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, 2010. 148 .

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539.21
74.58

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. .. , 2010


................................................................................................... 3
1

................................................................................... 4

1.1

....................................................................................................... 4

1.2

............................................ 5

1.3

....................................................................................... 7

1.4

.................................. 10

1.5

....................................... 12

....................................................................................... 20

2.1

1. .................................................................................... 20

2.2

2. ................................... 34

2.3

3. .................... 53

2.4

4. ................................................ 71

2.5

5. ............ 89

2.6

6. .................................................. 119

1
1.1

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, 2007, 416 .
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XXI . .: , 2003, 336.


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:
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10 . .: . 1977-1978 .
10

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. .: . 2000, 672 .
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336 .
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. .: , 2008, 456 .
10.

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292.
11.

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.- .:,1984, 472 .
12.

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.. . .: , 2005, 688 .
13.

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. :
, 2005, 240 .
11

14.

.-. : .

. . - : , . , 1998, 334 .
15.

.. . .

.: . 1987, 263.
16.

. . .: , 1976, 781 .

17.

.., .., .., ..,

.. . .: , 2005, 688 .
18.

- : . . /

. .. , .. . .: , 1989, 582
19.

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.- .:,1984, 472 .
20.

, 2006 .

21.

., .

. 1986 .,
, 1988, .154, .2, . 261-278
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. .: , 1979, 512 .
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, 2001, 234 .
24.

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2001, 232 .

1.5
1.

1) sp3-, 2)sp2- 3)sp- 4) sp02.

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2
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Nano - . nano
10-9.

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20




predominance of
interfacial phenomena


quantum mechanics


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.

21


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,
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100 . .
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.
,


.
22

,
.

Rhle, M. / Gleiter, H. (eds.) Interface


Controlled Materials Euromat 99 (Volume 9) 1.
Edition

June

2000

149.- Euro / 220.- SFR 2000. XI, 334 Pages,


Hardcover
ISBN 3-527-30191-7 - Wiley-VCH, Weinheim


,
( , , ,
) ,
.

- National Nanotechnology
Initiative (USA):
,
,
.
1
nm

(10-9

m)


10-9 10-7 m (1 -100 nm) .
(10 nm 1,000 ).
,

23

, ,
, .
:

- .

, , , .

.


,
,
,

1-100 (. , . . ).
(nanoscience)

.
:

(Norio Taniguchi) 1974 .
, 2000 .
.
(N. Taniguchi, "On the Basic Concept of 'Nano-Technology'," Proc. Intl.
Conf. Prod. Eng. Tokyo, Part II, Japan Society of Precision Engineering, 1974)


. (1981 .);
24

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, , ..

( ),
.
-
( ) (low-dimensional
subject). (,
). ,

.
( )
, , ,
100 .

(.. ).

()
.

.

10-100
: ,
,

, ,
..
25

Fe. [Handbook of Nanoscience,


Engineering and Technology. CRC Press, 2002].
"
2008 - 2010 "

"

2008

2010 ",

2 2007 498
2008 - 2010 ( . ) 27733 .
,
24944,6 .



;
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2007 .
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, 2008
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4000
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( . , .,, 1956, .9-24)

4000

(, , , ), .

(23-79 . . .) (. 40120 . ).

. , , ,
. .

29


29 1959 .

.
. There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom,
, .
. , ,
,
.
.
.,
1981 .
(). 1986 .
:
.

,
.

Molecular

Machinery

Nanosystems

Manufacturing

and

Computation 1992
.

30


( - ),
,
, ..
- 30
1939

.
, 1987 .
. .

.
-
,
.
,
- ,
-

..,

2000


1984 .
2000

.
: - (Al As - Ga
As).
31


(1898, 1972, )
-, ,

500
.
: ,
,
.

1928
,
.

. ... 1941 .

...



. 1950-
-

.
(, . ) 1958 .
(.. , .. , .. .).
32

( .., .., ..
.- .:,1984.- 472 ).
.. :
(190493) , .

