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2,3,4
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2, 3,4
5,6...
2,3,4
5, 6...
5, 6...
, , , , , ?
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Letters

THE RUSSIAN ALPHABET


Name of letters
Sound values
ah
ah
be
b
ve
v
ge
g
de
d
ye
after a soft consonant e as in let;
at the beginning of a word or syllable ve as in yet

yo
zhe
ze
ee
ee - kratkaya

yo
zh
z
ee
Y

kah
el
em
en
o
pe
er
es
te
oo
ef
khah
tse
che
shah
shchah

k
l
m
n
o
p
r
s
t
oo
f
kh
ts
ch
shch
shch

tvyordy znak
i
myahkhkeey znak
e
yoo
yah

(disjunctive)
i
(soft sing)
e (as in well)
yoo, oo
yah, ah

1 [ ]

1
1. ?

1. .

2. ?

2. .

3. ?

3. , ,
, .

2
1. -?

1. -.

-.

2. - -.
.
-.

3
1. ?

1. .

2. -?

2. -.

3. ?

3. .

4. ?

4. , , ,
, , , ,
, , .

lesson
student

exercise-book, notebook
to read
and
write
room
window
table
magazine
street
key
car
shop
word
grammar
exercise
one
two
three

dialogue
I, you, he, she
we, you, they
? What is your name?
... My name is...
who
what
? Who is he (she)?
? What is this?
teacher
textbook
dictionary
pen
to say, to speak, to talk
- (in) Russian
verb
verbs
not, do + not
very much
to want
well
- a little, just a bit
to know
Russian language

Grammar
1. The Russian verb has the forms of three tenses:
the Present, the Past and the Future.
2. The conjugation of some Russian verbs in the Present
Tense is given in this lesson.
3. Russian verbs are divided into two principal conjugations:
the 1-st conjugation (such as "to read") or the 2 conjugation (such as
"to speak").
4. Learn the following pronouns:
(I), (you), (he), (she), (we), (you), (they).
5. In the Russian language nouns are of three genders:
masculine m, feminine f and neuter n.
Russian nouns ending in a consonant or in the soft sign - are masculine, for instance:
, , .
Most nouns ending in -, -, - are feminine, for instance:
, , .
Almost all nouns ending in - and -e are neuter, for example: , .

10

6. In Russian, nouns have two numbers: the singular and the plural.
To form the plural many masculine and feminine nouns usually take the letters - , -, for
instance:





Neuter nouns ending in o usually change it into a in the plural. Neuter nouns
ending in e usually change it into in the plural.


7. In Russian, each word is pronounced with a stress:
, , , .
The stressed syllable is pronounced more vigorously and is longer than the unstressed one.
The unstressed syllable is pronounced less vigorously and is shorter and its vowel changes
qualitatively: a, e , .

Verbs



()



.







-.

-.

11


1
!
, , , , , , ;
,

2
!
; ; ;
; ; ; .

3
!
, . .
, . .
, . .

12

2 [ ]

1. ?

1.
. ?

2. .

2. ?

3. .

3.

.
2

1. ?

1. .

2. ?

2. .

3. ?

3. .

4. ?

4. .

13

1
.
. , , .
. -.
- , . ,
, , . ,
, , .
: ? ?
? ?
: 6 15 .

8 . 5 . .
.
3
1. ?

1. .
?

2.
15.

14

, , , new
to do
yesterday
to understand
to mean
to ask (a question)
to answer
to learn
already
to live
thank you
excuse me! (I am) sorry
Hello!
good-bye
question
answer
how much? how many?
time
? What time is it?
now
hour, o'clock
minute

to cost
rouble
dollar
to be called / named
Moscow
in Moscow
where
hotel
university
text
number
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
fifteen

1. The Past Tense of most Russian verbs is formed with the Infinitive stem and the
suffix - :
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
2. .
?
.
.
( )
( )

3. .
?
, , .
( )

15







, -, -
?







, -, -
.

?
.







15.
16


1
!
, , ;
, , ;
, , ;
, , ;
, , .

2
!
?
.
?
.

3
!
?
(, , 3, 4 , 5, )
(, , 3, 4 , 5, ).

4
!
?
( , , 3, 4 , 5, )
.

17

5
!
?
10 ( , , 3, 4 , 5,
).

6
!
1. ?
.
.
10.
2. ?
.

7
!
1. ?
, , .
2. ?
, , .

8
!
, , , ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
.

18

9
!
, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ;
, , , , , , ;
, , , , .

10
!
1. , . .
2. , . .
3. , . .
4. , . .
5. , . .
6. , . .
7. , . .
8. , . .
9. , . 8 25 .
10. , . 10 .
11. , . 15 .

19

3 [ ]

1
. . .
.
. ,
.
. , , .
. .

2
. . .
.
. ,
.
. , , .
. .
20

1
1. , .

1. , .

2.

2. ,

.
3. .

3. ,

. .

2
1. ! ,

1. .

?
2. ,

2. .

?
3. ?

3. ,

.

3
1. ?

1. .

2. ?

2.
.

3. ?

3. ,
.
21

4. -

4. , -

5. -

5. -

5 .

6. ?

6. 11 20 .

4
1. ?

1.
.

?

2. .

2. .

3. .

3.

.
?

4.

4.

?
5.

5.

22

to come, to arrive

to hear, to listen (to)

I have come, he has come

music

she has come

America

they have come

, -, -, - good

where from

sixteen

from

seventeen

Lebanon

eighteen

Lebanese

nineteen

from Lebanon

twenty

Canada

thirty

Canadian

forty

from Canada

fifty

learn, study

sixty

faculty

seventy

preparatory faculty

eighty

medical faculty

ninety

why

hundred

because
, my
, your
family
mummy
dad, daddy
brother
sister
school
... I have ..., I have got...
? Have you?
also
but
, , , all, the whole of
still, so far
how, how well
or
to be tired
23


1. Russian verbs possess not only the three tenses but also two aspects: the Imperfective and the
Perfective aspects.
Imperfective aspect
Perfective aspect

Imperfective verbs are used to express the process and the recurring actions or
just to name the action. For instance:
: , , ?
.
Perfective verbs are used to express the completion of an action and to show its
result.
They denote an action which no longer takes place or takes place suddenly.
, .
, .
, .
, , .

2. Memorize the following pronouns , , , :


.
.
.
3. Take note of the complex sentences with subordinate causal clauses:
, .

()

(?)

24


1
:

?
.

1. ?

()

2. ?

(, , )

3. ?

(, 148, )

4. ?

( ,
)

2
:

?
.

1. ?

(, )

2. ?

(, )

3. ?

( , , , ,
)

4. ?

(, , )

3
:

?
.

?
(, ).

25

4
: ?
, .
1. ?
2. ?

26

4 [ ]


1
, !

? ?
, .
. 6
4 . , , ,
, , ! !
! ! , ,
, , .
, ,
.
, .
. . ,
. ,
!

2
, !
, . .
, .
,
.
, .
: , ,
27

, , , . :
, , .
, .
. , .
10 . ,
, .
, ,
, , .
.
business, affair, matter
? How are things?

