uzbek:qjin
Uighur:qejin
Azerbaidzhan:Gajn'mapletree'
Turkmen:Gaj
Khakassian:xaz
Shor:qaz
Oyrat:qaj
Chuvash:xorn
Yakut:xat
Dolgan:kat
Tuva:xad
Tofalar:qad
Kirghiz:qaj
Kazakh:qaj
Noghai:qaj
Bashkir:qajn
Karakalpak:qaj
Comments:VEWT218,TMN3,183,5,214-215,122,
2,366,Stachowski141.

Proto-Turkic:*Kadr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hard,strong,cruel
Russianmeaning:,,
765
OldTurkic:qadr(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Khakassian:xazr
Shor:qazr
Oyrat:qajr
Yakut:xatrj-',,'
Tuva:Todzh.xadr
Kirghiz:qajr'contradiction,objection'
Bashkir:qajr(dial.)
Balkar:qajr'angry'
Comments:VEWT218,TMN3,378-379,5,216.

Proto-Turkic:*KAdr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totwist,turn,bend
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:qadar-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qar-(MK),qadr-(MK,KB)
Turkish:dial.gajr-
Tatar:qajr-
MiddleTurkic:qajr-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qjir-
Uighur:qari-,qajr-
Azerbaidzhan:Gajr-
Turkmen:Gajr-
Khakassian:xazr-
Oyrat:qajr-
Chuvash:xajr-<Tat.
Kirghiz:qajr-
Kazakh:qajr-
Noghai:qajr-
766
Bashkir:qajr-
Gagauz:qajr-
Karaim:qajr-
Karakalpak:qajr-
Comments:EDT604,5,195-197.

Proto-Turkic:*KAdu-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tostickin2sting3tosew
Russianmeaning:123,,

Karakhanid:qau-(MK)3
Tatar:qaj-3,Sib.qajal-'tobepiqued'
Turkmen:Gaja-3
Khakassian:xaza-1
Kirghiz:qaj-1
Kazakh:qaj-3
Noghai:qaj-3
Bashkir:qaj-3,qajaw2
Karakalpak:qaj-3
Kumyk:qaj-3
Comments:EDT596,5,180-181.Therootshouldbedistinguished
from*Kta-'tostickin,nail'(v.sub*k

jta).

Proto-Turkic:*KAgur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:doll
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qouruq(MK)
Turkish:dial.kurak
767
Tatar:quraq
MiddleTurkic:qawuraq(..,Pav.C.),qavur(R)
Uzbek:quirq
Uighur:qo(r)aq,dial.qouraq
Turkmen:Guraq
Kirghiz:qraq
Kazakh:quwraq
Noghai:quwraq
Bashkir:qursaq
Karakalpak:quwraq
Kumyk:quraq
Comments:VEWT220,EDT587,606,6,161-163.Modernreflexes
pointquiteclearlyto*-g-(lessprobably-*-b-),sotheattestedformwith--
mustbeaphoneticaberration.InterferencewithOTqoduz'femmes{eu}le'
(suggestedinTekin1969andibid.)isnotexcluded,butcf.alsothe
notesbelow.

Proto-Turkic:*KAgur-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toroast,fry
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qaur-,qour-,qovur-(MK)
Turkish:kavur-
Tatar:quwr-
MiddleTurkic:qavur-(Houts.,Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:qwur-,dial.qur-
Uighur:qoru-
Azerbaidzhan:Govur-
Turkmen:Govur-,Gavr-(-)
Khakassian:xr-
768
Shor:qr-
Oyrat:kr-
Tuva:xr-
Kirghiz:kr(u)-
Kazakh:quwr-
Noghai:quwr-
Bashkir:quwr-,dial.qwr-
Gagauz:qa'ur-
Karaim:qavur-
Karakalpak:quwr-
Comments:VEWT220,5,175-177.

Proto-Turkic:*KAj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toturnback2toshowrespect3tosquint;tomovetosmb.'s
side4toruntowards5togopast,around
Russianmeaning:123
;-.45,

OldTurkic:qaj-(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:qaj-(MK)1,2
Turkish:kaj-3
Sary-Yughur:qajla-4
Khakassian:xaj-2
Oyrat:qaj-(R)2
Tuva:xaj-5
Comments:5208-209,EDT674.Stachowski137addsYak.xajs-,
Dolg.kans-'(toturnand)lookaround',whichwouldchangethe
reconstructionto*KAn-;however,therearenoothertracesofanasalinthe
root,andthecomparisonlookssomewhatdubious.
769

Proto-Turkic:*KAj
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1shamanspirit2throatsinging
Russianmeaning:12
Sary-Yughur:qaj1
Khakassian:xaj2
Shor:qajla-2
Oyrat:qajla-2
Chuvash:>Marixoj'Gesprch'
Comments:VEWT221.Iftheoriginalmeaningis'airmovement'(cf.the
externalevidence),cf.alsoChuv.k'strongodour'.

Proto-Turkic:*Kaj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:topayrespect
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qaj-(Yenis.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qaj-(MK)
Turkish:kajr-
Khakassian:xaj-
Tuva:xajdr'tostill,pacify'
Kirghiz:qaj-
Kazakh:qajs-
Comments:EDT674,5,194.

Proto-Turkic:*Kajn-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toboil(Intr.)
Russianmeaning:
770
OldTurkic:qajn-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qajna-(MK,KB)
Turkish:kajna-
Tatar:qajna-
MiddleTurkic:qajna-(Qutb.,IM)
Uzbek:qjn-
Uighur:qajna-
Azerbaidzhan:Gajna-
Turkmen:Gajna-
Khakassian:xajna-
Oyrat:qajna-
Yakut:kj-(knn-)
Dolgan:kjnar-,kjnar-(trans.)
Tuva:xajn-
Tofalar:xin-
Kirghiz:qajna-
Kazakh:qajna-
Noghai:qajna-
Bashkir:qajna-
Gagauz:qajna-
Karakalpak:qajna-
Comments:VEWT222,5,203-205,Stachowski168,171.

Proto-Turkic:*Kajr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1saltsteppe2sandbank3gravel4sand
Russianmeaning:1234
Karakhanid:qajr1,4(MKOghuz)
Turkish:kajr2
MiddleTurkic:(OKypch.)qajr(Houts.94,AH74)
771
Uzbek:dial.qjir3
Turkmen:dial.Gajr3,4
Chuvash:xjr4
Yakut:xajrts3
Tuva:xajr1
Kazakh:qajr2
Noghai:qajr4
Karakalpak:qajr2
Kumyk:qajr3
Comments:VEWT221-222,EDT678,5,206,217,97.
Turk.>WMong.qajir,Kalm.xr(KW180).

Proto-Turkic:*KAjr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:castoreum,theodoroussecretionofthebeaver
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qajr(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qunduzqajr(MK)
Tatar:Sib.qajr
MiddleTurkic:qajr(Sangl.)
Khakassian:xajr
Shor:qajr
Comments:VEWT222,EDT678-679.

Proto-Turkic:*Kajra-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1towhet,sharpen2torubteeth
Russianmeaning:1,2
Turkish:kajra-(dial.)
Tatar:qajra-2
772
Uzbek:qajra-2
Uighur:qjr-2
Turkmen:Gajra-1
Khakassian:xajra-1
Oyrat:qaira-2
Chuvash:xjra-2(Anatri)
Kirghiz:qajra-2
Kazakh:qajra-2
Noghai:qajra-2
Bashkir:qajra-2
Karakalpak:qajra-2
Comments:5,205.TheTurk.derivative*kajrak'whetstone'>Mong.
qajira,seeTMN3,568-569.Cf.alsoKaz.,Tat.qajau'notch',Tur.qajaan
'whetstone'(R2,90)andYak.xajga,xojguo'notch';Yak.xaja,Dolg.kaja
'(totear)apart',Yak.xajt-'tobreak,tearapart',Dolg.kajt-id.,kajn-(itr.)
(seeStachowski133,134,135).

Proto-Turkic:*KAk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dry
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qaq(MK)
Turkish:dial.kak,kah
Tatar:qaq
MiddleTurkic:qaq(Sangl.,Abush.)
Uzbek:qq
Uighur:qaq
Azerbaidzhan:Gax
Turkmen:qaq
Oyrat:qaq
773
Kirghiz:qaq
Kazakh:qaq
Noghai:qaq
Bashkir:qaq
Karakalpak:qaq
Kumyk:qaq
Comments:VEWT223,5,218-220,EDT608.

Proto-Turkic:*KAk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tohit,knock,tear
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:qaq-(MK)
Turkish:kak-
Tatar:qaq-
MiddleTurkic:qaq-(Houts.,AH,Qutb,MA)
Uzbek:qq-
Uighur:qaq-
Azerbaidzhan:Gax-
Turkmen:qaq-,qaql-
Khakassian:xax-
Oyrat:qaq-
Dolgan:kakrj-'breakintosmallpieces'
Tuva:qaq-
Tofalar:qa'q-
Kirghiz:qaq-
Kazakh:qaq-
Noghai:qaq-
Bashkir:qaq-
Balkar:qaq-
774
Gagauz:qaq-
Karaim:qaq-
Karakalpak:qaq-
Kumyk:qaq-
Comments:VEWT223,5,221-222,Stachowski135.

Proto-Turkic:*KAk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobeangry
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qaq-(OUygh.),qaq-'anger'
Karakhanid:qaq-,qaqu-(MK)
Turkish:kak-
MiddleTurkic:qaq-(AH,Qutb.,Pav.C.)
Turkmen:qaq-
Kirghiz:qaq-
Karaim:qaq-
Comments:VEWT223,5,223-224.Turk.>WMong.qaki-,Kalm.
k-(KW176).

Proto-Turkic:*KAkma
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofsheepskin
Russianmeaning:
MiddleTurkic:qaqma(CCum.,ShS)
Comments:VEWT224.

Proto-Turkic:*KAl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1jade2preciousstone,thebezelofafingerring
775
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:qa(MK)1
Turkish:ka2
Tatar:qa2
MiddleTurkic:qa(Houts.,IM,Pav.C.,MA)1,2
Uighur:qa2
Azerbaidzhan:Ga2
Turkmen:G2
Tuva:xa2
Kirghiz:qa2
Noghai:qas2
Bashkir:qa2
Kumyk:qa2
Comments:EDT669.KW171.Turk.>Mong.qas(i),(HY)qai,seeClark
1980,41,42,1997,134.

Proto-Turkic:*Kal-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1oldman2tobetired3tobeyearsold
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:qal-(Orkh.,YB)3
Karakhanid:qal(MK)1
MiddleTurkic:qal-'tocometoanend'(CCum.)
Oyrat:qala-2
Chuvash:xoll-en'slowly'
Comments:VEWT224.EDT615-616.Chuv.xullenisderived(byTekin
1975,281)fromPT*K(i)ala(v.sub*kiola),butitratherbelongshere.

Proto-Turkic:*KAlak
Altaicetymology:
776
Meaning:bulrush,reedmace
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qaaq(MK)
Kirghiz:qaaq(VEWT),qaeq'aftergrass'
Comments:VEWT240.

Proto-Turkic:*KAlan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1urine2tourinate(ofahorse)
Russianmeaning:12()
Karakhanid:qaan-2
Turkish:kaan1,kaan-2
MiddleTurkic:qan-(Houts.)
Azerbaidzhan:Gaan-2
Noghai:qasan-2
Comments:EDT674,5,348.

Proto-Turkic:*KAlba
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wildgarlic,leek
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:?qalma'ak.offood'(Rach.)
Khakassian:xalba
Shor:qalba
Oyrat:qalma
Tuva:xlba
Comments:VEWT227.Cf.anOT(MK)Hapaxkeleb'atenderplantwhich
growsintheTurk'ssummerpasturesandfattenslivestockquickly'(EDT
716),keleb-le-'tobecoveredbythisplant(ofamountain)',forwhichcf.
alsoSak.kalarb'ak.ofplant,whoserootisusedinmedicine'(Bailey35).
777
Seealso-1982,77,comparingtheSak.formwith
Pers.,Tadzh.kalam'cabbage'(>Turkm.kelem)-theseallmaybe
variouslytransformedsubstratumloanwords,cf.alsoGreekkramb
'cabbage,radish,rutabaga'-accordingtoFriskpossibly<Pelasg.

Proto-Turkic:*KAl()ga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:whitespot,whiteblaze
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qaa(MK)
Turkish:kaka
Tatar:qaqa
MiddleTurkic:qaqa(AH,MA)
Uzbek:qq
Uighur:qaqa
Azerbaidzhan:GaGa
Turkmen:dial.GaGa
Khakassian:xasxa
Shor:qaqa
Kirghiz:qaqa,qaqa
Kazakh:qasqa
Noghai:qasqa
Bashkir:qaqa
Balkar:qaxa
Karakalpak:qasqa
Comments:VEWT241,5,350-351.Cf.alsotheprobablederiving
steminTuvaxa'workedthinleather',Tof.xa'naked,napless(skin)'(.
186).

Proto-Turkic:*Kal-
778
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toscrape
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qa-(MK)
Turkish:ka-
Tatar:qa-
MiddleTurkic:qa-(Abush.,MA)
Uzbek:qai-
Azerbaidzhan:Ga-
Turkmen:Gaa-
Chuvash:xs-
Yakut:khj-
Kirghiz:qa-
Kazakh:qas-
Noghai:qas-
Bashkir:qa-
Karakalpak:qas-
Comments:VEWT240,5,348,98.Turkicisaprobable
sourceofMMongqai'ur'scraper'(cf.Chag.qaauetc.,see
1997,135).

Proto-Turkic:*Kal()-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torise2jumpup
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:qal-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:qal-(MK,KB)2
Turkish:kalk()-2,kal-dr-(caus.)
Tatar:qalq-1,2
779
MiddleTurkic:qalq-(Pav.C.,.)1,(Houts.,IM)2,qal-dur-(caus.)(Pav.
C.)
Uzbek:qalq-1,qalqi-1,2
Azerbaidzhan:Galx-1,Gal-dr-(caus.)
Turkmen:Galk-1,Gal-dr-(caus.)
Khakassian:xal-1,2(dial.Sag.)
Oyrat:qal-1,2
Yakut:klj-1,2
Tuva:xal-1,2
Kirghiz:qalq-1
Kazakh:qalq-1
Noghai:qalq-1
Bashkir:qalq-1
Karakalpak:qalq-1
Kumyk:qalq-1
Comments:VEWT226,5,224-226.

Proto-Turkic:*Kalm
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ransomforbride2fee
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:qalan(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:qal(MK)1
Turkish:kaln1
Tatar:qalm1
MiddleTurkic:qaln(Houts.,Pav.C.,.)1
Uzbek:qalin
Turkmen:Gal2
Khakassian:xalm1
Oyrat:qalm,qal1
780
Chuvash:xolm1
Yakut:xalm,xalm1
Tuva:xl1(dial.Todzh.)
Tofalar:xlm1
Kirghiz:qal1
Kazakh:qal1
Noghai:qalm1
Bashkir:qalm1
Balkar:qaln1
Karakalpak:qal1
Kumyk:qalm1
Comments:VEWT226,TMN3,399,488,5,239-240,2,
354.Turk.>Mong.qalan'fee,tax'(1997,197).

Proto-Turkic:*Kal
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thick,stiff2numerous
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:qaln(Orkh.)1,qaln(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:qaln(MK)1,(MK,KB)2
Turkish:kaln1
Tatar:qaln1
MiddleTurkic:qal(Qutb.)1,qaln(MA,Houts.,Abush.,AH,Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:qlin1
Uighur:qelin1
Azerbaidzhan:Galn1
Turkmen:Gal1
Khakassian:xaln1
Oyrat:qal1
Chuvash:xuln,xolm1
781
Yakut:xal1
Tuva:qln,dial.Todzh.1
Tofalar:xln1
Kirghiz:qal1
Kazakh:qal1
Noghai:qaln1
Bashkir:qaln1
Karakalpak:qal1
Kumyk:qaln1
Comments:VEWT226,5,238-239,2,354-355.

Proto-Turkic:*Kalpak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hat
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:kalpak
Tatar:qalpaq
MiddleTurkic:qalpaq(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qalpq
Uighur:qalpaq
Sary-Yughur:qalmaq
Turkmen:Galpaq
Khakassian:xalbax,xalpax
Yakut:xalpq
Kirghiz:qalpaq
Kazakh:qalpaq
Noghai:qalpaq
Bashkir:qalpaq
Balkar:qalfaq
Gagauz:qalpaq
782
Karaim:qalpaq
Karakalpak:qalpaq
Kumyk:qalpaq
Comments:5,234-235.ThewordisnotattestedinOT;cf.however
thecommonSlavicloanword*klobuk,attestedinRussiansourcesalready
inthe12thcentury(in'blackhats'=theKarakalpaks,but
withcharacteristicallyBulgarianphonology).

Proto-Turkic:*KAluk/*KAlgak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1spoon2oar,shovel
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:qauq1
Karakhanid:qauq,qaq(MK)
Turkish:kak1,dial.kalak2
Tatar:qaq1,qalaq2>Chuv.
MiddleTurkic:qaq(IM),qauq(Houts.,AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qiq1,qlq2
Uighur:qouq,dial.qauq1,qalaq2
Azerbaidzhan:GaG1
Turkmen:qaq1
Khakassian:xazx1,xalax1,2
Shor:qalaq2
Oyrat:qaq1,qalaq2
Tofalar:qah

ik1,qalaq2
Kirghiz:qaq1,qalaq2
Kazakh:qasq1,qalaq2
Noghai:qasq1,qalaq2
Bashkir:qaq1,qalaq2
Balkar:qaq1,qalaq2
783
Karakalpak:qasq1,qalaq2
Kumyk:qaq1,qalaq2
Comments:VEWT225,241,5,231-232,353-354.Turk.>Russ.
Siber.kai k,see277.

Proto-Turkic:*Kam-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bed-bug2beetle
Russianmeaning:12
Turkish:kandalaj1(dial.)
Tatar:qandala1
MiddleTurkic:qandala(Houts.,.)1,qandala(Qum.)1
Uzbek:qndl1
Turkmen:Gandala1
Khakassian:xandala1
Oyrat:qandrjaq'cochlea'(.)
Chuvash:xmtla,xmdla,xmglaxngla1
Kirghiz:qantala1
Kazakh:qandala1
Noghai:qandalaj
Bashkir:qandala1
Balkar:qandaaj1,qamaaq2
Karakalpak:qandala1
Kumyk:qandala1
Comments:VEWT229,5,253-254,183.

Proto-Turkic:*KAma-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1becomeblinded,dumb2(set)teethonedge3tobetired,pine,
droop
784
Russianmeaning:1,23
,
OldTurkic:qama-(Orkh.)3
Karakhanid:qama-(MK,KB)1,2
Turkish:kama-1
Tatar:qama-3
MiddleTurkic:qama-(Pav.C.,..,MA)1,2
Uzbek:qm-1
Uighur:qama-2
Azerbaidzhan:Gama-1
Turkmen:Gma-2
Kirghiz:qama-2
Kazakh:qama-2
Noghai:qama-2
Bashkir:qama-2
Karakalpak:qamas-2
Kumyk:qama-2
Comments:VEWT228,5,242-243,246-247.Cf.alsoKirgh.,Kaz.
qam'sorrow',Turkm.GamGajG'mischief,sorrow'.Turk.>MMong.(MA)
qama-id.(see1997,197).

Proto-Turkic:*Kama
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1beaver2otter
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:qama2
Uighur:qama2
Khakassian:xam-nos,xamat(.)1
Shor:qamna()2
Oyrat:qamdu2
785
Chuvash:xma'beaver,marten'
Bashkir:qama2
Karakalpak:qama2
Comments:5,242,162,.145.AlsoPT
*Kam-tur'beaver,otter'(VEWT228,162)(*Kam-turmaybea
compound<*Kama+*utr'otter'q.v.sub*odu;ibid.,however,
suggestsrather*Kam-lu,withadiminutive*-lu.Thereisalsoavariant
*Kun-tur(with*Kunu'wolverine'?-see,however,TMN3,524,witha
suggestionofTurk.<Pers.).

Proto-Turkic:*KAmgak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:saltwort,Salsula
Russianmeaning:,,Salsula
OldTurkic:qamaq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qamaq(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qamaq(Qutb.,Pav.C.),qamqaq(Houts.)
Uzbek:qmq
Uighur:qamaq
Turkmen:Gamaq
Kirghiz:qamaq
Kazakh:qabaq
Noghai:qambaq
Bashkir:qamaq
Karakalpak:qabaq
Kumyk:qammaq
Comments:EDT627,VEWT229,5,244-245.

Proto-Turkic:*Kam
Altaicetymology:
786
Meaning:scoop,ladle
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qam(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qam(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qam(IM)
Uighur:qemi
Khakassian:xams
Chuvash:(Bulg.)xuma(<*kama(h))
Yakut:xamas,xomuos
Dolgan:komuos
Tuva:xm
Comments:EDT626,VEWT229,5,248-249,Stachowski152.

Proto-Turkic:*Kaml
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:reed
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qamu,qam(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qam(MK,IM)
Turkish:kam
Tatar:qam
MiddleTurkic:qam(Qutb,MA)
Uzbek:qmi
Uighur:qomu
Azerbaidzhan:Gam
Turkmen:Gam
Khakassian:xams
Oyrat:qam
Chuvash:xml'stalkofcereals'
Yakut:xams,xomus
787
Kirghiz:qam
Kazakh:qams
Noghai:qams
Bashkir:qam
Balkar:qami
Karakalpak:qams
Kumyk:qamu
Comments:5,249-250,TMN3,517.

Proto-Turkic:*KAmug
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:all,together
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qamu(OUygh.),qama(Orkh.,OUygh.),qam(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qamu(MK,KB)
Turkish:kamu
MiddleTurkic:qamu(Qutb.,.),qamuq(Abush.)
Khakassian:xamx
Shor:qamq
Oyrat:qamq
Tuva:xamq
Comments:EDT627,5,243-244.ModernformslikeKirgh.,Kaz.
qama-'tosurround,besiege',qamala-id.,'togatherinacrowd'etc.(see
5,159)shouldberatherregardedasmongolisms.

Proto-Turkic:*Kan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:edge,hem
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qaj(OUygh.)'cross-road'
788
Karakhanid:qaj(MK)'aplaceatananglefromthemainroad'
Khakassian:xaj
Oyrat:qajr'steep,precipitous'
Chuvash:xju
Yakut:kja(.)'roadontheedgeofaprecipice'
Tuva:xaj'locatedsideways'
Bashkir:qajma
Comments:VEWT221,2,338.DoubtsabouttheOTwordseein
EDT674,676,Clark1977,146.

Proto-Turkic:*Kandr(*Kantr)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:membrane
Russianmeaning:,,

Karakhanid:qandr(MK)
Chuvash:xund,e.g.intplprxund-i'appendix(anat.)'(dial.)
Comments:EDT635.

Proto-Turkic:*KA-k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bitch2female
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:qanq(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:qanq(MK)1
Turkish:kank2
MiddleTurkic:qanq(Pav.C.,Houts.,Qutb.),qanuq(AH)1
Uzbek:qniq1
Uighur:qanuq,qaniq(dial.)1
Azerbaidzhan:GanG1
789
Turkmen:Ganq1
Kirghiz:qanq1
Kazakh:qanq,qa1
Noghai:qanq1
Bashkir:qansq,qansaj1
Karakalpak:qanq1
Kumyk:qanq1
Comments:VEWT230,5,255-256,190.Theoriginal*--
isprobablypreservedinKaz.qa.

Proto-Turkic:*KAr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobend
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kanr-
Uzbek:qnir-(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:Ganr-
Turkmen:Gar-
Khakassian:xri-tart-'tochangedirection,turnsharply'
Comments:5,194-195.

Proto-Turkic:*Kap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosnatch,take2tobite
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:qap-(Orkh.,OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:qap-(MK,KB)1
Turkish:kap-1,2
Tatar:qap-1,2
MiddleTurkic:qap-(AH,IM,Pav.C.,Qutb)1
790
Uzbek:qp-1,2
Uighur:qap-1,2
Azerbaidzhan:Gap-1,2
Turkmen:Gap-1,2
Khakassian:xap-1,2
Oyrat:qap-1,2
Chuvash:xp-1,2
Yakut:xap-1,2
Tofalar:qa'p-'tograbwithone'smouth;bite(offish)'
Kirghiz:qap-1,2
Kazakh:qap-1,2
Noghai:qap-1,2
Bashkir:qap-1,2
Balkar:qab-1,2
Gagauz:qap-1,2
Karakalpak:qap-1,2
Comments:VEWT233,EDT580,5,264-265,TMN3,373-374.

Proto-Turkic:*Kap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocatchfire
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:qap-,qabn-
Uzbek:qpin-
Khakassian:xabl-
Shor:qamn-
Oyrat:qamn-
Chuvash:xp-
Tuva:q'p-
Tofalar:q'p-
791
Kazakh:qabn-
Noghai:qabn-,dial.qaml-
Bashkir:qabn-
Kumyk:qabun-
Comments:5,262.

Proto-Turkic:*Kap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1cover(n.)2gate,door3toclose
Russianmeaning:12,3
OldTurkic:qapa,qap(Orkh.,OUygh.)2,qap(Orkh.)2,qapaq
(OUygh.)1,qap-3
Karakhanid:qapu(MK,KB),qapaq(MK)1,qapu(MK)2
Turkish:kapak1,kap2,kapa-3,kap-3
Tatar:dial.qapqaq1,qapqa2,qapla-3
MiddleTurkic:qaba(Qutb.)1,qapu(Houts.,Pav.C.)2,qabu(Qutb.)2
Uzbek:qpqq1,qpq2,qpl-3
Uighur:qap(q)aq1,dial.qobu2,qapla-3
Azerbaidzhan:GapaG1,Gap2,Gapa-3
Turkmen:Gapaq1,Gap2,dial.Gap-3
Khakassian:xaxpax1
Shor:qabaq1
Oyrat:qaqpaq1
Chuvash:xob1,xop(la)-3
Yakut:xappax1
Dolgan:kappakt-'tocover'
Tuva:qaqpaq1
Kirghiz:qapqaq1,qapqa2
Kazakh:qaqpaq1,qap2,qaqpa2
Noghai:qapaq1,qap2,qap(l)a-3
792
Bashkir:qapqa2,qapla-3
Karaim:qabaq2
Karakalpak:qaqpaq1,qap2,qaqpa2
Salar:qvu2()
Kumyk:qapu2,qabaq2
Comments:VEWT203,TMN3,369,5,160,263-264,274-275,
510,2,358-359,Stachowski138(thereisalsoavariant
*Kp--duetomergerwithanotherroot*Kp-,v.sub*k[]p`a;themeaning
'cover'hereisprobablysecondary).Turk.>Mong.qabqa'cover'(whence
Evk.kapkak,seeDoerferMT125),qabqa'gate',seeTMN3,371,415,
Hung.kapu'gate',seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*KApan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:boar
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:dial.kaban
Tatar:qaban
MiddleTurkic:qaban(Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:qbn
Uighur:qavan
Azerbaidzhan:Gaban
Turkmen:Gaban
Oyrat:qaman
Tuva:xavan
Kirghiz:qaman
Kazakh:qaban
Noghai:qaban
Bashkir:qaban
Balkar:qaban
793
Karakalpak:qaban
Kumyk:qaban
Comments:VEWT216,5,164,156.

Proto-Turkic:*Kaprak,*Kapsak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1box,coffin2basket
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:qapraq1,2(MK)
Turkish:koburuk,dial.kapurak1,dial.kabzak,kabsak2
MiddleTurkic:qabraq(IM),qaburuq(AH)
Turkmen:Gapraq1
Chuvash:>Hung.koporso1(seeGombocz1912)
Comments:EDT587,5,276-278.Tekin(1979,127)citesUygh.
qapz'coffin',butwewereunabletofindthewordeitherinOldorMod.
Uyghur.PerhapshemeantKarakh.xafs'smallbox'(MK,seeEDT587).
BrockelmannderivedthewordfromLat.capsathroughSyr.qafs,buta
loaninTurkic<Syr.isnotquiteprobable,andthewordmightwellbe
genuine.Butmodernforms:Tur.dial.kapsa'box,chest',(CCum.)qapsa
'box,coffin'maywellbe<Syr.(cf.5,277).

Proto-Turkic:*Kaptal
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:side
Russianmeaning:
MiddleTurkic:qaptal(R-ShS,Vam.)
Uzbek:qptl
Uighur:qaptal
Turkmen:Gapdal
Oyrat:qaptal
794
Yakut:xaptal
Kirghiz:qaptal
Kazakh:qaptal
Bashkir:qaptal
Karakalpak:qaptal
Comments:5,267-268.

Proto-Turkic:*KApu(?)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bumble-bee
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qabu(OUygh.-Suv.)
Comments:399.

Proto-Turkic:*KApur-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:rib
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qabar(Ettuhf.)
Turkish:kabur(dial.)'apieceoftinorleatherforfixingcracks'
Uzbek:qbz(dial.)'armpit'
Turkmen:GaprGa
Comments:5,275-276.(1997,207)regardsthewordasa
Mong.loanword,whichishardlythecase(althoughnumerousformslike
Chag.qaburaetc.mayindeedhaveaMong.origin,seeTMN1,392).

Proto-Turkic:*Kar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1arm2forearm3shin-boneofanimal4variousmeasuresof
length
795
Russianmeaning:1()23
4
OldTurkic:qar1,qar2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qar(MK)1
Turkish:karu-a1
Tatar:qar1,qara4(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:qar1(Vam.),qar1(Abush.),2(Houts.),4(inallsources)
Uzbek:qari1,4,qara3(dial.)
Uighur:qeri4,qaja3(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:qar2
Azerbaidzhan:gari3(dial.)
Turkmen:Gar3,4
Shor:qar1
Oyrat:qar1
Halaj:qar4
Chuvash:xor2,4
Yakut:xar,xara2,3
Tuva:qr2
Tofalar:qr2
Kirghiz:qar1,qar1
Kazakh:qar2,qar2,3
Noghai:qar4
Bashkir:qar3
Balkar:qar4
Karakalpak:qar2,qar2,4
Comments:TMN3,461-2,5,278-283,160-164,1989,
2,361,246-247.Theusageof*Karasameasure
('cubit')mayseemnatural,butinfactreflectsamergerwithadifferentroot,
seeunder*K(i)arl.Turk.>Hung.kar'arm',seeLigeti1933,MNyTESz2,
369.
796

Proto-Turkic:*KAr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tooverflow2moat,ditch
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:qarmqaram(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:qar-(MK)1,qarm(KB)2
Turkish:kar-(ofwater)'topileupbehindanobstacle',dial.karm2
MiddleTurkic:qar-(IM)1
Uzbek:qrm(dial.)2
Uighur:qerim2
Azerbaidzhan:Garm2
Turkmen:Garm2
Shor:xaral
Oyrat:qarant'thawedspot'
Tuva:xarla'ice-hole'
Karakalpak:qarm2
Comments:EDT643,5,320.

Proto-Turkic:*Kar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todig2toscrape,scratch3plane
Russianmeaning:12,3
OldTurkic:qaz-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:qaz-(KB),qaz-(MK)1
Turkish:kaz-1,2,kaz-2,kaza3
Tatar:qaz-1
MiddleTurkic:qaz-(AH,Houts.,MA,IM,Pav.C.)1,(Pav.C.)2
Uzbek:qaz-1,qazi-1
Uighur:qaz-1
797
Azerbaidzhan:Gaz-1,2,Gaz-1,2
Turkmen:Gaz-1,Gaza-2
Khakassian:dial.xas-1
Shor:qas-1
Oyrat:qas-1
Chuvash:xr-2
Yakut:xas-1,2
Dolgan:kas-1
Tuva:qas-1
Kirghiz:qaz-1
Kazakh:qaz-1
Noghai:qaz-1
Bashkir:qa-1
Gagauz:qaz-1
Karakalpak:qaz-1
Kumyk:qaz-1
Comments:VEWT243,5,185-186,103,Stachowski140.
Chuv.--isnotquiteclearhere.

Proto-Turkic:*Kar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1opposite2beopposite,meet3bandit
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:qar(OUygh.)1;qaraq(OUygh.)3
Karakhanid:qaru(MK,KB),qar(KB)1,qaraq(KB)3,qaraqla-(MK)'to
rob'
Tatar:qaraq3
MiddleTurkic:qaraq(Pav.C.,Abush.)3
Uzbek:qrqi3
Turkmen:Gar-2;Garaq3
798
Chuvash:xirs -2;xorax3
Yakut:xar,xr1(.);xar-da'retaliation';xars-'tofight(witheachother)'
Dolgan:kar-da'retaliation',kars-'tofight'
Kirghiz:qaraq3
Noghai:qaraq3
Bashkir:qaraq3
Karakalpak:qaraq3
Kumyk:qaraq3
Comments:VEWT235,5,294-295,326-327,.XVI,219-220,
2,365-366,Stachowski139,140.Chuv.xirs -mayactually
reflectadifferentroot(see*gerl

-),oracontamination.Turk.qar>Mong.
qarsi(Clark1980,41).Cf.also*Karma'robbery'.

Proto-Turkic:*Kara
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:black
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qara(Orkh.,Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qara(MK,KB)
Turkish:kara
Tatar:qara
MiddleTurkic:qara(MA,IM,Pav.C.,AH,..)
Uzbek:qr
Uighur:qara,dial.qare
Sary-Yughur:Gara
Azerbaidzhan:Gara
Turkmen:Gara
Khakassian:xara
Shor:qara
Oyrat:qara
799
Halaj:qara
Chuvash:xora
Yakut:xara
Dolgan:kara
Tuva:qara
Tofalar:qara
Kirghiz:qara
Kazakh:qara
Noghai:qara
Bashkir:qara
Balkar:qara
Gagauz:qara
Karaim:qara
Karakalpak:qara
Salar:Gara
Kumyk:qara
Comments:VEWT235,TMN3,426-432,EDT643-4,5,286-289,
299-100,592-593,Stachowski138,2,362.

Proto-Turkic:*KAr(a)gu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:reed
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qaru(AH)
Turkish:kar
MiddleTurkic:qaru(AH),arqu(..),araw(Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:rw
Azerbaidzhan:Gar
Turkmen:GarG
Halaj:Garo
800
Chuvash:xorux','(<*Korgauwithsecondary-x;
.XVI,194:xurxuxi,xurxuxxi,xorxvx)
Comments:5,306.
Proto-Turkic:*Karak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1eye-ball2eye3agentleaddress("mydear")
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:qaraq1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qaraq2(MK,KB)
Turkish:kzkaras1,Osm.(XV)qaraq2
MiddleTurkic:qaraq(Pav.C.,..,Sangl.)1,(Abush.)2
Uzbek:qriq1
Uighur:qar(i)uq1
Azerbaidzhan:gzGaras1
Turkmen:Garaq1
Khakassian:xarax2,dial.xara1
Shor:qaraq2
Oyrat:qaraq1,2
Chuvash:kosxori1
Yakut:xarax2
Dolgan:karak2
Tuva:qaraq2
Tofalar:qaraq2
Kirghiz:qaraq3,dial.qareq1,2
Kazakh:qaraq3,qaraq1
Noghai:qaraq1
Karakalpak:qaraq3,qaraq1
Comments:VEWT235-236,TMN3,434-436,EDT652,5,295-296,
.VII,36,210,Stachowski138.Deriving*Karakfrom*Kara
'black'(seealsoTMN1,401)ishighlydubiousbothforsemanticand
801
morphologicalreasons;formslikeTur.gzkarasresultfromsecondary
reanalysis.Cf.alsotheforms*Kara-la-'tostare'(Az.qarala-,Uygh.qarala-,
see5,289),*Karaj-'towatch,preserve'(Yak.xaraj-,Dolg.karaj-;
Yak.xars'care,wariness',Dolg.karst-'tocare,beware',seeStachowski
138,140)-which,incontrasttoqara-'look'(<Mong.)areunlikelytobe
borrowed.

Proto-Turkic:*KArakan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:acacia
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qaraqan(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qaraqan[a](Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qrn
Turkmen:GaraGan''
Khakassian:xaraan
Shor:qaraan
Oyrat:qaraan
Halaj:qaraqan
Tuva:xaraan,Todzh.qaraan
Kirghiz:qaraan
Kazakh:qaraan
Bashkir:dial.qaraan
Comments:EDT657,5,293-294,TMN1,275.Turk.>Mong.
qaraana,whenceagainintoTurk.(Khak.xaranaetc.,seeibid.).

Proto-Turkic:*KAramuk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:cockle
Russianmeaning:
802
Karakhanid:qaramuq(MK)
Turkish:dial.karamuk
Tatar:qaramq(Sib.)
MiddleTurkic:qaramuq(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:qrmu
Uighur:qarimuq
Kirghiz:qaramq
Kazakh:qaramq
Karakalpak:qaramq
Kumyk:qaramq
Comments:5,296-297.

Proto-Turkic:*KArga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:crow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qara(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qara(MK,KB)
Turkish:kara
Tatar:qara
MiddleTurkic:qara(Houts.,AH,IM,Qutb.,Pav.C.),qarqa(MA)
Uzbek:qr
Uighur:qa(r)a
Azerbaidzhan:Gara
Turkmen:GarGa
Khakassian:xara
Shor:qara
Oyrat:qara
Tuva:qran
Tofalar:qaran
803
Kirghiz:qara
Kazakh:qara
Noghai:qara
Bashkir:qara
Balkar:qara
Karakalpak:qara,ara
Kumyk:qara
Comments:VEWT237,TMN3,384,5,303-304,171.
Turk.>Mong.qara(1997,134).

Proto-Turkic:*Karga-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toswear,curse
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qaran-(recipr.)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qara-,qra-(MK,KB)
Tatar:qara-
MiddleTurkic:qara-(Qutb,Abush.)
Uzbek:qr-
Uighur:qa(r)a-
Turkmen:GarGa-
Khakassian:xara-
Oyrat:qara-
Chuvash:xrrn(Adv.)'angrily'
Yakut:kr-
Dolgan:kr-
Tuva:qara-
Tofalar:qara-
Kirghiz:qara-
Kazakh:qara-
804
Noghai:qara-
Bashkir:qara-
Karakalpak:qara-
Kumyk:qara-
Comments:EDT655,VEWT237,5,304-305,Stachowski169.

Proto-Turkic:*Kargan-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toearnwagesbylabour,togainprofitsbytrade,tostrivefor
success
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:qazan-(Orkh.,Yeniss.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qazan-(MK,KB)
Turkish:kazan-
Tatar:qazan-
MiddleTurkic:qazan-(Sangl.,Houts.,Ettuhf.,IM,Pav.C.,MA),Kypch.
qazan-(CCum.)
Uighur:qazan-
Azerbaidzhan:Gazan-
Turkmen:Gazan-
Chuvash:xrn',,'
Yakut:xahn-
Noghai:qazan-
Bashkir:qazan-
Gagauz:qazan-
Kumyk:qazan-
Comments:5,188-189.

Proto-Turkic:*K[a]rguk
Altaicetymology:
805
Meaning:pole,peg
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qazuq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qazuq(MK)
Turkish:kazk
Tatar:qazq
MiddleTurkic:qazuq(..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qziq
Uighur:qozuq
Sary-Yughur:quzuq
Azerbaidzhan:gazx(dial.)
Turkmen:GazG
Oyrat:qazq
Chuvash:*karuH>Hung.karo(seeGombocz1912,MNyTESz2,387).
Kazakh:qazq
Noghai:qazq
Bashkir:qaa-'tostickinto',qaaq,qaq'nail'
Balkar:qazq
Gagauz:qazq
Karaim:qazq
Karakalpak:qazq
Kumyk:qazq
Comments:EDT682(derivationfrom*Kar-'dig'ishighlydubious,although
thevocalismcouldhavebeeninfluencedbytheverbalroot),VEWT243,
5,190-191.BecauseofitsconsonanttheBashk.formbelongsrather
herethantoPT*Kta-(v.sub*k

jta).

Proto-Turkic:*Kar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1old2oldwomanorman3tobecomeold
806
Russianmeaning:12,3
OldTurkic:qar1,qar-3(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qar(MK,KB)1,qar-(MK,KB)3
Turkish:kar,kart1
Tatar:qar,qart1
MiddleTurkic:qar(MA,Abush.)1,qar-(MA,Abush.)3
Uzbek:qari1,qari-3
Uighur:qeri1,2,qeri-3
Azerbaidzhan:Gar,Gart2,1
Turkmen:Garr1,Garra-3
Khakassian:kir1,kir-3
Shor:qar1,qar-3
Oyrat:qar1,qar-3
Yakut:krj-3
Dolgan:krj-3
Tuva:qr-3
Tofalar:qr-3
Kirghiz:qar,qart1,qar-3,qart3
Kazakh:qarqri,qart1
Noghai:qart1
Bashkir:qar,qart1
Gagauz:qar1,2(also'woman')
Karakalpak:qar,arr1
Kumyk:qart1
Comments:EDT644,TMN3,440,5,311-312,314-316,
84-85,Stachowski169,170.

Proto-Turkic:*KArl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wolf
807
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kakr,dial.kar'abear'
Uzbek:dial.qqir,dial.qriqul
Chuvash:kakr<Qypch.
Kirghiz:qarqr
Kazakh:qasqr
Noghai:qarsqr,qasqr
Karaim:qaqr
Karakalpak:qasqr
Comments:160.,5,352.

Proto-Turkic:*Karlgan/*Karlgan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:currant
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:qarlan
Shor:qazran,qazrqat(.)
Oyrat:qazlan
Chuvash:xorlan
Tuva:qazlan
Tofalar:qazlan
Noghai:qarlan
Bashkir:qarlan(dial.)
Comments:5,309-310,2,367.

Proto-Turkic:*Karn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:belly
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qarn(OUygh.)
808
Karakhanid:qarn(MK,KB)
Turkish:karn
Tatar:qarn
MiddleTurkic:qarn(Sangl.,Houts.,AH,MA,IM)
Uzbek:qrin
Uighur:qerin
Sary-Yughur:qarn
Azerbaidzhan:Garn
Turkmen:Garn
Khakassian:xarn
Shor:qarn
Oyrat:qarn
Halaj:qrn
Chuvash:xrm
Yakut:xarn'rumen;belly'
Tuva:xrn
Tofalar:xrn
Kirghiz:qarn
Kazakh:qarn
Noghai:qarn
Bashkir:qarn
Balkar:qarn
Gagauz:qarn
Karaim:qarn
Karakalpak:qarn
Salar:qarn-ta'arelative'()
Kumyk:qarn
Comments:VEWT238,EDT661,5,321-322,277.