, - .
..

(1906
2002). .

,
Ni3Al


.
(1984)

.
..
.
33

1
1.

Feynman Richard P.: Classic talk that Richard Feynman gave on

December 29th 1959 at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society at
the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). There's Plenty of Room at the
Bottom. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/14388
2.

. ., ., . ./ . .
.., .. .. . . .: , 2002.292.
3.

Drexler K. Eric. Engines of Creation 2.0: The Coming Era of

Nanotechnology - Updated and Expanded. WOWIO Books, 2007. - 646 p.


4.

National Nanotechnology Initiative USA. http://www.nano.gov/

5.

"

2008 - 2010 ". http://www.fasi.gov.ru/fcp/nano/


6.

. . . . .:

. , 2005. -134 .

2.2 2.
:
.
.

-.

.
, .

34

).


.
.
. ,
.

( ).

:

(J.W.Gibbs)


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.
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35

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37

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- r
:

P = 2/r
P = Pr P
Pr ()
P
P

, , ,
.

38

(.)
, 1824-1907,
( , Kelvin),
. -.
- -. (1851)
(1896) . 0


Pj :

ln (Pj/Pi) = 2vi/rRT
vi i-
:

: = 72 /

r = 1nm = 54 /, 20

-
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.
d
:

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:
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39

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, sl
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(Ilya Prigogine)
25
1917, 1921
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(1977)

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. 28 2003 . .
.

44

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, , 1977 .
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45

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1975
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46

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.

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48


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50

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, , , ()
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51

D = 1,68 2,46

- 1,44

1,78. ,

,
, .



.
,
, , .
, ,
, .

2
1.

.. . .:- , 2006. 336.

2.

., .

. .: , 1979.
3.

.., .. . .:

, 2005. -192.
4.

.. ., ... . : , 2006
52

5.

: . . .: ,
1985. 423 ., .
6.

. .: , 1996. 622 .

2.3 3.


( )
(, )
( -
)


, .

.


( )


( )


(

)

53

( , ..)


( )
10-7 10-10
1 = 133,322


( )
.

,
.
, 200400 , 0,15-0,19 ,
,
.

,
.

54

.
(A High Resolution Transition Electron Micrograph of Samarium Oxide Inside a
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube)

Scanning Electron Microscope, SEM

(1-10 ) , ().
:




()

.
(

55


).
.. ,
.


-
().
()

.

.

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.
-
, .

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,
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(0.1- 0,5 ).

56

( , ,
,
).

0,06
, = 1 ,
.
.


.

(Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM),

.
:
(, . scanning tunneling
microscope, STM),
.
, - , ,
. SFM,, . - Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM)
.
( ),
.



.

57


,
,
, ,
.


(G.Binnig, ) (G.Rohrer,
) IBM,
, , .
1982
20.09.1979 .
1986 .
,
. : ., ..

58

.
. , 1988,.154,.2, 261-278.
Topografiner AFM

(Russell Young) 1965


1971 [currently the National Institute
of Standards and Technology (NIST)].

1966

, 1971
, Topografiner',
.
3
.

3-5 .

,
.
,
,
.

59

, ,

(CH3)2SiCI2,
.


.

G.Binning, C.F.Quate, Ch.Gerber,
Phys.Rev.Lett.56,9,1986,930-933.
B,


.
60



,

.
,

z.


.
10 1 .
,
,

. ,
, , (
).

61

, ,
, .
.


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,
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.. ..

, , 2020 .

:
.

.
.

62

.


.

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.

.

.

(. NT-MDT).

(., NT-MDT)
63

, ,
,
.
.

, ..
.

STM image,
35 nm x 35 nm, of
single substitutional Cr
impurities (small
bumps) in the Fe(001)
surface

STM image,
7 nm x 7 nm,
of a single zig-zag chain
of Cs atoms (red) on the
GaAs(110) surface
(blue).