January

to feel

February

badly; that's bad

March

every, each

April

day, afternoon

May

lesson Russian language

June

be occupied with, to do smth.

July

class room

August

at home

September

Monday

October

Tuesday

November

Wednesday

December

Thursday

more

Friday

to forget

Saturday

to have forgotten

Sunday

native, home

to love, to like,

is used to express desire

to be fond of

many, plenty of, a lot of

(for) a long time

nothing, not a thing

to sleep to have a sleep

today

to have a rest; to be resting

if

to go for a walk,

when

to walk to take/have a walk


28

in the evening
again
late
group
(one) must, has (to), is (to), should
to work

1. There are two forms of the future tense of the verb in Russian: the simple future and the
compound future. Imperfective verbs have the compound future: .
Perfective verbs have the simple future: .

2. Memorize: , , ,
.
.
3. Take note of the complex sentences with subordinate causal clauses:
, .
?
4. Complex sentences with the word "".
, .
If there are two subjects ( ) in a sentence, like this, the verb in the second sentence is
used
after the word "" in the Past tense referring to the future.

5. Complex sentences containing the word "".


, .
29


1
: ?
.
1. ?

(, )

2. ?

(, , , , )

3. ?

()

4. ?

(, , )

5. ?

( , , , , )

2
: ?
.
1. ?

( )

2. ?

3
: ?
.
1. ?

(, , )

2. ?

(, , )

3. ?

(, , )

4. ?

(, )

30

4
:

?
.

1. ? (, )
2. ?

(, , )

5
1. , .
2. , .

6
1. , ?

31

5 [ ]

!
? ?
?
. ,
.
- , , .
,
.
. ,
, .
, , , ,
, .
. , .
, ,
, . : ",
, , !" , ,
- . ,
. .

"".

. .

. ""
.
. -. . .

32

in the street
firm, company
at the firm
to be (Past Tense was, were) , ,
to sell to have sold
yesterday
to buy to have bought
.V. set
refrigerator
motor-car
Russian textbook
today
tomorrow
fast, quickly
every, each
to forget to have forgotten
to say to have said
souvenir
month
week
airport
to meet to have met
? where to?
my
friend
together
him
, to go
to come, to arrive
to have left, to have gone

1. The Imperative Mood:


.

33

2. Take note of the complex sentences with a subordinate clause of time:


, , .
3. There are 6 cases in the Russian language:
Nominative case : ,
Genetive case : ,
Dative case
Accusative case : ,
Instrumental case
Prepositional case : ,
4. ( ?) The Nominative Case (who what?)
, , ,
, , .
. ?
5. . The Accusative Case.
( ?)
The Accusative Case of Object (whom what?)
?








. ?
. ?
(). ?
. ?
The Accusative case of masculine and neuter nouns denoting things usually coincides with
the Nominative case, for example:
.
Most feminine nouns (denoting both things and persons) ending in ,
take , in the Accusative singular, for instance:
.
.
The Accusative singular of feminine nouns ending in a soft consonant (consonant with " ")
coincides with the Nominative case:
.
6. The Prepositional Case.
The Prepositional Case of Place (?)
? .
? .

34

7. The Genetive Case.


. ?
? . .
( )
( )
( )
( )
. ?
.
.
. 2 (, ), 3, 4:

5 , ,

Memorize:
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine

Singular

Plural

-
-

Note:

35


1
! ?
. .
?
.
?
.
?
"".

2
!
! , , ?
.
?
.
.

1
: ?
.
.
1. ? (, , , , , )
2. ? (, )
3. ? (, , )

36

2
: ?
.
1. ? (, )
2. ? (, , )
3. ? (, , , )
? (, , , )

3
: ?
.
1. ? ()
2. ? (, )
3. ? (, , )
4. ? (, )

4
: ?
.
1. ? ()
2. ? (, )
3. ? (, )
4. ? (, )

5
: ?
.
(, , , )

37

6
: ?
.
(, , , , )

7
: ) ?
.
.
) ?
.
.
) (, , , , )
) (, , )

8
: ?
.
.
( , ..)

9
: ?
.
.
(, , , , , , )

38

10
: ?
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?

11
:

?
, .

12
:

?
.

1. ? ()
2. ? (, )
3. ? (, , )

13
:

, ?
, .

1. , ?
2. , ?
39

6 [ ]


! .
. . .

. .
. ,
. , ,
: , , . , 2
. ,
2 . ,
.
. ?
. , , .
.
morning
fifth
weather
bad
good, fine
It is cold
to go
rain
it is raining, it rains
snow
it is snowing, it snows
to be ill to fell ill
to catch cold
high
temperature
head
throat
arm
40

foot; leg
doctor
to lie
to drink to have drunk;
to take to have taken
medicine
milk
honey
butter
to eat, to have eaten
fruit
apple
orange
lemon
to hope
in
in 2 days
healthy
office
to ring up, to phone, to call
can, to be able
business, official
if
mood
to tell, to say
joke
foreigner
may be
once
to happen
then
coffee
tea
, , , what+noun
, , , red
, , , green
, , , yellow
, , , white
, , , black
, , , brown
, , , blue

41

.
. : "
".
,
.
. " ?"
. " ", . " ?"
.
" , , ", . ,
. .
" ?" .
. ? ?
: " ?".
: " ! !" "?!" .
, : " ?"
: " ! !"
. ,
.
: " . .
. . ".
to invite
guest guests
he invited me round
to me
to wait (for)
to confuse, to mix up
to think

knock at the door


to go
to come
to go away, to leave
at last
when
42

twelve
flat
to ask (a question)
to answer
to open
to repeat
to ask (for), to beg, to request
(for) a long time
door
nobody
to knock

to laugh to
start laughing
to explain
parrot
year
2,3,4 2,3,4 years but 5, etc.
ago
beautiful
clever
busy
, , , whose?
, , , m
, , , your

1
. .
! ? ! ?
? .
. . , .
?
: , , , .
?
, .
?
, .
?
, .
?
, .
.
?
, , , .
, . , !
. .
.
43


1. Parts of speech in Russian are:
(the Noun): , , , ,
(the Verb): , , ( ..)
(the Pronoun): , , ; , , ; , , ; , ,
; , , ..
(Numerals): , , , ..
(the Adjective): , , , , ,
,
(the Adverb): ,
(the Preposition): , , , ..
(the Conjunction): , , ..
2. Adjectives answer the question "what?", "what kind of?"
?

3. Adverbs answering the questions:


how? ? , , , (how well, how long)
when? ? , , , ,
where to? ? ..
! ?
4. Be careful to distinguish adverbs from adjectives:
? .
? -.
Russian adjectives are qualifiers of nouns: ?
.
Adverbs usually qualify verbs:
? .

44

5. There are full and short forms of the adjective:


a. the full forms of adjectives , , ,
, , ,
b. the short forms of adjectives , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
In a sentence, the short forms of adjectives can be used as a predicate. They have gender
and number.
, , , .
, , , .
, , , .
The short forms of adjectives used as predicates have three tenses: the Present, the Past and
the Future.
.
.
.

