Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 82

...

,

.
( )
http://martin-dzhordzh.dipenton.ru/cont/dielight/3.html

:
1. , -
, -,
.
58 , - 88 .
,
.
. ,
, .
116 ,
, ,
.
, . ?
. 584
, . :
. (
). http://karpenko-maksim.viv.ru/cont/univers/28.html
2. ( ).
( ..
). http://www.ntv.ru/home/ntveditor5/Gordon/1609_Venu...
3. , .. " ",
-- 116 (
).
. 1,6 , 5,2 ,
. -10
. 2
(176 ) 176

. , .
29 , 21 1974 16 1975
40% ,

.http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1169697/node35.html, http://cgi.astronet.ru/db/msg/1169697/no
de35.html
4. .
?
, ? ,
, ? ,
? - , ?
, " ":
, .
, ,
...(, 24.07.2002. .
).http://main.izvestia.ru/science1/article21534
5. .
,
,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
,
.
, .
, .
, , . :
,
?
- 15:1. - , , ,
, , , (
) , ,
, ,
.
, : ,
, , , , ,
, -, . , ,
, , , ,
,
, ,
, ...
.
, 4 ..
, ,
. , ,
. . ,

.
3 . .,
, ,
, . .
, .
, .
,
, , .
,
,
, . ,
,

. ,
, , , ,
, .
, , ,
,
( ).
, 243 .
,
, , ,
, , , .
.
. ( .
). (referatw.ru/cgi-bin/main.cgi?
level=5&;p1=228&p2=116&p3=34715 )
6. ... .
, .
17 .
, , , " ".
, : "... .
. . ,
. .
, ."
, - .
:" , , ,
". . - -
.
, , . - . -
- - . ,
, .
, , , , .
, - .
, , "
, ". " " -
.
. , , ,
. , .
( . " , ?") (lib.web-malina.com/getbook.php?
bid=5190&page=7 )
7. .
7.1. , ,
. , ,
. , .
.
.
.
- .
(, ) .
, . .
, , : ,
.
XIX .

, , . 52 .
, , -
,
...
1961 , 600
. , , - .
, . -
, , , ,
.
-
, , , , . .
. -
.
- .
( . ). http://www.oculus.ru/digest.php?
id=157,http://www.gazetangn.narod.ru/
7.2. 14 !
, , ,
384 . (.. . "
").http://antiqu.narod.ru/16.htm
7.3. - ?
,
, (
, , ).
, , , -
, "". .
- , ,
( ). 224,7
; , .
,
584 .
, ,
. , ,
, ,
584 - ,
. ,
. 583,92
. ,
" " (260 , 13 20
), 4 61 . ,
57- 8 .
,
- 6000 . ,

,
.
.
"" ?
,
? ( .
). http://griola.narod.ru/Books/Book2/0075.htm

7.4. . , ,
, , (
) 10000 .
. ( . " , ?") http://lib.webmalina.com/getbook.php?bid=5190&page=8
7.5. ... " " ()
1 http://lah.ru/konspekt/taina/951sneb.htm
2 http://lah.ru/konspekt/taina/952sneb.htm
3 http://lah.ru/konspekt/taina/953sneb.htm
, , . http://lah.ru/konsp.htm

:
1. ,
. . ,
, , ( )
. , ,
.
,
, ,
. ( . 1216 .
).http://schools.keldysh.ru/sch1216/materials/sun_sy...
2. : 400 ,
. ,
. ( ). (astrolab.ru/cgi-bin/print.cgi?s=manager&id=33&num=491 )
3. .
@. Oct 21 2004, 19:30.
" .
, ."
.
. , .
! :)
, " ". -
-... !!! ,
.
- ,
, . . :" ,
- ". .
@ Oct 22 2004, 00:07.
, , . ,
, ,
. ,
.
- ,
... , 32 52 29
28 , -- 32 35 31 31
. . (socionics.org/forums2/index.php?
s=818adc77a9e7d355ecbdaf60fa318ef7&showtopic=9610&st=120 ). : .
http://www.yandex.ru/

4. .
!
, -, ?
,
! , ?
, .16 2001 . http://www.judea.ru/show_topic.php3?
topic_id=855, http://www.judea.ru/forum/viewtopic.php?t=855

:
: " "
1. Astrolab.Ru
. 11.10.2003, 02:14:29.
, ,
, , , ,
,
. , ...
23.09.2003. 17:17:58.
.
1.5 1 ,
,
.
,
,
.
,
( , ).
, , ,
( 2:3).

( ,
, (
1:1), ).
.

, ,
,
. ,
2:5, 1:3, 1:2, 2:3.
, - (
).
http://exoplanets.org/ , http://www.extrasolar.net/.
... 04.09.2003 [19:08:34]
: . ,
, ( ). ,

, :
1) . ,
. .
2) ,
( )

.
, - .
, -
, .. .
, ... (astrolab.ru/cgi-bin/forum/forumn.cgi?
type=16&n=8647&l=&p=). : .
2.
.(astronomy.ru/forum/index.php/topic,11227.0.html )
3. - ? .
__ 16.07.2005, 17:47:54.
.
, - -
. , .
,
, ,
. , ,
. .
, , .
, ,
.
, , .
! ( ).
__17.07.2005, 00:30:18.
... , .
( 1.7 ), ,
,
. - . ,
. , ,
... , ,

. .
Parfen 17.07.2005, 14:03:48.
,
?
...
- , , , . ...
.
? ,
...
__ 17.07.2005, 23:15:17.
-, , . ,
. , ,
, ,
- . astronomy.ru/forum/index.php?
PHPSESSID=058ffe6f0057b29eed0b360f3825581e&topic=9577.0

: " :
"

1.1. .


()

9380

23460


()

0.31910

1.26244

1.0

1.9 (0,9 - 2,7)

0.015

0.0005

()

13.5 x 10.8 x 9.4

7.5 x 6.1 x 5.5


(/c3)

2.0

1.7

http://lnfm1.sai.msu.ru/neb/rk/natsat/marhisw.htm, http://astroscop.narod.ru/fobos.htm, http://astroscop.n


arod.ru/deymos.htm
1.2. , - ,
. ,
,
,
.
. http://y-net.narod.ru/astro/a_news18.htm
2. ,

...
. 13
4 - , , .
, ,
. .

.

,
, .
( ).http://artemblinov.chat.ru/satelit.htm

3. , ,
. , , ,
. ( .
.. .. - .
..). http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/getlend/10.h...
4. .
.
, ,
. , -
, , , ,
lenta.ru. (12.11.2004). http://www.glazok.ru/news/space/2004/11/12/3951/
5. Phobos, Iapetus, Sherlock Holmes, and Artificial ET Satellites?! (By Thomas Horn
Senior RNU News Reporter. Copyright Raiders News Update. April26,
2005). http://www.raidersnewsupdate.com/phobos.htm
Archive.org Feb 16, 2006
6. , .
- - ,
.
() , "
".
1989 ,
- "-2".
.
- , ""
.
13 ,
"-2", . ,
, 22 , ,
. , ,

.
(: .. http://www.cosmoworld.ru/spaceencyclopedia/hotnews... 10.12.2002
19:07). http://www.grani.ru/Society/Science/m.16752.html
[: !]

6. .
6.1.
Mars Express, (),
-
. 27 20 ,
. ,
,
.
, 200 ,
. .
[],
. ,

, Mars Express, ,

.
,
. ,
. ,
, . (15 2004 ,
18:00). http://science.compulenta.ru/51814/
(. ( 19.11.2004) http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1201238/Phobos_hires...)
[: (http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1201238 ) .
-1, Mars Express - ]
6.2. . , ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, 100
200 , .
20 90 .

, ...
, ?..
. (. . . . (, , 1982
.), . 25).
6.3. , ,
700 90 ! , ,
27 , -19 . (.
. (., , 1981 .), . 112).
6.4. .
1. , 1978 -1
. ( 6.04.2003).http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1188837/phobos_vik1_big.jpg.html
( 2. , ,
, . (
14.09.1998). http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1163361/phobos1_mgs_...)
( 3. ,
(), . (
1.07.2003). http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1191378/phobos_mgs_b...)
( 4. (2.4 Mb) http://ida.wr.usgs.gov/fullres/complete/orb_0501/50103.jpg.
. (72 Kb) http://ida.wr.usgs.gov/fullres/divided/orb_0501/50103f.jpg)
6.5. . 161. [.] 9,5 . ( .)
(.. . . . , , 1984, .
220) (F.L. Whipple. Orbiting the sun. Planets and satellites of the Solar system.
Harvard University Press,Cambridge, Massachusetts. London, England, 1981) [
. - ..] : , , .

: " "
1. , .
( ). .
- , , , . ,
, 1,7
. : , .
,
1:2:4. ,
.
. -
, .
http://center.fio.ru/som/RESOURCES/KIRICHENKOAV/20... :
.
2.