64

-
.
IBM :
Binnig, G., Quate, C.F., and Gerber, Ch. (1986) Atomic force microscope. Phys.
Rev. Lett. 56(9), 930-933.

()
10 50 .
1-5 ,
, .

.


.

-.
,
,
.
, - .

65

,

,
F , .. :
= C-1 F
,
.
.


,
,
.
.
66


2.5 x 2.5
"The tip-sample interaction
in atomic force microscopy
and

its

implications

biological
Ph.D.

thesis

for

applications",
by

David

Baselt, California Institute


of Technology.

,
.
,
.
.




,
,

,

67

NanoEducator

- .
. NT-MDT, , ,
, http://ru.ntmdt.ru/

..


68

..

Veeco

100

69


(, ),
, ,


,
, CD/DVD

3
1.

.,

. : , 2004.- 384.
2.

., ..

. 1986 .,
, 1988, .154, .2, 261-278.
70

3.

..

, 2005. - 152.

2.4

4.


.
.
-
:
E ~ 2/2m*a2

m* - .
( = 25 )
=1, E = 3,410-4 ,
.
~ 1, E = 340 ,

.
.

:

:

,

71

,
.

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,
.
, .
, , .

,
.
:
, .
,

GaAs - Alx Ga1 - x As,
. x , ,
0,15 0,35.
,

72

,
,
(2D).
(1D),
, (quantum wires),
(0D) (quantum dot).
2D- 1D-
.

,
, , ,
.
~4 ~20 .

()

.
InAs GaAs.

(J.Marquez, L.Geelhaar, and K.Jacobi. Appl.Phys.Lett. v.78, 2309 (2001))

73

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( ).
.

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. E2c (
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/ InAs|GaAs InP|GaInP.

77

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.
,
,
,
.

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() ,

.


.

86


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. ,
, ,

60% .


,
.
, ,
.
:
,
.
,
.


87

, , .
,
, ,
.

.

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,
.
, , ,
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, ,
, .
(0 1),
.

( ),
(quantum
bit, qubit).
.
- 2- .
( ) ( ).

.
,

88

,
.
4
1. .. , , . ? //
. 1997. 5. . 80-86.
2. .. // .
1997. 5, . 87-92.
3. .. - XXI
// . 1997. 5. . 100-104.
4. - : . . /
. .. , .. . .: , 1989.

2.5 5.


()
100 .
.

. (
- ~0,001 103 ).
, ,
10 .
:

89

(, , ,
, )



:
:
: 1 - 100
: 100
:
() 1 - 100
y ()


( ).

,

, , ,
.

. ,
.

90

(),

.

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, .
,

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.

.
( NANOFER 25N of NANO
IRON).
91


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,

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: (), ,

;
:

92


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. .

93


--
.



.

.

94


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,
.
, , (
)

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.
,
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-.

95



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, ..
, .
-

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.
.
-
- .
:


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,

96


(, , )

Si(OR)4 + H2O = (OH)Si(OR)3 +ROH
(OH)Si(OR)3 + H2O =(OH)2Si(OR)2 +ROH
(OH)2Si(OR)2 + H2O = (OH)3Si(OR) +ROH
(OH)3Si(OR) + H2O = Si(OH)4 +ROH,

Si-OR + HO-Si = Si-O-Si + ROH
Si-OH + HO-Si = Si-O-Si+ HOH.
Ti Zr

, -

97

(RESS)
98

(CO2),
, ,
.

,

.
,

(, , ,
, .).

.
.

:
- ,
.
,
.
,

-.
99

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:

, ,
, .


PVD Physical Vapor Deposition: .
CVD Chemical Vapor Deposition:
.



. ,
. 10-3 10-6 .
.
,
.

, ,
.

.
,
.
100

, ,
.
.


+ , (Ar,He,N2)


(, )


,

.


.

. , ,
.

101

.

.

