Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 124

Министерство образования и науки Красноярского края

КГАОУ СПО «Канский педагогический колледж»

Практический курс иностранного языка


Лексический минимум, практические и тестовые задания
для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы

Специальность 050303 – «Иностранный язык»


Канск 2011

Печатается по решению Педагогического совета колледжа

Автор-составитель: Т.Э. Петкова, преподаватель КГАОУ СПО «Канский


педагогический колледж»

Рецензент: С.А. Агапова, канд. филологических наук, доцент ФГБОУ ВПО «КГПУ им
В.П. Астафьева»

Практический курс иностранного языка: Лексический минимум, практические и


тестовые задания для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы / автор-сост. Т.Э. Петкова, рец.
С.А. Агапова; КГАОУ СПО «Канский педагогический колледж». Канск, 2011. – 116 с

Настоящее пособие предназначено как для аудиторной работы, так и для


самостоятельной работы студентов над лексическим минимумом. В пособии представлен
обширный лексический материал, задания для практических занятий по темам «Социальные
аспекты жизни общества», «Выбор профессии. Профессия учителя». Данное издание
предназначено для специальности 050303 «Иностранный язык» по дисциплине «Практический
курс иностранного языка».

© КГАОУ СПО «Канский педагогический колледж»

2
Часть 1.Социальные аспекты жизни общества.

Task 1.The power of prayer


Discussion
Have you ever prayed in any of the following situations?
1. when you have been ill?
2. before a meal?
3. when a close friend or relative has been having an operation?
4. before going to sleep at night?
5. when you have been in an aircraft that is taking off or landing?
6. before a sporting event - an important football match or race, perhaps?
7. when you have been rushing because you were late for something?
8. before a meeting?
9. after a success of some kind?
Compare your answers in pairs or small groups.
Reading
Read the three short articles below and choose one of the following reactions for each one. Do
you have a different reaction?
a: That's just nonsense! I don't believe it.
b: That's fascinating. I can well believe it's true.
c: That's interesting, but I wonder if there's another explanation.
Compare and discuss your reactions in pairs or small groups.

DEMAND FOR KORAN AND BIBLE


After the terrorist attacks of 11th September, many booksellers throughout the UK reported a
significant increase in sales of the Bible, in some cases a rise of as much as 25%. One internet
bookseller reported that their Bibles sales had not increased, but that there was more demand for
copies of the Koran and books on the prophecies of Nostradamus.*
PRAY AND GET PREGNANT
A scientific study on a group of women undergoing fertility treatment suggests that prayer gives
women a greater chance of getting pregnant. In this study, reported in the Journal of Reproductive
Medicine, women who were prayed for had a 50% chance of becoming pregnant, compared with 26%
for women who were not prayed for.
PRAYER SAVES PLANE
There was a lucky escape yesterday for the 157 passengers and crew on board a Kite Air jet flying
from the Philippines to Hong Kong. Ash from the volcano, Mount Pinatubo, blocked the air intakes,
forcing the engines to stop. The pilot, however, managed to restart them once the plane reached
clearer air and landed the plane safely at Manila airport. Soledad Garcia, a passenger on the flight,
said: "The engines seemed to be stopped for some time. We all prayed that they would start again.
There were Muslims, Hindus, and Christians on the plane. Our Gods must have heard us."
*Nostradamus (1503-1566) was a French physician and mystic, famous for
publishing prophecies. He has many followers today. You will find lots of
websites devoted to his ideas.

Discussion
Discuss these questions about the articles in pairs or small groups:
1. Are you surprised that sales of the Bible rose after September 11th 2001? Why/Why not?
2. Do you believe that prayer really has the power to increase women's fertility or to help the
sick? Or do you think that the research is flawed in some way?

3
3. Do you think prayer was in any way responsible for the engines restarting on the Kite Air
plane?
4. What effect(s) do you think prayer has - on the person praying? And on the object (person or
thing) of the prayer?

Language
Look at the expressions below to do with believing and disbelieving. Mark each expression as
follows:
В = it expresses belief
D = it expresses lack of belief
1. I don't believe a word of that!
2. I'm sure that's right.
1. I've no trouble with that.
3. I have my doubts about that.
4. That seems unlikely to me.
5. You're kidding.
6. I've always suspected that.
7. I can easily believe that.
8. I've never heard such nonsense.
9. I find that difficult to believe.
Read the following attitudes to prayer. Which of the expressions above best describe your own
view? Compare your views with a partner.
• If someone is sick, it will help them if you pray for their recovery.
• Prayer is pointless.
• If more people prayed, the world would be a far better place.
• A lot of people only pray when they're in some sort of trouble.
• Atheists have just as good a life as believers.
• Prayer makes you feel better, but it doesn't actually make any difference.
• Prayer is a natural human response to a serious or dangerous situation.
• I pray 6 times every day.
• Prayer is just a form of meditation - nothing else.
• If a lot of people get comfort from prayer, why knock it?

4
Discussion
With a partner, choose one of the three areas below. Discuss the questions, and then report to
the rest of the class.
1. Your own beliefs
Would you say that you are religious?
Do you pray? When? How often?
How about your friends and family?
Is there a tradition of religion in your family?
Is religion more important for the older or for the younger members of the family?
A recent survey suggests that 70% of people start to pray when they get into difficulty. Do you pray
when you get into difficulty? If so, in what sort of circumstances?
2. Religion in your country
What are the main religions in your country? How important is religion in your culture? How
important is religion in the history of your country?
What percentage of the population is religious? Is religion more important or less important than it
used to be?
3. Holy places
Are there any places of pilgrimage in your country?
Have you been to any of them? Why?
Do you believe that these places possess special powers?
Do you know anyone who has been cured by visiting one of these places?

Vocabulary People and society

relationship / connection support/assist company / group


blame / fault kind / polite popular / famous
old / ancient sympathetic / likeable typical / usual / ordinary
crowd / audience nervous / bad-tempered close / near
enjoy / please sensitive / sensible unknown / infamous

ask after ask for news about make up become friends again after an
argument
bring up look after a child until he or she becomes pass away die
an adult
fall for fall in love with pick on keep treating someone badly or
unfairly
fall out (with) have an argument with and stop being put down criticise, make someone feel stupid
friends
get on (with) have a good relationship (with) settle down become calm after being upset,
etc; stay in one place or get married and live
quietly
grow up become older stand up for support in an argument or fight
look down on think that you are better than take aback surprise (usually in passive voice)
look up to admire and respect
Phrases and collocations
approval show/give (your) approval of/for sth; meet with sb's approval
argument have an argument (with sb) (about sth/doing); win/lose an argument
5
care take care (of sth/sb); care for/about sth/sb
courage have the courage to do; it takes courage to do
disguise in disguise; wear a disguise; disguise yourself; disguised as sth/sb
dream have a dream (about sth/sb/doing); daydream; dream of/about doing
family have/start a family; nuclear family; extended family
favour do/owe sb a favour; be in favour of
friend make/become/be/stay friends (with sb); best friend
love be/fall in love with sb
mood in a good/bad mood; in the right/wrong mood; in the mood for sth
pity pity sb; take pity on sb; feel pity for sb; it's a pity (that)
promise promise to do; give/make sb a promise; break a/your promise
Word patterns
agree with/on/to sth; agree with sb; agree to do; agree that force sb to do sth; force sb into
sth/doing
allow sb to do; allow sth independent of/from sth
approve of sth/doing; approve sth let sb do sth
ask sb sth; ask sb to do sth (for you); ask about/for sth; ask object to sth/doing
if/whether
attack sth; attack sb for sth/doing; an attack on sth/sb pretend to be; pretend to do; pretend
that
ban sb from sth/doing; ban sth rely on sth/sb
convince sb (of sth); convince sb to do; convince sb that
Word formation
able unable, (in)ability, disabled, happy unhappy, obey disobey,
disability (un)happiness, (un)happily (dis)obedient(ly),
(dis)obedience
achieve achievement jealous jealousy, jealously person (im)personal(ly), personality
argue argument, argumentative kind unkind, polite impolite,
(un)kindness, kindly (im)politely,
(im)politeness
care careful(ly), careless(ly), marry marriage, (un)married relate relative(ly), relation,
(un)caring relationship
correspond correspondence nerve nervous(ly), willing unwilling,
nervousness (un)willingness, (un)willingly
friend friendship, (un)friendly

Task 1.Topic vocabulary in contrast


A. Choose the correct answer
1 Everyone said they had________themselves at the wedding.
A enjoyed С pleased
В impressed D excited
2 Mary seems to go out with a different___________of friends almost every night.
A group С company
В band D collection
3 People can become very_____________when they are stuck in traffic for a long time.
A nervous С stressful
В bad-tempered D pressed
4 More and more people are living into_________age and it's a serious social problem.
A high С far
В ancient D old

6
5 Stephanie seems to be very______with her classmates.
A likeable С known
В famous D popular
6 Most_________people have no idea what it's like to be famous.
A usual С typical
В ordinary D medium
7 When my parents got divorced, my best friend was very________and listened to all my
problems.
A likeable С sympathetic
В amusing D enjoyable
8 Rita's very__________and easily gets upset when people criticise her.
A level-headed С sensible
В sensitive D open-minded
9 Police were called in when the________of people began to get violent.
A crowd С audience
В company D herd
10 My dad says he once met Robbie Williams when he was still_________.
A unknown С infamous
В hidden D unrelated

В .Circle the correct word.

1 These days, many parents find it difficult to assist / support a large family.
2 Forgetting to thank us for dinner is usual / typical of George.
3 My grandma doesn't have any close / near family her own age left.
4 In ancient / old times, people had a very different view of the world.
5 Who was to blame / fault for the argument?
6 Don't you know it's kind / polite to close your mouth when you are eating?
7 Nathan's parents were very enjoyed / pleased when they saw him in the school play.
8 I have a very good connection / relationship with my mother.
Phrasal verbs

С. Complete using the words from the box. You need to use one word twice.

get • make • put • look • bring • fall • grow


Personality
Some of us seem to be infinitely kind, while others seem to (1)_________ down on everyone
around them. Some of us never forget an argument, while others (2)__________up and forgive
easily. As we (3)_________ up, our personality develops and we find that we (4)_______on with
certain people more than others. Who we are seems to have a large genetic element, but is also
influenced by those who (5)____________us up. If we (6)___________up to our parents or other
family members, we may want to be like them. On the other hand, if our parents seem
to7)__________ us down all the time and we (8)__________ out with them a lot, then perhaps we
will develop quite different personalities.
D. Write a phrasal verb in the correct form to replace the words in italics. Add any other words you
need.
1 The doctor said that the old woman had died___________peacefully in her sleep.
2 I always support____________my brother when he gets into trouble.
3 Tony seems to have really fallen in love with____________Vanessa.
4 Mark is such a bully and treats badly________the younger boys at school.

7
5 I was surprised________when Michaela said I'd hurt her feelings.
6............................Richard finally met the woman of his dreams and got married
and started to live quietly _____________in Australia.
7 I saw Mrs Khan in the centre of town and she asked for news about__________you.

Phrases and collocations

E Write one word in each gap.


1 Could you_________me a favour and ask Oliver to see me in my office?
2 I don't have many ambitions, but I'd like to graduate and then_____________a family.
3 As we walked down the street, Helen__________pity on the beggar and gave him some
money.
4 Nadia's hair looked awful, but I didn't_____________the courage to tell her.
5 My dad can't stand____________an argument and always has to have the last word.
6 The new law seemed to..................with everyone's approval.
7 Can you____________care of your little sister for a minute while I go to the shop?
8 When you first____________in love, the whole world seems a beautiful place.
9 I don't really___________friends very easily because I'm quite shy.
10 I didn't recognise Ed when I saw him because he was___________disguise.
11 You're in a very good_________.Why are you so happy?
12 If you keep__________your promises, people won't trust you any more.
13 I_____________a really strange dream last night about my best friend.

Word patterns
F. Choose the correct answer.
1. The government is trying to convince people_________the need for higher taxes.
A with С that
В of D for
2. I believe that judges should be independent__________the government.
A to С with
В from D on
3. Local residents object_______the new power station in their area.
A to have С of having
В having D to having
4. Do you think they should ban people________smoking in public places?
A from С in
В that D of
5. The MP asked_______the prime minister was aware of the growing social problem.
A that С if
В him D what
6. Most people seem to agree___________the newspapers ‘criticism of the government.
A on С with
В to D that
7. I don't think people should rely__________the state, even if they are unemployed.
A to С on
В with D by
8 The mayor was attacked_______public money.
A for wasting С the waste
В to waste D of wasting

G Find the extra word in each line.


8
Living together in society
1 ................... Hell, said Jean-Paul Sartre, is other people, and whether you agree with
2 ................... or not, we are all have to learn to live together. We may not always
3 ................... approve of that other people's behaviour, but we do have to live with it.
4 ................... It is impossible to force other people in to behave exactly how we think
5...................... they should behave. Of course, the law bans from all kinds of behaviour
6 ................... and if you can convince to enough people, you might be able to get the
7 ................... government to pass a new law. Mostly, though, you have to let off people
8 ................... live their own lives, in the same way you expect them to allow you for to
9 ................... live your life. You don't have to pretend it that you like how some other
10 ................... people live, but letting them to be themselves is often the only choice.

Word formation

H Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the gap in the
same line.

I had a really stupid (1)__________with my best friend the other day. It all ARGUE
started because we were talking about (2)___________and having a family. MARRY
I said that (3)____________is important when you are married and she said POLITE
that she thought that was rubbish and that (4)______________is much more KIND
important. Well, we were (5)____________to agree and, in the end, she left ABLE
without saying goodbye. I do hope it doesn't spoil our (6)_______________. FRIEND

I Complete the sentences by changing the form of the word in capitals when this is necessary.
1 My best friend has a great________________ (PERSON) and everyone likes her.
2 I have a good____________RELATE) with my mum and I can talk to her about anything.
3 They've just published a book of George Bush's_____________(CORRESPOND) and it
looks really interesting.
4 Jenny seemed______________ (WILLING) to talk about her argument with Nancy, but I
eventually got the facts.
5 As I waited for Kelly to arrive at the cinema, I bit my nails________________(NERVE).
6 Ignore what Sharon says about you. It's just______________(JEALOUS).
7 In the past, children were expected to be very_________________(OBEY).
8 Brenda blames her_____________(HAPPY) on being single, but I'm not so sure.
9 Tom knew that being chosen as class president was a real_____________(ACHIEVE).
10 Kevin's so sensitive that you have to be very______________(CARE) what you say to him.

Task 2

A Write one word in each gap.


CULTURE SHOCK

Many people dream (1)__________living in a foreign country. It can be an amazing


experience for
those who (2)__________the courage to leave their family and friends and settle (3)____________
9
in a new place. However, there's one potential problem you should be aware of: culture shock.
Culture shock is the feeling we get from living in a place that is so different to where we
(4)______________up that we are not sure how to deal with it. Societies are organised in many
different ways, and we can often be (5)_________ aback by some of the things we find in
foreign countries.
Customs and traditions can be very different and that can sometimes make it difficult to
(6)___________on with local people and to (7)____________friends. They might not approve
(8)___________things you do or might object (9)____________things you say. You might even be
banned (10)__________doing things in another country that are perfectly legal in your own.
(11)_____________you were to move to a country such as Singapore, say, you might find some of
the
laws very strict. There, people can be forced (12)____________pay a large fine just for dropping
litter.
Eventually, though, most people who live abroad (13) ____________ in love with their adopted
country and learn to accept its differences. It does (14)_____________ real courage to make such a
big change to your life, but many people agree (15)____________it is worth it in the end.

В Complete the sentences by changing the form of the word in capitals when this is necessary.
1. My____________(FRIEND) with Tatyana is one of the most important things in my life.
2. Many parents complain of their children's______________(OBEY), but I think they were
probably exactly the same.
3. Don’t listen to Mary - she's just______________(JEALOUS) of you.
4. We all watched______________(NERVE) as Mark made his speech of thanks.
5. Don’t you think that we should make sure that_______________(ABLE) people have the same
rights as everyone else?
6. Terry is really____________(ARGUE) and is always looking for fights with other people.
7. Hasn’t anyone ever told you that it's very______________(POLITE) to interrupt when other
people are talking? .
(1 mark per answer)

С. Complete the second sentence using the word given so that it has a similar meaning to the first
sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.
1. I promised my mum that I would work hard this year.
made
I______________________________________that I would work hard this year.
2. My parents allowed me to go out even though it was very late,
let
My parents__________________________________even though it was very late.
3. Margaret and I have had an argument, so we're not talking to each other,
out
Margaret and I_________________________________, so we're not talking to each other.
4. Nobody approved of the new law when it was introduced,
approval
The new law didn't__________________________________________when it was
introduced.
5. I didn't want to have an argument, so I changed the subject.
mood
I wasn't___________________________________________an argument, so I changed the
subject.

10
6.Tina was depressed because she couldn't make friends at summer camp.
inability Tina was depressed because__________________________________friends at
summer camp.

D Choose the correct answer.


1 If I_______the lottery, I'd give some of the money to each member of my family.
A win В have won С will win D won
2 Did you have an argument with Francis?'
'If you had been there,you__________the same.'
A did В would have done С had done D will do
3 If you see Nina on Friday,_________her to give me a ring.
A you will tell В tell to С you would have told D tell
4 If I'd known you were coming, I____________a cake.
A would have baked В would bake С will bake D baked
5 Remind Tony about the party______________he's forgotten.
A in case В unless С provided that D except
6 'Did you have a message for Dan?' Tell him I'll call him on Friday if you_________him.'
A had seen В see С will see D saw
E Choose the correct answer.
7 This fascinating book covers some of the most___________crimes of the twentieth century.
A unknown С covered
В hidden D infamous
8 The government should do more for_______________people.
A usual С everyday
В ordinary D typical
9 Ivan tells me he really___________himself at your barbecue last week.
A pleased С enjoyed
В played D interested

10 I know we had an argument, but now I'd quite like to____________.


A look down С fallout
В makeup D bring up
11 Harry and Sam both denied that the fight was their_____________.
A blame С criticism
В cause D fault
12 The curtain went up, the___________grew silent and the actors on stage began to speak.
A crowd С jury
В congregation D audience

11
To t a l m a r k
Task 3.Social and environmental issues
Social survey
Level
Intermediate
Time
30-35 minutes
Aim
To practise vocabulary relating to social issues like crime, government and the environment
Materials
One copy of the sheet for each student
For Homework B, an extra copy of the sheet for each student

Warm-up
1 Ask students to suggest any social and environmental problems that they can think of. Try to
elicit some of the words from the Key vocabulary.
2 Write on the board any of the words from the Key vocabulary that you think your students may
not know. Elicit or explain what these words mean.

