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T C o m m

32011
TComm Telecommunications
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Research of optical characteristics of compact discs


Lobanov B.S., Bondarev U.S., Mityagin A.U., Xlopov B.V., Sokolovsky A.A.

The developed and created bench for measurement of properties of optical mediums of the information is presented, the appropriate software is developed for the
bench which provides automatic measurement, saving and handling of spectra with possibility of a choice of all demanded parameters, the method of measure
ment of a reversal spectrum of a disk with the written down information is offered, the experimental spectral characteristics of optical mediums with possibility of the
singlevalued and repeated record are resulted.

16

TComm #32011



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The unipolar kilovoltmeter for the control and high voltage measurement
Frisk V.V.
High voltage are widely used in electrotechnology, in electrotechnical installations most of different function and in power supplies of devices and com
munication systems. In work the analysis of the unipolar kilovoltmeter consisting of a small amount of the details, not demanding the power supply is resulted,
allowing to make contact and contactless measurements of a high voltage. Results of experiments are presented.
Keywords: Kilovoltmeter, high voltage, unobtrusive measures, electrical spark

References
1. Frisk V.V. Issledovanie of the unipolar voltmeter in a mode of a high voltage for the measuring equipment of systems SHPS.//conference Works
Telecommunication and computing systems, on November, 26th, 2008 Moscow. M.: MTUCI, 2008, 194 p.
2. Frisk V.V. Issledovanie doublediodes chains with one store for the measuring equipment of communication systems.//the Collection of works of
System of synchronisation, formation and processing of signals for communication and an announcement, on July, 13st, 2008 Yaroslavl. M.: MTUCI, 2008,
with. 128129.
3. Frisk V.V. Issledovanie of frequency characteristics of the unipolar voltmeter.//conference Works "Telecommunication and computing systems". M.:
Incvjzizdat. 2010. p. 188189.
4. But D.A., Alievskij B.L., Mizjurin S.R., Vasukevish P.V.Nakopiteli of energy. M.: Energoatom, 1991.  400 p.
5. Zakarukin V.P.Tehnika of high pressure.Irkutsk.: IrGYPC, 2005.  137 p.

18

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25

FRACTAL DESPECKLING OF MEDICAL ULTRASOUND IMAGES


1. Achim A., Bezerianos A., Tsakalides P.
Novel Bayesian multiscale method for speckle
removal in medical ultrasound images // IEEE
Transactions on Medical Imaging, 2001. V 20,
8. P. 772783.
2. Ghazel M., Freeman G.H., Vrscay E.R.
Fractal image denoising // IEEE Transactions on
Image Processing, 2003. V.12., 12
P.15601578.
3. .., ..
//
, 2009. 4. . 3640.
URL: http//www.elsv.ru/files/actual/130.pdf
4. Reusens E. Overlapped adaptive partition
ing for image coding based on the theory of iterat
ed functions systems // Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on
Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing.
Adelaide, Australia, Apr. 1994. V.5.
P.569572.
5. Ho H.L., Cham W.K. Attractor image cod
ing using lapped partitioned iterated function sys
tems // Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech
and Signal Processing.  Munich, Germany, Apr.
1997. V.4, P.29172920.

Sergey Ilyushin
Abstract
Ultrasonography is one of the most popular and effective medical diagnostic technology. However,
ultrasound images suffer from speckle noise having a granular appearance. Current speckle reduc
tion methods are based on median filtering and Wiener filtering. But filtering leads to blurring of tis
sues. In this article the use of fractal image processing of medical ultrasound images for despeckling
purposes is presented. The results of filtering and fractal processing are compared. Experiments show
the superiority of fractal processing over median filtering and Wiener filtering in speckle reduction.
Besides, with the help of fractal processing one can achieve considerable compression of images.
Keywords: medical ultrasound images, despeckling, speckle reduction, fractal image compression,
median filtering, Wiener filtering.
Referances
1. Achim A., Bezerianos A., Tsakalides P. Novel Bayesian multiscale method for speckle removal in medical
ultrasound images // IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 2001, V 20, 8, P. 772783.
2. Ghazel M., Freeman G.H., Vrscay E.R. Fractal image denoising // IEEE Transactions on Image Processing,
2003, V.12, 12, P.15601578.
3. Ilyushin S.V., Svet S.D. Fractalnoe szhatie telemeditsinskikh izobrazheni // Elektrosvyaz, 4, pp. 3640,
2009. URL: http//www.elsv.ru/files/actual/130.pdf.
4. Reusens E. Overlapped adaptive partitioning for image coding based on the theory of iterated functions sys
tems // Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing. Adelaide, Australia, Apr. 1994, V.5,
P. 569572.
5. Ho H.L., Cham W.K. Attractor image coding using lapped partitioned iterated function systems //
Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing. Munich, Germany, Apr. 1997, V.4,
P. 29172920.

