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Capitalism and socialism these are real societies that have arisen and have existed so far,
but at the same time they are categories of social cognition. Capitalism and socialism have
been considered as the modes of production and characteristics of society in Western theoretical
thought. Both terms socialism and capitalism serve as alternative concepts of modernization,
which in fact determined their practical political and economic signicance for many countries.
This article is devoted to the discourses of capitalism, aimed at identication of possible scenarios for the future of capitalism; scenarios that are detected by us against the backdrop of the previous evolution of capitalism.
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KEYWORDS: crisis, capital, capitalist, capitalism, the history of capitalism, theory of
capitalism, the future of capitalism, scenarios of development, human being, society, economy,
sociality, convergence, cognitive technologies, social projects.

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, 2002 Landreth H.,Colander D.C. History of Economic Thought. Boston, Toronto: Houghton Mifin Company. 2002.
, 2008 Li Ch., Bernoff J. Groundswell: winning in a world transformed by social technologies Harvard business press. 2008.
2002 .. / . . . .: . 2002.
2011 .. . .: +. 2011.
2004 . XX . .: . 2004.
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1997 Turner B.S. For Weber: Essays on the Sociology of Fate. L., Thousand Oaks, New
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In the most works on social philosophy while learning epochal processes formational and
civilization approaches are being opposed. In this article there is an attempt to consider these
two approaches as complementary ones in the light of the category of social social technology.
In this case traditional conceptions as civilization and formation are interpreted as social
megatechnologies, ensuring society reproduction on different levels of its self-organization.
According to the author the planned approach allows to imagine better essence of interaction of
civilizational and formational transformations in the society development.
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KEYWORDS: technology, social technology, formation, civilization, idea, vitality, living
mechanism, bifurcation, self-organization.

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The article touches upon the problem of world view attitudes by the non-state actors, who
pose threats to the contemporary international peace and security.
It is presumed that such actors are absolutely anti-State. Exploiting the idea of their selectness,
they view their selves above the State and the Society. And such an approach is considered by
specialists as one of key features of sect organizations.
Non-state actors, so to say, are trying to privatize the violence right. Their nal end is
to replace the modern system of states communications and coexistence with an alternative
marginal one.
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KEYWORDS: anti-etatism, terrorism, international security, right of violence, Islamism.
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2001 .. : - . ., 2001.
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2000 .. . . . , 2000.
2003 ,
. /59/565 (www.un.org).
2002 Conesa P. Al-Qaida, une secte millnariste // Le monde diplomatique. Janvier 2002.
2001 . . . . .. ,
.. . ., 2001.
(http://www.religio.ru/
lecsicon/19/144_print.html).
2001 Patterns of global terrorism 2001. United States
Department of State. May 2002.

30

2005 .. // . ., 2005. 2.
. 625.
1983 .
.: , 1983.
2001 Hirschmann K. Terrorismus in neuen Dimensionen. Hintergrnde und
Schlssfolgerungen // Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte. Bonn, 2001. 51. S. 715.

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.
The problem of human identity seems to be one of the most obtrusive and the most discussed
in the present-day thought, philosophy and culture. The author perceives this problem as generated
by deep contradictions between archaic tenors of life, modernizing lan of the XVIIth XXth
centuries and the post-modern socio-cultural crisis. These dramatic contradictions seem to be
one of the pivots of all the complex of the present-day human communicative as well as the
existential experience.
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KEYWORDS: identity, philosophical anthropology, ledges of history, archaic socio-cultural
structures, historical transformism, postmodern, contradictions.
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1992.
1991 .. // . 1991. 8.
1976 Bell D. The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. N.Y.: Basic Books, 1976.
, 1999 .., .. . / .. . . .: , 1999.
1985 Waardenburg J.-J. Leben verloren oder Leben gewinnen als Alternative
in prophetischen Religionen / Leben und Tod in den Religionen. Symbol und Wirklichkeit. Hrsg. von
G. Stephenson. Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchgesellsch., 1985.
2002 .. // . . 2002. 3 (4).
2002 . . . . .. . . ., .
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, 1974 Inleles A., Smith D.H. Becoming Modern. Individual Change in Six Developing
Countries. Cambr. (Mass.): Cambr. Univ. Press, 1974.
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1976 .. /
. .: , 1976.
1958 .. . . . ( .. ) / .. . . . 5. .: , 1958.
2008 .. : // . . 1. .: , , 2008.

