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( )

.. , ..

2005


519
27

:
.. ,
..

.. :
/ .., ... .: , 2005.
88 .

ISBN 5-7046-1197-4
,
: , , , . , , .
.

ISBN 5-7046-1197-4

, 2005


( ) , . , , . , , , , . , , . , ,
.
,
. ,
,
,
.

, ,
.
.
,
, .
,
, ,
.

1.
1.1.
,
, , .
. , ().
,
x, P(x).

. :
; , .

p(x).

p( x) =

P( x0 < x < x0 + x)
.

x
x 0

lim

(1.1)


, (x1, x2):
P ( x1 < x < x2 ) =

x2

p( x) d x .

(1.2)

x1

p ( x) d x = 1.

(1.3)

,
, .
, ( ) 4

. x
:

x=

xp( x) d x .

(1.4)

- .

f ( x) =

f ( x ) p ( x) d x

f(x).

.
x 0
: x 0 = x x .
:

= xx
2

2
(
)
x

x
p( x) d x.

(1.5)

2 = x x

)2 = x 2 2 x x + (x )2 = x 2 (x )2 .

(1.6)

:
F ( x) =

p( x) d x .

(1.7)

F(x) , x.
.

1.2.

(xmin, xmax) . -

. 1.1 , . 1.1 .

) F(x)

p(x)
1
xmax xmin

0 xmin

xmax

0 xmin

xmax

. 1.1. ()
().

( xmin < x < xmax )

p ( x) = xmax xmin
.
(1.8)

0
( x < xmin , x > xmax )

( a1 , a2 ) :

x=

xmax + xmin
2

(1.9)

(1.5):
xmax

1
( xmax xmin ) 2
= ( x x)
dx=
.
x

x
12
max
min
x
2

(1.10)

min

1.3.
.
:
p( x) =

1
e
2

( x x)2
2 2

(1.11)

x ( ), 2 .
6

,
(1.11),
(1.4), (1.5), x 2 .
,

( x 3) 2
8

1
e
,
2 2
. 1.2. 3, 4.
p ( x) =

p(x)
0,2

0,1

. 1.2.

1.4.
x y -

p(x,y)


p(x, y).
(. 1.3).

(a1 < x < a2 , b1 < y < b2),

x
.1.3.

P(a1 < x < a2 , b1 < y < b2 ) =

a 2 b2

p ( x, y ) d x d y .

a1 b1

(1.12)

, . 1.3 :

P( < x < , < y < ) =

p ( x, y ) d x d y = 1 .

(1.13)

, ,
(x, y) .

, :

p( x) =

p( y ) =

p ( x, y ) d y;

p ( x, y ) d x .

(1.14)

x y ,
:

p ( x, y ) = p ( x) p ( y ).

(1.15)

p ( x, y ) =

1
2 x y 1 r

2
2
( x a ) 2 r ( x a )( y b ) + ( y b )
x y
2(1 r 2 ) 2x
2y
1

. (1.16)
2

b y, x y
x y , r ,
.

1.5.
.
,
, . . 1.4. .
1.4
, . 1.4 , . 1.4 .
r. r = 0, ()
r = 1.

, .
, . . , . . (1.16) r = 0, , :

1
p ( x, y ) =
e
21 2

( x a)2
212

( y b) 2
2 22

= p ( x) p( y ).

(1.17)

, , .
)
)
)
y
y
y

. 1.4. :
, ,

1.6.
y = f (x). p(x) .
p(y).
. 1.5 y = f (x). 0 0 = f (x0). x
x . 1.5 x0+x
y0+y = f (x0+x). x , x (x0, x0+x) p(x0)x, y (y0, y0+y)
p(y0)y. , , . .

p ( x0 )x = p( y0 )y .

p ( y ) = p ( x)

dx
.
dy

(1.18)

,
.
y = f(x)

y
y0+y
y0

x0 x0+ x

. 1.5.

1.1. x p( x) =

1
e
2 2

x2
8

, y

x y = 2x + 3.
y.

: x=

dx 1
y 3
= . (1.18),

2
dy 2

p( y ) =

1
e
2 4

( y 3) 2
32

,
, 3, 4 .
(1.18) , x = f(y) , ,

y = x . y x
.
2 ,
10

, (1.18)
2.
, p( x) =

1
e
2

x2
2 2

, y = x -

(. . 1.6):

y2

2
2
e 2 > 0 .
p( y ) =
2
< 0
0
p(y) 0.8

p(x)

0.4

0.4

. 1.6. :
,


:
y1 = f1(x1, x2),
y2 = f2(x1, x2).

p(x1, x2). p(1, 2)
[1]:
p ( y1, y2 ) = p ( x1, x2 ) I ,
d x1
d y1
I : I =
d x2
d y1

(1.19)

d x1
d y2
.
d x2
d y2


.
11

1 2
p1(x1) p2(x2). = 1 + 2. 1 = 1 + 2
2 , 1 2 , , 2 = 1. , :
1 = 1 + 2 2 = 1.
p(x1, x2) = p1(x1) p2(x2). . x1 x2 1 2 :
x1 = y2 , x2 = y1 y2 .

dx1
dx2
d x2
dx1
=1 ,
= 1 .
=1 ,
= 0,
dy2
dy2
dy1
dy1
I = 1 . (1.19) p(y1, y2):
p ( y1 , y 2 ) = p ( x1 , x2 ) I = p1 ( y 2 ) p 2 ( y1 y 2 ) .

p(y1), 2 :
p ( y1 ) =

p1 ( y2 ) p2 ( y1 y 2 ) d y 2 .