422

671

1070

1880

5,95 9,47

15,1

26,6

1,77 3,55

7,16

16,69

, 1023

0,892 0,487

1,490

1,065

1820 1565

2610

2420

, /3

3,53 3,03

1,93

1,79

, %(*)

8,4

42,5

50

. , 10-6

2,0

0,51

0,125

0,023

, (*)

414

159

113

35

. , (*)

18

. . , 10*12 (*)

7,45 0,62

,
1,6
10*12 (*)

, 10*12 (*)

3,9

0,08

0,45 0,22

1,6

0,3

0,18

0,01

0,43

0,27

(*) .

. 20
, ,
. . ( )
70 , ,
. , ,
. .
; -, ,
10 . . ,
10 .
"-1" , .
100-200 ,
0,6-1 / ( 0,3-0,6 /); "-2" ,
. .
, . ,
50 , . ,
560,
10-5% .
,
(
). , ,
, , . , 2, , , , -,
. ,
(, ), ,
.

. ,
[ - . .]
( = 0,004 0,01 ),
.
,
, . ,
. ,
. ,
, 18
. ,
, ,
, .
, 8.10*13 , . .
.

.
.

. , .
""
, , -
- . ,
(, ) . .
,
612, , ,
pa 145, .

. http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1191474
3.1. .
: 1.769 .
: 0.04 .
: 0,004. http://www.astrolab.ru/cgibin/manager2.cgi , http://www.astrobook.org/astronomy/solar_system/ta...
3.2. ,
,
. (24 2000 ). http://rapod.chat.ru/ap001024.html
3.3. - 3630 , 3,55
/3. 1 /
. - ,
.
.
. 130 ,
75 250 310 600 .
, ,
1 . . ,
1 10 . . ,
, ,
. ( . .. ,
. 19 2005 .
17:03:26).http://selena.sai.msu.ru/Home/SolarSystem/jupiter/...
4.1. .
: 3.551 .
: 0.47 .
: 0,009. http://www.astrolab.ru/cgibin/manager3.cgi , http://www.astrobook.org/astronomy/solar_system/ta...
4.2. - , ,
3138 , - 3,01 /3.
, , -, ,
.
, .
.
,
- , .
. ,
. , ,
, -
. , ""
,

. , ,
, -
. http://selena.sai.msu.ru/Home/SolarSystem/jupiter/...
4.3. - ,
40 ...
,
. (.. . .
. , , 1984, . 241). (F.L. Whipple. Orbiting the sun. Planets and satellites of
the Solar system. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. London, England, 1981).
4.4.

. ,
ESA NASA, BBC News.
, ,

. ESA , NASA,
.
-
Cassini-Huygens, .
Cassini , 2004 , 14 2005
Huygens .
,
, , ,
.
2016 . (novosti.online.ru,
16.03.2005). http://www.spacenews.ru/spacenews/live/full_news.a...
4.5. NASA ,
Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO).
~ 300 . ,
,
. ,
.
.
NASA 2 . ,
.
, .
(Voyager, Galileo Cassini),
.
,
, 10 / (
Cassini 100 / ).
~100 . JIMO 20 ,
20 .
2011 . 7 ,
, 2,5 ,
,
. 12 ,
. http://ynet.narod.ru/astro/a_news14.htm
5.1.
: 7.155 .
: 0.21 .
: 0,002. http://www.astrolab.ru/cgibin/manager4.cgi, http://www.astrobook.org/astronomy/solar_system/ta...

5.2. - 5262 ,
, 50%
. , - ,
3-4 . .
,
. - ,
- ,
.
, . ( . ..
, . 19 2005 .
17:03:26). http://selena.sai.msu.ru/Home/SolarSystem/jupiter/...
5.3.
(),
(. 174). .
.
. (.. . . . , ,
1984, . 246) (F.L. Whipple. Orbiting the sun. Planets and satellites of the Solar system.
Harvard UniversityPress, Cambridge, Massachusetts. London, England, 1981).
. 174. [.]
15, 1000 . (
). (. 246).
6. 1.
: 16.689 .
: 0.51 .
: 0,007. http://www.astrolab.ru/cgibin/manager3.cgi, http://www.astrobook.org/astronomy/solar_system/ta...
6.2. 4800 . - 1,83 /3 ,
60% . , ,
75 . .
.
2600 , 10 .
,
. .
150 .
3,5 . .
,
- ,
.
, 2 . . (
. .. , . 19 2005
. 17:03:26). http://selena.sai.msu.ru/Home/SolarSystem/jupiter/...

: " "
1. ( Amalthea). (J V).
1892 .
, .
, , ,
. - , , 1 1979
, , 1892 .
,
.
.

. - -
. , ,
262 x 146 x 134 ,
.
, 0.05.

. 90 .
, .
180 ,
2.55 0.003
0.4 . 11
59 .
. ,

(0.498179 ). http://lnfm1.sai.msu.ru/neb/rk/natsat/jup_sat/amal...
2.
"", 1989 ,
. , , ,
"" 5 , . , ,
. , ,
.
. , ,
,
. ,
.
. 270
, .
"", 160
5 .
("-1" "" 1999 ).
. , -
. ,
.
, -
, , .
,
- . , ,
,
,
.
, ,
, , , .
, , ,
. - ,
.
. , ,
, . , ""
, "",
, , , . (: Spaceflight
Now , Space.com. 11.12.2002, 22:23).http://www.grani.ru/Society/Science/m.16861.html

: " "

(Thebe). (J XIV - 1979J2).


. 1979 .
.
, .
. ,
, , ,
.
, ..
.

()

7.77 x 10 *17

()

55

()

45

(/3)

1.5

()

221 895

()

0.674536

()

0.674536

(/)

23.93

0.0183


()
1.0659 http://lnfm1.sai.msu.ru/neb/rk/natsat/jup_sat/teb....
: ", "

1.

133 583

13,8

26

5x10*15

137 670

14,4

37x34,4x27

2x10*15

0,63 /3

40%

139 353

14,7

14810068

1,9x10*17 0,63 /3

60%

(
)

50%

141 700

15,1

1108862

1,5x10*17 0,63 /3

50%

151 422

16,7

138110110 5,3x10*17 0,61 /3

50%

151 422

16,7

194190154

1,90x10*18

0,66 /3

185 520

22,6

397

3,81x10*19

1,165 /3 60%

238 020

32,8

512x497x489 1,2x10*20 1,60 /3

()

294 660

45,3 (1,89 1 070 x 1 056 x 1 6,17x10*20


)
052

0,99 /3

80%

294 660

1,89

302515

8x10*17

1,0 /3

90%

294 660

1,89

301616

8x10*17

1,0 /3

70%

377 400

2,74

1 120

1,05x10*21

1,49 /3

60%

377 400

2,74

363230

1,5 /3

60%

527 040

4,52

1 530

2,49x10*21

1,24 /3

60%

1 221 850

15,94

5 150

1,345x10*23
1,881 /3 21%

1 481 100

21,28

160130107

3 560 830

79,33

1 436

1,88x10*21

60%

99%

0,6 /3

30%

1,25 /3

60% 4%

,
, ,
, , ,

.
: ,
. .
, .. ,
[ ]. ,
. ( -
). http://naturalist.rarib.ru/satmoon.htm
2.1. :
.
: 8,4 * 1019 .
: 238,02 .
: 1.12 /3.
: 0 .
: 0,0045. http://www.astrolab.ru/cgi-bin/manager4.cgi
2.2.
.
,
. .

Cassini.
17 9 ,
.
, , - ,
- .
,
"", -.
, 500 , 90%
,
. Cassini
. (newsru.com, 18.03.2005). http://www.spacenews.ru/spacenews/live/full_news.a...
2.3. : ?

"" (Cassini), Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS)
(Enceladus) 14 .
( 19477). 320 ,
172
( 500
8.2 /). "" -
.
- , "",
, -, 30 60 (10-20 , 4 ), . "
, ", -
(David Rothery), (Open University).
(John Spencer) - , "" - (Southwest Research Institute) , , : "
.
.
, ".
,
. ,

, ,
. , "" .
, ""
"", - "" .
( http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0201/encela..., http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/ap
od/ap020124.html ).
( (2005 February 24)
http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0502/enceladus_cassini_full.jpg, http://antwrp.gsfc.na
sa.gov/apod/ap050224.html).
, ,
. ""
. - 17 - 1167
. 37,5
. , 9
2005 500 .
.
, "".

, .
"" 12 2008
. 60 (100 ) -
.
, ,
"E", -, 302
557 . , -
(Mimas) - -
" ". "" - ,
. (Enceladus2_saturn.jpl.nasa.gov.jpeg).
( 2005 March 17
http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0503/enceladus_cassini_03_full.jpg, http://antwrp.gsf
c.nasa.gov/apod/ap050317.html).

