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Unit 3

advice (n. uncountable)

ask (for)/ seek sbs ~
take sbs ~
advice (n. countable)
advise (v.)
~ sb on a question, matter
~ against sth
~ on
~ sb of sth
adviser (n.)

2. , ,
-. -

-. -.
(.) ,

legal ~
depend (v.) (on, upon)
it ~s
prices ~ upon supply and demand


2., ,

2., ./-.,

you may ~ upon him

~ on oneself
dependable (adj.)
dependant (n.)
dependence (n.)
~ on sb /sth
dependent (adj.)
~ on sb /sth
independent (adj.)
~ of sb /sth
determine (v.)
~ sbs duties

1., ,
2. ,
-. -.
3., , ,

1. , ,

2. ,
( )
1. , ,

2. , ,


~ sb to sth
~ the case
determined (adj.)
~ price
employ (v.)
be ~ed
~ oneself
~ capital
employee (n.)

part-time ~
employer (n.)
employment (n.)
terminate ~

, ,
( ), , ,


/ /

1. , (),

2. , , ,

3. ,
() /
4. ,
1., , ,

2. , ,

1. ,
2. , ,

3. (.)
, ,

1. / /

, ,
/ /

; ,
-. / /
, -.
1. 2. . ,

/ /
( )

~ agency
full-time ~
self-employed (adj.)
unemployed (adj.)
the unemployed (n.)
unemployment (n.)
~ rate
~ benefit
casual / seasonal / long-term ~
disguised/ hidden/ latent ~
extend (v.)
~ a helping hand (to)

~ a term/ a visit
~ a credit /a loan
extended (adj.)
~ storage
~ period
~ warranty
extension (n.)
~ of leave
freelance (adj.)
~ job
~ work
freelance (n.)
obsess (v.)
be ~ed by the idea / desire/ suspicion
be ~ed with the woman
obsession (n.)
offer (v.)
~ money/ help/ goods to sb.
~ to do smth.
offer (n.)
make/ take/ accept/ refuse an ~
on ~

a job ~
pay (v.)
~ attention to
~ ones way
~ the bills/ expenses
~ sb. a visit
~ in cash
payment (n.)
pay packet
pay rise
be on a firms ~
well/ poorly paid
perks (n.pl.)
free life insurance and other ~
fringe benefits)
pursue (v.)

, ,


, ,



1. ; 2. 3.

1. , 2.
( )

; ,

1. 2. ()
1. 2.
1. 2.

; ; (
1., ;
, / /
-.; . -.
2. ; ,


~ pleasure
~ a subject
pursuit (n.)
in ~ of
redundancy (n.)
compulsory ~
voluntary ~
redundant (adj.)
He was made ~.
resign (v.)
resource (n.)
resourceful (adj.)
retire (v.)
reward (v.)
reward (n.)
rewarding (adj.)
rigid (adj.)
~ control
rigidly (adv.)
suggest (v.)
~ a plan/ an idea/a trip
~ doing sth
~ sb. should do sth
He ~ed my/me following him.
~ sb. for president
What ~ed that thought?
Phrasal verbs
carry out
~ out tests
cut down on

, ,


~ down on smoking
eat into
fill in
get ahead

, c ()

1. , ,
1. 2.

1. 2. 3.,

pay back
She paid him back in full.
pay for
pay off
put by
take out
Fixed Phrases
I cant afford sth/ to do sth

- ,

to cost sb a fortune
to make a living
to be overcharged for
to be worth doing
on credit
a waste of time

Vocabulary Exercises
3.1. Match the words to their definitions.
1. rigid
2. employ
3. suggest
4. be obsessed
5. rewarding
6. pursue
7. determine
8. extend
9. dependence
10. retirement

a. keep thinking about sth for a long period of time

b. decide, settle sth
c. giving personal satisfaction
d. the time when one stops working (at a certain age)
e. a situation in which you need sb or sth in order to live or succeed
f. pay sb to work for you
g. cause sth to be valid for a longer period of time
h. stiff, firm
i. put forward a plan to think about
j. make efforts to achieve sth

3.2. Fill in the blanks with a suitable word. Use the correct form of the words: advice, advise,
depend (2,) determine, extend, freelance, obsess, obsession, offer (2), pay, pursue, resign,
resource, retirement, reward, suggest.
1. He ______ dearly for his mistake 2. He used to _______ on interior decorations. 3. The
Mayor announced a _________ of $50,000 for any information about burglars. 4. She
________ that we shouldnt buy cheap furniture. 5. They want ________ on how to do it.
6. After elections the Cabinet_________. 7. He _______ to fetch a taxi. 8. He was _____
not to say a word. 9. Our lives and those of all other animals ________ on oxygen. 10.
This item is on ________ for a limited period. 11. Ellen was ________ with marriage.

12. His radicalism didnt ________ to the sphere of economics. 13. She was well under
___________ age. 14. Much of the work is taken on part-time or _______ by married
woman. 15. Growth mustnt be _______ at the expense of environmental pollution. 16.
Tom had invested all his _______ in an unsuccessful restaurant. 17. Fredericks
fascination with butterflies developed into an__________. 18. How should I report this
event? Well it _______on which newspaper you work for.
3.3 ADVICE and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.

I would strongly advise you against it.

We received an advice of delivery.
It was his doctor who advised that he change his job.
I was Marys friend and adviser.

5. ,
6. .
7. .
8. .
3.4 DEPEND and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.

He depends on his pen for a living.