Proto-Turkic:*Kar,*Kar-dr
809
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bark2scales3dandruff4topeelbark5tohusknuts
Russianmeaning:12345

OldTurkic:qadz1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qaz,qaz1(MK)
Tatar:qajr1,dial.qajz1;qajzla-4
Uzbek:qazq3
Sary-Yughur:qazdq1
Khakassian:xastrx1
Chuvash:xujr1
Yakut:qatrk1;xast-'toskin'
Dolgan:kast-'toskin'
Tuva:qazrq2,qaz-4
Tofalar:qa's-5
Kazakh:qajzaq3
Noghai:qajzaq3
Bashkir:qajr,dial.qaj1
Karakalpak:qajzaq3
Comments:VEWT218,243,EDT608,665,5,211-212,328,
2,352,107.Theoriginalformhereis*Kar;asuffixed
formwas*Kard(r),latersimplifiedto*Kadr.Thiscanbeclearlyseenfrom
formslikeSUygh.andKhak.Anotherpossibleexplanationcouldbean
earlydissimilation(*Kar-r>*Kadr=*Kar,oralreadyafterthezetacism,
*Kazz>*Kaz).Thereissomeconfusionbetween*Karand*Kas,*Kasuk
inOldTurkic,butMKdefinitelyspellsthewordasqaz.

Proto-Turkic:*Karmak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1fishingrod2hook
810
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:qarmaq(KB)1,2
Turkish:karmuk2,dial.garma1
Tatar:qarmaq1,2
MiddleTurkic:qarmaq(IM,MA)1,2
Uzbek:qrmq2
Uighur:qa(r)maq1,2
Azerbaidzhan:GarmaG1,2
Turkmen:Garmaq1,2
Khakassian:xarmax1,2
Shor:qarbaq1,2
Oyrat:qarmaq1,2
Tuva:dial.qarmaq1,2
Kirghiz:qarmaq1,2
Kazakh:qarmaq1,2
Noghai:qarmaq1,2
Bashkir:qarmaq1,2
Karakalpak:qarmaq1,2
Comments:VEWT238,5,309-310(usuallyconsideredtobe
derivedfrom*Karba-,butthisisphoneticallydubious).

Proto-Turkic:*KArs
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofupperclothes
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qars(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qars(Pav.C.)
Uighur:bel-qrs,qol-qrs
Oyrat:qaris'ak.oftextile'(dial.)
Kirghiz:qars
811
Comments:5,312.

Proto-Turkic:*KArsak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:steppefox
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qarsaq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qarsaq(MK)
Tatar:qarsaq
MiddleTurkic:qarsaq(IM,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:qrsq
Turkmen:Garsaq
Kirghiz:qarsaq
Kazakh:qarsaq
Noghai:qarsaq
Bashkir:qarhaq
Karakalpak:qarsaq
Comments:5,313,161,TMN3,442.

Proto-Turkic:*Kartal
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:variegated(sheep)
Russianmeaning:()
Karakhanid:qartalqoj(MK)
Comments:EDT648-649.

Proto-Turkic:*Kas
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:skin,shell,peel,bark
Russianmeaning:,,
812
OldTurkic:qasuq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qas,qasuq(MK)
Halaj:q

s
Comments:EDT665,666,5328.Therootshouldbedistinguished
from*Kar(v.sub*k`era).NotethatinSiberianlanguagesthereflexesof*r
and*scoincide,soalltheformsattributedto*KarcanalsoreflectPT*Kas.

Proto-Turkic:*Kas
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:enclosure
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qas(MK)
Turkish:qasu(dial.)
Chuvash:xo'space,surroundings'
Tuva:qazanaq'shed,kennel'
Comments:EDT666,5,346-347.

Proto-Turkic:*Kasrku
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:whirlwind
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qasrqu(MK)
Turkish:kasra
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)qasrqa(Houts.),qasura(AH)
Azerbaidzhan:Gasra
Chuvash:kozrga
Tuva:qazr
Tofalar:qa'sr
813
Comments:VEWT240,5,332,43,.VII,20.Chuvash
hasanirregularformwithinitialk-(*x-wouldbeexpected).Butitcanhardly
beaborrowingfromVolga-Kypchaklanguages.

Proto-Turkic:*Kat
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1berry2blackberry
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:qat(MK)1
Turkish:kara-kat'chestnut'(dial.)
Tatar:qara-at2(dial.)
Uzbek:qr-t2
Azerbaidzhan:Gara-at2
Khakassian:xat1
Oyrat:qat'blackberry,bramble'
Tuva:qa't,Todzh.xat1
Kirghiz:qara-at1,2
Kazakh:qat1
Bashkir:qara-at2
Comments:VEWT241,5,332-333,121.
Proto-Turkic:*Kat
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hard
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qat(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qat(MK,KB,IM)
Turkish:kat(dial.)
Tatar:qat
MiddleTurkic:qat(MA)
Uzbek:qtiq
814
Uighur:qetiq
Azerbaidzhan:Gat
Turkmen:Gat,Gat
Khakassian:xat
Shor:qad
Oyrat:qat
Chuvash:xd
Yakut:ktnax
Dolgan:ktnak
Tuva:qa'd
Kirghiz:qat
Kazakh:qatt
Noghai:qat
Bashkir:qat
Karakalpak:qatt
Kumyk:qat
Comments:EDT597-598,VEWT241,5,334-335,Stachowski170.
Yak.xat-,Dolg.kat-'todryup'(Stachowski140)<Mong.qata-id.Khak.
xatalsoprobablyhas-t-underMong.influence.

Proto-Turkic:*Kat-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toheat(oven)2(fire)steel3tobake
Russianmeaning:123
Chuvash:xot-1
Yakut:xatat2
Kirghiz:qatr-3
Comments:.XVI,256,5,335(connectedwith*kat-'dry',butin
factadifferentrootbecauseoftheChuvashform).However,ifMariolta
815
'heat'isfromBulg.,theoriginalformcouldbe*Kal-t-andshouldbe
removedfromtheetymology(cf.2,372).

Proto-Turkic:*Kat-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tomix,add,tieto
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qat-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qat-(MK,KB)
Turkish:kat-
Tatar:qat-
MiddleTurkic:qat-(Sangl.,MA,Pav.C.,Qutb.)
Uighur:qat-
Azerbaidzhan:Gat-
Turkmen:Gat-
Khakassian:xat-
Shor:qat-
Oyrat:qat-
Chuvash:xod'mixture'
Yakut:xat-(butktar-'tomix')
Dolgan:kat-
Tuva:qa't-
Tofalar:qa't-
Kirghiz:qat-
Kazakh:qat-
Noghai:qat-
Bashkir:qat-
Balkar:qat-
Karakalpak:qat-
Kumyk:qat-
816
Comments:EDT594-595,VEWT241,5,336,337-338,Stachowski
141,2,373-374.

Proto-Turkic:*Kat
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:layer
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qat(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qat(MK,KB)
Turkish:kat
Tatar:qat
MiddleTurkic:qat(Houts.,AH,IM,MA)
Uzbek:qt,dial.qt
Uighur:qat
Azerbaidzhan:Gat
Turkmen:Gat
Khakassian:xat
Oyrat:qat
Chuvash:xut
Yakut:xat'double,Xtimes'
Dolgan:kat'Xtimes'
Tuva:qa't
Kirghiz:qat
Bashkir:qat
Karakalpak:qat
Kumyk:qat
Comments:VEWT241,5,335-336,TMN3,419,Stachowski140,
.XVI,250-255,2,371-372.Theoriginalmeaningmusthave
been"oneoftwolayers"-aswitnessedbytheYak.meaningandby
externalevidence.
817

Proto-Turkic:*KAt(?)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:afabulousanimal,unicorn
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qat(OUygh.:Chin.-Uygh.Dict.)
MiddleTurkic:(Xwar.)qat(Oghuz-nama)
Comments:VEWT241,TMN4,393,EDT593.Somewhatdubious:the
wordmayrepresentarenderingofSanskr.khadga'rhinoceros'(through
Tokharian?);cf.OUygh.ktki'id.'.

Proto-Turkic:*Katar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toturn(ahorse)back,preventingitfromgoing;toturn(the
enemy)back2todrive,pursue3topasture4tokeepwatch5towait
Russianmeaning:1();
2,345
Karakhanid:qatar-(MK)1
Turkish:katarla-,katala-(dial.)2
Khakassian:xadar-3,4,5
Shor:qadar-3,4,5
Oyrat:qadar-3,4,5
Tuva:qadar-3,4,5
Comments:EDT604,5,337.

Proto-Turkic:*KAtr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mule
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qatr(MK,KB)
818
Turkish:katr
MiddleTurkic:qatr(AH,Houts.,IM)
Azerbaidzhan:Gatr
Turkmen:Gatr
Noghai:qatr
Balkar:qadr
Comments:VEWT242,5,339-340,TMN3,N
o
1395.TheTurkic
formmaywellbeborrowed<Iran.,cf.Sakakhad ara-'mule'.Here-d-points
to*rd,cf.Sogd.rtr'k<*xarataraka'mule'(foraquitesimilarcompoundcf.
Pers.astar'mule'<*assa-tara'horsefromoneside'(Bailey70).Doerferis
concernedaboutlackoflengthinTurkic,butlengthislikewiselackingin
SakaandotherIranianforms.TheonlyphoneticdifficultyistheTurkic
reflex-t-,becauseSakad intheSaka-Uygh.glossary(14thc.)renders
Turkic-r-.InoneobviousSakaloantheSaka-d-isindeedrenderedas-r-:
cd m 'stadium'(Av.artu-)>OT(Hap.byMK)urm'ashotwithalight
far-flyingarrow.However,if'mule'isborrowed,itishardlyaXinjiang
loanwordbutratheraCommonTurkic,andperhapsfromanotherIranian
language(Sogdian?).

Proto-Turkic:*Katku-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:astinginginsect
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qatqu(MK-Argu)'athingwhichstingslikeascorpion'
Chuvash:xt-kajk''
Comments:EDT599,.Cf.also(MK)qou'fly'.TheChuvashwordis
analysedas'hard-bird'or'hard-animal',whichisprobablyafolk-
etymologicalreanalysisof*katku-.

Proto-Turkic:*Ka
819
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:earthenwarevessel,cup
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qaa(MK)
Turkish:kap-kaak
Uighur:qaa
Azerbaidzhan:Gab-GaaG
Turkmen:Gp-GaG
Yakut:xhax'bigleather-bag,bigleather-sack'
Comments:VEWT217(hardly<Pers.),EDT590,5,342-343.

Proto-Turkic:*Kdn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:relative-in-law
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qadn(Yenis.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qan(MK,KB),qadn(KB),qajn(IM)
Turkish:kajn
Tatar:qajn
MiddleTurkic:qajn(Pav.C.,MA,Houts.)
Uzbek:qjin
Uighur:qejin
Azerbaidzhan:Gajn
Turkmen:Gjn
Khakassian:xazn/xast
Shor:qazn
Oyrat:qajn
Chuvash:xon
Tuva:qat
Tofalar:xatt
820
Kirghiz:qajn
Kazakh:qajn
Noghai:qajn
Bashkir:qajn
Kumyk:qajn
Comments:VEWT218,5,215-216,309,2,358.

Proto-Turkic:*Kj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toslide2toswim3skis
Russianmeaning:123
Turkish:kaj-,dial.kajp-1
Sary-Yughur:qaj-2
Turkmen:Gj-1,2
Oyrat:qaj-1
Yakut:xajhar3
Dolgan:kanhar,kn har,xhar3
Tuva:xaj-1
Kirghiz:qajp-1
Comments:VEWT233,5,197-198,Stachowski137(nasalizationin
Dolg.isunclear).

Proto-Turkic:*Kjnat
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1wing2fin
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:qanat(OUygh.-YB)1
Karakhanid:qanat(MK,KB)1
Turkish:kanat1,2
Tatar:qanat1
821
MiddleTurkic:qanat(Abush.,MA)1
Uzbek:qant1
Uighur:qanat1
Sary-Yughur:qejnat1
Azerbaidzhan:Ganad,gnd(dial.)1
Turkmen:Gnat1
Khakassian:xanat1,2
Shor:qanat1
Oyrat:qanat1,2,qanar2
Chuvash:sonat1,2
Yakut:knat,kjat1
Dolgan:knat1
Tuva:qanat1
Tofalar:xanat1
Kirghiz:qanat1
Kazakh:qanat1
Noghai:qanat1
Bashkir:qanat1
Balkar:qanat1,2
Gagauz:qanat1
Karaim:qanat1,2
Karakalpak:qanat1
Salar:qanat(Kakuk,)
Kumyk:qanat1
Comments:VEWT230,TMN3,518,EDT635,5,252-253,
2,137,149-150,Stachowski168.Initials-inChuv.isunclear
(effectof*-j-?).

Proto-Turkic:*Kla-
Altaicetymology:
822
Meaning:toheapup,pileup
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qala-(MK)
Turkish:dial.kala-,gala-
MiddleTurkic:qala-(Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:qla-
Uighur:qala-
Azerbaidzhan:Gala-
Turkmen:dial.Gla-
Oyrat:qala-
Yakut:xla-
Kirghiz:qala-
Kazakh:qala-
Noghai:qala-
Balkar:qala-
Karakalpak:qala-
Comments:VEWT224,EDT617,5,228-229.

Proto-Turkic:*Km-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tothrow,strikedown2tomove,walk
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:qam-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:qam-'tolower'(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qam-'tolower'(MN)
Chuvash:xm-','
Yakut:xmp-2
Dolgan:km-2
Comments:VEWT228,EDT625;Stachowski142.TheconnectionofOT
qam-andYak.qmp-isratherproblematic,butpossible(wearenotaware
823
ofotheretymologies).FortheYak.wordcf.perhapsBur.xamb'packtrain,
caravan'.

Proto-Turkic:*Kn-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobesatisfied
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qan-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qan-(MK,KB,IM)
Turkish:kan-
Tatar:qan-
MiddleTurkic:(OKypch.)qan-(AH)
Uzbek:qn-
Uighur:qan-
Azerbaidzhan:Gan-
Turkmen:Gn-
Khakassian:xan-
Shor:qan-
Oyrat:qan-
Yakut:xan-
Dolgan:kan-
Tuva:xan-
Kirghiz:qan-
Kazakh:qan-
Noghai:qan-
Bashkir:qan-
Balkar:qan-
Karakalpak:qan-
Kumyk:qan-
Comments:EDT632,VEWT230,5,251-252,Stachowski136.
824

Proto-Turkic:*Kp-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toswell,formblisters2thick,swollen3hill,mound
Russianmeaning:1,2,3,

Karakhanid:qapar-1,qapa(MK)3
Turkish:kabar-1,kaba2
Tatar:qabar-1,qaba2
MiddleTurkic:(OKypch.)qabar-(AH)1,qaba(Houts.,AH)2
Uighur:qapa(r)-1,dial.qova2
Azerbaidzhan:Gabar-1,Gaba2
Turkmen:Gbar-1,Gba2
Chuvash:xba-lan-1
Yakut:xaba-lan-1
Tuva:xavar-,xapj-1
Kirghiz:qabar-1,qabaq3
Kazakh:qabar-1,qaba2
Noghai:qabar-1
Bashkir:qabar-1,qabaq3
Karakalpak:qabar-1,qapa2
Kumyk:qabar-1,qaba2
Comments:VEWT215,233,5,158,165-166.

Proto-Turkic:*Kp
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sack2tosurround
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:qap1(MK)
Turkish:kap1
825
Tatar:qap1
MiddleTurkic:qap1(MA,IM),qaba-'tobesiege'(..)
Uzbek:qp1
Uighur:qap1,dial.qaba-2
Sary-Yughur:qap1
Azerbaidzhan:Gab
Turkmen:Gp1,Gba-2
Khakassian:xap1
Shor:qap1
Oyrat:qap1
Yakut:xappar1(?)
Tuva:xap1
Tofalar:qap/b-1
Kirghiz:qap1
Kazakh:qap1
Noghai:qap1
Bashkir:qap1
Balkar:qap1
Gagauz:qap1
Karaim:qap1
Karakalpak:qap1
Kumyk:qap1
Comments:VEWT233,TMN3,366-367,EDT578(shouldbeseparated
from*kab!)5,159,266-267(withapartialconfusionwithanother
root,probablyofMongolianorigin,seeunder*KAmug),266-267.Despite
Doerfer(ibid.)theresemblancewith*Kpuk'bark'isonlysuperficial.See
alsonotesto*K(i)amak/*K(i)apak'forehead,eyebrow/eyelid'.

Proto-Turkic:*Kp
Altaicetymology:
826
Meaning:1caul2virgin'shymen3scrotum4bladder5afterbirth
Russianmeaning:1234
5
Karakhanid:qap(MK)1,qapaq(MK)2
Tatar:qapq3,4
Shor:qabaq1
Oyrat:qapq3
Chuvash:kpek5
Tuva:xapq3
Comments:EDT578,583;5,266-267(therootshouldbeprobably
distinguishedfromthehomonymous*Kp'sack,cover'q.v.sub*k[]p`a).

Proto-Turkic:*Kpuk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bark(n.)2shell
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:qabq(Tefs.)1,2
Turkish:kabuk1,2
Tatar:qabq1,2
MiddleTurkic:qapuq1(MA,AH)
Uzbek:qbiq1,2
Uighur:qobuq(R,o-t)1,2
Azerbaidzhan:GabG1,2
Turkmen:GbG1,2
Khakassian:xabx(Kach.)1,2
Shor:qabq2
Oyrat:qabq1,2
Chuvash:xob1,2
Tuva:xavq2
Kirghiz:qabq1,2
827
Kazakh:qabq1,2
Noghai:qabq1,2
Bashkir:qabq1,2
Balkar:qabuq1,2
Gagauz:qap,qab1,2'externalcover,covering'
Karaim:qabux1,2
Karakalpak:qabq1,2
Kumyk:qabuq1,2
Comments:VEWT234,TMN3,368-9,5,168,107,
2,358.

Proto-Turkic:*Kr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:goose
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qaz(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qaz(MK,KB)
Turkish:kaz
Tatar:qaz
MiddleTurkic:qaz(Houts.,AH,Pav.C.)
Uighur:az
Azerbaidzhan:Gaz
Turkmen:Gz
Khakassian:xas
Shor:qas
Oyrat:qas
Chuvash:xor
Yakut:xs
Dolgan:ks
Tuva:qas
828
Kirghiz:qaz
Kazakh:qaz
Noghai:qaz
Bashkir:qa
Gagauz:qz
Karakalpak:az
Kumyk:qaz
Proto-Turkic:*K rt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:falcon,hawk
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:kartal
MiddleTurkic:qartal(Houts.,AH,Sangl.)
Turkmen:dial.Gartal
Khakassian:xarta
Shor:qartaa
Yakut:krt,krdaj
Dolgan:krt
Tuva:xarta
Kirghiz:qarta
Kumyk:qartaq
Comments:VEWT239,5,316-318,169,Stachowski172.
Turk.*kartgaj>MMong.qarigaj(SHqariqai),WMong.qariai(seeTMN
1,404),whenceagainlateMTurk.qaraj(seeTMN1,404-405,
1997,208).LoansfromMong.areMan.qarin'kite'andMKor.kariki
'yellowfalcon'(seeLee1958,119,1964,191).

Proto-Turkic:*K sk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:groin
829
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qas(OUygh.)
Turkish:kask
Tatar:qasq
MiddleTurkic:qasq(IM,R-Vam.)
Azerbaidzhan:GasG
Turkmen:Gsq
Chuvash:xza
Bashkir:qaq(dial.)
Comments:VEWT239,EDT666,5,331-332,.179.

Proto-Turkic:*Kta-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tostickinto2nail
Russianmeaning:1()2
Turkish:kada-1,kadak2(dial.)
Tatar:qada-1,qadaq2
MiddleTurkic:qada-(Abush.,Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:qada-1,qadq2
Uighur:qada-1,qadaq2
Sary-Yughur:qata2
Azerbaidzhan:GadaG2
Turkmen:Gadaq2
Oyrat:qada-1
Chuvash:xudav2(Anatri)
Yakut:xat-1
Dolgan:kat-1
Tuva:qada-1,qada2
Kirghiz:qada-1,qad2
Kazakh:qada-1,qadaq2
830
Noghai:qada-1,qadaq2
Karakalpak:qada-1,qadaq2
Kumyk:qada-1
Comments:VEWT217-8,5,180-182,TMN3,420-422,.XIV,
257,Stachowski141.Becauseofthelackofancientattestationonecannot
excludeaborrowing<Mong.(althoughthevariantqadaaisverypoorly
representedthere,andmayitselfbeborrowed<Turk.).

Proto-Turkic:*KEbel
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:awell-bredfasthorse
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kevel,kevil(MK,KB)
Comments:EDT689.

Proto-Turkic:*Kebi-l-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1agiftoffoodtosomeonewhocomestostackthecropafterthe
fieldsareclear2harvesttaxinfavourofthepoorortheclergy3debt
Russianmeaning:1,
,2
3
Karakhanid:keve(MK;spelledkfs)1
Uzbek:kapsan2
Uighur:kpsn2
Chuvash:kivzen3
Kirghiz:kepsen,kesmen1
Kazakh:kewsen1
Comments:..89,EDT585,691,1,290-291.Turk.
>Pers.kafsan'harvesttaxfortheclergyandadministration';mostmodern
831
formsmayinfacthavebeenborrowedback<Pers.,buttheChuv.formcan
hardlybeseparatedfromtheoneattestedinMK.Thetheoryofitsbeing
borrowedfromMong.klsn(seeRona-Tas1988)canbehardlyjustified.
However,Hung.klczn,indeed,hasmostprobablyaMong.sourceandis
notrelatedtothewordsabove.

Proto-Turkic:*[k]Ebre
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:shoulderblade
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kebze'shoulderblade,augury'
Tatar:kws'treestem'
MiddleTurkic:kebze'shoulder'(Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan:gbz'handle'
Turkmen:kebze
Kazakh:kebze,kwz(R)
Bashkir:kw'body'
Gagauz:kebze
Karakalpak:kebze'breast'
Comments:VEWT245,EDT905,242-243.Thequalityofthe
initialvelarisnotquiteclear:theAz.formperhapspreservesanarchaism,
whileotherOghuzformsmaybekypchakisms;otherwiseitsAltaic
connectionsbecomemoredubious.KKalp.kepe'shoulderblade'quotedin
VEWTmeansinreality'asmallshovel'(Russ.),fromPers.kapa
=Osm.kepe'eingrosserLffel'(VEWT254).

Proto-Turkic:*Kebr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ashtree
Russianmeaning:
832
Karakhanid:kevrik'hornbeam'(Vitexagnuscastus)(MK)
Turkish:kr,kvr(dial.)
Tatar:qor-aa
Azerbaidzhan:gjr
Chuvash:kavrs,kavrs>Hung.k

ris
Noghai:kjri
Bashkir:qoros-aas
Balkar:kr,Balk.kjr
Kumyk:gjr
Comments:EDT690,VEWT245,5,152,136,Blsing
2002.Volga-Turkiclanguageshaveasecondaryvowelassimilationdueto
thecompoundwithaa.Cf.alsoOsset.krz()<Turk.,seeAbayev1,
587-588;onHung.koris<Turk.seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*keb-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1straw2brushwood3rot,dandruff4tohull
Russianmeaning:123,4
OldTurkic:kevk,kvk1
Karakhanid:kvi'rottenheartwood'(MK)
Turkish:kevik1(dial.)1
Tatar:kz-(dial.)4
MiddleTurkic:kevk(AH)1
Uzbek:k

z-(dial.)4
Turkmen:kvze-4
Chuvash:kvajt2
Bashkir:kewek3,k(j)-4
Comments:EDT688(butnot<Sogd.),689.Cf.also*kbre-(*kebre-?)'to
hull,poundinamortar'(5,81,82).

833
Proto-Turkic:*KEir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1trachea2cartilage
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:kerk'asmallhaironthebackofababy'(?)
Khakassian:kir2
Shor:keirtke2
Oyrat:ked'ir1
Tofalar:keir2,keirbs1
Kirghiz:keir'cartilageoftheshoulderbladebone'
Comments:VEWT246.LengthisindicatedbyvoicinginTof.andlackof
pharyngealization.

Proto-Turkic:*KEdir-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toskin(asheep)2toscrapeonawashboard(whilewashing)
Russianmeaning:1()2

Karakhanid:keir-1,ker-il-(pass.),ker-i-(coop.),ker-im'skinned
meat'(MK)
Tuva:kidire-2
Comments:EDT705.Yak.kedern'scraper'israther<Mong.,see
380.

Proto-Turkic:*kegej
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:spoke
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:kigi
MiddleTurkic:kegj(Vam.)
834
Uzbek:kegj
Uighur:gg
Turkmen:kegej,keje,kije(dial.)
Kirghiz:kegej(dial.)
Kazakh:kegej
Noghai:kegej
Balkar:kegej
Karakalpak:kegej
Kumyk:gegej
Comments:5,17.

Proto-Turkic:*Kej-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:togoaway
Russianmeaning:
Chuvash:kaj-
Comments:AttestedonlyinChuvash;PTantiquityisdubious.

Proto-Turkic:*Kek-/*Kak-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1curved2stickwithahook3latch4tobend5tobendone's
neck
Russianmeaning:12345

Turkish:keke,dial.gege2
Tatar:kkre,kjre1,2,kkrj-4,(Sib.)kg3
Uzbek:kekkaj-,qaqqaj-5
Oyrat:kekej-5
Chuvash:kagr2,3,kagr-t-5
Yakut:keij-,kekej-5
835
Kirghiz:qaqaj-,kekej-4,5
Kazakh:qaqaj-,kekirej-5
Bashkir:kkere1,kkerj-4,kk--l-'',qaqaj-5
Karakalpak:qaqaj-,kejkej-5
Comments:VEWT248.

Proto-Turkic:*kel
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1skin2gallbetweencamel'sfrontlegs
Russianmeaning:12

Turkmen:keik2
Tuva:ke'1
Comments:60-61(joiningthisrootwithke'quiver'ishardly
possible).

Proto-Turkic:*Kel
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:quiver
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ke(OUygh.,Yenis.)
Karakhanid:ke(MK)
MiddleTurkic:ke(Qutb.,MA,IM)
Yakut:kesex(.)
Tuva:xe(Todzh.,.188)
Tofalar:xe1
Kirghiz:ke(R)
Karaim:ke,kes
Comments:VEWT258,EDT752,MNT1697,5,60-61(seeibid.the
literatureonthehistoryofarms).{Cf.Russ.<unattestedBulg.?}
836

Proto-Turkic:*kel
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1belt2back,spine
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:ke(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:keki(MK)1
Chuvash:kazan2
Kirghiz:keene'girdle'
Comments:VEWT258,EDT752,MNT1697,5,60-61.Sak.ka-
'belt'maybe<Turkic(Bailey56expressesdoubtsastothephonetic
regularityofitsderivationfromProto-Iran.*kaa'armpit').Thevowelmay
havebeenlong-tojudgefromTurkm.ken'chain'(whichreflectsahybrid
formbetween*kile-n'fetters',q.v.sub*k`ila,and*kel'belt').

Proto-Turkic:*kele-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tospeak2talk,conversation
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:kele-2
Turkish:dial.kelei2
MiddleTurkic:kelei2(Houts.),kelee2(MA)
Chuvash:kala-1
Kirghiz:kele-sz2
Comments:VEWT248,5,32-33,EDT716(Clausonconsidersthe
wordtobeaforeignloanwhichisdubious,seeClark1977,136-138).Itis
alsoworthmentioningTur.kelime,Az.klm'word',Turkm.keleme'sacred
wordsofQur'anpronouncedforprotection'-usuallyregardedasArabisms,
butwithsomepeculiarities(frontvocalism,final-e)thatcouldactually
indicateTurkicorigin,withasecondarymergerwiththeArabicloan.
837

Proto-Turkic:*Kele
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fieldmouse
Russianmeaning:-
Karakhanid:keleg'al-yarb'(MK)
Turkish:kelen(g)i,geleni,dial.gelenki
Uighur:kele(IM)
Kirghiz:kelemi,keler,keles
Comments:VEWT249,EDT718,5,31,181.Therootis
notwidelyattested(althoughmentionedbyMK),andmaybecome
confusedwiththerootfor'lizard';inTurkicdialectsfolk-etymologically
influencedbygelin'bride'(cf.alsogelincek'weasel',see1979),
whichwouldexplainvoicedg-(irregularintheAltaicperspective).

Proto-Turkic:*keler/*keler/*kelte
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lizard
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:keler(MK)
Turkish:keler(dial.),kelez(dial.),kelte-keler(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:keles(MA)
Uzbek:klti-klas,kls(dial.),klt(dial.)
Uighur:kilr(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:kesilk
Azerbaidzhan:kelez,klz
Khakassian:kilesk
Shor:kelesken
Oyrat:keleski
Chuvash:kalda
838
Tuva:xeleske
Comments:5,30-32,34,180-181;*keler>Mong.keles,
see1997,126.DespitetheChuv.formcannotbeborrowed
fromTat;rather,viceversa,someVolga-Qypchaqlanguageshave
borrowedtheBulg.word.

Proto-Turkic:*keli
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mortar
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:keli(dial.)
Tatar:kile
MiddleTurkic:keli
Uzbek:keli(dial.)
Chuvash:kil
Yakut:kel
Bashkir:kile
Balkar:keli
Karaim:keli
Kumyk:keli
Comments:5,33.Cf.alsosuchformsasChuv.kizep'tamper,
pestle'andBashk.ki(l)sap,kilapid.Turk.>Hung.klyu ,seeGombocz
1912.
Proto-Turkic:*Kem
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:illness
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kem(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ig-kem(MK,KB)
Turkish:gem,kem(dial.)
839
Azerbaidzhan:km(dial.)
Oyrat:kem
Yakut:kem'agnail(illness)'
Tuva:kem
Comments:EDT720,5,34-35,VEWT250,Clark1977,138,(should
bedistinguishedfromkem'few'<Pers.).Cf.perhapsChuv.kmr
'anger'.

Proto-Turkic:*KEmek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofstripedclothformakingupperclothes
Russianmeaning:

Karakhanid:kemek(MK)
Comments:EDT722.TheisolatedOTwordmaybeborrowedfromEastern
Iranian:cf.Pers.kamxa<Chin.gimhua(seeVEWT229onfurtherloans:
Pers.>Turkickamka>Russ.'stripedsilkcloth').Cf.othersimilar
cases(likeSak.kamaika>MKkemigeetc.).

Proto-Turkic:*Kemeke
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:stove,stovehole
Russianmeaning:,
Khakassian:kimege
Shor:kebege
Oyrat:kemege
Chuvash:kmaga
Kirghiz:kemege
Comments:VEWT250,5,35-36,94,359.

840
Proto-Turkic:*kem,*Ka-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1who2which
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:kem(OT,OUygh.)1,qaju(OT,OUygh.),qanu(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:kemkim(MK,KB)qaju(MK,KB)2
Turkish:kim1
Tatar:kem1,qaj2
MiddleTurkic:kim(Abush.,IM)1
Uzbek:kim1,qaj2
Uighur:kim,kem(dial.)1,qaj2
Sary-Yughur:km1
Azerbaidzhan:kim1
Turkmen:kim1,qaj2
Khakassian:kem1
Oyrat:kem1,qaj2
Chuvash:kam1
Yakut:kim1,xaja2
Dolgan:kim1,kaja2
Tuva:qm1,qaj2
Tofalar:qum1,qai2
Kirghiz:kim1,qaj2
Kazakh:kim1,qaj2
Noghai:kim1
Bashkir:kem1,qaj(dial.)2
Balkar:kim1
Gagauz:kim1
Karaim:km1
Karakalpak:kim1
Salar:km1
841
Comments:VEWT271,EDT720-721,5,67-68,191-192,
Stachowski134,147.

Proto-Turkic:*kEmk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bone2spongybone3cartilage
Russianmeaning:123
Turkish:kemik1
Tatar:kimek2
MiddleTurkic:kemk(MA)3,kmk(Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:kmik,gmik(dial.)2
Oyrat:kmik3
Kirghiz:kemik2
Kazakh:kemik2
Noghai:kemik2
Bashkir:kimek2
Balkar:gemik2
Gagauz:kemik1
Karaim:kemk1
Karakalpak:kemik2
Kumyk:gemik3
Comments:VEWT251,EDT722,5,36-38,261-262.Turk.
>Mong.kemik'cartilage'(see1997,126;butthederivationofthe
Turk.formfrom*gemr-'tognaw'(v.sub*ke

ma)isafolketymology,
althoughsomecontaminationswerepossible:Yak.kmr'spongybone'
semanticallycontinues*kemk,butformallyisderivedfrom*gemr-.MK
haskemdi-'tocutmeatfromthebones'andkemdk'bonewithmeatcut
off'-formsthatmayberelatedbothto*kemkand*gemr-.

Proto-Turkic:*kendir(*kentir)
842
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hemp
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kendir(OUygh.)
Turkish:kendir
Tatar:kinder
MiddleTurkic:kendir
Uzbek:kendir
Uighur:kndi(r)
Sary-Yughur:kenir,kemer
Azerbaidzhan:kndir
Turkmen:kendir
Khakassian:kindr
Shor:kndir
Oyrat:kendir
Chuvash:kandr
Tuva:xendir
Kirghiz:kendir
Kazakh:kendir
Noghai:kendir
Bashkir:kinder
Balkar:kendir
Karakalpak:kendir
Kumyk:kendir
Comments:EDT729,VEWT252,5,39-40,127-128.Turk.
>WMong.kendir(TMN3,608,1997,127),WMong.kenir,Kalm.
kenr(KW226);>Hung.kender(Gombocz1912);>Russ.kendyr'
(282).

Proto-Turkic:*Kendk(*Kentk)
843
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1largeearthenwarejarforstoringflour2bin,cribforflour,grain
Russianmeaning:12,
,
Karakhanid:kendk(MK-Ganch.)1
MiddleTurkic:kndk'jug'(Sangl.)
Uzbek:kandik2
Azerbaidzhan:kndi2
Halaj:kndi'basket'
Chuvash:kandi'roundwoodenbowl'
Kirghiz:kendik'roomforgrain,fuel'(maybe<Pers.)
Comments:EDT729.Clausonregardsthewordasanunequivocaliranism.
TheIranianformsare:Pekhl.kndwg(>Armen.k'andouk),Pers.kand,
kandk'bigearthenwarevesselforstoringgrain',Osset.xaendyg'pailfor
pickledcheese'.PersianisthesourceofSyr.kndwk-,Arab.kand'big
vesselforgrain'.AlsorelatedisSak.khadrakya(*xandra-)'avessel'
(possibly,somebasket-work,seeBailey71,.4,173).Abayevderives
theaboveformsfromIran.*kan-'todig'-whichisnotquiteplausible(ina
participlewewouldexpectthezerogradevocalism;unclearisthelabial
vowelinthesuffix;semanticsraisesdoubts).Ontheotherhand,allthe
aboveIranianformscanbewellexplainedasTurkisms,includingtheSaka
form-withthesuffix-rak(awellknownsuffixforreceptacles,seeBang
1918).Externalparallelsprovidethefinalsupportforsuchadecision.
MiddleGreekko nd'potrion'maybe<Bulg.,cf.theChuv.semantics(see
sub;cf.alsootherEuropeanwordspossiblyhavingthe
samesource).

Proto-Turkic:*KEdi-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tognaw
844
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kedi-(KB)
Khakassian:kene-(R.Sag.)
Shor:kedi-
Comments:VEWT253(allformsfoundonlyinRadlov'sdictionary:R2,
1071,1072).

Proto-Turkic:*Kee-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:easy,convenient;shallow
Russianmeaning:,;()
Karakhanid:kees(MK)
MiddleTurkic:kees,keez(`Ali),keez(Houts.)
Chuvash:kanas','
Yakut:kenen',,'
Comments:EDT734.

Proto-Turkic:*kepek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bran
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kepek(MK)
Turkish:kepek
Tatar:kibk
MiddleTurkic:kebek(IM)
Uzbek:kepk
Uighur:kepk
Azerbaidzhan:kpk
Turkmen:kepek
Khakassian:kibk
845
Chuvash:kibek,kimk(dial.)
Tuva:xevek
Kirghiz:kebek
Kazakh:kebek
Noghai:kebek
Bashkir:kbk
Gagauz:kepek
Karakalpak:kepek,kebek
Kumyk:gebek
Comments:EDT688;5,47.

Proto-Turkic:*kepelek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:butterfly
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kepeli(MK),kebelek(Tefs.),kelebek(IM)
Turkish:kelebek;kpelek,kepenek(dial.)
Tatar:kblk
MiddleTurkic:kpelek(Abush.)
Uzbek:kapalak
Uighur:kepilk
Azerbaidzhan:kpnk
Turkmen:kebelek,kepelek(dial.)
Khakassian:xobanax,xubanax
Shor:xopax
Oyrat:kblk
Tuva:xovaan
Kirghiz:kplk
Noghai:kpelek
Bashkir:kblk
846
Balkar:gbelekke
Gagauz:kelebek
Karaim:keb

elak
Karakalpak:gbelek
Kumyk:gmelek
Comments:VEWT291,EDT689,5,13-15,187.

Proto-Turkic:*kep(i)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todryout2toextinguish,disappear
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:kepi-(kebi-)(MK)1
Tatar:kip-1
Uzbek:kp-1,kbi-(dial.)2
Turkmen:kep-1
Yakut:kep-'topound,demolish'
Dolgan:kep-'topush'
Tuva:kep-1
Kirghiz:kep-1
Kazakh:kep-1
Noghai:kep-1
Bashkir:kip-1
Karakalpak:kep-1
Kumyk:kep-1,kebi-2
Comments:EDT687,5,45-46,Stachowski145(buttheYak.and
Dolg.formshardlyto*gb-'chew').

Proto-Turkic:*Kergk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:paunch
847
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kergk(MK)
Tuva:kergijek
Comments:EDT742,..203.

Proto-Turkic:*KEri-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fever,contagiousdisease
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kezik(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kezig(KB,MK)
Turkish:gezik'arodentulcer'(EDT),kezek'gangrene'
MiddleTurkic:kezek'arodentulcer'(Abush.),Kypch.keziv'pestilence'
(CCum.)
Uighur:kezik'typhus'
Khakassian:kizm
Oyrat:kezim,kez
Kirghiz:kezik'longuncurabledisease'
Kazakh:kezik'fever'
Bashkir:kiew'pestilence'
Karakalpak:gezik'acoldinthehead'
Comments:EDT758-759,VEWT260(derivationfromkez-'walk'ishighly
dubious).

Proto-Turkic:*Kerke-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ak.ofbird()2black-cock
Russianmeaning:12,
Khakassian:kergen1
Shor:kergen1
848
Chuvash:kark2
Balkar:gerge',skylark'

Proto-Turkic:*kerki
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1adze,mattock2razor
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:kerki(MK)1,kerej(MK)2
Turkish:kerki1
MiddleTurkic:kerki(IM,AH)1
Uighur:kk,krke(dial.)1
Azerbaidzhan:krki,kerki(dial.)1
Turkmen:kerki1
Oyrat:kerki1
Chuvash:kar'chisel'
Tuva:kerek'adze'
Kirghiz:kerki1
Comments:EDT741,5,51-52(>Russ.).

Proto-Turkic:*kes-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocut
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kes-(Yenis.)
Karakhanid:kes-(MK,KB)
Turkish:kes-
Tatar:kis-
MiddleTurkic:kes-(Abush.)
Uzbek:kes-
Uighur:kes-
849
Azerbaidzhan:ks-
Turkmen:kes-
Khakassian:kis-
Shor:kes-
Oyrat:kes-
Halaj:ks-
Chuvash:kas-
Yakut:keh-
Tuva:ke's-
Kirghiz:kes-
Kazakh:kes-
Bashkir:ki-
Balkar:kes-
Kumyk:kes-
Comments:VEWT257,5,55-57,58.Turk.*kesek>WMong.keseg
'piece,part'(TMN3,596,Clark1980,39,1997,127).

Proto-Turkic:*kes-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ak.ofleashfordomesticanimals2chain,leash,noose3sea
knot
Russianmeaning:12,
,3
Karakhanid:kesgk(MK)'collar'
Turkmen:kesmik1
Chuvash:kasmk2,kazak3
Kazakh:keskek1
Comments:EDT750,5,59.Derivingtherootfromkes-'cut'is
dubioussemantically.

850
Proto-Turkic:*kes-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ban,prohibition2topunish,accuse,fine3tired,smashed4to
scoff5guilt,flaw6toappoint7obstinate8tospeakroughly,beinone's
way,hinder9tobehungry,indistress
Russianmeaning:12,,
3,45,6
,78,,
9,
OldTurkic:kesetk1(OUygh.,Chin.-Uygh.Voc.-R)
Turkish:kes-2,kesik3,kesin-4
Tatar:kist-2
Uighur:ks-2,kesir5
Azerbaidzhan:ksir5
Turkmen:kesgitle-6,kesir7,kes-2
Chuvash:kas-8,kazl-9
Yakut:kes'forbidden',keset-'topunish,givealesson'
Tuva:ke'ze-'tobepunished,scared'
Kirghiz:kes-2,kesir5
Kazakh:kes-2,keser'contemptuous',5
Bashkir:kit-'towarn'
Comments:VEWT258.

Proto-Turkic:*Kk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:anger,malice
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kek(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kek(MK)
Tatar:dial.kik
851
Uzbek:kek
Turkmen:kje-'tohate'
Chuvash:kagr'chaos,hell',kagrzavrt-'todie(out)',vzkagrl
'starve'
Yakut:kegedi'spiteful'
Kirghiz:kek
Kazakh:kek
Karakalpak:kek
Comments:EDT707,VEWT247-248,5,24-25.

