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2011

512.64(075)
: 14.573-1
144
. . , . . , . . ,
: 2 .: . / . . -. , 2011. 102 .
ISBN 978-5-94356-751-3
,
1989 2010 .
-
. 1 , 2
.
,
.
.
-
-.

ISBN 978-5-94356-751-3
c , 2011

c . ., . ., . ., 2011

1 .
1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 :
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3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 . . .
5 .
6

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8 .
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9
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11 :
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12 . . . .
13 . . . . . . . . .
14 , . .
15 L(U, V )
Mm,n (F ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 L(U, V ) Mm,n (F ) . . . . . . . . . . .
17 .
18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19 , .

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20 ,
4

11
11
12
13
13
14
15
18
21
23
25
27
29
30
31
32
34
36
38

40
41

21
. . . . .
22 ,
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23
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24 , ,
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25
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26 -, . . . . . . . . .
27 , . .
28
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30 .
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31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33 .
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1
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8 . . . . . . .
9 - . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 42
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. 47
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. 59
. 60
. 61
63
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. 64
. 66
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71
73
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13 , , . Fp .
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14

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17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 81
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91
92
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-,
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,
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: A B , A
B; A B A
B; ;
; ! ;
; N , N0
, Z , Q , R
, C ; i C,
:= ,

, .
: . ,
, 1 1 ,
, , 1 2.4 1
.
:
. . , , .: , 1999;
. . , , I-III, .: .-.
, 2000;
. . , , ., 2003;
. . , , .: , 2005;
. . , , .: , 1976.

1
.

,
, ,
,
(
).
, ,
,
.

1.

A B A B
(a, b), a A, b B. , A
B = {(a, b) : a A, b B}. n- A
An = {(a1 , . . . , an ) : ai A}.
. A = {1, 2} , B = {3, 7, 8}.
A A = {(1, 1) , (1, 2) , (2, 1) , (2, 2)} ;
A B = {(1, 3) , (1, 7) , (1, 8) , (2, 3) , (2, 7) , (2, 8)} .
X . f : X X X
X, . . f ,
x1 , x2 X f (x1 , x2 ) X. xy
f (x, y). , (a b) c =
a (b c) a, b, c X , a b = b a
a, b X.
11

1. .

12

F ,
+ () () ,

1) ( 0 F : a F ) a + 0 = 0 + a = a;
2) ( a F b F ) a + b = b + a = 0, (b a);
3) (1 F (1 6= 0) : a F ) a 1 = 1 a = a;
4) ( a F (a 6= 0) b F ) ab = ba = 1 ( b
a a1 );
5) ( a, b, c F ) (a + b)c = ac + bc.
.
hQ; +, i.
hR; +i.
h{0, 1}; +, i, , 1 + 1 = 0.

Q( 2) = {a + b 2 : a, b Q}.
, N Z . F
,
.

2.

C = {(a, b) : a, b R}. C :
(a, b) + (c, d) = (a + c, b + d), (a, b) (c, d) = (ac bd, ad + bc).
1. hC; +, i .
. , 0 = (0, 0) 1 = (1, 0) ,
a
b
, C. ( a2 +b
2 , a2 +b2 )
(a, b).
.

(a, b) = a (1, 0) + b (0,


1) := a 1 + b i := a +2 bi, 1
2
2
C, i = (i) = 1. C = a 1 + b i : a, b R, i = 1
. (a, 0) a
R, R C. (a, b) := a + ib.

1. .

3.

13

z = a + bi C
, x a, y
b x.

|z| = a2 + b2
z; := arg z z (
2n), arg 0 . a := Re z
, b := Im z z. , z =
Re z + iIm z. , Re (z1 + z2 ) = Re (z1 ) + Re (z2 ) , Im (z1 + z2 ) =
Im (z1 ) + Im (z2 ).

z:
z = |z| (cos + i sin ).
, z1 = z2 |z1 | = |z2 | , arg z1 = arg z2 + 2k, k Z.
1. z1 , z2 C
1) arg z1 z2 = arg z1 + arg z2 + 2k, k Z; |z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 | ;

z1
1|
2) z2 6= 0, zz12 = |z
|z2 | ; arg z2 = arg z1 arg z2 + 2k, k Z.
. z1 z2 = |z1 | |z2 | (cos 1 + i sin 1 )
(cos 2 + i sin 2 ) = |z1 | |z2 | (cos (1 + 2 ) + i sin (1 + 2 )) . ,
|z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 | arg z1 z2 = arg z1 + arg z2 + 2k. ,
z1
|z1 | (cos 1 + i sin 1 ) |z1 |
=
=
(cos 1 + i sin 1 ) (cos 2 i sin 2 ) =
z2
|z2 | (cos 2 + i sin 2 ) |z2 |
=

4.

|z1 |
(cos (1 2 ) + i sin (1 2 )) .
|z2 |

: n N
(r (cos + i sin ))n = rn (cos n + i sin n) .
. n N

(cos + i sin )n = cosn Cn2 cosn2 sin2 + . . . + Cn1 cosn1 sin + . . . i.

1. .

14

.
xn = z, z = r (cos + i sin ) .
x = (cos + i sin ) , xn = n (cos n + i sin n) .
,
n

=r
= nr
cos n = cos
n = + 2k, k Z,

sin n = sin
+ 2k
+ 2t
=
+ 2s, k = ns + t, 0 t n 1,
n
n
+ 2
+ 2 (n 1)

, . . . , n =
.
1 = , 2 =
n
n
n

n : xi = n r (cos i + i sin i ) , i = 1, . . . , n.
=

1. xn = z n p

n
n-, |z|
, (1, 0) .

2k
n
k = cos 2k
n +i sin n , k = 0, 1, . . . , n1, x = 1,
n.

5.

R A B ,
A, B. (a, b) R, a b , a
R

R b. R A, A
.
. A = {1, 2}
R = {(1, 1) , (2, 2)} A A.
R A ,
A, x, y, z A
1) x x ;
R
2) x y y x ;
R

3) x y, y z x z .
R

. Z . , a b,
(a b) 2. 1) 2) . 3): a b, b c

1. .

15

a b = 2k, b c = 2`, k, ` Z. (a b) + (b c) = a c = 2 (k + `)
a c.
S = {B : B A, I} A ,
B 6= I a A

S
B , a B . , A =
B
I
T
, I , 6= B B = .
1. 1) R A
A . 2) A A
.
. 1) Ka = {b A : b a} ( := ).
R

, Ka 6= a A: a a, a Ka .
Ka Kb 6= , c Ka Kb c a, b c a b
a Kb . x Ka , x a, a b, x b x Kb .
, Ka Kb . Kb Ka Ka = Kb . ,
a, b A Ka Kb = , Ka = Kb . Ka
A R. S
A R. , S A
.
2) S = {B : B A, I} A .
x, y A x y , I ,
x, y B . x x, I , x B .
x y, y x . x y y z, x, y B , y, z B ;
, = , x, y, z B . x z.

6.

F . (...):

a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn = b1 ,

am1 x1 + . . . + amn xn = bm ,

(1)

aij , bi , xj
, aij , bi F , i = 1, . . . , m, j = 1, . . . , n. m (n + 1)
. C... , b1 = . . . =

1. .

16

bm = 0. ...

a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn = 0,

am1 x1 + . . . + amn xn = 0,
... (1).
(y1 , . . . , yn ) F n (1),
xi yi , i = 1, . . . , n, (1)
.
S F n ... (1), . . S =
{(y1 , . . . , yn ) : (y1 , . . . , yn ) ... (1)}. :
, S = ; , S 6= ; , S
; , S
.
.

x1 + x2 = 2

- ;
2x1 + 2x2 = 1
x1 + x2 = 2 ;
x1 = 1 .

(1), (1) ,
.
...

c11 x1 + . . . + c1n xn = d1 ,

(2)

cm1 x1 + . . . + cmn xn = dm .
(1) (2) ,
, .
(1) (2) (1) (2).
, Si (i), i = 1, 2, (1) (2)
, S1 = S2 . ,
... m (n + 1) .
, , (1) (1) (1) (2) (2) (1).
(1) (2), (2) (3) S1 = S2 , S2 = S3 S1 = S3 (1)
(3). , 1 5 ...
.

1. .

17

, (2) (1) :
I , (2) (1)
i- j- (i 6= j);
II , (2) (1) i- j (i 6= j), F , . . i-
(2)
(ai1 + aj1 ) x1 + . . . + (ain + ajn ) xn = bi + bj ,

(3)

(2) (1).
: (1) (2), (1) (2).
I

II

I II
... (1) (2).
1. :
1) (1) (2) (2) (1);
2) (1) (2) (1) (2).
. 1) (1) (2), , , i- j-
I
... (2), (1), . . (2) (1). (1) (2) (3),
I

II

i- (2) j- (2), (),


i- (1), . . (2) (1).
II

2) (1) (2), ,
I

(1) (2).
(1) (2) (3). S1 6= (y1 , . . . , yn )
II

S1 (1). (ai1 + aj1 ) y1 + . . . +


(ain + ajn ) yn = (ai1 y1 + . . . + ain yn ) + (aj1 y1 + . . . + ajn yn ) = bi +
bj . , (y1 , . . . , yn ) S2 , (2) .
, S1 S2 . , (2) (1), S2 S1 S1 = S2 .
II
S1 = . (2) (1), S2 = S1 = S2 .
(1) (2).

II

1. ... (2) (1)


, (1) (2).
. (1) (a1 ) . . . (an1 ) (2). ,
(1) (2) n .
n = 1 1. , (n 1)
. 1, (1) (a1 ).
(a1 ) (2). , (1) (2).

1. .

7.

18

a11 . . . a1n
A = . . . . . . . . . , aij F , i = 1, . . . , m, j = 1, . . . , n,
am1 . . . amn

b11 . . . b1n
m n F . B = . . . . . . . . . .
bm1 . . . bmn
A B , , .
. A = B aij = bij 1 i m, 1 j n.
0.
m n F Mm,n (F ), . .

a11 a1n

Mm,n (F ) =
: aij F .

am1 amn

Ai = (ai1 . . . ain ) M1,n (F ) , 1 i m, i-


(i-) A.

a1j
A(j) = ... Mm,1 (F ) j- A.
amj
A :

A1

A = ... = A(1) . . . A(n) .


Am
.
() I :

A1
A1
...
...

A
A
i
j

..

A = . B = ... , i 6= j,
I

Aj
Ai
.
.
..
..
Am

Am

. . B A i j .

1. .

II

A1
A1
.
..

..
.

A + A
A
j
i
i

..
.
..
A= . B=

II

Aj
Aj
.

..
..

.
Am
Am

19

, i 6= j, F,

Ai + Aj = ((ai1 + aj1 ) . . . (ain + ajn )) . , B


A i- j-, F .
I II
A A B.

0 0 a1k1 a1n
0 0 a2k a1n
2

..
..
...
. .

A = 0 0 0 arkr arn ,

0 0
.
..
..
.
0 0
a1k1 , . . . , arkr 6= 0, 1 k1 < . . . < kr n, 1 r m,
( ).
1. A Mm,n (F ) A 6= 0. A
.
. m A.
m = 1 . ,
Mm1,n (F ). A Mm,n (F ).
A 6= 0, i, j, 1 i m, 1 j n, , aij 6= 0.
j i . 1-
i- A.

0 0 b1j b1n
.. ..
.. , b 6= 0.
B = ...
. .
.
1j
0 0 bmj bmn

1. .

20

i- B, i = 2, . . . , m, 1- B,
b
= b1jij .

C=

B1
B2
..
.
Bm

B1

=


bmj
b1j B1
b2j
b1j

0 0 c1j
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0

c2j+1

cmj+1

c1n
c2n


cmn

c1j = b1j 6= 0.

c2j+1 c2n
C = Mm1,nj (F )
cmj+1 cmn
( , C Mm1,n ). ,
C
D. C2 , . . . , Cm
C

0 0 b1j b1n

0 0 0

D =
.

D

0
0 0

...

a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn = b1 ,

(1)

am1 x1 + . . . + amn xn = bm .

a11 a1n
.. M (F ) ... (1),
A = ...
.
m,n
am1 amn

a11 a1n b1
..
.. M
A = ...
.
.
m,n+1 (F )
am1 amn bm
(1). A

1. .

21

b1
A = (A|B), B = ... Mm,1 (F )
bm
... (1).
,
... m (n + 1) Mm,n+1 (F ).
, ...
.
... (1) ,
A (1) .
1. ... (1) ... .
. 1, A
.
,
. 1 6,

(1).

8.

...

a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn = b1 ,

am1 x1 + . . . + amn xn = bm .

(1)

A , , ,
S = F n . A 6= 0.
:

c1k1 xk1 + . . . . . . + c1n xn = d1 ,

crkr xkr + . . . + crn xn = dr ,

0 = dr+1 ,
(2)

0 = 0,

..

0 = 0,

1. .

22

c1k1 , . . . , crkr 6= 0, 1 k1 < . . . < kr n. 1 7, (1) (2).


(1) (2).
1) . (2) dr+1 6= 0, (2)
. 0x1 +. . .+0xn = dr+1 6= 0
(y1 , . . . , yn ) F n .
2) . dr+1 = 0. , (2) .

c1k1 xk1 + . . . + c1n xn = d1 , c1k1 6= 0,

(3)

crkr xkr + . . . + crn xn = dr , crkr 6= 0,


1 k1 < . . . < kr n, 1 r n.
xk1 , . . . , xkr ,
. , r
(n r) .
,
(3):

`1 = `1 (x1 , . . . , x
bk1 , . . . , x
bkr , . . . , xn ) =
c1i xi ,

i6=k1 ,...,kr

bk1 , . . . , x
bkr , . . . , xn ) =
cri xi

`r = `r (x1 , . . . , x
i6=k1 ,...,kr

b X).
( X

r
P

xk1 = c1k1 d1 `1
c1ki xki ,

i=2

(4)
1

xkr1 = cr1k (dr1 `r1 crkr xkr ) ,

r1

x = 1 (d ` ) .
kr
r
r
crk
r

F
(4). xkr ,
(r 1)- xkr1 .
,
x1 . , (2) ( (1)) .
(4) (1).
c) . (3)
, , , , . . r < n,
(3), , , (2) (1) .

1. .

23

(3) , . . r = n.
(4) n `1 , . . . , `r . x1 , . . . , xn
.
, :
1. ... (1) :
1) ,
(2) dr+1 = 0.
,
;
2) , (2)
r = n.
. ... :

2x1 + x2 = 0,
x + 2x2 + x3 = 0,
1
x2 + 2x3 = 4.
. :

2 1 0 0
2 1 0 0
2 1 0 0
1 2 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 3 1 0 .
2
2
0 1 2 4
0 1 2 4
0 0 43
4
x3 = 3, x2 = 2, x1 = 1.