My mother is dependent on the weather especially in autumn.
She doesnt work. She lives in dependence on her husband.
You are a big boy, you must depend on yourself.
He is a very organized and dependable person.
You can never depend upon his being on time.


. .
, .
() .

3.5 DETERMINE and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.


Demand determines prices.

We were determined to sell our expensive flat.
The elections determined the crisis.
The manager with a determined chin turned out to be a nice man.


, - .

3.6 EMPLOY and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.


The factory employs about a thousand workers.

You would be better employed tidying your room!
The plant was one of the regions major employers.
They were asking for guarantees of full employment and wages.


20 .
, ?

3.7 EXTEND and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.


His knowledge of English doesnt extend beyond small talk.

Tools are extensions of the human hands.
Have you ever thought of extending your house?
His working day often extends well into the evening.


() .

3.8 OBSESS and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.


In the play the man is obsessed by a demon.

Sport is an obsession with him.
The idea that he might lose his position obsessed him.
Obsessive tidiness in the office is a bad sign.
He was obsessively interested in every single detail about my early life.


, .

3.9 PAY and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.


She wanted a pay rise of $50 a week.

They assume that people work for money, for the pay-packet at the end of the week.
You failed and you must pay the penalty.
Its not a hard job when a days work pays $2500.


, .
, , .

3.10 3 PURSUE and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.


His wealth enabled him to pursue his passionate interest in art.

How far should any of us go in pursuit of what we want?
Ill luck pursued him till his death.
In pursuit of truth he has gone too far.



3.11 RESOURCE and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.

1. This great nation is strong in national resources.
2. He was left to his own resources.
3. Be careful; he is a resourceful thief.
4. .
5. .
6. ,
3.12 REWARD and its derivatives. Translate the following sentences.

A magnificent view rewards the traveller.

This book is really rewarding.
There was rarely punishment and rarely reward in our school.
People should be rewarded for special effort.

6. ,
7. .
8. , ,
, .
3.13 Fill in the blanks with offer or suggest using the correct form .

It would be foolish ________ that everyone in Britain is rich.

That is my final price, I cant _______ you more.
Im not _______ that the accident was your fault.
Who _______ the plan?
This item is on _______ for a limited period.
He turned and _______ his identity card.
She was free that day and _______ to help me with arrangements for the party.
Do you _______ that Im lying?
Can you _______ somewhere for a short holiday?
That is the first opportunity that _______.

11. Children who are _______ little affection develop slowly.

3.14 Translate the following sentences, using suggest or offer according to the sense .

, , ,
, .

3.15 (a) Fill in the blanks with resign, retire or redundant or their derivatives in the
correct form according to the sense .

Gladys _______ at the age of sixty eight.

Lloyd George was threatening to _______ from the Government.
The trade unions fear compulsory _______ next month.
Dozens of _______ film directors are looking for work.
The daughter of a _______ Army officer is sitting in the reception hall.
Every summer he went yachting to the seaside. There was the house that his father had
bought for his _______.

3.15 (b) Translate the following sentences.


, .
, - .
, .
, , ,
6. , ?
7. , .
3.16 Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs where necessary.

Save time _____ yourself by cutting your shopping _______ _______twice a week.
Can I use your lighter? Ive run _______ _______ matches.
Ill join you _____ a minute. Dont run _______ .
Its always a good idea to have something put _______.
He paid _______ the driver and went to the station.
Import controls were extended ______ the paper industry.
I made _______ my mind to apply _______ a scholarship.


This is the small price to pay _______ independence.

He was less experienced_______ banking business than his farther.
Im happy because now Im independent____ them all .
A loan should be paid _______ _______ a year.
I wanted to take _______ a mortgage, but my husband is _______ this idea. He wants to
put regularly certain sums of money _______ and _______ five years buy our own house.
Everyone was impressed ________ the new staff room.
Please fill _____ an application form and hand _____ it_____ the secretary.
I encouraged my friend to specialize _____ company law.
This position is such a good opportunity ____ him. Besides I think him to be good _____
dealing _____ difficult customers.

3.17. Translate the following sentences, using the phrasal verbs and fixed phrases.

, .
, , - .
(default) ,
. , .
, ?
, . .
, , , !

, . , ,
, .
, , .
, ,
, , . ,

Grammar Exercises
The Infinitive
3.18 Fill in the table with the correct forms of the Infinitive. Remember that in complex forms
it is the first verb that is the infinitive.
Active Voice

Forms of the Infinitive



Perfect Simple


Perfect Cont.
Passive Voice



3.19 Study the following information and give your own examples.
A. Full Infinitive is used:
with certain verbs:

after nouns

advise, afford, agree, allow, appear,

decide, expect, hope
invite, manage, pretend, refuse,
seem, tell etc.
angry, difficult, easy, first, glad,
happy, likely, sorry, supposed,
unable, etc.
time, thing, pleasure etc.

after only and adj.:

after question words

first, last, best etc.

what, who, where etc.
too + adj. or adj.+ enough

with adjectives:

B. Bare Infinitive is used:

with modals

can, may, should, etc.

need, dare
had better/would rather


why not

C. The Complex Object is used:

see, hear, notice, listen,
watch, feel + object
make, let + object
advise, believe, expect, want,
like, hate, know, think, tell,
etc. + object

+ bare infinitive or
+ present participle
+ bare infinitive
+ full infinitive

see, hear, notice, feel, watch, make in Passive Voice
are followed by full infinitive:
The child was made to eat all his soup.
She was heard to say it.