,
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. , ?
4. ? ?
5.
?
6. ?
7. ?
12

2.
2.1.
,
. , .
,
,
, . - , ,
. ,
, . . 2.1. .
x(1) (t)

x(2) (t)

x(3) (t)

. 2.1. x(t)

13

t1 x(t1), x1.
p(x1). t2 x(t2) = x2, p(x2). ,
p(xi).
,
.



p(x1, x2,..., xi,...), .
,
. 2.2:

P(a1 < x1 < b1, a2 < x2 < b2 ,..., an < xn < bn ) =

L p( x1, x2 ,..., xn ) d x1 d x2 ... d xn .

(2.1)
t1,
t2, ..., tn .
,
( ,
) x1, x2, ..., xi .
x(t)

a1
b1

an
bn

t2
t1

tn
a2
b2

. 2.2.
14

.. . :
,
.

.
, .

, , , .

.
,
t1, t2,..., tn

(. . 2.3):
p ( x(t1 ), x(t2 ),..., x (t n )) = p ( x (t1 + t ), x (t 2 + t ),..., x (t n + t )) .

(2.2)

x(t)

t1 t1+t

t2 t2+ t

tn tn+ t

. 2.3.

15

2.2.


,
: , , . . ,
,
.

, .
, , :
x (t ) = A cos( 0 t + ) ,

, . ,
1
< < . 2
. 2.4. ,
.

: p () =

x(t)
A

A
. 2.4.

, , . 2.5.
. 2.6.
16

,
. , t = 0 t = t1
( . 2.6).
p()

0
. 2.5.
x(t)

t1
0

. 2.6.
, . 2.5

2.3.


. . , , , (. 2.7):
x(t)

p(x)

1/a

x
a
0
. 2.7.
t

17

, 0
,
.
, (. 2.8).
, . 3 .
( ) . , ,
. 2.8, 2 1 2.
x(t)
4

2
0

2
. 2.8.


(. . 2.4). , . t = 0, : x = A cos().
p(x) ,
1.6. (1.18)
:
p ( x ) = p ()

d
.
dx

(2.3)

1
. 2
d
x

: = arccos
dx
A
d
1
=
:
.
dx
A2 x 2

p() : p () =

18

(2.3), p ( x) =

1
2 A x
2

,
, .

:

p( x) =

1
A x
2

(2.4)


. 2.9. ,
, ,
, . ,
, , , .

p(x)
.
,
1/(A)

.
x
0
A
A
, . 2.9.



.

2.4.
,
. . 2.10
, .

19


.
)
x1(t)

10

20

30

40

20

30

40

t,

x2 (t)
10

t,

. 2.10.
,

(
, )
:
R x (t1 , t 2 ) = ( x1 x1 )( x2 x2 ) =

( x1 x1 )( x2 x2 ) p ( x1, x2 ) d x1 d x2 ,

(2.5)

x1 = x(t1), x2 = x(t2).

t1 t2. t1 t2:

Rx (t1, t2 ) = Rx (t2 t1 ) = Rx ( ) , = t2 t1.



.
1. Rx() , . . Rx() = Rx().
2. Rx(0) = 2 , . . Rx(0) .

20

3. = 0 -

, . . Rx() Rx(0).
.
:

r ( ) =

R( )

. , r(0) = 1.
2
,
() .
, . 2.10 , ; 1
. ,
. 2.11 . (.
2.10 ) ;
,
. 2.11 .
)

R1()

R1()

. 2.11.

, , x (t ) = A cos( 0t + ) .
(2.5), , ,

. , , -

21


, . :

Rx (t1, t 2 ) =

A cos(0t1 + ) A cos(0t2 + ) p() d .

p () =

1
,
2

:
A2
Rx (t1 , t 2 ) =
2

{cos[0 (t1 + t2 ) + 2] + cos[0 (t2 t1 )]} 2 d .


1

. ,
:
A2
Rx (t1 , t 2 ) =
cos[0 (t 2 t1 )] .
2
t2 t1 = , :
A2
R x ( ) =
cos(0 ) .
2
. 2.12.

(2.6)

R()
= 2 /2
2

. 2.12.

. A2
, = 0
, . .
2
.

22

,
, , ,
, . , ,
, . .
. ,
, . ,

, , . . .
, , .
, , , ,
,

. , ,
, , , . , ,
(2.4),
.


:
Rxy (t1 , t 2 ) = ( x1 x1 )( y2 y2 ) =

( x1 x1 )( y2 y2 ) p ( x1, y2 )dx1dy2 .

(2.7)

: x1 = x(t1), y2 = y(t2).
, . . , t2 = t1 . ,
: x(t) y(t) -

23

,
.

2.5.
, , , .
,
,
, ,
- .
,
, , . , , ,
.
.
(0, ),
. i- xT(i ) (t )
S&T(i ) ()
:
(i )
WT () = S&T(i ) () S *T () .

WT ()
.
(2.8)
T
T
,
. i-
:
W () = lim

S&T(i ) () = xT(i ) (t 2 ) e jt 2 d t 2 ,
0

24

(i )
S *T () =

(i )

xT

(t1 ) e jt1 d t1 .

(2.8) :
1
W () = lim
T T

TT

(i )

xT

(t1 ) xT(i ) (t 2 ) e j(t 2 t1 ) d t1 d t2 .

00

xT(i ) (t1 ) xT(i ) (t 2 ) . ,



x(t), , ,
xT(i ) (t1 ) xT(i ) (t 2 ) Rx (t1, t2). ,

x(t) , Rx (t1, t2) = Rx (t2t1). t2 t1 = , t2 , :

1
W () = lim
T T
t

T t1

Rx ( ) e

1 = 0 = t1

d t1 d .