.

.

.
.

.
.
6. Numerals are divided into two groups:
Cardinal Numerals

Ordinal Numerals

How many? ?

Which? , , ,
(, , , )?

45

7. Memorize the following pronouns:


, , ,
? ? ? ?
?
?
?
?

, , ,
? ? ?
?
?
?
?

8. The Accusative Case.


a. The Accusative Denoting Objects:
?
.
.
.
.
?
, , , , , , .
, , ,
( f), ( f), ( f)
, .
( f), ( f)
( Genetive Case)
( ).
, , , ( Genetive Case)
( ), ( ), ( m)
, , , ( Genetive Case)
( ), ( ), ( )
b. The Accusative of Direction: ?

? .
? .
? .
? .
c. The Accusative Denoting Time Periods: ? ?
.
5 .
12 .







?
, .
.
9. The Prepositional of Place.
?
.
46

10. The Genetive Case.


a. ?
?
?
?
?
?
b. ?
? .
.
c. ?
? ?
( ; ; ).
d. ? ? ? ?
? .
? .
? .
? .
? .
11. The Dative Case: ?


, ?
?
, ?
12. The Instrumental Case: ? ?
?
.

47


1
: ?
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ? (, , , , )

2
: ?
.
?
.
1. ? ()
2. ? ()
3. ? ()
4. -? ()

3
: .
.
.
1. .
2. .
3. , .

48

4
: ?
.
1. ?

8. ?

2. ?

9. ?

3. ?

10. ?

4. ?

11. ?

5. ?

12. ?

6. ?

13. ?

7. ?
(, , ; , , , )

5
:
?
.
1. ? ()
2. ? ()
3. ? (, )
4. ? ()
5. ? ()
6
: ?
.
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
49

5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?

7
: ?
.
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
8
: ?
.
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?

50

9
: ?
.
?
.
1. ? ()
2. ? (, )
10
: ?
.
1. ? (, )
2. ? (, , , )
3. ? (, )
4. ? (, , )

5. ? (, , , )
6. ? (, )
7. ? ()
11
: ?
.
1. ?

, ,

2. ?

, , ,

3. ?

, , ,

4. ?

, , ,

5. ?

, , ,
51

6. ?
7. ?
12
: ?
.
1. ? (, )
2. ? (, )
3. ? (, )
4. ? (, , , )
13
: ?
.
1. ?

3. ?

2. ?

4. ?

( , , ,
, , ,
)
14
:

?
.
?
.

1. ? ( , )
2. ? ( , )

52

15
: ?
.
?
.
?
.
1. ? (, )
2. ? ?
? (, , )
16
: ?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
1. ...? (, )
2. ...? (, , )
3. ...? (, , )
4. ...? (, )

53

17
: ?
.
1. , 2 ? (, , )
2. ? (, , )
3. ? (, , )
18
: ?
.
? (, )
19
: ?
.
1. ? (2, 3, 4 )
2. ? (5... )
20
: ?
.
? (18, 22, 26, 33, 39, 55)
21
: .
?
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
54

22
: , .
1. ,.................................................................
2. ,..................................................................
3. , ............................................................
4. , ..
5. , ..........................

55

7 [ ]


!
.
, .
.
. , ? ,
- . , .
.
.
, .
. .
. .
, , , , , .
?!
?
.
.
. .

.
: ,
, .
, ?
.
56

, ,
. .
. - . .
.
, . ,
-. ?
-, -, -.
!
sixth
date
to speak, to talk,
to converse
almost, practically
, It is necessary for smb. + to inf. One must/should/need + inf.
to he, to stay in bed to lie down for a while
to bring, to carry
to take smb. to
one is (was, will be) able + inf. It is (was, will be) possible for smb. + to inf.
to go for a walk, to walk to take/have a walk
usually, as a rule
to go home
family
mummy
dad, daddy
brother
sister
why, what for
here
to like
to bore + Dative case
, , , difficult
, , , English
, , , French
, , , German
, , , most, the very
, to cough, to begin to cough
therefore, and so, that's why
one cannot + inf., one should not + inf.
, to smoke to have a smoke, to begin to smoke
the most difficult
pronunciation
many, plenty of, a lot of
form
so, like that, that wab how (at the beginning of a sentence)
in the morning
57

to decide, to make up one's mind


man, person
, ... the man who/that..
, -, lazy
, -, industrious
to love, to like, to be fond of
to look at, to look through
, , , new
tale, story
also
fluently
after all; later (on)
- (in) English
- (in) French
- (in) German
! Good bye! All the best!

58



.
,
. , , , ,
.
.

. : "
".
. : "
. ".
.
: "
. ". .
.
, , : " ".
, ,
.
: " !"
: " .
, ".
, , , good, tasty
dinner
, , , big, large
, , , not big
, , , small, little
, , , old
village
house
mother
son
59

field
at home
to sit, to sit (for a while)
. stayed at home and did nothing.
to sleep to have a sleep
late
home
to cook
meat
rice
piece
kitchen
(Phrases with the preposition correspond to English non prepositional phrases, e.g.
the next day)
, , , other, another, different
to get up, to rise
early
work
again
in order that (The conjunction that expresses purpose)
is used to express desire.
appetite

, ! ? ?

. . ,
. , .
, .

. .

. , .

, .

, . .

. ?

. ,
60

. , . ,
.

, .

! ! ? . ,
.

, ?

, ,
.
3 . .

, ,
.

film
certainly, of course
to book (tickets
for the pi one/concert/theatre)
ticket
to receive, to get
visa
the day after tomorrow

, , , ready
? When will it be ready?
circus
Tsvetnoy bulvar (avenue)
or
there

61


1. The Prepositional Case.
a. The Prepositional of Place: ? (Where?)
.
.
.

.
Adjectives in the Prepositional case have the ending (in the masculine and in the
neuter) and (in the feminine) and answer the question " ?" (in the masculine
and in the neuter) and " ?" (in the feminine).
?
?
b. The Prepositional Case of Object: ? ? (about whom? about what?)
, , , , , .
Russian nouns in the Prepositional case denoting objects answer the question
? ? and have the ending e (in the masculine, the neuter and the feminine
gender), as well as the nouns in the Prepositional case denoting place ( , ).
Adjectives in the Prepositional case denoting objects answer the question " ?" (in the
masculine and in the neuter), " ?" (in the feminine).
?
.
?
.
Adjectives in the Prepositional case denoting an object and those denoting a place have the
same endings:
(in the masculine and in the
neuter)
(in the feminine).
?
.
? .
? .
?
.
2. The Accusative Case.
a. The Accusative Case of Object ? ? (whom? what?)
.
.
, .
Nouns in the Accusative denoting an object answer the question ? ?
The Accusative case of masculine and neuter nouns denoting things usually coincides with
the Nominative case.
.
.
Most feminine nouns (denoting both things and persons) ending in the Nominative in
drop them and take in the Accusative singular.