Main activity
1 Give each student a copy of the sheet. Ask them to complete the survey. Set students a time
limit of approximately ten minutes.
2 When all students have completed their sheets, divide the class into groups of three to four
students.
3 Ask students to discuss and explain their answers to their group.

Variation
Ask students to complete their sheets individually. Then allow students to move around the classroom
interviewing as many other students as possible in order to find a partner with the most similar
answers.

Follow-up
Discuss with the whole class the more open-ended questions from the survey or any questions that you
feel your students will find particularly interesting or controversial.

Homework
A Choose three of the questions from the sheet and write a few sentences giving and explaining your
opinion.
В Use the sheet to interview someone from outside the class and note down their answers in English.
Key vocabulary

12
13
armed force hurricane
death penalty mode of transport
murder
disease organic food
drought overpopulation
pollution
earthquake poverty
eco-friendly education president
facility prime minister
prison
famine punishment
fine flood recycle
shoplifting
forest fire shortage of natural resources
genetically modified food snowstorm
global warming unemployment
government war
health care
crime

14
Task 4.Vocabulary
What does globalisation mean for us?
a) Write the correct word or phrase next to the definition.

brand multi-ethnic goods domestic clash mass non-native speaker chain way
of life worldwide corporation network standard of living immigration

1 ________________(noun) a type of product made by a particular company


2 __________________, (noun phrase) how you live in terms of money, accommodation, consumer
products, etc.
3 ______________________ (noun phrase) people's customs, habits, etc.
4______________________ (noun) a set of shops / hotels /restaurants which are all similar and are
owned by the same organisation.
5 _____________________(noun) a group of companies forming a single, large organisation.
6 ____________________ (noun) an argument or fight between two or more groups of people with
different ideas / values.
7 ____________________ (adjective) happening /produced in a single country.
8_____________________ (noun) things that are produced in order to be sold.
9____________________(noun) a system of wires, roads or electronic connections that intersect and
are connected to each other.
10___________________(adjective) involving a very large number of people.
11 ___________________(noun phrase) someone who has learned a particular language as a foreign
language, rather than as their native tongue.
12 __________________ (noun) the process of entering another country in order to live there.
13 __________________(adjective) having a variety of different races and nationalities
14 __________________ (adjective) appearing or occurring everywhere in the world

b) Write one of the words or phrases in the gap to make a common phrase.
1 fast-food_______________
2 a best-selling drinks________
3 a simpler________________
4___________________society
5_____________of cultures
6 a rail ______________
7 electrical ____________
8 a multinational ___________
9 _______________ policy
10............... a___________of English
11 gross________ product GDP
12 high________________
13............._____________emigration
14............._______________ phenomenon

c) Match the words in column A to a word or phrase from column В which has the same
meaning.

А В
1 majestic a difficult to find
2 flock b holding tightly
3 elusive с extremely beautiful
15
4 lure d very attractive and tempting
5 enticing e easy to find
6 clutching f have no respect for something
7 euphoric g big and impressive
8 disdain h attraction
9 plush i surrounding area
10 commonplace j luxurious
11 environs к very happy and excited
12 stunning 1 go somewhere in large numbers

d) Choose five of the words from Column A. Write a sentence showing the meaning of each word

Task 5.Word building


Complete the sentences below by changing the word in capitals О to the correct form
(noun, adjective, etc.). If necessary, use a good monolingual dictionary (e.g. The
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) to help you.

Before you write your answer, check the following points.


• Think about what kind of word is required (noun, adjective, etc.), e.g.
tradition (noun) traditional (adjective).
• In many cases, there may be more than one noun / adjective, etc. Check the dictionary
definition to make sure you get the right one (e.g. immigrant / immigration).
• Think about whether you need to add a prefix (e.g. un-t over-, under-).

Tonga
Pulanga Fakatuio Tonga - also known as the Kingdom of Tonga - is
an archipelago of 170 islands in the South Pacific northeast of New
Zealand.Uniquely, it has never been colonised by a foreign power and
still retains a (1) ___________ monarchy. TRADITION
The economy is based on agriculture, but with industry virtually non-
existent, (2)__________goods are crucial to the nation's economy. IMPORT
Of Tonga's 97,000 inhabitants, 98% are of Tongan origin; there is
relatively little ethnic (3)_________, although in recent years there DIVERSE
has been some (4)____________from neighbouring Fiji. Thanks to IMMIGRATE
foreign (5)_______________- mainly from Japan - there is now an INVEST
(6)___________airport, at Tongatapu, which has direct flights from NATION
Australia, New Zealand and the USA.
Modern health care is now available (7)_____________, although LOCAL
patients have to be flown to Australia or New Zealand for more
sophisticated surgery.
Tongans are keen to retain their (8). _________identity, so there has CULTURE
16
been some resistance to encouraging mass (9)__________as there are TOURIST
fears this might lead to the (10)_______________of Tongan life and a AMERICA
consequent loss of national identity.

Task 6.Which of these phrases do you associate with the pictures? Compare your answers in
groups.
international investors small local businesses
locally-produced goods cultural diversity
multi-ethnic societies a high standard of living
a traditional way of life a clash of cultures
emigration and immigration Americanisation
worldwide communication networks mass tourism

Task 7. Check the words and phrases in bold if necessary. Which of these things do you do?
Compare answers in groups.
• watch foreign films and TV programmes
• listen to music from around the world
• buy international brands like Benetton or Nike
• eat food imported from across the world
• go shopping in a neighbouring country
• watch domestic sport from another country, e.g. Italian league football in
Spain
• eat in international fast food chains
• eat in different ethnic restaurants
• use English as a lingua franca to communicate with other non-native speakers
• work for a multinational Corporation with people from different countries
• travel abroad to work or holiday

Task 7. Which ideas reflect globalisation? Why?

What are the differences between these pairs of words and phrases?
emigration immigration
imports exports
multinational multi-ethnic
cultural diversity a clash of cultures
brand goods
business a corporation
your standard of living your way of life
Phrase builder. Patterns to notice
Introducing points in an argument
1 Notice how the points are introduced:
Well, there are two things.
One thing is that ... they're intelligible to each other.
The second thing would be that ... nobody owns English any more.
One advantage would be that ... learners have less to do.

How do these introductory phrases help the listener?


2 Here are some similar ways of introducing points:
Point to consider
One important reason
17
Another (important) disadvantage is that...
The most important drawback would be that
The second problem might be that ...
A further concern/issue
The main consideration
explanation
One important issue is that many people use English over the Internet.
Another problem is that there are so many different varieties of English.
Which ways do you think are the most/least formal?
Task 8. Introduce each of these arguments for and against globalisation in a different way.
For
a) ... people are much more aware of other cultures and ways of life.
a) ... there are more and more opportunities to travel.
b) ... there is a lot more choice available than there used to be.

Against
a) ... a lot of small local businesses cannot compete with big multinationals.
b) ... big multinational corporations have so much power.
c) ... a lot of local skills and customs are being lost.
Task 9.Give your opinions on one of the questions below.

• Will the Internet increase the spread of globalisation?


• Should each country/region try to preserve their traditions and way of life? How?
FOCUS ON WRITING
Task 9.Circle the most suitable linking words and expressions.
We live in an increasingly global world.. (1) According to/As a result of statistics from the World Trade
Organisation, between 1990 and 2000 international trade grew almost twice as fast as the world growth in gross
domestic product. (2) In spite of/In addition to that, the world has become a much smaller place (3) as a
result of/despite a revolution in global communications. (4) Neither/Both transport and telecommunications
have become much cheaper over the last twenty years. (5) For example/In addition, international phone calls
used to be extremely expensive but the cost has gone down dramatically in many countries.
(6) However/On the one hand, there are many benefits to globalisation and the standard of living of many
people has gone up. (7) Furthermore/What this means in practical terms is that we are travelling more and
consuming more products from global companies, (8) for example/such as Coca Cola, Sony and Siemens. In
terms of jobs, more and more people are working for multinational companies. Nestle, (9) as well as/despite
being a Swiss company, does over 94 percent of its business outside Switzerland.. (10) Moreover/On the other
hand, there are negative aspects of globalisation highlighted by the anti-globalisation movement. (11)
Although/Because the standard of living in developed countries has gone up, the gap between rich and poor
countries has widened considerably. More and more people are living in poverty, (12) especially/about in Africa
and parts of Asia.. (13) However/Moreover, big multinationals now have much more power and influence than
ever before and are beyond the control of many governments.
14) To sum up/In this way, globalisation is a process which not only brings many benefits but (15) in
addition/also many disadvantages. (15)However/As a result, it is important to realise that we cannot stop
globalisation as such. What we can do, is to give developing countries a fairer deal (16) so that/as a result they
can compete in international markets. Developed countries also need to provide much greater long-term aid in
areas (17) like/for example agriculture, education and health (18) so as not to/in order to improve the lives of
most of the people on the planet.
18
Put down punctuation marks:

1 whatever women do they must do twice as well as men


to be thought half as good said the american writer charlotte whitton luckily this is not difficult

2 women get more unhappy the more they try to liberate themselves argued the french actress
brigitte bardot
3 a woman without a man said the american feminist gloria steiner is like a fish without a bicycle
4 a woman is like a teabag said nancy reagan the ex first lady of the usa only in hot water do you
realise how strong she is
5 if a woman has the misfortune of knowing anything said the british writer jane austen she
should conceal it as well as she can

Guided writing: A report


Put these sentences in the correct order in the report plan on the right. Write the number of
each sentence in the correct place (a-i).
1 Other communities have copied the Maori scherrie and native groups in Canada have
established bilingual schools for their children.
2 Finally, most countries have banned aboriginal languages in schools and so there are no
opportunities for education in minority languages.
3 To sum up, even though people are starting to become aware of the problem, the outlook is not
bright. Unless much greater action is taken on the part of the world's governments we could lose
an important part of the world's heritage.
4 The aim of this report is to examine the situation of many of the world's 6,800 languages.
5 Most of these languages are spoken by fewer than 2,500 people each.
6 Perhaps the most successful schemes have been those established by the Maoris in New Zealand.
They have started up centres for children where they can mix with speakers of their native
language.
7 Firstly, the decline over the last fifty years in aboriginal populations in countries such as the USA,
Canada, Brazil and Australia.
8 Between 50 and 75 percent of the world's languages are facing extinction.

8 Secondly, the influence of the dominant cultures and languages such as English, Spanish, Chinese,
Portuguese and Russian is spreading all the time.
Report on the world's languages

Introduction
а) 4

Paragraph 1
According to the Worldwatch Institute, the number of languages in the world is declining
rapidly.
b) D c) D

Paragraph 2
19
The main reasons for the disappearance of languages or threats to them are as follows: d) D
e) D f) D

Paragraph 3
Because of the threat to identity that occurs when a language is lost, some aboriginal peoples are
trying to preserve their mother tongue.
g) D h) D .

Conclusion
D

Changing English in a changing world


1 Discuss in groups. In what circumstances will you use English in the future? Think about work,
travel, social situations, the Internet, etc.
2 Read the facts about the English language.
Just one piece of information is false. Can you guess which? Do any of the facts surprise you?
Why?

Did you know?...


1. There are far more non-native speakers of English in the world today than native speakers. About
350 million speak it as their mother tongue, whereas it is thought that around 1.5 billion speak it as a
second or foreign language!
2. It is believed that around 80% of the data on the world's computers is stored in English.
3.It has been estimated that about 20,000 English words spread into other languages every year.
4. Special simplified forms of English exist to help various professions to communicate
internationally, for example 'air-speak' for pilots and air-traffic controllers; 'police-speak' to help deal
with international crime, and 'doctor-speak' to simplify communication between doctors
5. The grammar and vocabulary used by native speakers varies a lot, even in the UK. In some local
accents people say 'we was' or 'they was'; a few kilometres away, they say 'he were' and 'she were'.
6. Modern British people probably wouldn't have been able to understand the English spoken in
Shakespeare's time. Many words had different meanings, for example, 'nice' meant 'foolish' in the
sixteenth century!
VOCABULARY

Confusing words
Circle the most suitable word.
1. Experts (expect/hope/consider) temperatures to rise by at least three degrees.
2. The floods have effected/ affected/damaged an area of three hundred square kilometres.
3. The effect/affect/influence of the rise in temperature is still unknown.
4. The earthquake affectively/ totally/effectively wiped out the town so that only a few districts
were left standing.
5. The government is presently/ currently/actually sending aid to the disaster area and has so far
sent 300 tons of food and medicine.
6. It was thought that numbers would go down but presently/ currently/actually they have gone
up.
7. The Prime Minister will presently/currently/actually visit the area affected by the floods.
8. The population is growing at the speed/rate/number of 10,000 people every hour.
9. There are several species in danger/threat/risk of extinction, such as the gorilla.

20
Dictionary work
Replace the words in italics with words beginning with the prefixes in brackets.

1 That CD player is too expensive, (over)........................


2 She went through an operation which took ten hours, (under)___________.
3 American society is a mixture of different cultures. (multi)_____________.
4 The children behaved very badly in class, (mis)___________
5 I am given too much work to do and / am paid too little. (over/under)____________.
6 She promised to pay me back soon, (re)_____________
7 He was not at all thankful for what we had done, (un)____________.
8 Another volcanic eruption is improbable, (un)____________
9 My name was spelt wrongly in the newspaper article.(mis)__________.
10 A car passed us at over 180 kph on the motorway. (over)__________.

FUNCTIONS

Giving opinions and agreeing


Complete the dialogue with these words.
think, absolutely, agree, as if, reason, why, mean, totally, should, do

Tina: Don't you (1) think we should get rid of nuclear power?

Alex: Yeah, I (2)_____________ I mean it's very dangerous, isn't it?

Tina: Another (3)_________is the nuclear waste. I (4)_____________, it lasts for centuries.
Alex: Right. I (5)__________.
Tina: And I think because of that, we (6)___________invest more money in alternative energies.
Alex: (7)_____________! Like solar and wind energy.
Tina: It's not (8)_________there's not enough sun or wind, is it?
Alex: Sure. And we need to stop burning so many fossil fuels. That's (9)________there's the
greenhouse effect.
Tina: I (10)__________agree. I mean BMW have developed a new car powered by hydrogen. But
it's not in the interests of the oil companies, is it?

Justifying arguments
Complete the justifications with these linking words and expressions.
Basically, that's why, because of, one reason, to, so that, to do with, main reason

1. I think we should use less energy,________ to reduce the greenhouse effect.


2. We live in a consumer society. ____________we use so much energy, isn't it?
3. We should plant a lot more trees.___________for that is to restore habitats.
4. We need to reduce poverty. A lot of its _______________discrimination.
5. It's important to conserve water. The____________is to avoid desertification.
6. We must reduce discrimination.______________that there's a lot of poverty.
7. I think we should give more aid____________help underdeveloped countries.
21
8. We need to send food and medicine____________the victims can survive the floods.

Giving opinions and reasons


Choose five of the issues below and put them in order of importance for you.
o pollution
o the greenhouse effect
o climate change
o aid to developing countries
o poverty
o discrimination
o endangered species
o globalisation
o natural disasters
o diseases like AIDS and malaria
Write about your five choices. Give reasons for your opinions, like this:

I think we
should____________________________________________________________________
That's
why_________________________________________________________________________
Personally I think_______________________;__________________________________
so that _____________________________________________________________________
Don't you think_______________________________________________________________
A lot of its to do
with_______________________________________________________________
I think we need
to___________________________________________________________________
basically
to________________________________________________________________________
Why don't
we________________________________________________________________________
The main reason is to____________________________________________________

22
Governments
should_________________________________________________________________
because________________________________________________________________________
____

V O C A B U L A R Y Social problems

Write the name of a social problem next to each statement. The first letters are given.
1. Some people move to big cities but have nowhere to live; they sleep in the streets.
h________________________
2. Many women get a lower salary than men for doing the same work. d__________________
3. In cities you often see people asking for money on the streets, b_________________________
.............................
4. In some parts of town it's hard to find a phone box that hasn't been broken or a wall that hasn't
been written on. w_________________________
5. In the USA, a murderer is five times more likely to be given the death sentence if he or she is
black.
r____________________
6. More cases of violence in the home are reported nowadays.
d___________v___________________
7. There are not enough clinics to treat heroin addicts .d_____________ a__________________
8. The running down of the old industries like mining and shipbuilding has led to a lot of job
losses.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________
9. In most countries, urban population is (1)___________________.While the population of Rio
de Janeiro (2) ______________________by a modest 12 percent in the 1990s, the populations
of other cities(3)_______ . Cairo's population went up 25 percent, but the number of people in
Bombay nearly (4)________________ that figure, and the population of Lagos in Nigeria
almost (5)_________________it!
Rich language
Complete the text with these words and expressions.
Bursting with new ideas, cradle of Spanish culture, explosion of trade, flourished, golden age,
magnificent, major changes, outstanding, period of transition, underwent dramatic changes

The (1) ___________of Seville


Seville has lived through (2) ___________in its long history. Originally called Hispalis, it was
captured by the Romans in 45 ВС. After the 4th century AD, there was a
(3)__________________under the Vandals
and the Visigoths until the Moors arrived from North Africa in 712. From then on it (4)____________
as a cultural centre. The Moorish influence can be seen everywhere, such as the
(5)_________________Alcazar
palace and the many winding streets and fountains. In 1248 Seville was conquered by Ferdinand III of
Castile and Leon and it (6) ______________. The (7)__________________Gothic cathedral stands on
23
the site of a 12th century mosque. The opening of America to Spain after 1492 led to an (8)
____________and the city was (9) _________ . A university was founded in 1502, and by the 17th
century, Seville had become the (10)_______________.

WORD POWER
Idiomatic language
Look at the pictures and complete what the people are saying, using idiomatic expressions

Confusing words
Circle the correct word in each sentence
1. House prices have raised/risen steadily this year.
2. The thief robbed/stole the local bank.
3. I need to borrow/lend some money to buy a car.
4. She assisted/attended a meeting for unemployed people.
5. I explained the problem but he wasn't very comprehensive/understanding.
6. Air contamination/pollution is our biggest problem.
7. He gets very angry/nervous when there are a lot of adverts on TV.
8. Governments should pass/spend more time helping homeless people.
9. Many foreigners/strangers visit London every year.
10. I'll get a holiday job to earn/win some money.

In your notebook, write sentences using the other words.