9.

: .

V 6= (
) F , V
, F ,
, :
1) () 0 V , a + 0 = 0 + a = a
a V ; a V b V , a + b =
b + a = 0;
2) , F, a, b V :
a) () a = (a) ( );

1. .

24

) ( + ) a = a + a, (a + b) = a + b ();
) 1a = a, 1 F .
V , F
.
:
1) V .
01 02 V , : 01 + 02 = 01 = 02 .

2) (x V ! y V ) x + y = y + x = 0.
x + y1 = x + y2 = 0. (x + y1 ) + y2 = 0 + y2 = y2 = x + (y1 + y2 ) =
x + (y2 + y1 ) = (x + y2 ) + y1 = 0 + y1 = y1 .

3) 0a = 0, 0 F , a V .
(1 + 0)a = 1a = a = 1a + 0a = a + 0a 0 = 0a.

4) ( F ) 0 = 0, 0 V .
0 = (0 + 0) = 0 + 0 0 = 0.

5) ( F, a V ) a = 0 = 0 a = 0.

6= 0, 1 (a) = (1 )a = 1a = a = 1 0 = 0.
6) (a, b V ) (a) = a, (a + b) = a b.
.

7) ( F, a V ) (a) = ()a.
a + ()a = ( + ())a = 0a = 0 a = (a).

.
1) E3 3- R
0 .
2) :
Fn = {X = (x1 , . . . , xn ) : x1 , . . . , xn F } :

X + Y = (x1 , . . . , xn ) + (y1 , . . . , yn ) = (x1 + y1 , . . . , xn + yn ) ,


(1)
X = (x1 , . . . , xn ) = (x1 , . . . , xn ) , F.
, Fn
.
: 0 = (0, . . . , 0) : 0 + X = X + 0 = 0 X Fn .
: X = (x1 , . . . , xn ) X =
(x1 , . . . , xn ) : X + (X) = (X) + X = 0.
: (X + Y ) = (x1 + y1 , . . . , xn + yn ) = (x1 +
y1 , . . . , xn + yn ) = (x1 , . . . , xn ) + (y1 , . . . , yn ) = X + Y.

1. .

25

( + ) X = (( + ) x1 , . . . , ( + ) xn ) = (x1 + x1 , . . . , xn + xn ) =
(x1 , . . . , xn ) + (x1 , . . . , xn ) = X + X.
.
F n .
3) .

a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn = 0,

(2)

am1 x1 + . . . + amn xn = 0.
Vs = {(1 , . . . , n ) : (1 , . . . , n ) (2)} .
Vs (1). : Vs 6= ,
0 = (0, . . . , 0) Vs . , Vs ,
(1), .
X = (x1 , . . . , xn ) , Y = (y1 , . . . , yn ) Vs , . . X
Y (2) . , i = 1, . . . , m,
0=

n
X
k=1

aik xk +

n
X

aik yk =

k=1

F 0 =

n
X

aik (xk + yk ), . . X + Y Vs .

k=1
n
P
k=1

aik xk =

n
P
k=1

aik xk =

n
P

aik (xk ), . .

k=1

X Vs .
Vs Fn Vs
Fn , . ,
Vs
.

10.

V F a1 , . . . , an V .
L (a1 , . . . , an ) = {1 a1 + . . . + n an : i F }
a1 , . . . , an . U
V V , U
F , V .
1. U V a + b U , F,
a, b U .

1. .

26

. . , = = 1.
a + b U a, b U . , = 0. a U
F, a U . , V
.

. L = L(a1 , . . . , an ) V .
. , L 6= . , , F
n
n
n
P
P
P
a=

i ai , b =
(i + i ) ai L.
i ai L : a + b =
i=1

i=1

i=1

a1 , . . . , an U ,
1 , . . . , n F , ,
n
P
i ai = 0. a1 , . . . , an U ,
i=1
n
P
i=1

i ai = 0 , 1 = 2 = . . . = n = 0.

. 1) `1 = (1, 0, . . . , 0) , . . . , `n = (0, 0, . . . , 1)
Fn .
2) a 2a a V .
1. 1) a1 , . . . , an
, a1 , . . . , an .
2) a1 , . . . , an ,
.
3) a1 , . . . , an , i , ai
L (a1 , . . . a
i . . . , an ).
4) ai L (a1 , . . . a
i . . . , an ), a1 , . . . , an .
5) a1 , . . . , an , a1 , . . . , an , a ,
a L (a1 , . . . , an ).
6) a1 , . . . , an a
/ L (a1 , . . . , an ), a1 , . . . , an ,
a .
. 1) i1 ai1 + . . . + is ais = 0, 1 i1 < . . . <
n
P
is n i1 , . . . , is .
i ai = 0, k =
i=1

0, k
/ {i1 , . . . , is }
i .
k , k {i1 , . . . , is }
2) 1).
n
P
3)
i ai = 0, k 6= 0 , ak = k1 a1 . . .
abk . . .

i=1
n
k an .

1. .

27

4) ai = 1 a1 +. . .+d
i ai +. . .+n an , 1 a1 +. . .+(1)ai +. . .+n an = 0.
5) 1 , . . . , n , F , ,
n
n
P
P
i ai + a = 0. 6= 0 a = 1
i ai .

i=1

6) 5).

11.

i=1

:
.

V F . V
, a1 , . . . , an V , V =
L (a1 , . . . , an ). a1 , . . . , an V ,
a1 , . . . , an V = L (a1 , . . . , an ).
1. a) V = L (a1 , . . . , an ). x V
n
P
i ai . b) a1 , . . . , an
1 , . . . , n F , x =
i=1

V , x V 1 , . . . , n F
n
P
, x =
i ai .
i=1

. a) . b) x =
n
P

n
P
i=1

i ai =

n
P
i=1

i ai .

(i i )ai = 0. , 1 i n, i i = 0

i=1
i =

i .

. 1. `1 , . . . , `n () Fn .
i
P
2. ai =
`k , 1 i n. a1 , . . . , an Fn .
k=1

a11 x1 + . . . + a1n xn = 0
1. ...

m < n

am1 x1 + . . . + amn xn = 0
.
. , .
. 1 8 ,

1. .

28

b1k xk + . . .
+ b1n xn

...
...
...

brs xs + . . . + brn xn
0

=
...
=
=
..
.
=

0
0
0
0,

1 k < ` < . . . < s n, r m b1k , . . . , brs 6= 0.


(n r) (n m) > 0, . . .

2. V = L(a1 , . . . , an ) b1 , . . . , bm V
. m n.
n
n
P
P
. b1 =
1i ai , . . . , bm = mi ai , ij F
i=1

m > n.

m
P
i=1

m
X
i=1

x i bi =

m
X

(xi

i=1

...

n
X
j=1

m
P
i=1

ij aj ) =

m X
n
X
i=1 j=1

i=1

xi bi , xi F .

n
m
X
X
ij xi aj =
(
ij xi )aj .
j=1

i=1

ij xi = 0, 1 j n.

, 1
m
P
(x1 , . . . , xn ) Fn , . .
xi bi = 0. m n.

i=1

1. V =
L(a1 , . . . , an ) . V
r n (
V F dimF V = r).
. . V 6= 0,
x1 V . V = L(x1 ), x1 ; V 6= L(x1 ),
x2 V, x2
/ L(x1 ). 1 10, x1 , x2 .
V = L(x1 , x2 ), x1 , x2 . V 6= L(x1 , x2 ),
. 2 n,
r , r n, : x1 , . . . , xr xr+1
L(x1 , . . . , xr ) xr+1 V . , V = L(x1 , . . . , xr )
x1 , . . . , xr V .

1. .

29

. V = L(x1 , . . . , xr ) = L(y1 , . . . , ys ), x1 , . . . , xr
y1 , . . . , ys . 2, r s
s r, . . r = s.

a1 , . . . , an V , x V
n
P
1 , . . . , n F , x =
i ai . [x]a1 ,...,an = (1 , . . . , n ) Fn
i=1

x a1 , . . . , an .

12.

A, B , : A B .
Im () = { (a) : a A} B.
( ), Im () = B, . . b B
a A , (a) = b; (
; ), (a1 ) 6= (a2 ) a1 , a2 A, a1 6= a2 ;
( ), ,
. . .
U V ,
: U 7 V ,
(a + b) = (a) + (b) , F , a, b U .
. : U V .
1. dimF V = n, V Fn .
. V = L(a1 , . . . , an ), a1 , . . . , an V .
n
P
x =
i ai V , 1 , . . . , n F . : V Fn :
i=1

(x) = [x]a1 ,...,an . (1 , . . . , n ) Fn x =

n
P
i=1

i ai

, (x) = (1 , . . . , n ), . . . ,
x, y V , x 6= y, [x]a1 ,...,an 6= [y]a1 ,...,an . ,
, , .
n
n
P
P
, F, x =
i ai , y =
i ai V
i=1

i=1

n
X
(x + y) = (
(i + i ) ai ) = (1 + 1 , . . . , n + n ) =
i=1

= (1 , . . . , n ) + (1 , . . . , n ) = (x) + (y) .

1. .

13.

30

1. V = L(a1 , . . . , an ) ai1 , . . . , air


a1 , . . . , an .
ai1 , . . . , air V .
. r = n, a1 , . . . , an V .
r < n. i, 1 i n, ai1 , . . . , air , ai
. 1 10, ai L(ai1 , . . . , air ). ,
V = L (a1 , . . . , an ) L (ai1 , . . . , air ) L (a1 , . . . , an ) = V . V =
L (ai1 , . . . , air ) ai1 , . . . , air V .

2. V n F ,
a1 , . . . , ar V r < n.
ar+1 , . . . , an V , a1 , . . . , an V .
. r < n, L(a1 , . . . , ar ) 6= V .
ar+1
/ L (a1 , . . . , an ) V . 1 10, a1 , . . . , ar+1
. L (a1 , . . . , ar+1 ) = V , a1 , . . . , ar+1 V .
, . (n r) a1 , . . . , an .
1 ( ). U
V , . .
U V = L(a1 , . . . , an )
b1 , . . . , br , U = L(b1 , . . . , br ) r n.
. U
=
0, U
=
L(0)
. U
6= 0. M
=
{(b1 , . . . , br ) : r N, b1 , . . . , br } . M 6= :
U 6= 0, a U , a 6= 0. , (a) M.
, r n 2 11.
(b1 , . . . , br ) M , r
. , b1 , . . . , br U . M ,
b U b1 , . . . , br , b . ,
1 9, b L (b1 , . . . , br ). , U L (b1 , . . . , br ) U .
U = L (b1 , . . . , br ), b1 , . . . , br U r n.

. U V dim U = dim V , U = V .
. U V . U 6= V ,
U V , dim U < dim V .

U ?
1) U = 0, U = L(0).

1. .

31

2) U 6= 0, x1 U . U = L(x1 ), x1
. U 6= L(x1 ), x2 U , x2
/ L(x1 ).
, 1 11, x1 , x2 .
r n U = L (x1 , . . . , xr ) , x1 , . . . , xr
U .

14.

U1 , . . . , Uk V .

k
T
i=1

{a V : a U1 , . . . , a Uk } U1 , . . . , Uk ;

Ui = U1 . . . Uk

k
P

i=1

Ui = U1 + . . . + Uk =

= {a V : a = a1 + . . . + ak : ai Ui } U1 , . . . , Uk .
k
k
T
P
1.
Ui
Ui V .
i=1

i=1

. , 0

k
T
i=1

k
T

, F , a, b

i=1

Ui , 0

k
P
i=1

Ui

k
T
i=1

Ui 6= ,

k
P
i=1

i=1

Ui 6=

Ui a, b U1 , . . . , a, b Uk . ,

1 10, a + b U1 , . . . , a + b Uk , . . a + b
, F, a, b

k
P

k
T
i=1

Ui . ,

Ui a = a1 + . . . + ak , b = b1 + . . . + bk ,

ai , bi Ui . , 1 10, ai + bi Ui a + b =
k
k
k
k
k
k
P
P
P
P
T
P
ai +
bi =
ai + bi
Ui . 1 10,
Ui
Ui
i=1

i=1

i=1

i=1

V .

. U1

i=1

i=1

U2 V .

1. U1 , U2 V . dim (U1 + U2 ) =
dim U1 + dim U2 dim (U1 U2 ).
. dim U1 = n1 , dim U2 = n2 , dim (U1 U2 ) = m.
a1 , . . . , am U1 U2 . U1 U2 U1 , , 3,
a1 , . . . , am b1 , . . . , bk U1
U1 , m+k = n1 . , a1 , . . . , am , c1 , . . . , c` U2 , m+` =
n2 . , a1 , . . . , am , b1 , . . . , bk , c1 , . . . , c` U1 + U2 .

1. .

32

1) u U1 + U2 , u = u1 + u2 , u1 U1 , u2 U2 .
u1 =

m
X

i ai +

i bi , i , i F, u2 =

i=1

i=1

k
X

u1

m
X

i ai +

i=1

u2

m
P

i=1

(i + i ) ai +

`
X

i ci , i , i F,

i=1
k
P
i=1

i bi +

`
P
i=1

i ci

=
L(a1 , . . . , am , b1 , . . . , bk , c1 , . . . , c` ). , U1 + U2
L (a1 , . . . , am , b1 , . . . , bk , c1 , . . . , c` ) .
m
m
k
`
P
P
P
P
2)
i ai
i ai +
i bi + i ci = 0, i , i , i F.
+

i=1
`
P

k
P
i=1

i bi =

c =
0=

m
P
i=1

`
P
i=1

i=1

i=1

i ci = c. , c U2 , c U1 , . . c U1

i ci =

i ai +

k
P
i=1

i=1

i=1

m
P
i=1

i ai .

m
P
i=1

i a i +

`
P
i=1

U2

i ci = 0 i , i = 0 c =

i bi = 0, i , i = 0 dim (U1 + U2 ) = m + k + ` =

(m + k) + (m + `) m = dim U1 + dim U2 dim(U1 U2 ).

U1 , U2 V . U1 + U2
U1 U2 , U1 U2 = 0.
2. U1 , U2 V U = U1 + U2 .
U = U1 U2 u U u1
U1 , u2 U2 , u = u1 + u2 .
. U = U1 U2 u U , u = u1 + u2
u1 U1 , u2 U2 . u = v1 + v2 v1 U1 , v2 U2 ,
u1 v1 = v2 u2 U2 U1 , . . u1 = v1 , u2 = v2 .
, U1 U2 6= 0, u U1 U2 ,
u = u + 0 u = 0 + u u.