Proto-Turkic:*kt-men
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hoe,mattock
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ketmen(OUigh.)
Karakhanid:ketmen(MK)
Turkish:gedmen
MiddleTurkic:ketmen(Sangl.)
Uzbek:ketmn
Uighur:ktmn
Azerbaidzhan:ktmn
Turkmen:ktmen
Chuvash:katmak
Kirghiz:ketmen-
Bashkir:ktmn
Comments:VEWT259,3,30-31,5,65-66,EDT704.Usually
derivedfrom*gt-'tonotch'-butthesemanticshiftisnotquitesatisfactory,
andtheOghuzlanguages(exceptTurkishwithasecondaryanalogy)
systematicallydistinguish*g-in'notch'and*k-in'hoe'.

852
Proto-Turkic:*Kiab
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:treefungus;drygrass
Russianmeaning:;
OldTurkic:qavau(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qav(MK)
Turkish:kav
Tatar:qaw,dial.qu
MiddleTurkic:qov(Ettuhf.),qav(AH,Houts.)
Uzbek:qw
Azerbaidzhan:Gow
Turkmen:Gov
Khakassian:xabo
Shor:qab
Oyrat:q
Chuvash:Cf.jlege'',jz '(..')'
Yakut:ka
Tuva:xa
Kirghiz:q
Kazakh:quw
Noghai:quw
Bashkir:qw
Kumyk:quw
Comments:EDT579,584,TMN3,532-533,5,169-170,6,8-9.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)ab
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1peeledskin2topeel3dandruff
Russianmeaning:12()3
Turkish:kav1,kovak1,kavla-2
853
Tatar:qawq3
MiddleTurkic:qav1(AH),qavaq3(CCum.)
Uighur:qavaq'shell'(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:GovaG3
Turkmen:Gov1
Khakassian:xx3
Oyrat:qoq(.),qq(dial.)3
Bashkir:qaw1,qawaq3
Comments:VEWT214,EDT578,5,160-161,6,7-8.Thisroot
shouldbedistinguishedfrom*Kpuk'bark'(v.sub*k`

p`a),althoughthey
arepartiallyconfusedinVEWT234-5.SeealsoEDT583.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)ad-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosew,sewtogether2leatherbelt
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:qau-1,qa2(MK)
Turkish:kaji2
Tatar:qaj-1,qaj2
MiddleTurkic:qaj2(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qaj2(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:Gaj2
Turkmen:Gaja-1,Gaj2
Khakassian:xs2
Oyrat:qaj2
Yakut:xats2
Kirghiz:qaj-1,qaj2
Kazakh:qaj-1,qajs2
Noghai:qaj-1,qajs2
Bashkir:qaj->Chuv.xaj-1,qaj2
854
Balkar:qaj2
Gagauz:qaj2
Karaim:qaj2
Karakalpak:qaj-1,qajs2
Salar:qaj2
Kumyk:qaj-1,qaj2
Comments:VEWT219,TMN3,408,EDT596,607,5,199,218,
386.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)agl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:rod
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qal(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qal(MK,KB)'freshwillowshoots'
Khakassian:xl
Kirghiz:kla-'(.),'
Comments:VEWT220,EDT610.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)aja
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1rock2mountain3slope
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:qaja(Orkh.,OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:qaja(MK,KB)1
Turkish:kaja1
Tatar:qja1
MiddleTurkic:qaja(Houts.,AH,Ettuhf.,Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:qj1
Uighur:dial.qija1
855
Azerbaidzhan:Gaja1,2
Turkmen:dial.Gja,Gaja1
Khakassian:xaja1
Shor:qaja1
Oyrat:qaja1
Yakut:xaja2
Dolgan:kaja2
Tuva:xaja1
Tofalar:xaja1
Kirghiz:qaja1,qja3('obliqueslope'-throughcontaminationwith*kj-
'oblique')
Noghai:qaja1
Bashkir:qaja1
Balkar:qaja1
Gagauz:qaja1,2
Karakalpak:qja1
Comments:VEWT221,TMN3,565,EDT674-5,5,198-199,
96,Stachowski133.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)aj-guk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:boat,oar
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qajuq,qajq(MK)
Turkish:kajk
Tatar:qajq
MiddleTurkic:qajq(MA,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qjiq
Uighur:qejiq
Azerbaidzhan:GajG
856
Turkmen:Gajq
Oyrat:qajq
Yakut:xajk,dial.xojk
Kirghiz:qajq
Kazakh:qajq
Noghai:qajq
Bashkir:qajq
Gagauz:qajq
Karakalpak:qajq
Kumyk:qajq
Comments:VEWT233,5,212-213,TMN3,408-409(derivation
from*Kaj-'slide'isprobablyfolk-etymological,cf.theexternalevidence).

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)al
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wild,rough
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qal(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qal(KB)
MiddleTurkic:qal(CCum.)
Turkmen:Galdav
Khakassian:xal
Shor:qal
Oyrat:qal
Yakut:xal
Tuva:xal-mal
Balkar:qaltaq
Comments:EDT614,VEWT224,410.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)al-
857
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1lazy,vile(inaddressingaslave)2lazy,stubborn
Russianmeaning:1,()2,

Karakhanid:qaa(MK)1
MiddleTurkic:qaa(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qaa'poor,beggar'
Uighur:qaaq1,2,qaa2
Oyrat:qaa2
Chuvash:xli',',xlin',,
,'
Kirghiz:qaa2
Bashkir:dial.qaaq1,2,dial.qaan2
Karakalpak:qasa2
Comments:EDT673,5,348-350.Turk.>WMong.qaa'slow,lazy'
(Clark1980,42);someofthemodernTurkicformsmaybeborrowedback
fromMong.(ascertainlyisChuv.xaan).

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)al-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sky2toclearup(ofsky)
Russianmeaning:12()
OldTurkic:qalq(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:(kk)qalq1(MK)
Chuvash:?jl-'toshine,glitter'
Yakut:kilej-xalaj'shining',xaln-2,xalln'clearsky,goodweather'
Dolgan:kalln1
Comments:VEWT226,60-61,Stachowski135.

Proto-Turkic:*Kiam
858
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1shaman2toshamanize,comeintomovement
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:qam1,qamla-2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qam(MK,KB)1
Turkish:kam1
Tatar:qam1(Sib.)
MiddleTurkic:qam1(AH,IM,Pav.C.),qamla-2(Sangl.)
Khakassian:xam1,xamna-2
Shor:qam1
Oyrat:qam1,qamda-2
Chuvash:joms,jumz1
Yakut:xam-n-(xam-s-)2
Dolgan:kamn-2
Tuva:xam1
Tofalar:xam1
Karaim:qam1
Comments:VEWT228,TMN3,402-406,5,240-241,348-
349,1,486,Stachowski136.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)amak/*K(i)apak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1forehead2frontpart3eyelid4eyebrow
Russianmeaning:1234
Karakhanid:qapaq3(MK)
Turkish:kabak'bald',dial.kabag1,2,'face','skull'
Tatar:kzqaba3,dial.tawqaba'mountainslope'
MiddleTurkic:qabaq1,2(Sangl.,..)
Uzbek:qvq3
Uighur:dial.qawaq3
859
Sary-Yughur:qavaq'nosebridge'()
Azerbaidzhan:GabaG2,(poet.)'face'
Turkmen:GbaG3
Khakassian:xamax1
Shor:qamaq,qabaq1
Oyrat:qamaq,qabaq4,dial.1
Tuva:xavaq1
Tofalar:qabaq4
Kirghiz:qabaq3,'pitfall'
Kazakh:qabaq3,'placeundertheforehead;edgeofshore'
Noghai:qabaq3
Bashkir:qabaq3,'precipice'
Karakalpak:qabaq3,'cleft'
Kumyk:gzqaba3
Comments:VEWT228,5,161,199-200.Anextremely
complicatedcase:formsmeaning'eyelid'aretraditionallyanalysedas
derivedfrom*Kap-'tocover'-buttheTurkm.,Uzb.andUygh.formsclearly
contradictsuchaderivationbydisplayingunmistakablevowellength.A
traceoftheoriginalmeaning'forehead,eyebrow'(latershiftedto'eyelid')in
theKypchaklanguages(notdistinguishingvowellength)maybefoundin
expressionsmeaning'tofrown(one'sforehead,eyebrows)':Kirgh.qabaq
tj-,brk-,Kaz.,KKalp.qabaqtj-.Theform*Kpakmayhavebeen
additionallyinfluencedbyPT*Kp'sack;tosurround'(v.sub*k[]p`a),
*Kp(ak)'caul,hymen'(v.sub*k`p`a).Thevariationof*-m-and-p-(cf.the
archaicSiberianreflexeswith-m-)isparallelledbyasimilarvariationinTM
andJapaneseandmayreflectanoriginalcluster,butmayhavebeenan
innovationduetothecontaminationswith*Kap-and*Kp.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)a
Altaicetymology:
860
Meaning:father
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qa(Orkh.,Yeniss.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qada'half-brother,sonofthesamefatherandadifferent
mother'(MK),qasqata'step-father'(MK)
Comments:VEWT232,EDT630,635,640,5,258.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)a
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1vehicle,cart2skis,sleigh
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:qal(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:qal(MK)1
Turkish:kan,dial.kann,kangll1
MiddleTurkic:qal(Sangl.,Houts.,AH)1
Khakassian:xa1
Shor:qana2
Tuva:x

k2
Tofalar:qaha2(91)
Salar:al1
Comments:TMN3,531,EDT638,5,259-260,533.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)a-(r)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1nose2tosnuffle3beak,snout4parchednose(phras.)5nose
bridge
Russianmeaning:123,4(
)5
Karakhanid:qaraq`palate'(MK-)
Sary-Yughur:qarq,qarq1
861
Turkmen:Garavuq'nasalcavity',Goursa-'toreek'
Oyrat:qarq(Tel.)(RII,82);qor5(RII521),Tel.(.)
Yakut:xanaj-2;xour,xar5(.)
Tuva:xj3,x

'nasal',qoza'crook-nosed'
Tofalar:xj1,3
Kirghiz:qarq4,qoursu-'toreek'
Bashkir:qarq(dial.)'hardpalate'
Comments:Therootisnodoubtarchaic,althoughnotwidelyattested.On
itsmodernreflexesseeVEWT232,215-216(someofthelisted
formsare<Mong.,butcertainlynotall.),6,66.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)ar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1heron,crane2swallow,swift
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:qarla(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:qarla,qarla(MK)2
Turkish:karkara1,krlan,krlk2
Tatar:qarla2
MiddleTurkic:qarluwa,qarlua(Sangl.,Pav.C.,MA),qarlaa(Houts.),
qarlawu(AH)
Uzbek:qrqr1,qldir2
Uighur:qaqira1,qala(dial.)2
Azerbaidzhan:GaranGu,Garalo2
Turkmen:Garqara(dial.)1,Garlav2
Khakassian:xarlaas,xarlas(dial.)2
Shor:qarl2
Oyrat:qarlaa,qarla2
Yakut:xaraa2
Kirghiz:qarqra1,qarda2
862
Kazakh:qarqra1,qarla2
Noghai:qarla2
Bashkir:qarlas(dial.)2
Balkar:qarla2
Karakalpak:qarla2
Kumyk:qarlaa,qarla2
Comments:EDT657,5,306-309;175-176.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)arba-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1togrope(forsmth.)2tograsp(withhandsorteeth)3toswim
(gropethroughwaterwithhandsandfeet)4torakeup
Russianmeaning:12()3
()4
OldTurkic:qarva-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:qarva-(MK)1
Turkish:kavra-2
MiddleTurkic:qarba-(Qutb)
Turkmen:Gabra-2
Khakassian:xarba-2
Shor:qarba-2
Oyrat:qarba-2
Yakut:xarb-2,3,4
Dolgan:karb-'torow,swim'
Tuva:qarban-3
Comments:EDT646,VEWT243,5,302-303,103(witha
wrongattributionofTuvaxr-).DespiteKa.MEJ42,Stachowski139,forms
likeYak.xarb-arehardlyborrowed<Mong.qarma-(onwhichseeunder
*k`ara).

863
Proto-Turkic:*Kiar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:innerfat
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qaz(MK)
Tatar:dial.qaz
Uzbek:qzi
Uighur:qezi
Khakassian:xaz
Oyrat:qaz
Chuvash:jor-var''
Yakut:qaha
Tuva:qaz
Tofalar:qaz
Kirghiz:qaz
Kazakh:qaz
Noghai:qaz
Bashkir:qa
Karakalpak:qaz
Comments:VEWT243,5,189-190,.193-194,TMN3,
359,EDT681,2,491.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)arl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:span
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qar(MK)
Turkish:kar
Tatar:qar
MiddleTurkic:qar(Pav.C.,Houts.,AH,IM)
864
Uzbek:qri
Uighur:eri,dial.eri
Azerbaidzhan:Gar
Turkmen:Gar
Khakassian:xars
Oyrat:qar
Yakut:xars
Tuva:qar
Tofalar:xar
Kirghiz:qar
Kazakh:qars
Noghai:qars
Bashkir:qar
Balkar:qar
Gagauz:qar
Karakalpak:qars
Kumyk:qar
Comments:5,324-326,EDT663.Externalevidencesuggeststhat
theoriginalmeaningwas'elbow,cubit'[infactattestedforqarinChag.
Abushka,butsomearguethatthisisjustascripterror],withtheopposition
*K(i)ar'largemeasure(cubit):*K(i)arl'smallmeasure(span)'.Butthe
formercompletelymergedlaterwiththereflexesof*Kar'arm'(v.sub
*gara).

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)arn-a
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ant2tick
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:qarnaq(MK:Oghuz)1
Turkish:karna1
865
MiddleTurkic:qarna(Sangl.,Qutb.),qarna(Houts.)1
Azerbaidzhan:Gara1
Turkmen:Garna2
Khakassian:xarx2
Gagauz:qarm1
Comments:EDT662,VEWT238,5,323,184.Turk.>
Kalm.xaig(KW173)'irgendeineMadeinderNasedesKamels'(orisit
rather<Turk.qatq?).
Proto-Turkic:*K(i)as-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toconstrict,tighten2bracejoiningthewheelhoopandits
woodenpart3block,tambour4ironhooponacask
Russianmeaning:1,2,
3,4

Turkish:kas-1
Uzbek:qasn(dial.)2
Uighur:qasa-1,qasqan'hoopofatambourine'
Azerbaidzhan:GasnaG,GasaG3
Turkmen:Gas-1,Gasaq2
Khakassian:xas-(Sag.,Koib.)'toplacethehalteronthesaddlebow'
Oyrat:qasta-1
Tuva:qa`sta-1
Kirghiz:qasas-1,qasqan4
Noghai:qasnaq2
Karakalpak:qasnaq2
Comments:5,329-330.

Proto-Turkic:*Kias-
Altaicetymology:
866
Meaning:1horrible,terrible2toannoy3tobecomewasted,lose4
vindictive5inimical
Russianmeaning:1,23,
45
OldTurkic:qasn(OUygh.Suv.)1
Shor:qasta-2
Chuvash:jus-,juzn-3,jus-tar-2
Yakut:xasmar4
Kirghiz:qas5
Kazakh:qas5
Comments:EDT668,.XI,12.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)atr-(-d-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1grayling2sturgeon
Russianmeaning:12
Yakut:xats2
Tuva:qadr1
Comments:VEWT219.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)(j)nat
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:flap(ofdoor),wall(ofyurt)
Russianmeaning:(),()
Turkish:kanat
MiddleTurkic:qanat(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qnt
Azerbaidzhan:Ganat
Turkmen:Gnat(dial.)
Khakassian:xanat
867
Oyrat:qanat
Chuvash:sonat','
Kirghiz:qanat
Kazakh:qanat
Karakalpak:qanat
Comments:5,252-253,504,.XII,246.Theroot
shouldbekeptdistinctfrom*Kjnat'wing'.

Proto-Turkic:*Kil-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tostaybehind,remain
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qal-(Orkh.,OUygh.,Yenis.)
Karakhanid:qal-(MK,KB)
Turkish:kal-
Tatar:qal-
MiddleTurkic:qal-(Sangl.,Qutb.,Houts.,AH,IM,MA,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ql-
Uighur:qal-
Azerbaidzhan:Gal-
Turkmen:Gl-
Khakassian:xal-
Shor:qal-
Oyrat:qal-
Chuvash:jol-
Yakut:xl-
Dolgan:kl-
Tuva:qal-
Tofalar:qal-
Kirghiz:qal-
868
Kazakh:qal-
Noghai:qal-
Bashkir:qal-
Balkar:qal-
Karakalpak:qal-
Kumyk:qal-
Comments:EDT615-616,VEWT224,5,226-227,347,
2,483,Stachowski142.

Proto-Turkic:*K(i)l

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:eyebrow;edge,bank;saddlebow
Russianmeaning:;,;
OldTurkic:qa(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qa(MK,KB)
Turkish:ka(dial.)
Tatar:qa
MiddleTurkic:qa(Sangl.,Pav.C.,Abush.),qa(CCum.)
Uzbek:q
Uighur:qa
Azerbaidzhan:Ga
Turkmen:G
Khakassian:xas
Shor:qa
Oyrat:qa
Yakut:xs
Dolgan:ks
Tuva:qa
Tofalar:xa
Kirghiz:qa
869
Kazakh:qas
Noghai:qas
Bashkir:qa
Karaim:qa
Karakalpak:qas
Kumyk:qa
Comments:EDT669,VEWT240,TMN3,389,5,343-345,
211-212,542,Stachowski143.

Proto-Turkic:*Kin
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:blood
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qan(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qan(MK)
Turkish:kan
Tatar:qan
MiddleTurkic:qan(MA,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qn
Uighur:qan
Sary-Yughur:qan
Azerbaidzhan:Gan
Turkmen:Gn
Khakassian:xan
Shor:qan
Oyrat:qan
Halaj:qn
Chuvash:jon
Yakut:xn
Dolgan:kn
870
Tuva:xan
Tofalar:xan
Kirghiz:qan
Kazakh:qan
Noghai:qan
Bashkir:qan
Balkar:qan
Gagauz:qan
Karaim:qan
Karakalpak:qan
Salar:Ga(:)n
Kumyk:qan
Comments:VEWT230,TMN3,360-361,EDT629-630,5,251,
349,2,486,Stachowski142.Turk.>WMong.qana-'to
letbleed'(KW166,TMN3,361,1997,133).

Proto-Turkic:*Kir-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tomix
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qar-(MKOghuz)
Turkish:kar-
MiddleTurkic:qar-(Abush.)
Uzbek:qr-
Turkmen:Gr-
Chuvash:jor-,jur-
Karakalpak:qar-
Comments:5,285,EDT642-643,.IV,351-352,2,
490-491.

871
Proto-Turkic:*Kir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:snow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qar(Orkh.,Yenis.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qar(MK,KB)
Turkish:kar
Tatar:qar
MiddleTurkic:qar(Sangl.,Qutb.,Houts.)
Uzbek:qr
Uighur:qar,qaa
Azerbaidzhan:Gar
Turkmen:Gr
Khakassian:xar
Shor:qar
Oyrat:qar
Chuvash:jor
Yakut:xr
Dolgan:kr
Tuva:xar
Tofalar:xar
Kirghiz:qar
Kazakh:qar
Noghai:qar
Bashkir:qar
Balkar:qar
Gagauz:qr
Karakalpak:qar
Kumyk:qar
872
Comments:5,284-285,EDT641,VEWT235,350,
2,490,27,Stachowski142.

Proto-Turkic:*Kiben-te
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:shoulderyoke
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:kjnt
Chuvash:kvende
Kazakh:kjete
Noghai:kjen
Bashkir:kjnt
Comments:VEWT306(thewordshouldbedistinguishedfrom*Kb-'to
pound'q.v.sub*giube).

Proto-Turkic:*kik/-g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:small,little
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kiig(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kig(MK)
Turkish:kk,kii(dial.)
Tatar:kee
MiddleTurkic:kiik(IM,AH,Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kiik
Uighur:kiik
Sary-Yughur:ki
Azerbaidzhan:kiik
Turkmen:kii
Khakassian:kg
873
Oyrat:ki
Chuvash:kz n
Yakut:kuuguj
Dolgan:kuuguj,kgj
Kirghiz:ki
Kazakh:ki
Noghai:kikej
Bashkir:kese
Balkar:gie
Gagauz:kk,kk
Karaim:kiken
Karakalpak:ki
Salar:kii
Comments:VEWT269,EDT696,5,75-77,Stachowski159,163.
OnTurk.>Hung.kis'small'seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*kidir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:felt
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kidiz(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kiiz(MK,KB)
Turkish:kijiz,kejiz(dial.)
Tatar:kijez
MiddleTurkic:kijiz(IM,Abush.,Qutb.,Houts.)
Uzbek:kigiz
Uighur:kigiz
Turkmen:kz
Khakassian:ks
Oyrat:kijis
874
Tuva:kidis
Kirghiz:kijiz
Kazakh:kijiz
Noghai:kijiz
Bashkir:keje
Balkar:kijiz
Karakalpak:kijiz,kijgiz(dial.)
Kumyk:kijiz
Comments:VEWT270,TMN3,661-662,5,66-67,392.
Turk.>MMong.kijiz(1997,127).

Proto-Turkic:*Kik-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:torub,grind(ateachother)
Russianmeaning:,()
Karakhanid:kik-'tosharpenandwhetaknife',kikr-'whetaknife'(MK)
Yakut:kikir-'torubwithanoise'
Comments:VEWT270,EDT710,714.

Proto-Turkic:*kile-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tohobble,bound2fetters
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:kie-(OUygh.)1,kien(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:kie-(MK,KB)1,kien(MK)2
Turkish:kean'headstall,fetters'
Tatar:kit3
MiddleTurkic:kien'chain'(Sangl.,Houts.),Kypch.kien(CCum.)2
Uighur:kin2
Turkmen:ken'chains'
875
Kirghiz:kien2
Balkar:kien2
Comments:VEWT258,EDT753.Someformspointto*kl

-,possiblyunder
theinfluenceof*kel'belt'(v.sub*k`ele).

Proto-Turkic:*kili
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:person,people
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kii(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kii(MK,KB)
Turkish:kii
Tatar:kee
MiddleTurkic:kii(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:kii
Uighur:kii
Sary-Yughur:kisi
Azerbaidzhan:kii
Turkmen:kii
Khakassian:kz
Shor:kii
Oyrat:kii
Yakut:kihi
Dolgan:kihi
Tuva:kii
Tofalar:kii
Kirghiz:kii
Kazakh:kisi
Noghai:kisi
Bashkir:kee
876
Balkar:kii
Gagauz:kii
Karaim:kii
Karakalpak:kisi
Salar:kii
Kumyk:kii
Comments:VEWT272,EDT752-753,5,78-79,325,
Stachowski147.

Proto-Turkic:*kir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dirt
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kir(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kir(MK,KB)
Turkish:kir
Tatar:ker
MiddleTurkic:kir(Houts.,Pav.C,AH)
Uzbek:kir
Uighur:kir
Azerbaidzhan:kir
Turkmen:kir
Khakassian:kr
Oyrat:kir
Chuvash:kirk'dirtonbody,dandruff'
Yakut:kir
Dolgan:kir
Tuva:xir
Kirghiz:kir
Kazakh:kir
877
Noghai:kir
Bashkir:ker
Gagauz:kir
Karaim:kir
Karakalpak:kir
Kumyk:kir
Comments:EDT735,VEWT271,5,69-70,Stachowski148.

Proto-Turkic:*Kir-del
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:aneighbourwholivesinthesamehouse
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:kirde(MK)
Comments:EDT739.ThewordisattestedonlyinOT,butmodernforms
likeOyr.kr,Tat.kri'neighbour'etc.(5,118-119;>Mong.kri,
seeClark1980,41)mayactuallybelonghere,beingtransformedunderthe
influenceofkr-'toseeeachother'.DifficultisYak.kre,kr'wife's
youngersister':Poppe1961,138regardsitasgeneticallyrelatedtothe
Mongolianforms,butonecannotexcludeasecondaryloan<Evk.kurien.

Proto-Turkic:*kirpik
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:eyelash
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kirpik(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kirpik(MK)
Turkish:kirpik
Tatar:kerfek
MiddleTurkic:kirpik(Sangl.,Pav.C.),kirpk(MA)
Uzbek:kiprik
878
Uighur:ki(r)pik
Sary-Yughur:kirmik
Azerbaidzhan:kirpik
Turkmen:kirpik
Khakassian:krbk
Oyrat:kirbik
Halaj:kirpik
Chuvash:xrbx,xrbk,(dial.)xrbu
Yakut:kirbj,kirb'edge'
Tuva:kirbik
Kirghiz:kirpik
Kazakh:krpk
Noghai:kirpik
Bashkir:kerpek
Gagauz:kirpik
Karaim:kirpik
Karakalpak:kirpik
Kumyk:kirpik
Comments:VEWT272,EDT737-738,5,74-75,2,333-
334,213.Cf.alsotheverb*Krm-/*Krp-'towink'(6,221).
Thefrontrowvarianthereisprobablysecondary.

Proto-Turkic:*kl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sable
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ki(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:ki(MK,KB)
Tatar:ke
MiddleTurkic:ki(MA,Pav.C.,Sangl.)
879
Uzbek:ki
Oyrat:ki
Chuvash:k
Yakut:ks
Dolgan:ks
Tuva:ki
Kirghiz:ki
Kazakh:kis
Noghai:kis,ki
Bashkir:ke
Kumyk:ki
Comments:VEWT272,TMN3,664-665,EDT752,1961,143,
5,77-78,162-163,Stachowski149(oneoftheTurk.-
Samoyed.contactwords;becauseoftheTungusparallel,probablyTurk.>
Samoyed.,despiteHelimski1995).TheChuvashformrevealsirregular
vocalismandmayinfactreflectamergerwithPT*Kl

l'rat,mole'(v.sub
*k`e

lu).Turk.>Mong.er-kis'malesable',ebsi-gis'femalesable'(seeClark
1980,43).

Proto-Turkic:*kn,*kn-dk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1navel,navelstring,centre2navelofamusk-deer,musk
Russianmeaning:1,,2,
OldTurkic:kin',vagina;',kindik1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kin(KB),kn(MK)2
Turkish:kindik,knk(dial.)1
Tatar:kendek1
MiddleTurkic:kindik(MA,Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:kindik,kindak1
Uighur:kindik1
880
Sary-Yughur:kendek1()
Turkmen:kindik(dial.)1
Khakassian:kn1,kndk1
Oyrat:kindik1,kin2
Halaj:kindik1
Chuvash:kndk(dial.)
Yakut:kn1
Tuva:xin1,2,xindik1,2
Tofalar:xin1,2
Kirghiz:kindik1
Kazakh:kindik1
Noghai:kindik1
Bashkir:kendek1
Balkar:kindik1
Karaim:kindik1,'belly'
Karakalpak:kindik1
Salar:kinix,kintix1
Kumyk:gindik1
Comments:VEWT271,EDT725,729,5,68-69,279-280.
Turk.>Mong.kindik(1997,127).
Forward:120
Proto-Turkic:*Kb
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1luck,happiness2tobehappy,enjoy
Russianmeaning:12,,

OldTurkic:qv1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qv1(MK)
Turkish:kwan-2,kv1(dial.)
Tatar:quan-2
881
MiddleTurkic:quvan-2(..)
Uzbek:quvn-2
Sary-Yughur:qo1
Turkmen:Guwan-2
Chuvash:xvan-(dial.)
Kirghiz:quban-2
Kazakh:quvan-2
Noghai:quvan-2
Bashkir:qwan-2
Balkar:quvan-2
Karaim:quvan-2
Karakalpak:quvan-2
Kumyk:quvan-2
Comments:VEWT268,EDT579,6,99-101,Clark1977,146.

Proto-Turkic:*Kbak/*Kabak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:whitepoplar,willow
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:kavak
Tatar:quvaq
MiddleTurkic:qawaq(Houts.)
Uighur:qapaq(Jarr.)
Azerbaidzhan:GovaG
Oyrat:qq,dial.qabaq
Chuvash:va
Tuva:xk
Tofalar:x

k
Bashkir:qwaq
Gagauz:qavaq
882
Comments:VEWT215,5,170-171,TMN3,534-535.Thevariant
*Kabakisprobablysecondary,duetovowelassimilation;qapaqinUygh.is
alsosecondary-acontaminationwith*Kap-'cover'.

Proto-Turkic:*K-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toscratch,scrape;toitch
Russianmeaning:,;
Tatar:q-
MiddleTurkic:q-
Uzbek:qii-
Uighur:qii-
Khakassian:x-
Oyrat:q-
Chuvash:kz ''
Yakut:khj-;khax'scraper'
Dolgan:khak'scraper'
Tuva:kii-
Kirghiz:q-
Kazakh:q-
Noghai:q-
Bashkir:qs-
Karakalpak:q-
Comments:VEWT260,6,186-187,Stachowski167.

Proto-Turkic:*K
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:foot,shin
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:k'foot,shin;coccyx,behind'
883
MiddleTurkic:q(AH)
Azerbaidzhan:G
Turkmen:G(dial.)
Shor:qs''
Chuvash:xs'back,behind'
Yakut:ksberbkej','(?)
Gagauz:q
Comments:281,6,252-253.

Proto-Turkic:*Ka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1passion,wish2todemand3tothreaten
Russianmeaning:1,23

Khakassian:xa1,xan-3
Shor:qan-3
Oyrat:qa1
Tuva:qan-3
Kirghiz:qa-2
Kazakh:qsa'commotion,anger'(R2,803-Kir.)
Comments:VEWT260.

Proto-Turkic:*K-gr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toshout,cry
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:qqr-
Uighur:qiqir-
Azerbaidzhan:GGr-
Khakassian:xsxr-
884
Shor:qr-
Oyrat:qr-
Yakut:kskj-'towhistle'
Tuva:qqr-
Kirghiz:qqr-
Bashkir:qsqr-
Balkar:qr-
Kumyk:qr-
Comments:VEWT261.Turk.>WMong.qaskira-,Kalm.xkr-(KW178).

Proto-Turkic:*Kd-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1edge,border,seashore,frontier2margin,edging
Russianmeaning:1,,2,
OldTurkic:qd(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:q(MK)1
Turkish:kj,kj1
Sary-Yughur:qz1
Shor:qj2
Oyrat:quju1
Chuvash:xr1
Yakut:kt1,2
Tuva:qd1,2
Kirghiz:qj2
Kazakh:qjw2
Noghai:qjuw2
Karakalpak:qjw2
Kumyk:qjw2
885
Comments:EDT598,VEWT261,94,6,196-197,203.The
rootisalsoattestedinverbalfunction(*Kd-'toborder,hem'),see6,
196.

Proto-Turkic:*Kj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tocutaslant,makenotches2tocutinsmallpieces
Russianmeaning:1,2

Karakhanid:qj-(MK)1
Turkish:kj-2
MiddleTurkic:qj-(AH,Ettuhf.)1
Uzbek:qij-1
Turkmen:Gj-1
Khakassian:xj-1
Oyrat:qj-1
Chuvash:xjchip,sliver
Yakut:kj-'walkaround'
Tuva:qj-1
Kirghiz:qj-1
Noghai:qj-1
Gagauz:qj-2
Karakalpak:qj-
Comments:VEWT261,6,197-200.Turk.*kjga>Kalm.ks(KW
234).ThemeaningoftheOrkh.hapaxqd-(seeEDT595)isquiteinsecure
andcannotserveasabasisforreconstructing*Kd-;allotherforms
(includingqj-'tocutaslant'andqj-ma'cutmeat'inMK)point
unambiguouslyto*Kj-,see6,200,202-203.Thereexistalso
commonTurkicderivatives*Kj-rand*Kj-k'oblique,bent'.

886
Proto-Turkic:*Kj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1greedy,miserly2wise,clever3tooffer,sacrifice4todare
Russianmeaning:1,2,3,
,4,,
Turkish:kj-3
Tatar:qj-4
MiddleTurkic:qj-4(AH)
Azerbaidzhan:Gj-3,4
Khakassian:xja2,xjtx1
Oyrat:qja1
Chuvash:xj-4
Kirghiz:qj-3,4
Kazakh:qj-3
Bashkir:qj-4
Gagauz:qj-4
Karaim:qj-3
Karakalpak:qj-3
Comments:VEWT262,6,197-198(confusedwith*Kj-'tocutaslant'
whichshouldbeprobablykeptapart).

Proto-Turkic:*Kj(g)ak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sedge
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kjak(dial.)'marsh'
Tatar:qjaq'leavesofcereals'
MiddleTurkic:qija(Pav.C.)'cutdriedgrass'
Uzbek:qijq
Uighur:qijaq'grass'
887
Azerbaidzhan:gijax(dial.)'grassname'
Turkmen:Gjaq''
Khakassian:xjanax
Oyrat:qjaq
Halaj:qijq'softplantsasanimalfood'
Chuvash:xja(:xjax)
Kirghiz:qjaq'',qjaq'sedge'
Kazakh:qjaq'grassname'
Noghai:qjaq
Bashkir:qjaq'leavesofcereals';dial.qjaqid.,''
Karaim:qjaq'bulb'
Karakalpak:qjaq'reedleaves'
Kumyk:qjaq
Comments:VEWT262,6,201-202.Turk.>Mong.kijagid.(Kalm.
kg,KW222,Khalkhaxiag,Bur.x g,Ord.kg,cf.TMN3,566).Cf.also
Karakh.(MK)qajauq'afragrantmountaingrass'.

Proto-Turkic:*Kjl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobow,bend
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:q-(MK)'todeviate'
Turkish:k-
Uighur:qijaj-
Turkmen:Gar-
Kirghiz:qjaj-
Kazakh:qjsaqta-
Noghai:qjsaj-
Bashkir:qjanda-
Balkar:qjsaj-<Nogh.
888
Comments:EDT670,VEWT268,TMN3,571-573.

Proto-Turkic:*Kjm-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tomove
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qmt-(MK)
Turkish:kmlda-
Uzbek:qim-
Uighur:qimil'movement'
Azerbaidzhan:Gmldan-
Turkmen:Gmlda-
Khakassian:xjmra-
Oyrat:qjmqta-
Kirghiz:qjml'movement'
Kazakh:qjml'movement'
Bashkir:qjmlda-''
Balkar:qmlda-
Comments:VEWT262.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thin2short
Russianmeaning:12
Khakassian:xlbs
Oyrat:qlbq,qlbs1
Chuvash:xldrke',,'
Yakut:klgas2
Dolgan:klgas2
Kirghiz:qlmj-
889
Kazakh:qlmj-
Comments:OntherarereflexesofthisrootseeVEWT263,Stachowski
168.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:winter
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:q(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:q(MK)
Turkish:k
Tatar:q
MiddleTurkic:q(AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qi
Uighur:qi
Sary-Yughur:qs
Azerbaidzhan:G
Turkmen:G
Khakassian:xs
Shor:q
Oyrat:q
Halaj:q
Chuvash:xl
Yakut:ks,khn
Dolgan:khn
Tuva:q`
Kirghiz:q
Kazakh:qs
Noghai:qs
Bashkir:q
890
Balkar:q
Gagauz:q
Karaim:q
Karakalpak:qs
Kumyk:q
Comments:EDT670,VEWT268,TMN3,479,75-76,6,
253-254,Stachowski167-168.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todo,tomake
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ql-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ql-(MK)
Turkish:kl-
Tatar:ql-
MiddleTurkic:ql-(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:qil-
Uighur:qil-
Azerbaidzhan:Gl-
Turkmen:ql-
Khakassian:xl-
Shor:ql-
Oyrat:ql-
Chuvash:s-xl' '
Yakut:kn-
Dolgan:gn-
Tuva:ql-
Kirghiz:ql-
Kazakh:ql-
891
Noghai:ql-
Bashkir:ql-
Balkar:ql-
Karaim:ql-
Karakalpak:ql-
Kumyk:ql-
Comments:EDT616,VEWT263,6,205-206,Stachowski88.Turk.
*kl-n'deed'>Mong.kiline'sin'(seeClark1980,43).

Proto-Turkic:*Kla-gu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1snow-flakesinwindlessweather2hoar-frost3firstsnow
Russianmeaning:1,2,
3
Kirghiz:qlamq3
Kazakh:qlaw1
Bashkir:qlaw2
Kumyk:qlaw2
Comments:6,207.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl-ga-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:beard(ofgrain),awn
Russianmeaning:()
Azerbaidzhan:Gla(dial.)'thirdharvestonvirginsoil'
Khakassian:xla
Oyrat:qlan,qla
Chuvash:xlx
Yakut:kln
Tofalar:xlan
892
Kirghiz:qlqan
Kazakh:qlqan
Bashkir:qlan(dial.)
Karakalpak:qlqan
Comments:VEWT263,127,6,208-209.TheKypchak
namesof"meadowgrass"(Kirgh.qlqanetc.,seeibid.,6,
208)aremostprobablyborrowedfromMongolian.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:handle,ear(ofakettle,bucket)
Russianmeaning:,(,)
Tatar:ql,ql(dial.)
Khakassian:xla,xl
Shor:ql
Oyrat:ql,qld

Yakut:kld

Kazakh:ql
Bashkir:ql,qls(dial.)
Comments:VEWT263,6,209-210.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sword
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ql(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ql(MK)
Turkish:kl,kl
Tatar:ql
MiddleTurkic:ql(Pav.C.)
893
Uzbek:qili
Uighur:qili
Sary-Yughur:ql
Azerbaidzhan:Gl
Turkmen:Gl
Khakassian:xls
Shor:ql
Oyrat:ql
Halaj:Gl
Chuvash:xs
Yakut:kls,kls
Tuva:xl
Kirghiz:ql
Kazakh:ql
Noghai:ql
Bashkir:qls
Balkar:ql
Gagauz:ql
Karaim:ql
Karakalpak:ql
Kumyk:ql
Comments:EDT618,VEWT263,570,6,212-214.Cf.also
*Kla-gu'blade'(VEWT263,6,207-208).

Proto-Turkic:*Kl(k)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hair
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ql(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ql(MK,KB)
894
Turkish:kl
Tatar:ql
MiddleTurkic:ql(IM)
Uzbek:qil
Uighur:qil
Sary-Yughur:ql
Azerbaidzhan:Gl
Turkmen:Gl
Khakassian:xl
Shor:ql(R.)
Oyrat:ql
Halaj:ql
Chuvash:xlx
Yakut:kl
Dolgan:kl'sealine'
Tuva:xl
Tofalar:xl
Kirghiz:ql
Kazakh:ql
Noghai:ql
Bashkir:ql
Balkar:ql
Gagauz:ql
Karaim:ql
Karakalpak:ql
Kumyk:ql
Comments:VEWT262,TMN3,574-5,EDT614,196,6,
204-205,Stachowski168.

Proto-Turkic:*Kb
895
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1luck,happiness2tobehappy,enjoy
Russianmeaning:12,,

OldTurkic:qv1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qv1(MK)
Turkish:kwan-2,kv1(dial.)
Tatar:quan-2
MiddleTurkic:quvan-2(..)
Uzbek:quvn-2
Sary-Yughur:qo1
Turkmen:Guwan-2
Chuvash:xvan-(dial.)
Kirghiz:quban-2
Kazakh:quvan-2
Noghai:quvan-2
Bashkir:qwan-2
Balkar:quvan-2
Karaim:quvan-2
Karakalpak:quvan-2
Kumyk:quvan-2
Comments:VEWT268,EDT579,6,99-101,Clark1977,146.

Proto-Turkic:*Kbak/*Kabak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:whitepoplar,willow
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:kavak
Tatar:quvaq
MiddleTurkic:qawaq(Houts.)
896
Uighur:qapaq(Jarr.)
Azerbaidzhan:GovaG
Oyrat:qq,dial.qabaq
Chuvash:va
Tuva:xk
Tofalar:x

k
Bashkir:qwaq
Gagauz:qavaq
Comments:VEWT215,5,170-171,TMN3,534-535.Thevariant
*Kabakisprobablysecondary,duetovowelassimilation;qapaqinUygh.is
alsosecondary-acontaminationwith*Kap-'cover'.

Proto-Turkic:*K-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toscratch,scrape;toitch
Russianmeaning:,;
Tatar:q-
MiddleTurkic:q-
Uzbek:qii-
Uighur:qii-
Khakassian:x-
Oyrat:q-
Chuvash:kz ''
Yakut:khj-;khax'scraper'
Dolgan:khak'scraper'
Tuva:kii-
Kirghiz:q-
Kazakh:q-
Noghai:q-
Bashkir:qs-
897
Karakalpak:q-
Comments:VEWT260,6,186-187,Stachowski167.

Proto-Turkic:*K
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:foot,shin
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:k'foot,shin;coccyx,behind'
MiddleTurkic:q(AH)
Azerbaidzhan:G
Turkmen:G(dial.)
Shor:qs''
Chuvash:xs'back,behind'
Yakut:ksberbkej','(?)
Gagauz:q
Comments:281,6,252-253.

Proto-Turkic:*Ka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1passion,wish2todemand3tothreaten
Russianmeaning:1,23

Khakassian:xa1,xan-3
Shor:qan-3
Oyrat:qa1
Tuva:qan-3
Kirghiz:qa-2
Kazakh:qsa'commotion,anger'(R2,803-Kir.)
Comments:VEWT260.

898
Proto-Turkic:*K-gr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toshout,cry
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:qqr-
Uighur:qiqir-
Azerbaidzhan:GGr-
Khakassian:xsxr-
Shor:qr-
Oyrat:qr-
Yakut:kskj-'towhistle'
Tuva:qqr-
Kirghiz:qqr-
Bashkir:qsqr-
Balkar:qr-
Kumyk:qr-
Comments:VEWT261.Turk.>WMong.qaskira-,Kalm.xkr-(KW178).

Proto-Turkic:*Kd-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1edge,border,seashore,frontier2margin,edging
Russianmeaning:1,,2,
OldTurkic:qd(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:q(MK)1
Turkish:kj,kj1
Sary-Yughur:qz1
Shor:qj2
Oyrat:quju1
Chuvash:xr1
Yakut:kt1,2
899
Tuva:qd1,2
Kirghiz:qj2
Kazakh:qjw2
Noghai:qjuw2
Karakalpak:qjw2
Kumyk:qjw2
Comments:EDT598,VEWT261,94,6,196-197,203.The
rootisalsoattestedinverbalfunction(*Kd-'toborder,hem'),see6,
196.