3.20 Study the following information about the Complex Subject and translate the sentences
into Russian:
A. with verbs in the active voice:
with seem


happen, chance

turn out, prove

be (un)likely
be certain,

1. She seemed to be all right.

2. He seems to be reading
something funny.
3. He seems to have written the
1. He appears to have been told
the news.
2. She appeared to know
1. We happened to be there too.
2. Do you happen to know his
She turned out to be a fairly
pretty girl.
1. He is likely to come.
2. Its unlikely to fit him.
1. She is sure to be satisfied with
your work.
2. He is certain to return soon.

B. with verbs in the Passive Voice:

think, consider,
expect, believe,
know, suppose, etc.
say, announce,
report, allow, ask,
order etc.

1. He is considered to be an
experienced manager. 2. He was
thought to be honest and reliable.
1. His yacht is said to have left
the island in October. 2. The
prices are reported to have risen

see, hear, etc.

She was heard to say it.

3.21 1) Read the text and underline the infinitives used there.
2) Explain, why this or that form is used.
3) In pairs discuss the contents of the text, asking and answering questions with infinitive
constructions, for example:
- What does the company expect an applicant to do?
- What do the interviewers want an applicant to do?
- What do Personnel Managers advise applicants on interviews?

Advice on Interview
Given by C. Forrest, Regional Head of Recruiting at Goldman Sachs in London

I think a good interview is one in which we see a candidate who is excited about having spent
the last 25 minutes with us.
1. Starting off right
I think that when it comes right down to it, passion, energy and enthusiasm should radiate right from
the start. Typically, interviews only last for 30 to 45 minutes. So students have got to come out of the
gate rather smiling. I think that it's really important to start off well.
2. Confident, but not arrogant
Beyond that, students are expected to be reasonably self-confident, but not arrogant. Sometimes our
industry suffers from the perception that to be successful in an organization like ours, you have to be a
little bit arrogant. You don't. You need a level of self-belief, but you'll need to have humility. Very few
people get hired if they don't have humility. To have a ready sense of humor is always good too.
We want people who are eager to learn. In hiring an analyst, for example, we wouldn't expect new
hires to come in with a set of solutions. We would expect them to see their work as a learning
opportunity, as well as adding value to our business.
3. The Big Three
We like people who have done their homework. At Goldman Sachs there are generally three basic
things that any interviewer wants to know, bottom line:
What do you want to do?
Why do you want to do it?
What can you share with me about what you've done in the past that would convince me that
you're going to be good at it?
The extent to which you can be specific in response to questions is also importantthe more
convincing you are, the more you demonstrate that you cared enough to research our firm, to do
your homework, to speak with your friends, to get online, or whatever it was you chose to do to be
prepared, the better.
4. Round One competencies and skills
The first round at the analyst level is a Goldman Sachs firmwide interview. It's possible that you
wont meet with people from the division you have an interest in. You may meet with individuals
from other divisions. Why? Because we think that there are many shared core competencies across
the divisions, and all of our interviewers are equipped to identify these skills.
In other words, we just want to establish evidence of abilities such as basic analytical capability, good
communication skills, achievement, leadership potential and so forth. I think that you need a basic
analytical ability in most of the divisions. Whether you're doing investment banking or technology, you
need to be able to understand value and risk and the commercial logic for what you are doing. So if
you have no appetite to confront numbers at all, you should be expected to be asked about those areas,
to show that you have at least a basic comfort with numbers.
That's what you can expect to happen at round one.
5. Typical second interview questions
At round two, you will meet with up to two divisions and you will be expected to show your interest in
a particular division. So if you're interviewing with Equities or with Fixed Income, you will be
expected to show an active interest in the financial markets and be reasonably well researched. You
don't need to be an expert, but if you want to be a trader or a salesperson, you have to show at least a
very basic understanding of the dynamics of the markets and an interest in them.
You may expect to be asked about the particular division. For example, in recruiting for the
Investment Banking division, we would want to know what you think a financial analyst does in
investment banking. We would expect you to have at least a broad understanding of that area. We
would expect you to know who our competitors are in that area. We might also expect you to have
done a little bit of research so you would at least know some of the landmark deals.
The level of sophistication of the dynamics of the deal is less important than understanding of what
and why we did it, and why the client may have wanted us to do it.
We want candidates to have a broad understanding of the macroeconomic environment and the
political environment in relation to our business in general and to the division that interests them in