Synonyms
Cross out the word which cannot go in the gap.
24
1 The number of crimes has_______in the last two years.
a) gone up b) increased
c) raised d) risen
2 Unemployment has been________steadily.
a) decreasing b) falling
c) going down d) lowering
3 A new________class led to an expansion of the arts,
a) fortunate b) rich
c) wealthy d) well-off
4 St Paul's Cathedral is a(n)__________example of Wren's architecture.
a) flourishing b) magnificent
c) outstanding d) superb
5 A programme of public works is. for the economy.
a) essential b) major
c) necessary d) vital
6 I'm_________about living in such a consumer society.
a) concerned b) annoyed
c) uneasy d) worried
7 Economic conditions were______________for a renaissance.
a) ideal b) perfect
c) just right d) Utopian
8 Great literary activity___________into the next century.
a) carried on b) continued
c) followed d) went on

Collocation
Complete the sentences with words from the box.
Consumer, human, insatiable, major, prison, severe, social, technical, violent, vital

1. Society is undergoing_________changes. There is more______________mobility.


2. There seems to be an______________demand for new gadgets nowadays. The shops are full of
products with______________innovations.
3. We are living in a______________society and there is no doubt that advertising plays
a__________role.
4. Whenever there is a___________crime, many people call for____________punishments or
longer____________sentences. That's understandable - it's part of nature.
Giving to charity

Discussion
Discuss these questions with a partner, and then compare your answers with others in the class.
1. How much money do you give each year to charity?
a) nothing b) very little c) more than one week's wages
2. Which charities do you give to?
a) local charities b) national charities c) international charities
3. If someone is collecting in the street for a charity, how much
do you give them?
25
4. a) nothing b) just some small change c) a
decent amount
5. Are there any charities you would not give to? Why not?
6. There is a famous saying in English: Charity begins at home. What do
you think this means? Do you have something similar in your country?
Reading
Read the four texts and answer these questions:
1. Which people do not give to charity?
2. Which person does give to charity?
3. Which person works for a charity?

Pete
No, I don't give to charity. I really don't think I'm that well-off. Sure, we're trying to move house and
we're considering moving to a house that's worth a million and a half. But if I look round the school
playground when I take my kids to school I'm by no means the richest person there. In fact, I’m
probably somewhere in the middle. If I won a million pounds on the Lottery, I'd be pretty
disappointed. I mean, a million pounds really doesn't go very far these days, does it? It wouldn't even
get us the house we want.
Michelle
Of course I give. How could I not? I have a roof over my head. I have clean water and enough to eat. I
can see a doctor whenever I need to. I can read, write, vote, and watch television. I have a job. There
are people who have none of these things. Of course I give. I have to. It's frightening that there are
some people who are not prepared to try and improve the lives of those living in extreme poverty.
Vikki
There are a few high earners who are extremely generous. One very wealthy government minister is
reported to have given £47 million to charity last year. JK Rowling, the Harry Potter author, has given
the royalties of two books, worth about £8 million, to a charity. But these are exceptions. Figures
show that the richest 20 percent of individuals in Britain give less than 1 per cent of their income; the
poorest 10 percent give 3 per cent of their income. Overall, one in three people last year gave nothing.
Somehow, we fund-raisers have to change these figures.
Brian
We used to be able to rely on the government for things like health care and education and pensions
but nowadays we have to pay for these things out of our own pocket. I paid about £40,000 in tax last
year and I got nothing back for it - so, no, I don't feel very generous when it comes to giving away my
money.

26
Discussion
Discuss these questions in small groups:
1. What reasons are given by the four people why people do not give to charity? What other
reasons do you think people have for not giving? Are these the real reasons?
2. How do you feel about Pete and Brian? Do you think Michelle is caring and generous, or just
naive?
3. Do you think men and women have different attitudes to charities?
4. How do you think charities could encourage more people to donate to them?
Discuss these questions with reference to your own country:
5. How many people give to charity?
a) most b) very few c) about one in ten
6. Do people collect money on the streets?
6.Do you have door-to-door collections?
6. How generous is your government to the Third World?
Language
Look at the following underlined expressions from the texts above:
I've got nothing back for it
when it comes to giving away my money.
Use the correct form of these phrasal verbs in the sentences:
give back pay back
give away get by
give out get over
get back give up
1. She's so generous. She's always_____________money__________to good causes.
2.I had to borrow £100 last week, but I___________it______________as soon as I was paid.
3. She's been__________leaflets encouraging people to give money to the earthquake fund.
4 . I ___________a couple of hours each week to address envelopes for a children's charity.
5.............................Charity is all about giving - you shouldn't expect
to___________something___________.
6...........................................................My parents really don't like accepting charity, but they just
can't___________any longer.
7. He couldn't_____________the bank so they took away his house.
8. He's never really__________________the shame of losing his house.
Match four of the verbs with these meanings:
a. recover from c. distribute b.manage financially d. spend time

27
Discussion
1. Work in small groups. You have won a million pounds to give away to the charity or charities
of your choice. You can give it all to one charity or you can divide it up between a maximum of
four different ones. Here is the list of charities. Decide how you will divide up the money. Then
share your ideas with other groups.
1. a charity doing research into cancer
1. a charity which looks after homeless people in your town
1. a charity for children from poor backgrounds in your country
2. a charity that helps the poor in Africa
2. a charity to train guide dogs for blind people
2. an international AIDS charity
3. a charity for old people in your town
4. a charity for the victims of a recent earthquake in Latin America
5. a charity that looks after cats and dogs which have been found in the street
6. a charity that helps artists who have financial difficulties
2. Work in small groups. Choose a charity that everyone in the group feels comfortable with - or
make one up. Design a poster for the charity. Think about:
- what you want people to do
- how to catch their attention
- what images you might want on your poster
- what information you might want to get across
- a slogan/catchphrase
- how people can give money/contact you Compare your answers with other groups.

Social survey
Social issues survey

1 What do you think your government should spend most money on - education, health care
or the armed forces?
2 Would you prefer to live in a big city, a small town or a village? Why?
3 What do you do to be eco-friendly, e.g. recycle paper/glass?
4 What do you think should be the punishment for murder - the death penalty, life in prison, or
something else?
28
5 What do you think should be the punishment for shoplifting - prison, a fine, or something
else?
6 What would be the first change you would make if you became Prime Minister or
President of your country?
7 What new facility would you like to see in the town you live in at the moment?
8 Do you try to eat organic food and avoid genetically modified food? Why?
9 What is your favourite mode of transport? Why?
10 What transport-related problems have you experienced? What could be done to solve them?
11 Which three of these do you think are the main problems for the future of the world -
poverty, famine, unemployment, war, disease, pollution, overpopulation, global warming,
shortage of natural resources?
13 Which of these have you personally experienced - drought, flood, earthquake,
hurricane,
snowstorm, forest fire?

29
VOCABULARY

Conflict words

Circle the most suitable alternatives to complete the newspaper extracts.

Abstract nouns
Complete the quotations with an abstract noun.

Verb families
30
Replace the words in italics with these verbs in the correct form.
beg, chat, recall, reply, shout, stagger, stroll, whisper
A soldier from the Second World War (1) tells one of his war memories ...
During the war I had to work on an air base in South Africa. I remember once we had 24 hours off
duty, and me and my friends had a night out in the Town. We were (2) walking slowly back to the base
at about midnight. We were (3) talking in an informal way when suddenly my friend. Bob, (4) asked
us anxiously to be quiet. 'Be quiet yourself!' somebody (5) said. Then I heard them. 'No, everyone be
quiet,' I (6) said softly. And then we all could hear the lions. 'Quick, run!' someone (7) said very
loudly. We all ran towards our base. Everyone made it back, except me - I fell into a trench! I stayed
there until morning. Then I climbed out and (8) walked unsteadily back to the base.
1_________________5________________
2_________________6________________
3 _________________7________________
4__________________8________________
WORD POWER

Confusing words
Circle the best alternative in each sentence.
1. In the battle, over a hundred soldiers were assassinated/killed/murdered and hundreds more were
damaged/harmed/wounded.
2. Many wars are unnecessary and could easily be denied/prevented/prohibited.
3. After arguing/discussing/disputing the situation, the leaders decided not to go to war.
4. The number of deaths may expand/raise/rise by up to 5,000 according to a forecast/guess by the
government.
5. .George Dimmack, the actual/present/real Minister for Defence, says the government will have to
cost/spend/waste a further £400 million on arms.

Collocation review
Do, get, have, make

1. My neighbours are always having rows.


2. I've tried to ___________in touch with him, but I think he's changed his address.
3. We don't expect you to win the race, just____________your best.
4. She's ambitious; she wants to____________to the top.
5. If I were you, I'd _____________a complaint about the rubbish in your street.
6. My brother always____________very well in general knowledge quizzes.
7. Carbon fuel emissions must_____________an effect on the temperature of the atmosphere, don't you
think?
8. Could I____________a phone call, please?
9. It took ages to______________my homework last night.
10. I didn't like my sister's cat at first, but now I've _________________quite attached to it.
11. Eating a few sweets won't_____________you any harm.
12. I thought he_______________a good point at the meeting.
13. Sorry I'm late. I_____________ lost!
14. I____________a weird dream about you last night.
15. I can't find your watch. I___________a clue where it can be.

31
Collocation review
Complete the sentences with a word beginning with the letter given.
1. She always dresses in the l__________styles.
2. Empty houses and boarded-up shops are signs of u____________decay.
3. Sadly, he caught a f__________ disease and died on the island.
4. I try not to buy clothes with d_____________labels.
5. It's stuffy in here; let's go out for some f____________air.
6. There's a b___________view of London from the top of the London Eye.
7. The papers are full of articles about g____________warming and the g___________effect .
8. I'm ashamed to live in such a c_____________society; we waste so much.

Idiomatic language
Complete the text with the following words and expressions.
a breath of fresh air, the last straw, a fuss, the four corners, all plain sailing, a complete nightmare, a
stepping stone, the truth

I have been to (1) ______________of the globe and so consider myself an experienced traveler. However, my
short trip to France was (2) _______________. To say my journey there was not (3)____________would be an
understatement. I wanted to go to Paris as (4)_____________ to the rest of Europe, but I never got out of the hotel
there. For a start, my | luggage didn't arrive, but I didn't kick up (5)_____________ - I kept calm. Then they put
me in a tiny room - they said I had asked for this, but they were twisting (6)__________. I finally found someone
who spoke English, which was like (7)__________, and the manager gave me a larger room. The next day some
luggage arrived, but it wasn't mine! (8) ______________was when the manager said somebody else had reserved
my new room!

Politics
a ballot paper: a piece of paper you write your vote on
Spoiled ballot papers will not be included in the vote.
ballot box: the box you put your ballot paper in, once you have written you vote on it
Ballot boxes were distributed to all the polling stations, (polling station: place where votes are
cast)
to cast a vote: to vote
Not all the votes have been cast.
a close-run election: an election where a number of parties win a similar number of constituencies/ votes
/(was a close-run election, with the victor winning by 100 votes.
a constituency: an area/town represented in parliament by one politician
/ vote in this constituency.
a constituent: sb who lives in a particular constituency
He is not a local constituent; he votes in the town where he was born.
a coup attempt: an attempt (often violent) by citizens/the military to take control of the government [Note: a
coup (d'etat): the takeover (often violent) of the government by rebels/citizens/ the military]
A number of high-ranking army officers were involved in the coup attempt.
Supporters of the ousted president have been scrambling to leave the country following last
week's coup.
the electorate: all the people entitled to vote in an election
The electorate includes everybody over the age of 18.
a gamble pays off: a risk one takes which has positive results
32
Holding the general election at a time of high unemployment was a gamble, but it paid off and
we won.
to go to the polls: to hold an election ' [Note: if a politician/ party polls , certain number of votes, it receives
that number/percentages of votes
The Gold Party polled only 11% of the vote in the last election.
a landslide victory: a victory in a election where one party wins man more votes than the other parties
[Note: to win by an overwhelming majority; to win by a slim/narrow\ majority]
Most political commentators predict a landslide victory for the Social Progress Party.
an opinion poll: the collected results of asking people what the opinions are
If the opinion polls are anything to go by, the present government stands to win the election.
to overthrow the government:
to remove a government illegally and by force
The government was overthrown in a bloodless coup.
rampant/galloping inflation:
inflation that is out of control
Rampant inflation led to massive discontent.
a staunch ...(e.g.: Republican):
very loyal to, and a strong believer (e.g.: the Republican Party)
He was a staunch Conservative.
a survey: a set of questions asking large numbers of people about, their opinions/behaviour
The university did/conducted/ carried out a survey into peopled voting habits.
to tackle a problem: to deal with; solve a problem
Measures have been introduced to tackle the growing problem of unemployment.
to tarnish sb's/sth's reputation:
spoil the good opinion that people, have of sb/sth
A scandal like this is bound to tarnish his reputation.
Business
to get business by doing more advertising and promotional work
We are not going to drum up тore business by just sitting here. We've got to start advertising in the
local newspapers.
a gap in the market for/sth:anopportunity to sell a particular product/service because nobody else is
selling that product/ service
We saw a gap in the market and set up our school as nobody else was offering English courses for
professional sportsmen.
to be overdrawn (at the bank):
to have spent more money than you have in your bank account
[Note: overdraft (n)] ‘No, we can't buy it. We’re already£400 overdrawn at the bank.’
I’ve got a huge overdraft. I must owe the bank at least £5,000.
to run into difficulties/problems:
to have problems
The first problem we ran into was that we could not find spare parts for our Land Rover.
to run up a debt: to keep borrowing money so that you make your debts bigger.
During the six months it took us to set up the business, we ran up huge debts.
to sort (sth) out: to deal with sth and solve it
Don't worry about the computer. John will sort it out.|
to sue sb: to take sb to court in order to get money from them because they have harmed you in some way
He sued his employers for wrongful dismissal.
teething troubles: small problems that sb experiences when first starting a business/project
We still have some teething trouble with product development.

Practice

33
Choose the correct item.
1 After the vote of no-confidence, the government decided to go to the_______________.

A constituents С polls В ballot boxes D elections


2 The price of bread has just doubled, but with _______________.-inflation what can you expect?
A rampant С steadfast В profuse D -.staunch
3 Even a suspicion of wrongdoing can _____________a politician's reputation.
A stain С tarnish В impair D smudge
4 It is people who are of voting age who make up the__________of a country.
A constituency С ballot papers В electorate D -electors
5 A(n)_________attempt by the army was quickly foiled.
A coup С overtake В overthrow D mutiny
6 According to a recent opinion_________, the government is likely to lose the next election.
A survey С interview В inquest D poll

7. Having gained a__________victory in the general elections, they proceeded with their ambitious
programme.
A galloping В staunch С landslide D close-run
8 If you don't face and_______________a problem, it won't go away by itself.
A grab В tackle С wrestle D strike
9 Having___________my vote, I left the polling station.
A bid В passed С placed D cast
10 With unemployment at a record level, retraining programmes would_________off in the long run.
A pay В go С wear D pass
2. Read the text and decide which option (A, В, С or D) best fits each gap.

Business was bad. Sales were non-existent, I was 1)_________at the bank, I'd 2)_________up huge
debts and the man who sold me the shop was threatening to 3)___________me because I hadn't paid him. I
had expected 4)____ troubles when I took over the shop - all new businesses have problems in the beginning
- but in the eleven months I had been open I had never had a customer. I'd tried everything to
5)__________________ up business - ads in the local newspaper, mid-season sales, sponsoring the local
football team – but nothing I'd tried had worked. I was at my 6)____________end. A friend suggested I seek
professional advice. He reassured me that his friend, Mr. Stott, would help me 7)___________________the
problem of disappointing sales. So there I was in the city, sitting across from Mr. Stott, a management
consultant. "Now you live here in Willonga, a desert town, and you bought the local bakery, but you didn't
keep it on as a bakery," he said. "No, I saw a 8)____________in the market and changed the focus of the
business." I replied. "And things aren't going as well as they could be," he continued, sitting back in his chair.
"Don't worry, Mr. Redston, it's not unusual to 9)_____________into difficulties on first setting up a business.
I'm sure we'll be able to 10)_______________everything out." He put on his glasses. "So what is it that you
sell?" he asked. "Sand," I replied. "I sell sand."

A overspent В overtaken С overdrawn D overdone


A put В run С stepped D eaten
A sue В condemn С claim D charge
A balancing В teething С growing D opening
A draw В work С drum D bring
A brain's В wits' С nerves' D mind's

34
A tarnish В tackle С sort D drum up
A gap В space С opening D opportunity
A walk В come С bump D run
A bring В iron С smooth D sort

Use the following phrases in sentences of your own.


• Of course, that was the whole point... • I mean ...
• But then again ... • So I suppose ... • The thing is...
• I suppose ... • Perhaps, there is a possibility that...
• Apart from anything else ... • More often than not..
• Of course it might be ... • I'm not sure ...
• Perhaps it'll... • Besides,...
• Speaking
Below are boxes containing more useful language for discussing both sides of an issue. In pairs, use
them and discuss whether you think it should be compulsory for citizens to vote in elections. There are
prompts to help you.
• basic human right
• freedom to choose
• foundation of democracy
• every person's civic duty
• voting doesn't change anything

Expressing Hesitation
• On the one hand but on the other...
• In a sense however...
• That's true up to a point, but...
• It must be said that however

Expressing an Alternative Viewpoint


• There is also the matter of...
• A point in favour of... is...
• Something worth mentioning is...
• Not to be taken lightly is the fact that..
A: O f course, voting is a basic human right, so I suppose we should take advantage o f it.
B: That's true up to a point but then again...
b. Discuss the following:
• People should be free to travel across international borders without a passport.
• Professionals should be allowed to work in whatever country they want if their services are required.
• Studying abroad for a period of time should be required by any university degree course.

Speaking: Social Change


a. Talk about the following question for about two minutes. Use the ideas in the prompt box if
you wish.
What social changes have resulted from the increased mobility of people around the world?
• Multicultural societies • Opportunity • Xenophobia
b. Comment briefly on what has been said. Is there something you would like to add?

35
(c) Listen to a student talking about the same question and take notes. How similar were
the student's ideas to yours?
d. Talk about the following question for about two minutes. Use the ideas in the prompt box if
you wish.
How has the role of women changed since our grandparents' time?

• Education • Work • Marriage and children

e. Discuss the following questions together.


1 What kind of attitude should we have towards old people?
2 How can civil liberties be protected?
3 How can societies help the physically challenged?
4 What can we learn from experiencing other cultures?
5 How can social inequalities be redressed?

Task Fill in each gap with one suitable word.