15.

L(U, V )
Mm,n(F )

U V F . : U
V , (x + y) = (x) + (y), (x) = (x)
x, y U, F . , (x + y) =
(x) + (y) , F, x, y U .

1. .

33

. 1) : : Fn Fm , x Fn (x) =
0 Fm . 0, := 0.
2) : : Fn Fn , x Fn (x) = x Fn .
:= id.
3) i- : : Fn F1 , x =
(x1 , . . . , xn ) Fn (x) = xi . := P ri .
L(U, V ) U
V . L(U, V ):
1) ( + ) (x) = (x) + (x) , L (U, V ) ;
2) () (x) = (x) F, L (U, V ) .
1. L(U, V )
F .
. L (U, V ) 6= , 0 L (U, V ). ,
L (U, V ) : , L (U, V ),
, , F, x, y U
( + ) (x + y) = (x + y) + (x + y) = (x) + (y)
+ (x) + (y) = ( (x) + (x)) + ( (y) + (y)) =
= ( + ) (x) + ( + ) (y) ,
() (x + y) = ( (x + y)) = ( (x) + (y)) =
= (x) + (y) = () (x) + () (y) .
0 L (U, V ) ; := (1) + () = 0.
.
Mn,m (F ) F
:



a11 a1m
b11 b1m
a11 + b11
.
.
.
.
..
..
.. + ..
.. =
.
an1 anm
bn1 bnm
an1 + bn1

a11 a1m
a11 a1m
.. = ..
.. ,
...
.
.
.
an1 anm
an1 anm

a1m + b1m
..
,
.
anm + bnm
F.

Eij Mn,m (F ) ,
i- j- 1, .

1. .

34

2. 1) Mn,m (F ) F . 2) 1
i n, 1 j m, Eij Mn,m (F )
dimF Mn,m (F ) = n m.
. 1) P
.
2) A = (ij ) Mn,m (F ). A =
ij Eij , . . Mn,m (F ) =
1in
1jm

11 1m
P
.. .
L (Eij : 1 i n, 1 j m).
ij Eij = 0 = ...
.
1in
n1 nm
1jm
ij = 0 i, j.

16.

L(U, V ) Mm,n(F )

: X Fm , A Mm,n (F ).

m
!
a11 a1n
m
X
X
.. :=
ak1 xk , . . . ,
akn xk .
XA = (x1 , . . . , xm ) ...
.
k=1
k=1
am1 amn
XA = ((a11 x1 + . . . + am1 xm ), . . . , (a1n x1 + . . . + amn xm )) =
= (a11 x1 , . . . , a1n x1 ) + . . . + (am1 xm , . . . , amn xm ) =
= x1 (a11 , . . . , a1n ) + . . . + xm (am1 , . . . , amn ) = x1 A1 + . . . + xm Am ,
Ai = (ai1 , . . . , ain ) i- A, i = 1, . . . , m.
, X Fm , A Mm,n (F ) XA Fn .
A Mm,n (F ) A : Fm Fn
: A (X) = XA X Fm .
1. A L (Fm , Fn ) A Mm,n (F ).
. , F , X, Y Fm , A Mm,n (F )
A (X + Y ) = (X + Y ) A = (x1 + y1 ) A1 + . . . + (xm + ym ) Am =
m
m
m
m
P
P
P
P
=
xi Ai + yi Ai = xi Ai +
yi Ai = (XA) + (Y A) = A (x) +
i=1

i=1

i=1

i=1

A (y) . , A L(Fm , Fn ).

L : Mm,n (F ) L (Fm , Fn ) : A
Mm,n (F ) L (A) = A .
1. L : Mm,n (F ) L (Fm , Fn )
Mm,n (F ) L (Fm , Fn ).

1. .

35

. , L
.
. L (Fm , Fn ) , X = (x1 , . . . , xm ) Fm

X = (x1 , . . . , xm ) = (x1 , 0, . . . , 0) + . . . + (0, . . . , 0, xm ) =


m
X
= x1 (1, 0, . . . , 0) + x2 (0, 1, . . . , 0) + . . . + xm (0, 0, . . . , 1) =
xi `i ,
`i = (0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . . , 0). , (X) =
(`i ) Fn .

m
P
i=1

i=1

xi `i

m
P

i=1

xi (`i ),

A1
(`i ) = Ai , i = 1, . . . , m, A = ... .
Am
(X) =

m
X

xi (`i ) =

i=1

m
X

xi Ai = XA.

i=1

, , (X) = A (X). L (A) = A = .


. A, B Mm,n (F ) A 6= B. i, j
, ij 6= ij .
A (`i ) = 0 A1 + . . . + 1 Ai + . . . + 0 Am = Ai ,
B (`i ) = 0 B1 + . . . + 1 Bi + . . . + 0 Bm = Bi .
Ai 6= Bi , ij 6= ij . A (`i ) 6= B (`i ) A 6= B ,
L(A) = A 6= L(B) = B .
. , F , A, B Mm,n (F ), X Fm
:
L (A + B) = (A+B) , L (A) = A , L (B) = B .
, (A+B) (X)
m
P
i=1

xi (Ai + Bi ) =

m
P
i=1

X (A + B)

xi Ai +

m
P
i=1

xi Bi =

m
P
i=1

m
P

xi (A + B)i

i=1
m
P

xi A i +

i=1

xi Bi = (X A) +

(X B) = A (X) + B (X) = (A + B ) (X) . ,


(A+B) = A +B L(A+B) = L(A)+L(B), . . L .

1. .

36

(`1 )
..
, `1 , . . . , `m
L (Fm , Fn ), A =
.
(`m )
Fm ,
`1 , . . . , `m [].
[ ] : L(Fm , Fn ) Mm,n (F ) : [ ]() = [].
2. [ ] .
. , A Mm,n (F )

A (`1 )
`1 A
A1
..
= ... = ... = A,
(1)
[A ] =
.
A (`m )
`m A
Am
. . [ ] . , , L (Fm , Fn ) 6= ,
1 = A , = B , A, B Mm,n (F ), A 6= B .
[] = [A ] = A 6= B = [B ] = []. , [ ]
.

17.

: U V : V W
: U W , : ( ) (x) = ( (x))
x U , . .

x (x) ( (x)) .
&______%
()

1. a) 1 : V1 V2 , 2 : V2 V3 , 3 : V3 V4
1 (2 3 ) = (1 2 ) 3 .
b) L (U, V ) , L (V, W ), L (U, W )
.
c) L (U, V ) , L (V, W ) ,
L (V, W ) , L (W, U ) ( + ) = + , ( + ) = +
.
. a) v V1 (1 (2 3 )) (v) =
(2 3 ) (1 (v))
=
3 (2 (1 (v)))
=
3 ((1 2 ) (v))
=
((1 2 ) 3 ) (v) 1 (2 3 ) = (1 2 ) 3 .

1. .

37

b) , F, x, y U : ( ) (x + y) =
( (x + y)) = ( (x) + (y)) = ( (x)) + ( (y)) =
( ) (x) + ( ) (y) .
c) u U ( ( + ))(u) = ( + )((u)) = ((u)) +
((u)) = ( )(u) + ( )(u) = ( + )(u). w W
((+ ))(w) = ((+ )(w)) = ((w))+((w)) = ()(w)+( )(w) =
( + )(w).

. 1) L [ ].
L [ ] : Mm,n (F ) 7 Mm,n (F ) (L [ ])(A) = [L(A)] = [A ] = A.
2) [ ] L. [ ]
L : L(Fm , Fn ) 7 L(Fm , Fn ). L(Fm , Fn ) = A
A Mm,n (F ). ([ ] L)() = L([]) = L([A ]) = L(A) = A = .
A Mm,s (F ) , B Ms,n (F )

a11 a1s
b11 b1n
c11 c1n
C = A B = : = ,
am1 ams
bs1 asn
cm1 cmn
cij =

s
P

aik bkj = Ai B (j) , . .

k=1

A1 B
A1 B (1) A1 B (n)
A B =

= ... .
Am B (1)
Am B (n)
Am B

(1)

1. L (Fm , Fs ) L (Fs , Fn ) [ ] =
[] [].
. 1 16 , A Mm,s (F ) ,
B Ms,n (F ) , = A , = B .
Fn `1 (n), . . . , `n (n).

(A B ) (`1 (m))
.
[ ] = [A B ] =
(A B ) (`m (m))
, 1 i m, (A B ) (`i (m)) = B (A (`i (m))) = B (`i (m) A) =

A1 B
(`i (m) A) B = Ai B. , (1) 16 17, [ ] = ... =
Am B

A B = [A ] [B ] = [AB ] = [] [] .

1. .

38

, 1 A Mm,s (F ) , B
Ms,n (F )
AB = A B .
(2)
1. a) A Mm,s (F ) , B Ms,t (F ) , C Mt,n (F )
(A B) C = A (B C) .
b) A Mm,s (F ) , B Ms,t (F ) , C Ms,t (F ), D Mt,m (F )
A (B + C) = AB + AC, (B + C)D = BD + CD
.
. a) (2) 1,
(AB)C = AB C = (A B ) C = A (B C ) = A BC = A(BC) .

(AB)C = (A B) C = A(BC) = A (B C).


b) 1 ), A(B+C) = A B+C = A (B + C ) = A
B + A C = AB + AC = AB+AC . 1,
. .

18.

1X : X X ( ),
1X (x) = x x X. g : Y X
f : X Y g = f 1 , f g = 1X , g f = 1Y .
f .
1. f : X Y :
a) f 1Y = f, 1X f = f ;
b) g ;
c) f g = 1X , f , g ;
d) f f .
. a) x X : f 1Y (x) = 1Y (f (x)) =
f (x) , 1X f (x) = f (1X (x)) = f (x) .
b) f g1 = f g2 = 1X , g1 f = g2 f = 1Y . g1 = g1 1X =
g1 (f g2 ) = (g1 f ) g2 = 1Y g2 = g2 .
c) f (x1 ) = f (x2 ). x1 = 1X (x1 ) = (f g) (x1 ) = g (f (x1 )) =
g (f (x2 )) = (f g) (x2 ) = 1X (x2 ) = x2 , . . f . x X
: x = 1X (x) = (f g) (x) = g (f (x)). , g .
d) f g = 1X , g f = 1Y , f f
.

1. .

39

, y Y x X ,
f (x) = y. g(y) = x. g : Y X f g = 1X , g f = 1Y .
1. a) f , f 1 (f 1 )1 = f.
b) f : X Y h : Y Z , f h
(f h)1 = h1 f 1 .
. a) 1, f 1 f 1

1
f f 1 = 1X , f 1 f = 1Y f 1
= f.
1

1
1
1
b)

1,

(f

h)

f
=
f

f
= f
1

1
1
1

1Y f
= f f = 1X . , h f
(f h) = 1Z .
Mn,n (F ) Mn (F ).
Mn (F ) . A Mn (F )
, B Mn (F ) , A B = B A = E,

1
0
...
. B
E =
0
1
A B = A1 .
. , ,
.
1. L (Fn , Fn )
:
a) ;
b) 1 1 L (Fn , Fn ) ;
c) [] .
. a) b) 1, 1 , ,
. 1 . , F
X, Y Fn
Z = 1 (X + Y ) 1 (X) 1 (Y ) .
1

(Z)
=

(X
+
Y
)

(X)

(Y
)
=
1

(X + Y ) (X) (Y ) = X + Y X
Y = 0. (0) = 0 , Z = 0. ,
1 (X + Y ) = 1 (X) + 1 (Y ) .
a) c) , , b), 1
1 = 1 = 1, 1 = 1F n .
, 1 17,

1 = [] 1 = 1 = 1 [] = [1] .

1. .

40

1 (`1 (n))
`1 (n)

..
= ... = E. [] 1 = 1 [] =
[1] =
.
1 (`n (n))
`n (n)
E [] , []1 = [1 ].
c) a) [] B = B [] = E. , 1 16, [B ] = B.
[] [B ] = [ B ] = [B ] [] = [B ] = [1] . [ ] ,
B = B = 1, . . .

2. [ ] L(Fm , Fn )
Mm,n (F ).
. 17 , [ ]
L. 1 1 , [ ]
.

3. A, B Mn (F )
1) A A1 (A1 )1 = A;
2) A, B A B (A B)1 = B 1 A1 .
. ,
AA1 = A1 A = E, (AB)(B 1 A1 ) =
(B 1 A1 )(AB) = E.

19.

,
.

: V U , V, U
F .
Ker = {v V : (v) = 0} V,

Im = { (v) : v V } U.
1. Ker V , Im U .
. (0) = 0, 0 Ker 6= , 0 Im 6= .
, , F , a, b Ker (a + b) = (a)+(b) =
0. , a + b Ker , Ker V .

1. .

41

, F , (a), (b) Im (a) + (b) = (a + b),


. . Im U .

1. dim V = dim Ker + dim Im .


. e1 , . . . , ek Ker ,
ek+1 , . . . , en V . Im = L((e1 ), . . . , (en )) =
n
n
P
P
L((ek+1 ), . . . , (en )).
i (ei ) = 0. 0 =
(i ei ) =
i=k+1
i=k+1
n

n
P
P

i ei .
i ei Ker 1 , . . . , k
i=k+1

F ,

i=k+1
n
P
i=k+1

i ei =

k
P
i=1

i ei ,

n
P
i=1

i ei = 0. 1 =

. . . = n = 0 (ek+1 ) , . . . , (en ) . ,
(ek+1 ) , . . . , (en ) Im dim V = n = k + (n k) = dim Ker +

dim Im .
2. L (V, V ), V .
: 1) ; 2) Ker = 0; 3)
Im = V .
. 1, Ker = 0 dim Ker = 0
dim Im = dim V Im = V, 2) 3).
1) 2) , 1 18 Ker = 0.
Ker = 0, Im = V , , , a, b
V (a) = (b), 0 = (a) (b) = (a b), . . a b Ker , a = b.
1) 2).

L (V, V ) , Ker = 0.
. dimF V < . .

20.

A Mm,n (F ), V = V (A) Fn ,
A, VB = VB (A) F m ,
A. dim V := r ( )
A, dim VB = rB ( )
A.
1. A0 A
, r (A) = r (A0 ), rB (A) = rB (A0 ).

1. .

42

. .
, A0 A I II
, A
( ) A0 .
A A0 , A A0
. rB (A) = rB (A0 ).