Proto-Turkic:*Kj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tocutaslant,makenotches2tocutinsmallpieces
Russianmeaning:1,2

Karakhanid:qj-(MK)1
Turkish:kj-2
MiddleTurkic:qj-(AH,Ettuhf.)1
Uzbek:qij-1
Turkmen:Gj-1
Khakassian:xj-1
Oyrat:qj-1
Chuvash:xjchip,sliver
Yakut:kj-'walkaround'
Tuva:qj-1
Kirghiz:qj-1
Noghai:qj-1
Gagauz:qj-2
Karakalpak:qj-
900
Comments:VEWT261,6,197-200.Turk.*kjga>Kalm.ks(KW
234).ThemeaningoftheOrkh.hapaxqd-(seeEDT595)isquiteinsecure
andcannotserveasabasisforreconstructing*Kd-;allotherforms
(includingqj-'tocutaslant'andqj-ma'cutmeat'inMK)point
unambiguouslyto*Kj-,see6,200,202-203.Thereexistalso
commonTurkicderivatives*Kj-rand*Kj-k'oblique,bent'.

Proto-Turkic:*Kj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1greedy,miserly2wise,clever3tooffer,sacrifice4todare
Russianmeaning:1,2,3,
,4,,
Turkish:kj-3
Tatar:qj-4
MiddleTurkic:qj-4(AH)
Azerbaidzhan:Gj-3,4
Khakassian:xja2,xjtx1
Oyrat:qja1
Chuvash:xj-4
Kirghiz:qj-3,4
Kazakh:qj-3
Bashkir:qj-4
Gagauz:qj-4
Karaim:qj-3
Karakalpak:qj-3
Comments:VEWT262,6,197-198(confusedwith*Kj-'tocutaslant'
whichshouldbeprobablykeptapart).

Proto-Turkic:*Kj(g)ak
Altaicetymology:
901
Meaning:sedge
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kjak(dial.)'marsh'
Tatar:qjaq'leavesofcereals'
MiddleTurkic:qija(Pav.C.)'cutdriedgrass'
Uzbek:qijq
Uighur:qijaq'grass'
Azerbaidzhan:gijax(dial.)'grassname'
Turkmen:Gjaq''
Khakassian:xjanax
Oyrat:qjaq
Halaj:qijq'softplantsasanimalfood'
Chuvash:xja(:xjax)
Kirghiz:qjaq'',qjaq'sedge'
Kazakh:qjaq'grassname'
Noghai:qjaq
Bashkir:qjaq'leavesofcereals';dial.qjaqid.,''
Karaim:qjaq'bulb'
Karakalpak:qjaq'reedleaves'
Kumyk:qjaq
Comments:VEWT262,6,201-202.Turk.>Mong.kijagid.(Kalm.
kg,KW222,Khalkhaxiag,Bur.x g,Ord.kg,cf.TMN3,566).Cf.also
Karakh.(MK)qajauq'afragrantmountaingrass'.

Proto-Turkic:*Kjl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobow,bend
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:q-(MK)'todeviate'
Turkish:k-
902
Uighur:qijaj-
Turkmen:Gar-
Kirghiz:qjaj-
Kazakh:qjsaqta-
Noghai:qjsaj-
Bashkir:qjanda-
Balkar:qjsaj-<Nogh.
Comments:EDT670,VEWT268,TMN3,571-573.

Proto-Turkic:*Kjm-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tomove
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qmt-(MK)
Turkish:kmlda-
Uzbek:qim-
Uighur:qimil'movement'
Azerbaidzhan:Gmldan-
Turkmen:Gmlda-
Khakassian:xjmra-
Oyrat:qjmqta-
Kirghiz:qjml'movement'
Kazakh:qjml'movement'
Bashkir:qjmlda-''
Balkar:qmlda-
Comments:VEWT262.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thin2short
903
Russianmeaning:12
Khakassian:xlbs
Oyrat:qlbq,qlbs1
Chuvash:xldrke',,'
Yakut:klgas2
Dolgan:klgas2
Kirghiz:qlmj-
Kazakh:qlmj-
Comments:OntherarereflexesofthisrootseeVEWT263,Stachowski
168.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:winter
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:q(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:q(MK)
Turkish:k
Tatar:q
MiddleTurkic:q(AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qi
Uighur:qi
Sary-Yughur:qs
Azerbaidzhan:G
Turkmen:G
Khakassian:xs
Shor:q
Oyrat:q
Halaj:q
Chuvash:xl
904
Yakut:ks,khn
Dolgan:khn
Tuva:q`
Kirghiz:q
Kazakh:qs
Noghai:qs
Bashkir:q
Balkar:q
Gagauz:q
Karaim:q
Karakalpak:qs
Kumyk:q
Comments:EDT670,VEWT268,TMN3,479,75-76,6,
253-254,Stachowski167-168.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todo,tomake
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ql-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ql-(MK)
Turkish:kl-
Tatar:ql-
MiddleTurkic:ql-(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:qil-
Uighur:qil-
Azerbaidzhan:Gl-
Turkmen:ql-
Khakassian:xl-
Shor:ql-
905
Oyrat:ql-
Chuvash:s-xl' '
Yakut:kn-
Dolgan:gn-
Tuva:ql-
Kirghiz:ql-
Kazakh:ql-
Noghai:ql-
Bashkir:ql-
Balkar:ql-
Karaim:ql-
Karakalpak:ql-
Kumyk:ql-
Comments:EDT616,VEWT263,6,205-206,Stachowski88.Turk.
*kl-n'deed'>Mong.kiline'sin'(seeClark1980,43).

Proto-Turkic:*Kla-gu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1snow-flakesinwindlessweather2hoar-frost3firstsnow
Russianmeaning:1,2,
3
Kirghiz:qlamq3
Kazakh:qlaw1
Bashkir:qlaw2
Kumyk:qlaw2
Comments:6,207.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl-ga-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:beard(ofgrain),awn
906
Russianmeaning:()
Azerbaidzhan:Gla(dial.)'thirdharvestonvirginsoil'
Khakassian:xla
Oyrat:qlan,qla
Chuvash:xlx
Yakut:kln
Tofalar:xlan
Kirghiz:qlqan
Kazakh:qlqan
Bashkir:qlan(dial.)
Karakalpak:qlqan
Comments:VEWT263,127,6,208-209.TheKypchak
namesof"meadowgrass"(Kirgh.qlqanetc.,seeibid.,6,
208)aremostprobablyborrowedfromMongolian.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:handle,ear(ofakettle,bucket)
Russianmeaning:,(,)
Tatar:ql,ql(dial.)
Khakassian:xla,xl
Shor:ql
Oyrat:ql,qld

Yakut:kld

Kazakh:ql
Bashkir:ql,qls(dial.)
Comments:VEWT263,6,209-210.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl
Altaicetymology:
907
Meaning:sword
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ql(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ql(MK)
Turkish:kl,kl
Tatar:ql
MiddleTurkic:ql(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qili
Uighur:qili
Sary-Yughur:ql
Azerbaidzhan:Gl
Turkmen:Gl
Khakassian:xls
Shor:ql
Oyrat:ql
Halaj:Gl
Chuvash:xs
Yakut:kls,kls
Tuva:xl
Kirghiz:ql
Kazakh:ql
Noghai:ql
Bashkir:qls
Balkar:ql
Gagauz:ql
Karaim:ql
Karakalpak:ql
Kumyk:ql
Comments:EDT618,VEWT263,570,6,212-214.Cf.also
*Kla-gu'blade'(VEWT263,6,207-208).
908

Proto-Turkic:*Kl(k)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hair
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ql(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ql(MK,KB)
Turkish:kl
Tatar:ql
MiddleTurkic:ql(IM)
Uzbek:qil
Uighur:qil
Sary-Yughur:ql
Azerbaidzhan:Gl
Turkmen:Gl
Khakassian:xl
Shor:ql(R.)
Oyrat:ql
Halaj:ql
Chuvash:xlx
Yakut:kl
Dolgan:kl'sealine'
Tuva:xl
Tofalar:xl
Kirghiz:ql
Kazakh:ql
Noghai:ql
Bashkir:ql
Balkar:ql
Gagauz:ql
909
Karaim:ql
Karakalpak:ql
Kumyk:ql
Comments:VEWT262,TMN3,574-5,EDT614,196,6,
204-205,Stachowski168.

Proto-Turkic:*Km-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1towish,intend2topersuade
Russianmeaning:1,2
Tatar:qmn-(Sib.)1
MiddleTurkic:qmsa-n-1
Oyrat:qm-2,qmzn-1
Chuvash:xmlen-','
Yakut:kmrd-,kumrd-',',kumsugur-
''
Balkar:qmtm''
Comments:VEWT263.

Proto-Turkic:*Kn-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tolongfor,covet,tobeobsessedwith2tolong(sexually)3
coire
Russianmeaning:1,2()3coire
OldTurkic:qn-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qn-1(MK)
Turkish:kn-1,2
Khakassian:xn-,xnx-1,2
Shor:qn-1
Oyrat:qn-,qnq-1
910
Chuvash:xnx-1
Yakut:kn-3
Kirghiz:qnq-1
Comments:VEWT264,EDT632,6,632.

Proto-Turkic:*Kna
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:helminth
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:xna
Oyrat:qna
Kirghiz:qna''
Comments:VEWT264.

Proto-Turkic:*K-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bent,oblique
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qr(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qr(MK)
Tatar:qr
MiddleTurkic:qr(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:qiir
Uighur:qii(r)
Turkmen:Gr
Yakut:knar','
Kirghiz:qr
Kazakh:qr
Bashkir:qr(dial.)
Balkar:qr
911
Karaim:qr
Karakalpak:qr
Kumyk:qr
Comments:VEWT264-265,EDT639,6,220-221.OTqraq
'curveddagger'>WMong.kiira,kigara(Kalm.kr,Khalkhax agar).

Proto-Turkic:*Kp
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fabric
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:xp'lining,covering'
Yakut:kbas''
Kirghiz:qpq'kerchief,sash'
Bashkir:qptr'()'
Balkar:qppa'skein,clew'
Comments:VEWT265.

Proto-Turkic:*Kp-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1topresstogether2scissors3tongs4tocut(withscissors)
Russianmeaning:123
Karakhanid:qftu(MK)2
Turkish:kpt(dial.)2,k(r)p-4
MiddleTurkic:qpt2(Houts.,Ettuhf.)
Azerbaidzhan:Grp-4
Turkmen:Gp-1
Khakassian:xpt2,xpla-4
Shor:qpt2,qpla-4
Oyrat:qpta2,qpn-1
Chuvash:xpk3
912
Yakut:kptj2,kbt-,kbj-1
Dolgan:kptj-2
Balkar:qpt2
Karaim:qpt2
Comments:VEWT234,EDT582,6,221-222,224,Stachowski168.

Proto-Turkic:*Kp-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1spark2ashes
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:qpqn1
Khakassian:xbn1,2
Oyrat:qbn1,qbr2
Yakut:kban1
Kirghiz:qpn1
Kazakh:qpqn2
Comments:VEWT263,265,369,6,223.

Proto-Turkic:*Kp-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sense,invention,cleverness2toinvent,thinkof
Russianmeaning:1,,2
Khakassian:xb-
Oyrat:qb-
Chuvash:xbl'dexterous'
Yakut:kp'dexterously'
Kirghiz:qba'experiencedperson'
Comments:VEWT260.

Proto-Turkic:*Kr-
913
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobreak,demolish2small3toscrape,shave
Russianmeaning:1,23,
Karakhanid:qr-3'toscrape;totearout'
Turkish:kr-1
Tatar:qr-3
MiddleTurkic:qr-1,3(Pav.C.),1,'tocutoff'(..)
Uzbek:qir-3
Uighur:qi(r)-3
Sary-Yughur:qr-3
Azerbaidzhan:Gr-1
Turkmen:Gr-1,3
Khakassian:xr-3,'tocut'
Shor:qr-
Oyrat:qr-3
Halaj:qr-1
Chuvash:xr-1
Yakut:krj-'toshear,cut';kra2
Dolgan:krj-'toshear,cut';kra2
Tuva:qr-3
Tofalar:qr-3
Kirghiz:qr-3
Kazakh:qr-3
Noghai:qr-3
Bashkir:qr-1,3
Balkar:qr-
Gagauz:qr-1
Karaim:qr-1,3
Karakalpak:qr-3
Salar:qr-3
914
Kumyk:qr-1,3
Comments:VEWT265;EDT643;TMN3,567,382,6,
227-229,Stachowski168,170.TheYak.formkra'small'isarather
transparentsemanticalderivative,althoughitisnotusuallylistedamong
thereflexesofPT*Kr-.

Proto-Turkic:*Kr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1isolatedmountain2mountaintop,mountainridge3steppe,
desert,levelground4edge
Russianmeaning:12,
,3,,4
Karakhanid:qr1(MK,KB),'risingground'(IM,14c.)
Turkish:kr3
Tatar:qr3,4
MiddleTurkic:qr(Sangl.),qir(Pav.C.)2,3
Uzbek:qir2,3,4
Uighur:qir3,4
Turkmen:Gr3
Khakassian:xr2,'roof'
Shor:qr
Oyrat:qr2,3,4
Chuvash:xir3
Yakut:krtas2;krdal'hill'
Dolgan:krdal'hill'
Kirghiz:qr2,3
Kazakh:qr2,4
Noghai:qr3
Bashkir:qr3,4
Balkar:qr3
915
Gagauz:qr3
Karaim:qr3
Karakalpak:qr2,4
Kumyk:qr3
Comments:EDT641,VEWT265,95-96,6,225,
Stachowski169.DerivedisPT*Kran'edge,ridge'(6,226);butnote
thatmodernformslikeTurkm.Gra,Tuvaqraetc.areborrowed<Mong.
kira.

Proto-Turkic:*Kr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1pest,epidemic2mischief3archenemy
Russianmeaning:1,23
Karakhanid:qr(ja)3
Turkish:kran1
MiddleTurkic:qiran2
Turkmen:Gr(duman)3
Yakut:kr(st

x)3
Comments:VEWT265,6,224.Cf.alsoPT*Kurul-'tohavecramps'
(VEWT304).

Proto-Turkic:*Kr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1expensive,miserly2towish,envy,bemiserly
Russianmeaning:1,2,,
Karakhanid:qz1(MK)
Tatar:qzan-2
MiddleTurkic:qz1(Ettuhf.,AH)
Uzbek:qizan-2
Uighur:qizan-2
916
Oyrat:qsqan-2
Chuvash:xren-2
Yakut:ksan-','
Kirghiz:qzan-2
Kazakh:qzan-2
Noghai:qzan-2
Bashkir:qzan-2
Karaim:qzan-2
Karakalpak:qzan-2
Kumyk:qzan-2
Comments:VEWT269,EDT680,339,6,248-249.The
rootisalsoattestedaskrsinTur.dialects,andasqrzan-inTuvaThe
verbalform*Kr-gan-issometimesattestedasqsan-duetoa
contaminationwith*Ks-ga-'short,narrow'(v.sub*kiso).

Proto-Turkic:*Kr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1hoar-frost2thinsnow
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:qrau1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qrau1(MK)
Turkish:krau1
Tatar:qraw1,qrpaq2
MiddleTurkic:qraw(..,Abush.),qirau,qirau(Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:qirw1
Uighur:qija,qira,qiro1
Azerbaidzhan:Grow1
Turkmen:Graw1,Grpaq2
Khakassian:xro1,xrbx2
Shor:qr1
917
Oyrat:quru1
Halaj:qraw1
Chuvash:xrbx2
Yakut:kra1,krpax,krpaj2
Dolgan:kra1
Tuva:xr1
Kirghiz:qr1
Kazakh:qraw1,qrpaq2
Noghai:qraw1,qrpaq2
Bashkir:qraw1,qrpaq2
Balkar:qrau1,qrpaq2
Gagauz:qr1
Karaim:qraw,qoruw1
Karakalpak:qraw1
Kumyk:qraw1,qrpaq2
Comments:VEWT265-266,267,EDT656,6,230-231,241,
Stachowski169.Turk.>MMong.(HY)kira'u,WMong.kirau,Khalkhax aru
'hoar-frost'etc.(seeDoerferTMN3,569,1997,138,Clark1977,
147,althoughthelatter'sderivationof*kragu<*kr'grey'ishardly
acceptable).Cf.alsoPT*Kr-la'thecoldesttimeofwinter'(see6,
237-238).

Proto-Turkic:*Krak,*Kragu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sledge
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kzak
Tatar:qzaw''
MiddleTurkic:qzaq(AH)
Uighur:quzuq''
918
Azerbaidzhan:xizk
Bashkir:qu''
Comments:VEWT269.

Proto-Turkic:*Kr-bka/*Kur-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toad2frog
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:qur-baqa(MK)1
Tatar:qr-baqa1
MiddleTurkic:qur-baa1
Turkmen:Gur-bGa2
Kirghiz:qur-baqa1
Kazakh:qur-baqa2
Comments:180.

Proto-Turkic:*Krgak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:edge
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qra(MK)'selvage,edge'
Turkish:krak
Tatar:qrj
MiddleTurkic:qr,qra(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qirq
Uighur:qi(r)aq
Azerbaidzhan:GraG
Khakassian:xri,xrj,xr
Oyrat:qr
Halaj:qra
919
Chuvash:xr
Yakut:kr
Dolgan:kr
Tuva:qr
Kirghiz:qr
Noghai:qraq
Karaim:qrj
Kumyk:qrj
Comments:VEWT265,EDT653,6,242-244,Stachowski170.

Proto-Turkic:*Krl/*kiril
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bowstring
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kiri(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kiri(MK)
Turkish:kiri
Tatar:kere
MiddleTurkic:kiri(Pav.C.,IM,AH,Qutb.)
Azerbaidzhan:kiri
Turkmen:kiri
Khakassian:krs,xrs
Shor:kiri
Oyrat:kiri
Chuvash:xirl
Yakut:kiris,krs
Tuva:kiri
Kirghiz:kiri
Noghai:kiris
Bashkir:kere
920
Karaim:kiri
Kumyk:kiri
Comments:5,71-72,578.

Proto-Turkic:*Krk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toshear,scrape
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qrq-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qrq-(MK)
Turkish:krk-
Tatar:qrq-
MiddleTurkic:qrq-(AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qirq-
Uighur:qi(r)q-
Sary-Yughur:qrq-
Azerbaidzhan:Grx-
Turkmen:Grq-
Khakassian:xrx-
Oyrat:qrq-,qrq-
Halaj:qrq-
Yakut:krt-
Tuva:qr-
Kirghiz:qrq-
Kazakh:qrq-
Noghai:qrq-
Bashkir:qrq-
Gagauz:qrq-
Karaim:qrq-
Karakalpak:qrq-
921
Kumyk:qrq-
Comments:EDT651,VEWT266,6,236-237.

Proto-Turkic:*Krk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:forty
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qrq(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qrq(MK)
Turkish:krk
Tatar:qrq
MiddleTurkic:qrq(AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qirq
Uighur:qi(r)q
Azerbaidzhan:Grx
Turkmen:qrq
Khakassian:xrx
Shor:qrq
Oyrat:qrq,qrq
Halaj:qrq
Chuvash:xrx
Kirghiz:qrq
Kazakh:qrq
Noghai:qrq
Bashkir:qrq
Balkar:qrq
Gagauz:qrq
Karakalpak:qrq
Salar:qrx,qrx
Kumyk:qrq
922
Comments:EDT651,VEWT266,573,6,235-236.

Proto-Turkic:*Kr-,*Krguj,*Kragan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1hawk,falcon2faultless(ofabirdofprey)
Russianmeaning:1,2,(
)
Karakhanid:qruj1(MK)
Turkish:kraj,kr1,kuran(dial.)'hawk',krkaw(dial.,R.)'ak.ofhawk'
Tatar:qrj1(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:qiru(Pav.C.),qr(Ettuhf.)1
Uzbek:qirij1,qirnqara'-'
Uighur:uruj,qaraj1(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:Gr1
Turkmen:Gr1
Khakassian:xza1,xrjax'younghawk'
Chuvash:xrxi1,xrn'kite'
Yakut:krbj',-,'(?)
Kirghiz:qrn,qran1,2,qrj,qjr1,qrjek'younghawk'
Kazakh:qran2,qrj1
Bashkir:qjr(dial.)1
Karaim:qrj,qrqn,qrxn1
Karakalpak:qran2,qrj1
Kumyk:qrj1
Comments:VEWT266,269,EDT654-655,6,231,232-235.Turk.
*Krguj'falcon'>Mong.kirui,see1997,139.

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1surface2bark,upperlayer
Russianmeaning:12,
923
OldTurkic:qrt1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qrt1(MK)
Turkish:krt(dial.)2
Tatar:qrt2
MiddleTurkic:qrt(Houts.)2
Oyrat:qrt1
Tuva:qrt2
Kirghiz:qrt2
Kazakh:qrts2
Noghai:qrts2
Bashkir:qrt2
Karakalpak:qrts2
Kumyk:qrt2
Comments:VEWT267,EDT649,391-392,6,241-242.Cf.
alsoformsreflecting*Krl:Yak.krs'thinlayerunderskin',Tur.kr
'wrinkled',Az.Gr'wrinkle'(see6,242),aswellas*Kra()'scab'
(seeibid.,244-245).

Proto-Turkic:*Ks-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1short2narrow3tosqueeze
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:qsa(Orkh.)1
Karakhanid:qs-3(MK,KB),qs2(MK),qsqa1(KB),qsa1(MK)
Turkish:ksa1,ks-3
Tatar:qsqa1,qs-3
MiddleTurkic:qsqa1(Abush.),qs-(MA)
Uzbek:qisqa1
Uighur:qisqa1
Sary-Yughur:GsGa,qsGa1
924
Azerbaidzhan:Gsa1
Turkmen:GsGa1,Gs-3
Khakassian:xsxa1,xs-3
Oyrat:qsqa1
Chuvash:xzk2,xs-4
Yakut:khaj-3
Dolgan:khalga'straits,sorrow'(=Yak.khalga)
Tuva:qsqa1,q's-4,qz2
Tofalar:q'sqa1,q's-4
Kirghiz:qsqa1
Kazakh:qsqa1
Noghai:qsqa1
Bashkir:qsqa1
Balkar:qsxa1
Gagauz:qsa1
Karaim:qsqa1
Karakalpak:qsqa1
Salar:qsGa1
Comments:PT*Ks-ga'short'isderivedfromPT*Ks-'topress,squeeze'.
SeeVEWT267,EDT665-7,6,251-253,Stachowski167.

Proto-Turkic:*Ksr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1barren(cow)2barrenmare
Russianmeaning:1()2
Karakhanid:qsr1,qsraq2(MK)
Turkish:ksr1,ksrak2
Tatar:qsr1
MiddleTurkic:qsr(Pav.C.)1,qsraq2(Houts.,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:qisir1
925
Uighur:qisir1
Sary-Yughur:qsraq2
Azerbaidzhan:Gsr1,GsraG2
Turkmen:Gsr1,Gsraq2
Khakassian:xzr1,xzrax2
Shor:qzr1
Oyrat:qzr1
Halaj:qsr1
Chuvash:xzr1,ksre2
Yakut:ktar-','
Dolgan:ktarak'barren'
Tuva:qzr1,qzraq2
Kirghiz:qsr1,qsraq2
Kazakh:qsr1,qsraq2
Noghai:qsr1
Bashkir:qr1,qraq(dial.)2
Balkar:qsr1
Gagauz:qsr1,qsraq2
Karaim:qsr1,qsraq2
Karakalpak:qsr1,qsraq2
Kumyk:qsr1
Comments:EDT668-669,VEWT267,268,6,249-251,Stachowski
170.Turk.>Kalm.ksr,KW234(butDoerferTMN3,476objects,saying
thatKalm.isa"dialektischeVariantevonksr<ke'-ser");>Mong.
qusura/kisura'barren(cow)'>Man.kisari.

Proto-Turkic:*Kt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:notenough,insufficient
Russianmeaning:,
926
Turkish:kt;ktlk'Ungengendheit,Hungersnot'
MiddleTurkic:qt(AH,IM)
Uighur:qitiir'miserly'
Azerbaidzhan:Gt
Turkmen:Gt
Shor:qtj'miserly'
Chuvash:xdx'compulsion'
Tuva:qd'oppressed'
Kirghiz:qdq'dwarf',qtj-'secretive',qtraj-'leanandsmall'
Kazakh:qtqtan-'tobeoffended'
Noghai:qt
Bashkir:qtlq'hunger'(dial.)
Balkar:qt
Karaim:qt
Karakalpak:qt
Kumyk:qt
Comments:VEWT268,6,252.

Proto-Turkic:*K-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocriticize,malice
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qur-(MK)
Tatar:q-(R.)
Turkmen:Gt'reproach'
Khakassian:xsxar-'toreproach,blame',xr-'toteasesmb.'
Yakut:khr-
Tuva:qr-'totease,ridicule'
Kirghiz:qn-
Comments:EDT59.
927

Proto-Turkic:*Kk,*gi-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1itching,tickling2totickle
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:kii-,q-la-(v.)(MK)
Turkish:giik-2,giik,gk1
Tatar:kee-(dial.)2
MiddleTurkic:giik1(Pav.C.)
Turkmen:gi1,Gq1,ge-2
Chuvash:kz 1
Tuva:kii-2
Tofalar:kii-2
Balkar:kiw1
Karaim:kii-2
Comments:VEWT260,269,3,42-43,6,186-187,TMN3,567,EDT
591,695.ThebackrowvariantisinteractingwithPT*K-'toscrape,itch'
q.v.sub*k`iuu.

Proto-Turkic:*Kjn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1punishment,fine,guilt2topunish3cruelty,tyranny4to
condemn5hard,difficult6totorture7insult,offence8tooffend9harm,
torture10sin11toannoy,anger12tobeat
Russianmeaning:1,,23
,4,5,6
789,1011,
12
OldTurkic:qjn(acc.)(Orkh.),qjn,qn(OUygh.)1,qna-2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qn,qjn(KB)1,qna-2(MK,KB)
928
Turkish:kjn,kjn3,kna-4
Tatar:qjn5,qjna-'tomakedifficult,hard'
MiddleTurkic:qjn(Abush.,..,MA),qn(Pav.C.),qna-2(Sangl.)
Uzbek:qijin5,qijna-6
Uighur:qijin5,qijna-6
Sary-Yughur:qn1
Azerbaidzhan:Gna-4
Turkmen:qn5,qna-'tomakedifficult,torture'
Khakassian:xjx7,xjal9
Shor:qjal9,10,qjq-ta-8,qjna9(*qn-la)
Oyrat:qjn,qjna-6,qjal10,dial.(.)qj-6
Chuvash:xn1
Yakut:knn-,kjax-11,kj-'topain,ache'
Dolgan:kja-11,kj-'tokill'
Tuva:xjna-6
Kirghiz:qjn1,qjt-'tomakedifficult,troublesome',qjna-6
Kazakh:qjn1,qjna-6,qn-l-'tobedistressed'
Noghai:qjn1,qjna-6
Bashkir:qjn1,qjna-12
Balkar:qjn1,qjna-12
Karaim:qjn,qejin1,qjna-6
Karakalpak:qjn1,qjna-6
Kumyk:qjn1,qjna-6
Comments:VEWT264.EDT631,6,218-219,Stachowski168.Turk.
*Kjna->MMong.qina-'totorture'(1997,165).Nasallessforms
(likeYak.kjax-etc.)mayresultfromareanalysisoftheform*Kjnas
*Kjn,interpretedasadeverbativenoun.Turk.>Hung.kin'torture,
suffering'(Gombocz1912).

Proto-Turkic:*Kl-gun
929
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:eatablegrass
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qun(MK)','
Oyrat:qqn''
Chuvash:xlen''
Yakut:ksot''
Comments:EDT672.

Proto-Turkic:*Kn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sheath,scabbard
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qn(MK,KB)
Turkish:kn
Tatar:qn
MiddleTurkic:qn(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qin,(Khorazmdial.)qjn
Uighur:qin
Sary-Yughur:qn()
Azerbaidzhan:Gn
Turkmen:Gn
Khakassian:xn
Shor:qn
Oyrat:qn
Chuvash:jn,dial.n
Yakut:kn
Tuva:xn
Kirghiz:qn
Kazakh:qn
930
Noghai:qn
Bashkir:qn
Balkar:qn
Gagauz:qn
Karaim:qn
Karakalpak:qn
Kumyk:qn
Comments:VEWT264,EDT630-631,79,571,6,
217-218.

Proto-Turkic:*Kr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:red
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qzl(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qzl(MK,KB)
Turkish:kzl
Tatar:qzl
MiddleTurkic:qzl(MA)
Uzbek:qizil
Uighur:qizil
Sary-Yughur:qizil
Azerbaidzhan:Gzl
Turkmen:Gzl
Khakassian:xzl
Shor:qzl
Oyrat:qzl
Halaj:qzl
Chuvash:xrl
Yakut:khl
931
Dolgan:khl
Tuva:qzl
Tofalar:qzl
Kirghiz:qzl
Kazakh:qzl
Noghai:qzl
Bashkir:ql
Balkar:qzl
Gagauz:qzl
Karaim:qzl
Karakalpak:qzl
Salar:Gzil
Kumyk:qzl
Comments:PT*Kr-l'red'isderivedfrom*Kr-'toredden;glow'(Turkm.
Gz-,Tur.kz-etc.),wherelengthiswitnessedbyYak.ks-.Onehasto
assumeshorteninginpolysyllabicderivatives(besides*Krlalso*Kr-k-,
*Krl-ar-),withsecondaryanalogicalshorteninginTurkm.Gz-;seeVEWT
269,EDT681,683-4,TMN3,469,602-603,6,187-189,
194-196,Stachowski167.Cf.also*Kr'grey'(VEWT265,TMN3,567,
6,229-230).

Proto-Turkic:*Kr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1girl2woman
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:qz1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qz1(MK,KB)
Turkish:kz1
Tatar:qz1
MiddleTurkic:qz1(Pav.C.,MA)
932
Uzbek:qiz1
Uighur:qiz1
Sary-Yughur:qs1
Azerbaidzhan:Gz1
Turkmen:Gz1
Khakassian:xs1
Shor:qs1
Oyrat:qs1
Chuvash:xr1,xr-(arm)2
Yakut:ks1
Dolgan:ks1
Tuva:qs1
Tofalar:qs1
Kirghiz:qz1
Kazakh:qz1
Noghai:qz1
Bashkir:q1
Balkar:qz1
Gagauz:qz1
Karaim:qz1
Karakalpak:qz1
Salar:qz1
Kumyk:qz1
Comments:VEWT269,TMN3,569-70,EDT679-80,295,318,
6,190-191,Stachowski172.ForPToneshouldreconstructvariants
*kr/*kr(theyarereflectedinseveralderivatives,e.g.*Kr-kn,see
317-318,6,237,*Kr-nak,seeTMN3,456,6,240).

Proto-Turkic:*Ktr-
Altaicetymology:
933
Meaning:towalk,goround
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:kdr-(dial.)
Tatar:qdr-(dial.)
Uzbek:qidir-
Turkmen:Gdr-(dial.)
Yakut:ktgras',,(),'
Kirghiz:qdr-;qd'(.)'
Kazakh:qdr-
Noghai:qdr-
Bashkir:qr-
Balkar:qdr-
Karaim:qdr-
Karakalpak:qdr-
Kumyk:qdr-
Comments:6,185.

Proto-Turkic:*Ko-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toput
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:ko-
MiddleTurkic:qo-(Pav.C.,IM)
Chuvash:xv-,xu-
Karaim:qo-
Comments:VEWT273,6,27-29.Therootseemsarchaic,butin
mostlanguages(beginningwithOT)wassubstitutedbythesynonymous
*Kod-(v.sub*k`oda),beingpreservedonlyinChag.,Osm.andChuv.

Proto-Turkic:*Kob-
934
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toslander2conjuration,exorcism
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:qovla-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qovuz,qovu2(MK)
Turkish:kovu,kov(dial.)'slander'
MiddleTurkic:qov'slander'(AH)
Yakut:xobul-1
Comments:6,17-18,EDT584,Clark1977,147.Turk.>WMong.
qob'gossip'(KW181),whenceagainOyr.qopetc.(VEWT281).Despite
EDT584,hardlyconnectedwith*Kob-'tochase'(v.sub*go

be).

Proto-Turkic:*Kob-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tofollow,chase
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qov-(MK)
Turkish:kov-
Tatar:quw-
MiddleTurkic:qov-(AH),qaw-(..)
Uzbek:qaw-(dial.),quw-
Azerbaidzhan:Gov-
Turkmen:qov-
Oyrat:q-
Chuvash:xu-,xv-
Kirghiz:q-,qubala-
Kazakh:quw-
Noghai:quw-
Bashkir:qw-
Balkar:quw-
935
Gagauz:q-
Karaim:quw-
Karakalpak:quw-
Kumyk:quw-
Comments:6,9-10,VEWT275,2,315-316.TheKarakh.
derivativeqovdaq'greedy'(althoughscarcelyattested)isaprobablesource
ofWMong.qobdu'greedy',seeClark1977,147.

Proto-Turkic:*Kobga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:pail,bucket
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qova(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qova(MKOghuz)
Turkish:kova,koa
MiddleTurkic:qova(AH),qopqa(Pav.C.,..,Abush.)
Uzbek:qawa(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:Gova
Turkmen:Gova
Tuva:xuva
Kazakh:qawa
Noghai:qawa
Karaim:qova,qopqa
Karakalpak:qawa,awa
Comments:EDT583-584,6,12-13.Turk.>Mong.qobua'bucket,
trough'.

Proto-Turkic:*Kobu-k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:empty,hollow
936
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qov(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qov,qovuq(MK)
Turkish:kovuk,gavk(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:qovuq(AH)
Uighur:quaq(dial.)
Turkmen:Govaq,Govuq,Goval,Govuz
Khakassian:xax
Comments:VEWT273,TMN3,415,6,5-6.

Proto-Turkic:*Kobul,*Kobula-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sharpened(arrow)2tosharpen,plane
Russianmeaning:1()2,
OldTurkic:qovua-(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:qova-(MK)2
Turkish:(Osmanli)qovu,qou(XVIc.)1
Comments:EDT613-614.

Proto-Turkic:*Ko
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ram
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qoqar,qouar(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qoar(MK)
Turkish:ko,kokar
Tatar:quqar(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:qo,qoqar(AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:(dial.),qoqar
Uighur:qoqa(r),qoqa(r)
937
Sary-Yughur:quar
Azerbaidzhan:Go
Turkmen:Go,GoGar
Oyrat:qoqor
Halaj:Go
Tuva:qoqar
Kirghiz:qoqor
Kazakh:qoqar
Noghai:qoqar
Bashkir:quqar
Balkar:qocxar
Gagauz:qo
Karaim:qo,qoqar,qoxar
Karakalpak:o,qoqar
Salar:qoqor,qoqur
Kumyk:qoqar
Comments:432,TMN3,539,540-541,EDT592,6,87-88.
Turk.>Hung.kos,seeGombocz1912;Russ.dial.koko r,koka r,see
308,309.

Proto-Turkic:*Kod-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toput,leave,abandon
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:qod-(Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qo-(MK)
Turkish:koj-
Tatar:quj-
MiddleTurkic:qoj-(AH,Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:qoj-
938
Uighur:qoj-
Sary-Yughur:quz-
Azerbaidzhan:Goj-
Turkmen:Goj-
Oyrat:qoj-
Chuvash:xor-
Kirghiz:qoj-
Kazakh:qoj-
Noghai:qoj-
Bashkir:quj-
Balkar:qoj-
Gagauz:qoj-
Karaim:qoj-
Karakalpak:qoj-
Kumyk:qoj-
Comments:VEWT274,EDT595-596,6,27-28,2,361.
Theoriginalmeaning(observableinmostancientoccurrences,seeEDT
595)musthavebeen'toputaside,leave,abandon';themeaning'put'
appearssomewhatlaterandisprobablyduetoamergerwith*Ko-'toput'
(v.sub*ga),notattestedbeforetheXIVthcentury.

Proto-Turkic:*Kodan**AD
Meaning:hare
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:kujan
MiddleTurkic:qojan(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qujn
Uighur:qojan
Turkmen:Gojan(dial.)
939
Khakassian:xozan
Oyrat:kojon
Chuvash:(kujandial.<Tat.)xoran,xoren(dial.)**AD.
;?.
Yakut:xotonox
Tuva:kodan(kojunfromsomej-language?)
Tofalar:xodan
Kirghiz:kojon
Kazakh:qojan
Noghai:qojan
Bashkir:qujan
Balkar:qojan
Karaim:qojan
Karakalpak:qojan
Kumyk:qojan
Comments:VEWT274-275,164,VI29-30.
*xoran>.*orenmoren''
122-.

Proto-Turkic:*Kod
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:below,downwards
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qod(Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qo(MK,QB)
Turkish:koju
MiddleTurkic:quju,quj(MA,..),quji(Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:quji
Uighur:quju
Sary-Yughur:qoz,quz,quzu
940
Chuvash:(?)xrl'bowingthehead'(KW153)
Yakut:xotu'downstream;North'
Dolgan:kotun'inthedirectionof'
Tuva:qudu
Tofalar:qudu
Comments:EDT596,VEWT275,6,31-32,Stachowski154.

Proto-Turkic:*Kod-,*Kodur-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1totaketrouble,makeefforts2tooverpower
Russianmeaning:12,
Karakhanid:qour-(MK)1
Yakut:xot-2
Dolgan:kot-2
Comments:EDT605;Stachowski154(but,becauseofsemantic
difference,hardlyto*Kod-'putaside').

Proto-Turkic:*Kog-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todrive,pursue
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:ko-(since17thcent.)
Uighur:qola-(dial.)
Khakassian:xo-
Oyrat:qo-
Yakut:kuol-
Comments:6,9-10,VEWT275(shouldbedistinguishedfromPT
*Kob-).

Proto-Turkic:*Koga(-k-)
941
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofreed
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kova,koa(dial.)
Tatar:qua
Uzbek:qoa
Oyrat:qoo
Kazakh:qoa
Noghai:qoa
Bashkir:qua(dial.)
Karaim:qoa
Karakalpak:qoa
Kumyk:qoa
Comments:VEWT275,6,10-11.

Proto-Turkic:*Kogul
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gutter,cavity,hollow
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:qou(MK)
Turkish:kovu
Tatar:quw
MiddleTurkic:qou(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qavu,qva,quwu(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:Gou
Khakassian:xs
Chuvash:xvl
Yakut:kuohx
Kazakh:quws
Noghai:quws
942
Bashkir:qw
Karaim:qowu,quwu
Karakalpak:quws
Kumyk:quwu
Comments:TheChuv.formmayratherbelongtoPTurk.*Kob-.SeeVEWT
275,EDT613,6,18-20,Stachowski161(thetworootsinteract
actively).

Proto-Turkic:*Kogul
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:leather,hide
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qou
Karakhanid:qou(MK)
Comments:EDT613.

Proto-Turkic:*Koju-g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thick,saturated
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qoju(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qoju(MK)
Turkish:koju
Tatar:quj
Uzbek:qujuq
Uighur:qojuq
Turkmen:Goj
Khakassian:xoj
Shor:qoj
Oyrat:qoju
943
Yakut:xoj
Dolgan:koj
Tuva:xoju
Tofalar:xoju
Kirghiz:quj
Kazakh:qoju
Noghai:qoj
Bashkir:quj
Gagauz:qoju
Karaim:qoju,quju
Comments:EDT676,TMN3,562,6,32-33,Stachowski150.The
derivingstem*Koj(u)-'tobecomeviscous,thick'isattestedinOyr.qoj-,
KKalp.qoj-,Khak.xoj-,Tuvaxoju-(seeibid.).Thereconstruction*Kon-is
proposedinVEWT276,butisbasedonlyonthenotquitereliableTofalar
nasalization;theYakutandOTevidencedoesnotsupportit.

Proto-Turkic:*Kok
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dust,ashes
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qo(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qo(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qo(AH,Pav.C.)
Khakassian:xox
Oyrat:qoq
Yakut:xooso
Tuva:xoq
Kirghiz:qoq
Noghai:qoq
Karaim:qoq
944
Comments:EDT609,VEWT275,276,368.Turk.>Mong.qo,
Kalm.xog'dregs,dirt'(KW181,1997,165).

Proto-Turkic:*Kok-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosmellbadly,togiveoutasmellofburning
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qoq-(MK)
Turkish:kok-
Azerbaidzhan:Goxu(n.),Goxu-
Turkmen:qoq(n.),qoqa-
Noghai:qoq-'tobefragrant'
Gagauz:qoq-
Karaim:qoqu,qoq(n.)
Comments:EDT609,6,34.

Proto-Turkic:*Kol
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1arm2hand
Russianmeaning:1()2()
OldTurkic:qol1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qol1(MK,KB)
Turkish:kol1
Tatar:qul1,2
MiddleTurkic:qol1,2(Abush.,Sangl.,MA,..)
Uzbek:qul1,2
Uighur:qol1,2
Sary-Yughur:qol1
Azerbaidzhan:Gol1
Turkmen:Gol1
945
Khakassian:xol1,2
Shor:qol1,2
Oyrat:qol1,2
Halaj:qol1
Chuvash:xol'shoulder'
Yakut:xol1
Dolgan:kol'shoulder'
Tuva:xol1,2
Tofalar:qol1
Kirghiz:qol1,2
Kazakh:qol1
Noghai:qol1,2
Bashkir:qul1,2
Balkar:qol1,2
Gagauz:qol1
Karaim:qol1,2
Karakalpak:qol1,2
Salar:qol1
Kumyk:qol1,2
Comments:VEWT276,EDT614-5,TMN3,556,146-153,
2,353,244-245,6,37-43,Stachowski150.