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TComm #32011

29

1.
h t t p : / / e n . w i k i p e d i a . o rg / w i k i /
Driving_cycle.
2. www.checkengine.ru.
3. .., ..

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5. http://www.statsoft.ru/Interactive%20STATISTI
CA%20Modules/_inner.html.

. 5. " "

Technique of definition and use of typical rideable cycles of the car


Manyashin A.V., Manyashin S.A.
This article presents a methodology of accelerated determination of driving cycles of car traffic in typical operating conditions. Database techniques are: the theory of pattern
recognition and cluster analysis. On this basis, developed software to automate the process of collecting, collating and processing data on the modes of movement of cars in differ
ent conditions. Used in the methodic program is officially registered as a branch of electronic resources.
Key words: Operation of vehicles, driving cycles.
Referances
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Driving_cycle.
2. http://www.checkengine.ru.
3. Manyashin A.V., Manyashin S.A. Zagruzhaemiy applet dlya sbrosa parametrov rabot avtomobilya i dvigatelya na smenny nositel. Institut nauchniy informasii i monitoringa. Obedinenniy fond
elektronnyh resursov. Svidetelstvo ob otraslevoy registracii razrabotki 15918 12.06.2010.
4. Manyashin A.V., Manyashin S.A. Programma raspoznavaniya ezdovogo cikla avtomobiley. Institut nauchniy informasii i monitoringa. Obedinenniy fond elektronnyh resursov. Svidetelstvo ob
otraslevoy registracii razrabotki 15920 12.06.2010.
5. http://www.statsoft.ru/Interactive%20STATISTICA%20Modules/_inner.html.

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TComm #32011

A method for increasing the capacity of the centers


of Emergency Services

1. .., .., ..
(Call Centre). .:
, 2002. 270 .
2. . Call Avaya:
" "// CONNECT, 2007. 5. .134136.
3. .., .., 
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6. .., .. 

Call// TComm. 4.
.5153.

Stepanova I.V., Kiselev I.V,


Center of Emergency Services established to ensure citizens' constitutional right to protection by the
state. The results of the centers of emergency services should be considered for improving the quality of
services to citizens. Increasing the capacity of these centers is intended to solve the problem of servicing
incoming calls without loss and with the least expectation.
Keywords: emergency services, intensity of loading, definition.
Referances
1. Roslyakov A.V., Samsonov M.U., Shibaev I.V. Call Centre. ., 2002. 270 p.
2. Arharov V. Call from Avaya// CONNECT, 2007. 5. P.134136.
3. Kornishev U.N., Pshenichnikov A.P., Harkevich A.D. Teoriya teletrafika. ., 1996. 272 p.
4. Kruylov V.V., Samohvalova S.S. Teoriya teletrafika i ee prilozheniya. SPb, 2005. 288 p.
5. Blinkova . Spasti ryadovogo evropeytsa//PC Week Mobile 9 (12), 2006.
6. Stepanova I.V., Kiselev I.V. Vliyanie intellektualnoy marshrutizasii vizovov na funkcionirovanie Callcentrov// TComm, 4,
P.5153.

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Analys of methods of an estimation parameters of the traffic in multiservice network


Danoliv A.M., Kayumov S.T.
Keywords: Multiservice network, the theory of selfsimilar processes
Referances
1. Basharin G.P., Bocharov P.P., Kogan Ya.A. .. Analiz ocheredey v vuychislitelnuyh setyah. Teoriya i metoduy rescheta. ., Nauka, 1989. 336 p.
2. Neiman V.I. Novoe napravlenie v teorii teletrafika //Electrosviaz, .,1998, 7, P.2730.
3. Polikar R. Vvedenie v veyvletpreobrazovanie/ SPb., AVTEKS, 2001.
4. Polosuhin M.B., Pshenichnikov A.P. Analiz parametrov trafika na multiservisnoy seti sviazi. MTUCI, ., Media Publisher, 2005, P. 134151.