A = (aij ) Mm,n (F ). A = (aji ) Mn,m (F ),


i- j- aji ,
A A .
1. r (A) = rB (A) (
).
. rB (A) r (A),

r (A) = rB (A ) r (A ) = rB (A) r (A) = rB (A).
A I II
A0 .
A0 . A0 r ; ,
r (A0 ) = r. A0 mr
, , VB (A0 ) F r ,
rB (A0 ) = dim VB (A0 ) dim F r = r.

r (A) = r (A) = rB (A) A.


. A Mm,n (F ). r (A) = r (A ).

21.

16 1 16
, L
Mm,n (F ) L (Fm , Fn ) . ,
. X F n A Mm,n (F )

A1 X
A X = ... .
Am X

1. .

43

16, ,
L : A A , A (X) = A X,
Mm,n (F ) L (F n , F m ) .
, [] = ( (e1 ) , . . . , (en ))
e1 , . . . , en F n ,
( - -), ,

[ ] : L (F n , F m ) Mm,n (F ) ,
[ ] () = [] ,
.
1. L (Fm , Fn ). r ([]) = dim (Im ).
. , Im
(e1 ) , . . . , (em ). , ,

(e1 )
[] = . . . .
(em )
, r ([])
(e1 ) , . . . , (em ), . .

Im .
1. A Mn (F ) r (A) = n.
. A L (Fn , Fn ), A (X) = X A
X Fn . 1 18 A [A ] = A .
2 19 A Im A = Fn , . . dim Im A = dim Fn =
n. 1 r (A) = dim (Im A ) = n.

V, W , U V
L(V, W ). |U U W ,
|U (u) = (u). |U
U .
2. A Mm,n (F ) , B Mn,k (F ).
r (AB) min {r (A) , r (B)} .
. :
, .

1. .

44

1) : Fm Fn , : Fn Fk ,
[] = A, [] = B. 1 17
AB = [ ] = [] []. , r (A) = dim Im , r (B) = dim Im (),
r (AB) = dim Im ( ). , Im ( ) Im , r (AB)
r (B).
=
|Im Im . Im =
Im ( ) , Ker = Ker Im . 1 19, dim Im = dim Im +
dim Ker dim Im = dim Im ( ) r (A) r (AB) .
, :
r (AB) = r ((AB) ) = r (B A ) r (A ) = r (A) .
2) AB = C,
Ci =

n
X
k=1

aik Bk , C

(j)

n
X

bkj A(k) ,

k=1

A Mm,n (F ) Ai , A(j)
.
V (C) V (B) , VB (C) VB (A) .
, r (AB) r (B) , r (AB) r (A).

2. A Mm,n (F ). B Mm (F ) , C
Mn (F ) , r (BAC) = r (A).

r (BAC)

r (AC)

r (A)
=
.

1
1
1
r B (BAC) C
r BAC C
r (BAC).

3. A Mn (F ) A
.
. , AB = E , n =
r (E) r (A), r (A) = n A .

22.

A Mm,n (F )
III F, 6= 0.

1. .

45

.
A Mm,n (F )
I, II, III. ,
. 1 20
, .
.
1. A, B Mm,n (F )
.
.
A r
,

Er 0

, Er
0 0
r. , A
r . , , ,
, i- (i = 1, . . . , r)
i- . 1,

23.


.
-

...
AX = B,

a11

A =

am1

b1
a1n
Mm,n (F ) , B = ... F m , X =
amn
bm
A . . . C

x1
.. .
.
xn

CX = D,

0
0
C =

0

c1k1
0

c2k2

c1n
c2n
Mr,n (F ),

crn

d1
6 0, D = ... F r .
=
dr

1 k1 < . . . < kr n; c1k1 c2k2 . . . crkr

crkr

(1)

1. .

46

8 xk1 , . . . , xkr
xi , i 6= k1 , . . . , kr , 1 i n. ,
A
. . . C , xk1 , . . . , xkr
A . . . C. (4) 8
xk1 , . . . , xkr . ,
xi , 1 i n, i 6= k1 , . . . , kr ,
1 , . . . , nr F , (4) 8,
... (1).
xi1 , . . . , xis , s n, (1),
i F, 1 i n, i 6= i1 , . . . , is ,
(i1 , . . . , is ) Fs ,

i , i 6= i1 , . . . , is
(1)
xi =
i , i = i1 , . . . , is
s .
.
,
. :
?
?
:
1. AX = B
r (A) = r. xi1 , . . . , xir A(i1 ) , . . . , A(ir )
. ,
.
. ... (1)
x1 A(1) + x2 A(2) + . . . + xn A(n) = B.
, A(i1 ) , . . . , A(ir ) . , r(A) =
r n,
j, 1 j n, j 6= i1 , . . . , ir , , A(j)
/

(i1 )
(ir )
L A ,...,A
. :
xj = 1, ;
xj = 2, .

1. .

47

(i1 , . . . , ir ) F r , (i1 , . . . , ir ) F r ,
r
P

ik A(ik ) + A(j) = B,

k=1
r
P
k=1

ik A(ik ) + 2A(j) = B.
r
P

(ik ik ) A(ik ) ,
, A =
k=1
(i )

(j)
(ir )
1
. . A
L A ,...,A
. , , ,
(i1 )
(ir )
A , . . . , A .

, ... (1) , B L A(1) , . . . , A(n) .


, r (A)
= r, A(i1 ) , . . . , A(ir ) , A(i1 ) , . . . , A(ir )
(1)
L A , . . . , A(n) . ,
i F , 1 i n,
P
(i)
i 6= i1 , . . . , ir , (B
i A )
(j)

i6=i1 ,...,ir
1in

A(i1 ) , . . . , A(ir ) .

2 (-). ... AX = B r (A) =


r (A|B).
(1)

(n)
.

r
(A)
=
r
(A|B)

dim
L
A
,
.
.
.
,
A
=
(1)

(1)

(1)

(n)
(n)
(n)
dim L A , . . . , A , B L A , . . . , A
= L A ,...,A ,B B
n
(1)

P
(n)
L A ,...,A
1 , . . . , n F ,
i A(i) = B
i=1

(1 , . . . , n ) ... AX = B.

24.

,
,

...

AX = 0,

(1)

x1
a11 a1n
A = Mm,n (F ) , X = ...
am1 amn
xn
.
9 , V. ( (1))
F n . ?
: F n F m
(x) = A X.

1. .

48

1. 1) L (F n , F m ). 2) V. = Ker .
. 1) , F ; X, Y F n
(X + Y ) = A (X + Y ) = AX + AY = (X) + (Y ).
, L (F n , F m ).
2) Ker = {X F n : (X) = 0} = {X F n : AX = 0} = V. .

1. dim V. = n r(A).
. []
e1 , . . . , en F n . []e1 ,...,en = ( (e1 ) , . . . , (en )) =

(A e1 , . . . , A en ) = A(1) , . . . , A(n) = A. , 1 21,


r (A) = dim (Im ). 1 19, n = dim F n = dim Ker + dim Im .
dim V. = n r (A).

V. AX = 0
.
.
r(A) = r. xi1 , . . . , xir
(1).
y1 , . . . , yr , yr+1 , . . . , yn .
a
= (1 , . . . , n ) (1):
y1 = 1 , . . . , yr = r , yr+1 = r+1 , . . . , yn = n . (4) 8,

a
1 = (11 , . . . , 1r , 1, 0, . . . , 0) ,

a
nr = (nr,1 , . . . , nr,r , 0, 0, . . . , 1) .
, (n r),
V. , , , .
2. V F n s
(n s).
. a1 , . . . , as V ,
as+1 , . . . , an F n . U = L(as+1 , . . . , an ). F n =
V U . F n U : x = v + u F n ,
v V, u U, (x) := u. A = [].
: X 7 AX. [] = A. , = , V = Ker = V.

1. .

25.

49

V , U V , a V .
a + U = {a + x : x U }
U dim U . , a + U
a U . , 0 a + U a
U a + U = U.
1. a1 + U1 , a2 + U2 , a1 +
U1 = a2 + U2 U1 = U2 , a1 a2 U1 . , c a1 + U1
c + U1 = a1 + U1 .
. u1 U1 , a1 +u1 = a2 +0 = a2 ,
. . a1 a2 = u1 U1 . u2 U2 , a1 + 0 = a1 = a2 + u2 , .
. a1 a2 = u2 U2 . v2 U2 v1 U1 ,
a1 + v1 = a2 + v2 . , v2 = (a1 a2 ) + v1 U1 U2 U1 .
, U1 U2 U1 = U2 .
a1 + U1 = a2 + (a1 a2 ) + U2 a2 + U2 = a1 + (a2 a1 ) + U1 a1 + U1 .
, a1 + U1 = a2 + U2 .

.

AX = B.
(1)
, , X0 F n - .
X1 F n (1) (X1 X0 ) AX = 0.
, A(X1 X0 ) = AX1 AX0 = B B = 0 0 = A(X1 X0 ) =
AX1 AX0 = AX1 B AX1 = B.
1. (1)
X0 +V. , X0
(1), V. AX = 0. ,
F n
n .
. Y (1). (Y X0 ) V. Y
X0 + V. . , u V. A(X0 + u) =
AX0 + Au = B X0 + u (1).
. V
AX = 0. (X0 + V )
AX = AX0 .

1. .

26.

50

-,

V , U V .
V /U U
V , . .
V = {x + U : x V } .
1. x, y V x+U = y+U (x + U )(y + U ) =
.
. (x + U ) (y + U ) 6= z (x + U ) (y + U ).
1 25, z + U = x + U z + U = y + U . x + U = y + U .
V /U F , a, b V
F

(a + U ) + (b + U ) = (a + b) + U,
(a + U ) = a + U.
.
(a + U ) = (a1 + U ), (a a1 ) U. (b + U ) = (b1 + U ),
(b b1 ) U.
(a + b) (a1 + b1 ) = (a a1 ) + (b b1 ) U , 1 25,
(a + b) + U = (a1 + b1 ) + U. , (a a1 ) U (a a1 ) U a + U =
a1 + U.
V /U ,
V V /U
V .
1. : V V /U , (x) =
x + U , , . . L(V, V /U ).
Ker = U, Im = V /U . ,
dim V /U = dim V dim U . v1 , . . . , vk U
V . v1 + U, . . . , vk + U V /U .
. , F, x, y V (x + y) =
(x + y) + U = (x + U ) + (y + U ) = (x) + (y) L (V, V /U ).
, x Ker (x) = x + U = 0 + U x U.
, Ker = U . ,
dim V /U = dim V dim U.
(, 1 19,
.)

1. .

51

a1 , . . . , am U . am+1 , . . . , an
V . am+1 + U, . . . , an + U V /U . ,
n
X

i (ai + U ) = 0 + U

n
X

i ai + U = 0 + U

i=m+1

i=m+1

n
X

i ai U.

i=m+1

m+1 = . . . = n = 0, . . am+1 + U, . . . , an + U .
n
P
, x V 1 , . . . , n F , x =
i ai .
(x) =

n
P
i=m+1

i=1

i (ai + U ) Im = V /U L (am+1 + U, . . . , an + U ).

, am+1 + U, . . . , an + U V /U dim V /U = n m =

dim V dim U .

27.

n A Mn (F )
det : Mn (F ) F ,
A, :
n = 1 : det (a)
= a,
a b
n = 2 : det
= ad bc.
c d
, n
det . A Mn (F ).
,

a11
a1n

Mij (A) = det

i-


an1
ann
j-
(n 1), i-
j- A. A.
Aij (A) := (1)i+j Mij (A)

1. .

det (A) =

n
X

ai1 Ai1 (A) =

i=1

n
X

52

(1)i+1 ai1 Mi1 (A) .

(1)

i=1

(1) 1- .
, : Mij =
Mij (A) , Aij = Aij (A) ,
det (A) =

n
X
i=1

ai1 Ai1 =

n
X

(1)i+1 ai1 Mi1 .

i=1

det(A) |A|.
Mi1 ,...,ik ;j1 ,...,jk (A) = Mi1 ,...,ik ;j1 ,...,jk ,
A i1 , . . . , ik
j1 , . . . , jk .

a11 a12 a13


a22 a23
a12 a13
a12 a13
a21

det a21 a22 a23 = a11


a32 a33 + a31 a22 a23 =
a32 a33
a31 a32 a33
= a11 (a22 a33 a32 a23 )a21 (a12 a33 a13 a32 )+a31 (a12 a23 a22 a13 ) =
= a11 a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13 a32 a21
a31 a22 a13 a11 a23 a32 a21 a12 a33 .
1. :
(D1) ;
(D2) - F
;
(D3) A;
(D4) |E| = 1.
;
, ,
. ,
, ,
.

1. .

53

a b
c d
=

(D1) ,
a b . , (D1)
c d
(n 1). B A Mn (F )
i j.
det (B) =

n
X

bk1 Bk1 =

k=1

n
X

(1)k+1 bk1 Mk1 (B).

k=1

C Mn (F ) : Ci i-;
Ci = (ci2 , ci3 , . . . , cin ) i- . ,
, : k 6= i, j
(1)k+1 bk1 Mk1 (B) = (1)k+1 ak1 (1) Mk1 (A) ;
k = i

..
.
b i-
Aj

Ai+1

..
(1)i+1 bi1 Mi1 (B) = (1)i+1 aj1 det
.

Aj1

Ai j-
..
.

,
=
=
Ai j i
.
..
b
j+1
= (1)i+1 aj1 (1)ji1 det A
aj1 Mj1 (A) ;
j j- = (1)
..
.
k = j, ,
(1)j+1 bj1 Mj1 (B) = (1)i+1 ai1 Mi1 (A) .
n
P

(1)k+1 ak1 Mk1 (A) = det (A).


k=1

a b
=
(D2) , det(a) = det(a), det
c d

a b
det
. , (D2)
c d
, det (B) =

1. .

54

(n 1). B A Mn (F ) i-
. , : k 6= i
(1)k+1 bk1 Mk1 (B) = (1)k+1 ak1 Mk1 (A) ;
k = i

(1)i+1 bi1 Mi1 (B) = (1)i+1 ai1 Mi1 (A) .


n
P
, det (B) =
(1)k+1 ak1 Mk1 (A) = det (A) .
k=1

(D3) ,

..
.

det Ai + Bi = det
..
.

..
.

Ai + det
..
.

..
.

Bi .
..
.

, det(a + b) = (a + b) = det(a) + det(b),

a+x b+y
a b
x y
det
= (a + x) d (b + y) c = det
+ det
.
c
d
c d
c d

A1
A1
..