38

2009 .. , // . - . ., 2009. 3 (71).


2006 .. .: , 2006.
, 1999 ., . . Paderborn:
Christliche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1999.
1997 .. ( 18-19) // . .
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2009 .. : . .: Academia, 2009.
2008 .. : . .: , 2008.

servilit. , , , .
2
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The article analyzes the Gogols symbolism of the day, evening, and night light. On the basis of some of Gogols texts (primarily those he wrote in the thirties of 19th century) the author of
the article draws a conclusion that Gogol had a preference to that kind of light which one would
call the night light. It is this particular type of light that obtains a special semantics in his texts.
The idea is that the ontological aspect of the creativity act directly reveals itself in the poetics of
creation, giving life to the phenomenon of night light which can be observed in the vast majority of his works.
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KEYWORDS: ontological poetics, Gogol, night light, evening light, everlasting light, corporeality.
, , . ,
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-, . . ,
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40

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53

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1977 ..
// . ., 1977.
1992 .
2- . . 2. ., 1992.
1994 .. . .,1994.
1993 . . ., 1993.
1990 . . ., 1990.
1996 .. .. . ., 1996.
1993 . , . ., 1993.
2008 .. . . ., 2008.
1969 .. . ., 1969.

1
, , ,
. .. -
:
. , ,
, (. :[
1990,78]).
2
: , , ,
-.

54


.
. .
.. .
, , , . , , . 1
, . . , , ,
.
, ,
, , , . , , ,
.
The author analyses Stndhals and L. Tolstoys diaries as an evidence of differences of
French and Russian literatures and two types of mind. In other words he considers two national
archetypes.
Stendhal is interested only in his own individuality, but for Tolstoy individual life is only the
beginning of human life, means of service to people. His ideal is commonwealth.
The difference of two national archetypes reveals itself in distinction of poetical techniques
of every author. Tolstoy confessed that he was wondered by the war scenes in Stndhals
Parmas abbey. But the comparison of two battles (Waterloo in Stndhals novel and Borodino
in Tolstoys War and Peace) shows that there are no mass scenes in the French book whereas
they prevail in Russian one. Stendhal rst of all depicted in great detail the situations with
his main hero while Tolstoy preferred the pictures where the main heroes acted together with
incidental characters.
Nevertheless the differences of writers manner are secondary. The common feature of both
writers is creativity. Imagination has no national, racial or geographic signs.
: , , , , , , .
KEY WORDS: Diary, individual, common, literature, national, imagination, creativity.
.., 2011 .

55

:
, 18- ,
, II ., 1.
:
, . . 1847 ., 19
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(VII .), .. , .. (
VIII ), , . .. , .. , .. I . ( , )
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1959, 6263]. ( . ..).
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1934, 189].
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11 [ 1934, 50, 51].
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. : [ 2009, 85]2. :
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288, 290].
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1959, 25].
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57

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III 1 VII . .. -: , (Un roman: cest un miroir quon promne le long dun
chemin).
( -):
Limagination est miroir [de la] nature, miroir, que nous portons en nous et dans lequel
elle se peint. La plus belle limagination est le miroir le plus clair et le plus vrai, celui que nous
appelons le gnie. Le gnie ne cre pas, il retrace. ( ,
, . , . ,
) [ 1934, 69].
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1959, 62].
: (je crois), , ,
: (je croirai), ,
[ 1932 II, 219].
59

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1855 . :
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60

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Chartreuse de Parme .
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, (subtilits), , ? [ 1934, 7172].
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, [ 1959, 47].
, , , ;
62

, . .
,

,
, ,
.
, , , , ,
, .

2009 .. .
// . 2009. 11.
1978 .. . . ., 1978.
1991 . . 1991 ( 1900 .).
1932 Stendhal. Journal. Texte tabli et annot par Henri Debraye et Louis Royer. Paris:
Gallimard, 1932. T. 14.
1959 . / 15 . . 14. ., 1959.
1888 .. , 1888. ., 1911.
1934 . / . . 46. .-., 1934.
1937 . / . . 47. ., 1937.
2009 .. . . .
. ., 2009.