100 , .
- 200 .
237 378 , (384 400
).
, , " " -
.
( ) ,
, .
"" ( ""
).
. ,
,
.

"". ,
, - .
.
(Imperial College).
: Cassini spacecraft: Mystifying pictures - PhysOrg.com - United Press International.
Enceladus Flyby - Cassini-Huygens News. Bizarre boulders litter Saturn moon's icy surface - New
Scientist. Cassini in Enceladus close flyby - BBC News. (23.7.05, 12:51:38 AM). http://www.okoplanet.spb.ru/awakening.nsf/page/tema.html?opendocument&p=1_2&type=viewmes&site=E16A

2.4. .
vika vorobyeva. 03.03.2005, 11:32:25.
" ",
, . ,
, ( )
- . , .
,
, .
bob. 03.03.2005, 14:10:59.
.
. , .
, , .
vika vorobyeva. 03.03.2005, 15:16:52.
, 0 .
-200 , ,
.
, , (
). - , - .
, , - .
Che. 03.03.2005, 17:19:49.
, ?
Burlog. 07.03.2005, 14:25:48.
, -
. , ( ?)
. , ,
-
, (
). .. ,
( ) ,
, , ..
. ""...
hoarfrost. 07.03.2005, 20:39:19.
- ?
Vika, ?
vika vorobyeva. 09.03.2005, 13:03:42.
, , , .
, ( )
CO2, .
. :
"Other preliminary results from the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer show a surface
composed of only pure water ice, with no other compounds detected. Ammonia or ammonium
compounds and carbon dioxide were expected, but not seen in the data. Further analysis may find trace
amounts. "The spectra look like laboratory fabricated water ice, indicating the ice is quite pure," said Dr.
Roger N. Clark, Cassini science team member at the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver".
(http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/press-release-details.cfm?newsID=546)
( ):

"
, ,
. ,
. . " ,
, ", -
- ,
".
bob. 09.03.2005, 13:10:08.
, . , . "
" , ,
. http://www.astronomy.ru/forum/index.php/topic,7958.0.html
2.5. Cassini -
Cassini . .
, - ,
. .
.
, Cassini, . 14
175 .
,
, .
, .
. , "" ,
.
,
, ,
.
10 100 .
, ,
, .
, Cassini ,
. ,
, .
... .

,
. (cybersecurity.ru, 27.07.2005). http://www.spacenews.ru/spacenews/live/full_news.asp?
id=14321
2.6. - " ".
Cassini
(Robert H. Brown) ,
" " .
,
"-2" ,
, .
, ,
,
, Physorg.
- : 500-
, ,
, ,
, .
, Cassini, ,
, . ,

,
.
, , 120 - " ",
: -183C -203C.
,
,
. , " "
: , , . , ,
4,5 , " ".
,
. (inauka.ru, 07.09.2005). http://www.spacenews.ru/spacenews/live/full_news.a...
2.7. Forum Icy Moons Unmanned
Spaceflight.com. http://www.unmannedspaceflight.com/index.php?showt...
2.8. Cassini passed by the moon Enceledus on February 16,
2005. (Photo). http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect19/Sect19_19a.html
2.9. Enceladus. (Photo). http://starsoverkansas.org/archives/123
3.1. .
: 0.33 .
: 0,0292.
: 1,3584 /2 (0,138 ).
27 .
29,46 .
: 85% , 12% , 3% . ,
, , , ,
. http://www.astrolab.ru/cgi-bin/manager4.cgi, http://www.astrobook.org/astronomy/solar_syste
m/ta...
3.2. "" . (). http://yastro.narod.ru/a_news65.htm
3.3. Cassini .
Cassini . 15

.
1577 ,
.
, ( 440 ) ,
, ,
.
( http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA07009_modest.jpg, http://photojournal.jpl.n
asa.gov/catalog/PIA03555)
, , ,
- .
, "
" - ,
. - ( ) -
. , ,

,
. (17 2005 ). http://www.membrana.ru/lenta/?4318
4. .
4.1. .
: 530 .
: 1,887802.
: 0.
: 1,86.
: 10,2m.
: 7,551020 . http://www.astrolab.ru/cgi-bin/manager3.cgi?id=28&...
4.2. " - ".

, -
. , ,
,50 .
, "", :
, Cassini , ,
, ,
20 . , , .
20 .
"" (http://elementy.ru/news/164840) New Scientist SPACE.
( 15:01 28.09.05) ( .) http://www.inauka.ru/news/article57233.html
( . http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA07737_modest.jpg , http://photojo
urnal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07737)
5. Cassini .
, ,
- .
New Scientist SPACE,
26 . Cassini 500 .
Cassini
, ,
. ,
- (Tirawa),
, -,
Cassini, - .
,
. (30.11.2005) http://elementy.ru/news/165011
500 ( Cassini 26
2005 ). NASA http://www.newscientistspace.com/
6.1. ,
: 14.72 .
: 0,0283. http://www.astrolab.ru/cgi-bin/manager4.cgi
6.2. , , . ( Cassini
. 19 2004
).http://www.membrana.ru/lenta/index.html?3396

[: !]

6.3.1. - .
. -
, .
( PIA06166_modest http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA06166_modest.jpg ,
http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06166,http://www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx
?c=a&...)
. - 20 ,
- 1300 . 13 .
. , - ,
,
. , 1436 , ,
(
).
, : ( 045.jpeg)
(http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06171) (15-
!) 600 .
( - 120 ). (
). (starway.yaroslavl.ru/pg.php?pg=nws&p=029 ),http://yastro.narod.ru/a_news129.htm
(http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06171)
6.3.2. .
Nikkro (nikkro@mail.ru): " " ",
"" ( ),
, : 1 - , ,
""; 2 - ,
; 3 - - (
)". (3 2007
). http://artefact.aecru.org/image/664/9327, http://artefact.mylivepage.ru/image/412/6728
6.4. Cassini - ,
, .
13 . -
.
,
.
- , , -
.
, , .
" ".
( 15 , 60
) () .
, -
(, ) , . (11 2005
). http://www.membrana.ru/lenta/?4161
- "" ( 1. news.bbc.co.uk).

( 1.-. PIA06166_modest .5.3.)


20 .
(Photo http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06166)
6.5. :
, ,
. ,
,
.
, NASA , ,
, , .
, , , ,
, . 20
, - 1300 . -
. , ,
.
. -,
.
- Olympus Mons.
, , . -, ,

, . (26.01.05, 19:49,
). http://www.cnews.ru/newtop/index.shtml?2005/01/26/...
6.6. .
Vlavr. 14 2005 , 00:18.
- http://www.membrana.ru/lenta/?4161?
,
- http://www.membrana.ru/lenta/i ndex.html?3396.
Pav1o. 17 , 14:17. 2 vlavr.
, .
Vlavr. 17 , 15:31. Pav1o.
[ , .]
.
1) .
(16
1200 - 160 -
) ?
2) - ,
.
3) ( )
. .
Fyunt. 17 , 19:37.
, .
- .
(
), ,
.
- .
,
. , , ,

.
. ? ...
. - ,
() .
- !!!
!!!
Leonid. ( . leonid@membrana.ru). 17 , 20:20. fyunt.
- .
- .
. ()
- , .
- , - .
. , - ?
... .
- . ,
. .
Fyunt. 17 , 21:27. leonid.
.
, , - .
, .
, , , . , , - - .
, .
, , . ,
, .
Vlavr. 17 , 22:51.
.
.
.
Bo. ( ). 18 , 01:51.
- ,
(, - ,
) - . - ,
?
zyxman07. 18 , 03:14
:).
( ) ( )
.
"" , .
Pav1o. 18 , 20:37.
, () -
.
Lenochka. 12 2005, 02:53.
!
[Iapetus], , ! :)
(In our opinion, Cassini's discovery of "the Great Wall of Iapetus" now forces serious reconsideration
of a range of staggering possibilities ... that some will most certainly find ... upsetting:

That, it could really be a "wall" ... a vast, planet spanning, artificial construct!!
This is not the first time that startling new data has prompted scientific consideration of "intelligence" at
Saturn. In addition to Arthur's [Arthur C. Clarke] well-known musings, the extreme albedo range
displayed by Iapetus prompted a sober suggestion in the 1980's, that "the brightness variations might be
artificial." Donald Goldsmith and Tobias Owen (the latter, the NASA discoverer of "the face on Mars!")
wrote of Iapetus in The Search for Life in the Universe (1980): This unusual moon is the only object in the
Solar System which we might seriously regard as an alien signpost - a natural object deliberately modified
by an advanced civilization to attract our attention [emphasis added]
However, now that Cassini has revealed to us unquestionably the greatest linear feature in the solar
system (below), such scientific speculations take on added urgency - if, for no other reason -- becauseThere is no viable geological model to explain a sixty thousand-foot-high, sixty thousand-foot-wide, four
million-foot-long "wall" ... spanning an entire planetary hemisphere ... let alone, located in the precise
plane of its equator! [ ,
"" , ,
... ...
!]
It is a well-known clich that "Nature doesn't usually create straight lines." If that is true, then it
certainly doesn't create three of them (close-up-below) - all running parallel, not only to each other, but to
the literal equator of the planet.
"Nature" also doesn't create a veritable "Maginot Line" of the geometric complexity and regularity seen
here ... certainly not one stretching horizontally, across this one small section of Iapetus, for over sixty
miles.... (By Richard C. Hoagland 2005
The Enterprise Mission) http://www.enterprisemission.com/moon1.htm)
[ uncle_Serg:
. . (
). http://artefact62.mylivepage.ru/wiki/393/101 ]
Curiouscat. 13 , 20:52.
, , , "
!". , .
, :
)
)
)
, , :)
Gnum (Alexander Gnum). 16 , 08:00. 2 vlavr:
[" ?"]
- .
Curiouscat. 16 , 10:07.
, , - .
, 1000 . "" ,
. , , .
.
zyxman07. 16 , 21:48 curiouscat
( ).
() , -
, " " (
, ).