...
.

C = Ai + Bi , D = Bi , Bi = (bi1 , . . . , bin ) .

.
..

..
.
An
An
C = (cij ) : k 6= i

..
.
c
Ak

k+1
k+1
..
=
(1) ck1 Mk1 (C) = (1) ak1 det
.

Ai + B i
..
.
= (1)k+1 ak1 Mk1 (A) + (1)k+1 dk1 Mk1 (D) ;
k = i

..
.

b
b
(1)k+1 ci+1 Mi1 (C) = (1)i+1 (ai1 + bi1 ) det A
i + Bi =
..
.

1. .

55

= (1)i+1 ai1 Mi1 (A) + (1)i+1 di1 Mi1 (D) .


,
det (C) =
=

n
X
k=1

(1)k+1 ak1 Mk1 (A) +

n
X

(1)k+1 ck1 Mk1 (C) =

k=1
n
X

(1)k+1 dk1 Mk1 (D) = det (A) + det (D) .

k=1

(D2),

A1
A1
A1
..

...
...
.

det Ai + Bi = det Ai + det Bi .

.
.
..

..
..
.
An
An
An

1 0
(D4) det(1) = 1, det
= 1. , det (En ) = (1)1+1 1
0 1
det (En1 ), Ek Mk (F ).

1. 1) 1 + 1 6= 0 F , A Mn (F )
, |A| = 0. 2) A ,
|A| = 0. 3) |A| = n |A|.
. 1) . (D1)
det(A) = det(A) det(A) = 0. 2) (D2)
= 0. 3) (D2).

28.

V, U F f : V n 7
U . f ,
, . . i = 1, . . . , n ,
F, vi , vi0 V f (v1 , . . . , vi + vi0 , . . . , vn ) = f (v1 , . . . , vi , . . . , vn ) +
f (v1 , . . . , vi0 , . . . , vn ). f ,
i, j = 1, . . . , n (i 6= j) f (v1 , . . . , vi , . . . , vj , . . . , vn ) =
f (v1 , . . . , vj , . . . , vi , . . . , vn ).

1. .

56

1. : Mn (F ) F (D1)(D4).

a) B A
II ( , ),
(B) = (A);

a11 an
. . . ... , (A) =
b) A , . . A =
0
ann
a11 a22 . . . ann .
. a) (D3), (D2) .
b) , ann = 0, (A) = 0 (D2).
ann 6= 0, n- , ann .
an1n1 , . . aii 6= 0,
(A) = (diag {a11 , a22 , . . . , ann }) = ( (D2)) = a11 a22 . . . ann (E) =
a11 a22 . . . ann .

1. : Mn (F ) F
(D1) (D4). (A) = |A| A Mn (F ).
. A A0
I II ( ).
k .
(A) = (1)k (A0 ) , |A| = (1)k |A0 | .
A0 , (A0 ) = |A0 | = 0. A0
(A0 ) = |A0 | 1.

29.

1. A Mn (F ) |A| = |A |.

a
b

=
. n = 1, 2 |a| = |a |,

c
d

a c
. , B Mk (F ),
ad bc =
b d
k < n, |B| = |B |. A aij , . . aij = aji .

1. .

A Mn (F ), |A| = a11 A11 +


S :=

n
X

ai1 Ai1 =

i=2

n
X

i+1

(1)

n
P
i=2

57

ai1 Ai1 . ,

ai1 Mi1 (A) =

i=2

n
X

(1)i+1 ai1 M1i (A ) .

i=2

M1i (A ) 1- :
n
n
X
X
j

M1i (A ) =
a1j (1) M1,j;i,1 (A ) =
(1)j a1j M1,i;1,j (A) .
j=2

()

j=2

S,
n X
n
X
S=
(1)i+j+1 ai1 a1j M1,i;1,j (A) =
i=2 j=2

n
X

(1)j+1 a1j

j=2
n
() X
=
(1)j+1 a1j
j=2

n
X

n
X

!
(1)i ai1 M1,i;1,j (A)

i=2

(1)

a1i M1,j;1,i (A )

n
X

(1)j+1 a1j M1j (A) .

j=2

i=2

a11 A11 = (1)1+1 a11 M11 (A ) ,


n
n
X
X
j+1
S=
(1) a1j M1j (A) =
(1)j+1 aj1 Mj1 (A ) .

|A| =

j=2
n
P
j=1

j=2

(1)j+1 aj1 Mj1 (A ) = |A | .

1. (D1) (D4) ,
A.
n
P
2. |A| =
a1i A1i .
i=1

30.

1 ( ()).

!
n
n
X
X
|A| =
aij Aij =
aij Aij .
i=1

j=1

1. .

58

. B A 1- j-
.
|A| = |B| =

n
X

aij Bi1 =

i=1

n
X

aij (1)

i+1

j2

(1)

n
X

aij (1)i+1 Mi1 (B) =

i=1

Mij (A) =

i=1

n
X

i+j+1

aij (1)

Mij (A) =

i=1

n
X

aij Aij .

i=1

1.
n
X

aik Ajk =

k=1
n
X

aki Akj =

k=1

|A| ,
0,

i = j;
i =
6 j.

|A| ,
0,

i = j;
i =
6 j.

. ,

n
P

xjk Ajk

k=1

, A j- Xj =
n
P
(xj1 , . . . , xjn ). , i 6= j,
aik Ajk = 0. .
k=1

A = (Aij ) A.
2. A Mn (F ). A A = A A = det(A) E.
1
, det(A) 6= 0, A1 = det(A)
A .
P
. C = AA . cij = nk=1 aik Ajk
1

det (A)
0
...
= det (A) E.
C=
0
det (A)
, A A = det(A) E.

2. A
:
(i) A ;
(ii) A ;
(iii) A ;
(iv) |A| 6= 0, . . A .

1. .

59

. (i) (ii) (iii) 1


21. A , , 28, A
, . . |A| 6= 0. (iv) (i)
2.

31.

1. A = diag {d1 , . . . , dn } , B Mn (F ).
|AB| = d1 . . . dn |B| = |A| |B| .

d1
0
d 1 B1
...
B = ... .
. AB =
0
dn
d B

n n
d 1 B1

d1
0
.

...
|B| =
|AB| = .. = d1 . . . dn |B| = d1 . . . dn |E| |B| =

d B (D2)

0
d
n n
n

|A| |B| .
2. C = AB. A0 A -
I II , C 0 = A0 B
C .

. Ci = Ai B (1) , Ai B (2) , . . . , Ai B (n) = Ai B.

1. |A B| = |A| |B|.
. C = A B. r(A) < n, r(AB)
r(A) < n, |A| = |A B| = 0. r(A) = n,
A I II
D = diag {d1 , . . . , dn } .
k , |A| = (1)k |D|.
C, 2
C 0 = DB; |C 0 | = (1)k |C|. 1, |C 0 | = |D| |B| =
(1)k |A| |B|, |C| = |A| |B|.

32.

1 ( ). n
n A X = B (. . |A| 6= 0),
xi = i ,

1. .

60

i = 1, 2, . . . , n, = |A|, i i-
.
. A X = B,

b1
a11 a1n
A = , det (A) 6= 0 B = ... .
an1 ann
bn
A , 1 4,
. :
A X = B X = A1 B =
A B = Y , yi =

n
P

1
A B.
det (A)

bk Aki = det A(1) . . . A(i1) B A(i+1) . . . A(n) =

k=1

i .

, X = 1 , . . . , n .

33.


.
1. .
. rm A, r = r(A). ,
rm r, , ,
.
, Ai1 , . . . , Air .
A0 , r , r(A0 ) = r. ,
r : A0(j1 ) , . . . , A0(jr ) .
A00 , , Mr (F ),
, |A00 | 6= 0. |A00 | r-
A, Ai1 , . . . , Air
A(j1 ) , . . . , A(jr ) . , rm r.

2 ( ). k + 1,
k, . r(A) =
k.

1. .

61

. Ai1 , . . . , Aik
A(j1 ) , . . . , A(jk ) . A(j1 ) , . . . , A(jk ) (.
. ). B
A. A0 A(j1 ) , . . . , A(jk ) , B.
A0i1 , . . . , A0ik . , r(A0 ) =
k + 1; A0ik+1 A0 ,
A0i1 , . . . , A0ik . ,
k + 1, , .
,
. , r(A0 ) = k, B
A(j1 ) , . . . , A(jk ) . , r(A) = k.

34.

1. n- 1.
2. , C
R.
3. (A, B, C)
= {1, . . . , 10} , A B C = 10
A B C = .
10
4. , 2 2 7 .
( n n .. .)
5. An M2n+1 (F ) (An = (An ) ),
n 1,
1. An .
6. A n. , A2 = E,
A + E A E n.
7. ,
Rn ,
, .
8.
: V = Fn n F , L1 = ha1 , . . . , ak i, L2 = hb1 , . . . , bm i.
a1 , . . . , ak , b1 , . . . , bm A, a1 , . . . , ak , 0, . . . , 0
B. (A|B)

1. .

62

.

L1 + L2 , ,
, L1 L2 .
9. , R

Q. ,

2, 3, 5, . . .
Q.

10. , Q( 2) = {a + b 2|a, b Q}
Q.
.
11. ,
4, 1 1.
12. n,
1,
. ?
13. A1 , . . . , An+1 nn. , n+
1 x1 , . . . , xn+1 , , ,
x1 A1 + . . . + xn+1 An+1 .
14.
n- ,
.
15. x1 , . . . , xn V , A
V , Ax1 = x1 , Axk = xk + xk1 , k =
2, . . . , n. , x1 , . . . , xn .
16. :
; ;
.
A Mn (F ):
(A|E) (E|B),
E . A1 = B.
17. |AB| 6= 0. , E + AB , E + BA
. , |AB| = 0?

2
, ,

, ,
.

1.

. ,
,

X , X n n- X.
f : X n X n- (n-)
X, . . f n- , x1 , . . . , xn X
f (x1 , . . . , xn ) X. X
fi , i I, ni , i I. = {fi , i I}
X . A = {X; }
hni , i Ii, X
, = {fi , i I} X.
. 1) hQ; +, i h2, 2i.
2) hZ; +, , .. (a, b, c) ; a, b, c Zi h2, 2, 3i.
B A = {X; fi , i I} hni , i
Ii A, fi (b1 , . . . , bni )
B i I bj B, j = 1, . . . , ni .
A = {X; fi , i I} hni , i Ii B =
{Y ; gi , i I} hni , i Ii ,
: X 7 Y ,
i I x1 , . . . , xni X
(fi (x1 , . . . , xni )) = gi ((x1 ), . . . , (xni )).
63

2. , ,

64

hG; i h2i
:
(G1) (a b) c = a (b c) a, b, c G;
(G2) e G , a e = e a = a a G;
(G3) a G b G , a b = b a = e.
:
(G4) a b = b a a, b G,
.

2.

X f X. ,
f , f (f (x, y), z) = f (x, f (y, z))
x, y, z X.
: (x + y) + z = x + (y + z).
: (x y) z = x (y z).
hX, f i
f .
, f (x, y) = f (y, x)
x, y X (x + y = y + x x y = y x,
). hX, f i
( ) f .
e X (0 X) ()
( +), e x = x e = x (0 + x = x + 0 = x)
x X. , :
e1 , e = e e1 = e1 .
, .
:
hZ; i , , 2 3 6= 3 2,
(1 1) 1 6= 1 (1 1).
hMn (F ); +i - ;
hMn (F ); i , :

0 0
0 1
0 1
0 0

6=

.
1 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
G , G.
hG; i .

2. , ,

65

, . . hG, i , (a b) c = a (b c)
a, b, c G. , . . hG; i ,
(a b) c = a (b c) a, b, c G e G ,
a e = e a = a a G.
, , .
ab = ba = e, b a
a1 ( : a). , (a1 )1 = a. ,
:

ab=ba=e
b = e b = (b0 a) b = b0 (a b) = b0 e = b0 .
0
0
ab =b a=e
:
hZ, +i .
M (X) X X,
. 17, hM (X); i .
S(X) X X.
hS(X); i (17).
P (X) = {Y : Y X}
X. , hP (X); i, hP (X); i
.
GL(n, F ) = hA : A Mn (F ), |A| 6= 0; i
n F . (G1) 17; (G2): AE = EA = A
1
A Mn (F ), det(E) = 1 6= 0; (G3): det(A) 6= 0 A1 = det(A)
A GL(n, F ).
SL(n, F ) = h{A : A Mn (F ), det(A) = 1}, i

n F . (G3): det (A) = 1 det A A


= det (A)
1

1
det A
= det (E) A SL (n, F ) .
SL (n, Z) SL (n, Q) SL (n, R) , GL (n, Q) GL (n, R)
.
hX; i x1 , . . . , xn
X. en X,
x1 . . . xn ,
. ,
e 1 = 1 : x1 ; e 2 = 1 : x1 x2 ;
e3 = 2 : (x1 x2 ) x3 , x1 (x2 x3 ), ;
e4 = 5 : ((x1 x2 )x3 )x4 , (x1 (x2 x3 )) x4 , x1 (x2 (x3 x4 )), x1 ((x2 x3 ) x4 ),
(x1 x2 ) (x3 x4 ), .