(2.9)

, (2.9) t1
. :

t1 , .
(2.9) , . 2.13.
2 : ( < 0) ( > 0). (2.9)
0
T
T
T

1
j
j
W () = lim
Rx ( ) e
d t1 d + Rx ( ) e
d t1 d .
T T
t1 =
=0
t1 = 0
= T

(2.10) t1,
0
T

1
j
W () = lim Rx ( ) e
(T + ) d + Rx ( ) e j (T ) d .
T T

T
0

25

(2.10)

, :
T
T

1
j
W () = lim
(T ) R x ( ) e
d = lim (1 ) R x ( ) e j d .

T
T T
T
T
T

T
= T-t1

W () =

Rx ( ) e

d.

(2.11)

, -

t1


. ,

= t1


. 2.13.
-

1
Rx ( ) =
W ( ) e j d .

(2.12)

(2.11), (2.12), , -.
.


1. ( )
W() . .
2. W() .
e j (2.11) cos( ) j sin( ),
W ( ) =

Rx ( )(cos() j sin() )d .

R x ( ) sin( ) , , - :

26

W () =

Rx () cos() d .

(2.13)

(2.13) :
W ( ) = W ( ) .

(2.14)

3.
:

1
1
= Rx (0) =
W () d = W () d .

2
0
2

(2.15)

, ,
+; .

1
F () = W () , F()

( 0).
- :

2
F () = Rx ( ) cos() d ,
0

(2.16)

Rx ( ) = F () cos() d .

(2.17)

= F () d .
2

(2.18)

, ,
.
, , .
27

2.6.

, R() = W0 (). :
W ( ) =

W0( )e

d = W0 .

(2.19)

W0
, (. 2.14).
, , ,
,

W()
W0

.
, -

0
. 2.14.

,
. , , , . . . , ,
,
, .

W()

,
(.
2.15).

W0

. 2.15.

28

1
R( ) =
2

W0 e

W0 (e j e j ) W0 sin( )
.
d =
=
2 j

, , , , = 0 1.

:
R ( ) =

W0 sin( )
.

(2.20)

(2.20) . 2.16.
()

. 2.16.

1 2

. 2.17. -

F()
F0

1
2
. 2.17. ,

0

,
-


.
-

(2.16):

R( ) =

F0 cos() d =

F0
(sin(2 ) sin(1) ) .

, :
29

( 1 )
sin 2

2
( + 2 )
(2.21)
cos 1
R( ) = F0 (2 1 )
.
(2 1 )
2

2
. , (2.18) . -

.
. (2.21) . 2.18.
R()
2

. 2.18.

2.7.

. .


. , , .
,
,
:

30

F ( ) =

2
kTR ,

(2.22)

k = 1,3810 23 / ,
, ,
R , .

(2.22)
1012 , . .
.
,
, :

2
kTR = 4kTRf .
(2.23)

,
2 =

R = 1 f = 1 :
2 = 4 1,38 10 23 293 103 10 6 = 1,6 10 11 2.

U = = 410 6 = 4 .
. : .
,
Z = R + jX , , (2.22), (2.23) , R .


p-n-
.
, ( )
. ( )
, . 31

i0 () ,
, [1],

i0e
,
(2.24)
T
e = 1,610-19 , .

:
i2 =

i0e
.
(2.25)

i0 = 100 1 :
F ( ) =

i0e
0,1 1,6 10 19
=
=
2 106 = 3,2 1014 A2 ,

i2

i = 1,79107 . ,
, . 1 U = 1,79104 = 179 , 50 ,
.
, , . , .
,
p-n- ,
23 .
.
:
, ;
;
;

32

: , , , (
);
1/f , -.
1/f .

, ,
.

1.
2.

?
?

3.
4.

.. .
.
?
. ?
?

5.
6.

7.
8.

. ?

9. ?
10. ?
11. ?
12. ? -

?
13. ?
14. ? ?
15. ?
16. ; ?

33

3.

3.1.
, , .
, : , , ,
.
,
.
.
x(t), y(t) ( 3.1).
Wx().
, ,

x(t)

K()

y(t)

. 3.1.


, . .

,
.
,
:
2

W y () = Wx () K () .

(3.1)

:
2

Fy () = Fx () K () .

34

(3.2)

, :

1
R y ( ) =
W y () e j d

(3.3)

, :

W y ( ) = Fy () cos() d .

(3.4)

(3.4) = 0, :

2y

= Fy () d .

(3.5)

3.2.
, , , :
, , , .


, .
(3.1). ,
. W1()
R1(), W2()
R2(), |K()|

, (). |K()| 2 :

35

1
2
( ) =
K () e j d .

(3.6)

,
():
R y ( ) =

R x (t ) ( t ) d t .

(3.7)

() (3.6),
. |K()|2
:
2
K () = K& () K * () .

(3.8)

K& () h(t),
K * () ,
h(t). , ,
() h(t) h(t):
( ) =

h(t )h(t ) d t ,

(3.9)

. . () . .
,

( ) = () . Rx() , (3.7) , :
R y ( ) =

Rx (t )(t ) d t =

R x (t ) (t + ) d t =

Rx (t + ) (t ) d t .

, , , .

36

3.3.

. F0
.

Rx ( ) = F0( ) .
(3.2) :
2

Fy () = F0 K () .

(3.10)

(3.7):
R y ( ) =

F0(t )( t ) d t = F0 ( ) .

(3.11)

, ,
:
2y

= Fy () d = F0 K () d .
0

(3.12)

(
):
=

K 2 0

() d ,

(3.13)

K , .
|K()|

K 2 ,

K 2 ,

.3.2.
37

,
. 3.2.

.


:
2y = F0 K 2 .

(3.14)

. ,
.
.
, .
,
.