, .
aka
:).
curiousc. 16 , 23:10. zyxman07.
, ... http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/CassiniHuygens/SEM9NL...
aztec. 18 , 19:43.
- - "" ?
?
zyxman07. 18 , 20:46. aztec.
- , " ":
( - ),
( ).
, .
Aztec. (aztec@pochta.ru). 18 , 21:20.
. ? ?
( ), ...
Kandid. (kandid@front.ru) 19 , 20:07.
NASA . . . . http://forum.membrana.ru/forum/space.html?parent=1...
6.7. Forum SCI/TECH: "That's no moon..."- Cassini captures interesting image of
Iapetus. http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread110606/p...
6.8. .
,
( ). ,
. ( ).
.
- . , (
), ,
( ).
( jp ).
, ( "")
/ ( , ,
). "" ,
. . ,
"" . ;=) ,
.
( ), ,
.
, . (
) , ,
( - - . ;-))
.
, , . ,
, ,
. ,
. ..
. ,
. , , (

), .
"" , .
, ( ). ;-)
- .
. .

,
. , .
.
. .
. ,
.
. ( ) ,
. ,
.

? , . , ,
. ..
, / .
, ,
, , . ,
,
. ,
( ), ,
, .
, "" (
10 2007 ),
"". ,
imho . ( .
(C) .. koryagin@dts.ru 2005). http://koryagin.newmail.ru/lapetus.htm
6.9.1. .
, "",
- - ,
.
"" .
, - "" - 13
, - 20 , 1,3 ,
. ""
- .
.
(Julie Castillo)
(JPL). , "" -
, , .
, ,
, 10 .
1,5 , .

80 . ,
. , (
20 )
, , ,
"" .
(Wing-Huen Ip)
(NCU).
, ( , ).
.
.
. - "
", .
, ,
, .
, , ,
, . , .
Cassini
. (5 2006 ). http://www.membrana.ru/lenta/?6383
6.9.2. New attempts to crack Saturn's "walnut" moon. (04 September 2006,
12:20). http://www.newscientistspace.com/article/dn9884-new-attempts-to-crack-saturns-walnutmoon.html
6.10. C , . ( - ,
- ).
:

3561300

1436 (892 ) Riap=718

384 400

3476

12756

Re = 6378

( )

120536

Rsat=60268

(9.54)

1426.98

(=1)

95.2

(1)

149600000

1) :
= 3561300 / 60268 = 59,091
2) :
= 384400 / 6378 = 60,269
3) :

1 = 3561300 / 384400 = 9,265


4) :
2 = 120536 / 12756 + 200 = 9,303
5)
:
3 = 1426.98 / 149,6 = 9,54
6). :
4 = 95,2. (nikkro@mail.ru, 04 2007, 16:25:27).
[ :
, 3
(http://www.krugosvet.ru/articles/21/1002118/100211...). ,
, 1 2
.]
6.11.1. .
" ", - (Julie
Castillo) (JPL), ,
, " ".
, ,
, 2,5
Cassini. , .
,
,
, , , "
";
, , .
.

/. , , ,
, - .
,
" ". ,
, JPL.
( )
, 16 .
"".
.
( 80
, ),
, , ,
. ,
" ", (
) , , , "" .

, , (
) -26
-60, ,
,
Icarus...

,
. (: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm?release=2007...). (18 2007
). http://www.membrana.ru/lenta/?7471
6.11.2. 3 .
( 17- ).
, 59 ,
, 3 .
,
.
, "-",
, .
" ,
. ,
. ,
,
,
, ", -
, Cassini
(, , )...
" ,
- 80 . 3 .
5 ", - ,
.
, , 16
. (18.07.2007, 09:33). http://www.cybersecurity.ru/news/27890.html
Julie Castillo: Dreaming of Iapetus. http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/features/feature20...
6.11.3. .
, ,
- ""
, .
, "",
. ,
. , -
, .
- .
( ) Julie Castillo,
, ,
, .
5 - 16 ,
80 .
"" .
"" , "" , ,
.
- ,
,

. . ,
.
,
, .
, ,
- .
-26 ( 720 . ) -60 (1,5 .
). .
. 4,564 . .
, , - , ,
. ,
,
, .
, -
.
, - ,
. , 25 1671
, - ,
...
,
- , , ,
. ,
, . .
- - .
, .
"" 1 . 10 2007 .
(18.07.2007, 13:06, ). http://rnd.cnews.ru/natur_science/news/top/index_s...
[ :
, :
, - 3 . :
(6.11.3), - (.. , , :

. http://ziv.telescopes.ru/rubric/astronomy/index.ht...).]

: " "
1. .
: ,
, , . "-2" ,
- 14 72 - .
: 1985 U-1, 1986 U-1, ... 1986 U-9.
,
"".
"" - 1986 U-7 1986
U-8. ,

, "-",
, , , , .
, ,
,
. - , ,
.
- ( 1600 ), 369
. , 13 .
. 1500
75 . . -
200 200 .
300 .
"-2"
, ,
, ,
170 . . ,
3 , ,
.
, .
.
- , , 30 ,
, ,
( ) .
1200 , , ,
. http://kuasar.narod.ru/library/uran-and-voyager2/i...
2.1. .
. 1948 . 470
130 , 1.4 .
"".
()

6.59 x 10*19

()

235.8

(/3)

1.201

()

129 872

(.)

1.413479

(.)

1.413479

(.)

4.22

0.0027

.
,
. http://lnfm1.sai.msu.ru/neb/rk/natsat/miranda.htm
2.2. 480 .

. ,
.
, , , ,

, .
, - 5 .
, , .
, , ,
. 77.
. (
1987 ).http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/ejeg/1987/87...
2.3. .
500
: , - .
, "" .
"". ""
5 . ,
220 , 600 . , , ,
. http://kuasar.narod.ru/library/uran-and-voyager2/i...
. (
1. http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0202/mirand... , http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/a
p020216.html).
(
2. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/hires/vg2_2684626.gif, http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat
/html/object_page/vg2_2684626.html).
(
3. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/hires/vg2_2684620.gif, http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat
/html/object_page/vg2_2684620.html).
3. .
(Umbriel) . 1851 .
266 , 4 .
(1688-1744) .
()

1.17 x 10*21

()

584.7

(/3)

1.52

()

265 998

()

4.144177

()

4.144177

()

0.36

0.0050

- - 19 %
. http://lnfm1.sai.msu.ru/neb/rk/natsat/umbriel.htm
4.1. .
1787 .
583 , 13.5 .
- -

,
" " - .
()

3.01 x 10*21

()

761.4

(/3)

1.64

()

583 519

()

13.46324

()

13.46324

()

0.10

0.0008.

http://lnfm1.sai.msu.ru/neb/rk/natsat/oberon.htm
[: !]

4.2. - .
? 1919
,
.
. ,
, " ".

( ). ,

-2 1986
. (27.02.1999).http://www.astronet.ru:8101/db/msg/1163233/
4.3.
. , ,
, , . 5 ,
[ . - ..]. (
.) http://kuasar.narod.ru/library/uran-and-voyager2/i...

: " "
1. .
: 2.147

1022

: 1 352
: 2.050 /3
: 354 760
: 5.877
: 157.345
: 0. http://www.astrolab.ru/cgibin/manager2.cgi, http://www.astrobook.org/astronomy/solar_system/ta...