5. Polosuhin M.B., Pshenichnikov A.P., Stolyar N.F. Ocenka kachestva obsluzhivaniya multiservisnuyh potokov soobsheniy realnogo vremeni s uchetom stepeni samopodobiya// Konference.
International informatization forum. ., UCI, 2005, P.2930.
6. Sheluhin O.I., Tenyakshev A.V. Fraktalnuye processuy v telecommunicaciyah. ., Radiotehnoka, 2003.

TComm #32011

39




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TComm #32011

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, 


.
,
default 
, ,
(default).

( default

).

, 

.


nondefault. 
,

, "" 
t ""
.
, 
,
. 
, 
,  

,
.

:
Nondefault, 
, 

.
Nondefault,

,
, 
, .

. 

"
" 
"" . 
, 

.
default
.
, default
,
, ( TE 
)
.

. 

47


 
, 
. 
FER
(frame error rate, ), 
.. 
.


default.
nondefault

. 
(

). 

. 
, 

.


2 DHyacinth.

,


, 

.

, 
,
,
,
.
,

mesh,
. , 
, 
.
,


, 
, 
.
, 

mesh.

1. IEEE Std 802.112007, Revision of IEEE Std


802.111999. IEEE Std 802.112007, IEEE Standard
for Information TechnologyTelecommunications and
information exchange between systemsLocal and met
ropolitan area networkSpecific requirementsPart 11:
Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and
Physical Layer (PHY) specifications. IEEE Computer
Society, June 2007.
2. IEEE P802.11s/D2.0. Draft STANDARD for
Information Technology Telecommunications and
information exchange between systems Local and
metropolitan area networks Specific requirements
Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC)
and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications Amendment:
Mesh Networking [Electronic resource] / IEEE Standards
Activities Department.[USA]: IEEE, 2008.
3. Raniwala A., Gopalan K., Chiueh T. Centralized
channel assignment and routing algorithms for multi
channel wireless mesh networks. ACM Mobile
Computing and Communications Review, 2004, vol. 8,
pp. 5065.
4. .., ..
Mesh .// 
. 3, 2009. . 3637.

Methods of increase of productivity of wireless meshnetworks of a special purpose


Legkov ..
Now the most widespread technology of wireless access which is everywhere applied to transfer of a considerable quantity of the traffic of a various kind,
the standard of wireless local networks IEEE 802.11 is. The meshnetworks described in standard IEEE 802.11s became one of the most perspective direc
tions of development of technology WiFi. Possibility of application of the given standard for forces of a special purpose and work of some known algo
rithms of appointment of channels in networks IEEE 802.11s is considered.

: meshnetworks, IEEE 802.11s, WiFi.

Referances
1. IEEE Std 802.112007, Revision of IEEE Std 802.111999. IEEE Std 802.112007, IEEE Standard for Information TechnologyTelecommunications and information
exchange between systemsLocal and metropolitan area networkSpecific requirementsPart 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifica
tions. IEEE Computer Society, June 2007.
2. IEEE P802.11s/D2.0. Draft STANDARD for Information Technology Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area net
works Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications Amendment: Mesh Networking [Electronic resource]
/ IEEE Standards Activities Department.[USA]: IEEE, 2008.
3. Raniwala A., Gopalan K., Chiueh T. Centralized channel assignment and routing algorithms for multichannel wireless mesh networks. ACM Mobile Computing and
Communications Review, 2004, vol. 8, pp. 5065.
4. Legkov .., Donchenko .. Besprovodnuye Meshseti specialnogo naznacheniya // TComm, 3, 2009, P. 3637.

48

TComm #32011



:
,
.

..,

 ,
...,




1,2,3 .

EN 4,5,6 
. ,
, , EN 
, 
. ,
EN 
,
.

:
1)
D ={d1,d2,,dn} 
r.
2) 
en(t)
EN,
(d,Spp) Pr.
3) 
r.


EN.
r 
D ={d1,d2,,dn}
S={s1,s2,,sk}.
1. 
en(t) 
EN, 
(d,Spp) Pr.

s(pp) S,
s(pp) S.
[4] ,
. ,

,
,

TComm #32011

.
,
.
s (pp) = {1,2,,n}.
, 
:
S = s(pp), s(pp) ,
, 
: 
.