:
[ 1991, 143].
2
, (18471851. ..) ,
[ 2009, 85]
3
.
1811 . , . <> :
, .
[ 1959,14, 313].
4
: Stendhal. Journal. Texte tabli et
annot par Henri Debraye et Louis Royer. Gallimard, Paris, 1932. ,
(sous la direction)
Paul Arbelet la Librairie Champion. :
, 22 1819 .:
. (je suis mad by love),
(ce qui ma fait dterrer ce cahier). ,
1806 (t. 2, . 223).
5
.

63


*
. .

. . ,

- , .
Article is devoted to analysis of working experience of the native philosophy of science
the latter half of the century with concept style of scientic thinking. Author arrives at a
conclusion that this concept is more productive for philosophic methodological investigations
than paradigm.
: , , , .
KEY WORDS: style of scientic thinking, paradigm, philosophy and methodology of
science, epistemology.
, ,
.
,
, , . .
(
) ,
, .. ,
- .
, .
,
, , * . 10-03-00077.
.., 2011 .

64

( , ) . , ,
, ,
- .
, ,
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3 , 6

65

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-
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1), , , , - ,
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. , (1963), ,
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, . , , ( ) - , . , - ,
, . : , . , , ,
. ,
, .
, . , [ 1963, 227228].
, , . .. , 1990- ,
, [ 1994, 103].

.
66

, .
.. [ 1968].
1970- .
, , :
-, . ( ) (
). , . . , ,
, , , - - . 19701980- .
, , , (.: [ 1971; 1974; 1975; 1981; 1985
.]). , - .
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. , , - .
, , -
.
, - 2.
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2005; ]).
, , - 3*

67

, 19601970-
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-
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, , - ( )
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,
. , , ,
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). - ,

. , (), ,
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, 68

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, (.: [ 2006]). .
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69

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[ 2001, 224225].
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2001, 226]. - , ,
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, [ 2001, 7778]. , , , .
, , , (..
) .
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70

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, . 19601970-
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. ,
, .
, , , , , ,
. , , , :
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:
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,
.
(, ,
, , .), , 71

, , , ,
- .
. , [ 1999, 1617].
, . , , . , , . ,
, , , , .
, ,
, ,
. , () ,
, , , .
, , . ,
.
, , . , (Denkstil)
(Denkkollektiv). , , , . [ 1999, 11].
, , .
, : , , ( ) ?
? . : ,
. , , .
, . , . , ,
,
, . ,
(1962)
, , , , . , , ,
, , . ,
, , 1950 .
, ,
. , ,
, , .
,
. , - , , , , , [ 1999, 19].
, , , 72

, .
, ,
, ,
. ,
- . , , : - ,
. , ,
,
, .. 3. (Case
Study) ,
, , , , .
,
, - .
, ,
, ,
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, .
,
, , , - , ,
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, - ,
, - ).
, , , (.: [ 2009]). , , - , , ,
.

1963 . / . ., 1963.
.. . : . . <http://www.bsu.by/main.aspx?guid=27231>.
1999 . / . . . ., .,
., ., ., . .. . ., 1999.
2001 . . ., 2001.

73

1981 .. /
. , 1981.
2000 .. : // - . /, 2000. 2.
1975 .. . ., 1975.
1994 .. -, / . ., 1994.
1999 .. / .
. .
., ., ., ., ., . .. . ., 1999.
2006 . . :
/ .
. .. . ., 2006.
2009 . . Ratio serviens? - . ., 2009.
1968 .. // . 1968. 4.
1971 .. . ., 1971.
1982 .. - / - . ., 1982.
1984 ..
/ . ., 1984.
2000 .. . ., 2000.
1985 .. . , 1985.
2005 ..
XVII // -. . 2005.
6.
1974 .. . ., 1974.

.. , .. , ..
, ,
- (.. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. .).
2

.. , . . , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. .
3
, ,
- .