2. : "". (.
. . . (, , 1982 .), . 192)
3. . ,
"", (
, , , )
1/10 .
,
- ( ?) (
).
,
,
.
- ,
, () .
(, ,
), .
,
( )
. , .
, 157
( 30
).
, ,
. , ,
, -2
.
(2.0 /3) , ,
(, ). , , 25% ,
.
, (
0.01 ). .
5-10 .
34.5 K (-235 C, -391 F), ,
. (0.7-0.8),
.
, , .
,
. " "
().

. , .
( )
. , , ,
- .
, 8
140 " " ().
, ,
, ( ,
). ,

. ,
( ) ,
. , ,
. ,
- . http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1170734/triton.html
Triton: Neptune's Largest Moon. (http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap971123.html)
4. : .
(Craig Agnor) ,
(University of California - Earth Sciences at UCSC) -
(Douglas Hamilton) (University of Maryland),
, -
,
. - ,
,
( ,
,
).
" " , ,
" ".
, ( (2,15x1022 ) 40
" " - , 2 700 )
,
( "" ).
, - , ,
. ,
, ,
- . -
,
: - ,
,
.
,
. ,

,
, - - ,
( "" - -
, , ).
,
. ,
11 KBOs (Kuiper belt objects) - (
, ). (
), "",
- .
() ,
, ""
( ). (,
"", , ,

) ( ""
- " " ,
, ,
). (Alessandro Morbidelli)
(Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur) ,
, , , .
, , ,
, , -
.

"",
() . - ""
,
. (,
), . "" ,
,
( )
() .
, , , . (""
"") .
.
, (
1846 , 17 )
"". ,
, - " " (
25 1989 "-2").
(-235C),
,
( - ),
( 0,01 , ;
). 157
, 30
. ,

.http://galspace.spb.ru/nature.file/sol.html

: ""
1. , -13 ,
. 15 ,
(2,5 /) 135
. 10- .
4 . ,
, , . , ,
.
.

1 10 .
:
, 5-10 ,
. .
, . , , . ,
.
. ,
.
, . ,
, , .
5000, , .
, , ,
. http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1169697/node32.html
2. -12
, ,
,
,

. , ,
, - .
-13.
- ,
.
-5, ,
. 13 .
.
4 .
, . ,
,
- ,
- .
, . ,
, , - , .

. , ,

.
,

,
. http://astrolib.narod.ru/books/NZA/15.htm
3. ?
newfiz. 13.04.2005, 09:34:12.
,
, , -
. http://www.astronomy.ru/forum/index.php/topic,8516.0.html
4.
. (17.04.2006) http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/index.shtml?2006/04/1...

: ""
1. (""), ("")
("") .
:
300-600
. .

1000 . ,
. . 50% 700-
. ,

, .
- - .
.
. ,
(
). http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1189336/text#bDX9pep...

2. , - ( -
) "", , ,
, - .
. ( ).
http://mirror01.users.i.com.ua/~walk_in/we%20ino/w...
3. .
, ,
,
,
,
... ,
, . (.. .
. , , 1985, . 119).
4.1. "".





30
, 1972



-
. (27.03.2006). http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1212606

?
,
,
, ,

.
1977
28 .
, ,
.

,
.
,

4.2. Moonquakes. (03.15.2006).


Right: Representative lunar seismograms from the Apollo 16 station.
( :
1972 . ,
).http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/15mar_moon...

: ""
1. [].
Galileo 7 .
Galileo , ,
. Galileo
,
.
, (
(Photo 1.) ).
.
.
, - ,
. ,

.
. ( ),
. ,
, ,
(, ).
, .
, (),
, 800 . ,
"" .
"" , .
. (novosti.online.ru, 16.08.2004).
http://www.spacenews.ru/spacenews/live/full_news.asp?id=9831

(Photo 1). Scientists have discovered irregular lumps beneath the icy surface of Jupiter's largest
moon, Ganymede. These irregular masses may be rock formations, supported by Ganymede's icy shell
for billions of years. This mosaic of Jupiter's moon Ganymede consists of more than 100 images acquired
with NASA's Voyager and Galileo spacecrafts. The gravity anomalies or lumps inferred from the
Galileo radio Doppler data are shown in red. The mosaic shows the surface of Ganymede with its
geographic coordinate system and the Galileo gravity results superimposed. The trajectory path of
Galileo's second Ganymedeflyby on September 6, 1996, is shown in green. There are no obvious
geologic features associated with the anomalies.(http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05077)
2.
2.1.
. .
, .
( ).
: . , ,
, , , ,

( ).
10*-5 10*-6 10*-4
( 1016 ). ( , )
.
( 1000 } - ,
( 900 ).
? .
, , ,
,
. , ,
.
. , ,
, (
). ,
.
, 2,4
/3. , , ,
(, ,
) . (.
. ). http://citadel.pioner-samara.ru/distance/moon_bro....
2.2. 1968 , , .
. 5. ,
,
, ,
. (mass concentrations).
(100 ) 200 .
, 250 , -220 , -- 130 . ""
. ,
, .
. " ".
.
. ,
.
, ,
. , ,
, 0,5 . .
, .
3 .

. http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1169697/node33.html
2.3. , (). ,
, .
. (
.).
. 200 .
.
,
pa . 1000 .
1000 , 100 .
0,0001 . .
( , .
). http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1189336/text#bDX9pep...
2.4. .
, - .
, ,

. 6,1 , .
,
6 , .
, ,
, , - , 6
. ,
( 3,5
), ,
,
, , .
,
-10, 31 9
, .
.

.
,
. ,
,
"".http://alex.luminal.org/Water/water7.pdf.
2.5.1. .
1970- Apollo 15 16 PFS-1
PFS-2. ,
. , ,
, .
- .
PFS-1 Apollo 15
. (http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/06nov_lowo...)
PFS-1 PFS-2
89 122 . NASA,
PFS-2 ,
.
10 . , PFS-2 .
60 ,
. 29 1972 . PFS-2 - 35 425 .
PFS-1.

NASA (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). ,
, . ,
,
. (Alex S.
Konopliv), NASA: ,
, ,
. (
mass concentration - ).
,
.
, .
-
. , -
, .

, Lunar Prospector.
.
(http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/images/low...)
, Lunar Prospector 1998-1999 .,
, .
,
.
,
. ,
.
, ,
, - .
-
. : - , ,
, .
,
. , ,
100 , .
.
, ,
- -
.
, , .
Lunar Prospector 2 ,
100 . 30 ,
.
30 1999 . , -
. ( NASA. 8.11.2006,
18:35). http://www.popularmechanics.ru/part/?articleid=1348&rubricid=3
2.5.2. Bizarre Lunar Orbits. (11.06.2006). http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/06nov_lowo...
3. ... .
3.1. ,
.
- . - 1300 .
. , , ,
.
( "") ,
,
. , 176 ,
, . ,

.
- . ,
3-4 , - ,
- - .
, "",
.
. , ""
.
:
() 3000 .

.
, .
, ,
.
(.. )
.
0,25-2 . ,
, , , ,
. ,
. , -,
. (02.08.2004,
20:52:26). http://lenta.ru/articles/2004/08/02/mercury/
3.2.
, . (.
. . . (., , 1981 .), . 46).
4. .

. ,
4,1 - 3,8 . ,
, .
,
. , , : ..
, .. . ? (. 6. 2000). (..
). http://x-mars.narod.ru/book/book_9.htm, http://yastro.narod.ru/a_news97.htm

: " "
1. Images of impact crater chains on Callisto.
1) A portion of a chain of impact craters on Jupiter's moon Callisto is seen in this image taken by the
Galileo spacecraft on November 4, 1996. This crater chain on Callisto is believed to result from the impact
of a split object, similar to the fragments of Comet Shoemaker- Levy 9 which smashed into Jupiter's
atmosphere in July of 1994.
Impact Crater Chain On Callisto. Galileo Image. November 4, 1996.
(http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/images/callisto1.jpg)
This high- resolution view, taken by Galileo's solid state imaging television camera during its third orbit
around Jupiter, is of Callisto's northern hemisphere at 35 degrees north, 46 degrees west, and covers an
area of about eight miles (13 kilometers) across. The smallest visible crater is about 140 yards (130
meters) across. The image was taken at a range of 974 miles (1,567 kilometers).
On a global scale, Callisto is heavily cratered, indicating the great age of its surface. At the scale of this
image, it was anticipated that the surface would be heavily cratered as well; however, there is a surprising
lack of small craters, suggesting that one or more processes have obliterated these and other small-scale
features. For example, downslope movement of ice-rich debris could bury small craters. The bright slopes
visible in this picture represent places where downslope movement has taken place, exposing fresh ice
surfaces.
2) This Voyager 1 image of Gipul Catena, on Callisto, was obtained in March, 1979.
Gipul Catena Crater Chain On Callisto. Voyager 1 Image. March 1979.
Seven other crater chains have been mapped on Callisto to date. The discovery of Shoemaker-Levy 9
in 1993 solved the mystery of the origin of these chains. These chains formed when the fragments of