,


r:

s (ppi ) {p1 , p 2 ,..., p l } s

(1)

({p , p ,..., p } s (pp )),

l s(pp).
r:

s ( pp1 ) {p1 , p 2 ,..., p l } s (pp 1 ) ,...,

({p , p ,..., p } s (pp ));


s ( pp ) ({p , p ,..., p } s (pp )),...,
({p , p ,..., p } s (pp ));

(2)

. . .

s (ppn ) {p1 , p 2 ,..., p l } s (pp 1 ) ,...,

({p , p ,..., p } s (pp )).

(2) 
r:

L Pr =

a11

a12

... ... a1n

3 ...

a 21

a 22

... ... a 2 n

...

...

... ...

...

...

...

...

... ...

...

a n1

an 2

... ... a nn

L Pr :
l ,
a ij =
0,

(
(

( ))
( ))

s (ppi ) {p1 , p 2 ,..., pl }


s pp j ;

s (ppi ) {p1 , p 2 ,..., pl }


s pp j ;

(3)

l
L Pr . l
, 

ti tj. 

ti tj.
aij,

Pr.
1.
ppi ppj (ppi ppj) aij
ppij :
1) ppij 
ppi ppj;
2) ppij 
ppi ppj;
3) ppij 
,
ppj.
:
si \ s j = si ,

s j \ si = sj ,

si s j = sij ,

si sj = sij ,

si s j = sij ,

sij sj = sij = s j ,

Sij 
ppi ppj;
sij
ppij.
1
EN :
eni(t)
enj(t) (eni(t) enj(t)) aij
ENij :
1) i(eni(t)) i(enj(t))
P = (eni(t)) (enj(t))
i(ENij) = i(eni(t)) i(enj(t))
M = M(i)+(i) 
.
2) ENij
eni(t) 
enj(t), 
P = (eni(t)) (enj(t)). M(pi)
pi .
3) ENij 
enj(t)
eni(t),
P = (eni(t)) (enj(t)).
M(pi) pi . 
ppij 
ppi ppj.
1, 1,
(13) 
r EN.

49


.
1. T= {1,2,...,n} 

eni(t) EN, i = 1,n .


2. T* = {}= 
,

.
3.
L Pr, 
en(t).

AL.
1. en1 pp1.
2. i = 1; j = 1.
3. aij /
= 0, 4.
aij /
= 0, 5.
4. eni
enj (2):
4.1. i T , j T ,
eni en j = eni , j , k = k + 1.

i, j
k, k 
*. eni(t) Y eni(t) X, 
t eni(t) .
5.
4.2. i T , j k , eni en = eni , .
i
k. eni(t) Y
eni(t) X, t eni(t)
. 5.
k

4.3. i k , j T ,

en k en j = en k , j .

j
k. 5.
4.4. i , j ,

,

.

en en = en , .
, * 
, = ( \ ( ))
*. 5.
4.5. i , j , =
5.
5. j = j + 1.
6. j < n, 3.
j > n, 7.
7. i = i + 1, j = 1.
8. i > n, 3.
i > n, 9.
9. .

AL EN={en1(t),en2(t),,enn(t)} 
r, 

D ={d1,d2,,dn}.


.  ,
AL, 


1. . .
//, 1987. 1.
.915.
2. ..
//, 1990. 1. .310.
3. .. 
/5 .
. : , 1991. .89.
4. .. 
,
. .
,1984. 40 .
5. .., .B., .. 

// : ..
./., 2002. . 2. .8186.
6. .., .. 

// 
: .. ./. ,
2002. . 1. .2935.

Synthesis algorithm of network models of reports on the basis of a matrix of logic communications
Donchenko A.A.

Keywords: synthesis of network models, a matrix of logic communications.

The device of synthesis of network models of reports is offered. A device basis is the synthesis algorithm of network model of the report,
based on the analysis of the entered matrix of logic communications of the report.
Referances
1. Anisimov N.. Algebra struktur protokolov na osnove teorii setey Petry //, 1987. 1. P.915.
2. Anisimov N.. Iererhicheskaya kompoziciya protokolov //, 1990. 1. P.310.
3. Donchenko .. Modelirovanie paketnih radiosetey na yazike Esetey /I, 1991. P.89.
4. Anisimov N.. Metody formalnogo opisaniya verifikacii i realizacii setevih protokolov s ispolzovaniem teorii setey Petry. Preprint. Vladivostok IP DVNC
S USSR,1984. 40 p.
5. Donchenko .., Ezimov .V., Pryahin .V. Setevoy apparat formalnogo opisaniya dinamicheckih processov //Teoriya i tehnika radiosvyazi:/VNIIS,
Voronezh, 2002. V.2. P.8186.
6. Donchenko .., Ezimov .. Dinamicheskaya model protokola ustanovleniya virtualnogo soedineniya paketnoy radiosety //Teoriya i tehnika
radiosvyazi:/VNIIS, Voronezh, 2002. V.1. P.2935.