Proto-Turkic:*Kol
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1pair,couple,oneofacouple2tojoin,unite
Russianmeaning:1,2()
OldTurkic:qo-2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qo1,qo-2(MK)
Turkish:ko-2
Tatar:qu1,qu-2
946
MiddleTurkic:qo1,qo-2(AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qo1,qo-2
Uighur:qo1,qo-2
Sary-Yughur:qos1
Azerbaidzhan:Go-2
Turkmen:Go'acoupleofoxen',Go-'toadd'
Khakassian:xos1,xos-2
Oyrat:qo-2
Chuvash:xo-2
Yakut:xos'double;again',xohuj-2,xohn'poem'
Dolgan:kohn'poem'
Tuva:qo-2
Tofalar:qo'-2
Kirghiz:qo1,qo-2
Kazakh:qos1,qos-2
Noghai:qos1,qos-2
Bashkir:qw1,qu-2
Balkar:qo-2
Gagauz:qo-2
Karaim:qo1,qo-2
Karakalpak:qos1,qos-2
Salar:qo1,qo-2
Kumyk:qo-2
Comments:VEWT283;EDT670,611,2,375,6,
90-94,Stachowski150.Turk.>MMong.(HY)qoi,WMong.qos,Kalm.xo
'pair'(KW189,TMN3,364,Clark1980,41,42,1997,142).

Proto-Turkic:*Kol-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobeg
947
Russianmeaning:(),
OldTurkic:qol-(Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qol-(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qol-(Pav.C.,Abush.),qol-i'beggar'
Uzbek:qlir'Verleumder'(KW183)
Sary-Yughur:qol-
Yakut:kulu'give(imper.)'
Karaim:qol-
Comments:VEWT277,EDT616,6,36-37.Turk.>WMong.qolir,
KWxolr'verschwenderisch,leichtsinnig'(KW183).

Proto-Turkic:*Kol
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:hut,hovel,camp(ing)
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:qo'family'(Tfs.)
Tatar:qu
MiddleTurkic:qo'camp,camping'(Pav.C.),'house,dwelling'(Sngl.)
Turkmen:Go
Chuvash:x,xu,xu
Yakut:xos'room'
Tuva:qo'caravan'
Kazakh:qos
Noghai:qos
Bashkir:qw
Balkar:qo
Karakalpak:qos
Kumyk:qo
Comments:VEWT283,EDT670,491-492,2,375-376,
6,90-94.Turk.>WMong.qos,Kalm.xo(KW189),WMong.qosi-li
948
(Clark1980,42).Therootisconfusedwith*Kol'pair',butshouldbe
probablydistinguished.Tat.andBashk.obviouslyreflectacontamination
with*Kogul'emptyspace,hollow'.AloanwordfromTokh.koskye'hut'
(whichitselfis<Iranian,seeAdams)hadbeensuggested-which,
however,cannotexplaintheabsenceof-k-intheTurkicform.

Proto-Turkic:*Kola-(*Kula-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:12,
Russianmeaning:1togirdle2girdle
Turkish:kua-1,kuak2
Tatar:quaq2(arch.)
MiddleTurkic:quaq2(Pav.C.)
Turkmen:Guaq2
Bashkir:quaq2
Gagauz:quaq2
Comments:Thestemshouldbeprobablydistinguishedhistoricallyfrom
*Kol-'tocouple,bind',althoughcontaminationswerepossible.Turk.>
Russ.(1958,28,216).

Proto-Turkic:*Kolak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:one-handed
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qolaq(MK)
Turkish:kolak(dial.)
Tatar:qulaq(dial.)
Turkmen:Golaq
Comments:VEWT277,6,42.

949
Proto-Turkic:*Kola
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:saddlegirth
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qolan(MK)
Turkish:kolan
MiddleTurkic:qolan,qola(Pav.C.),qulan(AH)
Turkmen:Gola
Khakassian:xola
Shor:qola
Oyrat:qolo
Yakut:xolun
Tuva:xolaq
Gagauz:qolan
Comments:VEWT277,549-550,EDT622,6,47-49.

Proto-Turkic:*Kol-luk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ironarrow-head2arrowwithironhead
Russianmeaning:12

Khakassian:xosta1,2
Yakut:kustuk2
Comments:VEWT283.Turk.>Mansikulx.ASiberianword;but
derivingitfrom*Kul'bird'ishardlypossible,despiteStachowski162.

Proto-Turkic:*Kolu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1periodoftime2originally
Russianmeaning:12
950
OldTurkic:qolu1(OUygh.)
Kirghiz:qolu2
Comments:EDT617,69-70,Clark1977,148-149.

Proto-Turkic:*Kom-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tolongfor2inheritance,legacy
Russianmeaning:1,2
OldTurkic:qumaru(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qom-1(MK),xumaru2(MK),qumaru2(KB)
MiddleTurkic:qumar2(AH)
Khakassian:xumartxa2
Shor:qumarq2
Oyrat:qumartqa2
Halaj:qumarq2
Bashkir:qomartq2
Kumyk:qumartq2
Comments:EDT626,628,347,Clark1977,149.

Proto-Turkic:*Kom-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1horsedung2sheepdungballs3round,spheroid
Russianmeaning:123
,
Karakhanid:qomuq1(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qumal3,qumala2
Kazakh:qumalaq2
951
Comments:EDT627,VEWT299.Cf.alsoChag.qombul'roundknob'
(VEWT279;theisolatedKalm.qumbaji-,qumbiji-'sichzusammenballen',
seeKW196)mayhaveaTurkicorigin).

Proto-Turkic:*Koma
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1concubine2wivesofthesamehusband
Russianmeaning:12

Turkish:kuma1,2
Tatar:quma(.)1
MiddleTurkic:quma(Pav.C.)1
Karaim:quma1
Comments:Turk.>MMong.(MA,LHa)qumaid.(althoughDoerferTMN1,
415suggeststheoppositedirectionofloan-whichisdubiousbecauseof
theisolatednatureoftheMMong.form).

Proto-Turkic:*Koml-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1becomedrowsy,dry2becomelean3greedy
Russianmeaning:1,,2,
3
Tatar:qomsz,dial.qomsq3
Chuvash:xml-1
Yakut:xomnuj-2
Bashkir:qomxo3
Comments:6,147-148.

Proto-Turkic:*Komta
Altaicetymology:
952
Meaning:box
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:qumta
Khakassian:xomd
Oyrat:qomda
Tuva:omdu
Bashkir:qumta
Comments:VEWT279,6,6.RelationtoMong.qobduishardly
possible.

Proto-Turkic:*Komur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:musicalinstrument
Russianmeaning:
Sary-Yughur:qous,qos
Khakassian:xoms
Oyrat:qomus
Yakut:qomus,qams
Tuva:xomus
Kirghiz:qomuz
Kumyk:qomuz
Comments:VEWT281,6,69-71.

Proto-Turkic:*Kon-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1neighbour2friend,guest
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:qon1,qonaq2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qon,qon'neighbour',qonuq'guest'(MK)
Turkish:komu1
953
MiddleTurkic:qon(AH),qon(MA)1
Uzbek:quni,qni1
Uighur:qona,xona1
Azerbaidzhan:Gonu1
Turkmen:Go1,Gonaq2
Khakassian:xonx1
Chuvash:xna
Kirghiz:qou1
Noghai:qos1
Balkar:qonu1
Gagauz:qomu1
Karaim:qon1
Karakalpak:qos1
Kumyk:xonu1
Comments:VEWT279,EDT637,640,6,56,66-68.Thewordis
consideredtobederivedfrom*Kon-'tospendanight'(>Mong.qonu-id.,
KW185;see1997,139,TMN1,420,3,530,6,55-56,EDT
632,Stachowski152).However,furtherderivationof*Kon-from*Ko-'to
put'(seeTMNibid.)seemshighlyimprobable.Externalevidencespeaks
ratherinfavouroftheoriginalmeaning"guest,tovisit(asaguest)'(<
*'friend,match'),whence"tospendanight,visit,stay"(=Russ.).

Proto-Turkic:*Konak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1millet2Timothygrass
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:qonaq1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qonaq1(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qonaq1(AH,MA),qona1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qunq1
954
Uighur:qonaq1
Tuva:xonaq2
Noghai:qonaqaj1
Karakalpak:qonaq
Salar:qonax
Comments:EDT637,458-459,6,57.OTqojaqisaghost-
word.Turk.>WMong.qona,qonu'millet'.

Proto-Turkic:*Kon
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:top(s)ofboots
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kon
Tatar:qun
MiddleTurkic:qon(AH)
Uzbek:qun
Uighur:qona
Sary-Yughur:qa
Azerbaidzhan:Gun
Turkmen:Gon
Shor:qo
Oyrat:qon,qon
Chuvash:kona
Tuva:xonu
Kirghiz:qon
Kazakh:qon
Noghai:qon
Gagauz:qon
Karaim:qon
Karakalpak:qon
955
Kumyk:xon
Comments:6,58-59,1,308.

Proto-Turkic:*Ko
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thickpartofthethigh;muscles2behind,buttocks
Russianmeaning:1;,2
Karakhanid:qo(MK)1
Uighur:qo2
Sary-Yughur:qor,qoqr2
Yakut:ku1
Tuva:qo'animalbody'
Kirghiz:qo1,2
Kazakh:qo1,2
Karakalpak:qo1
Comments:VEWT280,Clark1977,149,6,58-59.Turk.>Mong.
Khalkhaxongo,Kalm.xo(although-ointheKhalkhaformissuspicious
andperhapsreflectsagenuinelycognatePM*kogo).

Proto-Turkic:*Koak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dandruff
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:konak
Turkmen:Goaq
Comments:VEWT280.

Proto-Turkic:*Kora-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toring,toll2bell
956
Russianmeaning:1,2()
Karakhanid:qoraq,qorau2
Turkish:korak(dial.)2
Tatar:qraw2
MiddleTurkic:qumrawu2(AH)
Uzbek:qraw2
Uighur:qoraq,qoiraq(dial.)2
Azerbaidzhan:Gmrow2
Khakassian:xora-1,xoro2
Shor:qora-1,qor2
Oyrat:qoro-1,qor2
Tuva:qoura-1
Kirghiz:qour2
Kazakh:qoraw2
Noghai:qoraw2
Bashkir:quraw2(dial.)
Karakalpak:qoraw2
Salar:koor2
Kumyk:qouraw2
Comments:VEWT280,TMN3,526,EDT640,6,60-61.

Proto-Turkic:*Kour
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:red-brown,darkbrown
Russianmeaning:-,
Karakhanid:qour(MK)
Turkish:kogur,gour(dial.)
Tatar:qor
MiddleTurkic:qour(IM),qour(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:quir
957
Sary-Yughur:qor
Azerbaidzhan:Gonur
Turkmen:Gour
Khakassian:xr
Oyrat:qor
Chuvash:xmr
Yakut:qoor
Tuva:xr
Kirghiz:qour
Kazakh:qor
Noghai:qor
Bashkir:qur
Balkar:qour
Gagauz:qomur
Karakalpak:qor
Kumyk:qour
Comments:VEWT280-1,TMN3,525,EDT639,6,62-65.

Proto-Turkic:*Kour
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:beetle
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qouz(Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qouz(MK)
Tatar:qoz
Uzbek:qugiz
Uighur:qoGuz
Khakassian:xs(dial.)
Oyrat:qous,qos,qoms
Chuvash:xmr'drone'
958
Yakut:xomurduos
Dolgan:komurduos
Kirghiz:qouz
Kazakh:qoz
Noghai:qoz
Bashkir:qu
Karaim:qomuz
Karakalpak:qoz
Comments:VEWT281,EDT641,187,6,61-62,
Stachowski152.Turkic>MMong.(MA)qonquz.Ahardlyplausible
explanationoftheYak.formas"brownpig"seein1997,140-141.

Proto-Turkic:*Kour-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:totearout,uproot
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qour-(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qoar-(Abush.,..)
Yakut:xoun-,xonor-
Dolgan:koor-
Tuva:xuna-
Comments:VEWT281,EDT640,6,65,Stachowski152.

Proto-Turkic:*Kop
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:all
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qop(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qop(MK)
Comments:VEWT281,EDT579.
959

Proto-Turkic:*Kop-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1fist2wrist
Russianmeaning:12
Oyrat:qoboq2
Tuva:qowades1,Krg.qofade(<*Kop-adl)
Kirghiz:qobuq'arthritisofmetacarpus'
Comments:194(thoughhardlyaloanword).

Proto-Turkic:*Kopur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofmusical(string)instrument
Russianmeaning:()
OldTurkic:qopuz(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qopuz(MK)
Turkish:kopuz
Tatar:qubz
MiddleTurkic:qopuz(..),qobuz(AH)
Uzbek:qubiz
Uighur:qowuz
Turkmen:Gopuz
Shor:qobus
Tofalar:xobus
Kirghiz:qobuz
Kazakh:qobz
Noghai:qobz
Bashkir:qub
Balkar:qobuz
Karaim:qobuz
960
Karakalpak:qobz
Comments:VEWT281,EDT588,TMN3,535-537,614,
69-71.

Proto-Turkic:*Kor
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ferment;yeast2bitter,astringent
Russianmeaning:1;2,
Karakhanid:qor1(MK,IM)
Tatar:qur1(dial.)
Uzbek:qr1(dial.)
Turkmen:Gor1
Yakut:kuras2
Kirghiz:qor1
Kazakh:qor1
Bashkir:qur1
Karakalpak:qor1
Comments:EDT642,6,72.

Proto-Turkic:*Kor(a)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todiminish,decrease2harm,loss
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:qora-1,qor2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qora-1,qor2(MK)
Khakassian:xora-1
Oyrat:qor2,qoro-1
Chuvash:xor'insult,offence,grief'
Yakut:qor2,qoron-1
Tuva:xor2
961
Kirghiz:qoro-1
Balkar:qora-1
Comments:EDT641-642,645-646,6,73-74,2,369.Ona
possibleMong.loanword(qowr'loss,damage')seeunder*kabro;modern
SiberiannounsmaybeactuallybackloansfromMong.

Proto-Turkic:*Kordaj(<*Korm-daj?)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:pelican;swan
Russianmeaning:;
Karakhanid:qordaj(MK)
Uighur:qodaj'swan'
Khakassian:xord'heron'
Oyrat:qordoj'heron'
Comments:VEWT282,EDT649,173,6,79.Cf.alsoShor
qoromuq''().Turk.>Mong.qorda(KW187).

Proto-Turkic:*Kor
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lamb
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qoz(quz)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qoz(quz)(MK)
Turkish:kuzu
Tatar:quz(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:qoz(R.),qozu(Houts.)
Uzbek:quzi
Uighur:qoza
Sary-Yughur:quz,qoz,qoza
962
Azerbaidzhan:Guzu
Turkmen:Guz
Halaj:quz
Kirghiz:qozu
Kazakh:qoz
Noghai:qoz
Balkar:qozu
Gagauz:quzu
Karaim:qozu
Karakalpak:qoz
Salar:qza
Kumyk:qozu(dial.)
Comments:VEWT285,EDT681,433,6,108-109.

Proto-Turkic:*Kor(t)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1burbot2pike3huso,beluga
Russianmeaning:123
Tatar:()qurt1,qurtan2
Khakassian:xort1(Sag.)
Shor:qortu1
Oyrat:qortu1
Chuvash:?krt,kr'ruff'(=Marikr,krkke'trout')
Kazakh:qortpa3
Noghai:qortpa3
Comments:1,260.ForChuv.krtcf.alsoTat.qrt(the
directionofborrowingisunclear).

Proto-Turkic:*Korum
Altaicetymology:
963
Meaning:rock,cliff,heapofstones
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qorum(MK,KB)
Uighur:qoram
Khakassian:xorm
Shor:qorum
Oyrat:qorum
Tuva:xorum
Kirghiz:qorum
Comments:EDT660,VEWT283,99.

Proto-Turkic:*Kotar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1totearout,uproot2tobreak3tomove
Russianmeaning:1()23,

Tatar:qutar-(dial.)3
Khakassian:xodr-1,2
Oyrat:qodor-1
Kirghiz:qotor-3
Bashkir:qutar-2
Comments:VEWT284,6,85-86.

Proto-Turkic:*Kotur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:yak
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qotuz(MK)
Turkish:xotoz
Tatar:qutaz(dial.)
964
MiddleTurkic:qotas(Pav.C.),qutuz(AH)
Uzbek:qotas
Uighur:qotaz
Azerbaidzhan:Gotaz
Turkmen:Gotaz
Kirghiz:qotos
Karaim:qutas
Comments:EDT608,6,81-82.

Proto-Turkic:*Kotur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:scab,mange
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qotur(OUygh.)
Turkish:kotur(dial.)
Tatar:qutr
MiddleTurkic:qotur(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qotir
Uighur:qotu(r)
Sary-Yughur:qodur
Azerbaidzhan:Gotur
Turkmen:Gotur
Khakassian:xodr
Oyrat:qodur
Tuva:qodur
Kirghiz:qotur
Kazakh:qotr
Noghai:qotr
Bashkir:qutr
Karaim:qotur,qotr
965
Karakalpak:qotr
Kumyk:qotur
Comments:6,86-87,EDT604.

Proto-Turkic:*Kjn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:armpit,bosom
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qojn(Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qoj(MK)
Turkish:kojn
Tatar:qujn
MiddleTurkic:qojn(AH)
Uzbek:qojn
Uighur:qojn
Sary-Yughur:qoin
Azerbaidzhan:Gojun
Turkmen:Gojun
Khakassian:xojn
Shor:qojn
Oyrat:qojn
Halaj:qn
Chuvash:xv,x,dial.xm
Yakut:xj(xonn-)
Dolgan:konnok
Tuva:xoj
Kirghiz:qojn
Kazakh:qojn
Noghai:qojn
Bashkir:qujn
966
Balkar:qojn
Gagauz:qojnu
Karaim:qojun,qojn
Karakalpak:qojn
Kumyk:qojn
Comments:VEWT280,EDT631,243-244,6,26-27,
Stachowski152.

Proto-Turkic:*Kk-ul(-g-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bigpole,beam;hall
Russianmeaning:,;
OldTurkic:qo'shaft,thill'(OUygh.)(?)(452)
Turkish:kou
Comments:VEWT275.TheOTattestationisnotquitereliable.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:valley
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qol(MK)
Turkish:kol(dial.)
Tatar:qul
MiddleTurkic:qol(B)
Uighur:qol(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:qol'gutter'
Turkmen:Gl
Khakassian:xol
Tuva:xol
Kirghiz:qol
967
Bashkir:qul(dial.)
Balkar:qol
Kumyk:qol
Comments:VEWT277,90-91,EDT615(confusedwith*Kol
'arm'),6,43-46.

Proto-Turkic:*Km
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wave
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qom(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qum(Houts.,AH)
Turkmen:Gm
Oyrat:qom
Chuvash:xom
Comments:EDT625,6,54,2,356-357.

Proto-Turkic:*Km
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:camel'spack-saddle
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qom(MK)
MiddleTurkic:qom(MA)
Uzbek:qum
Turkmen:Gm
Oyrat:qom
Tuva:qom
Tofalar:xom
Kirghiz:qom
Kazakh:qom
968
Bashkir:qum
Karakalpak:qom
Comments:VEWT278,541,6,55,Clark1977,149.Turk.
>WMong.qom(KW184,1997,139),whenceEvk.km,Man.
qomo(see1,408,DoerferMT61).

Proto-Turkic:*Kr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobeirritated,agitated2tomove;irritate
Russianmeaning:12;
Tatar:quza-(dial.)2
MiddleTurkic:qoza-(Pav.C.,Abush.,..)2
Uzbek:qozi-1,qza-2
Uighur:qoza-2
Turkmen:Gza-2
Oyrat:qosqo-2
Kirghiz:qozu-1,qozo-2
Kazakh:qoz-1,qoza-2
Noghai:qoz-1,qoza-2
Bashkir:qu-1(dial.)
Balkar:qoz-1,qoza-2
Karaim:qoza-2
Karakalpak:qoz-1,qoza-2
Kumyk:qoza-,xoza-2
Comments:3,132-133.Theroots*Kr-'tobehungry'and*Kr-'to
beagitated'areusuallyconsideredtobeasinglerootandareveryhardto
distinguishwithinTurkic.

Proto-Turkic:*Kr-
Altaicetymology:
969
Meaning:tofence,protect
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qor-(Yen.)
Karakhanid:qor-(MK)
Turkish:koru-
MiddleTurkic:qoru-(Ettuhf.,..)
Uzbek:quri-
Uighur:qoru-
Azerbaidzhan:Goru-
Turkmen:Gr-,Gra-
Tuva:xoru-
Kirghiz:qoru-
Noghai:qor-
Balkar:qoru-
Gagauz:qoru-
Karaim:qoru-,qor-
Karakalpak:qor-
Kumyk:qoru-
Comments:VEWT282,EDT645-646,486-487,575,6,76-
78.Cf.alsothederivative*Kr-kan,sometimesconfusedwith*Kur-gan
(seeunder*Kur-).OneshouldalsonotePT*Kurtgar-'torescue',*Kurtul-
'berescued'(seeEDT649,650,6,177-179),whichmaybea
contraction<*Kru-t-gar-,*Kru-t-ul-.

Proto-Turkic:*K
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:this
Russianmeaning:
Sary-Yughur:gu,go
Chuvash:ko,kv
970
Salar:ku
Comments:1,300-302,32-34.Cf.theOT(Orkh.,
OUygh.,MK)emphaticnominalsuffix-oq.

Proto-Turkic:*Kbr/*Kebir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:carpet,rug
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:keviz(MK)
Turkish:kjz(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:kebiz(MA),kwz(Xwar.),kwz(CCum.),kevz(AH)
Uzbek:kigiz
Uighur:kebz,kvz
Khakassian:kibs
Shor:kemis
Oyrat:kebis
Chuvash:(Bulg.)>ORuss.kovr'carpet'
Tuva:xevis
Kirghiz:kebez
Noghai:kjiz
Bashkir:kj
Balkar:kjzOL
Kumyk:gujuz(dial.)
Comments:EDT692,5,83.Turk.>Mong.kebis(>Man.kebisu
etc.,see1,444),seeClark1980,39.,Cf.Khalkhaxiv'gauze,cre^pe',
xv'cotton'.5,13.

Proto-Turkic:*Kgme
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gum(oftooth)
971
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:kme
Shor:kgbe(Mat.),kge(Kond.)
Comments:VEWT290.

Proto-Turkic:*kje-lek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:shirt
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:klek(MK)
Turkish:kjnk,dial.glek
Tatar:klmk
MiddleTurkic:klek(Sangl.,MA,Pav.C.,..),kjnek(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kojnak,kojlak
Uighur:klk,knek
Azerbaidzhan:kjnek
Turkmen:kjnek,dial.gmlek
Khakassian:kgenek
Shor:knek
Oyrat:knek
Yakut:knjgs''
Tuva:xjle
Kirghiz:kjnek
Noghai:kjlek
Bashkir:kldk
Balkar:klek
Gagauz:glmk
Karaim:klmek
Karakalpak:kjlek
Kumyk:glek
972
Comments:VEWT290-291,EDT732,5,89-90,384,476-
477.Turk.>WMong.kjileg,Kalm.klg(KW234),MMong.klek(TMN
3,615,1997,128).

Proto-Turkic:*kk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:root
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kk(MK,KB)
Turkish:kk
MiddleTurkic:kk(AH,..,Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:kk
Turkmen:kk
Chuvash:kk(Anatri)
Tuva:k'k
Kazakh:kk
Gagauz:kk
Karaim:kk
Karakalpak:kk
Comments:VEWT287,EDT708,TMN3,598,5,91-92,
109.

Proto-Turkic:*kk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:healthy,big,thick
Russianmeaning:,,
Turkish:kk(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:kk
Azerbaidzhan:kk
Halaj:kk
973
Comments:5,93.Turkic>Khalkhaxx'massive(ofmuscles,flesh
etc.)'

Proto-Turkic:*kk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1seam2thinstrapsforsewing3tosew,lace4totack5tack,
basting6needlework7tofasten
Russianmeaning:123,
,4,567
,
OldTurkic:kk(OUygh.)1
Turkish:kkle-3
Tatar:kkl-4
MiddleTurkic:kk(Sangl.,Abush.)1
Uzbek:kuk5
Uighur:kk5,kkl-4
Azerbaidzhan:kk1
Turkmen:kk5,2
Khakassian:kkte-4
Oyrat:kk6,kkt-4
Chuvash:kgr-7
Tuva:k'k(Todzh.)1,kkte-3
Kirghiz:kk2,kkt-3
Noghai:kkle-4
Balkar:kkle-4
Karakalpak:kk2,kkle-4
Kumyk:kkle-4
Comments:VEWT287,EDT708,91.FollowingEDT(anddespite
VEWTand)weprefertoseparatethisrootfrom*kk'hinge,peg,
tether'(v.sub*k`ki ).
974

Proto-Turkic:*kk,*kken
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1hinge,nail,peg,clasp2tether
Russianmeaning:1,,2
Karakhanid:kk'beltforfixingthesaddle',kgen'ropefortetheringcalves,
foalsduringmilking'(MK)
Turkish:kk'pegofamusicalinstrument',(dial.)kken2
Tatar:kgn1
MiddleTurkic:kk'nail'(R,.-Babur.)
Uzbek:kukan2
Sary-Yughur:kken2()
Turkmen:kken2
Chuvash:kgan'loop',(alk)kk'propofthedoorhinge'
Yakut:kgn2(.)
Kirghiz:kgn2
Kazakh:kgen2
Bashkir:kgn1
Karakalpak:gwen2
Comments:VEWT287,EDT712,5,91,93-94.

Proto-Turkic:*kl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1shadow2toshadow
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:kl-(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:klik(MK)1
Turkish:glge,klge(dial.)
Tatar:klg1
MiddleTurkic:klege(Abush.)
975
Uzbek:kulk,kulk1
Uighur:klg,klig1
Azerbaidzhan:klg1
Turkmen:klge1
Khakassian:kle-2,klek1
Oyrat:kl-2,kl2
Yakut:klk1
Dolgan:klk1
Tuva:xlege1
Tofalar:xlege1
Kirghiz:klk1
Noghai:kletke1
Bashkir:klg1
Gagauz:glge1
Karakalpak:kleke1
Comments:VEWT288-289,294,EDT716-718,5,96-97,128,
Stachowski164.Shouldbedistinguishedfrom*Kl

-'toscreen'(v.sub
*g

a).

Proto-Turkic:*Kl

-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tofreeze
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:kek-
Yakut:khj-
Tuva:k-
Tofalar:k-
Kazakh:k-
Bashkir:kek-
Comments:VEWT294,5,127.
976

Proto-Turkic:*Kl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobeshy,afraid,sullen2tobejealous3jealousy
Russianmeaning:1,,23

Shor:kln3
Oyrat:kler-,Tel.klne-2
Chuvash:kle-,kle-2
Tuva:xl-ze-1
Comments:VEWT289.122-123confusestherootwith*gni(q.v.
sub*kune);sodoes1,321.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl

-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1screen,covering2toscreen,obstructlight3shadow
Russianmeaning:1,,2,
3
OldTurkic:kige(OUygh.)3
Karakhanid:ki-(MK)2,kik(MK)1,kige(MK)3
Uighur:kk1
Khakassian:kzee1
Shor:kege1
Tuva:kege1,3
Kirghiz:kg1
Comments:EDT753.TheroottendstomergewithPT*kl

-'toshiver(of
cold),freeze'(seeVEWT294),aswellaswith*kli-'shadow'-butthey
shouldbeprobablykeptapart.Turk.>MMong.ki-,kige,kge(TMN
1,481,1997,128,Clark1980,41)>Evk.kui-,kuiger(Doerfer
MT125).
977

Proto-Turkic:*Kl

-er-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobefulltooverflowing
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:ker-(MK)
Comments:EDT754.

Proto-Turkic:*kmbe,-lek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mushroom
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:gmelek(dial.)
Tatar:gmb
Azerbaidzhan:gblk
Turkmen:kmelek
Chuvash:kmba
Bashkir:gmb
Comments:5,101(Chuv.ishardly<OldRussian,whichalready
hadguba,notgo ba).

Proto-Turkic:*kmek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:help
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kmek
Tatar:kmk'collective,manypeople'
MiddleTurkic:kmek(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kumk
Uighur:kmk
978
Azerbaidzhan:kmk
Turkmen:kmek
Halaj:kmk,kemk
Yakut:km
Dolgan:km
Kirghiz:kmk
Noghai:kmek
Bashkir:kmk'collective,manypeople'
Kumyk:kmek
Comments:5,98-99,Stachowski156.

Proto-Turkic:*kmr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:coal
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kmr(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kmr(MK,KB)
Turkish:kmr
Tatar:kmer
MiddleTurkic:kmr(MA,IM,Pav.C.,AH),kimr(Abush.)
Uzbek:kumir
Uighur:km(r)
Azerbaidzhan:kmr
Turkmen:kmr
Khakassian:kmr
Oyrat:kmr
Chuvash:kmrk
Yakut:kmr
Dolgan:kmr
Tuva:xmr
979
Kirghiz:kmr
Kazakh:kmr
Noghai:kmr
Bashkir:kmer
Balkar:kmr
Gagauz:kmr
Karakalpak:kmr
Kumyk:kmr
Comments:VEWT289(relatingthestemtokm-'tobury,dig'seems
ratherdubious),5,102-103,365,Stachowski156.

Proto-Turkic:*kn -
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toburn(itr.)2toburn(tr.)3tokindle4togetburnt5soot6
strongsmellofburnt7unpleasantsmell
Russianmeaning:123456
7
OldTurkic:kj-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kn-(ArguMK),kj-1(MK,KB)
Turkish:(dial.)kj-,kj-1;kje5
Tatar:kj-1
MiddleTurkic:kj-1(Abush.,MA,..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kuj-1,kuja5
Uighur:kj-,kj-1,kjdr-2
Turkmen:kj-1,kj(dial.)5
Khakassian:kj-1,kje5
Shor:kj-1
Oyrat:kj-1,k

5
Halaj:kie n-1
Chuvash:k,kv6(.),ks ek7;kvajt5
980
Tuva:x

5
Tofalar:x

5
Kirghiz:kj-1,k

5
Kazakh:kj-1,kje5
Noghai:kj-1,kje5
Bashkir:kj-1
Balkar:kj-1
Karakalpak:kj-1,kje5
Kumyk:gj-1
Comments:VEWT309,EDT726,730,5,88-89,133,362,
.75.TheAz.formissomewhatdubious,bothsemantically
("itch")andphonetically(irregularvoicedg-).Seealso*kn -'togrieve,
suffer'.

Proto-Turkic:*kn -(-j-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosuffer,grieve2toregret3toenvy4tobeangry5tooffend6
grief,sorrow
Russianmeaning:1,234
56
Karakhanid:kj-kj-:klikjp'withpaininone'sheart'(MK),kj-4
(KB)
Tatar:kj-,kjen-1
Uzbek:kuj-,kujin-1
Uighur:kj-,kjn-1
Azerbaidzhan:gjn-2
Turkmen:kj-1
Khakassian:kj-3
Oyrat:kj-dr-5,kjn-3
Halaj:(jirek)kie n-1
981
Chuvash:kvs-3
Kirghiz:kj-,kjn-1
Kazakh:kj-,kjin-1
Noghai:kj-,kjn-1
Bashkir:kj-1,kjns6
Balkar:kj-,kjn-1,kjk'envious'
Karakalpak:kj-,kjin-1
Kumyk:gj-1
Comments:EDT726.Inalllanguagestherootiscompletelyhomonymous
withthereflexesof*kn -'toburn'(v.sub*k`une),whichthrowsdoubtson
itsetymologicalindependence.

Proto-Turkic:*k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1excrements,faeces2hardsoil,swamp
Russianmeaning:1,2,
Karakhanid:kz(MK)1
Turkish:kn,kn(dial.)1
Uzbek:gu1
Oyrat:k2
Kirghiz:k1
Kazakh:k1
Bashkir:k1
Karakalpak:k1
Comments:EDT735,5,103.

Proto-Turkic:*kp
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:many
Russianmeaning:
982
OldTurkic:kp(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kp(MK,KB)
Turkish:kp
Tatar:kp
MiddleTurkic:kp(Pav.C.,MA,Abush.)
Uzbek:kup
Uighur:kp
Turkmen:kp
Khakassian:kp
Shor:kp
Oyrat:kp
Tuva:k'p,xj(<*kpej)
Tofalar:k'p
Kirghiz:kp
Kazakh:kp
Noghai:kp
Bashkir:kp
Balkar:kp
Karakalpak:kp
Salar:kp
Kumyk:kp
Comments:VEWT291,EDT686-687,5,107-108.

Proto-Turkic:*kp-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toswell2foam
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:kpik,kpk(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:kpr-(MK)1,kpk(MK)2
Turkish:kpk2
983
Tatar:kp-1
MiddleTurkic:kp-(Pav.C.)1
Uzbek:kup-(dial.)1
Uighur:kp-1
Azerbaidzhan:kp-1
Turkmen:kpik2
Khakassian:kp-1
Oyrat:kp-1
Chuvash:kbk2
Yakut:kp-1
Dolgan:kbj-'popup,floatonthesurface'
Tuva:k'vk2
Tofalar:k'pk2
Kirghiz:kp-1
Kazakh:kbk2
Noghai:kp-1
Bashkir:kp-1
Balkar:kp-1
Kumyk:gp-1
Comments:EDT689,691,VEWT291,5,108-111,Stachowski154.

Proto-Turkic:*kpe
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1coatofmail2ringofmail3earring4overcoat5saddle-padfor
acamel6filmofegg,exuviae7ak.ofclothorcarpet
Russianmeaning:1234,
56,7

Karakhanid:kpe1,2,3,kpik(MK)4,kpk(MK)5,kpsn'mattress'
(MK)
984
Turkish:kpe3,kepeneg,kpenek4,kpen7
Tatar:kpm'mattress'
MiddleTurkic:kpen(kpen)5
Khakassian:kbn'mattress'
Chuvash:kbe6
Kirghiz:kp''
Kazakh:kpik'pillow'
Bashkir:kpm'mattress'
Comments:EDT687,688,689,5,48-49,108(Tur.kpenbeing
attributedheretoaquitedifferentroot,seeunder*kp-'toswell,foam'),
114-115,129-130,TMN3,581-583.Theaboveformsarehardtoseparate,
andDoerfer'spointofviewthatkpenekissecondarily<kepenekis
probablyfaulty(eventhoughkpenekisattestedlater:kpeniscertainly
attestedearlier,andanassimilativedelabialization*kpenek>kepenek
seemsquiteplausible).TheChuvashformshowsthattheoriginalmeaning
oftherootmusthavebeen'transparentcovering,film',whence'coatof
mail'etc.Turk.>Mong.kebeneg'saddle-cloth,shirt',Hung.kpnyeg
'raincoat'(Gombocz1912).

Proto-Turkic:*kpek
Meaning:1dog2hound3sheep-dog4yarddog5puppy
Russianmeaning:1234
5
Karakhanid:kpek1(KB)
Turkish:kpek1,gbelek5
MiddleTurkic:kpek(Pav.C.,AH)1,kbelek2(OKypch.)
Uzbek:koppk1;kpk1(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:kpk1
Turkmen:kpek1
Oyrat:kbk'ethnonym;nameofahero'
985
Kazakh:kpek1
Gagauz:kpek1
Karaim:kpe1(K)
Karakalpak:kpek1
Kumyk:kbelek3,gbenit4
Comments:VEWT291,TMN3,646-647,5,111-112,189.
BasicallyanOghuzword,butcf.alsoKum.gben,OKypch.kbelek
'shepherd'sdog'(Bulgat,ad-Durr.,Houts.,AH)=Tur.dial.gbelek'puppy'
(possibly<Kypch.),seeibid.Despite,Kirgh.qarakblk
'evilspiritappearingasagirldressedinblackandwithablackgreyhound'
israther=kblk'butterfly'(cf.thearchaicmythologicalmotiveofevil
spiritappearingasabutterfly),butacontaminationwiththewordfordog
attestedinOldKypchakalsocannotbeexcluded.However,Kalm.kwlg
'greyhound'isnot<Kirgh.,butfromOldKypchak.Thesamesourceis
probableforRuss.,dimin.(are-analysis?)-thewordis
absentinotherSlaviclanguages,thelistofabsolutelyhopeless
etymologicalattemptscanbefoundinII267.Itwasattestedfor
thefirsttimein1599asatermforahountinghound:
;theform(attestedin1673)
seeinXI-XVIII,7,208.Turk.>Hung.kopo'bloodhound',see
Gombocz1912(DoerferinTMN3,647objects,butthewordhasnoFinno-
Ugricetymology).

Proto-Turkic:*kpi-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tooversew,quilt
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:kbi-(MK)
Turkish:gb-,gb'',kp-(dial.)
Tatar:kbe-(Sib.)
986
MiddleTurkic:(Kypch.)kbV-(AH)
Turkmen:kpe-
Oyrat:kbr-(Tel.)
Bashkir:kbe-
Comments:VEWT306,5,111,EDT687.

Proto-Turkic:*kpr,-g
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bridge
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kprg
Karakhanid:kprg(MK)
Turkish:krp,kpr
Tatar:kper,kpre
MiddleTurkic:kpri(IM,AH),kprk(Abush.,MA)
Uzbek:kuprik
Uighur:kprk,kvrk
Azerbaidzhan:krp
Turkmen:kpri
Yakut:krbe,krge
Tuva:k'vrg
Tofalar:k'prig
Kirghiz:kpr
Kazakh:kpr,kpre(dial.)
Gagauz:kpr
Comments:VEWT292,5,112-114.

Proto-Turkic:*Krke
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:woodendish,bowl
987
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:krge(MK)
MiddleTurkic:krge(Abush.),krege(Sangl.)
Oyrat:krg'eingrossesBirkenrindengefss'
Chuvash:korga'scoop'
Karaim:krege
Comments:EDT742,VEWT311,1,372.

Proto-Turkic:*krpe
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1new-born2new-bornlamb
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:krpe(MK)1
Turkish:krpe1,2
Uzbek:kurp1
Uighur:k(r)p1,2
Azerbaidzhan:krp1
Turkmen:krpe1
Halaj:kurpe,kirp
Kirghiz:krp1,2
Noghai:krpe2
Bashkir:krp1
Balkar:krpe2
Gagauz:krp1
Karakalpak:krpe1
Kumyk:krpe1
Comments:VEWT293,TMN3,637,5,116-118,391.

Proto-Turkic:*Krt
988
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:snowdrift,deepsnow
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:krtk(OUygh.)
Turkish:krt(dial.),grtk
Tatar:krt
Uighur:krt
Khakassian:krtk
Shor:krt
Oyrat:krtk,krt
Chuvash:krt(Anatri)
Yakut:krk
Tuva:xrtk
Kirghiz:krtk
Kazakh:krt,krtk
Noghai:krtk
Bashkir:krt
Balkar:krt
Kumyk:krt
Comments:EDT739,5,149-150.

Proto-Turkic:*Krtk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1woodcock2turkey3black-cock
Russianmeaning:123
Tatar:krk2
Khakassian:krk,dial.krtk'black-cock',krles(Sag.)'grouse'
Shor:krtk3
Oyrat:krtk3,krte1
Chuvash:krka2
989
Yakut:krx'youngspringduck,alreadyabletofly'
Tuva:krt3
Tofalar:h'rt3
Kirghiz:krp2
Kazakh:krke-tawq2
Bashkir:krk2
Comments:VEWT311,1,258.

Proto-Turkic:*ks-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tohobble,fetter2fetters
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:ksr-1,ksrk2(MK)
Turkish:kste-(dial.)1,kstek2
Turkmen:kssek2
Tuva:kste-1,ksteg2
Gagauz:kstek2
Comments:5,121-122.

Proto-Turkic:*kse-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tostirwithapoker2poker
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:kisw(dial.)2
MiddleTurkic:kse-(AH)1,kseg(IM)2
Uighur:ksj2
Azerbaidzhan:ksv2
Turkmen:kse-1,kesevi2
Khakassian:kzes2
Oyrat:kz2
990
Chuvash:ksek'lever,stick'
Tuva:kze-1
Kirghiz:ks-1,ks

2
Kazakh:kse-1,ksew2
Noghai:kse-1
Bashkir:kew,kw,kk2
Balkar:ksew2
Karakalpak:kse-1,ksew2
Kumyk:ksew2
Comments:5,119-121.Theregularreflexwouldbeexpectedas
*gse-;theshapekse-isprobablyduetotheinfluenceof*k

r'glowing
coals'(cf.inMK:kze-'tostirwithapoker').

Proto-Turkic:*Ksri
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sidesofthechest2wind-screen,bill
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:ksri1(MK)
Chuvash:kzr-uk2
Comments:Chuv.>Russ.(onthepossibleTurkicoriginofthe
Russianwordsee2).SeeEDT751.

Proto-Turkic:*k

e
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gruel
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:ge,ge
Tatar:kz
MiddleTurkic:ke(Pav.C.),OKypch.(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:goa
991
Uighur:koa;k(dial.)
Turkmen:k

e
Khakassian:ke
Oyrat:k
Tuva:ke
Kirghiz:k,k
Karaim:goa
Karakalpak:ge
Salar:koa
Comments:VEWT286,5,84-85.Cf.alsoShorkerget
'',Khak.Sag.kzergetid.

Proto-Turkic:*k

jnek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bucket,vessel
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:knek(MK,KB)
Turkish:knek,Osm.kjnk
Tatar:knk(dial.)
Uighur:kunk
Turkmen:k

nek
Khakassian:knek
Shor:knek
Oyrat:knk
Tuva:xnek
Kirghiz:knk
Kazakh:knek
Noghai:knek
Bashkir:knk
992
Comments:5,104-105,VEWT290(>Mong.kng,further>TM:
Sol.xong,Evk.k,see1,412,478).Turk.>Russ.Siber.kunuk,
see324

Proto-Turkic:*[k]l
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lake
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kl(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kl(MK,KB)
Turkish:gl
Tatar:kl
MiddleTurkic:kl(IM,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kul
Uighur:kl
Azerbaidzhan:kl
Turkmen:k

l
Khakassian:kl
Oyrat:kl
Chuvash:kl(NW),kl
Yakut:kl
Dolgan:kl
Tuva:xl
Kirghiz:kl
Kazakh:kl
Noghai:kl
Bashkir:kl
Balkar:kl
Gagauz:gl
Karakalpak:kl
993
Kumyk:kl
Comments:SeeVEWT288,3,69,5,95-96,91,
Stachowski165.