2. , ,

66

1 ( ).
X , en = 1, . .
n X
.
n
Q
.
xi = ((. . . (x1 x2 ) x3 ) . . . xn1 ) xn .
i=1

n, x1 , . . . , xn ,

n
Y
(x1 , . . . , xn ) =
xi .
i=1

n = 1, 2 . n = 3
(x1 x2 ) x3 = x1 (x2 x3 ) =

3
Y

xi ,

i=1

. k, 3 k < n
.
i
! n
!
Y
Y
(x1 , . . . , xn ) = 1 (x1 , . . . , xi ) 2 (xi+1 , . . . , xn ) =
xk
xk .
n1
Q

k=1

k=i+1

n
Q
xk .
xn =
k=1
k=1
i
n1

Q
Q
i < n 1, (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
xk
xk x n =
k=1

i
n1
n1 k=i+1 n
Q
Q
Q
Q
=
xk
xk
xn =
xk xn =
xk .

i = n 1, (x1 , . . . , xn ) =

(G1)

3.

k=1

k=i+1

xk

k=1

k=1

H G G, H
G. H G.
1. G , H G, H 6= . H
a, b H a b1 H.
. .
, a H. a a1 = e H. e b1 = b1 H

2. , ,

67

1
a b1
= a b H a, b H. , H
G.

a G, G :

a
. . a},
n N, n > 0;

| .{z

n
n
e,
n = 0;
a =
(1)

1
1

a .{z
. . a }, n Z, n < 0.

|
n

1. G , a G. n, m Z
:
1) an+m = an am ; 2) (an )m = anm .
. 1) n, m > 0 n = 0, m Z, m = 0, n Z,
1) (1). n, m < 0
1
1
an+m = a
. . a1} = |a1 .{z
. . a1} a
. . a1} = an am .
| .{z
| .{z
(n+m)

n > 0, m < 0
n(m)
= an+m ,
n > m;
a
n+m
1
1
n
m
e=a
,
n = m;
. . a} a
.. a } =
a a =a
| .{z
| .{z
1 mn

n
m
a
= an+m , n < m.
n < 0, m > 0.
n
2. m > 0 (an )m = a
. . an} = anm ; (an )m = e = an0 = anm
| .{z
m = 0, m < 0

n
(an )m = (an )1 . . . (an )1 = a
.{z
. . an} = an(m) = anm .
|
|
{z
}
m

2. G , a G. hai := {ak : k Z}
G.
. a hai, hai 6= . n, m Z
an am = anm hai. 1, hai G.

hai G, a.
G , a G ,
G = hai. a G.
,

2. , ,

68

; ,
.
: 1) hZ, +i = h1i. 2) Z2 = h{+1, 1} , i = h1i .
G a G. a
2 :
1) an 6= am n 6= m N. a
|a| := +.
2) n, m N, n 6= m : am = an k N : ak = e s =
min {n N : an = e} . a
s |a| := s.
1. G .
1) a G |a| = | hai |;
2) |a| = k < , hai = {e, a, a2 , . . . , ak1 };
3) m Z, am = e k m.
. |a| = +, , | hai | = +.
|a| = k, e, a, . . . , ak1 . ,
m Z m = k p + q, 0 q < k.
p

am = a(kp+q) = ak aq = ep aq = aq e, a, . . . , ak1 .

, hai = e, a, . . . , ak1 . , am = aq = e q = 0, . .
k/m.

4.

X n . S(X)
X X
n
Sn , . . Sn = hS (X) ; i.
X = {1, 2, . . . , n}. Sn .
,
( Sn ) id.
Sn ; (1) = i1 , . . . , (n) = in .
1 2 n
=
.
i1 i2 in

2. , ,

69

1 2 n
i1 in
, =
,
=
i1 i 2 in
j1 jn

1 2 n
i1 in
1 2 n
=

=
,
i1 i2 in
j1 jn
j1 j2 jn
(s) = ( (s)) = (is )= js ;
:

1 2 n
i1 i2 in
=
, 1 =
.
i1 i2 in
1 2 n
Sn :

1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3

=
6=
1 3 2
3 1 2
3 2 1

1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
=

.
2 1 3
3 1 2
1 3 2
, |Sn | = n!

1 2 i j n

=

1 2 j i n
= (ij). i
Sn , (i) 6= i.
D() , . .
D () = {i : (i) 6= i, 1 i n}.
k,

D () = i, (i) , . . . , k1 (i) ,
k (i) = i = (i1 i2 . . . ik ), i1 = i, i2 = (i), . . . , ik =
k1 (i), . .

1 2 i1 i2 ik n
=
.
1 2 i2 i3 i1 n
, k = id (i1 , . . . , ik ) = (is , . . . , ik , i1 , . . . , is1 ) s =
2, . . . , k.
1. Sn :
1) D () = = id;
2) i
/ D () (i)
/ D () 1 (i)
/ D () ;
3) i D () (i) D () 1 (i) D () ;

2. , ,

70

4) i D (), k N ,
k1
i,
k (i) = i; j i, (i) , . . . , k1 (i) ,
(i) , . . . , k1(i) ,

i, (i) , . . . ,
(i) = j, (j) , . . . , k1 (j) k (j) = j.
. 1) . 2) , i 6 D(), (i) =
i 1 (i) = i. 3) 2). 4) 3), s > t >
0 : s (i) = t (i) st (i) = i.
k = min {s N : s (i) = i}.
, i, (i) , . . . , k1 (i) k (i) = i.

,

j i, . . . , k1 (i) :

i, (i) , . . . , k1 (i) = j, (j) , . . . , k1 (j) k (j) = j.


, D () D ( ) = .
1. , = .
. i
/ D () D ( ). (i) = ( (i)) = i =
(i) . i D (), i 6 D ( ) . (i) D () , (i)
/ D ( )
(i) = i. (i) = ( (i)) = (i), (i) = ( (i)) = (i).
/ D () i D ( ).
i
i, 1 i n, (i) = (i) = .

1.
.
.
. .
D ( ) 6= , , 4) 1, D ( )

k
[

D ( ) =
ip , (ip ) , . . . , sp 1 (ip ) ,
p=1

p, 1 p k, ip , (ip ) , . . . , sp 1 (ip ) , sp (ip ) = ip ,


p 6= q,

ip , (ip ) , . . . , sp 1 (ip ) iq , (iq ) , . . . , sq 1 (iq ) = .

p = ip (ip ) . . . sp 1 (ip ) , p = 1, . . . , k. = 1 . . . k
k
S
. , D ( ) =
D (p ) i
p=1

D ( ) p, 1 p k, , i D (p ).
(i) = 1 . . . k (i) = p (i). .
= 1 . . . k = 1 . . . m
. i D ( )
p s , i D (p ) i D (s ). (i) = p (i) = s (i) ,

2. , ,

71

2) 1, p (i) D (p ) s (i) D (s ).
2 (i) = p2 (i) = s2 (i), p2 (i) D (p ) s2 (i) D (s ).
, k N k (i) = pk (i) = sk (i). , p = s
1 . . .
p . . . k = 1 . . . s . . . m . ,
k = m i = i .

5.

.
,

,
.
1. Sn
1 , . . . , k , = 1 . . . k .
. = id, = (12)2 . 6= id, , 1
4, = 1 . . . m , i . ,
(i1 i2 . . . is )
(i1 i2 . . . is ) = (i1 i2 ) (i1 i3 ) . . . (i1 is ).

,
: Sn , = (12) (12) .
id 6= Sn = 1 . . . k
.

k
X
i-
N () = |D ()| k =
k

i=1

Sn .
, N (id) = 0.
2. = 1 . . . k , i , k
N () ( mod 2),
.
. ,
. = id, (ij) = (ij)id = (ij)
N ((ij)) = 2 1 = N () + 1. 6= id.

2. , ,

72

= 1 . . . ` . N ((ij)).
:
1) i, j
/ D (). (ij)1 . . . `
N ((ij) ) = D () + 2 (` + 1) = D () ` + 1 = N () + 1.
2) i D () j
/ D (). i (ii1 . . . ik ),
(ij)(ii1 . . . ik ) = (iji1 . . . ik ). ,
, i D (1 ). N ((ij) ) = N ((iji1 . . . ik ) 2 . . . ` ) =
D () + 1 ` = D () ` + 1 = N () + 1.
3) i
/ D () j D ().
4) i, j D () .
, i, j D (1 ). , 1 =
(ii1 . . . ik jj1 . . . js ) {i1 . . . ik } 6= ,
(ij)(ii1 . . . ik jj1 . . . js ) = (ij1 j2 . . . js ) (ji1 . . . ik ).
N ((ij) ) = N ((ij1 . . . js ) (ji1 . . . ik ) 2 . . . ` ) =
= D () (` + 1) = D () ` 1 = N () 1.
, {i1 . . . ik } = , .
5) i, j D () .
, , i D (1 ) j D (2 ).
(ij)(ii1 . . . ik )(jj1 . . . js ) = (ij1 . . . js ji1 . . . ik ).
N ((ij) ) = N ((ij1 . . . js ji1 . . . ik ) 3 . . . ` ) =
= D () (` 1) = D () ` + 1 = N () + 1.
, Sn N ( ) =
N () 1 N ( ) 1 + N () (mod 2). = 1 . . . k
,
N () = N (1 . . . k ) 1 + N (2 . . . k ) (mod2)
2 + N (3 . . . k ) (mod2) . . . (k 1) + N (k ) (mod2) k(mod2).
Sn Sg() = (1)N ()
.
1. Sn = 1 . . . k
,

2. , ,

73

1) k
;
2) Sg() = (1)k ;
3) Sg( ) = Sg() Sg() , Sn .
. 1) 1, k
. 2) 1, k N () (mod2) Sg() =
(1)N () = (1)k .
3) = 1 . . . ` ,
Sg ( ) = (1)`+k = (1)` (1)k = Sg() Sg().

Sn , Sg() = +1 ,
Sg() = 1.
2. An = { Sn : Sg() = +1} Sn
|An | = n!2 .
. id An , Sg(id) = +1. ,
An , Sg ( ) = Sg() Sg( ) = +1 An . An =
1 . . . 2k . ,
1 = 2k . . . 1 1 An . 1 3, An
Sn .
Bn Sn . (12)An :=
{(12) : An } , ,
(12)Bn := {(12) : Bn } ,
. |An | |Bn | |An |. , |An | = |Bn | =
1

2 |Sn | .
An .

6.

1. A Mn (F )
X
det (A) =
Sg()a1(1) a2(2) . . . an(n) .
Sn

. 1 1.25, |A|
D
A, . . |A| = D(A1 , . . . , An ), Ai i- A.

2. , ,

74

A1 , . . . , An {e1 , . . . , en }
Fn :
n
X
Ai =
aij ej , i = 1, . . . , n.

det (A) = D

j=1
n
P
i1 =1

n
X
i1 =1

...

a1i1 ei1 , A2 , . . . , An
n
X

n
P
i1 =1

a1i1 D (ei1 , A2 , . . . , An ) = . . .

a1i1 a2i2 . . . anin D (ei1 , ei2 , . . . , ein ) =

in =1
n
X

a1i1 a2i2 . . . anin D (ei1 , ei2 , . . . , ein ) .

i1 =1,i2 =1,...,in =1

D, D(. . . , ei , . . . , ei , . . .) = 0.

det (A) =
a1(1) a2(2) . . . an(n) D e(1) , . . . , e(n) .
Sn

D e(1) , . . . , e(n) . , ,
D, Sn i1 , . . . , in

D e (i1 ) , . . . , e (in ) = D (ei1 , . . . , ein ) .


: = 1 . . . k .

D e(1) , . . . , e(n) = D ek (k1 (...1 (1)...)) , . . . , ek (k1 (...1 (n)...)) =

D e1 ...k1 (1) , . . . , e1 ...k1 (n) = (1)2 D e1 ...k2 (1) , . . . , e1 ...k2 (n) =


= . . . = (1)k D (e1 , . . . , en ) = Sg().
P
, det (A) =
Sg()a1(1) a2(2) . . . an(n) .

Sn

7.

G G0 . f : G G0
, f ,
a, b G
f (a b) = f (a) f (b) .

2. , ,

75

f , f
( ), f ,
f . G G0
G ' G0 .
. f : G G0 ,

1) f (e) = e0 (e0 G0 ).
, ae = ea = a. , f (a)f (e) = f (e)f (a) =
f (a), f (e)
= e0 .

2) (f (g))1 = f g 1 g G.
,


f (g) f g 1 = f g g 1 = f (e) = f g 1 g = f g 1 f (g) = e0

f 1 (g) = f g 1 ;
3) f , f 1 G0 G.
, f 1 , f . ,
f 1 (a0 ) = a, f 1 (b0 ) = b a0 , b0 G0 . a0 = f (a) , b0 = f (b).
,
a0 b0 = f (a) f (b) = f (a b) f 1 (a0 b0 ) = a b = f 1 (a0 ) f 1 (b0 ) .
Ker f = {g G : f (g) = e0 }
f : G G0 .
1. Ker f G, Im f G0 .
. 1) e Ker
f ,1,

Ker
f 6= .
1
= f (a) f b
= e0
, a, b Ker f f a b
(f (b))1 = e0 , a b1 Ker f . 1 3, Ker f G.
1) e0 Im f , , Im f 6= . a0 , b0
Imf a, b G , f (a) = a0 , f (b) = b0 .


1
1
f a b1 = f (a) f b1 = a0 (b0 ) a0 (b0 ) Imf Imf G0 .
,
.
1. G G G.
id : G G, ,
.
2. G, G0 G ' G0 G0 ' G.
f : G G0 , , 3), f 1 : G0 .

2. , ,

76

3. G1 , G2 , G3 G1 ' G2 , G2 ' G3 G1 ' G3 .


f : G1 G2 , f2 : G2 G3 , f1 f2 : G1 G3
a, b G1
(f1 f2 ) (a 1 b) = f2 (f1 (a 1 b)) = f2 (f1 (a) 2 f1 (b)) =
= f2 (f1 (a)) 3 f2 (f1 (b)) = (f1 f2 ) (a) 3 (f1 f2 ) (b) ,
i Gi . , f1 f2 : G1 G3
G1 ' G3 .
1 5,
.
.
2. .
. G .
1) G . G = hai = {an : n Z}.
Z = hZ; +i
: G Z : (an ) = n n Z. ,
n, m Z

(an am ) = an+m = n + m = (an ) + (am ) .


, G ' Z.

2) G = e, a, . . . , an1 G0 = e0 , b, . . . , bn1
n, . . G = hai, |a| = n; G0 = hbi, |b| = n. : G G0
, (ak ) = bk
0 kr n 1.
m k
m
k
a , a G a a = (a ), r
m + k n,
m+k
m
k
r
. . (m + k) = n q + r. a a =
a
= (a ) = br = e0 br =

(bn )q br = bnq+r = bm+k = bm bk = (am ) ak . , G ' G0 .


,
Sn .
1 (). n
Sn .
. G n Sn
G G , . . Sn = hS(G); i.
g G Tg : G G Tg (a) = a g
a G.
, Tg S(G), . . Tg
.

1
1
b G Tg b g
= b g g = b Tg .

2. , ,

77

a, b G Tg (a) = Tg (b) a g = b g a = b Tg
Tg S(G).
a e = a a G, Te = id. Tg Tg1 (a) =
Tg1 (Tg (a)) = (a g) g 1 = a e = a = Te (a) g G.
, Tg1 = Tg1 g G.
H Tg , g G. ,
H = {Tg : g G} Sn . , id = Te H H 6= . ,
Ta , Tb H c G

Ta Tb1 (c) = Tb1 (Ta (c)) = (c a) b1 = c a b1 = Tab1 (c) .