6. Teamwork and Individuality
Teams are central to our success, but there's no way to hide within a team. It is the contribution of
ideas from individuals that makes the team debate it, fine-tuning it, move the idea forward and develop
it further. You have to enjoy the success of others. If a candidate wants a job with us, it is important
for him or her to enjoy other people's success. You cannot be somebody who's solely looking for your
own success. It is important to be able to share reward and praise and to recognize the qualities of
people around you. I think that someone who is not a team player is likely to encounter some
problems and struggle here.
I would also highlight integrity. If someone lists seven or eight individual activities and there's no
sign of team orientation, then that person should expect us to probe that issue so we
can get comfortable with it.
7. Pack your bags
I'm not sure there's a typical career path. Some of the most senior people in the firm have been mobile
enough to work in every division of the firm or to work in every region in which we operate. They're
global in the way they think, and they've come to that way of thinking by actually being in global
arenas. We want a good proportion of our people to move around, whether it's among different
divisions or geographically.
I would advise anyone coming into this firm to focus on what he or she is being asked to do and to do it
well. Then other opportunities will follow. Anyone who is constantly thinking about the next step
may be less successful.
8. Be who?
I would not try to be the person you think we want you to be. I suggest that you be yourself. We don't
want to hire someone who's acted throughout an interviewchances are that we would see right
through that. So I would say come in and be yourself. Yes, you should do the basic research, because
that's just an obvious thing not to fall down on.
Before coming into the interview, try to get a good night's sleep, and try to be well rested. Also, try
to give yourself a little bit of extra time so you're not rushing. And at the interview, just be
yourself. If you're not going to get a job on the basis of who you really are, then why would you
want it?
9. Ask questions
We expect candidates to ask questions at the end of the interview. An interview is a two-way process.
While we want to find out about a candidate's motivation and ability, it is equally essential for a
candidate to know more about us in order to decide whether or not he or she would enjoy it here.
You expected it to have a culture of cloned people, to put it at the most extreme. Well let you see that
actually the firm is a collection of very eclectic, very different people. What they all have in common
is that they are bright, highly energetic and focused on excellence.
10. Post-interview contact
Some people would like to have a thank you e-mail and find it quite pleasant. Others are fairly
neutral on it. I think that one e-mail is unlikely to be helpful. If after a second round, you have not
heard anything within a few days, putting in a call is very sensible and shows that you're eager to
know the outcome. I don't think you can bend or influence the outcome by putting in a lot of calls.
If the interview went badly I think throwing in a phone call to one of the interviewers is unlikely to
change that outcome.
3.22 Fill in the infinitive in the appropriate form.
Tom: Do you think Mary would like __to go__ (go) to the theatre with me tonight?
Jo: I don't think so. She seems ___________ (study) very hard at the moment.
Tom: That's a shame! I would have liked ___________ (go) out with her.
Jo: I would be glad___________ (come) with you.
Tom: OK. But I think you should ___________ (talk) to Mary. The last time I saw her she

claimed ______________ (work) till 2 o'clock every morning for the past month. It's not good
for her, you know.
Jo: I know. I must ___________ (talk) to her about it. But you know that its not easy
___________ (tell) her what to do.
3.23 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive form.
1 A: Have you decided where ...to spend... (spend) your holiday?
B: Yes. I would like .. (go) to a Greek island.
2 A: Why not................................(clean) the house?
B: I wish I could afford ........................................(employ) a cleaner.
3 A: Jane seems .... (sleep) for hours.
B: Yes. She must............................(be) very tired.
4 A: Where is Ann?
B: We'd better not bother her - she seems ............. (study).
5 A: Steve claims ..(travel) around the world.
B: Yes. He seems(go) to a lot of places.
6 A: It was nice of John.. (visit) us yesterday.
B: Yes. I am happy ..(see) him.
7 A: Sam looks tired.
B: He seems.(work) all morning.
8 A: We should .............................................(tell) Sue about the party.
B: Yes. We had better.(invite) Tony, too.
9 A: Did the police arrest that man?
B: Yes. He appeared ....................... (try) to break into the building when the police arrived.
10 A: I cant understand what he is talking about.
B: He claims....................... (choose) as the best-dressed man of the year.
11 A: Did you have a nice evening?
B: Not really. I arrived home only ..(find) that I'd left my keys at work.
Activity: Work in pairs. Practise the patterns with various forms of infinitives in your own
3.24 Fill in the infinitive or -ing form in the appropriate tense.
My uncle Ted likes __to tell/telling __ (tell) stories. He claims ___________(meet) lots of
famous people and ___________ (see) many strange things in his life. Many people believe him
because he seems ___________ (tell) the truth. Even if they didn't believe him, nobody would risk
saying so, because he's a very big and frightening man. One day he pretended ___________(talk) to
the President on the phone while my brother and I were in the room. "Hello, Mr. President," he said.
"You seem ___________ (have) some problems running the country and I would like
___________ (offer) you some advice." My brother and I started ___________ (laugh) and my
uncle Ted slammed down the receiver. "You seem ___________ (hear) something amusing, he
shouted. "What is it?" We were very frightened. We hated ___________ (think) what he would do
to us if he thought we were laughing at him, so we pretended ___________ (tell) jokes to each other.
3.25 Paraphrase the following, using infinitive phrases as in the examples:
1. He must go to the gym to keep fit.
I want him to go to the gym to keep fit.
2. She turned so pale. Do you know the reason?
What made her turn so pale?