50

TComm #32011



:
, ,
, .

..,
. 
, ,
...,
..,


..,



, 
, 

,
. 
. 

,
. 
,
, ,
,
,
1 . 


. 

 3 ,
.


, 


. 
, 

, 
, 

TComm #32011



. , ,

.

.



() 
.
1. . 

[3]
E = < P, T, F, M, G >
P = {p1, p2, ..., pn; q1, q2, ..., qm; r1, r2, ..., rk}
,
p , 
q r ;
T = {t1, t2, ..., tl} 
;
F {I:P x T (0,1)} {0:T x P(0,1)}
,

;
M:P (0, 1, 2 ...) , 

;
G:P Y , 
.



. 
,

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
 
(
), [1,2,3].


()
() [4]. 
.
2. .

.

( 1)
()
(2, 3,, ) 
.
(t0)
. 1 
(t1) , 
(r1=1), 
, (r=0) 
(p3). 

1 (t2),
N (r2=1, 
n<N). (p5), 
"" 2 (t3).
r3 
.

1(7) 2(6).
t1< 1 (7) 1 " 
" 2 (9),
1
2. 1 2 
,
(11), 
(t11). 
k
(k=Kmax), 

( r7=0 ).
(t6) (r5=1), 
" 
" (12).
t2 T2 (6) 1 
" ",
1
(15), (16)
(t10) " "

(17).
t11 
"". t12

. (t13)

(r9): 1 (3), 

51


(4), 

" " "
".
,

EN =<P, T, F, M, G>,
= <p1,p2,3, , p22, r1, r2, , r9 >,
T = <t1, t2, , t14>,

= {0,}, 0
, {1, 2,,n}, 
,
.



. 


, , 
.

, .



 

.





.

1. .. 
,

: .
, 1984. 40 .
2. .., .. 

. .: . ., 1987. 248 .
3. .., ..
 
// . 1993.
. 2. . 8795.
4. . , . . . 
DARPA// , 1987, 1, . 75.
.2641.

Dynamic model of the report of an establishment of virtual connection of a package radio communication
Donchenko .., Rublev I.S., Sadovov V.V.
Keywords: package radio communication, virtual connection, Enetworks, imitating modeling.
The formal description of the report of an establishment of virtual connection perspective and research of its characteristics by means of imitating modeling is con
sidered. On a basis the Enetworks, known updating of the device of Enetworks, the method of the formal description of reports on an example of the report
of an establishment of virtual connection of a perspective package radio network is considered.

Referances
1. Anisimov N.. Metody formalnogo opisaniya, verifikacii i realizacii setevyh protokolov s ispolzovaniem teorii setey Petry : Preprint. Bladivostok IP DVNC S USSR,
1984. 40 p.
2. Kostin .., Shngin V.F. Organizaciya i obrabotka struktur lannyh v vychislitelnyh sistemah. ., 1987. 248 p.
3. Donchenko .., Nehoroshev G.V. Raschirenie cetey dlya modelirovaniya sistem paketnoy radiosvyazi //Teoriya i tehnoka radiosvyazi, 1993.
V.2. P. 8795.
4. Dzh. Dzhubin, Dzh. D. Tornoy. Protokoly patetnoy radiosvyazi DARPA// TIIAR, 1987, 1, V. 75. P.2641.

52

TComm #32011


: ;
; .

..,
.
, ..., ,

.
..
denni_dd@mail.ru



 

.





.
[1] 

, (i) 

, 
tHi tKi . 
,

tHi tKi .
,

, (i) 
tHi tKi ,

tBi < tHi tKi , 
"
" .


, 

, ..,
[2] 

( 
).




TComm #32011


, .
. (
) ,


,

.


,



(. [2]) , tHi tKi
tBi , 
, 
,
().