.
.
62

The Accusative singular of feminine nouns ending in a soft consonant (consonant with "")
coincides with the Nominative.
.
.
The Accusative case of adjectives in combination with masculine and neuter nouns denoting
things coincides with the Nominative case.
, , .
b. The Accusative of Direction: ? (Where to?)
? .
? .
? .
? .
c. The Accusative of Time: ? ? (When? (for) How long?)
.
.
.
.
.
.
3. The Genetive Case: ?
?
.
?
.
4. The Dative Case: ? ? ((to) whom? (to) what?)
a. The Dative is used after the verbs: , ,
, . .
.
.
.
, .
, .
, .
, , .
.
The masculine and neuter nouns in the Dative case have the ending ,.
The feminine nouns in the Dative take the ending e.
Take the notice of the verb
It is used exclusively with the dative, while the noun or pronoun in the dative usually
proceeds the verb, and the subject of the sentence follows the verb at the end of a sentence.
(Pattern: Dative of noun or pronoun + verb + subject)
.
.
Pronouns in the Dative Case:




63

b. The Dative Case is used with the words (), one must, one may
(permission or ability), one may not. Pattern: noun or pronoun in the Dative + +
Infinitive phrase.
.
.
?
.
.
.
.
5. Complex sentences with the word " ".
, .
, "".
, .
, .
6. Complex sentences with the word "".
, .
(Compare: , ).

64


1
:

?
.
?
.

1. ? (, )
2. ? ()
3. ? (, )
4. ? (, )
5. ? ()
6. ? (, )
7. ? ()
2
: ?
.
?
.
1. ? (, , , , , )
2. " "? (, ,
, )
3. " "? ()
4. ? (, )
3
: ?
.
65

1. ? (, )
2. ? (, ,
, , , )
3. ? ()
4. ? ()
5. ? ()
6. ? ()
7. ? (, )
8. ? ()
4
: ?
.
1.

? ()

2.

? (, , )

3.

? ()

4.

? ()

5.

? ()

5
: ) ?
.
) ?
.
) ( , )
) ( , )

66

6
: ?
.
?
.
?
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7
: ?
.
?
.
1. ? (, , , )
2. ? ()
3. ? ()
4. ? (, )
5. ? ()
6. ? ()

67

8
: ?
.
?
.
1. ? (, )
2. ? (, , , )
3. ? (, )
4. ? (, )
5. ? (, )
6. ? (, , , , )
7. ? (, )
8. ? (, )
9. ? ()
10. ? (, )
11. ? (, )
9
: ?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.

68

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. ?
10
: ?
.
?
.
?
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?

69

11
: , .
, .
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
12
: , .
1. , ... (, )
2. , ... ( -)
3. , ... ( )
4. , ... ( )
5. , ... ( )
6. , ... ( )
13
: .

1. .

2. .

70

8 [ ]

.
.
.
,
. , 8 .
6 . 2 , .
? , , .
!
. ,
.
.. , .. , .. , ..
.

,
"", .. .
. .. .
, .
, , .
71

, -, -, - seventh
evening
, -, -, - interesting
letter
to bring

to agree, to arrange
to treat smb., to smth.
them
biscuit
! very well!, wonderful!, fine!
literature

to talk, to have a talk


, -, -, - next
writer, author
easily
page
short story
stone
for
children
, -, -, - easy
. It's easy to read it.

. .
.
.
,
. : "!
".
, .
, - . : "!
?" , .
, . : " ,
. , . .
, ".
: " ". .
.
plum
plate
table
boy
never
to taste
room
to grasp, to seize

during
- somebody
to take
to die
to throw
window
to cry, to
begin to cry
72


1. .

.
,
.
.

:
, ,
,

...?
,
, , .
2. , .
. ,
. ,
.
.
,
. ,
,
, .
stomach
clinic
, -, -, - young
recipe
eye-eyes
, -, -, - eye
to fall
to break
to climb
tree trees
to
73

1
- . , . , .
! . , . .
, .
.
? ! ,

, . ,
.
. ! .
?
, . .
. , , .
-

. .

. ,
.
- : , , .
. , , .
, , .
.

74

2
! .
?!
. ! .

. - ,

. , .
3
! . , ,
.
, ?
, .
4
, ! ? ?
. , ,
.
. ?
? . . ,
? ? , .
.
5
, ?
. , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , .
! 10 . !
75

?
, . , .
,
.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

6
! ?
.
?
.
.
?
, .
?
"".
76

. .
, 7 , 5
.
,
10 . .

7
, ?
, , .
. ,
, , .
, , ,
.
.
,
.

77

8
. ?
. ,

"!

...".
?
.
-: "
?" : ", " ", ".

9
?
"".
?
, ,
.
?
,
, , .
. , .
""?
.

78

probably
! come in!
, to come into (a room)
to go out, to come out
to cross, to get across
entrance
exit
crossing
! won't you take off your
coat/things?
to take off (one's
hat/shoes/clothes), to remove
let me (help you)
to let, to permit, to allow
, to help
to hang
to hang smth. on
coat
hat
to take off
shoes
slippers
! won't you sit down!; take a seat!
to sit down
to meet
smb., to introduce smb. to ...,
to get acquainted with ...
it is cosy
, -, -, - cosy
, -, -, - good, fine,
excellent
, -, -, the
short-formed adjective of "good",
"fine", "excellent", "beautiful"
toy (s)
a long time (how long)
to collect
people
, -, -, - folk
to hold (in one's hand)
to examine,
to have a good look at
, some,
some kind of
the festive occasion (event), holiday
character, disposition, temper
it is interesting
country
something
stamp
money
it is difficult

more
less
. Sorry, wrong number/
. Sorry, wrong number.
You must have the wrong number.
to phone smb., to ring smb. up,
to call
to call back
one can hear
. Sorry, cant hear a thing.
to go to bed
to have time (+ to inf.)
earlier
to meet
quicker
provisions,
foodstuffs
chicken
fish
egg(s)
sour cream
cottage cheese
sausage
sausages/frankfurters
bread
, -,-,- white
white (wheat) bread
, -, -, - black
black (rye) bread
sugar
potato
cabbage
carrots
onions
to pay
, -, -, - expensive, dear
it's expensive
more expensive
, -, -, - cheap
cheaply, cheap (it does not cost mutch)
cheaper
much more
it is time
Numerals
to be
...? Where is...?
prospect, avenue
centre
theatre
ballet
, -, -, - favourite
79

better
worse
to start, to begin
to finish
postcard
to
congratulate (on, upon)
New Year
! Happy
New Year!
to wish
health
success (es), luck
happiness
to send
New -Year tree
, -, -oe, - beautiful
to switch on
to switch off
exhibition (public display)
announcer
station
be careful!, take care!

to hurry,
to be in a hurry
to close, to shut
to be closed,
to be shut
back
, to go back,
to return
bus
trolleybus
to get off

? Are you getting off at
the next stop?
stop
supermarket
, -, -, - winter
, -, -, - (predic.) too big (for)
, -, -, - (predic.) too little (for),
too small (for)
light

1. The Accusative Case.


a. The Accusative Denoting Objects: ?
.
.
The Accusative case of adjectives in combination with masculine and neuter nouns
denoting things coincides with the Nominative case.
.
.
.
The feminine adjectives in combination with nouns in the Accusative case denoting both persons
and things have the ending - or -.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
Adjectives in the plural in combination with masculine, neuter and feminine nouns
denoting things usually take the endings of the Nominative case.
.
( ).
( ).
( ).
80

b. The Accusative of Direction. ?