3. He must eat less.

4. They must tell her the truth.
5. They changed their plans. Why did they do that?
6. You must change your clothes. They're wet.
7. She must get up early.
8. Im afraid it may happen again.
9. She mustn't speak rudely.
10. I insisted that my brother carry my suitcase.
11. They must apologise.
3.26 Complete the sentences with verb phrases.
1. Don't let me forget to take my keys to the house with me.
2. The teacher usually lets us________________________________.
3. Why did you let your roommate____________________________.
4. You shouldn't let other people______________________________.
5. It was very kind of my friend to help me _____________________.
6. Could you help me______________________________________ .
7. My boss made me_______________________________________.
8. A stranger helped the lost child_____________________________.
9. My cousins jokes always make____________________________.
10. Keep working. Don't let me_______________________________.
Activities: 1) What do your parents usually make you do or let you do?
2) What do your teachers usually make or let you do?
3.27 Read the situation and write one sentence, deciding which form seems better to you in the
sentence that contains a verb of perception. Remember that the -ing form gives the idea that an
activity is in progress when it is perceived.
Note: after the verbs see, hear, feel a that clause, not a complex object, is used if they denote
mental perception, for ex.: I see that you are tired. I hear that they have arrived at last.
1. SITUATION: I was downtown yesterday. I saw the police. They were chasing a thief. When I
was downtown yesterday, I saw the police chasing a thief.
2. SITUATION: The front door slammed. I got up to see if someone had come in.
When I heard _______________________________
3. SITUATION: Uncle Jake is in the bedroom. He is snoring.
I know __________________ .
4. SITUATION: He gave up music lessons. Have you heard that?
Have you heard___________________
5. SITUATION: When I walked past the park, some children were playing softball.
When I walked __________________ .
6. SITUATION: It was graduation day in the auditorium. When the school principal called my
name, I walked to the front of the room.
When I heard ___________ .
7. SITUATION: I glanced out of the window. Jack was walking toward the house. I was surprised.
I was surprised when __________.
8. SITUATION: She is in danger. Weve heard about that.
We hear_____________.
9. SITUATION: Someone is calling for help in the distance. I can hear that.
Listen! Do you hear___________________________? I do.

10.SITUATION: My daughter's team plays soccer every weekend. I always watch the team when they
play a game.
I enjoy watching _____________________________.
11. SITUATION: He didnt understand her. He insisted on his point of view.
I saw______________.
12. SITUATION: I went to bed around eleven. At that time, the people in the next apartment were
singing and laughing.
When I _____________
13. SITUATION: A fly landed on the table. I swatted it with a rolled-up newspaper.
As soon as I ____________________________.
14. SITUATION: I smell smoke. Something must be burning.
Do you__________________________________?
15. SITUATION: I was sitting in class. Suddenly someone touched my shoulder.
I was startled ______. It was Olga. She wanted to borrow my dictionary.
3.28 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or participle I.
Last week I finally decided (1) to take (take) my driving test. I expected (2)______(fail) as I had only
been driving for a few weeks, but my friends encouraged me (3)____(try) and I was delighted
(4)_____(hear) them (5)____(say) such nice things about my driving. They reminded me
(6)_________(do) everything strictly by the book and helped me (7) _______(learn) the Highway
Code. On the day of the test I tried so hard (8)_____(concentrate) on what l was doing that the time
seemed (9)________(pass) very quickly. Afterwards I watched the examiner (10)________(come)
along the line of candidates and heard him (11)________(give) the good or bad news to each one.
I'm glad (12)_______(say) that I was one of the lucky ones and I am hoping
(13)__________ (buy) my first car next month.
Activity: Describe your own experience in taking some exams/tests, using
the words make, let, see, hear, notice, want, expect etc.
3.29 Complete the conversation between a travel agent
and a woman, using a full or a bare infinitive.



Good morning, madam. Can I __help________ (help) you?

Yes. I'd like ___________ (book) a holiday please.
Certainly. I must ___________ (ask) you a few questions.
Now... where would you like ___________ (go)? How long are you going ___________
Would you prefer ___________ (have) a relaxing beach holiday or
___________ (go) sightseeing? Which countries would you like _______(visit)? What
means of transport do you prefer?
Well, young man. I don't know where ___________ (go) or how long ___________
(stay). Im not eager _________ (go) to the beach and I don't enjoy sightseeing. I don't
want ___________ (visit) any foreign countries because foreign food makes me
___________ (feel) ill. As for means of transport, I'm too frightened ___________ (fly)
in an aeroplane. Its not a good idea _________ (go) on boats. Im not willing ________
(travel) by train either. Travelling on a coach makes me ___________ (feel) sick.
Well madam, I don't know what ___________ (suggest). I don't want ___________
(appear) rude, but I really think you should __________ (stay) at home!!

Activity: Make up your own dialogue with a travel agent, using infinitive

3.30 Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive.
Last night I heard car brakes __ screeching __ (screech) and people ___________ (shout) in the
street. When I looked out of the window I saw a crowd of about twenty people ___________
(stand) around a young boy lying in the street. Next, I saw the driver of the car ___________
(approach) the crowd and ___________ (kneel down) by the boy, he was looking very anxious.
I could ___________ (watch) the drama from the window of my flat, where my own children
were sleeping. It was hard ___________ (consider) the boy's family. Then a few minutes later, I
saw a young woman ___________ (run) towards the scene and ___________ (push) her way
through the crowd. Soon, I heard an ambulance siren ___________ (scream) in the distance
___________ (get) closer and closer. Then I saw the ambulance________ (stop) in front of my house.
I watched the ambulance men ___________ (get out) and ___________ (run) to the injured boy.
Minutes later I saw them ___________ (run) back to their ambulance with the boy on a stretcher
followed by his mother.
Activity: Make up a story describing an accident you witnessed (and using the Complex
3.31 Translate the following sentences, using a complex object or a that clause.

, .
, .
, - .
, , ..
, .
, - .
, .
, .
, .
, .

3.32 Translate the following sentences, using a complex object.

1. , .
2. .
3. , .
4. , : .
5. ? , .
6. , .
7. . . .
8. .
9. .
10. .
3.33 Make up sentences beginning with it. Use a form of the given expression in your
sentence, followed by an infinitive phrase.

1. be dangerous It's dangerous to ride a motorcycle without wearing a helmet.