, :

( tBi = tKi tHi
i).



,



, 
, :

;
;
.

, 
,
( 
,
..). ,



, 
. 
(
) 
.


, 
,


.
K() ,
k
(k=1...K), 


. 
( 
) (
) 
, .

:
K

Ok ( NTk ),

k =1

Ok(NTk) k .
Ik

Ok ( N Tk ) = (ri ,k , D Hi ,k , D Ki ,k ,Ti ,k , j ),
i =1

: Ik , 
k ;
(ri ,k , DHi ,k , DKi ,k , Ti ,k , j ) 

, i 
, k
;
ri,k i ;
NTk ,
DHi,k DKi,k 
,
k ;
DHi,k , 
, 
i ,
k ( 

DKi,k , 
, 
);
DKi,k ,
,
i ,
k , .

53


NTk 
( 
):

NTk =

{{Dvk }, {M mk }, {C vm }},

Dvk , 
, 
, k 
,
,
(v = 1...vk);
Mmk , 
,
,
k (m = 1...mk);
{Cvm} 
{Dvk}
{Mmk},
;
Ti,j,k , j
( 
) 
ri,k (
ri,k, Ti,j,k = 0).
j < J0, J0
.


1 .2 
" 

", . 1 
.2
.


, i ,

(, 
, 
. , 
; ,

.),

.


,
,
(
) 
.


, 
() , 

54

: 1  ()
() (=6 15.6); 2
(=10 27.10); 3<M2M1<5; n1 (
); n2 ( );
n3 ( ).

.

:
K

k Ok (nTk ),
k

Ok(nTk) 
k , 
Ok(NTk) 
Dvk Mmk 
, 

;
k ,

,
1, k  ,
k =
0, .

Ok(nTk)
, 
, 

TComm #32011


Cvm.


( , , dvk,
Dvk ). 

Dvk +Dvk dvk +Dvk : 
dvk + Dvk , i ,
k ,
, 
, 

. 
(
) 
:

, , 
.
, 
, 
(), 

, 


.

. 1. .2

Ok (ntk ) = (ri ,k , d i ,k , d i ,k , N i ,k , j ,T i ,k , j ),
i =1

ntk , 
d i,k d i,k
(i = 1...Ik), k 
,
(
);

ntk =

{{d vk }, {mmk }, {cvm }},

d i,k , d i,k , dvk mmk 


,
D i,k , D i,k , Dvk
Mmk 
Cvm;
n~vm 
, 

1. .. 
, .: , 1979.
2. ..
. , .
272, 4, 1983.

To the question on modelling of calendar activity of high school


Presnuhin V.V.,
the deputy chief of Institute on educational and scientific work, candidate of technical science, the senior lecturer,
The Rostov military institute of rocket armies it of the Main marshal of artillery Nedelina M. I.
Keywords: underdetermined duration of operations; the planned schedule; a multigraph.

The article deals with methodological principles of administrative planning and control, taking into account nedopredelennyh duration of operations under
schedules.
Referances
1. Berketov G.. Algoritmy sostavleniya raspisaniy, .: VAD, 1979.
2. Freigin L.I. Zadachi teorii raspicaniy pri nechetkih dlitelnostyah operaciy. DAN USSR, V. 272, 4, 1983.

TComm #32011

55


(MIMO)
(OFD)

:
, MIMO, OFDM.

..,
,
,
aleksander.kolesnikov@gmail.com

, 

(OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing), 

[1], 

,

. (MIMO 
MultipleInputMultipleOutput), 

,
, 
.
c 
.1.

OFDM ,

.
. ,
, ,
.
OFDM MIMO , ,
, .
.


OFDM
(MIMO),
.



MIMO OFDM ,


[2].  
, 



. ,


, ,
. 
[4], [5],

( ) 
.


OFDM MIMO ,
,

, 
[3]. 

.

[11] 

OFDM
.
[11] ,





, 
 .

 .

.

,
.
[11] 
c K :

Y(i) = A(i)(i ) + (i), i = 1; 2; I .

.1.

56

(1)

: Y(i) K
; (i) K
 M 
, 
M ; A(i) 

K x K, 


TComm #32011


; i 
( ); (i) 

K

V; I 
, 
.
[11]
,



.


, 
,
MIMO.

[11] 

, :
zi = H i i + i + i ,

4M.