3.4. RC-

RC (. 3.3).
R

x(t)

y(t)


RC-:
,
.

. 3.3. RC-

( ):
1
1

jC
,
K ( j) =
=
=
1
1
+
j

RC

+
j

R+
jC

K () = K ( j) K * ( j) =

1
.
RC

(3.15)

+
. RC-:

38

e t t 0
.
h(t ) =
0 t < 0

() > 0. h(t) (3.9) (. 3.4 ),

( ) = e t e (t ) d t = e . , ()
2

, , :


e
.
(3.16)
2
() . 3.4.
( ) =

) ()

()

h(t)

/2

h(t)

. 3.4. :
3.16; RC-

, RC-:
=

K 2

K ( ) d =

2 +

d = arctg
2

= .
0
2

(3.17)

3.1. RC .
F0 ,
: Rx ( ) = F0( ) .
RC-:
2

Fy () = F0 K () = F0

+
RC-:

39

(3.18)

F0
e
.
2
RC-:

R y ( ) = F0 ( ) =

(3.19)

.
(3.20)
2

2y = F0 K 2 = F0

RC-.
RC-, . 3.5 , . . , .
(. 3.5 ).
)

)
R

C
y(t)

C y(t)

. 3.5. 3.1:
RC-; RC-

,
RC-.
. ,

2
kTR . (3.20),

kT
= kTR
=
.
(3.21)
2
2 RC C
:
, , ,
2y = F0

(3.21)
. ,
:
.
R ,
F0 (. 3.6 ). , - 40

1
RC
. , , , . .
. 3.6, .
) F()
) F()
R RC- =

F0

F0 /2

F0
F0 /2
0

. 3.6. RC :
,

R , F0 , - (.

3.6 ). (
) , R.
, R RC-. .

3.2. RC



(3.2), (3.7). RC-.
RC-

Rx ( ) = 2x e


41

2 2x
.
Fx () = 2
+ 2

:
2 2x
2
.
F y ( ) = 2

+ 2 2 + 2

(3.22)

(3.7).
,

R y ( ) =


e
2

2x e

dt .

-
. ,
:
2x
e e .
R y ( ) =

( + ) ( )

(3.23)

(3.23) = 0, :
2y

2x
=
.
+

(3.24)

, ,
.
(3.22), (3.23), RC- : .
RC-,

, . 3.7.
-

2 2x 2
Fy ()
, . .
2 + 2
, . , 42

, , ,
, , .
Fx()
Fx(0)
Fx(0)/2

|K()|

1
0,5

Fy()
Fx(0)

. 3.7. RC-

2x
e
: R y ( )
. , +
.
, :
2y

2x

=
2x .
+

.
(-

43

) (. 3.8). , .
) x(t)

y(t)

. 3.8. () () RC-

>> , ,
Fx()
, . . Fy() Fx() (. . 3.9). (3.23) :
R y ( )



2x e
2x e
= Rx ( ) ,
+

. . .
Fx(), Fy()

|K()|2

Fx(0)

Fx(0)/2

0,5

. 3.9.
RC-

, . 3.10.
44

,
RC-.
x(t)

y(t)

. 3.10. RC-

3.5.


( , , ).
Fx() . 3.11 a.
.
2

: Fy () = Fx () K () .
) Fx()

Fx( 0)

|K()|2

Fy()

. 3.11.
45

30100 0. Fx( 0).


2

Fy () = Fx ( 0 ) K () .
:

R y ( ) = Fy () cos() d .
0

= 0
:

R y ( ) =

Fy (0 + ) cos[(0 + )] d =

Fy (0 + ) cos(0 ) cos() d Fy (0 + ) sin(0) sin() d =


= a ( ) cos( 0 ) b ( ) sin( 0 ) ,

a( ) =

Fy (0 + ) cos() d ,

b( ) =

(3.25)

Fy (0 + ) sin() d .

, 0

, :

a ( ) =

Fy (0 + ) cos() d ,

(3.26)

b( =

Fy (0 + ) sin() d .

(3.27)

0 , Fy(0 + ) , b() = 0
:
R y ( ) = a ( ) cos(0 ) = 2y ( ) cos(0 ) ,

46

(3.28)

2y ( ) , ( )
.
. 3.12.
Ry()

2 ()

. 3.12.

. , Fy ( 0 + ) = Fx ( 0 ) K ( 0 + ) = Fx ( 0 ) K ( ) ,
() -

, :

a( ) = Fx (0 )

K ()

cos() d = 2Fx (0 ) () ,

() ;

1
2
( ) =
K () cos( ) d .

(3.29)

:
R y ( ) = 2Fx (0 ) ( ) cos(0 ) .

3.3.

(3.30)


:
K ( ) =

K0
.
1 + j

47

:
K () =

K0

0
.
2Q

:
1+ j


e
.
2
(3.30),
( ) = K 02

R y ( ) = K 02 F0 e

cos(0 ) .

(3.31)

(3.31) . 3.13.
Ry()

. 3.13.


= 0:
2y = K 02 F0 .

(3.32)

(3.14), :
= .

(3.33)

3.4.
.

(. 3.14).

48

,
Q.
F0, ,
(3.14),

L
C

2y =

y(t)

p kT
2
kTrQ 2 = 2kTrQ 2
=
.

2Q C

(3.34)

R y ( ) = 2y e

. 3.14.

cos( p ) .

(3.35)


100 200 293 . (3.34),

2y

1,38 10 23 293
10

= 4,04 10 11 2 ,

10
6,36 .


1. ?
2.

?
3. ?
4.
?
5.
?
6. ?
7. RC- -

49

4.
4.1.

,
(. 4.1).
Fx()
Fx( 0)

. 4.1.