2. be necessary
3. be important
4. not be easy
5. be foolish of you (+ perfect infinitive)
6. must be interesting
7. be always a pleasure
8. be clever of you (+ perfect infinitive)
9. not cost much money
10. take time
3.34 Add for (me/him/ Tim, etc.) or any other words to give a more specific and accurate
meaning to the sentences.
1. It isn't possible to be on time.
It isn't possible for me to be on time for classes if the bus drivers are on strike and I
have to walk to class in a rainstorm.
2. It's easy to speak Spanish.
3. It's important to learn English.
4. It is essential to get a visa.
5. It's important to take an advanced math course.
6. It's difficult to communicate.
7. It was impossible to watch the film.
8. It is a good idea to study infinitives.
3.35 Fill in too or enough and one of the adjectives from the list to write sentences as in the
example. Add other words where necessary.
heavy, cold, old, quiet, tired, cool, tall, boring

I went to bed early last night because I was ...too tired to stay... (stay) up late.
The pie is too hot. It isn't . (eat) yet.
She isn't . (reach) the top shelf, so she uses a ladder.
The children aren't . (attend) school yet.
It's . (go) outside without a coat today.
The film was. (watch), so we went for a meal instead.
Close the door, please. It isn't . (work) in here.
The bag is . (carry). Someone else will have to take it.

3.36 Complete the sentences, giving two variants where possible, as in the example:
1 He is very short. He can't be a basketball player.
a) He is too ...short to be a basketball player....
b) He isnt tall enough to be a basketball player.
2 She has saved enough money. She can go on holiday.
She has saved ......................................................
3 This tea is very hot. I can't drink it.
This tea is ............................................................
4 Daisy is very young. She can't go to school.
Daisy is................................................................
5 They have got lots of space. They can have a party.

They have got ......................................................

6 Paul is rich. He can buy a yacht.
Paul is...................................................................
7 It's hot outside. You can't wear a coat.
8 Mary is mature. She can make her own decisions.
Mary is.................................................................
9 This flat is small. We can't live in it any more.
This flat is............................................................
10 Ron has a lot of patience. He can look after the children.
Ron has................................................................
3.37 Complete the sentences, using the words ashamed, careful, eager, fortunate, hesitant,
ready, determined, delighted etc. with infinitive phrases.
1. Maria always speeds on the expressway. She's . . . .
She's certain to get stopped by the police.
She's likely to get a ticket.
2. There have been a lot of burglaries in my neighborhood recently, so I have started
taking precautions. Now I am always very . . . .
3. I've worked hard all day long. Enough's enough! I'm . . . .
4. Next month, I'm going to a family reunionthe first one in 25 years. I'm very much
looking forward to it. I'm . . . .
5. Some children grow up in unhappy homes. My family, however, has always been
loving and supportive. I'm . . . .
6. Ivan's run out of money again, but he doesn't want anyone to know his situation. He
needs money desperately, but he's . . . .
2. Rosalyn wants to become an astronaut. That has been her dream since she was a little
girl. She has been working hard toward her goal and is . . . .
3. Mr. Waugh was offered an excellent job in another country, but his wife and children
don't want to move. He's not sure what to do. Although he would like the job, he's ....
4. Our neighbours had extra tickets to the ballet, so they invited us to go with them. Since
both of us love the ballet, we were . . . .
10. Sally recently told me what my brother is up to these days. I couldn't believe my ears! I
was ....
3.38 Work in pairs, in groups, or as a class.
Speaker A: Your book is open. Ask the questions.
Speaker B: Your book is closed. Answer in complete sentences.

What are you careful enough to do before you cross a busy street?
What are children sometimes afraid to do?
When you're tired in the evening, what are you content to do?
If one of your friends has a problem, what are you willing to do?
Sometimes when people don't know English very well, what are they reluctant to do?
If the teacher announces there is a test tomorrow, what will you be motivated to do?
What are you determined to have done by the time you are 70?
What are some things people should be ashamed to do?
Is there anything you are eager to do today or tomorrow?
In what ways are you a fortunate person?

11. Can you tell me about something you were shocked to find out?/astonished to learn?
12. Can you tell me about something you were disappointed to discover?/sad to hear?
3.39 Supply an appropriate form (passive or past form) for each verb in parentheses.
1. It is easy (fool ) to be fooled by his lies.
2. I expected (invite)____________________to the party, but I wasn't.
3.Your compositions are supposed (write) ___________________________________in ink.
4. Ms. Thompson is always willing to help if there is a problem in the
office, but she doesn't want (call) ______________________at home unless there is an
5. Carlos appears (lose)_____________some weight. Has he been ill?
6. Don't all of us want (love) ________and (need)_________by other people?
7. Tim was in the army during the war. He was captured by the enemy, but
he managed to escape. He is lucky (escape) _____________with his life.
8. We would like (invite)_______________ to the president's reception at
the Pearl Hotel last week, but we weren't.
9. Alice didn't expect (ask)___________________to Bill's party.
10. I hope (award) _______a scholarship for the coming semester.
11. Mr. Carson is very lucky (choose)______________by the committee as their representative
to the meeting in Paris.
12. Helen washed up after our party yesterday. It seems (be)___________ an unpleasant
3.40 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the infintive.
1. Will you remind me to cancel (cancel) the meeting next week?
2. Don't you dare....................................................(touch) that vase!
3. He is said...................................................(work) on this project for many months.
4. The prisoner claims that the police made him...............................................(sign) the
5. The hooligans are said..(smash) several shop windows during the riot.
6. I had known him as a doctor but was not old enough (know) him as a friend.
7. Apparently criminals tend(return) to the scene of the crime.
8. This is too serious a business...(trifle) with.
9. This play is thought..............................................(write) by Christopher Marlowe,
not Shakespeare.
10. Several factors need..(consider) before we make a
11. Simon was the last person .... (arrive) at the office.
12. We had better . (run) or well miss the train.
13. He is far too young.(stay) out late at night.
14. Her teacher let her..(bring) her lunch into the classroom.
15. The thieves were seen (drive) a stolen car.
16. The athlete seemed ........................... (be) out of breath - he must have been running for hours.
17. We cant help but. (agree) to your terms.
18. Paul pretended .................... (win) a lot of money but in fact he had won nothing at all.
19. He seemed ................................................. (swim). He was all wet.
3.41 Answer the following questions according to the models. Use the verbs suggested and the