, ,
.
,
.
,
.
-
- ( ) ,
. , ,
.
0,2 510-6 4000,
- 50-1000 .

, .
, BN,
Si3N4 C3N4,
.

Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2,MgO, ZnO2, SiO2 .

.

102

-
, .
.

0,1-1,0 .
10 4 -105 /2.
10-5 10-7 . .
.
- ,
, .
107 /.
5103 /.
, 104 .
, ,
: , .

() -

,
.

( ),
.

103

. .


.
,

.

104

,
.
.

.


(
, , )
.
:
H2, B, Al, C, N2, O2, Mg, Ti, Nb, Mo, Si, Ni, Fe, B2O3, TiO2, Cr2O3,
MoO3, Fe2O3, NiO .

.
-:


.

:
Ti

TiC

Ni

Al

NiAl

3Si

2N2

Si3N4

Zr + H2 = ZrH2
105

-
B2O3

+3Mg

N2

B2O3

TiO2

+5Mg

MoO3

B2O3

+4Al

3TiO2

2BN

3MgO

TiB2

5MgO

MoB2

2Al2O3

TiC

2Al2O3

4Al

2TiCl4 + 8Na + N2 = 2TiN + 8NaCl



3Cu
Nb

2BaO2
+

1/2Y2O3

Li2O2

0.5(1.5

x)O2

1/2Ni2O5

=
=

YBa2Cu3O7-x
2LiNbO3

8Fe + SrO + 2Fe2O3 + 6O2 = SrFe12O19



0.1-20 /
2300-3800
103-106 /
10-200 /(2 )
0.2-1.2
800-1200

106


, , ,
, , .
(, , .)
(, ,
, )
( , ,
(-) .)


(),

..

..

http://ism.ac.ru/handbook/_shsr.htm.
a-
.

107



1891 . ,
,
.

,
,

.
, , . ,

.
Ostwald W. Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Chemie. Bd.2 Stchiometrie. Engelmann,
Leipzig, 1891, 1163.
... . . ., 1902, 34, 811.


.

.

5-10 .

.

, ,
108

-
: , ,
. -
.

,
, ,

.
()
(.. )
(, ),
.

. (
.
)


( , ,
)

109

,
,


, -

,
,



( )

110

()
,



, ,
,
,
,
.

111

WC-Co

112

, .
.
. .
,

in situ ,
10-20
0,1-0,5 .


.
. .

1983 . .., .. .:
.., .., ..
.- .:,1984.- 472 .).

Ni ,

,
.

113


()



,
-

-
,



,
114

()

10-20
0.2 0.5 .
.

115


=90

:
) 0
B) 90
C) 180

116

,
.

:






,
( )





- (, ,
).

,
(d<100 ) 50-80%.
,
,



117

400

300

200

0
20
40
60
, %

- (..)
- (.. )
5
1.

.. , , . .,

, 2005. 416 .
2.

.., .. . .:

, 2005. -192.
3.

..,

..

. .: , 2000. 272 .
4.

.., .., ..

.- .:,1984.- 472 .

118

5.

.., .., .. . : ,
2001.- 232 .
6.

.. -

. :
, . , 1998.- 184 .
7.

..

: / . .. . 2003 80 .

2.6

6.

R.E.Smalley.

H.W.Kroto,

C60

J.R.Heath,

buckminsterfullerene.

S.C.OBrien,
Nature,

R.F.Curl

318,

162,

and
1985.

,
.
H.W.Kroto ()
. R.E.Smalley
()
(Si, GaAs).
.
1996 .
:
1970

1973 ,

1983 .. . -

119

1984 .. - 60 70


,
sp3-, sp2- sp- .

: sp3-
() - ; sp2- -
() ; sp- - - ()
.

120

(graphene) , sp
.
,
.
.

, ,
.


.
121


. (
Science, 2009, 323,
610)


.
--
.
-
.

.
12
.

.
122


.
- s- p-
()
.
.


.
, ,
( ),
.
: ,
(ABAB ABCA
). - .