.
.
.
. The Accusative Denoting Time.
( , , , , ,
).
( , ,
, , , ).
.
2. The Prepositional Case.
a. The Prepositional Denoting Place: ? ( )? ( )?
.
.
.
.
Besides the ending -e, nouns in -, -, - in the Prepositional case have the ending -uu.



.
.
b. The Prepositional Denoting Objects: ? ? ? ?
.
.
.
c. The Prepositional of the Adverbial Modifiers.
.
d. The Prepositional of Time.
.
( , , , , , , ,
, , , ).
3. The Genetive Case.
a. The Genetive Denoting Quantity.
?
( , ).
? ().
( , , , ,
).
b. The Genetive Expressing Possession: ? ? ? ? (Whose?)
? .
? .
? .
? .
? .
? .
c. The Genetive case is used after the prepositions: , , , , , .
.
- .
.
81

.
, .
.
.
d. The Genetive case is used after the words: , , .
.
.
.
In the Past, only the form is used with the masculine, neuter and feminine nouns in the
singular and in the plural.
. (.. )
. (.. )
. (.. )
. (.. )
In the Future tense, only the form is used.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
e. The Genetive case is used after some verbs, such as , .
.
, , .
f. The Genetive is used after transitive verbs preceded by the negative particle.
, .
g. Adjectives, pronouns and ordinal numerals in the Genetive singular have the endings -, (masculine and neuter nouns) and -, - (feminine nouns)









4. The Instrumental Case.
a. The Instrumental Denoting Joint Action
.
Masculine and neuter nouns have the endings -,- in the Instrumental singular. Feminine
nouns have the endings -, - in the Instrumental singular.
.
.
Adjectives with the masculine and neuter nouns have the endings -, - in the singular.
.
b. The Instrumental denoting joint action is used after many verbs, such as ,
, , , ..
.
.
.
.
.
82

c. Use the Instrumental case after the verb .


, , .
5. The Dative Case.
a. The Dative Case is used after the verbs: , , , ,
, , , , , ..
.
.
.
?
b. After the words: (), , , , , ..
?
.
.
c. The Dative Case is used with the preposition .
Noun with the preposition may denote an object or a person to (toward) which/whom the
other object or person is approaching and answer the questions: ? where? ? to
what? ? to whom?
.
.
.
d. The Dative Case of Adjectives and Pronouns. Adjectives and pronouns have the endings:
- (in the masculine and neuter genders)
- (in the feminine)
O .
.
6. The Comparison Degrees of Adjectives:
, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

83

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -

, -, -, -





















































84

7. Pay attention to the verbs ending in - which are formed from transitive verbs.
9 2 .
9 2 .
Verbs with the particle - have the middle reflexive meaning.
8 5 .
8 5 .
8. Pay attention to the following verb groups:
?
?


.
, .
.
.
11 .
12 .
.
.
9. Complex sentences containing the word " ".
, .
10. Short-form adjectives are very often used in the Russian language. In a sentence, they may
be used as predicates.
, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -
, -, -, -

.
.
.
.
.
.
().
11. In Russian, sentences containing predicative adverbs are often used, e.g. , ,
, , , ..
.
.
.
! ! ! ! !

85


1
: ?
.
1. " "? ( , )
2. ? ( , )
3. ? ( , )
4. ""? ( , )
2
: ?
.
1. ? ( )
2. ? ( )
3. ? ( , )
4. ? ( )
3
: ?
.
1. ? ( )
2. ? ( )
3. ? ( )
4. ? ( )

86

4
:

?
.

1. ? (, , ,
)
2. ? ( )
3. ? ( )
4. ? ( )
5
:

?
.

1. ? ( )
2. ? ( )
3. ? ( )
4. ? (, )
6
:

?
.

1. ? ()
2. ? (, , )
3. ? ( , )
4. ? ( )
7
:

?
.

1. ?
87

2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
8
:

?
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
9
: ?
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
10
: ?
.
1. , , , , ,
, ?
88

2. , , ?
3. , , , ?
11
: ?
.
.
1. , , ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
12
: ?
.
.
?
.
.
?
.
.
1. ? ? ?
2. ?

89

3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
13
: ?
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
14
: , , ?
, , .
?
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ? ? ?
15
: ?
.
?
90

.
1. ?
2. ?
16
:

?
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
17
: ) ?
.
) ?

.
) (, , )
) (, )
18
:

?
.

1. ? ()
2. ? (, , )
3. ? (, , )
4. ? (, )
91

19
:

?
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
20
:

?
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. () ?
4. () ? ?
21
:

?
?
?
.
.
.

1. ? ? ?
(, , )
92

2. ? ? ?
(, , )
3. ? ? ?
(, , , )
4. ? ?
(, , )
5. ? (, )
22
:

?
9 10 30 .

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
23
: , , !
1. , , ... (, , , )
2. , , ... (, , )
3. , , ... (, , )
4. , , ... (, , )

93

24
: , .
1. , ...
2. , , , , ...
3. , ...
4. , , ...
5. , ...

94

9 [ ]


!
. .
. , ,
. ,
,
.
10
, ,
. ,

, , .
. .
, .
, ,
. , .
, , .
-.
" ".

" "
.
" "
, " ",
95

, " ", "


",
, " ",
,
.
.
.
.
to be late
to fly, to take a flight to ...
father
to pass, to give,
to hand
, -, -, - New Year's
present, gift
business
without
to translate
, -, -, - one's own. With the
first and second persons, may be used
instead of the relevant possessive
pronouns. (my, your, her, his, our, their)

businessman
occupation, work, business
be occupied with, to do smth.
bookshop
sale
, not only... but also
for the time being, so far
unfortunately
several, some
at (outside, near) the porch,
at the entrance
cup
?downstairs (of position), where?
?downstairs (of motion), where?
which way?
one year
last year
next year
square
, -, -, - different
friendship

experience
to study, to learn
study, learning (act)
further, men, next
reader
porch (roofer, but open-sided), entrance



.
,
. , , , ,
.
,
96

.
,
, ,
, , ,
. , , .
. . , .
. ,
- , ,
.
. ,
, .
, ,
, . ,
. .
. , ,
. ,
.
, , :
" , ".
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. , .
. , .
.