, Ta Tb1 = Tab1 H 1 3 H Sn .
: G H, (g) =
Tg . , . , .
(a) = (b) Ta = Tb . x G
Ta (x) = x a = Tb (x) = x b a = b Ta = Tb .
, . , g1 , g2 G (g1 g2 ) =
Tg1 g2 . x G Tg1 g2 (x) = x (g1 g2 ) = (x g1 ) g2 =
(Tg1 Tg2 ) (x) Tg1 g2 = Tg1 Tg2 . (g1 g2 ) = Tg1 g2 = Tg1 Tg2 =
(g1 ) (g2 ). , G ' H.

8.

H G.
. gH = {gh : h H}, g G,
G H, g
.
1. H, K G. gH = g1 K H = K, g 1 g1 H.
. k K , g e = g = g1 k
1
g1 g = k K g 1 g1 H. h H

1
k K , g h = g1 k h = g 1 g1 k = g11 g
k K.
H K.
K H. , K = H.
1 ,

1
1
gH = g1 g1 g H = g1 g g1
H g1 H, g1 H gH.
g1 H = gH.

1. G H ,
.

2. , ,

78

. gH g1 H 6= , a gH g1 H h, h1 H :
g h = g1 h1 g 1 g1 = h h1

1 H gH = g1 H.
1 (). G
H.
. , g gH g G.
S
gH. 1,
G =
gG

g1 H, . . . , gk H, gi H gj H = i 6= j G =

k
S
i=1

gi H. ,

|gi H| = |H|. , gi h1 = gi h2 , h1 = h2 . ,
k
P
|G| =
|gi H| = k |H|.

i=1


(G/H)l . () H G
(G : H)l .
, :
|G| = |H| (G : H)l .
(G : H)r
G, ,
|G| = |H| (G : H)r .
2.
. p .
. 1 3, |g| = |hgi| g G.
|g| |G|. |G| = p a G, a 6= e. |a|
p, . . |a| = |hai| = p hai = G.

.
A4 6 (. ).
.
2.
. n d
n d.
. H Z = hZ; +i k = min {m H}. ` =
m>0

kq+r ` H, 0 r < k. , r = `qk H,


r = 0, H = {s k : s Z} = hki .
, 2 7, H ' Z.

2. , ,

79

G = e, a, . . . , an1 = hai .
H G k = min {am H}.
m>0

am H m = k q + r, 0 r < k.

q
ar = amkq = am ak
H r = 0,
k
. . H = a .
, n = d m H = ham i. am .
|am | = s, ams = e n m s, , s d |am | = d = |H|.
K G d.
K = has i, |as | = d. asd = e, . . n s d. ,
dml = sd ml = s m s. , as ham i = H K H.

|K| = |H| = d, K = H.

9.

H G , gH = Hg
g G. H E G.
1. H E G g 1 Hg H g G.
. H EG. h H, g G
h1 H , gh1 = hg g 1 hg = h1 H g 1 Hg H
g G.
, h H, g G h1 , h2 H : g 1 hg = h1
hg = gh1 gH Hg gH ghg 1 = h2 gh = h2 g Hg gH Hg.
gH = Hg g G.

, H G
g G g 1 Hg H g G g 1 Hg = H;
, g 1 Hg H g G,

g 1 Hg H g 1 gHg 1 g g 1 Hg g 1 Hg = H.
-. H E G.

G/H = {gH : g G} .

2. , ,

80

G/H :
g1 H g2 H = (g1 g2 ) H.
.
g1 H g2 H. aH = g1 H, bH = g2 H.
, (a b) H = (g1 g2 ) H.
1 8
g1 H = aH a1 g1 = h1 H,
g2 H = bH b1 g2 = h2 H.
H E G, b1 h1 = h3 b1 h3 H.
(a b)1 (g1 g2 ) = b1 a1 g1 g2 = b1 h1 g2 = h3 b1 g2 = h3 h2 H.
, 1 8, (a b) H = (g1 g2 ) H.
1. hG/H; i .
. a G aH a
. ,

,
a, b G/H a
b = a b.
.

1)
a, b, c G/H : a
b c = a b c = (a b) c = a (b c) = a
b c .
2)
a G/H : e a
=ea=a
=ae=a
e, . . e G/H.
1
1
3)
a G/H : a
a = a a = e = a1 a = a1 a
. ,
1
a
= a1 .

H Z. Z ,
H E Z. 2 8, H
H = nZ, n 0. H 6= 0. , Zn = Z/nZ n > 0
n.
2. Zn = Z/nZ n.
. a Z a = n q + r, 0 r < n.
a
= r. a
= b a b (mod n). Z/nZ
: 0, 1, . . . , n 1. , |1| = n.
, Z/nZ = h1i n.

2 7
1. n Zn .

2. , ,

10.

81

G, G0 : G G0 .
G0 .
1. : G G0 . Ker E G
G0 ' G/Ker .
, H E G, (g) = g G G/H Ker =
H.
. Ker = H. 1 7, H G.
, g 1 Hg H.
: G/H G0 (
g ) = (g)
g G/H.
. g =
gH, a
= aH g = a
. ,
(g) = (a). 1 8, g = a

1
1
1
0
a g Ker a g = e = (a) (g) (a) = (g), e0
G0 . , G/H G0 .
0
a) = a0 ,
a0 G0 a G,
(a) = a . (
b (a) = (b) (a)1 (b) = e0
.
,

(
a
)
=

a1 b = e0 a1 b H a
= b. ,
G/H G0 .

b G/H a
b = a b = (a b) = (a) (b) =

a


(
a) b . , G/H ' G0 .
, : G G/H, (g) = g, ,

(g1 g2 ) = g1 g2 = g1 g2 = (g1 ) (g2 ) , . ,


a Ker (a) = a
= e a H Ker = H.

11.

K = hK; +, i, K 6= ,
+ () () , hK; +i
a (b + c) = a b + a c, (b + c) a = b a + c a
a, b, c K.
hK; +i K.
hK; i , ,
hK; i

2. , ,

82

K.
hK; i , K .
a b = b a a, b K, K
.
H K , H
K.
: 1) hZ; +, i hQ; +, i hR; +, i ;
2) hMn (Z) ; +, i hMn (Q) ; +, i hMn (R) ; +, i ;
3)
: C 1 [0, 1] (
[0, 1]) C[0, 1] () R [0, 1] () R[0, 1] ();
4) hA; +i .
hA; +, i, : a b = 0 a, b
A.
. 1) a K a 0 = 0 a = 0.
, a (0 + 0) = a 0 + a 0 = a 0 a 0 = 0.
0 a = 0.
2) 0 = 1, K = {0}. , 0 6= 1.
3) a, b K: (a) b = a (b) = (a b). ,
0 = a 0 = a (b + (b)) = a b + a (b), . . a (b) = (a b). ,
(a) b = (a b).
n m
n P
m
P
P
P
ai bj .
4) a1 , . . . , an , b1 , . . . , bm K:
ai
bi =
i=1

i=1

i=1 j=1

n m. , 3) 4) ,
n Z (na) b = a (nb) = n (a b).
5) K , , a, b K, n N,
n

(a + b) =

n
X

Cni ai bni .

i=0

. K x ,
K ( x , ).

n
X
n
a = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an x =
ai xi ,
i=0

ai K n N, x ai K.

2. , ,

83

x
K [x] = {a =

n
X

ai xi : ai K, n N}.

i=0

a =

n
P
i=0

ai xi b =

m
P
i=0

bi xi , ,

a b, :
(a0 , a1 , . . . , an , 0, . . .) = (b0 , b1 , . . . , bm , 0, . . .) .
: a = 1 + 2x2 = b = 1 + 0 x + 2x2 + 0 x7 .
, a b
.
.
K[x] :
n
n
n
P
P
P

i
i

ai x +
bi x =
(ai + bi ) xi ,

i=0
n
P
i=0

i=0

ai xi

m
P

i=0

bi x i =

i=0
n+m
P
i=0

ci xi , ci =

P
i1 +i2 =i

ai1 bi2 .

, hK [x] ; +, i .
:
a=

n
X

ai xi = (a0 , a1 , . . . , an , 0, . . . , 0, . . .) = (ai ) .

i=0

K [x] = {(ai ) : ai K, n N} :
(
a + b = (ai + bi ) ,
P
a b = (ci ) , ci =
ai1 bi2 .
i1 +i2 =i

1. hK [x] ; +, i .
. , hK [x] ; +i ,
. .
a, b, c K[x]
X
a (b + c) = a (bi + ci ) = (
ai1 (bi2 + ci3 )) =
i1 +i2 =i

=(

X
i1 +i2 =i

ai1 bi2 +

X
i1 +i2 =i

ai1 ci2 ) = a b + a c.

2. , ,

84

(b + c) a = b a + c a.

a, b K , a, b 6= 0,
a b = 0.
.
deg (a) = max {i : ai 6= 0} a =
i

n
P

ai xi , deg (0) = .
i=0
:
deg (a + b) max {deg (a) , deg (b)} ,
deg (a b) deg (a) + deg (b) .
1. 1) K K[x] . 2) K
K[x] . 3) K
K[x] , deg (a b) = deg (a) + deg (b)
a, b K[x].
. 1) .
a, b, c K[x]
X
X
X
(a b) c = (
ai1 bi2 ) c = (
(
ai1 bi2 ) ci3 ) =
i1 +i2 =i

=(

k+i3 =i i1 +i2 =k

ai1 bi2 ci3 ) = (

k+i3 =i i1 +i2 =k

a (b c) = (

ai1 bi2 ci3 ).

i1 +i2 +i3 =i

i1 +i2 +i3 =i

ai1 bi2 ci3 ).

, (a b) c = a (b c).
2) a, b K[x]
X
X
ab=(
ai1 bi2 ) = (
bi2 ai1 ) = b a.
i1 +i2 =i

i1 +i2 =i

3) a, b 6= 0, deg(a) = n deg(b) = m, an , bm 6= 0 cn+m =


an bm 6= 0, c = a b 6= 0. deg(c) = n + m = deg(a) + deg(b).
a = 0, a b = 0 deg(a b) = deg(a) + deg(b) = .

K K[x] x.
K[x] y, K[x, y]
. :
K K [x] K [x, y] K [x, y, z] . . . .

2. , ,

85

. K[x],
n
P
i=0

n
P
i=0

ai xi

bi xi ,

: xk xs = xk+s , ak xk + bk xk = (ak + bk )xk .


, K. ,
Z2 , 0 1 = 1 0 = 0, 1 1 = 1.
f = 1 + 1 x2 , g = 1 + 1 x4 Z2 [x] ,
Z2 Z2 : f (0) = g (0) = 1, f (1) = g (1) = 0.
.
K:
K [[x]] = {a = (a0 , a1 , . . . , an , . . .) = (ai ) : ai K} .
, K [x]
K [[x]]. K[x], K [[x]]
.
K [[x]] :
(
a + b = (ai + bi ) ,
P
a b = (ci ) , ci =
ai1 bi2 .
i1 +i2 =i


K [[x]] ,
K [[x]] .
2. hK [[x]] ; +, i .
1,

.

K [[x]] .
a = (ai ) K [[x]] :
a = (a0 , a1 , . . . , an , . . .) =

ai xi , ai K.

i=0

P
P
P

i
i

a
x
+
b
x
=
(ai + bi ) xi ,
i
i

i=0
i=0
i=0

P
P
P
P

ai xi
bi x i =
as bt xi .

i=0

i=0

i=0

s+t=i

2. , ,

86

,
. ,
K [[x]].

K .
2
2
: e2x e1+x = e(x+1) ,
!
2
2

2
2
2
x
+
1
2x 2 x
x +1
1+
+
+ ...
1+
+
+ ... =
1!
2!
1!
2!
(x + 1)2 (x + 1)4
=1+
+
+ ...;
1!
2!
sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 ,

2
2
x3 x5 x 7
x2 x4
x
+

+ ... + 1
+
. . . = 1.
3!
5!
7!
2!
4!

12.

. -
.
Zn

hK; +, i , hK 0 ; , i . : K K 0
, , . . a, b K:
(a + b) = (a) (b) ,
(a b) = (a) (b) .
hK; +i hK 0 ; i, ,
7, (0) = 00 (00 K 0 ) (na) = n(a)
a K, n Z ( , (a) = (a)).
Ker = {x K : (x) = 00 }
. I K , ai I, ia I
a K, i I ( : KI I, IK I). I
K : I E K.
1. : K K 0 , Ker E K, Im
K 0 .
. Ker I. 1 7,
, ab I, ba I a K, b I a0 b0 Im
a0 , b0 Im.

2. , ,

87

a K, b I (a b) = (a) (b) = (a) 00 = 00 .


, a b I KI I. , IK I.
, a0 , b0 Im a, b K , a0 = (a) ,
b0 = (b). a0 b0 = (a) (b) = (a b) a0 b0 Im.

-. I E K. K/I
hK; +i hI; +i K/I :
(a + I) (b + I) = (a + b) + I,
(a + I) (b + I) = a b + I.
a + I = a
. , K/I = {
a : a K}

a
b = a + b,
a
b = a b.
, . 1 8, a
= b ab

I. a
= b, c = d,
a + c b + d = a + c b d = a b + c d = a b + c d = 0 + 0 = 0,
a cb d = a c b d = a c b c + b c b d = (a b) c+b (c d) = 0.
, a + c = b + d, a c = b d.
2. hK/I; , i ; K , K/I
.
. . -, hK/I; i
1 8.
, a
, b, c K/I

a
b c = a (b + c) = a b + a c = a
b a
c.

, b c a
= b a
c a
.
hK/I; i , a
, b, c K/I
,

(b c) = a
b c .

a
b c = a b c = (a b) c = a (b c) = a
hK/I; , i - K I.
: K K 0 . ,
. ,
K K 0 K ' K 0 .
, Im = K 0 .
, Ker = 0.

2. , ,

88

1 ( ). : K
K , Ker E K K 0 ' K/Ker . ,
I E K : K K/I (a) = a
a K.
Ker = I.
. Ker = I. 1, I E K.
: K/I K 0 , (
a) = (a) a
K/I.
.

a
= b, a b Ker , (a b) = 00 (a) = (b).
, K/I K 0 .
1) , .
0
a0 K 0
a) = a0
a K, (a) = a , (
. , (
a) = b a, b K (a) = (b)
(a b) = 00 a b Ker a
= b.
2) , .
a, b K

a) b ,
a
b = a + b = (a + b) = (a) (b) = (


a
b = a b = (a b) = (a) (b) = (
a) b .
0

, K/I ' K 0 .
, : K K/I, (a) = a
a K.
, , Ker = {a K : (a) = a
= 0} =
{a K : a I} = I.