- ,
. . 4.2.
:
x(t ) = E (t ) cos[0t + (t )] ,

(4.1)

E(t) , 0 , (t) ; E(t) (t)


cos(0t).
E(t)

x(t)

. 4.2.

50


(3.25):
Rx ( ) = a ( ) cos(0 ) b( ) sin(0 ) ,

(4.2)

a() b() cos(0) ,


Fx() ,
b() = 0.
x(t) , , :
1
e
2

p( x) =

x2
2 2

(4.3)


. , E(t),
. ,
E(t)
x(t).
, .
x(t) : E(t) (t). , y(t),
x(t) 900. (4.1)
:
y (t ) = E (t ) sin[0t + (t )] .

(4.4)

, x2(t) + y2(t) = E2(t).


,
, .
(4.1) (4.4), :
x(t ) = E (t ) cos((t ) ) cos(0t ) E (t ) sin ((t ) )sin(0t ) ,
51

(4.5)

y (t ) = E (t ) cos((t ) )sin(0t ) + E (t ) sin ((t ) ) cos(0t ) .

(4.6)

E (t ) cos((t ) ) = A(t ) ,

(4.7)

E (t ) sin ((t ) ) = B(t ) .

(4.8)

(4.5), (4.6) :
x(t ) = A(t ) cos(0t ) B (t ) sin(0t ) ,

(4.9)

y (t ) = A(t ) sin(0t ) + B(t ) cos( 0t ) .

(4.10)

x(t) (4.9) ,
A(t) B(t) . , . .
cos0t , A(t) .
, . . cos0t
900. 900,
, . B(t)sin0t
, B(t) .
A(t) B(t),
(t) (t):

E (t ) = A2 (t ) + B 2 (t ) ,

(t ) = arctg

B (t )
.
A(t )

(4.11)

A(t) B(t) (t) , , A(t) = (t) B(t) = 0,


cos( 0 t)
x(t)

A(t )
2

.
A(t) B(t)

B(t )
2

x(t) c ,

sin( 0 t)

. 4.3. (t) (t)

52


. 4.3. -

x(t), cos0t sin0t. cos0t,

A(t ) A(t )
B (t )
+
cos(20t )
sin( 20t ) .
2
2
2

. ,
A(t)/2. , A(t ) cos 2 (0t ) B (t ) cos(0t ) sin(0t ) =

, sin0t ,
(t)/2.

x(t) (t),
A(t) B(t). (4.9) cos0t , (4.10)

sin0t .
A(t ) = x(t ) cos(0t ) + y (t ) sin(0t ) .

(4.12)

, B(t):

B(t ) = y (t ) cos(0t ) x(t ) sin(0t ) .

(4.13)

,
x(t) (t). x(t)

y(t) /2.
(4.12), (4.13) A(t) B(t). (4.11) (4.7) (4.8) (t) (t). y(t), A(t) B(t)
(t)
(t).
y(t). y(t) x(t) , , , y(t) , x(t). :

R y ( ) = Rx ( ) = a ( ) cos(0 ) b( ) sin(0 ) .
53

(4.14)

,
x(t) y(t).
, , .
. , x(t) , y(t) .
, , x(t) y(t) .

x(t) y(t), [1]:

Rxy ( ) = a ( ) sin(0 ) + b( ) cos(0 ) .

(4.15)



A(t)
B(t).
.
(4.12), (4.13) , A(t) B(t) .

R A ( ) = A(t ) A(t + ) ,

RB ( ) = B(t ) B(t + ) .

(4.16)

(4.16) A(t) (4.12),

R A ( ) = [ x(t ) cos(0t ) + y (t ) sin(0t )][ x(t + ) cos(0 (t + ) ) + y (t + ) sin (0 (t + ) )] .


, :

R A ( ) = x(t ) x(t + ) cos(0t ) cos(0 (t + ) ) + x(t ) y (t + ) cos(0t ) sin (0 (t + ) ) +


+ y (t ) y (t + ) sin(0t ) sin (0 (t + ) ) + y (t ) x(t + ) sin(0t ) cos(0 (t + ) )
,

x(t ) y (t + ) = y (t ) x(t + ) = Rxy ( ) ,

x(t ) x(t + ) = y (t ) y (t + ) = Rx ( ) ,

, :
R A ( ) = Rx ( ) cos(0 ) + Rxy ( ) sin(0 ) =
= [a ( ) cos(0 ) b( ) sin(0 )]cos(0 ) + [a ( ) sin(0 ) + b( ) cos(0 )]sin(0 ) =
= a( ) .
(4.17)
54

, RB() = a(); RAB() = b().


, A(t) B(t) ,
x(t): 2 = 2 = 2. ,
(4.12), (4.13) , x(t) y(t)
, A(t) B(t) ,
:

p( A) =

1
e
2

A2
2 2

1
e
2

p( B) =

B2
2 2

(4.18)

, RAB(0) = b(0) = 0,
A(t) B(t) , , , ,
:

p ( A, B ) = p ( A) p ( B ) =

1
2

e
2

A2 + B 2
2 2

(4.19)


(, ) (, ) [1]:
p ( E , ) = p ( A, B ) I ,

A
I = E
A

(4.20)

B
E .
B

(4.7) (4.8), : I = E . (4.19) (4.20):

p ( E , ) =

E
2

e
2

A2 + B 2
2 2

55

E
2

e
2

E2
2 2

(4.21)

(),
(4.21)
:

p( E ) =

p ( E , ) d =

E2
2 2

(4.22)

(4.22) . . 4.4.
p(E)

1 1.253

. 4.4. ,

:
:

E = Ep( E ) d E =
0

,
2

(4.23)

E = E 2 p( E ) d E = 2 2 ,
2

(4.24)

:
2

2E = E 2 E = 2 2 = 0,43 2 .
2

(4.25)

, , , :
, .