Proto-Turkic:*k

le
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1slave,servant2bastard3co-ruler,minister
Russianmeaning:1,23
OldTurkic:kl(kl)anOldTurkictitle(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kl(kl)3(MK)
Turkish:kle1
MiddleTurkic:kl3
Azerbaidzhan:kle1
Turkmen:k

le2
Khakassian:klmk'people'
Tuva:xl'gueststhathavearrived'
Comments:VEWT288.

Proto-Turkic:*k

ek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:youngofcamel
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:kek,gek(dial.),glk'cub'
MiddleTurkic:kek(AH)
Uzbek:kek(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:kk
Turkmen:k

ek
Chuvash:>Hung.klyk(seeGombocz1912)
Bashkir:klkj'calf'
Karakalpak:kek(dial.)
994
Kumyk:kilj(dial.)'cub'
Comments:5,126-127.

Proto-Turkic:*k

r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:glowingcoals
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:kz(MK)
Turkish:kz,kz
MiddleTurkic:kz(AH,Qutb.,Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:kz
Turkmen:k

z
Khakassian:ks
Chuvash:kvar
Tuva:ks
Tofalar:ks
Comments:5,85-86,365-366.Therearealsovariants*Kr
/*Kr(VEWT285)andtheverb*k

re-'toglow'.

Proto-Turkic:*k

r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tousebellows2bellows
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:krk(MK)2
Turkish:kr-1,krk2
Tatar:krek2
MiddleTurkic:grk(IM),krk(MA,Pav.C.)2
Uzbek:klik(dial.)2
Azerbaidzhan:krk2
Turkmen:k

rik2
995
Khakassian:krk2
Oyrat:krk2
Yakut:krt2
Tuva:xrk2
Kirghiz:k

rk2
Kazakh:krk2
Noghai:krk2
Bashkir:krek2
Gagauz:krk2
Karakalpak:krk2
Kumyk:krk2
Comments:VEWT293,5,118,414-415.

Proto-Turkic:*Kuba/*Koba
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:paleyellow,palegrey
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:quba(MK)
Tatar:quwa,qw(dial.)
Uzbek:quw
Sary-Yughur:qo
Khakassian:x
Oyrat:q,q
Tuva:xuwa
Kirghiz:q
Kazakh:quw
Noghai:quw
Karakalpak:quw
Kumyk:quw
996
Comments:VEWT295,EDT581,6,94-96,98-99.Turk.>Mong.
quba,quwa(KW191,1997,142;Mong.quba,however,also
means'amber'andmaybeborrowedalsofromChin.hu-p`o,seeL976,
Rozycki111)>Man.quwa.

Proto-Turkic:*Kubak(-p-)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:arrowshaft
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:qubaq(Sib.)
Shor:qubu'pole'
Comments:VEWT295.

Proto-Turkic:*Kuk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:constellationofCancer
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:quq(KB)
Comments:EDT591.

Proto-Turkic:*Kud-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1topourout(water)2topour3well
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:qud-1(OUigh.),qudu3(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:quj-1(MK),quu3(MK,QB)
Turkish:kuju3,quj3(dial.)
Tatar:qoj-1,2,qoj3
MiddleTurkic:quj-1(Sangl.),quj3(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:quj-1
997
Uighur:quj-1
Sary-Yughur:quz-1
Azerbaidzhan:Guju3
Turkmen:Guj-1,2,Guj3
Khakassian:xus-1,2(dial.)
Shor:quspaq''(?)
Chuvash:xv-1,2
Yakut:kut-1,2
Tuva:qut-1
Tofalar:qut-/d-1
Kirghiz:quj-1,2
Kazakh:quj-1,2,quj3(dial.)
Noghai:quj-1,2,quj3
Bashkir:qoj-1,2,qoj3(dial.)
Balkar:quj-1,2,quju3
Gagauz:quju3
Karaim:quj-1,quju3
Karakalpak:quj-1,2,quj3
Kumyk:quj-1quju3
Comments:VEWT296,EDT596,598,2000,109-111,119-120,
.102,2,379.Therootcontainedundoubtedly*-d-,
butvariantswith*-j-areattestedunusuallyearly.Turk.>MMong.uduh
(SH),WMong.qudu(whencebackwards>Turkm.Guduk,Uygh.quduq,
Khak.xutuxetc.),seeEDTibid.,KW194,1997,143,TMN1,395-
396,Stachowski162.

Proto-Turkic:*Kudruk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tail
Russianmeaning:
998
OldTurkic:qudruq(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:quruq(MK)
Turkish:kujruk
Tatar:qojrq
MiddleTurkic:qujruq,qujru(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:qujruq
Uighur:qujruq
Sary-Yughur:Guzuruq
Azerbaidzhan:GujruG
Turkmen:Gujruq
Khakassian:xuzurux
Shor:quzuruq
Oyrat:qujruq
Halaj:qurduq
Chuvash:xre
Yakut:kuturuk
Dolgan:kuturuk
Tuva:quduruq
Tofalar:quduruq
Kirghiz:qujruq
Kazakh:qu_jrq
Noghai:qujrq
Bashkir:qojroq
Balkar:qujruq
Gagauz:qujruq
Karaim:qurjux
Karakalpak:qujrq
Salar:Guru
Kumyk:qujruq
999
Comments:VEWT296b,EDT604,145,6,114-117,
Stachowski163.Cf.alsoMKquurun'tailstrap'(553).

Proto-Turkic:*Kugu
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:swan
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:quu(Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:quu(MK)
Turkish:kou,kuu
Tatar:q,qu(.);Sib.qu'polarduck'
MiddleTurkic:quu(Ettuhf.),qu(Pav.C.,AH)
Uzbek:quw
Uighur:quw
Azerbaidzhan:Gu,Guu
Turkmen:Guv
Khakassian:x
Shor:q
Oyrat:q
Yakut:kuba
Dolgan:kuba
Tuva:q
Kirghiz:q
Kazakh:quw
Noghai:quw
Balkar:quw
Karaim:quu,qou,quw
Karakalpak:quw
Kumyk:quw,q
1000
Comments:VEWT275,EDT609,TMN3,533-534,171,6,
101,Stachowski159.Turk.>Kalm.o,o'(Heer)schnepfe',seeKW
149.OnYak.kubaseeaspecialnoteunderPA*kiopu.

Proto-Turkic:*Kuja
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:rheumatism
Russianmeaning:
MiddleTurkic:quja(Babur)
Uzbek:qujoniq'epilepsy'
Uighur:quja(R)
Khakassian:xuja'scary(ofahorse)'
Tuva:quja
Kirghiz:quja'sciatica'
Karakalpak:quja
Comments:TMN3,562.Turk.>Mong.quja,Khalkhaxuja,Kalm.xujn,
Bur.xuja'rheumatism'>Man.xujan(1,475).

Proto-Turkic:*Kul
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bird2duck
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:qu1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qu1(MK,KB)
Turkish:ku1
Tatar:qo1
MiddleTurkic:qu1(Sangl.);'moth'(Abush.)
Uzbek:qu1
Uighur:qu1
Sary-Yughur:Gus1
1001
Azerbaidzhan:Gu1
Turkmen:Gu1
Khakassian:xus1
Shor:qu1;'hen'
Oyrat:qu1
Halaj:qu,Gu(<Az.)'sparrow'
Yakut:kus2
Dolgan:kus2
Tuva:qu'1
Tofalar:qu'1
Kirghiz:qu1
Kazakh:qus1
Noghai:qus1
Bashkir:qo1
Balkar:qu1
Gagauz:qu1
Karaim:qu1
Karakalpak:qus1
Salar:Gu1
Kumyk:qu1
Comments:VEWT305,TMN3,547-548;EDT670;6,180-182,
168,Stachowski162.Chuv.xlat'hawk'<Mong.

Proto-Turkic:*Kul-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toroll(down),fall2round
Russianmeaning:1,2
MiddleTurkic:qula-1(.)
Uzbek:qul-1
1002
Uighur:qula-,ula-1
Sary-Yughur:qula-,Gol-1
Oyrat:qula-1
Kirghiz:qula-1
Kazakh:qula-1
Bashkir:qola-1
Karakalpak:qula-1
Salar:gullx2
Comments:VEWT298,6,122.

Proto-Turkic:*Kul
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:slave,servant
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qul(Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qul(MK)
Turkish:kul
Tatar:qol
MiddleTurkic:qul(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qul
Uighur:qul
Sary-Yughur:qul
Azerbaidzhan:Gul
Turkmen:Gul
Khakassian:xul
Shor:qul
Oyrat:qul
Yakut:kulut
Dolgan:kulut
Tuva:qul
1003
Kirghiz:qul
Kazakh:qul
Noghai:qul
Bashkir:qol
Balkar:qul
Karaim:qul
Karakalpak:qul
Kumyk:qul
Comments:VEWT297,TMN3,503-505,EDT615,318,6,
120-121,Stachowski160.

Proto-Turkic:*Kul
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ahairlessspot(onhorse'sskin)
Russianmeaning:()
Turkish:ku
Comments:VEWT305.

Proto-Turkic:*Kula-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1towave;jumpover2tostretch3fathom
Russianmeaning:1;23
Karakhanid:qula3(MK)
Turkish:kula3
Tatar:qola3
MiddleTurkic:qula-2(.),qula3(AH,..),qula3(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qula3
Uighur:ula3
Sary-Yughur:qula,Gola3
Azerbaidzhan:Gula,Gola3
1004
Turkmen:Gula3
Khakassian:xulas3
Oyrat:qula-1,qula3
Chuvash:xlas3
Yakut:kul-,kulas-ta-1
Tuva:qula3
Kirghiz:qula3
Kazakh:qula3
Noghai:qula3
Bashkir:qolas3
Gagauz:qola3
Karakalpak:qula3
Salar:qula3
Kumyk:qula3
Comments:EDT618,VEWT298,TMN3,487,6,122,129-131.

Proto-Turkic:*Kula
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lightyellow,brown
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qula(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qula(MK)
Turkish:kula
Tatar:qola
MiddleTurkic:qula(AH,Houts.)
Uzbek:qula
Uighur:qula
Sary-Yughur:qula
Turkmen:qula
Khakassian:xula
1005
Oyrat:qula
Chuvash:xla
Tuva:qula
Kirghiz:qula
Kazakh:qula
Noghai:qula
Bashkir:qola
Gagauz:qula
Karakalpak:qula
Kumyk:qula
Comments:EDT617,VEWT298,6,121-122.

Proto-Turkic:*Kulga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sprout2longbranch,shoot
Russianmeaning:12,
Tatar:qola2
Khakassian:xula1
Oyrat:qula1
Chuvash:xol2
Comments:VEWT298,.XVI,149.

Proto-Turkic:*Kul-kak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ear
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qulqaq(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qulaq,qulqaq,qulxaq(MK),qulaq,qulaq(KB)
Turkish:kulak
Tatar:qolaq
1006
MiddleTurkic:qulaq(MA),qula(Sangl.)
Uzbek:qulq
Uighur:qulaq
Sary-Yughur:qulaq
Azerbaidzhan:GulaG
Turkmen:Gulaq
Khakassian:xulax
Shor:qulaq
Oyrat:qulaq
Halaj:qulaq
Chuvash:xla
Yakut:kulgk
Dolgan:kulgk
Tuva:qulaq
Tofalar:qulaq
Kirghiz:qulaq
Kazakh:qulaq
Noghai:qulaq
Bashkir:qolaq
Balkar:qulaq
Gagauz:qulaq
Karaim:qulax
Karakalpak:qulaq
Salar:Gula
Kumyk:qulaq
Comments:VEWT298,EDT620,204-205,6,124-127,
Stachowski160.

Proto-Turkic:*Kulum
Altaicetymology:
1007
Meaning:foal
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qulun(Yen.)
Karakhanid:qulun(MK)
Turkish:kulun
Tatar:qoln
MiddleTurkic:qulun,qulum(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qulun(dial.)
Uighur:qulun(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:qulun,qulum,qulm,qolun
Azerbaidzhan:Gulun
Turkmen:Gulun
Khakassian:xulun
Oyrat:qulun
Chuvash:xm
Yakut:kulun
Tuva:qulun
Kirghiz:qulun
Kazakh:quln
Noghai:quln
Bashkir:qolon
Karakalpak:quln
Comments:EDT622,TMN3,506-507,6,132-133.

Proto-Turkic:*Kum
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sand
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qum(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qum(MK)
1008
Turkish:kum
Tatar:qom
MiddleTurkic:qum(Pav.C.,MA)
Uzbek:qum
Uighur:qum
Sary-Yughur:qum,qom
Azerbaidzhan:Gum
Turkmen:Gum
Khakassian:xum
Shor:qum
Oyrat:qum
Chuvash:xm
Yakut:kumax
Dolgan:kumak
Tuva:qum
Tofalar:xum
Kirghiz:qum
Kazakh:qu_m
Noghai:qum
Bashkir:qom
Balkar:qum
Gagauz:qum
Karaim:qum
Karakalpak:qum
Salar:Gum
Comments:VEWT299,EDT625,102,6,133-134,
Stachowski160.Turk.>WMong.qum,Kalm.xum'sand'(KW196;TMN3,
508),Hung.homok(Gombocz1912).

Proto-Turkic:*Kum-/*Km-
1009
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towrap,tuck
Russianmeaning:,
Tatar:qmt-
Uzbek:qimti-
Oyrat:qm-
Yakut:kumuj-
Tuva:qumza'package'
Kirghiz:qmt-
Kazakh:qmt-,qmta-
Noghai:qmt-
Bashkir:qmt-
Karakalpak:qmt-,qmta-
Comments:VEWT301,6,221-223.

Proto-Turkic:*Kumgan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:kettle,jug
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:quman(MK)
Turkish:kuman(dial.)
Tatar:qoman
MiddleTurkic:quman(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qumn
Uighur:quman
Azerbaidzhan:Guman
Turkmen:Gumn(dial.)
Kirghiz:quman
Kazakh:quman
Noghai:quman
1010
Bashkir:qoman
Balkar:quman
Karaim:quman,quman
Karakalpak:quman
Kumyk:qumman
Comments:EDT627,VEWT300,6,136-137(>Mong.qumaan,
see1997,143).

Proto-Turkic:*Kumr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ant
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:qumursa(OUygh.)
Turkish:komursa(dial.)
Tatar:qrmsqa
MiddleTurkic:qumursxa(Pav.C.),qumursua(AH)
Uzbek:qumursqa
Turkmen:Gumursa
Khakassian:xumusxa,xmsxa
Shor:qmrta,qumsta
Oyrat:qomursqa
Halaj:Gumur
Yakut:kmrdaas
Tuva:qmsqajaq
Kirghiz:qumursqa
Kazakh:qumrsqa
Noghai:qumrsqa
Bashkir:qmrqa
Balkar:qumursxa,qumursqa,qumurxa
Karaim:qumurstqa,qumurstqu
1011
Salar:qumusqa,qomusqn
Kumyk:xomursa
Comments:EDT628,VEWT300,183-184,6,140-141.

Proto-Turkic:*Kumr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fermentedmilk
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qmz(MK,KB)
Turkish:kmz
Tatar:qmz
MiddleTurkic:qmz(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qimiz
Uighur:qimiz
Azerbaidzhan:Gmz
Turkmen:Gmz
Khakassian:xms,Sag.,Koib.xums
Oyrat:qms
Chuvash:kms<Qypch.
Yakut:kms
Tuva:xms
Kirghiz:qmz
Kazakh:qmz
Noghai:qmz
Bashkir:qomo,qm
Karakalpak:qmz
Comments:VEWT264,EDT629,450-451,6,219.

Proto-Turkic:*Kumlak
Altaicetymology:
1012
Meaning:hop
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:qumlaq(MK)
Tatar:qolmaq,dial.qomlaq,qomalaq
Khakassian:xumnax
Shor:qmnaq
Oyrat:qumdaq,qumanaq
Chuvash:xmla
Kirghiz:qulmaq
Kazakh:qulmaq
Noghai:qlmaq
Karaim:qumlaq,qumlax
Comments:VEWT299,EDT628,6,138-139.Turk.>Hung.komlo,
seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*Kumluj
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:alouseortickfullofblood
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:qumuj(MK)
Comments:EDT629.AnexpressivevariantmayberepresentedinOT
(MK)kmie'gnat'(EDT722).

Proto-Turkic:*Kun-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:torob,plunder,attack
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qun-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qun-(MK)
Sary-Yughur:q`un-
1013
Turkmen:Gunu-(dial.)
Tuva:xun-
Kirghiz:qun-
Comments:6,141,VEWT300,EDT632.

Proto-Turkic:*Kun-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1attention,care2usefulness3toyearn,beanxious,sorry
Russianmeaning:1,,2,3
,,
Tatar:qon1,(dial.)qonar2;qono'diligent,busy',qonoq-'togetused,
becomeaccustomed'
MiddleTurkic:qunuq-3(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:qunt1
Oyrat:qunuq-,qunan-,qunal-3
Tuva:qunuq-3
Kirghiz:qunt1,qunar2
Kazakh:qunt1
Bashkir:qont(dial.)1,qonar2
Karakalpak:qunt1;qunq-'becomeaccustomed'
Comments:6,147-148,149-150.*Kun-'toyearn,besorry'and
*Kun-'attention,usefulness'canhardlybeseparated;despitelate
attestationatheoryofMong.origin(<Mong.guni-)ishardlyplausible
becauseofquitedifferentaffixation.

Proto-Turkic:*Kunak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1armour2skin
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:qujaq1,qujqa2(MK)
1014
Tatar:qojqa2
MiddleTurkic:qujaq1(Pav.C.)
Khakassian:xujax1,xuja2
Oyrat:qujaq1,qujqa2
Yakut:kujax1,kujaxa2
Tuva:qujaq1,quja2
Tofalar:qujaq1
Kirghiz:qjaq1,qujqa2
Kazakh:qujqa2
Noghai:qujqa2
Bashkir:qojqa2
Karakalpak:qujqa2
Comments:EDT676,VEWT301,576,6,111,113,
Stachowski161.Turk.>Mong.qujiqa'skinfromthehead'(whenceEvk.
kuikaetc.,seeDoerferMT132;Dolg.kujka'headskin',seeStachowski
160).

Proto-Turkic:*Kun-da-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toswaddle2swaddlingclothes
Russianmeaning:12
Turkish:kundak2
Tatar:qontq2(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:qondaq2(R.)
Uzbek:qundq2
Uighur:qondaq2
Azerbaidzhan:GundaG2
Turkmen:Gunda-1,Gundaq2
Oyrat:qndaq2
Kirghiz:qundaq2
1015
Kazakh:qundaq2
Noghai:qundaq2
Gagauz:qundaq2
Karaim:qndaq2
Karakalpak:qundaq2
Kumyk:qunnaq2
Comments:VEWT301,6,144-146.

Proto-Turkic:*Kur-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toerect(abuilding),toestablish
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:qur-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:qur-(MK)
Turkish:kur-
Tatar:qor-
MiddleTurkic:qur-(AH,Houts.)
Uzbek:qur-
Uighur:qu(r)-
Azerbaidzhan:Gur-
Turkmen:Gur-
Kirghiz:qur-
Kazakh:qur-
Noghai:qur-
Bashkir:qor-
Balkar:qur-
Gagauz:qur-
Karaim:qur-
Karakalpak:qur-
Kumyk:qur-
1016
Comments:VEWT302,EDT643,6,156-157.Thereisalsoa
derivative*Kur-gan(seee.g.TMN3,542-543),whichissometimeshardto
distinguishfrom*Kr-kan(see*Kr-).

Proto-Turkic:*kd-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:affair
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ikdk(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ikk(KB)
Chuvash:kr-'tohire,behired'
Comments:EDT702.

Proto-Turkic:*kl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ashes
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kl(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kl(MK)
Turkish:kl
Tatar:kl
MiddleTurkic:kl
Uzbek:kul
Uighur:kl
Sary-Yughur:kl
Azerbaidzhan:kl
Turkmen:kl
Khakassian:kl
Shor:kl
1017
Oyrat:kl
Halaj:kl
Chuvash:kl
Yakut:kl
Dolgan:kl
Tuva:xl
Tofalar:xl
Kirghiz:kl
Kazakh:kl
Noghai:kl
Bashkir:kl
Balkar:kl
Gagauz:kl
Karaim:kul
Karakalpak:kl
Salar:kl
Kumyk:kl
Comments:VEWT307,EDT715,5,137-138,367-368,
Stachowski164.

Proto-Turkic:*kl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:spool,skein,sheaf
Russianmeaning:,,
Turkish:kle,dial.kltem
Tatar:klte
MiddleTurkic:klte(AH,At-Tuhf.,KW)
Turkmen:kltem
Chuvash:klde(possibly<Tat.)
Kazakh:klte
1018
Noghai:klte
Bashkir:klte
Karaim:klte
Karakalpak:klte
Kumyk:klte
Comments:5,139,1,272-273.Turk.>Kalm.klt-'to
bind,fasten'(KW245).

Proto-Turkic:*Klmr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:malechamois
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:klmz(KB)
Khakassian:klbs
Oyrat:klms
Tuva:xlbs
Tofalar:xlbs
Comments:5,139,153.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl

l
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1rat2mole
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:kl(dial.)1
Khakassian:kzl2
Oyrat:kl2
Bashkir:kl1,2
Comments:5,155.Turk.>Kalm.kl(KW248).

Proto-Turkic:*kme
1019
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dug-out,hut
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:kmld,dial.kme
Turkmen:kme
Comments:VEWT308.AnexclusivelyOghuzword;traditionallyderived
fromPers.kuma'stack,hut'(see499),butareversedirectionof
borrowingcannotbeexcluded.Cf.perhapsKarakh.(MK)kmi'nameofa
townontheUyghurborder'(?).

Proto-Turkic:*Kn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:people
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:elgn(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:elkn(KB)
Turkish:elgn(Osm.XIVc.)
MiddleTurkic:elwakn(Sangl.),elgn(Pav.C.),elgn(Oghuz-nama),
elgn'goverment,realm'(Ettuhf.)
Comments:VEWT309,TMN3,656-7,317,EDT121-122,725-
726(withdoubts).

Proto-Turkic:*Kr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:trick,device
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:tevligkrlg'tricky',tevkr(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Comments:EDT735,745.

Proto-Turkic:*kre-
1020
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torake2spade,shovel
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:kri-(MK)1,krgk(MK)2
Turkish:kr-1,krek2
Tatar:kr-1,krk2
MiddleTurkic:kre-1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kur-1
Uighur:kr-1,kurk2
Azerbaidzhan:kr-,kr-1,krk2
Turkmen:krek2
Khakassian:kre-1
Oyrat:kre-1,krek2
Halaj:krgk2
Chuvash:krez e2
Yakut:krt-1
Dolgan:krt-1
Tuva:xrek,krjek(Todzh.)
Tofalar:xrjek
Kirghiz:kr-1,krk2
Kazakh:kre-1,krek2
Noghai:kre-1,krek2
Bashkir:kr-1,krk2
Balkar:kre-1
Gagauz:kr-1,krek2
Karakalpak:grek2
Kumyk:kre-1,krek2
Comments:VEWT310,5,150-152,Stachowski166.Turk.*kre-ek
>MMong.krek,WMong.kre,see1997,129(borrowedback>
Yak.krex,Dolg.krek,seeStachowskiibid.).
1021

Proto-Turkic:*Kre-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:torunaway
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kre-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kre-(MK,KB)
Yakut:kr-
Dolgan:kr-
Kirghiz:krgt-'',krgj','
Comments:EDT737,VEWT310,5,146,Stachowski166.

Proto-Turkic:*Kren
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ferret,weasel
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:kzen(MK)'ananimaloftheratfamilyusedtohuntsparrows
andjerboas'
Tatar:kzn
MiddleTurkic:kzen(Qutb),Kypch.kzen(CCum.)
Uzbek:kuzn
Uighur:kzn
Turkmen:alagzen,dial.kzen
Khakassian:kzen
Oyrat:kzen
Tuva:kzen
Kirghiz:kzn
Kazakh:kzen
Noghai:kzen
Bashkir:kn
1022
Karakalpak:gzen
Kumyk:sasq-gzen
Comments:VEWT312,5,86,163,EDT761.Turk.>
Hung.gre ny,seeMNyTESz1,1089.

Proto-Turkic:*Kri-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ameasureofcapacity2ak.ofbasketforvegetables
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:kri1(OUygh.)'peck(2and1/2bushels)'
Karakhanid:krin2(MK)
Uighur:kr1
Sary-Yughur:k`or(10,35l)1
Comments:EDT737,746.

Proto-Turkic:*kr-tn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:packsaddle
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:krtn
Tatar:kren(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:krtn(AH)
Comments:VEWT311,540.

Proto-Turkic:*Krl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:milletflourboiledinwaterormilk
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:krek(MK)1
Comments:VEWT311,EDT747.
1023

Proto-Turkic:*ks-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobeangry,offended
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:ks-(MK)
Turkish:ks-
MiddleTurkic:ks-(IM,AH,Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:ks-
Gagauz:ks-
Kumyk:ks-
Comments:5,152-153.

Proto-Turkic:*Kte(re)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bog,marsh
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:kter,kt(dial.)
Khakassian:kdre
Oyrat:kdre
Bashkir:kter(dial.)
Comments:5,154-155.

Proto-Turkic:*kse-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towish,want,will
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:kse-(MK,KB)
Tatar:ks-
MiddleTurkic:kse-(AH,Qutb.)
1024
Uighur:kus-
Turkmen:kse-
Tuva:k'ze-
Kirghiz:ks-
Noghai:kse-
Bashkir:kh-
Karakalpak:kse-
Comments:VEWT311-312,5,135.Tuvaformsreflectashort*-

-.

Proto-Turkic:*-ma-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:not
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:-ma-
Karakhanid:-ma-
Turkish:-ma-
Tatar:-ma-
MiddleTurkic:-ma-
Uzbek:-ma-
Uighur:-ma-
Sary-Yughur:-ma-
Azerbaidzhan:-ma-
Turkmen:-ma-
Khakassian:-ma-
Shor:-ma-
Oyrat:-ma-
Halaj:-ma-
Chuvash:-ma-
Yakut:-ma-
Tuva:-ma-
1025
Tofalar:-ma-
Kirghiz:-ma-
Kazakh:-ma-
Noghai:-ma-
Bashkir:-ma-
Balkar:-ma-
Gagauz:-ma-
Karaim:-ma-
Karakalpak:-ma-
Salar:-m-
Kumyk:-ma-

Proto-Turkic:*mme(*bme)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1breast(fem.)2nipple3(poet.)breast
Russianmeaning:1(.)23(.)4
Turkish:meme1,OldOsm.memek(17thc.)
Tatar:mmi,mmj1
Uighur:mm1
Azerbaidzhan:mm2
Turkmen:mme3
Halaj:mmk
Yakut:mm4
Noghai:mmj1
Bashkir:mmj1
Gagauz:mm1
Karaim:mm2
Karakalpak:mmm1
Comments:Anonomatopoeticroot.SeeVEWT333,VII.

1026
Proto-Turkic:*-mi
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:interrogativeparticle
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:-mu
Karakhanid:-mu
Turkish:-mi
Tatar:-mi
MiddleTurkic:-mu
Uzbek:-mi
Uighur:-mu
Azerbaidzhan:-mi
Turkmen:-mi
Khakassian:-ma/-me
Shor:-ma/me
Oyrat:-ba/be
Halaj:-mi
Chuvash:-im
Tuva:-be
Kirghiz:-b
Kazakh:-ma/me
Noghai:-ma/me
Bashkir:-m
Balkar:-mu/m
Gagauz:-mi
Karaim:-mo
Karakalpak:-ma/me
Salar:-mi
Kumyk:-mi
Comments:2.
1027

Proto-Turkic:*kd-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:affair
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ikdk(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ikk(KB)
Chuvash:kr-'tohire,behired'
Comments:EDT702.

Proto-Turkic:*kl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ashes
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:kl(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kl(MK)
Turkish:kl
Tatar:kl
MiddleTurkic:kl
Uzbek:kul
Uighur:kl
Sary-Yughur:kl
Azerbaidzhan:kl
Turkmen:kl
Khakassian:kl
Shor:kl
Oyrat:kl
Halaj:kl
Chuvash:kl
1028
Yakut:kl
Dolgan:kl
Tuva:xl
Tofalar:xl
Kirghiz:kl
Kazakh:kl
Noghai:kl
Bashkir:kl
Balkar:kl
Gagauz:kl
Karaim:kul
Karakalpak:kl
Salar:kl
Kumyk:kl
Comments:VEWT307,EDT715,5,137-138,367-368,
Stachowski164.

Proto-Turkic:*kl-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:spool,skein,sheaf
Russianmeaning:,,
Turkish:kle,dial.kltem
Tatar:klte
MiddleTurkic:klte(AH,At-Tuhf.,KW)
Turkmen:kltem
Chuvash:klde(possibly<Tat.)
Kazakh:klte
Noghai:klte
Bashkir:klte
Karaim:klte
1029
Karakalpak:klte
Kumyk:klte
Comments:5,139,1,272-273.Turk.>Kalm.klt-'to
bind,fasten'(KW245).

Proto-Turkic:*Klmr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:malechamois
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:klmz(KB)
Khakassian:klbs
Oyrat:klms
Tuva:xlbs
Tofalar:xlbs
Comments:5,139,153.

Proto-Turkic:*Kl

l
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1rat2mole
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:kl(dial.)1
Khakassian:kzl2
Oyrat:kl2
Bashkir:kl1,2
Comments:5,155.Turk.>Kalm.kl(KW248).

Proto-Turkic:*kme
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dug-out,hut
Russianmeaning:,
1030
Turkish:kmld,dial.kme
Turkmen:kme
Comments:VEWT308.AnexclusivelyOghuzword;traditionallyderived
fromPers.kuma'stack,hut'(see499),butareversedirectionof
borrowingcannotbeexcluded.Cf.perhapsKarakh.(MK)kmi'nameofa
townontheUyghurborder'(?).

Proto-Turkic:*Kn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:people
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:elgn(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:elkn(KB)
Turkish:elgn(Osm.XIVc.)
MiddleTurkic:elwakn(Sangl.),elgn(Pav.C.),elgn(Oghuz-nama),
elgn'goverment,realm'(Ettuhf.)
Comments:VEWT309,TMN3,656-7,317,EDT121-122,725-
726(withdoubts).

Proto-Turkic:*Kr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:trick,device
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:tevligkrlg'tricky',tevkr(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Comments:EDT735,745.

Proto-Turkic:*kre-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torake2spade,shovel
Russianmeaning:12
1031
Karakhanid:kri-(MK)1,krgk(MK)2
Turkish:kr-1,krek2
Tatar:kr-1,krk2
MiddleTurkic:kre-1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:kur-1
Uighur:kr-1,kurk2
Azerbaidzhan:kr-,kr-1,krk2
Turkmen:krek2
Khakassian:kre-1
Oyrat:kre-1,krek2
Halaj:krgk2
Chuvash:krez e2
Yakut:krt-1
Dolgan:krt-1
Tuva:xrek,krjek(Todzh.)
Tofalar:xrjek
Kirghiz:kr-1,krk2
Kazakh:kre-1,krek2
Noghai:kre-1,krek2
Bashkir:kr-1,krk2
Balkar:kre-1
Gagauz:kr-1,krek2
Karakalpak:grek2
Kumyk:kre-1,krek2
Comments:VEWT310,5,150-152,Stachowski166.Turk.*kre-ek
>MMong.krek,WMong.kre,see1997,129(borrowedback>
Yak.krex,Dolg.krek,seeStachowskiibid.).

Proto-Turkic:*Kre-
Altaicetymology:
1032
Meaning:torunaway
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:kre-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:kre-(MK,KB)
Yakut:kr-
Dolgan:kr-
Kirghiz:krgt-'',krgj','
Comments:EDT737,VEWT310,5,146,Stachowski166.

Proto-Turkic:*Kren
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ferret,weasel
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:kzen(MK)'ananimaloftheratfamilyusedtohuntsparrows
andjerboas'
Tatar:kzn
MiddleTurkic:kzen(Qutb),Kypch.kzen(CCum.)
Uzbek:kuzn
Uighur:kzn
Turkmen:alagzen,dial.kzen
Khakassian:kzen
Oyrat:kzen
Tuva:kzen
Kirghiz:kzn
Kazakh:kzen
Noghai:kzen
Bashkir:kn
Karakalpak:gzen
Kumyk:sasq-gzen
1033
Comments:VEWT312,5,86,163,EDT761.Turk.>
Hung.gre ny,seeMNyTESz1,1089.

Proto-Turkic:*Kri-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1ameasureofcapacity2ak.ofbasketforvegetables
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:kri1(OUygh.)'peck(2and1/2bushels)'
Karakhanid:krin2(MK)
Uighur:kr1
Sary-Yughur:k`or(10,35l)1
Comments:EDT737,746.

Proto-Turkic:*kr-tn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:packsaddle
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:krtn
Tatar:kren(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:krtn(AH)
Comments:VEWT311,540.

Proto-Turkic:*Krl

Altaicetymology:
Meaning:milletflourboiledinwaterormilk
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:krek(MK)1
Comments:VEWT311,EDT747.

Proto-Turkic:*ks-
1034
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobeangry,offended
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:ks-(MK)
Turkish:ks-
MiddleTurkic:ks-(IM,AH,Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:ks-
Gagauz:ks-
Kumyk:ks-
Comments:5,152-153.

Proto-Turkic:*Kte(re)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:bog,marsh
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:kter,kt(dial.)
Khakassian:kdre
Oyrat:kdre
Bashkir:kter(dial.)
Comments:5,154-155.

Proto-Turkic:*kse-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towish,want,will
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:kse-(MK,KB)
Tatar:ks-
MiddleTurkic:kse-(AH,Qutb.)
Uighur:kus-
Turkmen:kse-
1035
Tuva:k'ze-
Kirghiz:ks-
Noghai:kse-
Bashkir:kh-
Karakalpak:kse-
Comments:VEWT311-312,5,135.Tuvaformsreflectashort*-

-.

Proto-Turkic:*-ma-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:not
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:-ma-
Karakhanid:-ma-
Turkish:-ma-
Tatar:-ma-
MiddleTurkic:-ma-
Uzbek:-ma-
Uighur:-ma-
Sary-Yughur:-ma-
Azerbaidzhan:-ma-
Turkmen:-ma-
Khakassian:-ma-
Shor:-ma-
Oyrat:-ma-
Halaj:-ma-
Chuvash:-ma-
Yakut:-ma-
Tuva:-ma-
Tofalar:-ma-
Kirghiz:-ma-
1036
Kazakh:-ma-
Noghai:-ma-
Bashkir:-ma-
Balkar:-ma-
Gagauz:-ma-
Karaim:-ma-
Karakalpak:-ma-
Salar:-m-
Kumyk:-ma-

Proto-Turkic:*mme(*bme)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1breast(fem.)2nipple3(poet.)breast
Russianmeaning:1(.)23(.)4
Turkish:meme1,OldOsm.memek(17thc.)
Tatar:mmi,mmj1
Uighur:mm1
Azerbaidzhan:mm2
Turkmen:mme3
Halaj:mmk
Yakut:mm4
Noghai:mmj1
Bashkir:mmj1
Gagauz:mm1
Karaim:mm2
Karakalpak:mmm1
Comments:Anonomatopoeticroot.SeeVEWT333,VII.

Proto-Turkic:*-mi
Altaicetymology:
1037
Meaning:interrogativeparticle
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:-mu
Karakhanid:-mu
Turkish:-mi
Tatar:-mi
MiddleTurkic:-mu
Uzbek:-mi
Uighur:-mu
Azerbaidzhan:-mi
Turkmen:-mi
Khakassian:-ma/-me
Shor:-ma/me
Oyrat:-ba/be
Halaj:-mi
Chuvash:-im
Tuva:-be
Kirghiz:-b
Kazakh:-ma/me
Noghai:-ma/me
Bashkir:-m
Balkar:-mu/m
Gagauz:-mi
Karaim:-mo
Karakalpak:-ma/me
Salar:-mi
Kumyk:-mi
Comments:2.

1038
Proto-Turkic:*n-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:what
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ne(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ne(MK,KB)
Turkish:ne,neme
Tatar:ni,nrs
MiddleTurkic:ne(Abush.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:ne
Uighur:n
Sary-Yughur:ni
Azerbaidzhan:n
Turkmen:n,nm
Khakassian:nime,ni;n`which'(*ne-gu)
Shor:nebe`thing',n`what'(*ne-gu)
Oyrat:ne,neme
Halaj:ne
Chuvash:mn(metathesis<*ne-me)
Yakut:tuox(*suox<*e-gu+ok?)
Dolgan:tuok
Tuva:(*e-g),ve(*eg-me)
Tofalar:,me
Kirghiz:ne,neme
Kazakh:ne
Noghai:ne
Bashkir:ni,nm
Balkar:ne
Gagauz:ne
Karaim:ne
1039
Karakalpak:ne,neme
Salar:ne
Kumyk:ne,neme
Comments:TheearliestPTformmusthavecontainedauniqueinitialnasal
(generallynasalswerenotallowedword-initially),havingyieldedspecific
reflexesinmodernlanguages.SeeVEWT352,EDT774-5,Stachowski
230-231,7,1,356.

Proto-Turkic:*-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:anendingofthe2dperson
Russianmeaning:2-.
OldTurkic:-(Orkh.,OUygh.),-(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:-(MK,KB)
Turkish:-n
Tatar:-
MiddleTurkic:-
Uzbek:-
Uighur:-
Sary-Yughur:-
Azerbaidzhan:-n
Turkmen:-
Khakassian:-
Shor:-
Oyrat:-
Halaj:-
Chuvash:-n
Yakut:-
Dolgan:-
Tuva:-
1040
Kirghiz:-
Kazakh:-
Noghai:-
Bashkir:-
Balkar:-
Gagauz:-n
Karaim:-n,-j
Karakalpak:-
Salar:-
Kumyk:-
Comments:23-26,28,32.

Proto-Turkic:*ob-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocrush,mince,grind
Russianmeaning:,,,
Karakhanid:uv-(ov-)(MK,KB)
Turkish:ov-,o-
Tatar:u(w)-
Uighur:uva-
Sary-Yughur:u-
Azerbaidzhan:ov-
Turkmen:ov-
Khakassian:u-
Halaj:hu_v-'rub'
Chuvash:v-'grind'
Yakut:ub-ax
Tuva:-
Bashkir:w-
Balkar:uw-
1041
Gagauz:-
Karaim:uw-
Kumyk:uw-
Comments:VEWT510,1,401-403,560-561,EDT4-5.

Proto-Turkic:*oba
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:cavity,valley
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:ova
Uzbek:uwa
Uighur:ova
Azerbaidzhan:ova
Tuva:howu
Gagauz:uva
Comments:1,403.

Proto-Turkic:*o(b)l-duruk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:milt,roe
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:oulduruk'womb,ovary'
Tatar:uwuldq
MiddleTurkic:oulduruq(R-ShS)
Uzbek:vuldrq(dial.)
Turkmen:ovulduruq
Chuvash:vl
Kirghiz:ulduruq
Kazakh:ulduruq,ldrk
Bashkir:wldrq(dial.)
1042
Comments:VEWT358.Usuallyderivedfrom*ogul'son',whichisrather
dubiousforexternalreasons.See.146.156.

Proto-Turkic:*obu-ra-/*obu-n-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1towearout(intr.),decay2tocease,stop3totire4tobe
destroyed
Russianmeaning:1,23
4,
Tatar:uwa-l-,wa-l-1,3,4(dial.,112,451)
Khakassian:ra-1
Oyrat:ra-1
Chuvash:vn-3
Yakut:raj-2
Kirghiz:ura-4
Comments:VEWT356,515.Kalm.r-'tofallapart,becomespoiled'may
be<Turkic,buttheimmediatesourceisunclear(Tat.?).TheChuv.form
maybeadialectalvariantofln-,see342,2,468.

Proto-Turkic:*od-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1awake2towakeup(intr.)3towakeup(trans.)
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:odu1,odun-2,odur-3(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ou1,oun-2,our-3(MK)
Turkish:ujan-2,(dial.)ujar-3
Tatar:ujan-2
MiddleTurkic:ujan-2,ujat-3(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:ujn-2
Uighur:o(j)an-2
1043
Sary-Yughur:ozan-2
Azerbaidzhan:ojan-2
Turkmen:ojan-2,ojar-3
Khakassian:usxun-2,usxur-3
Oyrat:ojon-,ujun-2,ujus3
Chuvash:vran-2,vrat-3
Tuva:odun-2
Kirghiz:ojon-2
Kazakh:ojan-2,ojat-3
Noghai:ujan-2,ujat-3
Bashkir:ujan-2
Balkar:ujan-2,ujat-3
Gagauz:ujan-2
Karaim:ojan-,ujan-2,ojat-3
Karakalpak:ojan-2,ojat-3
Kumyk:ujan-2,ujat-3
Comments:EDT47,48,62,VEWT357,1,430-432.

Proto-Turkic:*ograk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:mountaingoat
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:oraq(IM)
Comments:1,405.MostTurkiclanguagesreflectPT*oglak'kid,
goat'-possiblyamergerof*ograkwith*ogul'son'(v.sub*iuga).