: a- b-, ,
,
, CVI, CVIIIXII.
, , -,
.

,
.
: .
,
, ,
.

123


.
.
spn, n
, : 1 < n < 3, n 2.
.
, 1 < n < 2.
2 < n < 3:
- ,
, .
: (1 < n < 2)
- (2 < n < 3).

.
,
C60,

,
2,28

124

, ?
Fuller, Richard Buckminster , -
, . 1930-
,
1950 1960- , ,
. -
(1954)
-
(1967).
1974 ":
".

,
12- 2-
.
,
.
32 (
20 ).
,
.
60
, 60 , ,
60 (, )
.
70, 76, 78, 82, 84, 90, 94 96 , ,
180, 190, 240, 540 960 .

125

60.

(C60-Ih)[5,6].
, .
60 0,3512 , -
( ) 0,1391 ,
- ( ) 0,1455 .
.
60 1200 - 1700 .
70 ( , )
(70-D5h)[5,6].

60

( 1,4161 ).
(
NO3-, NH4+, SO42-)
() .
255
.
60 1,69 /3,
(2,3 /3) (3,5 /3).

, , ,
. CS2 > C6H5CH3
> C6H6 > CCl4 > C10H22 > C5H12.
, .

126

. ,
, 6060, C60F60.

:

(,

) (
). ,
.

,
.

C60Cl6
The

Sussex

Fullerene

Research
Centre

http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Users/kroto/
FullereneCentre/gallery/main.html



. ,
He@60,

90 .


127

, La@C60,
La@C70, La@C74 La@C82. ,
, , , , , , , ,
, .
82
, La@C82.
, + 3,
:
.

La@C82
The

Sussex

Fullerene

Research

Centre

http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Users/kroto/FullereneCentre/gallery/main.html
-
.

60

( ) 360 ( ),
460 660. 60

. 360, K3C60,
Na2CsC60, Na2Rb0.5Cs0.5C60, .
-
.

.
-

(),
.
128


,
. -
,
.
60, 0
60,
60, 60 60.
.

,
10 .

(, )
, ,
.

,
.


sin(/2) = 1 (n/6)
n

.
112,9, 83,6 ..
sin(/2) = 1,
.. = 0. .

129

,
.


( ), .
1877 . .
, .
. .
. . .
(
). , .

W.Kratschmer, L.D.Lamb, K.Fostiropoulos and D.R. Huffman. Solid C60 a
new form of carbon. Nature, 347, 354, 1990. -
.

.

(,


). - ,
: 90%
60 10% 70.

, ,
() . , , 60 - 85%,
70 - 14% 1% .
60, 70, 76 84,
78, 82, 94, 74 .
.
. ()
130

100 250,
.
1,2,4-,
.


().
. - .
.. ,
100 / , 12-15 % 60 70.
( 4,0 ),

.
(400 / 2002 . 40 / 2003 .),

.
,
.
.

60 .
,
. ,
,
, .
, SigmaAldrich.

131

,
, .
.

1991
,
. ,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
,
,
.
0,34 , ,
. ,
,
,
.
132


4 2
1889 . ( ). 1920- .

Fe-.

1940- .,
: .. ... .
. , .26, 88 (1952).

100 .
1948 .
4, 26 24 1473 .

1957


.
1970- . .
. 1976 ., ,

.
1970-1980- (...)
.
1990- . ()

1987

.
Roger Bacon 1960s
(whiskers).

133

Thomas Ebbesen and P. M. Ajayan at NEC


,
. .
(cobalt,
nickel or iron) (single-walled
nanotubes)
Donald Bethune at IBM Corporation and Iijima.

.
.
-
1200 C Rice
University.
70%.
0,1 .

STM

image

nanotube
HOPG
structure

134

carbon

deposited
substrate.
of

clearly visible.

of

on

Atomic

nanotube

is

()
100 , .


:
;
(
, -);
,
;
.