56

, (4.21) . :
1
,
( < < ) ,
(4.26)
2
.. .

p () =


, (, ) ,
t, t + . , (, )
(, , , ).

, Fx() b() = 0. A(t)

B(t) . :

R A ( ) = R B ( ) = a ( ) = 2 ( ) .

(4.27)

p ( A, A , B, B ) = p ( A, A ) p ( B, B ) ,

(4.28)

p ( A, A ) =
p ( B, B ) =

A2 + A2 2AA
exp
,
2
2
2
2

(
1

)
1

1
2 2

B 2 + B2 2BB
exp
.
2 2 (1 2 )

1 2

1
2 2

, A = Ecos , B = Esin , A = E cos, B = E sin ,


: I = EE
:

57

p ( E , E , , ) = p ( A, A , B, B ) I =

E 2 + E2 2EE cos( )
= 2 4
exp
.
4 (1 2 )
2 2 (1 2 )

EE

(4.29)

(, ) (4.29) :

p ( E , E , ) =

p( E , E , , ) d .

(4.30)

1
e x cos( 0 ) d = I 0 ( x) ,

2
I0(x) .
(4.30)

E 2 + E2 EE
p ( E , E , ) =
I
exp 2
. (4.31)
2 0 2
2
2 4 1 2
2

(
1

(
1


EE

, , (4.31) :

p ( E , E ) =

p ( E , E , ) d =

E 2 + E2 EE
.
= 4
exp 2
I
2 0 2
2
1 2
2 (1 ) (1 )
EE

(4.32)

:
2

RE ( ) = EE E .

(4.33)

(4.23). EE :

EE =

EE p( E , E ) d E d E

(4.34)

00

(4.34) (4.32)
, , :
58

EE =

1
1 6
1

2 1 + 2 + 4 +
+ ... .
2 4
64
256

(4.35)

(4.35) (4.23) (4.33), :

RE ( ) =

1
1

2 2 + 4 + 6 + ... .
8
16
64

(4.36)

, :

rE ( ) =

RE ( )
2E

= 0,915 2 + 0,057 4 + 0,014 6 + ...

(4.37)

:
rE ( ) 2 ( ) .

(4.38)

4.1. Rx ( ) = 2 e

cos(0 ) .

( ) = e

(4.38), : rE ( ) e

, , :

RE ( ) 0,43 2 e

(4.39)

(4.39) . 4.5.
2

2 () = 2 exp( | |)

RE()

0,43 2

0 1

. 4.5.

59

4.2.


, . . ,
. , . .

u(t) = Um cos (0t) + x(t),

(4.40)

x(t) (4.9)
. (4.9) (4.40),
:
u(t) = (Um + ) cos (0t) sin (0t).

(4.41)

(4.41)
(. 4.6).
A = E cos Um ,

B = E sin .

(4.42)

E
B

Um

. 4.6.

,
:
p(E,) = p(A,B) |I|,

(4.43)

p(A,B)
(4.19), |I | = E. ,
A2 + B2 = E2 cos2 2EUm cos +U m2 + E2 sin2 =
= E2 + U m2 2EUm cos ,
60

p(E,):
E 2 + U m2 2 EU m cos
.
p ( E , ) =
exp
2
2

2
2

(4.44)

,
:

E 2 + U m2 EU m
I0
p ( E ) = p ( E , ) d = 2 exp
.
2

(4.45)

(4.45) .
Um. Um .4.7. Um = 0
(4.22). , Um >>
,
(E U m )2
1
.
p( E )
exp
2

2
2

(4.46)

p(E)
Um = 0
0,6

Um =

Um = 3
Um = 5

0,4

0,2

E/
. 4.7. ,

0

Um Um
2, . 4.8.
E Um Um >> E Um (. 4.9).
, (4.44)
:

61

p () = p ( E , )dE =
0

a 2
a2

1
exp 1 + 2 a cos (a cos ) exp cos 2 ,
2

2
2

(4.47)
a = Um / , (x) .
2

0,43

1,253

4 Um /

. 4.8.

4 Um /

. 4.9.

p()
. 4.10. Um = 0 , , . . Um 0
, ; Um >> :

p( )

2
. (4.48)
exp
p ( )
2

2
2

Um >>

Um
Um = 0


. 4.6. ,

Um >>

. 4.10.

= arctg

B
B

,
Um Um

= / Um .

(4.49)
(4.50)

(4.46), (4.48) , , . .

62

Um > 3.

(4.51)


(4.51). , . 4.6, :
E Um + A(t).

(4.52)

Um , KE()

R():
RE() R() = 2().

(4.53)

, Rx ( ) = 2 exp( | |) cos(0 ) , Um > 3


RE ( ) = 2 exp( | |) .

(4.54)

, , . . 4.11 , . 4.11 .
. 4.11 .
, ,
, ,
. , .

. 4.12.
, (t) (t) , ,
. (t) , . 4.12 , . , ,
R. Um 0 (. 4.12 ) (t)

63

, Um R Um + R, . . (t) , Um = 0.
)

x(t)

Um cos( 0 t)

x(t) + Um cos( 0 t)

. 4.11. :
, ,

)
B(t)

2R

E(t)

E(t)
Um

A(t)

. 4.12. :
,

64

,

. , Um = 0 (. 4.12 )
, Um >> (. 4.12 ) , , Um / , .


1. .
2. ?
3.
? ?
4.
?
5.
?
6.
?
7. -

65

5.

5.1.