97


. .
, ,
. ?
, .
. , ,
, . , ,
. , , ,
. " , ,
, ?" ,

: "
,
. ,
".
forest, woods
to stop
suddenly
earth, ground (surface of the earth)
bear
to come up, to approach smb.
to run
, , he, she,
to get (into), to climb up (a tree), where?they approached to (of direction), towards
to get down, (from)
to move away
tree
, , he, she, they
to hide (for a period),
moved away
to conceal oneself
to smell
to remain, to stay
to breathe
road
danger
, -, -, - dead
, -, -, - dangerous
man, person, human
it is dangerous, dangerously
people, humans
more dangerous
to thank
to look for, search for
to find
to put
to study

98

,
,
-. , "" "yes" ""
"n". . .
: "--".
. .
,
"".
, , ,
.
.
-,
. : , ,
? ,
, : " ,
, , , ,
, ,
, , ,
. , ".
, "", "", "", "",
"", "", "", "", ""
.
! . :
. . ,
. , .
. .
. ,
99

-. . ,
- , .
: "!" . -
. : "".
""
"please", , ,
, . ,
: -.
"" "please".
"" "please", " "
" ".
""
. -, ,
.
, , .
. .
, ,
. "".
- . .
: "".

"".

"".
. -
: "". .
. : ",
". :
100

"".

.
: " ? ,
?" "", - ,
, , "".
for the first time; first
conversation, talk
short
long
office worker
passport
document, papers
like smb./smth; resembling smb./smth.
to learn
to pronounce
letter
to return,
to come back
(to)
firmly
ending (s)
, -, -, - verbal
prefix
for example
, -, -, - such, a kind of
on foot
to walk, to go on foot
bridge
monument
near
then
park
doctor

railway station
train
even
at night
sleep
in one's sleep
to show
fingers
-
to point one's finger at smth.
accidentally
to push
to apologize
phrase
, -, - ( ) dear
(of people)
occasion, chance
telegraph
telegraphist
telegram, cable
queue
form; a telegraph form
to give back
to hold out
floor
to call; to call a
real meaning


.
. .
.
.
.
101

. .
. , , .
, . .
.
. , .
, :
,
.
, , .
- :
,
.
, . .
. .
, .
: ?
, ,
?
, . ?
, , , .
, . , , ?
, .
?
, , . , - .
. ,
. . :
,

102

.
.
, : !
.
: ! .
!
,
, : ,
, , , !
, .
:
,
.

: .
.
: ,
, , , .
, ,
!
to be a guest (at, of),
to visit smb.
acquaintance, friend
acquaintances, friends
to sing
singer (masculine)
singer (feminine)
host
verse
verses, poetry
to be out of one's mind;
(coll.) to become crazy
night
to stay (for) the night
to take out

it is trembling
to go on (+ ger.), to keep on(+ger.)
tread(s) (of feet), step
place
at somewhere else(elsewhere)
this particle is rendered by the verb to let
(+ noun or pronoun + inf.), e.g. let him come

to kill, to commit murder
to steal; to steal smth. from smb.
pocket
to be angry,
to get angry
militiaman
(-. )
103

(female) friend
stairs, staircase
to go/come down
downstairs
, -, -, - closed
, -, -, - open
to wake
yard caretaker
soul
to lose; to waste
, -, -, - whole
especially
heart
it is beating; the heart is
beating
joy
for joy
fool
stupid, idiotic (coll.)
nose

to ask smb. a question


devil;
! go to the devil!
at last, finally
tip
note-book
( ) if I knew
comrade
at once; right away
to let smb.pass
, -, -, - tired
proverb
enemy
dangerous
more dangerous
coming
tradition
seldom
more seldom

- ?

, , .

5 .
. !

. !
2

, ,
.

. ?

.
104

, , !

, . ?

, .

. .
4

, , 7 . .
, .

! .

watch, clock
to worry

dont worry!
by all means

! . .

. ? ?

. .

glasses, spectacles (pi.)

6
.
. .
.
, .
, .
105

7
?
.
.
?
.
?
.
.
.
?
.

to be born
, , he, she
was born; they were born

birth
birthday

:
, , ,
,

, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
106

..

, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -, -
, -, -,
, -, -,
, -, -, -

?
9

, ,
?

, ,
?

, . I
,
. 1700 ( ).

107

, 7208 .



, , .

tsar
to change
calendar

to appear
, -, -, - merry

: , .
(, , , , ,
)
2
: , .
1. , ( )
2. , ( , )
3. , ( )
4. , ( )
3
: ( ) .
.
1. , ( ) ,

).

2. , ( )
.
108

3. ( ) ( )
,

4. ( ) .
5. ( ) ,
.
6. , ( ) .
7. ( ) , ( )
.
8. ( ) ( )
. ( ), ( ).
( ).
9. ( ) .
10. : ( )
, , ( ) ,
,

11. ( ) .
4
: ( ).
.
1. ( ) .
2. ( ) .
3. ( ).
4. ( ) .
5. ( ).
6. ( ) .
7. ( ) .
8. ( ) 12 .
9. ( ) 10 .
109


This lesson deals with new meaning and endings of all cases, all the case
material being summarized the new material is underlined
The Prepositional Case
1. The Prepositional Denoting Place. (Where?) (?) Nouns in the Prepositional Case denoting
place have the endings: -e (most masculine, feminine and neuter nouns), -u (feminine nouns
ending in ), -uu (words ending in -, -, -ue) and -y (words: , , ,
, , , . .).
.
.
.
. (, f)
. (, f)
.
.
.
Adjectives in the Prepositional case have the endings -, - (masculine and neuter words)
and -, - (feminine words) and answer the questions: ?/ ? (masculine
and neuter words) and ?/ ? (feminine words).
? .
?
.
The Pronouns , , have the endings: - , - .
.
.
The Pronouns: , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
have the endings: - (), -
.

.
Memorize the verbs requiring the Prepositional case denoting place. Memorize the question
word ? used after these verbs.

. .
2. The Prepositional Denoting Object.
Nouns in the Prepositional case denoting object have the endings -e (most masculine, neuter
and feminine nouns), -u (feminine nouns ending in the soft sign -), -uu (nouns ending in -,
-,
-ue) and answer the question: ? ?
.
* "".
: "".
* Before words beginning with a vowel the preposition has the form . Compare the English
in definite articles a and an.
110

Nouns in the Adjectives and the pronouns , , , , in the Prepositional


case denoting object have the same endings as those in the Prepositional case denoting place
(- - and o - e) and answer the questions: ? ?
.
.
Personal pronouns in the Prepositional have the following forms:



.
.
Memorize the verbs requiring the Prepositional denoting object. Remember the use of the
question
? ? after these verbs:

..
3. The Prepositional Denoting Time.
. , , , , , , , , ,
, , .
. , , () , ,
, , , ,
.
. .
4. The Prepositional of Manner to Denote the Means of Transport.
.
.
5. Plural nouns of all three genders in the Prepositional case have endings: - ax, - .
.
.
.
Plural adjectives in the Prepositional have the endings: - , - for all three genders.
, , .
.
.