Proto-Turkic:*ogr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thief
Russianmeaning:
1044
OldTurkic:or(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:or(MK)
Turkish:uuru
MiddleTurkic:or(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ori
Uighur:ori,our
Sary-Yughur:our
Azerbaidzhan:oru
Turkmen:or
Khakassian:or
Shor:or
Oyrat:r
Chuvash:vr
Yakut:uor-'tosteal'
Dolgan:uor-'tosteal'
Tuva:r
Tofalar:

r
Kirghiz:ru
Kazakh:ur
Karaim:or
Karakalpak:ur
Salar:or
Kumyk:oru,uru
Comments:EDT90,1,412-414,TMN2,77-78,Stachowski244.
Turk.>Mong.*ourak,see1997,164;Hung.or,orv
'mischievous',seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*ogul
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:son
1045
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:oul(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:oul(MK)
Turkish:oul
Tatar:ul
MiddleTurkic:oul(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:oil
Uighur:oul
Sary-Yughur:oul
Azerbaidzhan:oul
Turkmen:oul
Khakassian:ol,l
Oyrat:l,l
Chuvash:vl
Yakut:uol
Dolgan:uol
Tuva:l
Tofalar:l
Kirghiz:l
Kazakh:ul
Noghai:uwl
Bashkir:ul
Gagauz:l
Karaim:ovul
Karakalpak:ul
Comments:EDT83-84,VEWT358,TMN2,81,1,411-412,414-
417,313-314,323,429-430,341,Stachowski243-244.
Derivedare:*ogul'kin,generation',*oglak'kid'(1,404-405)etc.
(ibid.)

1046
Proto-Turkic:*oj-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1play2toplay3tojump
Russianmeaning:123
OldTurkic:ojun1,ojna-2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ojun1,ojna-2(MK)
Turkish:ojun1,ojna-2
Tatar:ujn1,ujna-2
Uzbek:ojin1,ojna-2
Uighur:ojun,ojan1,ojni-2
Sary-Yughur:oin,ujin1
Azerbaidzhan:ojun1,ojna-2
Turkmen:ojun1,ojna-2
Khakassian:ojn1,ojna-2
Shor:oin1
Oyrat:ojn1,ojno-2
Chuvash:vj1
Yakut:nn 1,nn -2,oj-3
Dolgan:oj-3,nn -2
Tuva:ojun1,ojna-2
Kirghiz:ojun1,ojno-2
Kazakh:ojn1,ojna-2
Noghai:ojn1
Bashkir:ujn1,ujna-2
Balkar:ojun1,ojna-2
Gagauz:ojun1,ojna-2
Karaim:ojun1,ojna-2
Karakalpak:ojn1,ojna-2
Kumyk:ojun1,ojna-2
1047
Comments:EDT274,275,1,435-436,Stachowski190,198.The
verbalsohassexualconnotations,preservedinKirgh.,Oyr.,Bashk.and
Yak.(whereitalsomeans'toflirt,beinlove')andinthecommonTurkic
derivative*ojnal'lover'(seeibid.)-importantforestablishing
externalconnections.

Proto-Turkic:*ojma
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1feltoutofwhichbootsaremade2leatherorskinbag
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:ojma(MK)
MiddleTurkic:ojma(Sangl.)
Comments:EDT273(butderivationfromUj-'squeeze',supportedalsoby
Clark1977,159,ishighlydubiousbecauseofexternalparallels).

Proto-Turkic:*ok
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:arrow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:oq(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:oq(MK,KB)
Turkish:ok
Tatar:uq
MiddleTurkic:oq
Uzbek:uq
Uighur:oq
Sary-Yughur:oq
Azerbaidzhan:o
Turkmen:oq
Khakassian:ux
1048
Shor:oq
Oyrat:oq
Chuvash:o
Yakut:ox
Tuva:o'q
Kirghiz:oq
Kazakh:oq
Noghai:oq
Bashkir:uq
Balkar:oq
Gagauz:oq
Karaim:oq
Karakalpak:oq
Kumyk:oq
Comments:VEWT389,1,437-438,TMN2,153,577,
2,296.Cf.alsoTurk.*oklagu'rollingpin'(1,441-442),
Khal.hoqlao_(derivedfromok-la-'toroll'(R11000,Chag.),a
denominativefromok'wheelaxle'intheOghuzandQarluqgroups).

Proto-Turkic:*oka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gimp
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:uqa
Kirghiz:oqo
Kazakh:oqa
Noghai:oqa
Bashkir:uqa
Balkar:oqa
Karakalpak:oqa
1049
Comments:VEWT460.AlocalKypchakword.

Proto-Turkic:*ok-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocall,read,recite
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:oq-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:oq-(MK)
Turkish:oku-
Tatar:uq-
MiddleTurkic:oq-(AH),oqu-(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:oqi-
Uighur:oqu-
Azerbaidzhan:oxu-
Turkmen:oqa-
Halaj:hoqu-
Yakut:oguj-,uguj-
Kirghiz:oqu-
Kazakh:oq-
Noghai:oq-
Bashkir:uq-
Balkar:oqu-
Gagauz:oqu-
Karaim:ox-,oqu-,oxu-
Karakalpak:oq-
Kumyk:oxu-
Comments:EDT79,VEWT359,1,439-441.

Proto-Turkic:*okra
Altaicetymology:
1050
Meaning:1pimple,pustule2diseaseofcattle
Russianmeaning:12
Tatar:uqra2
MiddleTurkic:oqra(.)1
Kazakh:oqra1
Bashkir:uqra''
Comments:VEWT360.

Proto-Turkic:*o(-l)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:that
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:o-l(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:o-l(MK)
Turkish:o
Tatar:u-l
MiddleTurkic:o-l(AH)
Uzbek:u
Uighur:u
Sary-Yughur:o-l,o
Azerbaidzhan:o
Turkmen:ol
Khakassian:ol
Oyrat:o-l
Halaj: ,o ,u

-ra
Chuvash:v-l
Yakut:ol
Dolgan:ol
Tuva:ol
Tofalar:ol
1051
Kirghiz:o-o
Kazakh:o-l
Noghai:o-l
Bashkir:o-o,u
Balkar:o-l
Gagauz:o
Karaim:o
Karakalpak:o-l,u-s'this'
Salar:u
Kumyk:o-l
Comments:VEWT360,1,444-445,456,492-494,TMN2,93,EDT
123-4,Stachowski191.Theformoisattestedlaterthanol,butitcertainly
doesnotmeanthatitwasabsentinPT(despiteClauson).

Proto-Turkic:*(o)-l
Meaning:here,this(deicticparticle)
Russianmeaning:,()
Turkish:u
Tatar:u-l
Chuvash:sa-
Kazakh:so-l
Noghai:so-l
Bashkir:u-l
Karakalpak:so-l
Comments:VEWT366,EDT254-5.

Proto-Turkic:*ol-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1skilless,talentless,careless2simple
Russianmeaning:1,2
1052
Karakhanid:uln-'tobebewildered'(MK)
Azerbaidzhan:olmaja'anexpressionofwarning,bewilderment'
Khakassian:olaaj2
Chuvash:vli-ali1
Yakut:oloj-'tomakeastupidface'
Tuva:olutpaj'lazy'
Kirghiz:oldoqson1,oloq,olooj'one-eyed'
Kazakh:olaq1
Comments:VEWT360,609(EDT149onlyquotesOTuln-'tobe
twisted'whichisprobablyadifferentroot).

Proto-Turkic:*ol-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.ofplant
Russianmeaning:
Khakassian:ozj''
Shor:ozj''(Kond.),z''(Mras.)
Chuvash:vldren'nettle'

Proto-Turkic:*oluk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gutter;hollowed-outtreetrunk
Russianmeaning:;
Karakhanid:oluq(MK)
Turkish:oluk
Tatar:ulaq
MiddleTurkic:oluq(IM,AH)
Uighur:olaq
Chuvash:vol'tree-trunk'
1053
Noghai:olq
Bashkir:ulaq
Karaim:oluq
Comments:EDT136-137,1,451,.125,131,.V,
263,1,99,130.Therealsoexistsasimilar-butoriginally
different-form*og(u)l-,*ogluk,reflectedinChag.oluq,Tur.dial.,Gag.
holluq,Chuv.valak,Yak.(.)uoluk,uol-ba,withnaturalcontaminations.

Proto-Turkic:*ol-ur-,*ol(u)-tur-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosit
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:oltur-(OUygh.),olur-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:oltur-(MK),ol-'tobe'(At.,IM),'tobecomeripe'(MK,IM,
Bulgat)
Turkish:otur-
Tatar:utr-
MiddleTurkic:oltur-(..,Abush.,Pav.C.),(?)ol-'tobe'(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:utir-
Uighur:oltur-
Azerbaidzhan:otur-
Turkmen:otur-
Khakassian:odr-
Oyrat:otur-
Chuvash:lar-
Yakut:olor-
Dolgan:olor-
Tuva:olur-
Tofalar:olr-
Kirghiz:otur-
1054
Kazakh:otr-
Noghai:oltr-
Bashkir:ultr-
Balkar:oltur-
Gagauz:otur-
Karaim:otur-
Karakalpak:otr-
Salar:oht(r)-
Comments:1,489-492.EDT125,331-332,VEWT79,TMN2,358,
Stachowski192.Seealsothecommentson*bl-'tobe,become'.From
theformsphoneticallylookinglikeol-'tobe,become'theonlyactual
reflexesofPT*ol-maybeMiddleUygh.(At.,Tefs.,IM-opposedtobar,bir-
)andMiddleKypchak(Bulgat,Ettuhf.),cf.2,186;Chag.ol-mayas
wellbe<Oghuz.

Proto-Turkic:*oma-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todive2scoop
Russianmeaning:12
Khakassian:oma2
Shor:oma2
Yakut:umus-1
Tuva:om2
Comments:VEWT361,514.

Proto-Turkic:*omur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:shoulder
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:omuz
1055
MiddleTurkic:omuz(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:omiz
Turkmen:omuz
Chuvash:mr
Balkar:omuz
Karaim:omuz
Kumyk:omuz
Comments:1,453-455,240.

Proto-Turkic:*omV-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1bonehead2headofhipbone3hipbone,thighbone4clavicle
Russianmeaning:123
4
Turkish:omaa,umaa,uma1
MiddleTurkic:oma,omaa(Pav.C.),(MKypch.)2,omaakemii(At-Tuhf.)
4
Azerbaidzhan:omba2
Turkmen:omaa3
Khakassian:omx'knee-cap'(dial.)
Comments:TMN2,132,1,453.

Proto-Turkic:*on(-j)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:grey,dun,ash-coloured(ofahorse)
Russianmeaning:-
Karakhanid:oj(MK)
MiddleTurkic:Kypch.oj(Houts.)
Khakassian:oj
Tuva:oj
1056
Comments:EDT266,VEWT358.

Proto-Turkic:*o
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1right2good,lucky3West
Russianmeaning:12,3
OldTurkic:o1,2,3(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:o1,2(MK,KB)
Turkish:on1,2(dial.)
Tatar:u1,2
MiddleTurkic:o1(Abush.)
Uzbek:o1,2
Uighur:o1
Sary-Yughur:o1
Turkmen:o2
Khakassian:o1,2
Shor:o1,2
Oyrat:o1,2
Chuvash:n-4
Yakut:ua1,'southern';uuor'ontheotherbank';oor-'todo,make'
Dolgan:ouor'ontheotherbank';oor-'todo,make'
Tuva:o1
Tofalar:o1
Kirghiz:o1,2
Kazakh:o1
Noghai:o1,2
Bashkir:u1,2
Balkar:o1,2
Karaim:o1,2
Karakalpak:o1,2
1057
Kumyk:o1,2
Comments:EDT166-167,168-169,VEWT352,1,456-460,TMN2,
165-166,Stachowski195,243.alsoaddstheverbo-'toprosper';
but,accordingtoEDT,inOTthisverbhastheshapeon-,whiletheformo-
appearslater(inMiddleKypchakandOldOsmantexts,aswellasina
numberofmodernlanguages),probablyasaresultofcontamination.

Proto-Turkic:*o-/*-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tofade,becomepale
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:o-(MK)
Tatar:u-
Uzbek:o-
Uighur:o-,-
Khakassian:o-
Oyrat:o-
Chuvash:n-'ohneFlammebrennen'
Tuva:o-
Kirghiz:o-
Kazakh:o-
Noghai:o-
Bashkir:u-
Balkar:o-
Karakalpak:o-,-
Kumyk:o-
Comments:EDT169,VEWT362,372,1,460-461.

Proto-Turkic:*our-,*o-
1058
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocrush,breakoff
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:our-(MK)
Tatar:umr-
Turkmen:our-,omur-
Khakassian:or-
Yakut:o-'topickout'
Dolgan:o-'topickout'
Tuva:r-
Kirghiz:omur-
Kazakh:omr-
Noghai:omr-
Bashkir:umr-
Karakalpak:omr-
Comments:EDT91,1,461;Stachowski194.DerivedisPT*our-
tka'spine,backbone'(see1,463-464).

Proto-Turkic:*op-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toattack2torob
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:op-la-1(Orkh.)
MiddleTurkic:op-2(R-ShS)
Tuva:opla-1
Kirghiz:ob-dul-1
Kazakh:op-2(R)
Karaim:op-2
Comments:EDT11,1,464(togetherwith*p-'suck'),RI1155.

1059
Proto-Turkic:*opa
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:whitepowder,whitelead
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:opo(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:opo(MK)
MiddleTurkic:opa(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:upa
Uighur:upa
Shor:oba
Oyrat:obo
Kirghiz:upa
Kazakh:opa
Karakalpak:opa
Comments:VEWT363,EDT6,1,465-466.

Proto-Turkic:*op-ra-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towearout(intr.),decay
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:apra-1(OUygh.?)
Karakhanid:opra-1(MK,KB)
MiddleTurkic:opra-/opran-,ofra-/ofran1(Sangl.)
Comments:VEWT515,EDT14.

Proto-Turkic:*or-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosurpass,win
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:oz-
1060
Karakhanid:oz-(MK)
Turkish:dial.oz-
Tatar:uz-
MiddleTurkic:oz-(Pav.C.,Houts.,AH,IM
Uzbek:uz-
Uighur:oz-
Sary-Yughur:joz-
Turkmen:oz-
Khakassian:os-
Kirghiz:oz-
Kazakh:oz-
Noghai:oz-
Bashkir:u-
Balkar:oz-
Karaim:oz-
Karakalpak:oz-
Kumyk:oz-
Comments:SeeVEWT367,1,425.

Proto-Turkic:*or-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1place2palace3lair,den4middle5placeofstaying(ofthe
army,ruleretc.)6army
Russianmeaning:123,45
(,)6
OldTurkic:orun1(OUygh.),ordu2,5,ortu4(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:orun1,ordu2,3,otraortu(MK)5
Turkish:orun1,ordu6,orta4
Tatar:urn1,urda5,urta4
MiddleTurkic:orun1,ordu,orda5,orta4(Pav.C.)
1061
Uzbek:orin1,orda5,orta4
Uighur:orun1,o(r)da5,orta4
Sary-Yughur:orn1,orta,orto,otra4
Azerbaidzhan:ordu6,orta4
Turkmen:orun1,orta4,orda6
Khakassian:orn1,orda5,ort4
Oyrat:orn1,ordo5,orto4
Chuvash:vrn1,vda4
Yakut:ord1,3,5,oron1,orto4
Dolgan:onnu1
Tuva:orun1,ortu4
Tofalar:oron1
Kirghiz:orun1,ordo5,orto4
Kazakh:orn1,orda4,5,orta4
Noghai:orn1,orda5,orta4
Bashkir:urn1,urda5,urta4
Balkar:orun1,orta4
Gagauz:orta4
Karaim:orun1,ordu6,orta4
Karakalpak:orn1,orda5,orta4
Kumyk:orun1,orda5,6,orta4
Comments:EDT203-204,233,VEWT364,365,TMN2,141,1,
470-472,474-479,495,563,569,Stachowski193,196.Turkicis
thesourceofMong.oron'place',ordo(n)'palace'(cf.TMN1,164-165,2,
38-39,1997,130),whenceMan.oronetc.,seeDoerferMT116.
ThePT*ordu'placeofstaying'mayneedtobeseparatedfromotherforms
here:itcontainsaveryuntypical*-rd-cluster(asopposedto*or-tu'middle')
andmayreflectanancientborrowingfromsomeunknownsource.Cf.in
thatrespectWMong.rte-'tochangeposthorses',rtegen'postalrelay
station',alsosomewhatobscureinorigin.
1062

Proto-Turkic:*or
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:red-brown(ofahorse)
Russianmeaning:-()
Karakhanid:or(MK,IM)
Oyrat:or'grey'
Yakut:or'blackishpiebald'
Kazakh:or
Bashkir:ur-ujan'-'
Comments:EDT192-193,VEWT364.

Proto-Turkic:*or-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tomow
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:or-(MK)
Turkish:ora-
Turkmen:or-
Chuvash:vr-
Comments:1,468,469.

Proto-Turkic:*or-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1todig2hole,pit3totearout,dragout
Russianmeaning:12,3,
Karakhanid:oru2(MK)
Turkmen:or-1,or2
Chuvash:var2
Yakut:or-3
1063
Dolgan:or-3
Comments:1,466-468,TMN2,144,Stachowski196.Turk.>Kalm.
ur'hole,pit'.TheChuv.formmaypointtoavariant*r(?).

Proto-Turkic:*orga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:femaleoryoungmaral
Russianmeaning:
Tatar:oracaq(Sib.)
Khakassian:ora,oraa(Kyz.)
Shor:ora
Comments:.629.

Proto-Turkic:*or
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1shout,outcry2tomakeanoise,shout3toshouttogether
Russianmeaning:1,2,3
OldTurkic:orla-(OUygh.)2
Karakhanid:or1,orla-3(MK)
MiddleTurkic:or(IM)
Khakassian:orlas-3
Oyrat:orla-'tomoo',orlas-3
Comments:EDT197,230.

Proto-Turkic:*orman
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:forest
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:orman(OUygh.late)
Turkish:orman
1064
Tatar:urman
MiddleTurkic:orman(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:orman
Turkmen:ormon(dial.)
Chuvash:vrman
Kirghiz:ormon
Kazakh:orman
Noghai:orman
Bashkir:urman
Balkar:orman
Karaim:orman
Karakalpak:orman
Salar:ormn
Kumyk:orman
Comments:371,1,472-473.

Proto-Turkic:*oruk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1road2path
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:oruq1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:oruq1(MK,Tefs.)
Khakassian:orax2
Yakut:orox2
Dolgan:orok2
Tuva:oruq1
Tofalar:oruq1
1065
Comments:EDT215,Stachowski196.Rsnen(VEWT364;similarlyin
531-532,4,218)derivesthiswordfrom*or-'todig',which
isratherdubioussemantically.

Proto-Turkic:*osa-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1careless,dilatory2bad,evil3tobecareless,negligent4
negligence,harm
Russianmeaning:1,2,3
,4,,
OldTurkic:osal1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:osal1,osan-3(MK)
Turkish:osal2(dial.),usan-3
Tatar:usal2
MiddleTurkic:osal1(Abush.,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:osal2
Uighur:osal2
Azerbaidzhan:osal1(dial.),usan-3
Turkmen:osal1
Chuvash:osal2
Yakut:ohol4
Kirghiz:osol2
Kazakh:osal2
Noghai:osal2
Bashkir:usal2
Balkar:osal2
Karaim:osal1,2,usan-3
Karakalpak:osal2
Kumyk:osal2
1066
Comments:VEWT365-366,EDT247,248,1,479-481,608
(distinguishesosalandusan--butthenarrowingosan->usan-isalocal
Oghuzphenomenonandprobablysecondary,duetointerdialectalloans),
277,2,290.Turk.>Mong.osal(MMong.(SH)osolda-),
seeTMN2,149,Clark1980,39,notviceversa-despite1997,
207.

Proto-Turkic:*ot
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:grass
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ot(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ot(MK)
Turkish:ot
Tatar:ut
MiddleTurkic:ot(AH,Pav.C.)
Uighur:ot
Sary-Yughur:ot,ut
Azerbaidzhan:ot
Turkmen:ot
Khakassian:ot
Oyrat:ot
Chuvash:ud,vud(dial.)'hay'
Yakut:ot
Dolgan:ot
Tuva:o't
Kirghiz:ot
Kazakh:ot
Noghai:ot
Balkar:ot
1067
Gagauz:ot
Karaim:ot
Karakalpak:ot
Kumyk:ot
Comments:EDT34-35,1,481-483,119-120,2,
294-295,Stachowski197.

Proto-Turkic:*otag
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tent2room
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:ota(MK)1
Turkish:otak1,oda2
MiddleTurkic:oda(Pav.C.)2
Uzbek:otw1
Uighur:otaq1
Sary-Yughur:ota,otax1
Azerbaidzhan:otaG2
Turkmen:otaG2
Khakassian:otax1
Shor:oda1
Oyrat:od1
Yakut:ot1
Tuva:oda1
Kirghiz:ot1
Kazakh:otaw1
Noghai:otaw1
Balkar:otow2
Gagauz:oda1
Karaim:oda2
1068
Karakalpak:otaw1
Kumyk:otaw2
Comments:EDT46,VEWT366,1,484-487,TMN2,66-67,
496.Turk.>Mong.otaq(seeTMN2,67,1997,130).
Someforms(likeTur.oda)suggest*tag-asecondaryform,probably
originallymeaning"hearth"andderivedfrom*t'fire'andeasilyconfused
with*otag'tent,dwellingplace'.Thelatter,however,isverywellattested
(oftenintheshape*otagu)andcertainlycontainingashortvowel.

Proto-Turkic:*otar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1pasture2farenvirons3(summer)camp,dwellingplace,village
4herd
Russianmeaning:123,4
,
Tatar:utar3
Uzbek:otr4
Turkmen:otar1
Oyrat:odor1
Yakut:otor3
Tuva:odar1
Kirghiz:otor1,2
Kazakh:otar1
Noghai:otar1
Bashkir:utar3
Karaim:otar1
Karakalpak:otar1
Kumyk:otar3
Comments:VEWT367,1,487-488.Usuallyderivedfrom*ot'grass'
butthemorphologicalpatternisunclear;thewordmightwellbearchaic
1069
despitelackofancientattestation.Cf.alsoBalkanwordslikeHung.hatar
etc.,mostprobablyofTurkicorigin.Turk.>WMong.otar,Kalm.otr(KW
291).

Proto-Turkic:*otgun
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:abroadstrapontheleftsideofthesaddletowhichthebuckleof
thegirthisfastenedandsecuredwithitstongue
Russianmeaning:,

Karakhanid:otun(utun)(MK)
Comments:EDT47.

Proto-Turkic:*otrug
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:island
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:otru(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:otru(MK)
Tatar:utraw
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)otra(dim.)(AH,CCum.)
Oyrat:ortolq
Bashkir:utraw
Karaim:otrac,otra,otura
Comments:VEWT367,EDT65.Insomelanguagestheoriginalformwas
folk-etymologicallyreinterpretedas*orta-lk'locatedinthemiddle'.The
latterformwasborrowedinMong.,withregularliquidmetathesis,as
WMong.olturi,Khalkhaoltrig'smallisland,archipelago'(whenceagain
Khak.oltrx,Kum.ottra(VEWT)'island').

1070
Proto-Turkic:*otur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thirty
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:otuz(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ottuz(MK)
Turkish:otuz
Tatar:utz
MiddleTurkic:otuz(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ottiz
Uighur:ottuz
Sary-Yughur:otus
Azerbaidzhan:otuz
Turkmen:otuz
Khakassian:ots
Oyrat:oduz,odus
Halaj:ho_ttuz,hottuz
Yakut:otut
Dolgan:otut
Kirghiz:otuz
Kazakh:otz
Noghai:otz
Bashkir:ut
Balkar:otuz
Gagauz:otuz
Karaim:otuz
Karakalpak:otz
Comments:EDT74,1,489,Stachowski197.

Proto-Turkic:*u-
1071
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1thin,light,easy,worthless2youngest3todiminish
Russianmeaning:1,,,23

OldTurkic:uuz1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:uuz1(MK)
Turkish:uuz1
Tatar:uz1(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:uuz1(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:uuz1
Turkmen:uz1
Khakassian:o(dial.)2
Shor:o(.)2
Yakut:uohun-3
Balkar:uuz1
Gagauz:us1
Karaim:uz,uuz1
Kumyk:uuz1
Comments:EDT32,VEWT509,356,1,567-568,339-340.
SomeKypch.forms(Tat.usz,Bashk.ushu'cheap')areprobablyaresult
ofreinterpretinguuzasu-sz"edgeless"-asaresultoflatefolk
etymology.

Proto-Turkic:*j-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1topick,peck2embroidery3thimble
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:oj-(OUygh.)1
Karakhanid:oj-(MK)1
Turkish:oj-1,oja2
1072
Tatar:uj-1
MiddleTurkic:oj-(Sangl.)1,ojmaq3
Uzbek:oj-1
Uighur:oj-1
Sary-Yughur:oj-1
Azerbaidzhan:oj-1
Turkmen:j-1,jmaq3
Khakassian:oj-1
Shor:oj-1
Oyrat:oj-1
Chuvash:j,ij(NW)'chisel'
Yakut:ojuo-t-;ojun-'tobesplitoff';oj'picture'
Dolgan:oj'picture'
Tuva:oj-1
Kirghiz:oj-1,ojmoq3
Kazakh:oj-1
Noghai:oj-1
Bashkir:uj-1
Balkar:oj-1
Gagauz:oj-1
Karaim:oj-1
Karakalpak:oj-1
Kumyk:oj-1
Comments:VEWT358,359,EDT265,266,1,425-428,434,
98,Stachowski190;alsoanoun:*j'pit,lowland'(Tof.(
1995)oj'brookbed'etc.;*j-k'wound;pit'.

Proto-Turkic:*n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ten
1073
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:on(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:on(MK)
Turkish:on
Tatar:un
MiddleTurkic:on(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:on
Uighur:on
Sary-Yughur:on,un
Azerbaidzhan:on
Turkmen:n
Khakassian:on
Oyrat:on
Halaj:^n
Chuvash:von
Yakut:uon
Dolgan:uon
Tuva:on
Tofalar:on
Kirghiz:on
Kazakh:on
Noghai:on
Bashkir:un
Balkar:on
Gagauz:uon,on
Karaim:on
Karakalpak:on
Kumyk:on
Comments:EDT166,VEWT362,TMN2,163,1,455-456,
573,1,130-131,Stachowski244.
1074

Proto-Turkic:*p-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosuck,swallow
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:op-(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:op-(MK)
Tatar:up-
Oyrat:op-
Yakut:uop-
Dolgan:uobu'Bissen,Happen'
Kazakh:op-
Noghai:op-
Bashkir:up-
Karaim:op-
Comments:EDT4,VEWT363,1,464-465,269-273,Stachowski
243.

Proto-Turkic:*pa
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:village,clan
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:oba(MKOghuz)
MiddleTurkic:oba
Turkmen:ba
Comments:EDT5,1,400-401.

Proto-Turkic:*pu
Meaning:whirlwind,whirlpool
Russianmeaning:(),
1075
OldTurkic:opuobu
Tatar:up-qn',;,,(,
)'
Uzbek:up-qin,up-qn',;,
;,,'
Azerbaidzhan:ov-d-an''
Oyrat:op-kn',,'
Kirghiz:obut''
Kazakh:oppa(<*op-ma)',();'
Noghai:op-qn',,;,,,'
Bashkir:up-qn',;,'
Gagauz:oban',;'
Comments:368,VEWT363.

Proto-Turkic:*pur
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:rough,unevenground
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:opuz(MK)
Turkish:obuz
Turkmen:bur'precipice'
Comments:EDT17.Cf.alsoChuv.juba'pillar'(inparticular,'gravepillar')-
unlikeotherformslikeKhak.ob,hardlyborrowedfromMong.obua.

Proto-Turkic:*t
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fire
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:ot(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ot(MK)
1076
Turkish:ot'flame,fire'(arch.)
Tatar:ut
MiddleTurkic:ot(Pav.C.,Abush.,MA)
Uzbek:ut
Uighur:ot
Sary-Yughur:ot
Azerbaidzhan:od
Turkmen:t
Khakassian:ot
Oyrat:ot
Halaj:h t
Chuvash:vot
Yakut:uot
Dolgan:uot
Tuva:ot
Tofalar:ot
Kirghiz:ot
Kazakh:ot
Noghai:ot
Bashkir:ut
Balkar:ot
Karakalpak:ot
Salar:oht
Comments:VEWT366,EDT34,1,483-484,356,361,
1,133,Stachowski245.OTot-uqwasborrowedinMMong.as
oaq'hearth'(see1997,196).
Proto-Turkic:*d(r)ei
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:maple
Russianmeaning:
1077
Tatar:jke,rge
Uighur:rgi
Chuvash:vrene
Kazakh:ujeki
Bashkir:jk
Balkar:rge
Kumyk:rge
Comments:VEWT522,1972,191,52,1,
118,Blsing2002.

Proto-Turkic:*g-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1unrelated;step-relative2other,different
Russianmeaning:1;(,
)2,
OldTurkic:gej1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:gej1(MK),gn2(KB)
Turkish:vej1
Tatar:gi1
MiddleTurkic:gej1(Pav.C.),gn2(Abush.)
Uzbek:ogej1
Azerbaidzhan:gj1
Turkmen:gej,vej1
Khakassian:j1
Shor:j1
Oyrat:j1
Yakut:egian2
Dolgan:egin-egin2
Kirghiz:gej1
Kazakh:gej1
1078
Noghai:gej1
Bashkir:gj1
Balkar:gej1
Gagauz:jv1
Karaim:gej1
Karakalpak:gej1
Kumyk:gej1
Comments:EDT109,119,VEWT369,306,1,495-496,TMN2,
159,Stachowski43(withsomeconfusionoftheYakutvariantsegin,egian
andein;onthelattersee*e).InAz.onewouldratherexpect*jj;-g-is
probablypreservedduetodissimilation.

Proto-Turkic:*g-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toknead,press2porridge,liquidsoup(*'smth.pressed')
Russianmeaning:1,2,(*'')
Karakhanid:gre(-)2(MK)
Turkish:j-,v-(dial.)1
Tatar:

jr2
MiddleTurkic:gre2(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:uwra,ugra2
Uighur:gr,gr2
Turkmen:j-1
Khakassian:gre2
Oyrat:re2
Yakut:re2
Tuva:j-1
Noghai:jre2
Bashkir:

jr2
Karaim:iwre2
1079
Comments:EDT112,VEWT369,1,324-325(*g-re'porridge'),
515,618-620.Therootclearlyhasa*-g-andshouldbedistinguishedfrom
*k-'grind'q.v.sub*p`

k`i(althoughcontaminationswerepossible).

Proto-Turkic:*g-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1topraise2torejoice
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:g-1(Orkh.,OUygh.),gir-2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:g-1(MK)
Turkish:-,v-1
Turkmen:w-1
Yakut:r-2
Dolgan:r-2
Tuva:r-2
Tofalar:r-2
Karaim:v-1
Comments:EDT100,113,VEWT369,1,494-495,Stachowski251.

Proto-Turkic:*g(*k)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1mother2sister
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:g(Orkh.,OUygh.)1
Turkish:ke,ge(dial.)2
MiddleTurkic:ke(R.)2
Uighur:uka,hk2
Comments:EDT99,1,519-520,300.

Proto-Turkic:*gr
1080
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1herd2tame3companion4groupofpeople
Russianmeaning:1,23
OldTurkic:gr1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:gr1(MK,KB)
Turkish:jr2,4
Tatar:jer1
MiddleTurkic:gr1,2,3(Sangl.)
Uzbek:ujur1
Turkmen:ri'pasture'
Khakassian:r1
Shor:r1
Oyrat:r1
Yakut:r1
Dolgan:r1
Tuva:r1,3
Tofalar:r1
Kirghiz:jr1,2,3
Kazakh:jir1,2
Noghai:jir1;'convivial'
Bashkir:jr1
Balkar:jr'family'
Karakalpak:jir1,2
Kumyk:jr1;'attached'
Comments:VEWT369,Stachowski251.Turk.(withalaterdeveloped
meaning'companionship',seeEDT112)>WMong.gr,Kalm.r(notvice
versa,despiteVEWTibid.).Apossiblederivative(<*'tobetamed'?)can
bePT*gr-e-n-'tolearn'(1,496-498).

Proto-Turkic:*j(?)
1081
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:time,age
Russianmeaning:,
Yakut:jn(dial.)
Tuva:j
Comments:1,242.Theformispoorlyattestedandratherdubious
(theTuvaformmaybe<Oyr.j<PT*dq.v.sub*odi).
Proto-Turkic:*-ed-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1totune(aninstrument)2torecuperate3toremedy
Russianmeaning:1()23

OldTurkic:ed-2,edtr-(caus.)3(OUygh.)
Chuvash:(Anatri)ner-1
Kirghiz:de-2
Kazakh:de-2
Karakalpak:de-2
Comments:EDT179,182,64,135.1,153
comparestheChuv.formwithOToar-'tocorrect',whichisphonetically
worse.

Proto-Turkic:*er
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1slime(ondishes)2mildew
Russianmeaning:1,()2
Yakut:s1
Kazakh:ez1
Bashkir:2
Comments:1,538.

1082
Proto-Turkic:*i
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:other
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:i(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:i(MK)
Tatar:g(dial.)
Turkmen:e'therest'
Kirghiz:g
Kazakh:ge
Noghai:ge
Karaim:ge,oga
Karakalpak:ge
Kumyk:oge(dial.)
Comments:EDT170-171,1,537-538,VEWT372(>Kalm.g

n,
KW297).

Proto-Turkic:*
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:larynx,windpipe
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:(OUygh.)
Tatar:
MiddleTurkic:-lk''(R)
Uzbek:ga
Uighur:g
Khakassian:gs
Shor:s''
Oyrat:,diL.(Leb.)
Yakut:s,s
1083
Tuva:
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:e
Bashkir:s
Karakalpak:e
Comments:VEWT373,EDT172,1,536,233.

Proto-Turkic:*pke
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:lung;anger
Russianmeaning:;
OldTurkic:pke(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:pke(MK,IM),fke(KB)
Turkish:fke'anger',jken'lung'(interdial.?Trki?)
Tatar:pk
MiddleTurkic:pke,fke(Sangl.)
Uzbek:opka
Uighur:pk
Sary-Yughur:kpe
Azerbaidzhan:xb(dial.Nuxa)
Turkmen:jken
Khakassian:kpe
Shor:kpe
Oyrat:kp
Halaj:hikk
Chuvash:pke(NW),pke
Tuva:kpe('kpe-2001)
Tofalar:'kpe
Kirghiz:pk
Kazakh:kp
1084
Noghai:pke
Bashkir:pk
Balkar:pke
Gagauz:fke
Karaim:pke
Karakalpak:kp
Salar:hhen()
Kumyk:pke
Comments:VEWT373,EDT9,1,540-541,276-277.

Proto-Turkic:*r-ge
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:other
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:zge(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:zge(MK-Tefs.)
Turkish:zge
Tatar:zg
MiddleTurkic:zge(AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:ozg
Uighur:zg
Sary-Yughur:zge
Azerbaidzhan:zg
Turkmen:zge
Shor:ske
Oyrat:sk
Tuva:ske
Tofalar:ske
Kirghiz:zg
Kazakh:zge
1085
Noghai:zge
Balkar:zge
Karaim:zge
Karakalpak:zge
Kumyk:zge
Comments:EDT285,VEWT377,1,508.

Proto-Turkic:*rs,*rsen
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1river,riverbed2toflow
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:zen(AH)1
Azerbaidzhan:z-2
Turkmen:zen1
Chuvash:vazan1
Yakut:rs1
Comments:1,510-511.

Proto-Turkic:*rt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1flame2toburn(tr.)3steppefire4togetburnt
Russianmeaning:1234
OldTurkic:rt1,3(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:rt1,3(MK)
Tatar:rt1
MiddleTurkic:rt1,3(Pav.C.)
Turkmen:rte-4
Khakassian:rt3,rte-2
Chuvash:virt3
Yakut:rt3
1086
Tuva:rtet-2
Tofalar:'rt'woodfire'
Kirghiz:rt1
Comments:VEWT375,EDT201,208-9,1,550-551,357-
358.

Proto-Turkic:*rt-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocover
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:rt-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:rt-(MK)
Turkish:rt-
MiddleTurkic:rt-(AH),rt-(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:rt-(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:rt-
Turkmen:rt-
Chuvash:vit-
Gagauz:jrt-
Karaim:rt-
Salar:xt-
Comments:EDT202,VEWT375,1,551-552,55,
127.Thesuffixlessroot*r-maybefound(seeibid.)inChag.r-'be
covered'(Abush.);cf.alsoTur.dial.rek'blanket,covering'.

Proto-Turkic:*s-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:togrow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:s-(OUygh.)
1087
Turkish:s-
Tatar:s-
MiddleTurkic:s-(Sangl.)
Uzbek:us-
Uighur:s-
Turkmen:s-
Khakassian:s-
Shor:s-
Oyrat:s-
Tuva:'s-
Kirghiz:s-
Kazakh:s-
Noghai:s-
Bashkir:-
Balkar:s-
Karaim:s-
Karakalpak:s-
Kumyk:s-
Comments:VEWT376,1,552-553.DoubtsaboutOTs-seein
EDT241,251,withadiscussioninClark1977,142-144.

Proto-Turkic:*t-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tosing(ofbirds)2tosay3toask,request
Russianmeaning:1()2,3
OldTurkic:t-1(OUygh.),tn-3(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:t-1,tn-3(MK)
Turkish:t-1
Tatar:ten-3
MiddleTurkic:t-2(Pav.C.)
1088
Uighur:tn-3
Turkmen:tn-3
Chuvash:avt-1
Yakut:et-2
Dolgan:et-2
Tuva:e't-1
Tofalar:e't-1
Salar:edi-2
Comments:VEWT52,1,556,557-558,EDT39,62,21,
Stachowski48.TheChuv.formissomewhataberrantphonetically:itis
possiblethattheactualChuv.reflexofthisrootisvitn-`toask'-while
Chuv.avt-(togetherwithavtan,atan`cock',Tat.t`cock')goesbackto
aseparatePTroot*ebt-,possiblygoingbacktoPA*ip`i(-p-,-e)`tosay,
speak'q.v.

Proto-Turkic:*t-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:topassby,passthrough
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:t-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:t-(MK)
Tatar:t-
MiddleTurkic:t-(Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:ot-
Uighur:t-
Sary-Yughur:jt-
Azerbaidzhan:t-
Turkmen:t-
Khakassian:t-
Oyrat:t-
1089
Chuvash:vit-
Yakut:t-
Tuva:t-
Tofalar:`t-
Kirghiz:t-
Kazakh:t-
Noghai:t-
Bashkir:t-
Balkar:t-
Karaim:t-
Karakalpak:t-
Salar:t-
Kumyk:t-
Comments:EDT39,VEWT376,1,554-555.

Proto-Turkic:*
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:revenge,anger
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:(MK)
Turkish:
Tatar:
MiddleTurkic:(AH),(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:o
Uighur:
Azerbaidzhan:
Turkmen:
Khakassian:s
Oyrat:
1090
Halaj:h^-
Chuvash:v
Yakut:s
Dolgan:st

k'enemy'
Tuva:
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:
Noghai:
Bashkir:s
Balkar:
Karaim:
Karakalpak:
Kumyk:
Comments:EDT18,1,558-559,54,EDT18,TMN2,134,
Stachowski201.Turk.>MMong.(MA)(seeClark1980,52;butnot>s,
sees.v.*o

se!).

Proto-Turkic:*(j)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tothink,understand
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:-(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:-(MK)
Yakut:j-
Comments:EDT2-3,VEWT368.Derivedisprobably*-g'thought',*g-re-
'tolearn'(see1,496-498,501-502,Stachowski198,252).

Proto-Turkic:*k-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toheapup2many(*kl)
1091
Russianmeaning:1,2(*kl)
OldTurkic:k-1,k2(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:k-1,k2(MK)
Turkish:g2
Tatar:

j-1
MiddleTurkic:k-1(..,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:uj-1
Khakassian:g-1
Shor:ua'heap'
Oyrat:-1
Yakut:gs2
Dolgan:gs2
Kirghiz:j-1
Kazakh:j-1
Noghai:j-1
Bashkir:

j-1
Karakalpak:j-1
Comments:EDT100,118,1,620-621,Stachowski249.Modern
formspointratherto*-g-;reasonsforthisvoicingarenotquiteclear.

Proto-Turkic:*k-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobelch2tonauseate
Russianmeaning:12
Turkish:jr-1,2
MiddleTurkic:ki-(AH)2
Uzbek:ji-(dial.)
Turkmen:ge-2
Yakut:gj-1
Comments:1,503.
1092

Proto-Turkic:*k
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:holeinice
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:
MiddleTurkic:k
Turkmen:j
Chuvash:vag
Kazakh:ki
Karakalpak:ki
Comments:1,517,VEWT370.

Proto-Turkic:*l
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1moist,wet2marsh
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:l(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:l(MK,KB)1
Turkish:l1,Osm.l'pool'
MiddleTurkic:l(Pav.C.)2,(Sangl.)1
Uzbek:hul1
Uighur:hl'damp,moist'
Turkmen:l,dial.h

l1
Khakassian:l1
Shor:l1
Oyrat:l1
Halaj:h^l,h l
Chuvash:vil1
Yakut:l1
1093
Tuva:l1
Tofalar:l1
Kirghiz:l1
Karakalpak:hl1
Comments:VEWT371,54,1,524-525,TMN2,161-2.The
commonTurk.derivative*le(1,527-528,119)means
'richgrass'(henceChuv.valem;>MMong.ola,ole(SH),WMong.l,
Kalm.l,seeKW295,TMN2,161,1997,165,197).

Proto-Turkic:*n-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:togrow,rise
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:n-(n-)(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:n-(n-)(MK)
MiddleTurkic:n-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:un-
Uighur:n-
Sary-Yughur:n-
Turkmen:n-
Halaj:hin-
Chuvash:n-
Yakut:n-
Dolgan:n-
Tuva:n-
Kirghiz:n-
Kazakh:n-
Karakalpak:n-
Comments:EDT169,VEWT372,1,530-532,.77,
137,40-41,Clark1977,161,Stachowski255.
1094

Proto-Turkic:*r
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:inside,theessentialpart
Russianmeaning:,,
OldTurkic:z(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:z(MK)
Turkish:z
Tatar:z
MiddleTurkic:z(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:oz
Uighur:z
Sary-Yughur:z
Azerbaidzhan:z
Turkmen:z'self'
Oyrat:s
Halaj:^z
Chuvash:var
Yakut:s
Dolgan:s
Kirghiz:z
Kazakh:z
Noghai:z
Bashkir:
Gagauz:jz
Karaim:z
Karakalpak:z
Kumyk:z
1095
Comments:EDT278,VEWT376-7,1,506-512,90,117,
Stachowski252.Thewordanditsderivativeshaveawidescopeof
meanings:'middle'>'heartwood,centralcrossbeam,pole'(*rek).