:

,
.
:
.
. , , .
, .1
y(t) (1.18).
.
1.6,
y = |x|.
, (1.18) ,
y(t)
x(t)
R
(. 5.1). :
. 5.1.

x2
1
p ( x) =
exp 2 .
2
2

(5.1)

x(t) . 5.2 . -

66

, . x(t)
, . . y(t) = x(t), x(t) . , (. 5.3)
x, x > 0
y=
0, x 0.
y(t) . 5.2 .
) x(t)

) y(t)
1

. 5.2.
() ()

. 5.3.

, x y p(y) p(x). x,
, y = 0.
p(y) - .
, p(y)
1
y2
1
( y ) +
exp 2 , y 0
2
p( y ) = 2
.
2

0,
y < 0

(5.2)

p(y) . 5.4 .
.
,

67

, . . E(t).
(4.22).
)
p(y)
)
p(x)
0,5

. 5.4.
() ()

, ()
() (. 5.5). , (1.18),
z(t)
y(t)
x(t)


. 5.5.
,

. , . ,
y = a x2.
. ,
x(t ) = E (t ) cos[0t + (t )] .
(5.3)
:

aE 2 (t ) aE 2 (t )
+
cos[20t + 2(t )] .
2
2
(5.4)
:
y (t ) = ax 2 (t ) = aE 2 (t ) cos 2 [0t + (t )] =

aE 2 (t )
z (t ) =
.
2
68

(5.5)

(5.5) E(t). ,
(1.18),
:

p( z ) = p( E )

dE
.
dz

(5.6)

dE
2z
(5.5): E =
,
dz
a

:
dE
1
=
.
dz
2az

(5.7)

(5.7) (4.22) (5.6) ,


:

p( z ) =

e
2

z
a 2

(5.8)

a
,
. 5.6.
p(z)
1

a 2

z
0
. 5.6.


(.4.4), . , , ,
, . ,
, . : , .
69

5.2.


.
: .



, .
y = f (x).
:
2

R y ( ) = y1 y2 y .

(5.9)

y y1 y2
: y(t):
y=
y1 y 2 =

yp( y ) d y ,

(5.10)

y1 y2 p( y1 , y2 ) d y1 d y2

(5.11)


x(t):
y=
y1 y 2 =

f ( x ) p ( x) d x ,

(5.12)

f ( x1 ) f ( x2 ) p( x1 , x2 ) d x1 d x2 .

(5.13)

(5.12), (5.13) ,
p(y) p(y1, y2).
,
.

70



n-
:
y = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + ... + an x n .

(5.14)


.
:
y = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + ... + an x n ,

(5.15)

y1 y2 = (a0 + a1 x1 + a2 x12 + ... + an x1n )(a0 + a1x2 + a2 x22 + ... + an x2n ) =


= a02 + a0 a1 x1 + a0 a2 x12 + a12 x1 x2 + a1a2 x1 x22 + a22 x12 x22 + ... + an2 x1n x2n .

(5.16)

, x(t).
,
.
:

j n + k x1n x2k =

n + k ( z1, z2 )
z1n z2k

z1 = 0
z2 =0

(5.17)

j = 1 , ( z1, z 2 ) , :
( z1, z 2 ) =

p( x1, x2 ) e

j ( x1 z1 + x2 z 2 )

d x1 d x2 .

(5.18)

2 2
( z1, z2 ) = exp
z1 + 2rz1z2 + z22
2

) .

(5.19)

(5.19) (5.17),
.

71

5.1. .

Rx ( ) = 2 e

cos(0 ) .

(5.20)

(. 5.7 ):
Fx () =

+ ( 0 )
2

(5.21)

, y = a x2
(. 5.5).
y y1 y2 . :
y = a x 2 = a 2 .

(5.22)

:
y1 y2 = a 2 x12 x22 .

(5.23)

x12 x22 (5.19)


(5.17) , ,
x12 x22 = 4 [1 + 2r 2 ( )] .

(5.24)

(5.24) (5.23) (5.22) (5.9):


R y ( ) = 2a 2 4 r 2 ( ) .

(5.25)

, (5.20)

r ( ) = e

cos(0 ) .

(5.26)

(5.26) (5.25),

R y ( ) = 2a 2 4 e

cos 2 (0 ) = a 2 4 e

+ a 2 4 e

cos(20 ) . (5.27)


Fy () =

4 2 a 2 4

4 2 + 2

] + [4

2 2 a 2 4
2

+ ( 20 ) 2

].

(5.28)

72

. 5.7 .
: , 2 0.
,
:
1 4a 2 4
(5.29)
4 2 + 2

. 5.7 .

Rz ( ) = a 2 4 e

Fz () =

Fx()
2
0

Fy()
2

4
2 0

Fz()
2

. 5.7. () ()
, ()

1.
?
2.
?
3. ? ?
4.
?
5. ?
6. -

?
73

6.
6.1. ,

, ,
, . ,
, . .

;
.

K() s(t)
F0 (. 6.1).
,
K()

.
. 6.1.

.
S& () . s(t) + n (t)

s(t) + n(t)

1
s (t ) =
S& () K () e jt d .

(6.1)

:
2

F
= F0 K () d = 0
2
0
2

K ()

d.

(6.2)

, t0 .
:

74

q=

s (t0 )
=

1
S& () K () e jt d

2
F
0
2

K ()

1
2

(6.3)

-,
f1(x) f2(x)
:

1
2

f12 ( x) d x f 22 ( x) d x ,
f
(
x
)
f
(
x
)
d
x

1 2

(6.4)

, f1(x) f2(x)
k:
f1(x) = k f2(x).
f1 ( x) K () ,

f 2* ( x) S& () e jt 0 ,
f 2 ( x) S * () e jt 0

(6.3) ,

q
2

F0
2

1
2

K () 2 d S& () 2 d


.
1

2
K ( ) 2 d

,
q

Wc
,
F0

(6.5)

2
1
Wc =
S& () d .