The Genetive Case


1. The Genetive Denoting Direction of Motion:
a. answers the question ? (where from?); ? (Take note of the use
of the Genetive after the prepositions pairs: , ).
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
?
.
111

. denotes a starting point of motion and is used with the preposition "" and a verb of motion
with the prefix "":
.
.
.
. denotes a person from whom an action is directed, is used with the preposition "":
?
.
: .
+ noun denoting things
+ noun denoting living beings
2. The Genetive with the Preposition "y ".
a indicates possession or belonging to someone or something and answers the question ?*
.
.
.
. indicates the place, where someone or something is (was) ("at one's place"):
? . .
? . .
. denotes a person from whom something is borrowed or taken.
.
.
3. The Genetive with the Preposition " "denotes the whole a part of which is marked out.
- .
- .
4. The Genetive without a preposition denoting possession answers the question ?
(? ? ?) (whose?).
? .
? .
? .
? .
5. The Genetive without a preposition is used to indicate the performer or the object of action.
. . .
6. The Genetive without a preposition denotes a feature of an object.
. . .
7. The Genetive without a preposition is used to denote a part of the object.
.
Memorize the endings of the singular nouns in the Genetive case:
Masculine
a


Neuter
a

Feminine



()

112

___________________________________________________________
* It should be born in mind that phrases consisting of the preposition followed
by pronouns, nouns or noun groups in the Genetive case denoting the possessor
and the verb are used to express possession and correspond in meaning to the
English "I have", "I have got" phrases.
8. The Genetive denoting quantity is used after Numerals, the words , , ,
..)
,
5 .. ,
,
,
,
5 .. ,
,
,
,
5 .. ,
,
,
Memorize the endings of the singular and plural nouns in the Genetive case.
Singular
Plural
. -

-
5 5
N. -

- -
5 5
F. -
- -
5 5
Most masculine, feminine and neuter nouns have these endings in the plural, but there are
ther endings that are not frequently used and they should also be remembered.
Nominative case
Genetive case
-
()

()

()

-
()

()
-
()

()

9. The Genetive in negative sentences with the words: , , .


Sentences with these words are impersonal.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Note that in the Past tense the form " " is always used with nouns of all genders, both in
the singular and in the plural.
.
.
.
Note that in the Future tense the form " " is used with words of all genders both in the
singular and in the plural.
10. Adjectives, pronouns and ordinal numerals in the Genetive singular have the endings -,
- (masculine and neuter nouns) and -, - (feminine nouns).


113






Adjectives, pronouns and ordinal numerals in the plural have the endings (for all genders)
-, -.
.
.
().
.
11. The Genetive Denoting Time.
. Nouns in the Genetive case with the preposition "c" denote the beginning of action.
.
.
. Nouns in the Genetive with the preposition "" indicate the final moment after which an
action will be completed.
.
. Nouns in the Genetive with the prepositions " " specify a period of action.
.
.
Cardinal Numerals in the Genetive to be remembered
,

,


50, 60, 70, 80 (following the

model)
5 20,30 (following the model) 90

100

..
. The Genetive case is used to denote dates. Note that the preposition "" is not used in
this construction.
.
.
. The Genetive case with the preposition "" answers the question ?
.
. The Genetive with the preposition " " answers the question
?
.
12. The Genetive Case with Prepositions "", "", "".
. The preposition "" shows that the action is performed in favour of a person or an object.
.
. The preposition "" is used to express absence of an object (not having).
, .
.
.
. The preposition "" is followed by pronouns, nouns or noun groups in the Genetive
case and corresponds to the English preposition "besides" (in addition to).
, , , .
114

13. The Genetive Denoting Cause with the Preposition " ".
.
14. The Genetive Denoting Place is used with the prepositions "", " ",
"", "" "", et cetera to indicate where there is an object or
where an action takes place.
.
.
.
Ha .
.
15. The Genetive Case after the Verbs: ? ? ..
.
, , .
16. The Genetive after the Comparative Degree of Adjectives.
, , .
, , .
17. The Genetive case is used in negative sentences after transitive verbs.
.
.
.
18. Personal Pronouns in the Genetive Case:


( )

( )

.
.

The Accusative Case


The Accusative case of masculine and neuter nouns denoting things usually coincides with
the Nominative case (for example: , , , , . .
). The Accusative case of masculine nouns denoting persons usually
coincides with the Genetive case (for instance: , . .
. ).
1. The Accusative case is used to denote the object of action and answers the questions: ?
(whom?) for persons and ? (what?) for things.
?

?
.
Here are verbs followed by nouns in the Accusative case answering the questions: ?
whom?; ? what?


115






,
etc.
2. The Accusative case is used to denote the direction of action and motion (especially with
verbs of motion) and answers the question ? (where?).
, ,
, ,
, , , etc.
?
.
?
.
?
.
Here are prepositions that are used to denote the direction: , , , , .
/ .
3. The Accusative case is used to denote time.
? When? , , , , , ,
.
, .
.
.
?
.
How long?

?
How often?
.
For how long?
.
.
How much did it take you
to do this work?

5 .

4. The Accusative case with the verbs and indicates price and weight.
.

.
Adjectives (pronouns) in the Accusative case have the endings of the nominative or the genitive
case (except the feminine gender).






?
?
116

?
?
?


?
?
?
?
Here are the Personal Pronouns in the Accusative case:


( with prepositions)
( with prepositions)



.
.
Here are Possessive Pronouns in the Accusative case:
with animate beings:
with inanimate objects:
/ /

/ /















.
.

The Dative Case


1. The Dative case is used with the verbs , , , ,
, etc.
The Dative case denotes a person or a thing to which the action is directed (when used in
combination with verbs). Noun in the Dative case answers the questions: ? whom? ?
(to) what?
, .
, .
Masculine and Neuter nouns in the Dative have the endings: .
Feminine nouns in the Dative take the ending e.
2. The Dative case with verbs
.
.
.
117

The subject of the phrase is usually used at the end of a sentence. Notice the past tense of this
verb in the singular and in the plural.
.
.
.
.
3. The Dative Denoting Age.
.
.
4. The Dative in Impersonal Sentences.
In impersonal sentences the Dative case is used to denote the person who acts or to denote
the recipient of action.
In impersonal sentences the Dative case is used:
1) In combination with the words , , , , followed
by an indefinite form of the verb.
.
.
2) In combination with the words: , , , etc.
, .
, .
,
.
5. The Dative case is used with the preposition .
The main meaning of the preposition is to direct one's steps to or to approach to someone
or something in time or in space.
1) Noun with the preposition may denote an object or a person to (toward) which/whom
the other object or person is approaching and answers the questions: ? where?
? to what? ? to whom?
.
.
The verbs denoting the approaching are generally used with the prefixes - or
.
.
2) Nouns with the preposition may denote an object to which some thing is added, and a
verb is always used with the prefix -.
.
3) Many of the verbs with the prefix - require the preposition :
, , , , etc.
.
.
.
Nouns corresponding to these verbs also require the preposition :
, ,

4) The preposition is used after the nouns denoting feeling or attitude:



:


but:



118

5) The preposition is used with the following adjectives:




6) The preposition is used to denote time.
.
(?)