I used to 0) be an ordinary member of society running from meeting to meeting just like
anybody 1)_____________.But then some kind 2)_________misguided friends laid
3)____________a surprise birthday party when I was 70.4)_______________then they had called me
Old Indestructible, 5)___________________I was told, but overnight their behaviour towards me
changed. Do you need a chair, dear? Would you like a cup of tea, love? 6) _________________cruel
of all, whatever would I do with 7) ______________ now that I was retired? My life as an ordinary
citizen 8) ________________-to an abrupt end.9) _________befits my new status as a dependent, I
must keep my head down, stop clamouring for a better pension and 10) ________________grateful
for my free bus pass and for concessions when I go into a museum. The whole welfare system seems
hell bent on 11) _______ me in12) __________s so exasperating is that 13) _________________of this
is inevitable. Ageism is a European phenomenon, a comparatively recent by-product of the industrial
society, in14) ______, as non-workers, older people are a drag on the market, of 15)
___________value, a cost and a problem.
Words with Multiple Meanings
Find word which is appropriate for all three gaps in each of the following sets of sentences.

1• The colourful decorations gave the office a festive______________for once.


• The minute I walked into the room I could feel the excitement in the_________.
• According to the latest news, food parcels are being distributed by________________

2• The company's new policy will be decided at the next meeting of the______________.
• Fortunately there were only 28 people on ___________when the ship ran aground.
• I am not sure if the deal Peter has proposed is entirely above_______________.

...........3.In the__________of the meeting, it became clear that Mr Jennings had misread the situation.
It is not clear why the ship changed_____________ before reaching its original destination.
•Helen is hoping to find a job easily when she finishes the__________.

36
4 • Sally suffered from a serious mental_____________all her life.
• My aunt's house is almost always in a state of complete____________widespread
public____________-
5 • There seemed to be a ____________________ of oil on the surface of the water.
•.........................................It's best to withhold judgement until I've had time to
develop the_________________.
• Her parents first met at an international____________________festival.
6 • It has come to my ________________ that some pupils have been disrespectful to Miss Jones.
•...................................Mary had mixed feelings when she finally handed in
her________________.
• The______________on the wall was just a copy of the latest regulations.
Vocabulary & GrammarTest
a. Choose the most suitable word to complete each sentence.

1 It was a_______squabble and they didn't make up for weeks.


A strong В sharp С bitter D sour
2 Take a penknife with you - it might___________in handy.
A come В be С fall D get
3 Everything is going well and business is_____________.
A roaring С bursting
В boosting D booming
4 I found her attitude quite _____________ I really can't understand why she's so angry.
A moving С unconditional
В baffling D invasive
5 Making personal phone calls during office hours is________________upon where I work.
A frowned С condemned
В disapproved D criticised
6 Peter was too_______________-to dare to stand up and speak in front of all those people.
A self-aware С self-indulgent
В self-righteous D self-conscious
7 Sally has been feeling rather down in the_______________recently. How can we cheer her up?
A mood С beans
В dumps D feelings
8 Don't believe John - there's not a__________of truth in what he says!
A trace В touch С grain D slip
9 He was knocked out in the fight and they had to throw water on him to bring him______________.
A back В round С in D over
10 The environmental ___________ group Greenpeace has done a lot to change government policies.
A campaign В pressure С power D force
11 The young offender was obliged to report to his probation________________-on a weekly basis.
A officer С advisor
В guide D leader
12 Deborah won the match against all_____________.
A chances В hopes С facts D odds
13 Getting teenagers to assist old people can help to______________the generation gap.
A cover В fix С throw D bridge
14 In court, the accused____________________guilty to all the charges.
A was С claimed
37
В pleaded D admitted
15 The government has decided to cut _________________on funding for education.
A off В out С back D away
(15 marks)
b. Complete each of the sentences with a short phrase using the most appropriate past or
passive form.
1 He was asked to complete the project and hand it in to the lecturer by the following Friday, but,
unfortunately, it still______________-by then.
2 I ______________-when, suddenly, there was a scream from downstairs.
3 Thank you for the invitation. I'd love to come to the celebration tonight and see
Helen____________the achievement award.
4 When I was young, my father _______________-on fishing trips every weekend.
5 Last year, the national team were thought to be the potential winners, while in fact they____________
on home ground.
(5 marks)
Use of English
2 In most of the lines in the following text there is one unnecessary word. Write the
unnecessary words in the spaces provided. If you think a line is correct, put a tick next to it.
Social Exclusion
Social exclusion is a so relatively new term in British 0 so
policy - not only referring to poverty and low income,00 _____________
but also to their wider causes and its consequences. 1 ___________
The government defines social exclusion as if what 2 _____________
can happen when people or areas suffer from a 3 ______________
combination of problems such as the unemployment, 4 ______________
low income, poor housing, bad health and family 5 _______________
breakdown. By the year mid-1990's, Britain had more 6 ________________
children growing up in unemployed households over 7 ________________
than anywhere else in Europe. Child poverty had 8 _______________
trebled between 1979 and 1995, and though there 9 _______________
were about 7,000 people sleeping rough in London 10 ______________
every night. The Social Exclusion Unit was launched.11 ______________
by the government in 1997 published a wide series of 12 ______________
reports which criticised to the way the state had in the 13 _______________
past failed deprived groups and areas. They were ....14 ______________
found there had been poor investment in these ....15 ______________
measures to prevent social exclusion and little effort to16 _______________
reintegrate victims.

38
Going global
Vocabulary
What does globalisation mean for us?
1. What can you see in the pictures? Which countries do you think they were taken in? All of them
relate to the idea of globalisation. What does this term mean to you?

2 Check the words and phrases in bold if necessary.


Which of these things do you do? Compare answers in groups.
 watch foreign films and TV programmes
 listen to music from around the world
 buy international brands like Benetton or Nike
 eat food imported from across the world
 go shopping in a neighbouring country
 watch domestic sport from another country, e.g. Italian league football in Spain
 eat in international fast food chains
 eat in different ethnic restaurants
 use English as a lingua franca to communicate with other non-native speakers
 work for a multinational corporation with people from different countries
 travel abroad to work or study
3 Which of these phrases do you associate with the pictures? Compare your answers in groups.
international investors small local businesses
locally-produced goods cultural diversity
multi-ethnic societies a high standard of living
39
a traditional way of life a clash of cultures
emigration and immigration Americanisation
worldwide communication networks mass tourism

4 a) Which Ideas reflect globalisation? Why?

b) Make a list of five advantages of globalisation and five disadvantages. Compare answers.

5 What are the differences between these pairs of words and phrases?
emigration immigration
imports exports
multinational multi-ethnic
cultural diversity a clash of cultures
a brand goods
a business a corporation
your standard of living your way of life

Changing English in a changing world


1 Discuss in groups. In what circumstances will you use English in the future? Think about work,
travel, social situations, the Internet, etc.
2 Read the facts about the English language.
Just one piece of information is false. Can you guess which? Do any of the facts surprise you?
Why?
Did you know..?
1. There are far more non-native speakers of English in the world today than native speakers.
About 350 million speak it as their mother tongue, whereas it is thought that around 1.5 billion
speak it as a second or foreign language!
2. It is believed that around 80% of the data on the world's computers is stored in English.

3. It has been estimated that about 20,000 English words spread into other languages every year.
4. Special simplified forms of English exist to help various professions to communicate
internationally, for example 'air-speak' for pilots and air-traffic controllers; 'police-speak' to
help deal with international crime, and 'doctor-speak' to simplify communication between
doctors.

5. The grammar and vocabulary used by native speakers varies a lot, even in the UK.
6. In some local accents people say 'we was' or 'they was'; a few kilometres away, they say
7. 'he were' and 'she were'
8. Modern British people probably wouldn't have been able to understand the English spoken in
Shakespeare's time. Many words had different meanings, for example, 'nice' meant 'foolish' in
the sixteenth century!

3 Read these statements and mark them (/) if you


agree, (X) if you disagree, and (?) if you are not sure. Compare answers in pairs.
40
a) I am more likely to use English to speak to native speakers (e.g. British and American
people) than I am to speak to other non-native speakers.
b) All learners of English should try to pronounce the language as closely as possible to the way
native speakers do.
c) It is important for learners of English to have a good command of British and American
idioms.
d) People can't understand you when you speak a foreign language unless you use the grammar
correctly.
e) English doesn't just 'belong to' British or American people. It belongs to everyone in the world
who uses it.
f) When I speak English I don't want to imitate a British or American person. I want to keep my
own identity.

Patterns to notice
Patterns to notice Introducing points in an argument
1 Notice how the points are introduced:
Well, there are two things. One thing is that ... they're intelligible to each other. The second thing
would be that ... nobody owns English any more.
One advantage would be that... learners have less to do.
How do these introductory phrases help the listener?
2 Here are some similar ways of introducing points:
 point to consider
 One important reason
 Another (important) disadvantage is that...
 The most important drawback would be that...
 The second problem might be that...
 A further concern/issue
 The main consideration/explanation
One important issue is that many people use English over the Internet. Another problem is that
there are so many different varieties of English. Which ways do you think are the most/least
formal?

Introduce each of these arguments for and against globalisation in a different way.
For
a) ... people are much more aware of other cultures and ways of life.
b) ... there are more and more opportunities to travel.
c) ... there is a lot more choice available than there used to be.

Against
a) ... a lot of small local businesses cannot compete with big multinationals. ,
b) ... big multinational corporations have so much power.
c) ... a lot of local skills and customs are being lost.

5 Give your opinions on one of the questions below. Aim to speak for 30 seconds to one minute,
but first decide what you will say. Try to use some of the phrases from the box above to make
your points.
• Is it a good thing to have English as a global language?
• Will the Internet increase the spread of globalisation?
• Should each country/region try to preserve their traditions and way of life? How?

41
Introducing points in an argument
a) Read the text below about global tourism.

Global Tourism
Tourism is the world's biggest industry. In 1995 there were 567 million tourists worldwide; this
number is expected to rise to 937 million by 2010. With improved transport, cheaper flights and
increased leisure time, many of the countries of the developing world are rapidly becoming
tourist meccas. Since the 1960s, mass tourism has become increasingly specialised,
encompassing sporting and adventure holidays as well as ecological tours. Although the tourist
industry employs 127 million people worldwide, the benefits of tourism are not always felt at a
local level, where jobs are often low paid is and menial. Unregulated growth of tourism is
causing both environmental and social damage.

b) Using the information in the text and / or your own ideas, complete the sentences below.
1 The main consideration is __________________
2 One point to consider about the tourism industry is___________

3 The most important disadvantage of increasing tourism is_____________

4 Another disadvantage is_____________________

5 A further drawback is_________________________

6 The main problem is________________________________

7 A further concern is_______________________

8 One explanation for the growth in tourism is______________________

Exploring words
Conflict
1 Complete sentences 1-6 with appropriate verbs from this list. There may be more than one possible
answer.
Verbs avoid create crush deal* with end lose quell reach resolve settle spark off
win
a) After months of bitter arguments we'd had enough and did our best to a compromise.
b) The demonstration led to violence and in the end the police were called in to…………………
the riot.
c) We disagreed about almost everything, so it didn't take much to………….a row.
d) Diplomats have an important role to play in………………….international conflicts
e) Children often seem to want to………………….arguments between their parents.
f) My boyfriend hates any kind of unpleasantness - in fact he'll do anything
to……………..conflict.

42
2 a Find the conflict words and phrases in these newspaper headlines.
b Work in groups.
Who is the conflict between in each story? For example, in the second headline opposite the
soldiers are in conflict with civilians. Briefly discuss the possible stories behind each headline.
с Now write the first sentences of the stories behind three of the headlines.
Example
Government soldiers last night opened fire on thousands of civilians who were rioting in protest
against the recent 50% rise in petrol prices.
d Make up headlines for current news stories you know of which involve conflict.

Часть 2.Выбор профессии. Профессия учителя


I hate my boss!
Discussion
Task1
Inpairsorsmallgroups,discussthefollowingquestions:
1. Have you ever had a boss you didn't like? Why didn't you like him/her?
2. Do you think it is simply expected that people dislike their boss?
3. Which of the following would you do if you didn't like your boss:
a. resign and find another job?
b. discuss your problem with your boss?
c. go to the personnel department and raise the matter with them?
d. talk to your closest colleagues?
e. ignore the problem and hope your boss will leave?
f. something else?

43
Task 2

Reading
Read the complaints below from a popular website. Decide which problem you most sympathise
with. Have you or someone you know ever been in any of these situations?
1. MY BOSS IS A SLAVE DRIVER.
I work as a personal assistant and I have a boss who is in love with her job! Of course she is! She owns the place! The
trouble is she expects us to love the job as much as she does! I'm sorry, if it's 6 o'clock, I'm going home! By then
I've had enough!
2. WHY CAN'T I DO ANYTHING RIGHT?
I can't take it any more! My boss must have a list somewhere of everything I do wrong. He waits for the exact
moment when I do something and then - out of nowhere there he is! He's always on my back about the same
things. He never says anything nice or encouraging.
3. I SHOULD BE DOING HER JOB!
I don't know how much more of this I can stand. I can see the company I work for going downhill because my boss is
so incompetent. I don't know how she got her job! She doesn't know what she's doing!
4 I DO ALL THE WORK AND HE GETS ALL THE CREDIT
I can't believe my boss sometimes. I do all the work and he takes all the credit. He basically says 'do this' and 'do
that'. Then, when the work gets noticed, he doesn't say it was me. He lets people assume that he did the work!
I'm sick of this!
5. PLEASE DON'T BE MY FRIEND!
Oh, please. Give me a break! I am so tired of my boss pretending she's our friend. I mean, come on! She's our boss!
She comes into the staffroom during our breaks trying to take part in our conversations and share in bits of gossip.
I'm sorry, but somebody who is doing half the work I'm doing and getting twice the pay does not deserve equal
status with me.
6. IF YOU DON'T TRUST ME, THEN DON'T HIRE ME!
I'm finished with my job. My boss doesn't trust me or anyone else at work. If he sees me on the phone, he tries to
listen in to see if the call is work-related. He walks past people working at computer terminals to see if he can
catch them playing games! Last week I even caught him checking people's desks for - goodness knows what!
He's a creep!

Compare your answers and share your stories.

Task 3
Discussion
Discussthesequestionsinpairsorsmallgroups:
1. Which of the six situations did you think was the worst one?
2. Did any of them seem 'silly' to you? Which ones?
3. Which ones have very obvious solutions? What advice would you give?
4. Do you think all the people should just leave their jobs?
5. What would you do if you heard one of these complaints at work and realised it was referring to you?

Task 4
Language
1. Each situation had an expression in it that means the person could take no more. Find the missing word to complete these
sentences:
1. I'm............of this.
2. I can't............it any more.
3. Give me a.............!
44
4. I'm finished..............my job.
5. I've had.............!
6. I don't know how much more of this I can.....................
2. Doyouhaveequivalentsfortheseexpressionsinyourlanguage?Workwithapartnerandtranslatethem.

Task5
Discussion
So what makes a good boss and what makes a bad boss?
1. Work in two groups. One group should make a list of what makes a good boss, the other should list
what makes a bad boss

GOOD BOSSES BAD BOSSES

1. A good boss is someone who_________________1. A bad boss is someone who __________________

2. A good boss always________________________2. A bad boss always__________________________

3. A good boss never __________________________3. A bad boss never___________________________

4. Some characteristics of a good boss: 4. Some characteristics of a bad boss:

______________________________________ _____________________________________________
2. When you finish, find a student who made the opposite list and compare. Do you agree? Are good bosses like
good teachers?Talk about the parallels and the differences.

Section В Speaking

The aim of this section is to focus on the following.


- describing and commenting on a photo

1.Write down five or six questions you could ask someone about a job. Does the article
answer your questions?

2. Read the description below of a job.

Caroline is a perfume creator and she lives and works in Paris for a German company. She develops
new aromas for cosmetics and perfumes. All the raw materials are imported from the South of France
so it makes sense to live in Paris for someone in this line of work. Paris is a city that offers ideas and
Caroline finds most of her inspiration by looking at people. Parisian women display more style than
others and just seem to know how to put everything together and make it look great. They are not
afraid of taking risks.
An important aspect of Caroline's work is to evaluate how much women's perception of beauty is
influenced by advertising and magazines and how this is reflected in what they buy.

45
Her own personal favourite perfume is Chanel No. 5 , a great classic. Her husband is also a
perfume creator and they live and work side by side. He creates beautiful and very successful
fragrances, but Caroline doesn't usually wear any of them.

3. Write down the questions the interviewer asked Caroline before writing the description of
her job.
Examples: What do you do? Where do you work?

4 Work in pairs. Act out the interview with Caroline using the questions you wrote in
activity 3.
Change roles and act out the interview again
5 With your partner, choose four of the jobs from the list below. Think of four or five words
you can use to talk about each job. Write the words in four separate groups on a piece of
paper.
Bank clerk carpenter computer programmer dancer decorator film
director gardener head teacher newspaper editor orchestra conductor shop assistant
telephone salesperson wine maker
Work with another pair of students. Exchange your pieces of paper. Can you guess which
jobs your partners were thinking of?

6 Look at the photo below. With your partner, describe the photo in as much detail as
possible. Take turns to make sentences giving one piece of information about it. Score one
point for each piece of information. Who scores more points?

46
What about getting a job?

engineer
pharmacist policeman
barman librarian
author architect
interpreter solicitor
translator secretary
economist actor
chemist advertiser
dustman draughtsman
shop assistant systems analyst
customs officer sales representative
speech therapist

2. Think of ten other jobs and put them into the categories.
3. How are the jobs pronounced? Work with a partner, using a dictionary if you wish, to mark the
stressed syllable in each word, e.g. farmer, dentist. Then say the words out loud to one another
with the correct stress.
4. Tick those jobs you could be interested in. Which of the ten kinds of job do you generally prefer?
Discuss
your answers.

47
Will I get a job?

Starter activity
Look at these ten pictures. Which attributes do you think help people most to get a good job? Rank them
1 - 1 0 , and then discuss your answers.
Discussion

Paraphrase the quotations. Which do you agree with? Why? Why not? Discuss in pairs.

I’d rather be a happy dustman than ал unhappy millionaire.


'It doesn't matter what job you do. It's how you do it

Skills and Qualities


1.Look at the pictures. Which of the qualities in the list are necessary for these jobs? Discuss in
pairs, as in the example.
• patient • physically strong • emotionally strong
• intelligent • caring • calm • honest • punctual
48
• decisive • hardworking • persuasive • courageous
• cheerful • persistent • alert • quick-thinking

A: I think a taxi driver needs to/should be cheerful because they work with the public. What
do you think?
В: I agree. I think they also need to be intelligent because they need to remember all the street
names.

A: Look! They're looking for a camp leader. This would be ideal for you!
B: It's not my kind of thing at all!..