Proto-Turkic:*r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toplait
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:r-(MK)
Turkish:r-
Tatar:r-
MiddleTurkic:r-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:or-
Uighur:(r)-
Azerbaidzhan:hr-
Turkmen:r-
Khakassian:r-
Oyrat:r-
Halaj:hiri-
Chuvash:var'bestsortofflax'
Yakut:r-;r'plaiting'
Dolgan:r'plait'
Kirghiz:r-
Kazakh:r-
Noghai:r-
Bashkir:r-
Gagauz:jr-
Karaim:r-
Karakalpak:r-
1096
Comments:EDT195,VEWT374,375,1,544-546,394,
Stachowski200.Cf.also*rken'smth.plaited',*r-mek'Stoffaus
Kamelhaar,Spinngewebe'(cf.alsoYak.rbx'').Turk.*r-g>
Hung.orso'spindle',seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*r-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1torise2up,above
Russianmeaning:12,
OldTurkic:r-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:r-1(MK)
Turkish:r2,(dial.)r-1
Tatar:r2,r-1
MiddleTurkic:r2(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:or2
Uighur:r2
Sary-Yughur:r2
Turkmen:r-
Halaj:hr-k-1
Yakut:rt'upperpart'
Dolgan:rt,tt'side',rte'above'
Kirghiz:r2
Kazakh:r2,r-1
Noghai:r2
Bashkir:r2,r-1
Balkar:r2
Karakalpak:r2
Kumyk:r2
Comments:EDT195,VEWT373,1,542-544,Stachowsi200,253.
Cf.alsoOTrgin'throne'(EDT225),Chag.rk'tent'(1,546)-
1097
whichshouldbekeptdistinctfromthelaterborrowed(fromMong.,see
under*ri)rge'tent',seeClark1977,142.

Proto-Turkic:*t
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:gall
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:t(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:t(MK)
Turkish:t
Tatar:t
MiddleTurkic:d(Pav.C.),t(AH,IM)
Uzbek:ot
Uighur:t
Sary-Yughur:jt
Azerbaidzhan:d
Turkmen:t
Khakassian:t
Oyrat:t
Chuvash:vat
Tuva:t
Tofalar:t
Kirghiz:t
Kazakh:t
Noghai:t
Bashkir:t
Balkar:t
Gagauz:jt
Karaim:t
Karakalpak:t
1098
Salar:t
Kumyk:t
Comments:EDT35,VEWT376,1,504-505.

Proto-Turkic:*t-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1old2old,abandonedhouse3everythingold4nameofthe
homelandoftheTurks("oldcountry")
Russianmeaning:12,34
.
OldTurkic:tken4(Orkh.)
Karakhanid:tken4(MK)
Chuvash:vad1
Yakut:tx2
Dolgan:tk3
Tuva:tkn`nameofamountainridgeinTuva'(215)
Tofalar:tkn`,
'(215)
Comments:85;393;Stachowski201.Chuv.va-pointsonly
toPT*-.Turk.>Bur.tgen`shamanwordforearth'>Yak.tgen
';'(.III3195).

Proto-Turkic:*sab-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobestopped,hindered,discontinued2tostop,finish3toturn
off(theroad)4togetridof5toturndownwards,decline6topass,pass
away
Russianmeaning:1,2,
3()45
,,6,
1099
Karakhanid:savra-1,savl-5(MK)
Turkish:sav-4,savu-6
MiddleTurkic:sav-3,4(AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:sw-,s-,swul-,suwul-(dial.)2
Azerbaidzhan:sovul-2,sovu-6
Turkmen:sow-3,sowul-2,3
Gagauz:sau-6
Karaim:savu-6
Comments:EDT788-789,791,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sab-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1gift2booty3regale4weddinggifts5partofbooty
Russianmeaning:1234
5
Turkish:sava3(dial.),(Osm.)savat1
Tatar:sawm,sawn(dial.)4
MiddleTurkic:sauat(R.)1,(CCum.)sajat2
Uzbek:swa1
Uighur:soa1
Sary-Yughur:savra','
Azerbaidzhan:savat1
Turkmen:sovat1
Halaj:sav-'bewirten'
Kirghiz:sa1,srun5
Kazakh:sawa1
Noghai:sawa1
Balkar:sawa1
Karaim:sawa1
Kumyk:savat1
1100
Comments:Turk.>WMong.sauqa,saua,sauad(L677)(VEWT406,
349-350;1997,165;DoerferTMN1,345-346,7).
AnattemptofaTurkicetymologyforMong.*saw-ga,hardlysatisfactory(<
*sab-'hit'or'obstruct')seeinEren1972;theLateAvestanoriginofthe
Mong.word(suggestedbyDoerferinTMNandsupportedby1979,
135-136)isquitedubious.

Proto-Turkic:*saba-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tobeat,hit,fight
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:sava-'tofight'(MK)
Turkish:sava-
MiddleTurkic:sava-(Houts.,Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:sava-
Turkmen:dial.sava
Gagauz:sava-
Karaim:sava-
Comments:VEWT391,EDT793,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sabak?
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:vice
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:?savak'waterchute'
Tuva:sk
Comments:PhoneticallyagoodmatchpointingtoPT*sabak-butvery
poorlyrepresentedanddubioussemantically(themeaning'waterchute'in
Turkic-becauseoftheshapeoftheobject?).

1101
Proto-Turkic:*sabar
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1brisketwithribs2side
Russianmeaning:12
Oyrat:sabar1
Tuva:saar2
Comments:Cf.alsoYak.sabar'eagle'sbreast'(<OTuva?).

Proto-Turkic:*sabur-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towinnow,scatter
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:savur-(MK)
Turkish:savur-
Tatar:suwr-,swr-(dial.)
MiddleTurkic:savur-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:sawur-
Uighur:sowu(r)-
Azerbaidzhan:sowur-
Turkmen:sowur-
Khakassian:sobr-
Shor:sabr-
Oyrat:sobr-
Halaj:savur-
Chuvash:svr-
Tuva:sr-
Kazakh:suwr-
Noghai:suwr-
Balkar:suwur-
Karaim:savur-
1102
Karakalpak:suwr-
Kumyk:suwur-
Comments:VEWT391,EDT791,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sa-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toscatter,spatter,sow
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:sa-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sa-(MK)
Turkish:sa-
Tatar:-
MiddleTurkic:sa-(AH,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:s-
Uighur:a-
Sary-Yughur:sa-
Azerbaidzhan:sa-
Turkmen:sa-
Khakassian:sas-
Shor:a-
Oyrat:a-
Halaj:sa-
Yakut:s-
Dolgan:s-
Tuva:a`-
Kirghiz:a-
Kazakh:a-
Noghai:a-
Bashkir:ss-
Balkar:a-
1103
Gagauz:sa-
Karaim:sa-,a-
Karakalpak:a-
Kumyk:a-
Comments:EDT794,VEWT392,Stachowski262.

Proto-Turkic:*sauk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:fringe,handkerchiefwithafringe
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:sau(MK)
Turkish:saak
Tatar:aaq
MiddleTurkic:saaq(Pav.C.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:sao q
Azerbaidzhan:saaG
Turkmen:saaq'ak.oftable-cloth'
Oyrat:aaq
Kirghiz:saaq'handtowel'
Kazakh:aaq
Noghai:aaq
Balkar:aaq
Karaim:saaq
Karakalpak:aaq
Kumyk:aaq
Comments:VEWT392,EDT795,796.Turk.*saak>WMong.saa,
aa,Kalm.cacg(KW423).

Proto-Turkic:*sag
Altaicetymology:
1104
Meaning:healthy
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:sa(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sa(MK)
Turkish:sa,s
Tatar:saw
MiddleTurkic:sa(Pav.C.,AH)
Uzbek:s
Uighur:sa
Sary-Yughur:sa
Azerbaidzhan:sa
Turkmen:saG
Shor:sa
Oyrat:s,su
Halaj:s
Chuvash:sv
Kirghiz:s
Kazakh:saw
Noghai:saw;sawlaj'whole,all'
Bashkir:haw
Balkar:sav,sau
Gagauz:s
Karaim:saw
Karakalpak:saw
Salar:sax'right'()
Kumyk:saw
Comments:TMN3,334-5,EDT803,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sag-
Altaicetymology:
1105
Meaning:tomilk
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:sa-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sa-(MK)
Turkish:s-,dial.sa-
Tatar:saw-
MiddleTurkic:sa-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:s-
Uighur:sa-
Sary-Yughur:sa-
Azerbaidzhan:sa-
Turkmen:saG-
Khakassian:sa-
Oyrat:s-
Halaj:sa:-
Chuvash:sv-
Yakut:a-
Tuva:sa-
Kirghiz:s-
Kazakh:saw-
Noghai:saw-
Gagauz:s-
Karaim:sav-
Karakalpak:saw-
Salar:sax-
Kumyk:sav-
Comments:VEWT393,EDT804,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sagr,*sagr
Altaicetymology:
1106
Meaning:thuja
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:sar'ak.ofplant'(OUygh.-Suv.)
Tatar:sawr
Uzbek:sawir
Bashkir:sawr
Comments:481,208.

Proto-Turkic:*sagsgan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:magpie
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:sazan(MK)
Turkish:saksaan
Tatar:sawsqan,sajsqan
MiddleTurkic:saqzan(Abush.,Pav.C.),saqsaan(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:zaizn
Uighur:seizan
Sary-Yughur:saqsqan
Azerbaidzhan:sasaan
Turkmen:saqasGan
Khakassian:ssxan
Shor:saisqan
Oyrat:sasqan
Tuva:ssqan
Kirghiz:sazan
Kazakh:sawsqan
Noghai:sawsqan
Bashkir:hajqan
Gagauz:saqsan,saqsn
1107
Karaim:sawusqan
Karakalpak:sawsqan
Salar:sxsan
Kumyk:sawusan
Comments:VEWT396,175,EDT818,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sagr
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1croupskin,shagreen2backofhorse
Russianmeaning:1,2
Karakhanid:sar1(MK)
Turkish:sr,sar1,2
Tatar:sawr2
MiddleTurkic:sar(AH,IM)2,sari(Pav.C.)1,2
Uzbek:sari1,2
Uighur:sara1,2
Sary-Yughur:sar
Azerbaidzhan:sar2
Turkmen:saGr1,2
Oyrat:sru,sr
Chuvash:sran'workedleatherofbovines'
Kirghiz:sru1,2
Kazakh:sawr2
Noghai:sawr2
Bashkir:hawr
Karakalpak:sawr2,sawr1
Kumyk:savru,sawur2
Comments:EDT815,VEWT393,385-386,119,
2,30(butwithanotheretymology),7.Bulg.*suranistheprobable
1108
sourceofTat.suranandMong.sur(an)'leatherstrap'-whenceManchusur
'strap'.

Proto-Turkic:*sAg[u]n
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:arrow,arrowhead
Russianmeaning:,
MiddleTurkic:saan(AH)
Khakassian:soan
Shor:soan
Oyrat:soon,sn
Tuva:soun
Comments:VEWT426,7.Stachowski(193)relatesherealsoYak.
ono-os,Dolg.ono-gos'arrow',whichmayberightifonoos<*sagun-ga
withsecondaryvowelshortening(althoughtherootshouldbekeptdistinct
from*sokm/*sokan,derivedfrom*sok-'topierce,hit'-medial*-g-cannot
beexplained).Seealsonotesto*sAgut'vessel'.

Proto-Turkic:*sAgut
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:dishes,vessel;instrument
Russianmeaning:,;,,,
Turkish:savut'weapon'
Tatar:sawt
MiddleTurkic:sawut,saut(R.),saqt(MA)
Uzbek:swut
Uighur:sawut
Turkmen:sowut(arch.,dial.)
Kirghiz:st
Kazakh:sawt
1109
Noghai:sawt
Bashkir:hawt
Balkar:sawut
Karaim:sawut,sat
Karakalpak:sawt
Kumyk:sawut
Comments:VEWT393-394.ItmaybepossibletofollowRsnenandto
derivetheform*sagu-tfrom*sagu'cornmeasure;pail'(seeVEWTibid.,
ibid.,EDT805),whichwouldspeakinfavourofPT*-g-.Ontheother
hand,cf.Karakh.savd'abasketplaitedfromtwigs'(EDT785).The
specificsynonymy'vessel,dishes':'instrument,gear'andeven'weapon'
(cf.KBalk.sawut'weapon',MTurk.(Zenker)sawut'arrowwithlongsharp
end',Bashk.dial.awt'huntingknife')mayinfactreflectacontamination
withaquitedifferentroot,see*sag[u]n'arrow,arrowhead'.

Proto-Turkic:*saj
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1areacoveredwithstones,stonydesert,stonyriverbed2
shallowplace,shallow
Russianmeaning:1,,
2,
OldTurkic:saj1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:saj1(MK)
Turkish:saj1(dial.)
Tatar:saj1,saj-q-'beshallow'
MiddleTurkic:saj1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:sj1,sajz2
Uighur:saj1
Azerbaidzhan:saj1
Turkmen:saj1
1110
Khakassian:saj1,2
Shor:saj1
Oyrat:saj1
Chuvash:sujrul(Anatri)'pebble,rubble'
Yakut:ajn''
Tuva:saar
Kirghiz:saj1
Kazakh:saj1,sajz,sajaz2
Noghai:saj1
Bashkir:haj1
Balkar:saj1
Karaim:saj1
Karakalpak:saj1,sajz2
Kumyk:saj1
Comments:VEWT394,93,EDT858,7,.XI,162.
Yak.>Evk.,Evn.ajnTMS1,21;>Russ.Siber.ajan(104).

Proto-Turkic:*sAp(-b)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:aturn(todosmth.)
Russianmeaning:(-)
OldTurkic:sab(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sab(MK)
Comments:EDT782,VEWT401(erroneouslyunitedwithsap'handle').

Proto-Turkic:*sapak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:branch,bunch
Russianmeaning:,
1111
Turkmen:sapaq
Oyrat:sabaq
Kazakh:sabaq
Comments:VEWT391.Thestemisusuallyregardedasderivedfrom*sap
'handle'(seee.g.7);thelatterindeedalsomeans'stalk'andhasa
derivative*sapak'handle,stalk'.

Proto-Turkic:*sap-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosway,wave,shakeup
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:sab-(MK)
Shor:sabr-'toblow(ofwind)'
Kirghiz:sapr-
Kazakh:sapr-
Noghai:sapr-
Karakalpak:sapr-
Comments:EDT785.Apossiblederivativeissapan'sling'(see7).

Proto-Turkic:*sar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:ak.oflatticeorcross-beam
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:sarak'carvedfrieze,torus'
Chuvash:surbandial.'windowblind'
Yakut:arg'cross-barfordryingthings'
Kirghiz:sarap'stringerbeam',sar'woodenframeofaframe-house'
Comments:Cf.alsoTuva(Todzh.,)a'rga'latticefordryingwild
onions'(perhaps<Yak.).

1112
Proto-Turkic:*sar-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:towindaround
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:saru-(MK)
Turkish:sar-
Tatar:sar-
MiddleTurkic:sar-(AH,Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:sar-
Turkmen:sara-
Khakassian:sar-
Chuvash:sr-
Gagauz:sar-
Karaim:sar-,sar-
Comments:EDT844,VEWT402,7.Turk.*sar-k>WMong.sari,
Kalm.sri'ringforbindingahorse'(cf.Chag.sar-a,Khak.sar-nid.),
seeKW318-319,VEWT403.

Proto-Turkic:*sAr-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tofilter,separate2tobefiltered,separated3sieveforfiltering
liquids
Russianmeaning:1,2,
3
Karakhanid:sarma-2,sarm3(MK;EDT852-853:serme-,serim)
MiddleTurkic:sar-1(Diz.)
Turkmen:sarGan'milkproductmadeofboiledmilktogetherwiththe
contentsofthestomachofanewbornlamb'
Comments:7.

1113
Proto-Turkic:*sArak/*sArk-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tobecomenumb2hoar-frost3coldwind
Russianmeaning:1,23
Karakhanid:sarq-1,sarqm2(MK)
Turkish:(dial.)sazaq,sazaan3
MiddleTurkic:(Xwar.,MKypch.)sarq-1(Qutb,AH)
Azerbaidzhan:sazaG3
Khakassian:sarnax3(Kach.)
Tuva:sar-'tonag,feelpain'
Kazakh:sazar-1
Noghai:sazar-'tobebored'
Comments:EDT848,849.42,43.DespiteEDT847,thebasic
meaningisnot"weakdownwardmovementwithnoforcebehindit":infact
wehavehereaconfusionofseveraloriginallydifferentroots(see*sark-
'overflow,drip';*sal-'putdown,lower',withthederivative*salk-whichhas
influencedthemeaningof*sark-insomelanguages).

Proto-Turkic:*saran
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:miser,miserly
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:saran(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:saran(MK)
Tatar:saran
Uzbek:sara
Uighur:sara
Sary-Yughur:saran
Oyrat:saran,saram
Yakut:ara
1114
Kazakh:sara
Bashkir:haran
Karaim:saran,sara
Karakalpak:sara
Comments:VEWT403,EDT853-854,7.Cf.Chuv.soran'wound,
loss,damage'.

Proto-Turkic:*sarga-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1aplantwhichgrowsindampplaces1aplantgrowinginsaline
grounds
Russianmeaning:1,2,

OldTurkic:saran1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:saran,saranqam2(MK)
Azerbaidzhan:saraGan'()'
Chuvash:?surxslli''(?1988,42;lit.
'sheepoats')
Comments:EDT849,VEWT403.Cf.also*siar'reed'(inOghuzlanguages,
seeunder*siar'marsh'-perhapsacontamination),aswellassomeforms
dealtwithunder*sarmsak(v.sub*sera).

Proto-Turkic:*sar()
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1birdofprey,kite2ak.offalcon3starling4siskin
Russianmeaning:1,234
Turkish:sar-a4
Tatar:sar2
MiddleTurkic:sar,saria1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:sr2
1115
Uighur:sa(r)1
Sary-Yughur:sar1
Azerbaidzhan:sar2
Turkmen:sar3
Tuva:sar2
Kirghiz:sar1
Bashkir:har2
Comments:VEWT402b,170,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sark
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1sheep2ak.oftaillesssheep
Russianmeaning:12()
Tatar:sarq1
Khakassian:sara-dax'a2-year-oldmaral',sar-tax'youngofaroe'(.)
Shor:{sartak'reindeer'(UEW)}
Oyrat:{sardak'1-year-oldmaral'(UEW)}
Chuvash:sorx1
Tuva:sara-daq'a2-year-oldmaral'
Kazakh:sarq2
Bashkir:harq1
Karakalpak:sarq2
Comments:432,7,2,66.{Turk.>WMo.sarlu,
Kh.sarla'yak'?}

Proto-Turkic:*sarmsak
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1garlic2rhubarb
Russianmeaning:12
Karakhanid:sarmusaq,samursaq1(MK)
1116
Turkish:sarmsak1
Tatar:sarmsaq1
MiddleTurkic:sarmsaq1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:sarimsq1
Uighur:samsaq1
Sary-Yughur:samsaq1
Azerbaidzhan:sarmsaG1
Turkmen:sarmsaq1
Halaj:sarmsaq1
Tuva:sarapsa2
Kirghiz:sarmsaq1
Kazakh:sarmsaq1
Noghai:sarmsaq1
Bashkir:harmhaq1
Balkar:sarsmax1
Gagauz:sarmusaq1
Karaim:sarmsaq1
Karakalpak:sarmsaq1
Salar:samsax1
Kumyk:samursaq1
Comments:VEWT404,EDT853,144,7.Turk.>Mong.
sarimsa(seeTMN3,248,1997,144).Cf.alsoKhak.,Oyr.saraj
'',Kirgh.sargaldak'ak.ofplantwithyellowflowers',Kaz.
saraldaq'tulip'.

Proto-Turkic:*sarn
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:song,sadsong
Russianmeaning:,
MiddleTurkic:sarna-(R)'tosing'
1117
Khakassian:sarn
Shor:sarn
Oyrat:sarn
Tuva:srn
Kazakh:sarn
Kumyk:sarn
Comments:VEWT404,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sarnga
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:locust
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:sara(MK)
MiddleTurkic:sarnqan(AH)
Khakassian:sarsxa,sarnqa'ak.ofdragonfly'
Oyrat:sarqa,sarsqa
Comments:EDT845,VEWT404,7,187(confusedwith
*siar'yellow').

Proto-Turkic:*sark-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todrip,ooze
Russianmeaning:,,
Karakhanid:sarq-(MK)
Tatar:sarq-
MiddleTurkic:sarq-(AH)
Uzbek:sa(r)qi-
Turkmen:sar()q-
Khakassian:sarx-
Chuvash:srn-
1118
Tuva:sarq-
Kirghiz:sarq-
Kazakh:sarq-,sarq-
Noghai:sarq-
Bashkir:harq-
Karaim:sarq-,sarx-
Karakalpak:sarq-
Kumyk:sarq-
Comments:VEWT404,EDT847-848,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sarp
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:difficult
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:sarp(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sarp(KB)
Turkish:sarp
MiddleTurkic:(MKypch.)sarp(CCum.,Houts.)
Azerbaidzhan:sarp
Turkmen:sarp
Comments:VEWT404,EDT845.

Proto-Turkic:*sa(r)pan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:plough
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:saban(MK)
Turkish:saban
Tatar:saban
MiddleTurkic:saban(IM,AH),sapan(Pav.C.)
1119
Uighur:sapan
Azerbaidzhan:sapan
Chuvash:sorban'ploughbreast'
Kazakh:saban
Noghai:saban
Bashkir:haban
Balkar:saban
Gagauz:saban
Karaim:saban
Salar:sovan''()
Kumyk:saban,sarapan'ploughbreast'
Comments:VEWT402,468,.XI,205,7,Molnar
2001.Turkm.dial.svan'ploughfield'maypointtolength,butisnotquite
clearbecauseof-v-.TherootmayhavebeeninfluencedbyPT*sap
'handle'(v.sub*sep`u).

Proto-Turkic:*sas-na-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:pig
Russianmeaning:
Chuvash:ssna
Comments:2,77.

Proto-Turkic:*sat-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tosell
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:sat-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sat-(MK)
Turkish:sat-
1120
Tatar:sat-
MiddleTurkic:sat-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:st-
Uighur:sat-
Sary-Yughur:sat-
Azerbaidzhan:sat-
Turkmen:sat-
Khakassian:sat-
Shor:sat-
Oyrat:sat-
Halaj:sat-
Chuvash:sot-
Yakut:at-
Dolgan:at-(inat,atastas-)
Tuva:sat-
Kirghiz:sat-
Kazakh:sat-
Noghai:sat-
Bashkir:hat-
Balkar:sat-
Gagauz:sat-
Karaim:sat-
Karakalpak:sat-
Salar:sat-
Kumyk:sat-
Comments:EDT798-799,VEWT405,2,67,335,
7,Stachowski38,39.Turk.>Hung.szatocz'salesman'(<*sat-),
seeGombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*satan
1121
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thigh,hip
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:satan
MiddleTurkic:satan(Pav.C.)
Turkmen:satan
Chuvash:sodan'buttocks,behind'
Karakalpak:satan
Comments:VEWT405,7,281,.XI,211.

Proto-Turkic:*sb
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:word,speech
Russianmeaning:,
OldTurkic:sab(Orkh.),sav(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sav(MK)
Turkish:sav
MiddleTurkic:sav(AH)
Turkmen:sv-'matchmaker',dial.sw
Oyrat:sabr(biig)''
Chuvash:sv'verse,poem'
Salar:si'matchmaker'()
Comments:VEWT391,EDT782-783,7,2,20.

Proto-Turkic:*s(j)-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tocount,toconsider
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:sa-(MK)
1122
Turkish:saj-
MiddleTurkic:sa-(AH,IM),saj-(Ettuhf.)
Azerbaidzhan:saj-
Turkmen:sj-
Chuvash:su-,sv-
Yakut:-
Kazakh:saj-
Gagauz:saj-
Karaim:saj-
Comments:VEWT390,EDT781-782,7,2,53.Acommon
Turkicderivativeis*s-n'number,count'(VEWT390,400,7),
whence*sna-'tocount,determine'>Mong.sana-'think'(cf.
1997,144).Turk.>Hung.sam'number,figure',szan-'topity'(Gombocz
1912).

Proto-Turkic:*sl
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:rafter
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:sal(MK)
Turkish:sal
Tatar:sal
MiddleTurkic:sal(AH,Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:sl
Uighur:sal
Azerbaidzhan:sal
Turkmen:sl
Khakassian:sal
Shor:sal
Oyrat:sal
1123
Chuvash:sol
Yakut:l
Tuva:sal
Kirghiz:sal
Kazakh:sal
Noghai:sal
Bashkir:hal
Karaim:sal
Karakalpak:sal
Salar:sal
Kumyk:sal
Comments:EDT824,VEWT397,537,2,59,7.
Turk.>MMong.(SH)sal,WMong.sal,Kalm.sal(KW309;TMN3,231,
1997,144).

Proto-Turkic:*sn
Meaning:1shin,hindleg2limb3body
Russianmeaning:1,23
Karakhanid:san(At.)1
Tatar:san1,2
MiddleTurkic:san(Vam.)1
Uzbek:sn1
Uighur:san1
Turkmen:sn1
Oyrat:san1
Kirghiz:san1,2
Kazakh:san1
Noghai:san1
Bashkir:han1,2
Balkar:san2,3
1124
Karakalpak:san1
Kumyk:san2,3
Comments:VEWT400,7,282.

Proto-Turkic:*srV-gan
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1carp2snake,dragon
Russianmeaning:12,
Turkish:sazan1
MiddleTurkic:sazan2(>Tur.sazan)
Uzbek:sazan1(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:sazan1
Turkmen:szan(VEWT)
Khakassian:sazan1
Tuva:sazan1
Kirghiz:sazan1
Kazakh:sazan1
Bashkir:hazan,saan1(dial.)
Gagauz:sazan1
Kumyk:sazan1
Comments:VEWT406,179,7.Bulg.>Hung.sarkany
'dragon',seeGombocz1912,MNyTESz3,493-494.

Proto-Turkic:*se-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:thou
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:sen(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sen(MK)
Turkish:sen
1125
Tatar:sin
MiddleTurkic:sen(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:sen
Uighur:sn
Sary-Yughur:sen
Azerbaidzhan:sn
Turkmen:sen
Khakassian:sin
Shor:sen
Oyrat:sen
Chuvash:ez
Yakut:en
Dolgan:en
Tuva:sen
Tofalar:sen
Kirghiz:sen
Kazakh:sen
Noghai:sen
Bashkir:hin
Balkar:sen
Gagauz:sn
Karaim:sn
Karakalpak:sen
Salar:s(n)
Kumyk:sen
Comments:VEWT409,EDT831-832,Stachowski45,7.Seeibid
thereflexesofPT*sir'you'(pl.).

Proto-Turkic:*seb-
Altaicetymology:
1126
Meaning:spurge,euphorbia
Russianmeaning:
Turkmen:sv-dek
Comments:AttestedonlyinTurkm.,buthavingprobableexternalparallels.

Proto-Turkic:*seb-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tolove,like
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:sev-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sev-(MK)
Turkish:sev-
Tatar:s

j-
MiddleTurkic:sev-(IM,Pav.C.)
Uzbek:sev-,sj-
Uighur:sj-
Azerbaidzhan:sev-
Turkmen:sj-
Oyrat:s-
Halaj:sv-
Chuvash:sav-
Yakut:ij-
Kirghiz:sj-
Kazakh:sj-
Noghai:sj-
Bashkir:h

j-
Balkar:sj-
Gagauz:sev-
Karaim:sev-,sj-
Karakalpak:sj-
1127
Kumyk:sj-
Comments:EDT784,VEWT406-407,7.

Proto-Turkic:*seb-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tospeak
Russianmeaning:
Turkish:sjle-,dial.svle-
Tatar:sjl-,dial.svle-,sevle-
MiddleTurkic:sjle-(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:sojla-,dial.svl-
Azerbaidzhan:sjl-
Turkmen:sjle-
Khakassian:sle-
Oyrat:sle-
Chuvash:sujla-,sol'a-
Yakut:l-
Tuva:sgle-
Kirghiz:sjl-,sle-
Kazakh:sjle-
Bashkir:hjl-
Balkar:sle-
Gagauz:s

le-
Karakalpak:sjle-
Kumyk:sjle-
Comments:VEWT429,2,54-55,7.

Proto-Turkic:*seb-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:freckles
1128
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:sivil
Tatar:sipkil
Uzbek:sepkl(dial.)
Uighur:spk,spk;spgn(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:spgi
Turkmen:sepgil(dial.)
Khakassian:sikpe
Yakut:ebir
Tuva:sekpil
Kirghiz:sepkil
Kazakh:sekpil
Bashkir:hipkil
Balkar:sepkil
Karakalpak:sepkil
Kumyk:sepkil
Comments:VEWT411,KW327,7.Turk.>Hung.szeplo,see
Gombocz1912.

Proto-Turkic:*sEb-re-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:todiminish
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:sevre-(MK)
Comments:498.

Proto-Turkic:*sEbrk
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sturgeon
Russianmeaning:
1129
Tatar:sjrk
Turkmen:sjrik
Noghai:sjrik
Kumyk:sjrk
Comments:VEWT438,TMN3,291,178,7.Cf.alsoChuv.
vrsmsalit.'sharpnose'(acontamination).Turk.>Hung.soreg,see
MNyTESz3,581.

Proto-Turkic:*sE-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tochoose,select
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:se-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:se-(MK)
Turkish:se-
MiddleTurkic:se-(IM,Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:se-
Turkmen:se-
Yakut:es-`todragoutthenet'
Gagauz:se-
Karaim:se-
Comments:EDT794-795,VEWT407,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sedre-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toberare,havewideintervals2gappy,rare,perforated
Russianmeaning:1,2,

OldTurkic:sedrek2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sere-1,serek2(MK)
1130
Turkish:sejrek2
Tatar:sir-1(dial.),sirk2
MiddleTurkic:sejrek2(AH)
Uzbek:sijrk2
Uighur:sirk2
Azerbaidzhan:sejrk2
Turkmen:sejrek2
Chuvash:sajra2
Kirghiz:sejrek2
Kazakh:sire-1,sijrek2
Noghai:sijrek2
Bashkir:hirk2
Gagauz:srek2
Karaim:serek2
Karakalpak:sijrek2
Salar:serex2
Kumyk:sijrek2
Comments:EDT802,VEWT407.

Proto-Turkic:*s[e]gl(/*sgil)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:wart
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:sgl(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sigil(MK)
Turkish:sigil
Tatar:sjl
MiddleTurkic:sigil,skl,sjl(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:sugl
Uighur:sgl
1131
Azerbaidzhan:zijil
Turkmen:siil
Khakassian:s

l
Oyrat:s

l
Halaj:sijil
Chuvash:kl,gl(dial.)
Tuva:s

l
Tofalar:s

l
Kirghiz:s

l
Kazakh:sjel
Noghai:jel
Bashkir:h

jl
Karaim:svel
Karakalpak:jel
Kumyk:sjel
Comments:VEWT429,EDT820,7.Someirregularitiesaredueto
theroot'sexpressivenature.

Proto-Turkic:*segt
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:willow
Russianmeaning:
OldTurkic:sgt'tree'(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sgt
Turkish:sjt,s

t
MiddleTurkic:sgd(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:sgt
Uighur:swt
Sary-Yughur:sgt,segt
Azerbaidzhan:sjd
1132
Turkmen:swt
Khakassian:s

t
Halaj:sjt
Yakut:t
Dolgan:t
Gagauz:st
Comments:EDT819,VEWT429,126,7,Stachowski252.

Proto-Turkic:*sek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:stonebench,pedestal
Russianmeaning:,,

Karakhanid:sek(MK)
Turkish:seki
Tatar:ski
Azerbaidzhan:ski
Turkmen:seki
Chuvash:sag
Yakut:ee'knolls'
Kirghiz:seki
Bashkir:hiki
Comments:VEWT408,TMN3,262,EDT819,519.Turk.>Pers.
sakid.(despiteEDT,notviceversa);>Hung.szek'chair'(Gombocz
1912).

Proto-Turkic:*sel-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tountie
Russianmeaning:
1133
OldTurkic:s-(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:s-(MK)
Tatar:i-
MiddleTurkic:j-(Sangl.),s-(MKypch.-Houts.)
Khakassian:sis-
Shor:e-
Oyrat:e-
Chuvash:sal-t-
Yakut:es-
Tuva:e-
Tofalar:e'-
Kirghiz:e-
Kazakh:e-
Noghai:e-
Bashkir:sis-
Karakalpak:e-
Kumyk:e-
Comments:VEWT413,EDT857,177,2,10.

Proto-Turkic:*semir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1fat(adj.)2fat(n.)3fatten
Russianmeaning:123,
OldTurkic:semiz1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:semiz(MK)1
Turkish:semiz1
Tatar:simz1
MiddleTurkic:semiz1(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:semiz1
Uighur:semiz1
1134
Sary-Yughur:semiz1
Azerbaidzhan:smiz-3
Turkmen:semiz1
Khakassian:simis1
Oyrat:semis1
Chuvash:samr1
Yakut:emis1
Dolgan:emis1
Tuva:semis1
Tofalar:semis1
Kirghiz:semiz1
Kazakh:semiz
Noghai:semiz1
Bashkir:himiz1
Balkar:semiz1,2
Karaim:semiz1
Karakalpak:semiz1
Salar:sems2
Kumyk:semiz1,2
Comments:EDT830,VEWT409,7,Stachowski45.Acommon
Turkicderivativeis*semri-/*semir-'tobecomefat',seeEDTibid.,7.

Proto-Turkic:*se
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:frazil
Russianmeaning:,
MiddleTurkic:se(B)
Uzbek:s(dial.)
Turkmen:se(dial.)
Chuvash:san
1135
Kazakh:se
Noghai:se
Karakalpak:se
Comments:VEWT410(withoutChuv.;theKypch.formsmaybeborrowed
fromMong.),7.

Proto-Turkic:*seek
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:jar,mug
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:seek(MK-Oghuz)
Turkish:seek
Azerbaidzhan:senek
Comments:EDT838,VEWT410.

Proto-Turkic:*sEir
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1outerangle2protrudingedgeofamountainorwall
Russianmeaning:12
OldTurkic:seir1,2(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:seir2(MK)
Turkish:senir(dial.)'hillbetweenvalleys,ridgebetweenmountains'
Oyrat:seir1
Kirghiz:seir2
Kazakh:seir2
Comments:VEWT410,EDT840,98,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sep-
Altaicetymology:
1136
Meaning:1toequip,fitout,add2addition;dowry
Russianmeaning:1,2,
OldTurkic:sep-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sep2(MK)
Turkish:sep2
Tatar:sip2
Uzbek:sep2
Uighur:sp2
Turkmen:sep-li`withadowry'
Oyrat:sep2
Chuvash:sap-la-'tocompensate'
Yakut:ep-1,eb'more,additionally'
Dolgan:eb'more,additionally'
Kirghiz:sep2
Kazakh:sep2
Noghai:sep2
Karaim:sep2
Kumyk:sep2
Comments:EDT783,784,VEWT410,Stachowski43.Turk.>WMong.
seb,seeKW320.

Proto-Turkic:*sep-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:toscatter,sprinkle
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:sep-
Tatar:sip-
MiddleTurkic:sep-(IM,AH)
Uzbek:sep-
Uighur:sp-
1137
Azerbaidzhan:sp-
Turkmen:sep-
Oyrat:sep-
Halaj:sp-
Chuvash:sap-
Kirghiz:sep-
Kazakh:sep-
Noghai:sep-
Bashkir:hip-
Karaim:sep-
Karakalpak:sep-
Kumyk:sep-
Comments:VEWT410,26,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sEp
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:duct,riverbranch,bay
Russianmeaning:,,
Khakassian:sip
Oyrat:sep
Tuva:sep
Comments:VEWT410,7.

Proto-Turkic:*ser-
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1toendure,bepatient;tostayimmobile,linger2tospread
Russianmeaning:1;,
2
OldTurkic:ser-,seril-1(OUygh.)
Karakhanid:ser-1,seril-'toswayandalmostfalldown'(MK)
1138
Turkish:ser-2
MiddleTurkic:ser-2(Ettuhf.)
Uzbek:sr-2(dial.)
Sary-Yughur:sr-2
Azerbaidzhan:sr-2
Turkmen:ser-2
Chuvash:sar-2
Gagauz:ser-2
Karaim:ser-2
Salar:ser-2
Comments:VEWT411,EDT843,851,7.Someauthorsexpress
doubtastothecompatibilityofOTandmodernTurkicforms;itseems,
however,thatthemeaningsareunitablewithinatrans.-intrans.opposition
("spread"-"tobespread>remain".

Proto-Turkic:*sEr-(--)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1tofeel,understand2doubt
Russianmeaning:1,,2
Karakhanid:sez-(MK)1
Turkish:sez-1
Tatar:siz-1
MiddleTurkic:sez-1(Pav.C.,Abush.)
Uzbek:sez-1
Uighur:sz-1
Azerbaidzhan:sez-1
Turkmen:seza(wr)
Khakassian:sis-1
Oyrat:ses-1,ses'understanding'
Tuva:sezik2
1139
Tofalar:sezik2
Kirghiz:sez-1,sez'feeling'
Kazakh:sez-1
Noghai:sez-1
Bashkir:hi-1
Balkar:sez-1
Karaim:sez-1
Karakalpak:sez-1
Kumyk:sez-1
Comments:VEWT413,EDT860-861,7.Turk.sezik>WMong.
sesig(butseigisprobablygenuine,seeunder*saV).

Proto-Turkic:*sere
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:sparrow
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:see(MK)
Turkish:sere
MiddleTurkic:ser(Pav.C.)
Azerbaidzhan:sr
Turkmen:sere
Chuvash:serzi
Salar:sia,si
Comments:EDT795,VEWT412,7.

Proto-Turkic:*sere
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:spanbetweenthebigfingerandindexfinger
Russianmeaning:

1140
Turkish:sere
Uzbek:sr(dial.)
Turkmen:sere
Kirghiz:sere
Kazakh:sere
Gagauz:ser
Comments:VEWT411,7.

Proto-Turkic:*ser
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:shelfinthehouse
Russianmeaning:
Karakhanid:ser(MK)
Turkish:seri(dial.)
Khakassian:sr(Kyz.)
Oyrat:seri(Leb.)'aboxforstoringnuts'
Tuva:seri'shed,penthouse'
Kirghiz:sere'shelf,penthouse'
Comments:EDT844(readassaruwhichishardlythecase),520.
Turk.>WMong.sr'support,prop'(L732).

Proto-Turkic:*ses
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:voice,sound
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:ses
Uzbek:ss(dial.)
Azerbaidzhan:ss
Turkmen:ses
Halaj:ss,sas
1141
Chuvash:saz
Kazakh:ses
Noghai:ses
Gagauz:ses
Karaim:ses
Karakalpak:ses
Kumyk:ses
Comments:VEWT413,7.

Proto-Turkic:*ses
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1threat2tothreaten
Russianmeaning:12
Turkish:seksen-,segsen-(dial.)
Tatar:siskn-2
MiddleTurkic:sesken-2(Pav.C.,AH)
Uzbek:seskn-2
Uighur:sskin-2
Azerbaidzhan:sksn-2
Oyrat:seste-2
Chuvash:szr-lan-dr-2
Kirghiz:ses1
Kazakh:ses1,sesken-2
Noghai:sesken-2
Bashkir:hikn-2
Karaim:sesken-2
Karakalpak:sesken-2
Comments:7.

Proto-Turkic:*sk-
1142
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:tojump
Russianmeaning:,
Karakhanid:sekri-(MK)
Turkish:sek-,sejir-
Tatar:siker-
MiddleTurkic:sek-,segri-(Pav.C.)
Uzbek:skr-
Uighur:skr-
Azerbaidzhan:sk-,sjri-
Turkmen:segre-(arch.),skdir-'togallop'
Khakassian:segir-
Shor:segri-
Oyrat:sekir-,segir-
Chuvash:sik-
Yakut:ekkirie-
Dolgan:ekkir-
Kirghiz:sekir-
Kazakh:sekir-
Bashkir:hiker-
Balkar:sekir-
Karaim:skir-
Karakalpak:sekir-
Comments:VEWT408,EDT822,7,2,48-49,Stachowski
44.ClosedreflexinChuv.isunclear.

Proto-Turkic:*sm(--)
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1inflammation2pimple(onface)
Russianmeaning:12()
1143
Azerbaidzhan:sim'blood-poisoning'
Turkmen:sm1
Khakassian:simiske2
Karakalpak:semik'mark,moleonbody'
Comments:TheOghuzformmayreflectacontaminationwiththeborrowed
Arab.wordfor'poison'(Tur.sem).

Proto-Turkic:*s(i)a
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:1hair(ofhead)2hair3hair(onbackofhead)4root
Russianmeaning:1()23()4

OldTurkic:sa1(Orkh.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid:sa1(MK,KB)
Turkish:sa1
Tatar:1
MiddleTurkic:sa,sa1(Pav.C.,Sangl.)
Uzbek:s1
Uighur:a1
Azerbaidzhan:sa1
Turkmen:sa1
Khakassian:sas1
Shor:a1
Oyrat:a1
Halaj:sa:1
Chuvash:ss2
Yakut:as3
Dolgan:as2
Tuva:a'1
Tofalar:e'1
1144
Kirghiz:a1
Kazakh:a1
Noghai:a1
Bashkir:ss1
Balkar:a1
Gagauz:sa1
Karaim:sa1
Karakalpak:a1
Salar:sa1;sa3
Kumyk:a1
Comments:VEWT391,EDT794,197,7,Stachowski38.

Proto-Turkic:*siaka
Altaicetymology:
Meaning:knucklebone
Russianmeaning:,
Turkish:saka(di