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2007-08 .






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1960 :
Clough, R. W., The Finite Element Method in Plane Stress Analysis, Proc. 2nd
ASCE Conf. On Electronic Computation, Pittsburg, Pa. Sept. 1960.
(
; ., ):
Turner, M., R. W. Clough, H. C.Martin and L. J. Topp, Stiffness and Deflection
Analysis of Complex Structures, J. Aeronautical Science, 23 (9), pp. 805-823,
Sept. 1956.
Argyris,J., Energy Theorems and Structural Analysis, Aircraft Engineering,
v.26, 1954.

:
Hrennikoff, A. Solution of Problems in Elasticity by the Framework Method, J.
Appl. Mech., 8, pp. 169-175, 1941.
McHenry, D., A Lattice Analogy for the Solution of Plane Stress Problems, J.
Inst. Civil Eng., 21 (2), 1943.
..
- ,
, ., 1956.
07 2008 .

-

:
,
.. ;

;
;

, :
Courant, R., Variational Methods for Solution of Equilibrium and
Vibration, Bull. Am. Math Soc., Vol. 49, 1943, pp. 1-43.
Prager, W. and Synge, J. L., Approximation in Elasticity based on the
Concept of Functional Space, Q. J. Appl. Math. Soc., V. 5, 1947, pp.
241-269.

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2. (
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3. ,
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4. : ,
..
5.

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y1 = A11x1++A1n

ym = Am1x1++Amn

y=Ax
x,y m n
A
m n
y = Ax x = Bu, y = Cu,
C = AB , Cik = j Aij Bjk
I (
) : IA = AI
A1 : A1A = A A1 = I
B = AT : Bij = Aji
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():
P
A
S

AS = P

():

Z

= ATZ

( ):

D

S = D ( )

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KZ = P + P

K = ADAT
P = AD
P
A
Z
D

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10


P
S

Z
() () e:
(e) = (A(e) )T Z
() () e:
S(e) = D(e) (e) = D(e) (A(e) )T Z
:
S = [ D(e) (A(e) )T ] Z
P = AS = e A(e)D(e)(A(e))T Z
..
P = KZ ()
K = e K(e)
K(e) = A(e)D(e)(A(e))T
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11

A = [cos sin -cos -sin ]T


D = E/L

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12

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13

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14

1 ( = 0),


Ne

K K
e 1

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( e)

( N e 3)
15


u ( )
Z = Nu
N ( )
= Bu
B = AT N
S = LDBu
f = LS ,
f S?
) (. )
)

f = Ku
K = LADB
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16

:


fx2 = (1/2) (y3x + (x2-x3)xy x2xy )

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17

u, ,
()T*S = (u)T*f
()T = (u)T BT
S = DBu
(u)T *BT DBu = (u)T*f
f = BT*DBu

f = Ku
K = BT*DB
:
K = e K(e)

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18

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19

N

,

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20


P = [ Px(x,y) Py(x,y) ]T
A=

/x

/y

/x

/y

S = [ x (x,y) xy(x,y) y (x,y) ] T


Z = [ ux(x,y) uy(x,y) ]T

D=

Eoed
Eoed
0

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Eoed
Eoed
0

0
0
G

21


( )
K = (B(x,y))T D B(x,y) d = e K(e)

K(e) = e (B(x,y))T D B(x,y) d


B(x,y) = AT N (x,y)
Kij = (Bi (x,y))T D Bj(x,y) d
Bi (x,y) i- B(x,y) (x,y)
ui ( )
Kij i j

,

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22

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23


( , )

c(A)= |A| |A1|

c(A)= const / (h2 sin3 min)

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24

h-
p-

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25

gi=2*EI / (Li-1+Li)

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26


( )

()

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27

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Kij = (Bi (x,y))T D Bj(x,y) d

B(x,y) = AT N (x,y)
N(x,y) ,


( 2- ):

I f ( x, y )d wi f ( xi , yi )

i 1


.
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29

:
15

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30


1.
2.
3.
-
:


:

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:


31



;
.. (1939)

P 1 02

( )

E 0

J 0 tr / L

t 3 tH / L dt
0

2
ch(2 )
2
3 4 0

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41 0 1 2 0
2

3 4 0

2
sh(2 )
3 4 0

32

0.03

()

0.025

0.02

0.015

w,
0.01

0.005

0.005
0

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0
1
2
3

10

15

r,

20

25

33

1.
2.
3.
4.

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34



( ):

F(, ) = 0
=
= S
( ):

= D ( )


D

, D,

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35

D (
)

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36

(
)

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37

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38

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39

= (e) + (p)
(e) D1
(p)

d(p) = G /
G

( )

( )

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40


(, )


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41



K
.
K ;
K = Kst,
, .

.

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42

:

1

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43

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44


40
30


()

20
10

50

-4
48
45

0
40
35

-10

-2

36

47
42

43
31
37
44
26
38
32
21
39
18
33
27
-734
19
28
22
29
13
23
14
24
15
16
11
12
17
-3

-30
-40

-50

10

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20

58 63

51

46

20

-20

-60
-10

49

41

30
25

57 62

52

59
60

69

67

-10

68
64
65

54
61 66
-6
56
55

53

74

79

70

75

80

71

76

81

72

77
78

73

82
83
-5




;
(+)

10

5
-16

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

45

(

)

6
4

8 9

5
2

3
6

2
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46


(1D, 2D, 3D)
()
( )

( )

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47




KZ = P M d2Z / dt2 B dZ / dt

P = Q exp(it); Z = A exp(it)
(K + iB 2M) A = Q

: ,

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48

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49

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50



1.

: , ..
( ,
, )
2.
(
, , ..)

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51

()
1. .. . .:
, 1987.
2. . . .: , 1975.
3. . . .: ,
1979.
4. . . . .: , 1984.
5. .., .., ..
.
. .: , 1983.
6. Zienkiewicz O. C., Taylor R. L. The Finite Element Method /5-th ed.
Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000. Vol. 1. The Basis. Vol. 2.
Solid Mechanics. Vol. 3. Fluid Dynamics.
7. Hutton D.V. Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis. McGrow-Hill,
2004.

07 2008 .

52

()
1. Felippa C.A. A historical outline of matrix structural analysis: A
play in three acts. Boulder: Colorado University, 2000.
2. Clough R.W., Wilson E.L. Early finite element research at Berkeley.
Paper presented at the Fifth U.S. National Conference on
Computational Mechanics, Aug. 4-6, 1999.
3. ..
. .: , 1977.
4. http://en.wikipedia.org.

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