2. a. Make a list of part-time summer jobs. Compare your list with your partner’s.

b. Work in pairs. You are looking for a part-time summer job. Use the table below to act out dialogues,
as in the example

Encouraging Responding Positively

• You would be • You might be right actually.


great as a ... • I hadn't thought of that.
• This would be • You might have a point.
ideal for you! • I see what you mean.
• I can just see/ • That's certainly a possibility.
imagine you as Responding Negatively
a ... •I don’t think I could cope.
• You'd love all • It's not my kind of thing at
the... all.
• I couldn't possibly think
• Think of all of ...
the ... you’d.....! • I'm not really into that kind
• You'd make a of thing ...
great...! • No, that's not for me.

49
Earning Money

2. The words in the list are used to describe forms of money. Which are countable (С)? Which are
uncountable (U )
• wage • salary • pay • savings • pension
• interest • cash • pocket-money

3. Choose a word from the list above to complete the sentences below.
1.He earns__________________ 0n the money he has invested.
2. How much________________does she give the children?
3. Both parents need to be___________ earners nowadays.
.4. What I really want to know is what will be in my_________packet every month.
5. Will you pay in ____________or by credit card?
6. Most of my monthly______________ goes on paying the bills.
7. In my country both men and women get their____________ at 60.
8. Paying for the car to be repaired has really eaten into his_____________.

3. c. Use four words/phrases from Ex. 3b to talk about earning money.


I spend most of my pocket money on CDs.

Task 4

In pairs, write down as many jobs as you can think of which exist in each place. Which can be part-
time/full-time? Which require secretarial, managerial, organisational, language, telephone, driving,
mathematical, communication skills?

Task 5
Words often confused
Underline the correct word.
1 .I think you should choose a caring (occupation/ work/trade/profession) like nursing or
counselling.
2 He was forced to (sack/dismiss/fire/resign) after his speech against the government.
3 My (employee/employer/worker/trainee) is a very generous man; he gives us all a big present
at Christmas.
4 The pilot is always very polite to the (crew/staff/ personnel/team) on the plane.
5 This is John Barnes, one of the (colleagues/ candidates/partners/customers) for the job in the
Marketing Department.
6 I hear there's a (vacancy/post/niche/situation) in Dolan's furniture factory. Why don't you
apply?
7 Yes, I get a free three-course dinner every evening! It's one of the
(perks/pensions/permits/promotions) of being a waiter.

50
Task 6
Idioms and Fixed Phrases
In pairs, match the phrases to make complete sentences.
A
1. I really can't afford
2. You shouldn't have spent so much
3. It really isn't worth
4. .You must have paid
5. They must have bought
6. .I bet it cost.
7. It really was a waste
8. We were overcharged
9. She makes a living
10. They made a lot of money

в
a. of time and money.
b. you an absolute fortune.
c. by selling the pictures that she paints. ;
d. to go out again this week
e. using up our savings
f. when they sold their house
g. on the holiday.
h. it with the money they inherited
i. for it on credit
j. for the taxi fare.
Task 6
Phrasal Verbs
Explain the phrasal verbs in bold.
1 .There's nothing in our bank account. We've run out of money.
2 .John's been putting money by for his holiday all year; he's saved over £500!
3 .I had to take out a loan to buy my new car. I'll pay back the money I borrowed over three
years.
4 .Doing this course is really eating into my savings! Every week I have to pay £50.

Task 7
Prepositions

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate preposition. Then, make sentences related to work.
• of • from • to • for • by • in • at • on • with
1 to congratulate sb on sth; 2 to retire____a job; 3 to apply____a position; 4 specialise____sth; 5
deal__sth; 6 to have experience______; 7 to be impressed______sb/sth; 8 to be interested______sth;
9 to be experienced______sth; 10 to be qualified _____noun/-ing; 11 to be suitable______; 12 to be
responsible _________ sth; 13 skilled _______ noun/-ing;14 good____sth; 15 to fill______ an
application

51
The right career?

Task 1
Careers guidance questionnaire
1 Which of these areas can you see yourself working in? Tick the areas.

 Business
 Arts/entertainment
 Education
 Health and welfare
 Industry
 Media
 Science/technology
 Politics/public life
 Service/ industries
 Other:_________

2. How true are these statements of you? Give yourself a mark out of five.
 I don't mind hard physical work.-3
 I enjoy working with my hands.-5
 I enjoy solving problems.-3
 I'm a good listener.-5
 I'm good with figures.-2
 I have a good artistic sense.-4
 I'm a good communicator.-5

4 What are/were your favourite subjects at school?

5 What do you expect from a job? Give each of these a mark out of five.
prospects for promotion -3
the power to take your own decisions -5
contact with other people -5
a good salary-3
the chance to travel -4
long holidays-5
being able to leave the job behind you when you go home-3
5. How true are these statements of you? Give each a mark out of 5.
I get on with other people.-4

52
I don't mind taking orders.-3
I need to be my own boss.-3
I go crazy if I do the same thing for too long.-4
I can cope when things get tough.-3
I like to look smart.-3
I can keep smiling - however I'm feeling.-2
I'm punctual.-4
1 Read the completed careers guidance questionnaire. Do you see this person as
- A boss or an employee?
- Working in an organisation or self-employed?
- Having a safe, steady job or doing something more adventurous?
Think of a specific job for the person.

Task 2
The right career?
Careers guidance questionnaire
1. Which of these areas can you see yourself working in? Tick the boxes
o . Business
o Arts/entertainment
o Education
o Health and welfare
o Industry
o Media
o Science/technology
o Politics/public life
o Service/ industries
o Other:_________
2. How true are these statements of you? Give yourself a mark out of five.
o I don't mind hard physical work.
o I enjoy working with my hands.
o I enjoy solving problems.
o I'm a good listener.
o I'm good with figures.
o I have a good artistic sense.
o I'm a good communicator.

3. Do you have any particular skills or leisure interests?

____________________________________________
4. What are/were your favourite subjects at school?
________________________________________
5. What do you expect from a job? Give each of these a mark out of five.
o prospects for promotion
o the power to take your own decisions
o contact with other people
o a good salary
o the chance to travel

53
o long holidays
o being able to leave the job behind you when you go home

6. How true are these statements of you? Give each a mark out of 5.

o I get on with other people.


o I don't mind taking orders.
o I need to be my own boss.
o I go crazy if I do the same thing for too long.
o I can cope when things get tough.
o I like to look smart.
o I can keep smiling - however I'm feeling.
o I'm punctual.

2. Now fill in the questionnaire yourself and give it to the teacher. Work with a
partner. The teacher will give you two completed questionnaires. Look at them,
and suggest two or three suitable jobs for the writers.
Now look at the suggestions that have been made for you. What do you
think of them?

54
Task 3

The JOB FOR YOU?


Choose two of these jobs - one you think would be suitable for you, and one you think
wouldn't be suitable for you. (If you like, you can choose jobs that are not in the list.)
Say what you would like and dislike about each job. Use the ideas in the box to help you.
shop assistant office manager writer actor salesperson
bus driver electrician journalist teacher disc jockey
architect police officer secretary accountant factory worker

Example: shop assistant


I wouldn't want to be a shop assistant. You have to work long hours and the pay isn't very good. I'd
certainly meet a lot of people, but I wouldn't be very good with the difficult customers: I'd probably
lose my temper with them and get the sack. The other thing is that I don't dress particularly smartly,
and I'm not very punctual, either.

pay necessary skills holidays promotion contact with people variety


travel taking orders independence responsibility hours smartness personality
1
Job:__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
______
______________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________

2.Job:_________________________________________________________________________________________
________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

55
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________
Vocabulary work

Task1. Fill the gaps with suitable words from the table.
a )My son won first prize in a poetry___________.
b )The police are conducting an___________into the fire.
с)She______________all her money in diamonds.
d) I was one of 20_______________ for the job.
e)Unfortunately, there were no_____________from the plane crash.

Task 2. Write two other words you know that end in:
a -tion b -or с -ment d –er

Task 3. Complete the sentences below with the words and expressions in the box.

full-time lots of benefits paid holiday unfairly treated sick pay income tax
maternity leave contract
1. When my son was born, I took____________for three months and then went back to work part-
time.
2. I can't go away much, because I only get three weeks___________a year.
3. When I broke my leg, I managed to get two months____________.
4.________________starts at 20% and goes up to a maximum of 40%.
5. I appealed to a tribunal because I felt I'd been___________________.
6. I used to do only two days a week, but I work______________ now.
7. I’ve been there six years now, but I've never been given a proper_________.
8. The best thing about my job is that I get_____________- a company pension, private
health insurance and things like that.

Task 4.Work or job? Complete these sentences with work or job.


1. He's never done a day’s________in his life!
2. Are you still looking for а ______, then?
3. It's quite hard______finding a flat in a big city like Milan.
4. It's a dirty_______but someone's got to do it!
5. I know the money's not very good, but at least you're getting some good_______experience.
6. Oh, the kitchen looks lovely now. You've made a really good________of it.
7. I'm sorry, but I can't let you use the phone to ring Australia. It's more than my_____’s worth!
8. I've been up to my eyes in_____all week!

Task 5. Speaking. Discuss these questions with a partner.


1. Do you know anyone who's never done a day's work in their life? How do they get by?
2. Can you think of three other things that are quite hard work?

56
Tasks 6. How are things at work?
Match the common questions about work 1-5 with typical answers a-e.

1 . How are things at work?


a. •It's ОК. It's enough to live on.
• It's not very good - more like slave-labour!
• Well, actually, I don't think it's any of your business!

So, what exactly does your job involve, then?


b. • They're OK, the usual nine to five.
• Awful. I don't usually get home until ten!
• Great. I'm usually home by two or three.
• 3. Have you been doing it long?
c. • Crazy! I've been rushed off my feet all week!
• Oh, we've been pretty quiet, actually.
• Oh, it's OK, the same as ever.
4. What are the hours like?
d. • Well, I'm in charge of Accounts.
• I do all the marketing.
• I deal with all the complaints that we get.
5. What's the money like?
e. • Yes, it's about ten years now, I suppose.
• No, I've only just started, actually.
• Yes, too long!

In your country is it acceptable to ask someone how much they earn? Are you happy to talk about how
much you earn?

Task 7.What do you look for in a job?

Mark each of these ideas from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important), depending on
how important they are for you when you're looking for a job.
o being able to work flexi-time
o getting holiday pay and sick pay
o earning a good salary
o doing a really interesting job
o knowing your job is secure
o not being stuck behind a desk all day
o doing something useful for society
o being able to work from home
o getting a company car
o getting maternity or paternity leave
Compare your answers with a partner. What else would you add to this list?
Task 8

Career plans

57
Walk around the class and chat to some other students about the kind of work you see yourself doing
in the future, where you see your career going in the short term, any long-term career plans you've
got, and so on. For example:
If we meet in ten years' time, if everything goes according to plan, have my own company. I'll be
driving a top-of-the-range Mercedes. I'll be living in a huge house with my own private plane.
I'll own an island somewhere hot.

Task 9. Working Conditions Can you remember the missing words? Complete these sentences.
1. My wife's on_________leave at the moment.
2. I can't afford to be ill, because I don't get_________pay.
3. I get to travel quite a lot in my job - that's one of the___________.
4. How much___________tax do you pay?
5. I just want to be_________the same as the full-time staff.
6. I've always had a job. I've never been___________.
7. I'm hoping to get___________to deputy manager later this year.
8. I'm thinking of___________for a job in Paris.
9. The starting___________is £23,000 a year.
Task 10.Getting a job. Put these sentences in the order that they usually happen.
a. I've started looking for a new job. ____
b. I'm going for an interview. ____
c. I'm getting fed up with my job. ____
d. I've applied for this thing I saw in the paper._____
e. The job's going well. ____
f. I've got the job. ____
g. I start my new job on Monday. ____
h. I've been short-listed. ____

Go back and underline all the expressions with job.

Now complete the sentences below with the words and phrases in the box.

apply for change their found a new give up my lost qualified for train for a
1. I've__________job at last! It's taken me six months.
2. I'm sorry to say Jim has__________his job.They're closing the Hong Kong office.
3. I think I’ll_________my boss's job. She's leaving to have a baby.
4..................I'm not sure how I feel about people who___________jobs every six months.
5. ________________new job at my age? You must be joking!
6. I'm not going to____________job! I'm staying here till the day I retire.
7. Are you really___________this job at IBM, then? I didn't know.

Collocations: adjective + job


Task 11. Match the sentences 1-6 to their opposites a-f.

1. It's a well-paid job. a. It’s an interesting job.


2. It's a boring job. b. It's a temporary job.
3. It's a full-time job. c. It's a menial job.
4. It's a permanent job. d. It's a cushy job.
5. It's a responsible job. e. It's a badly-paid job.
58
6. It's a demanding job. f. It's a part-time job.

59
Now complete the sentences below with the words in the box.

manual professional high-powered

7. Being head of a large organisation like IBM is considered a very_________job.


8. A builder, electrician and plumber are all_______jobs.
9. A doctor, teacher, or lawyer are all__________jobs.

Jobs which have specific training (perhaps a two-year apprenticeship) before you are fully qualified,
such as an electrician or plumber, are skilled jobs.

Task 12.Collocations: career. Complete the sentences below with the correct form of the verbs in
the box.
change give up map out ruin
embark on hinder pursue sacrifice

1. She had a promising career ahead of her, but it was completely__________by her husband, who
was
basically jealous of her success, and persuaded her to____________it all___________and stay at
home.
2. A lot of women__________their careers to start a family and allow their husbands to continue
to______________theirs. I wonder if it ever happens the other way round.
3. He's very ambitious, but his career has been____________a little by a lack of opportunity. He
probably needs to move on to a different company.
4. I don't really know what I want to do. I'm not one of those people who have their careers
all________in
careful detail by the age of twenty-one.
5. It's much more common to_________careers today than it was for my parents' generation.
6. I did quite a few different jobs before__________a career in teaching.

Task 13.Expressions: boss or employee?


Who is talking: the boss to an employee, or the other way round? Write В if you think the boss is
speaking or E if you think it is the employee.
1. Why are you so late? ___
2. Can I leave a bit early today? ____
3. Excellent work. Well done! ____
4. Can I arrange to see you some time today? ____
5. Can you stop what you're doing? I need to have a word with you._____
6. Don't use the phone for personal calls.____
7. I'd like to discuss my salary, if possible.____
8. Sorry, it won't happen again. _____
9. Have you finished yet? _____
10. I'm doing it as fast as I can. _______

60
Go back and underline the useful expressions such as Сап I arrange . . . .

61
Task 14.Describing your job

Make sentences by matching the beginnings 1-8 to the endings a-h.

1. I’m stuck behind a(n)


2. I spend most of my time on the
3. I seem to spend most of my time in
4. I often have to put in
5. I have to do a lot of boring
6. I spend a lot of time staring at a(n)
7. I just seem to be sorting out
8. I have to work to pretty tight
a. quite long hours.
b. admin.
c. other people's problems all the time.
d. desk all day.
e. phone.
f. deadlines.
g. computer screen all day.
h. meetings.

Task 15. Two views of work!

Here are two texts about how two people in Japan earn their living. Complete the first text with
the words in the box below.

charges guess ordinary single create make pays way

Takashi Horito
Are you out of work? Perhaps thinking of changing your job? Why not do something a bit different
from
the (1)____________nine-to-five office job? Do what some people in Japan are doing -
(2)__________
your own.
Take Takashi Horito, for example, who has started his own business as a professional 'complimenter'.
Horito (3)_________customers 150 yen (about £ 1) for a minute of non-stop compliments.
'You look great. I love the (4)_________you've had your hair done. Let me (5)__________- you're a
fashion model, right? You must only be about twenty-two. I can't believe someone as attractive as you
is still (6)______________.'
These are the kinds of compliments he (7)_________to both men and women who want their egos
boosted. It obviously works, as he can (8)__________£1 5-Ј20 an hour on a good day. He started his
business after a frustrating period of looking for work after finishing university.

16. Complete the second text with the words in the box below:
avoiding customer fear making black earns injured stressed
62
Kenji Mamoto
Another unusual way of (9)_________money was devised by Kenji Mamoto. He charges 1,000 yen a minute
for customers to use him as a human punch bag. For sixty seconds, a customer can try to hit and punch Kenji as
much as they like with no (10)___________of retaliation. An ex-boxer, Kenji is an expert at
(11))_____________the punches. However, he does sometimes get (12)___________.Some of his recent
injuries include a bloody nose,(13)___________eyes and the odd broken rib.’ I tell the(14)_________to shout
their name, age, and why they are so (15)_________, as loudly as possible, just before they attack me,' he said.
On a good evening, Mr Mamoto (16)__________up to £350. 'It's quite good money and it's an interesting way
to experience life. I always wanted a job which involved meeting people. I want to continue for as long as I
can.'

Task 17. Complete each paragraph with the words given.

Is it all about money?

aim based on factorsurvey

The ( 1 ) __________of this report is to summarize the results of a(n) (2)__________, which was used
to find out whether people consider money to be the most important (3)_________when choosing a job. The report
is (4)___________a survey of fifty people.

The survey

consisted of rank took part in

The survey (5)__________asking people about five job-satisfaction criteria: money, job security, flexible
working hours, perks, and career prospects. Each person that (6)__________the survey was asked to
(7)_____________each of the criteria on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = not important, 5 = very important).

Results

first respectively surprisingly


Money came (8)__________with 232 points, followed, perhaps (9)__________, by flexible working
hours with 218. Job security, career prospects, and perks were ranked third, fourth and fifth,
(10)______________, all scoring just over 200 points.

Analysis

ahead of fact predictable rated

It was no surprise that money was (11)____________ as the most important factor in a job, but
flexible

63
working hours coming second, (12)___________job security and career prospects, was
less(13)_____________.This may have been influenced by the (14)____________that some of the
people
interviewed had lifestyles that required a certain amount of flexibility, but others just found it an
attractive working condition.
Conclusion

attractive evidence potential such as

On the (15)____________of this survey, employers need to offer (16)__________employees not


only a(n) (17)____________salary, but also flexible working hours, which allows them to continue with
the
lifestyle of their choice. This seems to be more important than having a secure job,career prospects, and
perks, (18)___________ company pension or company car.

Task.17. Find out if money is the most important factor in choosing a job for the students in
your group. Write a report on the results. Use the same formal, impersonal style you saw in the sample
report above, and use appropriate headings. If you are not able to conduct a real class survey, use your
imagination to create the report.

Task 1
a. Look at the pictures. Which profession(s) would you associate with the following? In what
way? Tell your partner.

high earnings sense of achievement job satisfaction physical tiredness stress


danger

b. Which of the four jobs shown do you think would appeal the most to ...
• an adventurous person • a caring person
• a person who likes children • an ambitious person
• a team player • a person who likes to keep fit
Discuss in pairs.