74


*
. .
, () ,
, ,
.., , .
Author proceed from the idea that knowledge is not calque (mirror) of the reality. Subject
constructs knowledge on the base of experience of interaction with the world, according to his
motivation, language of description, instruments and so on.
: e, , ,
, , .
KEY WORDS: knowledge, constructivism, living world, plurality of truth, picture of the
world, personal constructs.
; ,
, ; ,
, . ,
, , . ,
, , , , , ,
, ,
. ( ), , , ,
, , ( ), (
), ( ,
), , *

, 11-06-00196.
.., 2011 .

75

. ,
.
, . [
2005], , , . , , .
,
, ,
. , , , , , , .
- ( ) (
) , . , , ,
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. .
70- ,
, .
.
, ,
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. , . , . , . ), ( )
, () , , .

[ 2001].
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. .
: ,
, .

, . , -
, . . . , . , .
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, , , , : ,
76

. , ,
, , . , -
, , .
, , , , (.. , , )
, [ 2009, 4344].
( .. [ 2000; 2001]), ,
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), (
, , ). ()
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) .
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- .. (1982), - (, , ).
( ) ( ) I . . ,
. , . , . , , . , . , , .
XVII , , , 77

[ 1994, 487]. ..
.. ,
, - . , :
[, 2003, 2, 97].
, , , .. .. [,
1977], , ,
,
.
, , , .
, ,

. , , , , . . , ,
[ 2008, 5].
, ( )
, , , , , , . . ,
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, , . , , . ,
() .
(), ( )
, , , ()
, , , , . , . , ,
. , .
. [, 1995]. , ,
, , ,
, .
, , , ,
, , 78

. ( ), ,
, . . () , .
(. , .. , . ) ,
, ,
, .
, , , , .
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. , . , .-. ), , . , , , : , ,
. , .. ,
, , [ 2005, 53].
, .
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.
, .
. [ 1996], , .. , , ,
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. . . [ 2000], () ,
[ 2000]. .. 79

. ,
. , , . , , ,
, . . ( ) : -
. , , , [ 2003, 43]. ,

, . , .. ,
, . , , . [ 2002,
2007, 2010]. . . ,
, , ,
. , , , - , (. : [ 2008,
586]). , , , ,
, ,
, , , , .

, 1995 ., . .
. ., 1995.
1996 . , , . ., 1996.
1982 .. 6 . ., 1982.
2008 .. // . 2008. 7.
, 1995 ., . . ., 1995.
2003 () .. : .
, 2003.
, 1997 .., ..
// . 1977. 4.
2001 .. / . . II. ., 2001.
2000 . . . ., 2000.
2008 . // . . 2008.
44.
2001 .. . ., 2001.
, 2001 ., . . ., 2001.
1995 .. // . 1995. 4. . 105108.
2002 .. //
. 2002. 3. . 113121.
2007 .. / : , , .
., 2007. . 435463.
2010 .. : . .,
2010.

80

, 2009 ., . . . . . ., 2009.
2005 . // &
. 2005. 1. . 3546.
2000 .. . ., 2000.
, 2003 .., .. . . I /
. ., 2003.
2005 .. . ., 2005.
1995 . : // : . . ., 1995. . 7493.
1994 . /
: . ., 1994. . 481496.

1
, .

81


(- )
. .
,
. , , , . , , .
- .
The article analyses present-day ontological and epistemological problems of scientic
knowledge. Despite tremendous achievements of modern natural sciences, rst of all physics,
many questions on the fabric of Universe and the methods of its research remain without answers.
The article focuses on incompleteness of scientic knowledge, on the split of science and on the
quest for a unied physical theory the theory of everything. The article investigates some of
epistemological aspects of natural-science knowledge.
: , , , , , , , ,
.
KEY WORDS: incompleteness of knowledge, quantum theory, ossication of thinking,
model vs. reality, mathematics, Universe, theory of knowledge, split of science, theory of
everything.


, . . , ,
. , . .

- , , . , .., 2011 .

82

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2010 . : // . 2010. 5.
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2009 . . . ., 2009.
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2007 . . ., 2007.
2002 . . ., 2002.
2005 . . ., 2005.
2005 . . ., 2005.
2007 . , , . , 2007.
1965 Feynman R. The Character of Physical Law. Cambridge, 1965.
1988 Feynman R. The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Princeton, 1988.
2004 . - / . . . ., 2004.
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91

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1
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. (1033 )
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2
. , , . , , - , , , .
: (,
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[ 2009, 14].
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92



,

. .