. , .
.
,
- (Ni, Co, Fe, Y .)
.
-

Nd-YAG
Ar

1200

135

: ,
1200,


.
, ,
, .
, 1200,
,
. ,

, ,
, .

( )

,
. ,
:
XIX .

,
, , .
(-, - ), ,
.
() .
Fe, Co, Ni,
.
,
1-2 ~ 10 .

136


(CVD)

CVD
(700-1000);
.
(PECVD)
Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition), PECVD

( 1200),
.
-

,
.
, thermal CVD ,
- (
).

137

-
Thermal CVD.
, PECVD
,
,

.
PECVD
gd dc PECVD ( )
Hot filament PECVD (
)
rf PECVD ( - )
microwave PECVD ( - )
IC PECVD (inductively coupled) ( ).

CN-CVD-100.

microwave PECVD

(2.454.25 ) .


1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4

138

6
7

; 8 1 2
, .


.
:


();
( Al2O3).


. :
1. ,
.
.
.
2. , .
.
, .
.
3. () .
4. () .

, ,
. (
139

,
). ,
(
), - v (
), , - e ( ) f -
, : v - e + f = 2. - p,
, (
) 5p + 6(f - p),
(
).

- C60


C60, ().

,
. ,
: (b), ()
(d).
:
Armchair 1,33 /3
140

Zigzag 1,34 /3
Chiral 1,40 /3

Material

Young's Modulus Tensile Strength Elongation


(TPa)

SWNT

(GPa)

Break (%)

~1 ( 1 5)

13-53E

16

0.94T

126.2T

23.1

0.94T

94.5T

15.6-17.5

Armchair

at

SWNT
Zigzag
SWNT
Chiral

0.92

SWNT
MWNT

0.8-0.9E

150

Stainless

~0.2

~0.65-1

15-50

Kevlar

~0.15

~3.5

~2

KevlarT

0.25

29.6

Steel

Experimental observation

Theoretical prediction

(Kevlar) ,

( ). ..DuPont
1965 ., 1970-x . .

141

.
,
,
.
.

UCl4,


20 , ()

, ()
142

:
1.
2.
Gd@C60@SWNT, .. "Gd C60
(Single Wall NanoTube)
K.Hirahara

et

al,

Phys.

Rev.

Lett.

85

(2000)

5384

http://focus.aps.org/v6/st25.html -

National

University

of

Singapore

Si, SiO2/Si, , , GaAs, Cu,


.
( CH4 H2)
,

(NiFe, CoFe, FeMn, CoCrPt)

143

. - , .

.

) .

1.

2.

3.

(, .)

4.

5.

, ( )

6.

()


1.

.
2.

, .
3.

, .

, ,
,
.
4.

144

,
,

. ,
(8, 0)
-,
(7, 1). (8,
0) 1,2 ,
(7, 1) ,
. ,

.


( ) ,
- .

.


-
.
.
.. . ,. 73, 5, . 389 (2003)

145

1012-1014 /2.

.

, (1 ,
4,37 ).
, CVD-
, ,
.
, 4
/2 2000 .
... ,.73, 5, .389 (2003)

-
,
. , ,
.

146


.
-
.
E 7000
. ( E = 200 520
).

.
16%.

.
, , .
1
.

The images of plasmid


DNA

molecules

adsorbed

on

freshly

cleaved mica surfaces


in

mM

solutions.
measurements
taken

147

with

MgCl2
The
were
single

carbon nanotube AFM tips.


J.Li, A.Cassell, H.Dai, Stanford University
,

.
,

.
600 2/.

.
,
, Sigma-Aldrich Co.

6
1.

. .

XXI . .: . 2003. 336.


2.

// .., .., ..,

.., .. .: , 2005. 688 .


3.

..

. .: . , 2006.-293 .
4.

.. . . - .:

, , 2006. 376 .
5.

..

. .: , 2006. 592 .
6.

http://nanotube.msu.edu/

148

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