Task 2.

a. Rank the following according to how important you think they are for a happy working life (1 =
most important 6 = least important). Then compare your ranking with that of another student.
64
o pleasant working environment
o recognition of achievement
o good remuneration
o opportunity for creativity
o helping others
o opportunity for personal development

b. Which of the following statements best applies to you? Select one (or write your own in the
space provided), then use it to begin talking to your partner about your ideal job.

1 I have a very clear idea of what I want to do.


2 I haven't decided yet, but I want to find a job that I love.
3. I would like to earn as much as possible in the shortest possible time, then retire.
4. I would like my work to make a difference to the world.
OTHER_____________________________________________________________________

What kind of 'dream jobs' do you think people would choose? Discuss in groups.

Task 3

Paraphrase the following quotations. Which do you agree with? Why?


Discuss in pairs.
'Work is an essential part of being alive. Your work is your identity.'
Kay Stepkin (US baker)
‘The only place where success comes before work is a dictionary.’
Vidal Sassoon (British hair stylist)

Task 4

People on the Job


a. Match A to В to form words describing different kinds of workers and professionals.
Then, in pairs, put them under the appropriate headings in the table below. Some of the words
could go under more than one heading.

65
A
refuse
business
computer
graphic
assembly-line
talent
plastic
fire
dental
civil
general
sound

a. In pairs, decide which of the adjectives below best describe the jobs and professions above.
Give reasons.

• fulfilling • arduous • mind-numbing • demanding


• gruelling • rewarding • hazardous • glamorous
• mundane • secure • stimulating • strenuous
• stressful • motivating • physical • intellectual

A: Working as a firefighter is a very stressful job. B: True. They face danger all the time
and people's lives depend on them.

C. In pairs, use language from the box to help you to ask and answer questions about the
following:
 If you are employed at present
 What kind of job you would like to do in the future
 What kind of career you would never consider

• What do you do for a •I work as a ...


living?
• Have you ever toyed • I hope to (be promoted).
with the idea of...?

• Have you got any plans Yes, indeed, I am thinking


for...? of...
• What are you aiming for My immediate plans are…
in your career as
• Would you ever • Hopefully, I will soon ...
consider...?
• Do you think you would • I do not foresee...
ever...?
Are you looking forward • There is no way I would
to retiring? ever...
A- What do you do for a living? В: I am studying to become a lawyer but I've got a part-time job
in the university library.

Task 5. In the Workplace


66
Underline the correct words/phrases. Then use the remaining words to make up
a.
sentences of your own. Use a dictionary to help you.
1. Due to the unsafe conditions at the plant, the workers decided to (work to rule, go
on the picket line, go on strike) until their demands for improvements were met by the
management.
2. Many employees were (sacked, laid off, dismissed) as a result of the economic crisis.
3. Not only are we appreciated for what we do but we also receive (perks, benefits,
bonuses) at Christmas and Easter.
4. Not too many years ago, miners and factory workers would have to line up
outside their employer's office every Friday to collect their (salary, profits, wages).
5. On arrival at the military base, the new (trainees, apprentices, recruits) were told to
report to the registration area..
6. I've just been transferred to this (head office, department, boardroom). Could you tell
me where my cubicle is, please?
7. If there is any hope of meeting this deadline, we'll have to work (part-time,
overtime, flexi-time) all next week.
8. For us to consider you for the position, you'll need to provide us with at least
two (credentials, references, applications).
b. Now, decide which aspect of work the sets of words are related to.
• incentives • new employees • pay
• the workplace • applying for a job
• workers' protest • working hours

Task 6. Build up your Vocabulary


Underline the word which best completes each sentence.
1. I hope you realise, Ms Hines, that if you accept the (job/ employment/occupation) you will
be expected to put in quite a bit of overtime.
2. After receiving a degree in business management, Lynn realised that her true
(profession/trade/vocation) was in teaching, so she returned to university.
3. My sister (works/labours/toils) in a beautiful office doing a job that she loves.
4. The latest company (duty/task/project) requires that we all work as a team to meet the
deadline.
5. The (staff/union/board) has called a general meeting to hear employee complaints.
6. Tom just received a government (raise/award/grant) to continue his work with the city's
homeless.
7. They have several (vacancies/occupations/appointments) to fill, but they can't find the right
people.
8. When he failed to comply with the manager's instructions, he was
(removed/dismissed/deposed).

67
Task 7.Collocations
In pairs, complete the spidergrams with the words. Use some of them to fill in the gaps in the
sentences. Can you think of more words for each spidergram?
• mate • satisfaction • title • load • place • shop
• description • bench • market • hunter • station
• centre • prospects • horse

1. Some of the staff say she's the manager, some say she's the owner. Do you know what her actual
___________is?
2. I’m sorry, but nowhere in my_______does it say that I have to empty the wastepaper bins.
3. At the moment, John has such a heavy _______________ that we can't even get out at the weekends.
4. The assembly-line worker was sacked because he was constantly away from his____________.
5. My wife is a real_____________. She puts in eight hours at the office and then comes home and does all the
housework.
6. Above the carpenter's_____________was row after row of bright shiny tools.

Task 8.Every Office has one


a. Using a dictionary if necessary, say what the personality traits of these office workers are.
• the whiz • the perfectionist
• the paper-shuffler • the gossip
• the stirrer • the workaholic
• the slave driver
• the techno-freak • the yes-man

b. Which are positive/negative traits? What type is the man the picture? Discuss in pairs.

68
Task 9.Idioms
a. Match items from columns A and В to form idioms. In pairs, guess what the idioms might mean. Do
you have similar idioms in your language?
A
beaver away keep one's mind mean make get something off be someone's call
have time on keep one's nose be an
В
to the grindstone ends meet the shots one's hands inside job on the job at
something business right-hand man the ground

b. Use some of the idioms, in their correct form, to complete the sentences below.
1. It’s going to take lots of hard work to the business_____________________, but in the long run I
feel it will be worth it.
2. Of course, his personal assistant will be with him; he _______________the
President's______________.
3. James, you've been _______________ at that report for the last hour. Come down and have your
supper.
4. It’s very difficult to ________________ with all these clients coming and going.
5. She might be the boss, but don't be fooled. It's really the vice-president
who___________around here.
6. With the economy in such a state, many businesses are finding it impossible
to_________________.

Task 10.The Right Job


a. Look at the three job adverts below. In pairs, decide what the underlined words mean.
FAIRFAX BUSINESS MEDIA
Telephone Researchers
FBR is the research division of Fairfax Business Media, and is currently recruiting a team of high-
level telephone researchers to interview leading IT decision-makers in large UK enterprises. $ 25-
30K.

Closing date: 16.05.2003


The Employers' Forum on Disability
The EFD, a charity and pressure group working for and on behalf of disabled employees throughout
the UK, is seeking a
Chief Executive Officer
Leading the Forum, the only organisation of its kind in the world, you will utilise your management
experience to assume complete responsibility for our day-to-day operations.
69
с £70,000 plus car.
The Aldingbourne Trust
History teacher
Are you interested in joining an educational organisation committed to innovation? We will consider
applications for a full-time History teacher to join our faculty of experienced teachers at our school
near Chichester, West Sussex. Minimum of 3 years experience in teaching History is essential.
£22,500 plus benefits.

Which of the jobs would you find appealing? Why? Discuss in pairs.
c. Using language from the boxes, in pairs, act out job interviews for the posts above.

Questions Answers
Tell us about I have been working
you/your as ... for...
qualifications/your
experience in...
How would you I feel that my
describe yourself? experience / ability /
knowledge dedication /
organisational
Why do you want to •I'm after a job that ...
work for us?
How can you • I have always thought
contribute ...? one of my assets is... that

A: So, tell us about your experience in marketing.


B: Well, I have been working as a marketing consultant for ... for three years now, and...

Task 11. Phrasal Verbs


.
Match the verbs with the particles to form phrasal verbs. Use them to complete the sentences below

70
1. I just can't seem to get across (communicate) to my boss that he is working me too hard.
2. After a difficult day at the office I like to________ (eliminate) stress by digging in my garden.
3. The owner is terribly busy tomorrow but I'll try to________you__________ (find time for) her schedule.
4. If the workers return to their jobs this week, we might manage to_____________(overcome) the
delays in production.
5. By the end of the incredibly busy day, Mona had ______________herself_______________(cause to
be upset) into quite a state.

Task 12.Communication: Polite Requests


. In pairs, complete the following dialogues with language from the boxes.
A: Ican1)___________________________
But 2)_______________________________
possibly help me with this exercise?
В: I wish 3)______________________,
but I really need to finish what I'm doing. Sorry.

A: Can you do 4)___________________?


Do you 5)___________________
use your computer for an hour?
B: Of course 6)________________

A: I don't mean to 7)__________________,


but do you 8)____________________
clean up this mess?

B: I'm afraid 9) _______________________


that. You see, I need to go out in five minutes.

A: I know this 10)___________________,


but I was 11)__________________
could lend me £10.
B: With 12) __________________

Useful language: Polite Requests


Introducing a request
• Sorry to bother you with this, but... • I don't mean to cause a fuss, but... • I can see you're very busy,
but... • I know this is a bit much to ask, but... • Can you do me a (big) favour?
• Could you do something for me?

Making a request
• Would it be (at all) possible (for me/you) to... • Do you think I/ you could (possibly)... •Could I trouble you
to... • Could you possibly... • Would it be all right if I... • I was wondering if you could... • Do you mind if I ...

Useful language: Responding to Requests


Granting a request
• Sure! • Go ahead. • Of course you can/may.
• With pleasure. • By all means. • Be my guest.
71
Denying a request and offering an excuse
• I'd love to help, but...»I wish I could, but...
• I'm afraid I can't do that. You see...

b. How could the requests and the responses have been made in a different way? Discuss in pairs.

c. In pairs, act out the following dialogues. Student A, make the requests. Student B, respond
positively or negatively according to the yes/no prompts in the brackets.

1 Ask a friend if he can drive you to work the next day. (Yes)
1 Ask if a colleague can help you with some filing. (No)
2 Ask your boss to give you tomorrow off. (No)
3 Ask your teacher if you can be excused from class. (No)
4 Ask an acquaintance if she thinks she could talk to her boss about giving you a job. (Yes)

72
Task 13.Speaking: Discuss, Evaluate & Select

Working Environments

Look at these pictures showing various people at work. Talk to each other about the different
kinds of working environments shown. Then, say which working environments are likely to be
the most and least stressful. Finally, select the picture which, in your opinion, shows the working
environment which needs the most improvements.

Speaking-Part4
Discuss the following questions together.
1 Do you think having computers in the workplace is a good thing?
2 What steps should governments take to reduce unemployment?
3 What are the dangers of working too much?
4 Is job satisfaction more important than money?
5 What makes a good boss?
Useful language: Selecting
• I think we should go for picture X...
• We could narrow it down to a choice between X and Y...
• It's hard to choose, but picture X...
• Making a choice is not that easy because...
• If we assume that... then the obvious choice would be X.
• Not much to choose between X and Y, is there?

Task 14.Everyday English


• Congratulating
In pairs, guess and say what the other speaker says.
a You lucky thing! d That's fantastic,
b Well done! e Congratulations,
73
с I'm so pleased for you!
A: I've got two days off from work!
B: You lucky thing!

Task 15.Conditionals

The following sentences contain mistakes. Rewrite them so that they are correct.
1 I'll lend you my scarf provided you won't lose it. I'll lend you my scarf provided you don't lose it.
2. Suppose you would win the lottery, what would you do?
________________________________________________________________

3. I've bought some food in case Marianne and John came round for dinner.

______________________________________________________________

4. If I had known you were coming to London, I would pick you up at the airport.

_________________________________________________________________

5. If I told you I love you, what would you have said?

__________________________________________________________

6. Unless Brian will instruct us otherwise, we will close the shop at 7.

_______________________________________________________________

7. Should he have rung, tell him I'll meet him in the library.

___________________________________________________

8. Had I known you'd been shopping, I would not go myself.

_____________________________________________________

Make conditional sentences for the following situations.


• John lost his job.
• Alice has been transferred to another department.
• Ten workers have been laid off.

If John hadn't been late every morning, he wouldn't have lost his job.

Mixed Conditionals

Match columns A and В to form mixed conditionals. Which types of conditional are used in each
part? Why?

A B
1 If he had accepted their offer, a he'd be covered in
grease.
74
2 If he realised how little work she does, b he'd be rich by
now.
3 If he wasn't going on holiday tomorrow, с he'd have fired her long
ago.
4 If he had been mending the car, d he might have agreed to
come with us.

b. Rewrite the following using mixed conditionals, as in the example.


1 I don't have a secretary, so I did all the typing myself. If I had a secretary, I
wouldn't have done all the typing myself.
2 He didn't follow my advice; that's why the work isn't finished yet.
3 He can't have been arguing with his boss all morning; he looks far too relaxed!
4 She doesn't have the money, otherwise she would have given me the loan.
5 I realise I wasn't very polite to the boss, but I'm planning to leave this job anyway.
Wishes
Write a wish for each of the following sentences, as in the example.

1 You want to buy a new car, but you haven't got enough money.
2 I wish I had enough money (to buy a new car)
3 You didn't follow your friend's sensible advice.
4 You lost your lecture notes.
5 You want to ask a friend to help you, but he's out of the country.
6 Finish the sentences in your own way.

1 If I could turn the clock back, _________________________________________.


2 If I had lots of money,________________________________________________.
3 If only I__________________________________________________________.
4 If I could go anywhere,_______________________________________________.
5 I wish I could ______________________________________________________.
6 I wish I hadn't_______________________________________________________.
7 I wish you would _____________________________________________________.
8 I wish I were_________________________________________________________.

Task 16.Structure & Coherence

Choose А, В or С to fill each gap.


The government has been discussing new regulations,
1).A..., aimed at making it easier for working parents with young or disabled children 2)_________
1 A due to come into force next April
В they will implement them next April
С although not before next April
2 A so that their working hours are flexible
В to have more flexible working arrangements
С because they need more flexible hours
Win or lose, many applicants face significant legal bills.
3) ________ on a no-win, no-fee basis can see their awards reduced by up to half 4)______take
their cut
of any award or settlement.
75
3 A If
they win their cases
В Even if they lose their cases
С Even those who win their cases

4 A because their solicitor


В although solicitors and other advisers
С as solicitors and other professional advisers

5_________dedicating
weeks of painstaking care into setting up a company, seeking professional
advice and creating a coherent business plan, but the real crunch factor 6)______________.

5. A It's all very well


В You may as well
С It's not enough just
6 A is why keeping records is important
В is how well you keep your records
С is not only keeping records

Supra Comm has slashed its investment plans 7)__________.It now expects to spend Ђ8bn by
2005 8)___________.The reduction has been caused by its decision to delay the roll-out of so-called
third generation mobile phone services.
7 A for the next three years
В by a 16.5% increase
С on a no-sale-no-investment basis
8 A rather than the Ђ6bn originally planned
В and not sooner than 2007
С rather than the €11 bn originally suggested

8 For questions 1 to 6, read the following text and choose from the list (A-J) given below the best of
the phrases to fill each gap. There are three phrases which do not fit in any gap. There is an
example (0).

Doing it Our Way


Next month my wife and I will open the doors of our own business, a gourmet gift
shop. 0)..I have finally unpicked the safety net of regular income to throw myself from the
ledge, to fly, or to hit the ground with a thud. It is terrifying and exhilarating.
..........................1)______________at first. A little research, however, and I learned that some real
household names are franchises -such as Bodyshop, McDonald's and
Thorntons. 2)____________, each shop is a small business, albeit run to the template of the
parent company. And the failure rate of legitimate franchises is a mere 10%.
There are drawbacks of course. 3)____________ and a percentage of your profits
for the use of their concepts and trademarks, and you have to stick to their
plan. 4)_________was my kind of odds and we started to look more closely.
In April we went to the British Franchise Exhibition at Wembley to find a
franchise that was right for us. The range was amazing. 5)___________ , interior designers,

76
coffee shops, car repairers, but nothing caught our imagination until we stumbled on the last
stand.
6)__________ and the idea was a gourmet gift shop where the customer buys such
goodies as truffles, stuffed olives, unusual dressing and herbs and spices, kitchenware all
beautifully presented and gift-wrapped. The shops had taken off in their native Holland and
were spreading across Belgium and Germany. The company was now looking at the British
market. So to the future.

A You have to pay the franchise a start-up fee


В The company was called Oil and Vinegar
С Despite the global nature of the company
D My wife didn't really want to do it
E I was sceptical about franchises
F We could have bought into estate agencies
G Oil and Vinegar attracted quite a bit of interest
H Franchises are not cheap to start
I However, a 90% success rate
J After 13 years in secure office jobs

Task 17.Word Formation


Fill the gaps with words formed from the words in capitals.

1 tire
• although the job is not physically____________, it leaves me feeling exhausted at the end of the
day.
• he was praised for his _____________efforts to promote our ideals at home and abroad.
2 lead
• the most important quality required for this managerial post is________________.
mr. brown is one of the country's_____________authorities on industrial relations.
3 excel
• we were treated to an ___________ supper of seafood and home-made pasta.
• we are committed to pursuing_____________ in providing for travelling business people.
4 compete
• we managed to outwit the_______________ by launching our product early.
• the team displayed a lot of___________spirit and that's why they succeeded.
• a total of sixty-two_____________entered the race.
5 contract
• the building_________failed to complete the new sports hall on time.
• you have a ____________obligation to give us a month's notice if you intend to leave.

Task 17.English in Use


Read the two texts that follow. Use the words in the boxes below each text to form words that fit in the
numbered spaces in the text. There is an example (0).

77
Redundancy an d t h e L a w
Contrary to popular belief, redundancy is just one form of 0)
dismissal - not a catch-all phrase to describe any 1). _________of employment. An employee
is, 2) ________________speaking, made redundant when the employer requires fewer
people to do the type of work the employee was employed to do. However, redundancy is
considered by the law to be 3)____________if you are made redundant for maternity-related
reasons, reasons connected with race, sex, 4)_______________, or trade union-related
activities, 5)_____________to work on Sundays or assertion of a statutory right.
Your employer must operate any redundancy programme fairly. For example, an 6)
______________tribunal has concluded that selecting employees for redundancy on the
basis of their age is not justifiable.
Employers are also supposed to consult with employees on an individual basis before
making them redundant to consider whether there are any other options available such as
redeploying them elsewhere in the 7)______________.