- ,
, , , .
In the article there have been studied the consequences of the use of informational and
communicational technologies with excess settling of an individual in the virtual reality, which
results in the disjoin of the imaginary with the symbolic, in perceiving of the alienated I as the
sole reality, and in the lling up the psychic with illusionary notions about the world as well as
about oneself.
: , , , , , - , , .
KEY WORDS: mirror stage, spatial identications, imaginary, symbolic, real, informational
and communicational technologies, virtual reality, internetotherapy.
, , ,
, -, , , ,
-, . , homo sapiens ( ), homo politicus ( ), homo economicus ( ), homo faber (,
) , , homo ludens ( ), . [ 1977].
.., 2011 .

93

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.. (www/hr-portal/ru/article/kiberaddiktchelovek-igrayushchii).
2002 . . ., 2002.
2007 . , / . . . II.
, 2007.
1999 . ,
/ . . . 2. ., 1999.
2007 .. / . . . 2. ., 2007.
2009 .. - / .
. ., 2009.
2010 .. /
: . ., 2010.

101

1995 . / . .
., 1995.
1977 . Homo Ludens. . ., 1977.

1

.
Net, ,
(.: []).
,
, ,
(www.softportal.com/software-7883-iberama.html).
2
, [ 2010]. , , ,
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102


..

.
;
: , , .
.

. ,
. ,
: . . .
The article is devoted to the phenomena of smenovekhovstvo, which preceded the
modern mentality of millions of Russians. Smenovekhovstvo could be dened as an extreme
form of etatism, however, possesses some particular features. For example, toughness of state
is completely excused by its highest aim, that is to conquer and washbrain the outer world. And
the state dominates absolutely in elaborating and carrying out ideological programs. Human
participation in ideological life has declarative character only.
: , , ,
, , .
KEY WORDS: smenovekhovstvo, evraziistvo, conservative revolution, ideological etatism,
unique Russian civilization, isolationism.
.
,

(., : [ 2006, 2009]).
: ,
,
. , .., 2011 .

103

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110

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1979 . -. , 1979. . 2. , 1988 .. / . .: , 1988.


2006 . // , 2006, 2.
.. ( ) // http://
voa.chat.ru/vuz0.htm
1999 .. . ..
.. . 19301935 . // . ., 1-3, 1999.
. // http://theory.nazbol.ru/index.php?option=com_
content&view=article&id=118:q---q----&catid=25:the-project&Itemid=50
1988 .. , / . , 1988.
.. . . 45.
1992 . ? / . . .: , 1992.
1959 . . .: , 1959.
2006 . . .ru, 2006, 16
<http://pravaya.ru>.
1979. . -, .
YMCA-PRESS, , 1979
2006 . // , 2006,
20, 5 .
2006 ..
// , 2006, 2.
2009 .. // , 2009, 2.
2007 .. //
, 2007, 10.
2002 . / : . .: , 2002.
.. . . . 7. . 342.
2006 . : ? // , 2006, 2. . 116.
. 1916 . //
. 15(28) 1916 .
1916 . // .
X. 1916 .
1992 . Patriotica // // :
. .: , 1992.
2006 . // ,
2006, 2.
1989 .. . 1920. ., 1989.
2007 . . , . . ,
.. 2007.

. ( ).

111


:
-
..
..


. .
, , , , ,
.
, .

, .. .
One of the most complicated philosophic problems of Modernity is the cultural and political
identity of National States. Thats why the problem of spiritual and political heritage of Russia
in the context of Modernity seems so important today. The modern interpretation of Russian
political culture, according the original authors view, accentuates not the past for the sake of
the past but the past as a living part of cultural experience, as the guarantee of its historical selfawareness extension, as the guarantee of moving to the Future. In this thesis the author studies
the peculiarities of the development of Russian Christian liberalism as political tradition and his
philosophic style. The article analyses some aspects of synthesis of Christian culture of belief
and liberal political ideals realized by V.A. Karaulov in the political system of Russian Empire.
: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
KEY WORDS: value, Orthodox, Christian, metaphysical, tradition, traditionalism,
conservatism, liberalism, political, mentality, culture, history, identity, self-awareness,
experience.
.., 2011 .