(3) (4)
MIMO :

:

=
G

W
=
C

G
,

C

(1)
, i = i(2) N 0,
W
i
G

G
,

G= r2 1, r2 
;
C = r1 1, r1 
.

Vi = AR i 1A +
1

K i = Vi Fi Fi Vi Fi + D,i

; i = 1; 2; I
h = Ah + K (z F A h )
i
i 1
i
i
i i i 1
(5)
R i = Vi K i Fi Vi

(5)

.


Matlab
.

(2)

zi, i, i i 2M.
Hi 
2M x 2M.
i + i
Vv,i = V,i + V,i 2M x 2M.
V,i 2M x 2M,
Ri
4M x 4M.

MIMO.

,
, :
z i = Fi hi + i .


, 
.
MIMO 
:
(4)
hi = Ai hi 1 + i .

.2.  20%

(3)

(3) 

MIMO 
. 
: zi
i 2M, Fi 
2M x 4M, hi
4M. Fi :
Qi
Fi =
0

0
,
Q i

Qi = Q (1)i Q(2)i .
Qi(1) Qi(2) 

.

TComm #32011

.3.  6%.

57


:
2;
2;
1280 ;
 QPSK;
128 OFDM ;
ITU Channel A, 
,
[12];
1000 ;

  
: 20% 6%;


(BER  Bit Error Rate).
p. 2 

/ .
p. 3
 
 6%.

p. 23, , 
BER = 102 p. 2 , 
( 17)
BER =
102 p. 3 , 
.

.

[11] 




MIMO. 
.
,
 
20% 6% 
, 
17%.

1. . . .:
, 2000.
2. . . 
. .: "
", 2003.
3. .. 
. .:
. , 1980.
4. .., ..

: . . .: ,
1991.

5. Ramjee Prasad. OFDM for wireless communica


tions systems. Boston, Artech House, 2004, 272 p.
6. .., .., ..
LTE: 
. .: , 2010. 284 .
7. ., .
. // . .
. ... .: , 1976.
8. ., . 
: 
/. . , . .. 
. .: , 1982.
9. .. .
.: , 1982.
10. .. 
 
. // .
", 173, , 2005;
11. .., .. 



(OFDM) / . 2,
2009. .1216.
12. ITU ITUR M.1225, "Guidelines for evaluations
of radio transmission technologies for IMT2000,"1997.
http://www.itu.int/rec/recommendation.asp?type=fold
ers&lang=e&parent=RRECm.1225.

Combined Channel Estimation and Demodulation Algorithm for MIMO OFDM Communication Systems
Kolesnikov A.V.
Keywords: Algorithm of demodulation, MIMO, OFDM.

OFDM communication systems commonly use channel estimation techniques based on transmitting known signals in between information signals in timefre
quency domain. That known signals are called pilotsignals. Author has already developed and published combined channel estimation and demodulation algo
rithm. To improve performance of channel estimation, it uses both pilotsignals and the estimates of information symbols, calculated at the previous iteration.
The issue of the channel estimation in multiple antenna systems (MIMO) is that there is a correlation between signals transmitted over different antennas. In order
to achieve desired performance, that correlation should be considered in the estimation algorithm.
In this paper author generalised combined channel estimation and demodulation algorithm, previously published, onto MIMO case. The simulation results show
its high estimation efficiency. The algorithm also has acceptable computation complexity against traditional approaches.

58

TComm #32011

:
, ,
.

.., ..,

 (), 
[1, 2] , 

[3],
, , .
[4, 5]. ,
, , 



:

c = Ta ,

(1)

a
c 

, T 
.
T

, (1)
, , 

[5].
[6, 7] , , ,
, 

, .. , 

,
[8]. 
. , (
) 
, 2.
(),
[9] 

 (), ,
, , 
, . (), 
[9]
, 
, 
, . .


, 
, 
(1), 

, .
(.., , 
)
[9].
, 
[10]

, 

.
. [11]

40:1, 

. ,

 .
,

(, ,
).
,
[12], 
, 
, .
[13] 

[14].

. 

.
 
[3]

G0

u (r ) n
S

u ( r )

G0 ( r , r ) ds + u 0 (r ) = 0, r D.
n

(2)

u = u0 + u1,
u0 () , u1 
() , G0 (r , r)
, S
, D S. 
(2) 
( D .