0 .DISMISS......................................3.FAIR 6.INDUSTRY
1. TERMINATE...............................4.ABILITY 7.ORGANISE
2. BROAD........................................5.REFUSE
Getting the Most out of Meetings
Recognise that most meetings will be 8) _________without a good chairperson and an agenda. If your
aim is to be 9)____________, skip most of these meetings. Research has shown that badly managed
groups rarely make better decisions than the best or second-best person in that group.
If the meetings you attend are badly run but you want to 10)____________that something is
accomplished, then bring your own informal agenda. In11)_________ organised environments, few
people think far enough ahead to turn up with papers to hand out. If you are the only person who has a
handout, you will usually find that 12)___________centres on the points you make on these sheets.
Understand that meetings that are well-run can generate better results than would come from the
smartest people in the group. Three things are 13) ______________, however, for good
14)____decision-making: an impartial facilitator or chairperson; a clear structure; and the necessary
IT to model possible 15)_______________there and then. Information will be treated as a neutral
commodity, and everybody will have their say

8 CHAOS 11 POOR 14 COLLECT


9 PRODUCE 12 DISCUSS 15
ALTERNATE
10 SURE 13 DISPENSE

Task 18.Terms Often Confused

Match A to B, then make sentences with the items from A to show their meanings.

1 the late manager a the person who is bound to become manager

2 the manager in question b. the person who was manager before the current
one
3 the manager to-be с the person who is supposed to be the manager
4 the former manager d the manager who has died
5 the so-called manager e the person who would like to be manager
6 the present manager f the person who is holding the manager's post
temporarily
78
7 the would-be manager g the manager we're talking about
8 the stop-gap manager h the person who is currently manager

The late manager left a legacy of a 160% increase in sales over 12 years.

Task 19.English in Use


For questions 1-15, select the most appropriate word (А, В, С or D) to complete each gap.

Given the Thumbs Down

When your manager tells you they are pleased with your 0) work , the least you can
expect is a(n) 1)
reference when you leave. That, at any 2)__________, is what Wayne Taft thought
when he applied for a job as an occupational care worker.
Imagine his surprise 3) ___________, when he opened a letter that said 'Sorry, we
can't 4)____you
because of your job reference.'
"It was very upsetting," he says. "I was shocked at how cruel people can be. My
reference
should have been 5)_______________" Mr Taft, who is unemployed, is still
6)____________the consequences of his 7) _____________ employer, another home care
provider, 8) ___________ to supply a positive, or even neutral reference. "I was looking
9)________to a new job and now I'm on the 10)__________________".
After he received the 11)___________ letter he resigned himself to pursuing jobs
using another past employer as a reference. He was never told why the reference was bad,
and in the two months since it happened has felt 12)______________.But this week he
discovered that under the Data Protection Act, he has the right to request
13)______________to the reference from the organisation who received it.
Mr Taft says he intends to 14)_________________the employer that turned him
down and demand to see the reference. "I'm so angry, I need to find out what happened and
15)________it right," he
adds.

0 A work В job С employment D task


1 A beneficial В straight С decent D moral
2 A pace В way С step D rate
3 A namely в then с really D although
4 A consider в regard с judge D review
5 A shining в glowing с gleaming D glistening
6 A having в taking с getting D suffering
7 A present в so-called с would-be D former
8 A refusing в avoiding с protesting D disliking
9 A away в aside с forward D front
1 A leisure в dole с queue D home
1 A rejection в refusal с denial D dismissal
1 A accidental в powerless с unfavourable D unrelated
1 A access в admittance с entry D permissio
1 A struggle в disagree с dare D confront
1 A get в put с place D fix

Task 20.Vocabulary & Grammar

79
a. Choose the most suitable word to complete each sentence.
1 Discussions on the issue of expansion of the company have been in_______since the outbreak of
disease in the area.
A hitch В limbo С feud D core
2 Viewers were__________ at the incredible sight of the lunar landscape, unable to take their eyes
off the screen until the very end of the broadcast.
A switched С transfixed
В devised D stifled
3 The culprit had been under their noses all along and so the investigators were criticised heavily for
making unnecessary_________.
A blunders В hitches С assets D tasks
4 The authorities were____________that the public should not find out about the high level research
being carried out at the institute.
A certain В adamant С absolute D sure
5 Should any letters arrive while I'm away during the summer could you please____________to me,
as I'm trying to sort out a job for September.
A send them on С send them out
В send them away D send them in
6 They certainly____________the mould when they brought out their latest model; it's totally
different from anything else they've ever produced!
A destroyed С cracked
В broke D changed
7 _____________the light of recent findings, the government has decided to invest further funds in
the research project.
A By В In С Under D With
8 It's an accepted fact that in the modern world certain companies try to________________their
nearest competitors.
A outrun С outdistance
В outgrow D outdo
9 We are lucky to be witness to this era of ever- increasing_______________change.
A experimental С technological
В digital D new age
1 0 Working mothers throughout the company were delighted with the introduction of________, as it
made
it easier to manage collecting children from school at different times on different days.
A overtime В part-time С flexi time D full-time
11 Any job that involves doing the same thing day in day out must be pretty____________.
A strenuous С stimulating
B mundane D arduous
1 2 Keith's___________income looks impressive, but once tax and social security contributions
are deducted, it's not so much.
A full B grand С net D gross
1 3 Having lost her mother at an early age, Mary felt she had become a mere _______, having to do
absolutely everything for her five brothers and sisters.
A taskmaster С slavedriver
B workmate D workhorse
1 4 I could never quite___________what her position in the firm was until we met at a reception and
got chatting.
A workaround С workout
B get out D get across

80
15 They were on the___________ of folding the company when an investor saved the day with a
large, financial contribution.
A edge С verge
B basis D offchance
(15 marks)

b. Complete each of the sentences with a short phrase using the most appropriate form of future
tenses, conditionals or wishes.
1 Once we____________at the hotel, we will be able to have a shower and relax.
2 Had___________for her ability to swim, she would certainly have drowned.
3 I really______________make that clicking noise all the time. It drives me mad!
4 Welcome to your new post. At some point, you____________that the workload will increase,
due to the time of year.
5 We r e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ t h e c o s t o f t h e p r o d u c t, a n d t h e n t h e y w o u l d o b v i o u s l y l o s e a l o t o f
business.
(5 marks)

Task 21. Exchanging opinions. Too young or too old?


Work through the Function File cards before doing the activity opposite.
Giving your opinion

Which expression sounds rather rude and off-hand and suggests that you have nothing else to say?
Which expresses a very strong opinion?

In my opinion I view . .
Generally speaking, I think . . .
Personally, I haven t the faintest idea about / whether. . .
To my mind. . .
I'd just like to say . . .
As far as I'm concerned,. . .
I'm quite convinced that. . .
To be quite honest I frank . . .
If you ask me . . .
Asking for the opinion of others

Which expression is often used when addressing a group of people in a more formal situation, e.g. a
meeting?
Which expressions are often used when addressing an individual in a more formal situation, e.g. a TV
interview with a politician?
Which expressions are more suitable for an informal exchange of ideas?
What / How about you?
Would you care to comment on . . . ?
Any comments?
Would you agree with that?
What are your views on. . . ?
What's your opinion?
What do you think . . . ?
You must, of course, state your own point of view but you will also be given credit for inviting your fellow
candidates to express their views and encouraging them to make a contribution when they remain silent.

81
In small groups discuss which of these jobs could be done more successfully by someone
in the 20-30 age range or an older person and why. Refer to the Function File cards .Appoint
one person to make a note of the group's opinions and when you have finished, compare your
ideas with those of another group.

Task 22.Expressing personal preferences


In pairs ask your partners which of the jobs in the pictures above they would prefer and why.
Refer to this Function File card to reply.

Expressing preferences

Which expression sounds as if it is simply contrasting one thing with another but is actually denoting
a very strong preference?
Which expression is more colloquial and would be used in an informal conversation?

I’d much rather (do). . . than . . .


I could never do I be . . . but I’d really enjoy….
There's no comparison between . . . and…
I’d prefer. . . to …
I’d be far happier doing. . . than . . . Give me . . . any time!

Task 23.Disagreeing politely

Exam hint

You do not have to agree with your fellow-candidates all the time. In fact you will be
able to make a fuller contribution to the speaking test if you have some different ideas
of your own to express. However, it is not a good idea to indulge in an over-heated
argument: most examiners do not want to hear a violent disagreement, which could be
embarrassing! So try to be polite and friendly at all times!

Which expressions sound as if they are being used to dismiss the other person's point of
view?
82
Which expressions are more diplomatic?

There may be some truth in what you say but don't you think it's more a question of. . .?
Yon must be joking!
I take your point but that's not the way I see it. Yes, but don't you think
that. . .?
1 see what you mean but I'm not at all convinced that. . . True, but I'm afraid I
disagree (with). . . You can't be serious! Perhaps, but I can't help thinking that.
Look at these various methods of learning and training and in groups of four discuss which you
consider to be the most and the least effective ways of learning or training to do something. Two
students should put forward arguments for the options on the top and the other two for those on the
bottom.

Task 24.Admitting that you might be mistaken

Which expression sounds rather defeatist and is used to end an argument? Which expression is very
colloquial and rather grudgingly concedes that the other person has a point?
Which expressions are used to suggest that you might possibly have made a mistake?
Which expression admits quite freely that you were wrong?

I hadn't thought o f . . . in that way. Fair enough!


Come to think of it you might he right.
All right - you win!
I must admit it's true that. ..
I suppose you're right.
You're quite right, of course.

Task 25.Discussion

UNEMPLOYED FIGURES RISE AGAIN

Here's how we solve the unemployment problem!

Why are so many people without work nowadays? What can we do about
it?
In small groups discuss the newspaper headlines and the questions below. You have four to five
minutes to reach agreement. Appoint a secretary to makes notes on the group's opinions.
83
Remember to invite the other members of the group to have a turn if they remain silent or have
not had the opportunity to make a contribution to the conversation.
You might consider:
• the types of jobs available.
• modern methods of production.
• part-time and shift work.
• training / education given to young people.
• retraining given to older people.
• the school-leaving age.
• the age of retirement.
• numbers of people in the world.

Exam hint
If your mind goes blank, don't be an empty-headed candidate! Start talking about people or situations
you are familiar with, opinions in books or articles you have read, or discuss what you have talked
about in class. However, remember what you say must be spontaneous and relevant to the discussion.
It must not appear to be a prepared speech!

Commenting on something you know nothing about

Which expression could suggest that you are about to criticize someone or something?
Which expressions sound off-hand and fail to develop the interaction? What effect does using
expressions like these have on the person you are talking to?
Why is it a good thing to make an effort to develop the interaction even if you have no opinions on the
subject?

Actually, I don't have any first-hand experience of. . . but. . . Search me!
Personally, I've never had anything to do I had very little to do with . . .but. . . I have a sneaking
suspicion that. . . Haven t a clue! It’s rather difficult to say but I would imagine . . .

Finding out if everyone agrees

Which expression sounds rather dismissive and very informal? Which sounds rather formal for
this kind of discussion? Which expressions could be used diplomatically to draw a discussion to a
close?
So we're agreed on. . .
I f looks as if we all agree that. . .
Can I lake it that everyone agrees that. . . ?
Are we all in agreement?
It would appear that we are in complete agreement. Well, that's that then! We appear to agree on . .
.

Task 25. Exam practice


The right person for the right job
Look at the five photographs of people who are trying to find a job. Their personal interests are
illustrated in the thought bubbles. Read the brief notes about them and in small groups decide
what kind of job you think would suit these people and why. Take three" to four minutes then
report your conclusions to the rest of the class.
At this point the examiner will join the discussion, asking questions like these. In the same groups
discuss the questions.

84
Why do some people find job interviews so terrifying? What do you think employers are looking
for when they interview people? What advice would you give to someone going for their first job
interview? What advice would you give to someone who has just failed a job interview?

85
Task 26.Where does each person work?

A nurse works in a hospital or clinic.


b. How is the title related to the pictures?
Which of the jobs: are done in doors /outdoors? Require qualifications? have career prospects? Offer perks and
bonuses? are well paid/ poorly-paid? need the most training? is the hardest? have flexible hours? need a
degree?
Which of the jobs do you personally find: rewarding? dead-end? secure? repetitive? creative? stressful? Use
the table below to discuss in pairs.

Express opinions Agreeing


I think I believe ...; In my opinion I couldn't agree more I quite agree with you That's true...; I
To myfor
Asking mind
opinionTo me ... partly agree ...
Disagreeing
What do you think about...?; I don't think so...; I don't agree ...; I (don't) feel...; Perhaps
What's your opinion...? Don't you you're right, but on the other hand ....; That's not quite the way I

In pairs, discuss which jobs you would/would not consider doing and why.
A:-I'd never dream of becoming a decorator! I can't imagine doing that for a lifetime.
By the time you retired, you would be absolutely exhausted.
-I agree. I could never do that job either

A: I think a job as a medical researcher is very rewarding

В: I couldn't agree more; they do really important and useful work.

Task 27

Think of a job and talk about it without telling anyone what the job is. The class has to guess which
job you have chosen. Talk about:
• what you do • salary
• qualities • reasons you like/dislike it
What do you think these people do for a living?

86
Which job do you think would be satisfying/well-paid/ challenging/interesting/ repetitive/boring?
Well, personally I'd find working as a florist very satisfying. I love the idea of being surrounded
by flowers all day.

Task 28.Fill in: change, follow, take, step, and then make sentences about yourself.

• take the initiative


• your dreams
• your plans
• into sb's shoes
Last year I took the initiative and started a Drama Society at school.
Task 29. Fill in:

• salary • pay • wages • cash


1 The lawyer was paid a huge____________by the law firm.
2 Building workers receive their___________every Friday.
3 Cleaners are often paid____________in hand for the work they do.
4 The_______________at the factory wasn't worth thinking about!

• work • profession • trade • occupation


5 People work long hours in the tourist_____________.
6Being a racing driver is a dangerous______________.
7 The organisation's_________________involves assisting those in need.
8Apparently, he's a doctor by_______________.

• crew • staff • personnel • team


9. Everyone in the typing pool works well together and there is a good______________spirit.
10. Following an exhausting flight, the______________headed for the hotel to rest for a couple of hours.
11. On our holiday in Spain the hotel___________________couldn't have been more helpful.
12. All companies have a__________________department which deals with issues concerning staff.
______
• employer • worker • trainee • employee
13. As a(n)_____________, company has the best the name in the market.
14. A(n)__________at the factory was rushed to hospital following the accident.
15 .The company had financial problems, but only one was made redundant.
16.The ______________had to undergo three months of work experience before he was taken on
permanently.

Task 30. Speaking


Creativity at Work
Look at the two pictures showing people at work. Compare and contrast the two pictures,
saying which person you think gets the most satisfaction out of his job.

87
If you could do either job, which would you choose? Why?
Task 31.Complete the following sentences using your own ideas.
1. Although she was highly intelligent, she___________________________________________.
2.________________________________________________because she's such a caring person.
3. Being a calm sort of person, he____________________________________________________.
4. Ben was hardly ever punctual, so___________________________________________________
5. His father was a hardworking_______________________________________________________.
6. Her cheerful character__________________________________________ because he was persistent in
his efforts.
7. You need to be quick-thinking to______________________________________________________.

Task 32.Complete the sentences below with the words and expressions in the box.
full-time lots of benefits paid holiday unfairly treated sick pay income tax
maternity leave contract
1. When my son was born, I took______________for three months and then went back to work part-
time.
2. I can't go away much, because I only get three weeks'____________________a year.
3. When I broke my leg, I managed to get two months'_____________________.
4._________________starts at 20% and goes up to a maximum of 40%.
5. I appealed to a tribunal because I felt I'd been____________________.

6. I used to do only two days a week, but I work_________________now.


7. I've been there six years now, but I've never been given a proper____________________.
8. The best thing about my job is that I get________________- a company pension, private health
insurance and things like that.
Task 33.Read through the two character descriptions and, in pairs, discuss which person
would be suitable for the post advertised and why. Use the language in the box as well as
your own ideas.
Expressing opinions Asking for opinion
• I think/believe/doubt... • What do you think ...?
• To my mind ... • What’s your opinion?
• I'd say that... • Don't/Wouldn't you agree?
• Tome... • What are your views on it?

88
• Не/She might/couldn't/ can't
• How about...?
possibly be ...

Claire Martin is extremely sociable and good at public relations work. She is very patient and
able to handle large groups of people well.

Douglas Green has a certain adventurous character. He is energetic and his "'hobbies, including
mountaineering and hang gliding, clearly show a courageous and brave man.

We seek office staff responsible for giving general information on health matters to residents of the
local area.
You will need to feel comfortable working with large numbers of people who can sometimes be
demanding.

Task 34.Underline the adjectives in the character descriptions. Can you think of their opposites?

Work or job?

Complete these sentences with work or job.

1. He’s never done a day's_________ in his life!


2. Are you still looking for а _________, then?
3. It’s quite hard_______finding a flat in a big city like Milan.
4. It’s a dirty_______, but someone's got to do it!
5. I know the money's not very good, but at least you're getting some good________experience.
6. Oh, the kitchen looks lovely now. You've made a really good__________of it.
8. I’m sorry, but I can't let you use the phone to ring Australia. It's more than my____________'s
worth!
9. I’ve been up to my eyes in_____________all week!

Task 35.Speaking
Discuss the questions with a partner.

1. Do you know anyone who’ never done a day’s work in their life? How do they get by?

2. Can you think of three other things that are quite hard work?

Часть 3.Контрольно-измерительные материалы.


Jobs

1 Asking about someone's job


Two common questions to ask about someone's job are:
What do you do? or What do you do for a living? You start your answer by explaining the
general area in which you work. For example:
I work in the tourist industry.
Match the beginnings of the sentences with the groups of endings below:
89
a. an (oil) company, a firm of accountants, IBM.
1. I'm b. advertising.
2. I work for c. (financial) sector, the (fashion) industry.
3. I work in d. a consultant with a (software company), in the (catering)
industry, self-employed.

I f you are talking about someone else and you don't know exactly what they do, you can say:
She's some kind o f financial adviser. She's something to do with newspapers.
Here are some more words you can use with company or industry:
publishing
television
insurance
I work for a pharmaceutical, computer, engineering, electronics, travel, banking, motor
company
I work in the construction, oil, film, tourist industry

2 Areas of work
Match the description with the area of work:
1. You work for a big department store.
2. You deal with insurance, pensions, loans, etc.
3. You work for an advertising agency.
4. You're responsible for a company's sales strategy.
5. You work with computers and telecommunications.
6. You deal with your company's clients.
a. I'm in IT.
b. I'm in marketing.
c. I'm in financial services.
d. I'm in customer services.
e. I'm in retail.
f. I'm in advertising.