.
(?)
6. The Dative case is used with the preposition no.
1) The preposition no is used to denote movement along a surface.
.
2) The preposition no indicates the action which is repeated during certain periods of time.
.
3) The preposition no is used to denote reason.
.
4) The preposition no indicates the purpose or type of activity or profession, etc.
.
9 .
5) The preposition no is used in the meaning of: "by", "according to", "in accordance with".
.
.
6) The preposition no indicates the sign of an object.
.
7) The preposition no indicates the relationship, closeness.
.
.
8) The preposition no plus the dative or cardinal numerals forms distributive numerals.
.
9) The preposition no is used to denote some means of communication:
.
.
.
7. The Dative Case of Adjectives and Pronouns.
.
.
.
Adjectives and pronouns have the endings:
(in the masculine and neuter genders)
(in the feminine)
Personal pronouns in the dative case:




( )
( )
( )
.
?
?
119

8. The Dative Case of Nouns, Adjectives. Pronouns in the Plural.


.
The endings of nouns in the plural:
(masculine, neuter and feminine genders)
The endings of adjectives and pronouns in the plural:
(in the masculine, neuter and feminine genders)

The Instrumental Case


1. The Instrumental case is used to denote tool or instrument of action:
.
2. The Instrumental with the Preposition .
1) The Instrumental case with the preposition is used to denote the person in conjunction
with whom an action is performed:
.

.

Nouns in the Instrumental have the endings:
- (in the masculine and neuter genders)
- (in the feminine)
2) The Instrumental case with the preposition is usually used in cases when it is correlated
to the Genitive with the preposition with the
opposite meaning:
.
.
3) The Instrumental case with the preposition is used with the verbs:
, , , , etc.
.
5 .
4) The Instrumental case with the preposition is used to denote manner or way of action:
.
.
3. h Instrument! following the Verbs without Prepositions:
, , , , etc.
.
.
.
4. The Instrumental case is used after the prepositions: , , , , etc.
.
.
.
.

120

5. The Instrumental Case of Adjectives and Pronouns.


.
.
Adjectives and pronouns in the instrumental case have the endings:
- (masculine and neuter)
- e (feminine)
.
Personal pronouns in the instrumental case.
()

()

( )
( )
(, )
.
.
6. Nouns, adjectives and pronouns in the instrumental plural have the following endings:
nouns
()
adjectives and pronouns ()
.
.

121

1.
:
-

: .

).
: ,
.
: .

(
):

.
:

I ;

(, ,

) ,

;


, (
122

)
);

(
, )
I .

,

(I ),
. (I )
:

.
-
,
,
.
1.
2.
3.
123

4. 501
5. - , 4-
.
6. .
7. .

, .
200-250 12

: - -
. .
.
,
. ,
,

.
8 , ,
: , ,
, .
, ,
. 800 , 160
.

, , . ,
124

,
, ,
. , ,
, -
.

, , .
,
,
.

,
.

:
,
.

.

, ,
.
.
.
,

.


125

. .. ,
, .. ,
,
, .
..
, ,
, , ..
..

, ,
, , ..


,
, ,
..
.

,
:

, , ..
, ,
.

. 1000 , 300
150

126



(50-100 .)
. ,

.

,
, (
: , , ..).
:

( );

( );

, ;

.
200

, 40 .

, ,
: 450-500 .
750-900 .

127

501

, .

.
2000
, 500 .

. 2-
:
1.

2.

, 501

.

:

( );

-,

, ,
;

. ,

128

:
1.

:
;


;

, , ;
2.

, ,
, ( ):
;
;
;
.
3.

4.

.

, , ,
,
.

..,

..

; .., ..,

129

; ., ., .., ..,
., ..,
; .., ..,
..,

- .
,

,
,
.

.

,
I , 10
, , 5.

1.

.. . . 2.

. ., 1995.
.. . ., 1998.
.., ..
// . . . . 1997. . 56. 1.
.., ..
( ). ., 1997.
130

.., .. .
: .
.: , 2000.
..
.

//

. .: . , 1980.
.. //
. : . .,
2003.
.. . . ., .,
2005.
.. . .: -
. - , 2007.
.. . ., 2000.
..
. .,
1996.
..

) , .,
1962.
..
// , 1996, 2.

// , 1962, 4.

, . 2, ., 1962.
..
. ., 1962.

131

..
( , , ). ., 1994.
2.

.. // . , . . ., 1981,

4.
.. // .
. . . ., 1973, .1.
. . .,
1980.
.. . , 1934.
.., ..
. .: , 2004.
.. . ., 1958.
.. //
. ., 1966.
.. . ., 1982.
.. .
. .: , , 2006.
.. 100% . .: , 2006.
. . . ., 1978.

//

, .: , 1976.
.. . ., 1987.
.. // /
. .. . ., 1923. .1.

1.

.., ,

2
.
2.

..,

.
132

3.

.., 2

.
4.

.., ,

.
5.

.., ,

. .. .

,
,
,
, .
,
,
, I II ,
, ,
:

, , .
,

- .
, , ,
?
..
1
1
: . . .
4
2
133

2
: I II .
. .
4
2
3
: , . . .
4
2
4
: ? ? ?
?
:

?
-. .

.
4
2
2
1
: . :
. .
4
2
2
:

: ? ?
.
4
2
134

3
: :

2, 3, 4

2, 3, 4

5, 6

2, 3, 4

5, 6

2, 3, 4

5, 6

5, 6

.
4
2
4
: , , , ,
, ? .
.
4
2
3
1
: . .
4
2
2
: : .
.
4
2
3
: . .
. ? ?
.

. .

? .
4
2
135

4
: , , , .
. .
4
2
4
1
: .
. .
4
2
2
:

. . ?
.
4
2
3
:
. ? .
.
4
2
4
:
. : ? ? .
:

? ?
? ?

? .
136

? , .

. ? )
, ,
2, 3, 4. )
,
, 5, 6 ..,
, , .
, .
: , ,
, .
, (, , ) +
, .
. 1 100.
.
4
2
5
1
: . . .
? ? ? ?
, . .
6
3
2
: . .
. .
.
6
3
137

3
: 1 5.
: , , , ; , , , .
.
6
3
4
: .
. .
6
3
5
: : ? ?
. , .. .
6
3
6
: . : ? ?
? ? .
6
3
7
:

. . : () ? () ?
. .
6
3

138

6
1
: .
, . ? ? (, ).
.
6
3
2
: . .
? ? ? ? .
6
3
3
: . ?
. .
6
3
4
: .
. ,

.. , , .
.
6
3
5
: . .
6
3

139

6
: . .
6
3
7
: . .
6
3
7
1
:
,
. .
6
3
2
: -, -, -:
, . :
, .. .
6
3
3
: : , , ,
.. , , .
: , .. .
6
3
4
: . ,
. . .
140

6
3
5
:

..

.
. .
6
3
6
: .
.
.
. .
6
3
7
: :
. -. .
6
3
8
1
:

1 100.

.
6
3

141

2
:

. .
6
3
3
: . .
6
3
4
: . .
6
3
5
: . .
6
3
6
: . .
6
3
7
:

. .
6
3

142

, :

? :
?.

, , ,
, ,
.
,
,
, .. , : -,
, , -,
,
. , ,
, - ,

, ,
,
. ,

.
,

: ,

, ,
143


, .
: , , ,
-, .
, , ..

.

. ,
, .

,
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