correct form of the infinitive.

1. Where does she live now? (say)
She is said to live in London, but Im not sure
2. Has he graduated yet? (believe)
Yes, he is believed to have graduated from Harvard.
3. What is David Lodge writing now? (say)
4. When will the dean be back? (expect)
5. Has the train left? (announce)
6. What can be the matter with the plane? (report)
7. How long has Ricky been staying in Manchester? (say)
8. Where has Ben gone? (suppose)
9. What does the factory produce? (know)
10. You havent seen my pen, have you? (happen)
11. What are they doing now? (suppose)
3.42 Complete the following, using the correct form of the infinitive.
1. I dont want to deal with such a woman. She doesnt seem (be) a very pleasant one.
She doesnt seem to be a pleasant one.
2. He planted trees in the garden yesterday. It seems (be) a hard job.
3. The train is likely (leave) in several minutes. The lights are green.
4. The actor appears (lose) his temper. He refuses to repeat this scene again.
5. They happened (inform) about the fire. Thats why they are here.
6. These old women still seem (argue).
7. The weather is bad. The plane is not likely (arrive) on time.
8. I advise you to see this film. Youre sure (like) it.
9. They seem (use) this method for years.
10. The parents were against their engagement but the young man turned out (be) an
intelligent and kind person.
3.43 Paraphrase the following sentences, using a Complex Subject with the words seem,
appear, happen, be sure, be (un)likely:
1. He apparently didnt know about it.
He didnt seem/appear to know about it.
2. Apparently she was particular about her looks.
3. It is possible that the weather will change for the worse.
4. It seemed that he had lost interest in the subject.
5. Do you, by any chance, know where I can find him?
6. Surely the teacher will be satisfied with your essay.
7. I dont think that he will stay in London for another year.
8. It seemed that they had never tasted this fruit.
9. It so happened that they picked the wrong person for the job.
10. I cant believe that he will again take part in the election.
11. It seems that he has been collecting stamps since he was a boy.
12. It so happened that I had no money on me.
13. Do you by any chance know where such vacuum cleaners are sold?
3.44 Paraphrase the following sentences, using a Complex Subject and the verbs in brackets.

1. Life begins at 40. (say)

Life is said to begin at 40.
2. The Greek and Roman myths are an important part of our cultural heritage. (consider)
3. Tastes change with age.(say)
4. The lectures will be attended by all the students. (suppose)
5. The driver has crossed the traffic lights when they were red. (report)
6. The new play was received with indifference. (say)
7. The first performance of his play was a failure. (know)
8. She was strict with her children and sent them to bed at 7 pm.(be told)
9. He had no choice and signed the document. (make)
3.45 Translate into English using infinitive constructions.
1. .
2. . .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , ,
6. , .
7. , .
8. - . .
9. , . .
10. . .
11. , , , .
12. .
3.46 Translate the following sentences, using a Complex Subject.
1. , . ?
2. , , ?
3. , . , .
4. , , .
5. . , .
6. ? , .
7. , .
8. , , , ?
9. , -, , .
10. , , .
11. , , .
12. , . ,
13. , .
14. , - .
15. , .
16. , .
17. .
18. , .

19. , .
20. .

Test translation. Use your active vocabulary and the infinitive constructions.


, .
, .
, .
, , , ?
, , , !
, , , .
, . , ,
, 18- .
, ?
, .
, .
, .
. -.
, , ,
. ,

Reading Exercises
3.48 Read the following passage and discuss in pairs:
1) Where is this passage taken from?
2) Who could give such advice?
3) Who is it targeted at?
4) Which piece of advice do you consider the most helpful and why?
5) Which is the least helpful?

Tips on how to get work experience

Make use of people you know friends or relatives to help you to get a placement within a
company, even where formal internships do not exist.
When sending out your CV, address it to a specific person, include a brief covering letter and
always follow up with a phone call.
Research the company before you arrive it will give you confidence on your first day and wilt
impress people.
Make an effort to get on with people and be enthusiastic but never pushy. If you seem committed
and make yourself useful, people will notice you anyway.
Don't be too fussy about where you go or the jobs you do. See it as a chance to get your foot in
the door and meet people who may one day help you.
Make the most of long holidays to take up work placements.
Ask for careers advice from other employees.

Ask for a meeting to discuss employment opportunities with the relevant manager before you
leave if you'd like a job, don't be afraid to let people know. Keep in contact with those who
may be helpful in the future.
3.49 Read the text and answer the questions.

Slave Labour or Fascinating Job?