3. hZ; +, i nZ = {nz : z Z},


n N.
. K hZ; +, i, K
Z. 2 7, K = nZ. , nZ
.

, nZ E Z, m(nZ) = n(mZ) nZ m Z.
Z/nZ
n
Zn . Zn = 0, 1, . . . , n 1
a
+ b = a + b,
a
b = a b,
a
a n.

2. , ,

13.

89

, , . Fp.
.

hF ; +, i h2, 2i :
(F 1) hF ; +i ;
(F 2) hF \ {0}; i ;
(F 3) (x + y)z = xz + yz x, y, z F .
, 0 6= 1. (F 2)
, ,
, . . .
, hF ; +, i , hF ; +, i
1, hF = F \ {0}; i .
1. Zm m = p .
. Zm m = n1 n2 , n
1 n
2 = m
= 0.
, n
1 = 0 n
2 = 0, . . n1 = m n2 = m.
, m = p , 1 k p 1
(k, p) = 1 s, t Z , s k + t p = 1 s k + t p = s k + t p =
, k Z , .
1 = s k.
p

, Zp Fp ( GF (p))
. F P P , ,
, P F . (,
P ( , ).)
F , .
. 1) Fp . P Fp . 1 P ,
, 2, . . . , p 1 P , . . P = Fp .
2) Q . P Q. 1 P n, m P
n
n, m Z. m
P (m 6= 0) P = Q.
2. P
P0 . P0 ' Q P0 ' Fp .
. P1 , P2 P . P1 P2
P1 P2 P1 P2 = P1 = P2 .
e P . : ne 6= 0
n N, n N , ne = 0.
.

2. , ,

90

n
o
1
1) P0 = n (me) : n Z, m N . , P0
P . na = ne a, na mb = nm(ab). ,
0 P0 , e = 1(1e)1 P0 . n1 (m1 e)1 + n2 (m2 e)1 = a.
a (m1 m2 e) = (n1 m2 + n2 m1 ) e a = (n1 m2 + n2 m1 ) (m1 m2 e)1 P0 ,
n1 (m1 e)1 n2 (m2 e)1 = n1 n2 (m1 m2 e)1 P0 ,

1
n (me)
= (n) (me)1 P0 .
n 6= 0, n (me)1 m (ne)1 = nm (nme)1 = (nme) (nme)1 = e,

1
1
n (me)
= m (ne)1 P0 P .

1
n
, P0 ' Q. n (me)
=m
. :
n1 (m1 e)1 = n2 (m2 e)1 n1 m2 e = n2 m1 e
(n1 m2 n2 m1 ) e = 0 n1 m2 n2 m1 = 0

n2
n1
=
.
m1
m2

, :

1
1
1
n1 (m1 e) + n2 (m2 e)
= (n1 m2 + n2 m1 ) (m1 m2 e)
=

n1
n2
n1 m2 + n2 m1
1
1
=
+
= n1 (m1 e)
+ n2 (m2 e)
,
=
m1 m2
m1 m2

1
1
1
n1 (m1 e) n2 (m2 e)
= n1 n2 (m1 m2 e)
=

n1 n2
n1 n2
1
1
=
=

= n1 (m1 e)
n2 (m2 e)
.
m1 m2
m1 m2

1
n
n
, : n (me)
=m
m
Q.
, :
n

o
n
1
1
Ker = n (me) : n (me)
=
= 0 n = 0 = {0} .
m
P /Ker = P0 /{0} ' P0 '
Q. , P0 ' Q P .
2). n N , ne = 0. m =
min {n N : ne = 0}. m = p , m = m1 m2 ,
me = (m1 m2 )e = (m1 e) (m2 e) = 0. , m1 e = 0,

2. , ,

91

m2 e = 0, . . m1 = m, m2 = m. P0 = {0, e, . . . , (p 1) e}.
k, s P0
ke + se = (k + s) e = (k + s)e,
(ke) (se) = (k s) e = (k s)e,
n
n p. , P0 ' Fp
P .

. Fp Q.
P0 ' Q, , P 0
(: char P = 0). P0 ' Fp , , P
p (: char P = p).
, char P = 0, na 6= 0 a P
n N. char P = p, pa = 0 a P.

14.

: ,

.

1. P =
.

a b
b a

: a, b R

M2 (R),

. , 0, E P . ,

a b
x y
a + x (b + y)
+
=
P,
b a
y x
(b + y) a + x

a b
x y
ax by (bx + ay)

=
P,
b a
y x
(bx + ay) ax by

a b
a b
=
P.

b a
b a

a b
a
b
, det
= a2 + b2
,
b a
b a
, P . , P .

2. , ,

92

a b
a 0
0 b
.
=
+
= aE + bJ, J =
b a
0 a
b 0

0 1
. {a E : a R} ' R, J 2 = (J)2 = E, . . J, J
1 0
x2 + 1 = 0.
C: C = {(a, b) : a, b R}.
2. hC; +, i P .

a b
= (a, b).
. : P C
b a
, . . C . Ker = {0} P/Ker =

P/ {0} = P ' C.

2k
Pn k = cos 2k
n + i sin n : 0 k n 1 .

3. hPn ; i ' Zn .
.
k j = cos

2 (k + j)
2 (k + j)
2r
2r
+ i sin
= r = cos
+ i sin
,
n
n
n
n

r = r(k, j) (k + j) n.

: Pn Zn (k ) = k.
, . r ,
(k j ) = (r ) = r = k + j = k + j = (k ) + (j ) .
(i ) = 0 i = 0, i = 0 Ker = {1}. ,
. , Pn ' Zn .

15.

I K , I 6= K J CK
, I J K, J = I, J = K. : I Cmax K.
1. K 1, I
K. K/I I Cmax K.
. K/I , I J EK I 6= J.
j J \ I. K/I , x K/I , j x = 1.
, j x + I = 1 + I 1 j x I. j x J, I J 1 J.
1 k = k J k K, . . K = J.

2. , ,

93

, I Cmax K. a K \ I J := a K + I := {ak + i :
k K, i I}. J / K, a J, I J. , a K + I = K.
1 = a x + i, i I 1 = a
x K/I (1
/ I 1 K/I).
, K/I .

K/I, I Cmax K, K 1,
.
. , Zp = Z/pZ, p ,
. , pZ Cmax Z. , Z
pZ, p .

16.

A , A
1 .
. Z Q.
A , . .
F , A F .
.
A A = {(a, b) : a A, b A = A \ {0}} .
A A :
(a, b) (c, d) ad = bc.
1. A A .
. , (a, b) (a, b) (a, b) (c, d) (c, d)
(a, b). (a, b) (c, d) , (c, d) (e, f ), . . ad = bc, cf = ed.
adf = bcf, bcf = bed. , af = be.

1 1.5,A A :
Q (A) = {a/b : a, b A, b 6= 0} , a/b = {(x, y) A A : (x, y) (a, b)} ,
a/b = c/d ad = b. (
) Q (A):
a/b + c/d = (ad + bc) /bd,
a/b c/d = ac/bd.

2. , ,

94

1. A
hQ (A) ; +, i ,
A. f : A Q (A), f (a) = a/1,
A f (A).
. ,
(a/b + c/d) + e/f = a/b + (c/d + e/f ) ,
a/b + a/b = 0, a/b + 0/b = a/b, a/b + c/d = c/d + a/b,
(a/b c/d) e/f = a/b (c/d e/f ) , a/b 1/1 = a/b,
a/b b/a = 1/1, a, b 6= 0, a/b c/d = c/d a/b.
, Q(A) .
A = f (A). f (a + b) = (a + b)/1 = a/1 + b/1 = f (a) + f (b)
f (a b) = (a b)/1 = a/1 b/1 = f (a) f (b). , f (a) = f (b) a/1 =

b/1 a = b. , f A A.
: Q (Z) = Q, Z Q.
F [x]
F [[x]]. , Q(F [x]), Q(F [[x]]).
f = a0 + ak xk + ak+1 xk+1 + . . . F [[x]] ak =
6 0.
f v(f ) = k = min {k : ak 6= 0}.
k1

2
v a0 + 0 x + 0 x + . . . = .
1. F . F [[x]]
.
.
f = ak xk + ak+1 xk+1 + . . . F [[x]], ak 6= 0,
g = bm xm + bm+1 xm+1 + . . . F [[x]], bm 6= 0,
f g = ak bm xk+m + . . . 6= 0.

2. f = 1 + h, h = a1 x + a2 x2 + . . .. g =
1 h + h2 h3 + . . .. f g = 1.
. v (f ) = , h = 0 f = 1 = g, . . f g = 1.
v (f ) < . v (g) = v (h) < . v (f g) = k < .

f g = (1 + h) 1 h + h2 h3 + . . . h2k+1 + (1 + h) h2k+2 h2k+3 + . . . =

= 1 h2k+2 + (1 + h) h2k+2 h2k+3 + . . . =

2. , ,

95

= 1 h2k+2 + h2k+2 h2k+3 + . . . +h h2k+2 h2k+3 + . . . .

=f1

v (f g) min v h2k+2 , v (f1 ) , v (f2 )


2k+2

=f2

2k + 2.

2k+2 2k+2

, v (f g) = + f g = 1.

n
o
f (x)
Q (F [x]) = F (x) =

g(x) : g(x) 6= 0
. Q (F [[x]]) = F ((x))
.

P
ai xi

P
i=0
xk F ((x))
ai xi .
:

(
F ((x)) =

i=k

ai xi : ai F, k N .

i=k

g = ck xk (1 + h), ck 6= 0, k N, h F ((x)).

2
3
X
c1
f

h
+
h

h
+
.
.
.
f
f
k
=
=
=
ai xi .
k
k
g
ck x (1 + h)
x
i=k

2. , ,

17.

96

1. , , . .
e , e2 = e.
2.
.
3. S S x(xy) =
y, (y x) x = y x, y S. , ,
.
4. S S x
x = x, (x y) z = (y z) x x, y, z S. ,
.
5. , {a1 , . . . , a12 : f (ai ) = ai+1 }
= {a1 , . . . , a12 : g(ai ) = ai1 }.
6. , {a1 , . . . , a12 : f (ai ) = ai+1 } 6
= {a1 , . . . , a12 : g(ai ) = ai+2 }.
7. , F (|F | 2),
F , x, y, z F
1) x z = y z x = y ( );
2) x (y z) 6= (x y) z ( ).
8. , n-
.
9. , G,
ax = b,
ya = b a, b G G ,
.
10. , A4 6.

0 1
0 1
11. SL(2, Z) A =
,B=
.
1 0
1 1
A B. , hA Bi
= hZ; +i.
12. , 2.
13. (Q, +). G =
{ 2nk : n, k Z} G0 = { 3nk : n, k Z}. , G G0
(Q, +). , G G0 ?

2. , ,

97

14. A = (Z2 ; +) H = h(3, 8), (4, 1), (5, 4)i A. H


H = h(1, b), (0, a)i
a, b Z, a > 0. a.
15. .
, .
16. G , A B , A4 =
B 7 = ABA1 B = 1, A2 6= 1, B 6= 1. G
c2 ( ) c G?
A B.
17. A, B G , ABA = BA2 B, A3 = 1
B 2n1 = 1 n N. , B = 1.
18. G n 1 Sn
n. Sn
A = (aij ) G,

0, (i) 6= j,
aij =
1, (i) = j.
, : Sn 7 G, : 7 A ,
.
19. , u1 , u2 , v1 , v2 G
: u1 v1 = v1 u1 = u2 v2 = v2 u2 , up11 = up21 = v1p2 = v2p2 = e, p1 , p2
. , u1 = u2 , v1 = v2 .
20. C

z u = zu,
u u. (C, +, )
?

21. K = {a + b 5 : a, b Z}. ,
K


,
3 2 5
K, 9 = 3 3 = (2 + 5)(2 5).
22. , Z P [x], P ,
.

2. , ,

98

Pk

23. F [t, t1 ] = {
N} F ?

i=k

i xi : i F, k

24.
R . ,

a b
hMn (R) , +, i .
2b a
25. R
. ,

a b
K
hM2 (R) , +, i .
b a
? , K
x2 + 1 = 0.
26. A F .
, A , A
.
27.
?

28. Z21 21:


1) ( )
;
2) Z21 ;
3) , (
) .
29. (Z, +, ) , Z[x] Zm [x]
x. ,
: Z[x] 7 Zm [x],
P
P
( i ai xi ) = i {ai }m xi ,
. Ker .
30. I F [x]. I = f (x)F [x]. ,
g(x) + I - F [x]/I ,
(g(x), f (x)) = 1. (g(x) + I)1 , g(x) + I .

, 13
, 27
, 24

, 26
, 26

, 74
, 86
, 64, 65
, 64
, 68
, 73
, 68
, 65
, 65
, 68
, 67
, 64

, 75
, 71

, 84
, 51

, 52

, 33

, 72
, 86
, 92

, 75
, 87
, 29

, 78

, 77

, 87
, 81
Zn , 88
, 81
, 88
, 82
, 85
, 93
, 29

, 14

, 15
, 18
, 39
, 39
99

2. , ,

, 39
, 39
, 39
, 36
, 58
, 20
, 20
, 19
, 42

, 45
, 51

, 49
, 82

, 13
, 65

, 87
, 82

, 15

, 84

, 25
, 29

, 43

n-, 63
, 11
, 11, 64
, 11, 64
, 51
, 14

100

, 14
, 14

, 29
, 38
, 29
, 55
, 41
, 38
, 38
, 55
, 29
, 38
, 82

, 22, 46
, 46

, 31
, 66
, 79
, 67
, 82
, 89
, 25
, 63
, 68
, 73
, 73

, 70
, 12, 89
, 93
, 89
, 12
, 89
, 95

2. , ,

101

, 95
, 94
, 65
, 82

, 68
, 68

, 77

, 22

, 45
I , 17, 18
II , 17, 18
III , 44
, 33

, 11

, 23
, 27
, 23
, 25
, 24

, 15

, 63
, 16
, 16
, 15
, 16
, 16
, 48
, 16
, 21

, 16
, 12, 24

, 11
, 84
, 67

, 18

, 31
, 32
, 36

, 15
, 28
, 42
, 41
, 41
, 60
, 41
, 41

, 89

, 16

, 89

-, 47
, 76
, 78
, 81
, 88
, 89
, 57
,
66
, 60

2. , ,

, 69

, 34
-, 79
-, 87

, 13
, 52

, 59

, 91
, 69

, 68
, 64
, 68
, 23
, 12, 65
, 67

, 75
, 87

, 75
, 86
, 40

102