comets split by Jovian tides hit the large Jovian satellites. Crater size and chain morphologies are being
studied to determine the masses of comet fragments and nuclei and to assess models for the break up of
comet nuclei. Gipul Catena is 620 km long and located near Callisto's north pole.
3) This image taken by the Voyager spacecraft of an unnamed crater chain is one of the longest of 12
or so such chains on Callisto, one of Jupiter's 4 planet-sized satellites.
Impact Crater Chain On Callisto. Voyager Image.
(http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/images/callisto3.jpg)
It is 360 kilometers long and the largest individual crater is approximately 24 kilometers across. Jay
Melosh and Paul Schenk, reporting in the October 21, 1993, issue of Nature, propose that these and
similar mysterious crater chains on Ganymede and Callisto probably formed from the past impact of
comets tidally disrupted during close passage of Jupiter, similar to comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 which will
strike Jupiter in July, 1994. They conclude that tidal splitting of comets is relatively common and can occur
roughly once per century. http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/images/callisto.html
2.1.1. , .
(Nicholson region) .
(http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01612)
,
. ,
, .
, ,
.
, ,
. -
. ,
( ) .
- , .
, 111 93 , 14 .. 352 . - 180 .
5 1997 17 840
"". http://freescince.narod.ru/ganimed/photo10.htm
2.1.2. Images of impact crater chains on Ganymede.
Impact Crater Chains On Ganymede. Voyager Image.
Two of three anomalous crater chains on Ganymede are shown here. The chain on the left is 60
km long, and is believed to have formed when a comet split by Jupiter into6 fragments hit Ganymede. The
chain on the right is 160 km long and also formed when a split comet hit Ganymede. The sizes of these
craters and the morphologies of these crater chains are being studied to determine the properties of
cometary nuclei, and the nature of the comet splitting
process.http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/images/ganymede.html
2.2. (Photo 1 Galileo. View of a chain of craters named Enki Catena on Jupiter's moon,
Ganymede.)
. 11 (ris11.jpg) - ,
, ""
.
, - 9, 13
. JPL/NASA
( ). (.. , -

. .. , .
"". , 3/2004). http://ziv.telescopes.ru/rubric/cosmonautics_xxi/i...
(Photo 1 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01610 )
[Photo 1: ? , ,
,
, 20 1965 . Ranger VIII
. (. 4.) - ..]
( 2). . 12. , 20
1965 . Ranger VIII .
() Fb 80 45,6
. 19 13,7
. (. . .
(1958-1968 .). , 1971). http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/amsusa/03.h...
3.1.1. Apollo 11 Oblique View Of Lunar Farside.

NASA Photo ID: AS11-43-6439.


An Apollo 11 oblique view of the lunar farside. The linear group of small craters is located within the
large International Astronomical Union (IAU) crater no. IX, and is centered at 139.5 degrees east
longitude and 7 degrees north latitude. The absence of shadows is due to the high sun angle. The crater
chain is approximately 34 statute miles in length; and the large crater adjacent to the crater chain is about
10.5 statute miles in diameter.http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/images/moon.html
3.1.2. This is an oblique photograph of the Catena Mendeleev linear crater chain. This feature is
located on the interior floor of the Mendeleev walled plain, on thefar side of the Moon. The image was
taken during the Apollo 11 mission. The crater at top center is Richards. The absence of shadows is
due to the high angle of the sun. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Catena_mendeleev.gif
3.1.3. . 7 2007
Kaguya/Selene
http://wms.selene.jaxa.jp/data/en/hdtv/004/hdtv_00...
3.2. Oblique view of the Davy crater chain on the Moon.
"Apollo 12" photograph taken from orbit showing the Davy crater chain, a string of craters extending
about 50 km across the floor of crater Davy Y. The large crater at the top of the image is Davy crater, 34
km in diameter and centered at 11.8 S, 8.1 W. The crater chain has been hypothesized to be a volcanic
feature, a string of secondary impact craters, or craters due to multiple impacts from a Shoemaker-Levy 9
type object. North is to the right. (Apollo 12, AS12-H-517485).http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/html/object_page...
(http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/hires/a12_h_51_7485.gif)
3.3. SMART-1's view of Crater Hopmann: on the shoulder of a giant.
The small crater chains to the left of Hopmann can be interpreted as series of so-called secondary
craters', created by the impact of the material ejected from a nearby large impact. This ejected material
flies away in molten state, and fall in large droplets. When these impact on the surface, they form
typical crater chains as those visible in this image. (3 May 2006). http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/SMART1/SEM1PPOFGLE_0....,http://www.space.com/php/multimedia/imagegallery/i...

3.4. . (.., 23 2008 ). artefact2007.livejournal.com/11905.html


4. ( ).

Mars' largest satellite, Phobos. Reproduced from Volume 14 of the Mission to Mars: Viking Orbiter
Images of Mars CD-ROM set.http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/image/planetary/mars/ph...
5. "" ! " ".
Mike. 07, 2005, 03:20.
:

[ .] http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?
t=175&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=765
6. , .
N00030083.jpg (Full-Res: N00030083.jpg) was taken on March 09, 2005 and received on Earth
March 09, 2005. The camera was pointing toward ENCELADUS at approximately 17,653
kilometers away, and the image was taken using the CL1 and GRN filters. (Photo.)
(http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/raw/r...)
[ :
,
. ,
.

,
http://saturn1.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/raw/...,
http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/raw/casJPGFullS09/ 403 Forbidden. You don't
have permission to access /multimedia/images/raw/casJPGFullS09/ on this server.]

: " "
1.1. , .
,
. ,
800 ~65 .
200 . ( 1981 . 1). http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/ejeg/1981/81...
1.2. , -2, ~400 . 15
, . , , ,
, 750 .
270. 200 .

( )
. 5-10%
. , ,
.
, . (
1982). http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/ejeg/1982/82...
1.3. ""
"" -
(24 ) (26 ). NASA/Ciclops (
"") , . "" 1071-
1,5 ,
, ( "" ).
- , .
Ithaca Chasma.
, ,
Ithaca Chasma .
. Ithaca Chasma.
( http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA07734_...,
http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07734).
NASA , , ,
, - .
-
, .
. "" 500 .
.
.
, ;
, .
266- .
, " ".
(04.10.2005, http://science.compulenta.ru/). http://www.spacenews.ru/spacenews/live/full_news.a...
.
,
.
32
, . -
( 2),
- , .
- , - .
, . ,
,
. http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1208521)
( 2. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA07737_modest.jpg, http://ph
otojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07737).
2.1. , .
, -2, ,
( ) .
, , 0,5 0,04-0,05.
. ,
.
. ,
, , , .

, ,
.
-2 .
1,1 /3. ,
20% .
,
. , , .
, , , ,
,
. ,
. (
1982). http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/ejeg/1982/82...
( 1. Iapetus-Voyager2-PIA00348.jpeg,
2. Iapetus-distant2.jpeg. - ,
).http://www.enterprisemission.com/moon1.htm
2.2. Cassini .
Cassini
- . 1,436 .
:
( - ) - 50%
, ( ) - , 34%.
.
: - - ,
.
, , .
, , - .

.
-
.
- , ,
, - "". (19 2004
). http://www.membrana.ru/lenta/index.html?3396
2.3. ( - 1460 ),
, 25 1671 , . ,
, , ,
, . ,
-
. ,
, - , ( 0,03 - 0,05). ,
( 0,5), , ,
-
. 15 .
, ,
.

,
. , ,
, ,
- Cassini Regio.
, . ,
-
. ,
, .
. (26.01.05, 19:49). http://www.cnews.ru/newtop/index.shtml?2005/01/26/...
2.4. Forum Space Science & Astronomy.
telfrow. 03/26/05, 12:08 PM. Re: Facinating article: Iapetus artificial constru.
For reference, Hoagland's description reads: "Close examination reveals a definite "grid" crisscrossing
this region ... apparently composed of several angled layers of overlying structural "rebar" -- but on an
incomparably massive scale ...."
Here a few views of the same area, taken from different angles:
http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/raw/c...
http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/raw/c...
(http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/raw/r...,
http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/raw/c...)

(http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/raw/r...,
http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/raw/c...)
In 308 and 310 notice that the second side of the "V" (running from 1:00 to 7:00) is not as evident as it
is in the photo you posted. Full frame 308 or 310 and take a close look at the
area. http://uplink.space.com/showflat.php?
Cat=&Board=sciastro&Number=175609&page=0&view=collapsed&sb=7&o=0&fpart=10&vc=1
3.1. - . ,
, - . ,
!
.
. ,

, . ( .)
http://www.planeta.volsu.ru/stroen/planeta/luna.ht...
3.2. .
, , .
, ,
,
, .
,
,
- . .
1959 -3 ,
, , .
, ,
, .
1969 -10 ,
31 15 .
,
: , . ,
, .
,
, ;
.
. ;
17 ;
2,1 , .
- 1971 . , 15,
, , ,
. ,
6 ? ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
313 ? 100 , .
,
, . , 81
, , , 25
, !