G0 (r , r ) =

1 (2)
H 0 (k | r r |).
4i

:
i u
1
=
J ( ), ds = ( ) d ,
4 n S ( )

= 2 ( ) + 2 ( ),

r = () S.




2

J ( )H

(2)
0

(k | r r |)d = u 0 (r ), M (r ) ,

(3)


S.
 
r = r0,
S [1].
u 0 (r )
u 0 (r ) = exp[ ikr cos( 0 )] =
=

( i )

J n (kr )e

in ( 0 )

(4)

n =

( )
r = r0 < min

(3)

( 090200126).

TComm #32011

59


H 0(2) (k | r r |) =

(kr0 ) H n(2) (kr )e in( ) .

(5)

, 
(9) 
a .

n =

T = QH 1

(3)(5)
2

n =

(kr0 )e in J ( )Hn(2) (k ( ))e in d =


0

= ( i ) n J n (kr0 )e in ( 0 ) ,
n =

,

.
g()

,
2

g ( ) =

J ( )H n(2) ( k ( ))e in d =

be

J ( ) =

im

(6)

cie

b = an , n = 0, 1,...

nm m

(7)

c = ( I G ) 1 c 0 ,

(2)
n

(k ( ))e i ( m n ) d ;

(8)

an = ( i) n e in0 .

(kr ) H n(2) (kr )e in( ) ,

n =

J ( )H 0(2) ( k | r r |) d =

cH
n

(2)
n

(kr )e in ,

(9)

n =

cn =

nm m

(10)

(k ( ))e i ( m n ) d .

(11)

b ,

m =

Qnm =


(7) 

Hb = a .

(7)

(7) (10) ,
c = Qb = QH 1a Ta .

60

1
4

(k ( ))

(15)

( ) (2)
ik ( ) H m(2) ( k ) + m
Hm ( k ) e i ( m n ) d ,
( )

k
4

(k ( ))

(16)

[( ) cos( 0 ) + ( )sin( 0 ) ]
e ik ( )cos( 0 ) in d ,

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TComm #32011

, N

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1010,
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. 1. , 1 , 2

1. Waterman P.C. Matrix formulation of electromag


netic scattering. Proc. IEEE. 1965, v.53, pp. 805812.
2. Waterman P.C. New formulation of acoustic scatter
ing.// J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 1969. V. 45. Pp. 14171429.
3. ., . 
. .: , 1987. 312 .
4. Mishchenko M.I., Travis L.D., Lacis A.A. Scattering,
absorption and emission of light by small particles.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2002.
5. Mishchenko M.I., Videen G., Babenko V.A.,
Khlebtsov N.G., Wriedt T. Tmatrix theory of electromagnet
ic scattering by particles and its applications: A comprehen
sive reference database, JQSRT. 2004, v.88, p. 357.
6. .., .. 

.
.
2008, . 13, 8. .7886.
7. .., ..
.
, 2008. . 9.
. .176187.
8. .., ..
. II. .:  ,
1990, 208 .

9. ..
. // , 1992. . 325,
2, . 273279.
10. .., .., ..


// . 2001. T. 46. 6. C. 666672.
11. .., .. 

// .
1996. T. 41. 2. C. 162170.
12. , .. 
,
. // .
2003. T. 49. 1. C. 5158.
13. A.G.Kyurkchan, N.I.Smirnova. Solution of wave
diffraction problems by method of continued boundary con
ditions combined with pattern equation method. // Proc. of
the Xth Conference on Electromagnetic & Light Scattering,
1722 June, 2007. Bodrum, Turkey, pp. 9396.
14. .., ..

. // . 2007. T. 53. 4.
C. 490499.

The decision of problems of diffraction by methods of Tmatrixes and the chart equations
Kjurkchan A.G., Smirnova N.I.
Keywords: Method of Tmatrixes, method of the chart equations, theory of diffraction and distribution of waves.
The method of Tmatrixes (), offered by Uotermenom more forty years ago, now is widely used at the decision of problems of diffraction of the waves arising in optics, the
radio physicist, radio astronomy, etc. the Method of the chart equations (E), for the first time offered in work [9] and further successfully applied to the decision of a wide range of
problems of the theory of diffraction and distribution of waves, also allows to receive the decision of a regional problem of diffraction, but thus it is applicable at much less rigid restric
tions on scatterer geometry, than . Comparison of methods CE and is resulted.

TComm #32011

61

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66

TComm #32011

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