, (6.5),

75

K () = k S () e jt 0 .

(6.6)

(6.6) ,
.
:

1
k
h(t ) =
k S () e jt0 e jt d =
S () e j(t t 0 ) d = k s (t0 t ) .

2
2

(6.7)

, t0 (.6.2). , .
, ,

t. t0
, .
)

) h(t)

s(t)

t0

t0

. 6.2. :
,

(6.6),
.

. , ,
, ;
, , ,
, , , .
76

, (6.6).

S& () = S& () e j() , . . ().


S * () = S& () e j() ,
(). . , ,
. e jt0
, , .
. :
s (t ) =

s (t ) h ( ) d = k

s(t )s(t0 ) d = k (t t0 ) ,

(6.8)

(t) .
, t0, .

6.1.
(. . 6.3 ). t0 = T.
) s(t)

) h(t)

kE

) s(t)

2T

. 6.3. :
, ,

77

(. 6.3 ) . ,
, -
.
(t)

(t)

h(t)

t0
(t-t0)

.6.4.

,
. 6.4. -


. t0. , ,
. . 6.5. .
(t)

(t)

(t t0)

t0

t0

h(t) = (t) (t t0)

. 6.5.

78

6.2.
, , .
:
-
, / ,
. .

. RC- (. 6.6),
,

R
C
/ .
.6.6. RC-
RC-
(. 6.7), E (1 e T ) , , , =

1
.
RC

uC(t)
E

. 6.7. RC-

RC- F0
:

q=

.
2

E 1 e T
.

F0
2


:
79

T -

Wc 1 e T
q=
,
F0
T
2

(6.9)

Wc , 2.
(6.9) / R- (6.5)
1 e T
.
T
2
f (T ) . 6.8.
f ( T ) =

, 0,9 = 1,256. RC-,


.
, 10% , . , , , .
q
1

0,5

. 6.8. / RC-

, . , .
,
.
80

6.3. ,

, , , ,
, .
, .
x(t) n(t).
y(t). y(t)
x(t), . . , (t):
(t) = y(t) x(t).

(6.10)


(. 6.9).
x(t)

(t)

n(t)

K(j)

y(t)

. 6.9.

, , . .
:
S() = Sx() | 1 K(j) |2 + Sn() | K(j) |2 .

(6.11)

.

K ( j) = K ( j) exp[ j()]
| 1 K(j) |2 (6.11):

81

(6.12)

| 1 K ( j) |2 = (1 | K ( j) | exp[ j()])(1 | K ( j) | exp[ j()]) =


= 1 2 | K ( j) | cos(() )+ | K ( j) | .
2

(6.13)

, (6.11) ,

| 1 K(j) |2

(6.13),

() = 0. , .
:
K(j) = K().
(6.11) :
S() = Sx() [ 1 K() ]2 + Sn() K()2.

(6.14)


S() . K(),
, K() = z (6.14), z :

d
S x ()(1 z ) 2 + S n () z 2 = 2 S x ()(1 z ) + 2 zS n () = 0,
dz
z = K () =

S x ( )
.
S x () + S n ()

(6.15)

(6.15)
,
.
.
(. 6.10 ). (6.15)
, Sn() = 0, ,
Sx() = Sn(), , Sn() >> Sx() (. 6.10 ).

.

82

Sx()
Sn()

) K()
1

0.5

. 6.10. ,


1. ?
2.

?
3. ? ? .
4. ?
?
5. t0 ?
?
6. ?
?
7. , ?

83

2
F () = R ( ) cos()d
0

F0 ()

F0

2 exp( )

2 2

2 + 2

exp( ) (1 + )

4
3 2

2 + 2

exp( ) 1 + + 2 2
3

16
5 2

3 2 + 2

R( ) = F () cos()d
0

22

exp

sin()

2 cos( 0)
2

2e

cos(0 )

cos(0 ) +
sin(0 )
0

)2

3
16

)3

2
2 2
exp 2
2

2 / ,

0,

>

2 ( 0)

1
2
2
+ ( 0 ) 2

2 2p
4

;
4 22 + (2 2p ) 2

2p = 2 + 02
2

(1 + ) cos(0 )

22
cos(0 )
exp

sin( )

cos(0 )

2
3 2

2 + ( ) 2
0

( 0 ) 2
2

exp
2

2
2

2 /(2), (0 ) (0 + )

0,

84


1. .. . .: . .,
2000.
2. .., .. .
.: , 1994.
3. .. .
.: , 1989.
4. .. . .
.: , 2000.
5. .., .. . .: , 1991.
6. .. .
. .: . ., 2002.

85


..
1.
1.1. ..
1.2. ...
1.3. .
1.4.

1.5. .
1.6. ...
..........
2. .
2.1. ...
2.2.
..
2.3.
...
2.4. ..
2.5. ...
2.6.
2.7. ...
..........
3.
.
3.1. .
3.2. ...
3.3. ...
3.4. RC-..
3.5. ...
..........
4.
4.1.

86

3
4
4
6
6
7
8
9
12
13
13
16
17
19
24
28
30
33
34
34
35
37
38
45
49
50
50

4.2. .
..........
5.

5.1. ..
5.2. ..
........
6. ..
6.1. , ...
6.2. .
6.3. , ..
..
..

87

60
65
66
66
70
73
74
74
79
81
83
84
85








,
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2004 (I), .
30.03.05

6084/16
. . . 5,5
500 .
. 57

17 .
, 111250, , ., . 14
,
117415, , . , . 39

88

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