112

1. :
- ,
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, [ 2006, 341].
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,
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, [ 2009, 414].
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. , 114

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2009, 699700]. , , , , ,
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[- 2007, 32]. , .. , , , ,
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2 . 9:12 .).
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31:30, . 20:2, 3 . 8:14, . 21:23)
(.18:17, .56:11, 1 .11:18, 14:4 .).
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121

- , , .. .
, .. -
.
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2006 .. . -. . : I
I, 2006.
1906 (), . :
. ., 1906.
1993 . . .: Socio-Logos, 1993.
2007 : . .: , 2007.
1994 (), . : . .:
. ; , 1994.
2007 .. . .
.: (), 2007.
- 2007 - .. . .. . .. . .-: , 2007.
2009 .. . . .:
-, 2009.
1989 .. // . 1989. 1. . 232233.
2009 .. . /. , .
. .. . .: , 2009.
2004 .. (19251935). .: , : YMCAPress, 2004.
2004 .. . .: , 2004.
1991 . . : , 1991.
1998 . . .: , 1998.

122

:

*
. .

, . : (
, . .. ).
, , .. , , , , ,
. - .
The present article advances an idea of the memoirs and reections of philosophers as
specic historical sources. The author takes as an example of such a source the book How It
Was: Memoirs and Thoughts (appearing in the series Philosophy in Russia of the latter half
of the XX century and edited by V.A. Lektorskiy). The key events in the domestic philosophy
of that time are being analysed through reminiscences and thoughts, which gives an opportunity
to view it as an archive of an age, i.e. as a coherent system of relations between people, events
and facts, organizations and ideas, where the historical events are lighted up by the gleams of
philosophical concepts. Such an approach points to the possibility of intersubjective testability
of reminiscences and thoughts taken as a specic humanitarian source.
: ., ,
, .
KEY WORDS: Russian philosophy of the latter half of the XX century, memoirs, historical
consciousness, archive of an age.

.., 2011 .
*
. 10-03-00077 .

123


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294, 405). : (, 152; , 242), 1968 . (, 460), (, , ) (, 160, 246, 526;
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The paper deals with a fundamental change in normative content of justice occurred in moral philosophy of XVIIXVIII centuries. It consisted in giving absolute priority to those rules of
justice which provide personal safety, sanctity of property and compliance with contracts under
rules of fair distribution of recourses or even in restricting the content of justice by the rules of
the rst type. One of the displays of this process was the revision of ancient and medieval typologies of justice. The formerly prevailing Aristotelian model of typology gave way to the Ciceronian model that was marginal and complementary for centuries. The author reconstructs some arguments for a narrow denition of justice contained in works of J. Locke, D. Hume and A. Smith
and also a direct reaction of these philosophers on typological models of Aristotle and Cicero.
: , , () , , . ,
. , . .
KEY WORDS: social ethics, denition of justice, classication of types (kinds) of justice,
just distribution of resources, J. Locke, D. Hume, A. Smith.
*

,
09-03-00110 ( : - ).
.., 2011 .

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1
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The article My humble opinion on the connection between Marxism and Chinese Traditional Culture by Qian Xun (b. 1933). Introduced and translated into Russian by V.G. Burov.
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KEYWORDS: philosophy in China, Marxism, Confucianism.
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The article considers the problem of new approaches toward the status of religion in presentday world. Taking into account the methodology of Canadian philosopher Ch. Taylor, the author
examines distinctive features of philosophical interpretation of cultural and historical context
of contemporary faith and unbelief in their interdependence. The author pays special attention
toward peculiarities of religious situation in Russia and on the methods of its analysis.
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KEY WORDS: modernity, secularity, religion, Christianity, interpretation, social
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The article deals with the problem of logical denition of the concept thinking.
The author notes that thinking is the theoretical solution of the contradiction. At presence of
logical descriptions of expressions theoretical, solution contradiction, it is possible
to construct a number of formal denitions of thinking in which these denitions would be
concerning subordination to each other and could be removed from each other.
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The article reveals the reasons of losing dialogue in modern society, which appear due to
monological essence of education system, displayed in the educational standards, syllabi, study
materials as well as in the education process and forms of distance learning.
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