, , ,
6,8 8,8
. .
? , , -
- ,
25 - 60 . ,
, ...

, .
,
, 15 - 17
, .

, ,
. , , ,

. (. . , . . .
). http://alex.luminal.org/Water/water7.pdf.
4.1. , .
, ,
100
. ,
.
, , -, ,
.

. , .
( 1981 . -1). http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/ejeg/1981/81...
4.2. "14 2004 02:52 UTC Cassini
72500 . Cassini
, . , ,
,
, . ,
, - - (Carolyn Porco),
". (" "
2/2005). http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/content/numbers...
4.3. "" 1997 3 .
3,4 . "" 74 45
. 500 . ""
,
84 . , ""
- ,
. (09.09.2005).
http://www.spacenews.ru/spacenews/live/full_degest... , http://www.membrana.ru/articles/global/2005/07/
25/195900.html
(Photo 1. One of the most striking features of Dione is the bright wispy terrain on the trailing
hemisphere. Most of these wisps are radial to the large crater Amata but they are curvilinear and do not
resemble crater rays. Some of them are associated with topographic features and this suggests that they
are surface deposits of ice outgassed from a global tectonic system of fractures. (Courtesy A. Tayfun

Oner).

http://www.solarviews.com/cap/sat/dione5.htm)
( 2. 2004 December 1, http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap041201.html).
(
3. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA07581_modest.jpg, http://photojournal.jpl.nasa
.gov/catalog/PIA07581).
( 4.
. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA07748_modest.jpg, http://photojournal.jp
l.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07748).
[: !]

4.3. [ uncle_Serg.
.

( . . " "
: , ).]
4.4. Cassini
, , 11
2005 500 -
- .
1126 . (
), ,
.
: , .
- ,
. ,
Cassini , ,
, .
.
(William McKinnon) ,
. , ,
.
, ,
: , ,
, ,
, . (). (elementy.ru, 17.10.2005,
6:44:21 PM). http://www.oko-planet.spb.ru/awakening.nsf/page/tema.html?
opendocument&p=1_2&type=viewmes&site=12486
4.5. .
,
, .
Cassini 4486
.
, ,
60 .
.
( ). , ,
( ), .
, ""
. , . ,
,
, - (
). (24.10.2005). http://novosti.online.ru/ ,
http://www.spacenews.ru/spacenews/live/full_news.a...
4.6. .
,
,
.
( - ""
, -)
, , ,
- .
700 ( 1126 ).

, 20 .
, ,
, ( ),
"" . ,
, (
) "" (Cassini) 24 2005
151 . ,
99 . - 896 .
"" ,
,
, .
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
.
- "" ,
, 1684 .
, ,
(1,4 /3). ,
, .
186
. , , .
377 400 .
2,73 ,
,
"" . ,
,
.
"" ,
, ,

. , -
, . , ,
, , . ().
(: Dione Has Her Faults (False Color) - NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
(http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/image...). 01.02.2006,
20:08). http://www.grani.ru/Society/Science/m.101417.html

: " "
1. ,
1.1. - .
: -1 1980 -2 1981
. , , , .
, , .
, - , .
, , , . ,
: ,
.
(24.11.1995). http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/eid/apod/ap951124
1.2. , .
, . ( 1,
24.11.1995. http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1161916/tethys_vg2_b...)
(..: ( 1) , .. .)
, , , ,

,
. http://astro.physfac.bspu.secna.ru/pub/article.htm...
: http://www.yandex.ru/
1.3. . -
, 1000 , ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
. , ,
,
, . (2006
February, 8)

(http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1211464 , http://sai.msu.su/apod/ap060208.html)
2.1. , .
: 3,75 * 1019 .
: 1.140 /3.
: 1,53 .
: 0,0202. http://www.astrolab.ru/cgi-bin/manager4.cgi
2.2. .
, . 130
.
, .
, ~9 .
. ,

. ( 1981
. -1). http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/ejeg/1981/81...
2.3. ,
, .
, .
"" , 1789 .
,

. , , , ..
"". , ,
"-1", 1980 . (.
24.09.1995). http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/eid/apod/ap950924
2.4. " ".
Cassini
. ,
.
NASA - 1.7 . .
- ,

.
130 10
(
398 ). ,
" " "
". (30.07.2004). http://fox.ivlim.ru/showarticle.asp?id=840

Cassini's Flies by "Death Star" Moon. http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/image...


2.5. Cassini ,
2 Cassini ,
, .
.
, (
), :
397 , - 140 .
, . ,
, ,
. 1789 .
,
. (9 2005 ).http://www.atlasaerospace.net/newsi-r.htm?
id=5744&...

: " ()
"
1. ( )
, .
(Synnott) 1979 . Voyager. ,
. ( )

.
. ( ). http://naturalist.rarib.ru/thebe.htm
2. - .
2.1. ,
, ,
.
: , , , .
.. ,
... , .
,
.
28*20*18 . ,
. .
. . ,
, . ,
, .
30 100-200 10-20
.
,
( - 31
) http://www.fml31.ru/lycsite/gstud/LOHOV/phob.htm
2.2. ? -- ,
,
. ,
, .
,
(), .
.
. ,
. ,
. .
50 ,
. http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1191378
( . http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1191378/phobos_mgs_big.gif.html).
2.3. - .
( 1.

http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1188837, http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1188837/phobos_vik1_...)
( 2. ( 19.11.2004) . http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1201238/Phobos_hires...).
( 3. ( 14.09.1998) http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1163361/phobos1_mgs_...).
3. ( ).
3.1. 60-
- .
, :
2500 , 1,4 .
,
"" (1968-1970 .), 10-12 .
""
(1994 .)
13 . 4,3 3,9 . .
, -
. ,
, ,
200 .
.
, .
" " ,
,

. ( . , 6 2001 ). http://www.ng.ru/science/2001-0906/10_luna.html
3.2.
, ,
,
. , ,
,
,
.
,
- .

1959 . ,

, 1500
179 .. 50 .. , 1960 .
, 7 1959 -3,
, , .

,
. ,
1400 , 2500 , :
180 50 .. ( 34- -
2001 ..
, -8 , ,
3150 ). ,
, 1960 ,
!
,
.
.
,
.
, ,
. , 60-
, 287 , (78 ), (69 ), (103 ),
(128 ), (85 ), (94 ) .,
. ,
, ,
, . ,
, , .
, 4,2 .
, ,
, .
,
, , ,
,
. ,
-
.
1,8 ,
, ,
.


, ,
, 60-
,
.
,
270 - .
1971 .. . ,
,
-6 -8.
- ,
.
:
! , ,
,
. , , ,
.
, ..
, .1: - ,
. -
, .
... : 118 .. 124 .. 9 .. 5 ...
, ,
-
, .
, ,
1960 , , , !
,
.
,
. , 4,2 ,
,
. ( - .-. ,

). http://selena.sai.msu.ru/Chik/Publications/Aitken/...
3.3. . .
.
. -
.
, . ,
"" , .
,
.(4.12.1996) http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1162753
1994 "" 70 .
, . , ,
1500 , "".
. ,
. - . ,
.
. ,
, , , .


. http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1161905
-
. ,
. , "" ,
.
, .
(4.12.1996) http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1162753
. : "", , -
, .
. ( NASA 9-10 April 1994, .astronet.ru 28.11.1995) http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/hires/clm_usgs_1...
3.4. , , ,
? -
, . (USTA usta-ghc@bk.ru 15/10/2005, 21:21). [
, ..] http://lib.userline.ru/book_recenz.php?id=30515&am...
4. .
4.1. ,
( 600-1500 ), 8-10
.
.
,
, -
.http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1191474
4.2..

-
,
,
.
600 ,
15,
2600 .
,
...
-
,
,
,
, , . ,
.... (. . . .
(., , 1981 .), . 129).

4.3. . ( Voyager 1. ("bullseye").http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/html/object_page... )


4.4.
. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.

, -2 ... . ,
, ,
, . ?
. (. . . .
(, , 1982 .), . 99-100).
4.5.1. .
( 1 Galileo. Ganymede Mosaic (March 4,
1999). http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap990304.html).
( 2 Galileo. Ganymede: The Largest Moon in the Solar System (2000 June
20). http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap000620.html )
5. .
( ( 3.10.2005). [
..]

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0510/hyperion2_cassini_big.jpg,
: http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap051003.html

? .
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
. , -,
. -
. . ,
.
- 250 , ,
, , ,
.http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1208312).
6. .
6.1. . ,
,
- ,
1100 ,
, . , "
" , .
?
... ?http://kuasar.narod.ru/library/uran-andvoyager2/i...
6.2. .
-
( ).