Is work experience just unpaid drudgery
- or can you actually get a job out of it?
Amy Williams meets several people
for whom it worked wonders.
An interview with Sophie Davidson, 29, who lives in Greenwich. She is a group music
coordinator and showbusiness reporter at Chrysalis Radio. She says:
ALTHOUGH I'm in my dream job now, at school I lacked ambition, so after years at
university I simply fell into a job rather than following my interests. I studied French and
communication studies at Liverpool. The communications part didn't help me with anything I
now do in radio it was based on the sociological use of language rather than the media and I
can't say that it inspired me to follow any specific career.
However, as part of the course, I spent a year working for an IT firm in France and secured a
role with it in its London office as soon as I graduated.
I became a bit of a City suit and I wasn't happy I've always been interested in music,
clubbing and entertainment working in the City felt a long way from this. All my friends
seemed to have more interesting jobs than me. I was 24 and knew I needed to make the change
then. Having quit the City and after travelling in South America for three months, I looked into
my options. I rang around everyone I knew and straight away a friend of a friend was able to put
me in touch with a DJ at Juice FM in Brighton.
I organised to sit in on his show for a few days, and although I was intimidated at first, it was
exactly the sort of insight I needed to confirm that radio was for me. I was offered a place on the
Juice FM trainee scheme, which involved spending two days a week unpaid at the station.
To fund myself, I worked in a London pub for the rest of the week and commuted to
Brighton. Juice FM was a small company, so the work I did was hands-on; I was conducting
interviews on the street, writing my own questions and getting a real buzz from it.
At that stage I knew that technical training would help me be in the best possible position
when a job opportunity came my way, so I enrolled on a little-known journalism course run by
Community Service Volunteers in London. At 25, I was much older than my fellow students
most were 18 but I was very focused.
My big break, getting a placement at Chrysalis, came through contacts I'd made during a
brief stint of work experience at Ministry of Sound, which was launching a new radio station. In
this industry you have to network, and that's why work experience, however short the placement,
is so important. I worked for six months unpaid at Chrysalis, spending most of my time on the
newsdesk of Heart FM and, although I was on a steep learning curve, it was fantastic from day
one, and I never had to make a cup of tea.
Working for free was exhausting because I had to hold down two other jobs at a pub and
waitressing for a private caterer to keep myself. Some days were long; I'd be writing travel
reports at 8am, then serving lobster to London's wealthy at 8pm.
The benefit of work experience is that it gives you the flexibility to learn on the job and
make mistakes without feeling you are about to get sacked. You still need to avoid slipping up,

After two months at Chrysalis I was sent to Spain to interview celebrities including Paula
Radcliffe and Frank Bruno, who were at a special training camp for the London Marathon. I
checked my equipment thoroughly but when I got back to the office to download my recordings, I
realized that my tape, which had all my interviews on, had disappeared. I imagined my career
ending there and then.
My solution was to contact the organizers and re-interview everyone. With my boss away I
spent the week whizzing across the country locating all the people I'd spoken to in Spain. I took
actress Emma Atkins out to lunch in Manchester (losing the tape was an expensive mistake) and
tracked down Bruno at an event in Hyde Park. It was all worthwhile because my boss never found
out. I guess that shows how determined I was to make a good impression.
There were moments when I felt like a dog but I never felt I was taken advantage of
because I was respected within the team and was careful not to be pushy I knew if people liked
me I would be top of the list for the right job.
Now, in my role as showbiz reporter, I get to see all the movies before they are released
and I go to the best restaurants. My next goal is to become head of entertainment projects for
Chrysalis. I'm so fortunate to have this role but it wasn't just down to luck; I have definitely
earned it.
Evening Standard
1. How will you answer the reporters question?
2. What does S. Davidson tell about her work experience?
3. Is it an ordinary one? (Is it a failure? Is it successful?
4. What career can be considered highly successful? (From the point of view of
S. Davidson/ from your point of view?)
5. Can you give some examples of successful careers?
6. What do you know about work experience of your parents? Are they satisfied with their
jobs now?
7. What do you expect to do after graduating MGIMO?
3.50 Read the article and exchange the opinions with the partner. Answer the questions.

To hill and back for, for a job in Japan.

by Aidan Radnedge
If your last interview left you feeling giddy and disoriented, count yourself lucky.
Keen job-hunters in Japan had to literally climb a mountain almost 4 km (3 miles) high just
to meet potential employers.
Twenty tried to prove just for far or high they were prepared to go yesterday for a post
with traders ImageNet Co.
Only 11 reached the top of Japans highest mountain, Mount Fuji in Fujinomiya. Even that
wasnt the top of the greasy pole of ambition just for jobs were up for grabs.
Student applicants were advised to take deep, regular breaths, dress smartly and maintain eye
contact with interviewers.
They inhaled from cans of enriched air while the climate left their clothes bedraggled and eye
streaming. It was hardly the best preparation for reeling off achievements and ambitions once
mountain-top interviewers began, up to seven hours after they set out.
But the company, one of Japans largest online clothes retailers, said its recruits must have
what takes to scale the heights of business (oh, that Japanese humor).
This was not the first unusual mission to the summit singer Kyu Sakamoto once had a
grand piano carried up for a concert.

Daily Mail
1. Why did the Japanese firm choose such out of the ordinary place for the interview?
2. What was the most difficult for applicants to do?
3. What were the applicants advised to do?
4. Why did the Japanese job-hunters have to climb Mount Fiji?
5. If you are eager to have a job, will you do the same?


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