( ). - 265
. . - .
. , ,

. ,
, .
. ,
,
( ).

. ,
. ,
( ) - ,
.
,
.
() ?
, , .
. ,
. , ,
. , .
(... ). (
). http://gorelandrey.narod.ru/index53.html
6.3. .
( 1.) 2 557 000 24 1986 .
10 . - .
- , 16
, . , 1200

, .
, ,
, .
( ) 110 ,
. () - ,
. 140 ,
. , ,
. http://www.scientific.ru/planets/ur/ur9.html

( 1 Voyager 2. Uranus's Moon Umbriel: A Mysterious Dark World (April 7,


1996). http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap960407.html )
[ :
:
? (),
.
, ,
, .
( - )
( ),

1:1,
, - - 1:2:4, - 1:5.
, - ,
.]

1. .

;
29,6 .. 49,3 .. 1989 ; 1979 1999
, . -
. 50 ,
15 , . ,

, 100 000 .
- .
6,4 .
,
. 6,4 .
,
. . -
. ,
.
http://www.krugosvet.ru/articles/21/1002118/100211... , http://omsk.edu.ru/schools/sch064/Astronomy/plyt
.h... , http://s985.chat.ru/Pluton/Pluton.html
2. 6,39 . (
). http://www.zvezdi-oriona.ru/204056.htm
3. .
19 405 ,
.
, .
, .
,
, 6,4 . ,
. 2390 , - 1186 .
! ,
.
. , .
( ) , ,
, . , ,
- .
. ,

. ( ). http://www.astrogalaxy.ru/056.html
4.1. NASA -
,
NASA

, , .
, NASA
.
New Horizons (" ")
2006 . 2007 . ,
. ,
. New Horizons 2015 .
( "-4"
"-5"), .
. New
Horizons , ,
, .

. New Horizons
2004 . (14 2003 ).http://science.compulenta.ru/38988/
4.2. , , 3
.
11 2006 . New Horizons (" "),
.
35 ,
"" . ,
- New Horizons
2015 .
.
.
. SWAP,
.
. (http://novosti.online.ru/,
20.10.2005). http://www.spacenews.ru/spacenews/live/full_news.a...
4.3. : .
New Horizons ( pluto.jhuapl.edu).
New Horizons ( )
22 19 2006 .
45 , ,
10,5 - . (20.01.2006) http://elementy.ru/news/430065
5.1. .
, ,
. ,
, .
(23m) 5-6 , 1978 . ,
. ,
, , , ,
125 140 ( ).
, 2005 ,
- NASA. ,
.
- 49 . , 2,5 , .
65 . . 11
14 ( ).
,
.
, .
, 10% - .
.
, (Michael E. Brown), ,
, ,
, ,
- .
- 20 ,
.


. ,
. ,
.
S/2005 P1
S/2005 P2. : S - , 2005 - , P , , .

, ,
. 2006 .
(2.11.2005). http://elementy.ru/news/164939
5.2. .
,
, ,
, - .
, ,
, , .
,
, P1 P2. ,
, ,
, ,
.

. , - -
.
,
, , -
Southwest Research Institute,
. - ,
, ,
, .
,
,
, ,
. . ,
48 160 ( : - 1200 ).
-
S/2005P1 S/2005P2, S , P - , 2005 - ,
. , ,
,
. , ,
. ( , . "" 33 2006-0228). http://gzt.ru/science/2006/02/27/210721.html

:
1. .. ( , - , .
)
()
, , , ,
.

1) .
( , [5]) .
, (
, ,
). , ,
,
SETI.
2)
( )
, :

0.89

-86.6

66.5

65.5

87.0

63.5

-8.0

61.0

-8.0


0.99 0.96 0.74 0.73 0.97 0.71 0.09 0.68 0.09

1 -1 0.7 0.7 1 0.7 -0.1 0.7 -0.1
, , ,
( ,
),
, .
, ,
- , - .
3)
, ,
,
. .
, , 2/3 (59
). . - 88
, 3 (88.6 ).
115.88 ,
4 , 118 . 130 . .
(243.02)
- (243.16). - 584 , 5
(116.8 ).
2:5 ,
2W - 5W=0
[6]. [7] :
W - 2W - W - W=0

, [6],
W=1/3(W + W + W)
, 1:3 ,
- 1:2 , - 1:3

.. [4] , , ,
,
. , ,
- . -,
,
, . ,
, ( )
.
4) ,
( )
.
5)
1% .
:
1390000 : 12751 = 109
149600000 : 1390000 = 108
6)
( , 27.32 .) (27.28
.) . [6, .16] , 600-650 .
27 , ..
.
7) " ".
, .., 1943 .
17
(S.128 ), ( - )
=6.52 , ( -
) N=4.61 . , ..
" ": , ,
2: (6.52)2/(4.61)2=42.51/21.25=2 P/N=2.
, "" .
.
4) .. . .: . , 1997. 256 .
5) Planetary Report, N5, 2000.
6) .., .. . : , 1986, 127 .
7) .. . .:
. .: , 1973, . 32-42. (..
)
[ ...

.. . (). (
. . . :
" ").]
2. -
2.1. , , (
), 82 45' ().
27,275 (
). ( encycl.accoona.ru). http://encycl.accoona.ru/?id=12310
2.2. , . 27,3
. ( ) [
? - ..]
http://www.websib.ru/noos/metod/astronom/System/So...
[ ...

: " "
( . .
. : " ").]
3.1.
-

.
, , ,
- ,
, , .
, 4000 ,
, , .
- , ,
? ,
. (.. , . . .
).http://alex.luminal.org/Water/water7.pdf.
3.2. "" ,
.
() ,
;
; , ,
, ; ,
,
"" ""
. ( , (, . , 10).
, ).http://jupiters.narod.ru/news1.htm
3.3. Life on Mars. Martian Lifeforms Image Gallery. http://www.martian-lifeforms.com/
3.4. The Mars Journal,
. Open Source -
. (16.12.05) http://elementy.ru/news/165051
The Mars Journal is a new, peer-reviewed online open access scholarly journal that is published
formally as "Mars, The International Journal of Mars Science and Exploration". http://marsjournal.org/

4. , .
4.1. ,
.
, , ,
(. 122).
,
. ,
. (.. . .
. , , 1984, . 173) (F.L. Whipple. Orbiting the sun.
Planets and satellites of the Solar system.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. London, England, 1981).
. 122. [.] 160 ( 27, 40
S) , .(
.) (.175).
4.2. , .
19 1999 .
"Science" [1].
" ".
13 ,
2 . 30 . . 1
,
.
, , .
"" "" . ,
32 ,
- . ,
27 .
.
-
. . 1 .
, .
, . 2. ,
- .
4000 . .
1500 .
.
. 1 ,
. .
,
- , .
.

.
, ...
, ,
.
.

"", . . 1
"". , ""
(. 1), ,
" "
...

. "".
, , .
. ,
, ...
, ,
. 1 . 2, .
(.. ). http://xmars.narod.ru/book/book_9.htm, http://yastro.narod.ru/a_news97.htm
4.3.1. .
. ,
. -15 -16,
, .
, ,
, . -
, ,
.
,
.
,
. ,
:
?
.
? , ,
. ?
,
10 .
.
,
, ,
, . (.. .
. .: , 1988).http://www.astronaut.ru/bookcase/books/rziga/text/16.htm
4.3.2. Venus Crater Database.
Multiple impact crater, thought to result from the impact of a parent asteroid or cometary nucleus that
was totally disrupted and whose fragments were dispersed low in the atmosphere into separate individual
trajectories just prior to impact. [Note: diameters given for multiple craters is associated with the largest
crater within the crater group, and not for the diameter of the entire group of craters.]
Terhi. (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/venus/craters/images/45.8n...)
Terhi; multiple crater; largest crater in field, 10.7 km in diameter; total size of field 30X52 km (45.71N,
253.09E). (156 kb).http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/VenusImpactC...
4.4. .

Mars: Hourglass shaped craters filled with traces of glacier. Perspective view.
(http://berlinadmin.dlr.de/Missions/express/second/...)
[ :

.
,
. ,
.]
4.5. .
(, .)
, - .
-
. ,

. :
" ".
(. - - . ,
NASA ).
,
, , ( ). ,
, : ,
. ( . . :
NASA. . .
NASA. : bykovsky@mail.ru. 8 2006
). http://www.sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/8387...
[ .
. ..]
5. NASA. .
. NASA. 5.
" ".
, ,
,
.

. .
( .) http://www.sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/8515...
[ 5 . .
, .
..]
29 2005 23 2008
2 2014 .

: http://artefact62.mylivepage.ru/wiki/348/81 (),
http://artefact62.mylivepage.ru/wiki/351/83 ()