3 Office jobs
Match the job description with the position:
1. The person who welcomes visitors and deals with their enquiries.
2. The person who deals with any problems with the staff.
3. The person who does general jobs in an office.
4. The person who assists the managing director.
a. admin assistant b. personnel manager c. receptionist
d. PA (personal assistant)

4 Factory jobs
Match the job description with the position:
1. (S)he is responsible for selling the goods.
90
2. (S)he is responsible for making the goods.
3. (S)he is responsible for testing samples as the goods are produced.
4. (S)he is in charge of a team of workers.
5. The boss!
a. quality controller
b. managing director
c. supervisor
d. sales manager
e. production manager

5 Skilled manual jobs


Match the following definitions with the jobs:
1. They build the walls of houses.
2. They install and repair pipes.
3. They work with wood.
4. They repair cars.
5. They install wiring and sockets.
a. mechanics d. plumbers
b. electricians e. bricklayers
c. carpenters or joiners

6 The professions
Certain traditional jobs are professions: the medical profession, the legal profession, the nursing
profession and the teaching profession.
Match these jobs with the definitions:
1. Teachers a. treat sick animals.
2. Doctors b. perform operations in hospital.
3. Dentists c. help look after patients.
4. Barristers d. deal with routine legal work.
5. Solicitors e. look after your teeth.
6. Nurses f. present criminal cases in court.
7. Vets g. treat patients at their surgery.
8. Surgeons h. give children an education.

Lawyer is a general word for both solicitors and barristers. In Britain only a barrister is allowed
to address the court in the most important courts.

7 The emergency and armed services


Use these words in the sentences below:
firefighter police officer pilot
soldier paramedic sailor

1.John's a..........in the Royal Navy.


2.He's a...........in the fire brigade.
3.He's a...........in the ambulance service.
91
4.I'm joining the army to become a..........
5.My father was a.........in the air force.
6.He's a senior.........................

8 Tw o - w o r d j o b s
Match a word on the left with a word on the right to make the name of a job:
1. lorry a. cleaner
2. shop b. instructor
3. window с assistant
4. bank d. clerk
5. driving e. driver

Do the same with these:


6. taxi f. worker
7. traffic g. guard
8. security h. warden
9. social i. agent 10.
10. estate j. driver

Use your dictionary if necessary, then translate each of the jobs into your own language.

9 Other jobs
Match the words with the pictures:
chef postman photographer
hairdresser waiter architect

Employment
1 Looking for a job
Use the words below to complete the text:
qualifications experience section
application interview CV
I thought it would be quite easy to find a job when I left school, but it's
been really difficult.
I look through the job (1)________in the local paper every week, but
everybody seems to want people with lots of (2) _________and I didn't do
very well at school. I've sent my (3) to dozens of companies in the local area
but nobody has got back to me. I must have filled in at least thirty
(4)_______forms and I've only had one reply. I went for an (5)____________last
92
week but it didn't go very well - they said they wanted someone with more
(6)__________,but I've never had a job! Sometimes I wonder if I'll ever find
anything.
In the United States a CV is called a resume.

2 Applying for a job


Use the correct form of these verbs to complete the sentences:
offer send it off find
go into fill in apply for
1. I left university six months ago and I still haven't_________a job. It's
more difficult than I thought it would be.
2. I've___________a part-time job. I hope I get it- it's four afternoons a
week.
3. I’m not really sure what I want to do when I leave school. I
might_________banking like my Dad.
4. I've_______the application form and__________, so now I've just got to wait
until I hear from them.
5. I can't believe it. They've_____________me that job in New York. They want
me to start next month.
When you apply for a job, the employer might ask for references from people who know you,
particularly a previous employer. The person who writes your reference is called a referee.

3 Job advertisements
Use these words to complete the adverts:
salary experience
temporary rates
training leave
applicant apply
requires position

Cleaner
Local hotel........cleaner Monday- Friday, 9am - 1pm. Good rate of pay. Tel: 01345
876545
Accounts
Full-time...........in busy car Hire company. To start immediately. Computer skills
essential............according to age and experience. Phone Busby's on 01267 435 985.
Sales Assistant
The successful...........must be hard-working, responsible and honest. Previous an
advantage but full......will be given to: Mr P Dale, Tel. 01274 768231.
Nurse
...........position for three months to replace nurse on maternity

Your annual salary is the total amount you are paid over a year. Salaries are paid monthly; if you
are paid daily or weekly you get wages.

93
4 Personal qualities
Mark the sentences P (positive) or N (negative):
1. She's very ambitious. I'm sure she'll be very successful one day.

2. He isn't very reliable. He takes a day off sick every two weeks. She's a bit
lazy. She doesn't do anything if she doesn't have to.
3. He's extremely conscientious. He's often here long after everyone else has
gone home.
4. She's very flexible. She can adapt to most situations.
5. He hasn't got much self-confidence. He worries about what people think of
him.

6. He ' s very punctual. He's never late for meetings.


7. She ' s always on top of her work. Her desk is always tidy.

5 Ve r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s
Match the first part of the sentences with the endings below:
1. I wish he was more independent. He tends to rely on…
2. I have to keep telling him what to do. He doesn't really ever think…
3. Whatever you ask him to do, he does it wrong. He doesn't seem to have…
4. He's just so flexible. He'll adapt…
5. You have to tell him what to do and when to do it. He never seems to u s e …
6. You can always depend on him for an honest opinion. He's not afraid to
speak…
a. his initiative.
b. much common sense.
c. his mind.
d. for himself.
e. to any situation.
f. other people too much.

Notice the complete expressions in this exercise.

6 Unemployment
94
Use these expressions to complete the newspaper stories:
unemployed was sacked be made redundant
Office worker, Luke Bradshaw, lost his job yesterday. He (1)
when
he was discovered using the internet to book his holiday during work time. Mr.
Bradshaw was amazed by his employer's decision. He said, "Everybody uses the
internet at work - the company can't sack us all!"
Around 250 workers at the BMW car plant in Birmingham face
unemployment after the company announced that it plans to close the factory
next year. 100 men will (2) at the end of January and a further 150 in
June. The closure will have a devastating effect in an area where 15% of the
adult population is already (3)______.

Go back and use the following three expressions in the same gaps:
Was fired out of work lose their jobs
You are dismissed, sacked or fired i f you do something wrong at work or i f you do not work
to the required standard. You are made redundant when the company closes or does not have
enough work.
Have you got a CV?
Have you applied for any jobs recently?
Working life
1 Wo r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s
Read the sentences and then put the phrases in green into the correct list below:
1. I work very long hours.
2. It isn't very well-paid.
3. I get a company car.
4. I get six weeks' paid holiday.
5. They've got a good pension scheme.
6. I'm on a pretty good salary.
7. I'm hoping to get promoted next year.
8. I can do overtime if I like.
9. You can work your way up quite quickly.
10. They run a system of flexi-time.
11. I get a regular pay rise.
12. I get private health insurance.
13.They've said I can go part-time after I've had my baby.
14.I'm taking a few days off next week. The kids are off school.
15.I'm ambitious. I want to move up the career ladder.
16.They give us a bonus at Christmas.

Money Hours Benefits / Perks Promotion Holiday


Benefits are extras you get from your employer in addition to your salary. Perks is an
informal word for benefits - "A company car is one of the perks o f the job."

95
2 Ta l k i n g a b o u t y o u r j o b
These sentences describe what you like or dislike about your job. Match the beginnings and endings:
1. I hate having to attend…
2. I love meeting…
3. I wish I didn't have to do…
4. I run my own business. I really enjoy being…
5. I hate having to deal with …
6. I get on really well with…

a. so much boring paperwork.


b. my own boss.
c. new people.
d. difficult customers.
e. so many meetings.
f. all of my colleagues except one.
If you own your own business, you are self-employed. You can also say, "I’m my own boss."

3 Describing your job


Decide whether the words in green express a positive (P) or negative (N) idea:
1. My job's so boring. It's the same thing day after day.
2. It's so repetitive. I just sit there all day filling in forms.
3. It's very satisfying to know that you've helped somebody through their exams.
4. Knowing that I might have saved somebody's life is very rewarding.
5. I find it very challenging. It requires a lot of concentration and determination.
6. This job's so stressful. It's making me ill.
7. I wish I could do something glamorous like acting or modelling.
8. It's a very friendly place to work. All the staff were really helpful when I
joined the firm a couple of months ago.

All of the people who work for a company are the staff; the people who work with you are your
colleagues. You can refer to people in another department as "Our marketing / finance I
security people".

4 Job satisfaction
Here are some things you might look for in a job. Match the beginnings and endings:
1.I need to be doing…
2. I like to know that I'm helping…
3. It's important to feel that I'm…
4. I need to be given…
5. I don't want to be stuck…
6. I don't want to find myself doing…
a. part of a team.
b. behind a desk all day.
96
c. the same thing day in day out.
d. something useful.
e. responsibility.
f. people.
5 Problems at work
Use these words to complete the news item below:
strike union low pay rejected resigned increase
demanded crisis
NURSING IN CRISIS
The Government and nurses are no nearer reaching agreement over a new
pay deal. Tina Jenkins, leader of the nurses'(l)………….., has warned the
Government that the union may call a 24-hour (2)………..unless the
Government improves the 2% pay (3)………………currently on offer. Earlier
this week nurses (4)…………..the offer and (5)………an increase of at least
5%.Mrs Jenkins said this afternoon that long hours and (6)…….were forcing
nurses out of the profession. Last year alone, thousands of nurses 7)………
from their jobs, leaving many hospitals in a state of (8)...............
Strike can be used as a verb or with go': Teachers have voted to strike. Miners have voted
to go on strike.

6 Job or work?
Complete the sentences with work or job:
1. I'm a bit nervous. I'm starting a new....…next week.
2. I hear you're a lorry driver. I bet that's hard …………., isn't it?
3. I'm looking for part-time.........A full-time ………….would be too much for me
at the moment.
4. I didn't really want to go back to......after I had the baby.
5. I'm sorry, I can't stop now. I've got a lot of …………..to do.
6. Judging by the car he drives, I'd say he's got a pretty good……………
7. I'm hoping to find some casual.....while I'm at college - working in a bar or a
shop.
8. I want to do something a bit different. I wouldn't like a regular nine-to-
five…….
What is the easy grammatical way to do this exercise? Did you notice it?

7 Job or career?
Complete the sentences with job or career:
1. Jack started as the office junior. Now he's MD. He's had a very
successful……..
2. I work in advertising. The pay's pretty good but there isn't much………
security.
3. I'd go mad if I had to do a dead-end....like working on a supermarket
checkout.

97
4.Ronaldo was the best footballer in the world until a bad knee injury ended
his…………
5.Don't you think you should stop travelling and get yourself a steady………?
4.Janet's planning a........in politics when she leaves university.
7. I'd go back to teaching if I could find someone to………….-share with.
W h a t ’s more important to you - money or job satisfaction?
In the office
1 Around the office
Match the words with the numbers in the pictures:

2 On your desk
Match the words with the pictures:
rubber calculator Sellotape paper clip drawing pins pencil
sharpener stapler in-tray scissors hole punch envelope

Often you have three trays on your desk - an in-tray, an out-tray and a pending tray.

98
British English rubber = American English eraser. In English scotch is a drink, not a kind o f
tape.
3 Jobs around the office
Match each verb with a group of nouns:
arrange make do send deal with
1.............a problem, an enquiry, a customer
2.............a letter, a fax, an e-mail, a copy
3.............a meeting, a date, accommodation
4.............paperwork, the accounts, the filing
5.............a phone call, some photocopies, the arrangements, a complaint

4 Requests around the office


Match the beginnings of these requests with the pairs of endings below:
1. Can / could you 3. Don't forget
2. Do you mind 4. Make sure
a. ringing back after four o'clock? If we rearrange the meeting for next week?
b. you put the date on all the documents, the map is enclosed with the
documents.
c. to send those disks to Unipart. We’ve got a meeting this afternoon.
d. phone Mr. Baxter in Liverpool? Fax this through to head office?

5. A busy day at the office


Make answers to the question by matching the beginnings and endings of the sentences below:
What sort of day have you had?

1. Terrible. It's been…


2. Really boring. I spent…
3. Busy. I had to work…
4. Hectic. I haven't…
5. Terrible. The phone hasn't…
a. right through my lunch break.
b. had a break all day.
c. one thing after another.
d. stopped ringing all day.
e. the whole day putting addresses into the computer.

6. Revision Questions
Without looking back answer these questions using words from this unit:
1.What do you put on the wall to remind you of the date?
2.Where do you write the date of an important meeting that you have to go to?
1.What would you use to cut paper?
2.What do you use to add up figures?
3.Where do you keep all the office files?
3.Where do you throw away pieces of paper that you don't need?
4.What do you use to make holes in a piece of paper?
99
5.What do you use to hold two pieces of paper together? (two answers)

100
Business
1 Starting a new business
Complete the text below with these words:
capital competition plan
market facility investment
flow products expenses
overheads stock sales
A few years ago I decided to start my own business. I live by the sea and I
love surfing, so I knew that there would be a (1)………for surfboards, wetsuits
and all the other equipment surfers need. There were already other shops in the
area selling similar (2)………, so I knew there would be quite a lot of (3)
………, but I still thought I could make a success of it. I had already built up a
certain amount of (4)…………in my bank account but I knew I would need an
overdraft (5)……, so I asked the bank what I needed to do. They told with
detailed cash (7)………I was pleasantly surprised that they immediately agreed
to provide the overdraft.
I deliberately opened my shop in May so I knew (8)………….would be
good, but when you start a business, the (9)…………are very high as well. In
addition to (10)…………-rent, regular bills and so on - you also have to make
quite a big (11)…………..in computers, equipment and of course, (12)
…………..
It's too early to say, but things seem to be going OK. I'm keeping my fingers
crossed!
After you've started your business, you then run it, expand it, sell it and then retire!
2 Ve r b s t o d e s c r i b e a b u s i n e s s
Choose the correct ending for each sentence:
1. We produce…
2. We import…
3. We export…
4. We've just opened…
5. We've just launched…
6. We're negotiating…
7. We do…
a. most of our products to the States.
b. a new range of skin-care products for men.
c. a new branch in Singapore.
d. all our parts from Germany.
e. luxury goods, which are sold all over the world.
f. the final details of the agreement tomorrow.
g. a lot of business in the Far East.

101
3 Different kinds of business
Match the different types of business with the definitions below:

a. subsidiary
b. limited company
c .multinational
d. parent company
e. franchise
1.A very large company with offices in many different countries.
2.A business that is owned by another larger company.
3.A company which controls a smaller company.
4.A company which sells its shares to the public.
5.A business which has a license to use the name and sell the products or
services of a larger company which provides support.

Now use these words to complete the sentences:

Private enterprise family firm


shareholders branches directors

6. It's a small.............business. My brother and I started it three years ago.


7. It's a huge company. They have........in every major city.
8. The...............are the people who oversee the running of a company.
9. She works for a............of solicitors.
10.This Government believes in........, so they do a lot to help people starting
new businesses.
11. As a limited company we have a responsibility to our................. .

4 Departments in a large company


Match the departments with their area of responsibility:

1. Accounts / Finance
2. Personnel
3. Sales and Marketing
4. Research and Development (R&D)
5. Customer Services
6. Public Relations (PR)
a. selling the company's products or services
b. developing new products
c. staff problems and recruitment
d. the company's image
e. invoices, salaries, expenses and budgets
f. dealing with customers' enquiries and complaints

5 How's business?
102
Decide whether the following mean that a business is going well (W) or badly (B):
1. We've just had our end-of-year figures. Profits are up on last year.
2. January and February were quiet but business has picked up in the last three
weeks.
3. We're going through a bad patch but I’m sure things will start to pick up soon.
1. Business is pretty slack at the moment.
4. Business is booming. We sold more in the last three months than in the whole
of last year.
5. If business continues like this, a lot of small companies will go to the wall.
2. We are now the market leader in our field.
6. We've just taken over one of our competitors. We're expanding all the time.
3. Apparently, they've just gone bankrupt.
I f you go bankrupt, you are unable to pay your debts and your creditors can force you out o f
business. It is then very difficult to start another business.

6 Figures
Only one of the expressions in each example is correct. Delete the wrong one.
1. Companies shouldn't expect to make much profit / do much profit in their first
year of business. In fact they are probably doing quite well if they get even /
break even.
2. We made a huge loss / got a huge loss in the first year. We seriously
considered giving up.
3. The company's annual turnover / annual turnaround is over £2,000,000.
4. The budget / expenditure for this project is £12,000. We really mustn't go over
that.
5. This month's sales figures / sales numbers are a lot better but the year to date
still doesn't look very good.
6. We have set ourselves more realistic sales targets / sales goals this year and
we're on course to reach the target for the year by the end of November.
7. We've had a 7% increase / addition in sales so far this year.
8. Sales are up but costs are up too, so the bottom figure / bottom line is
disappointing.
The bottom line (in a set of company accounts) is the final profit or loss. "What's the bottom
line?" is an idiom meaning, "Tell me what the overall result will be without going into the
details."

7 Tr e n d s
When numbers change, we usually talk about a rise or fall with an adjective to describe the change.
For example, "We anticipate a slight rise in costs." Match the adjectives with the
definitions:
1.a slight fall a. very quick
2.a steady rise b. large and sudden
3.a sharp drop c. changing slowly
4.a dramatic fall d. small
103
5.a marginal increase e. extremely small
Crime and punishment
1 Basic vocabulary
Choose two of these expressions to complete each sentence below:
a. serious e. criminal offence
b. illegal f. commit a crime
c. crime g. against the law
d. violent h. break the law
1. Young men are more likely to________/________than any other group in
society.
2. In most countries carrying a gun is_______/____________.
3. In most countries drink driving is a__________/_________.
4. Latest figures show that________/__________crime, such as murder and rape,
is on the increase.

2 Crime - nouns
Use these nouns to complete the text:
trial crime defence
court case judge
If you commit a (1)...........and are caught, you can expect to go to (2)…………
.If the crime is a serious one, you will be sent for (3)……………Your (4)
……..will be
heard before a (5)...........and jury. The prosecution will try to show why you are
guilty, while the (6)........will try to show that you are not.
sentence fine jail
evidence prison verdict
When all the (7)............has been heard, the jury will be asked for their (8)
……….
'Guilty' or 'Not guilty'. If you are found guilty, the judge will pass (9) He might
impose a two-year (10)..........sentence. If you are lucky, you might get away with
a (11)……………..of £500. The time you actually spend in (12)……..will
depend on your behaviour while you are there.
In England minor offences are dealt with in a Magistrates' Court. More serious cases go to a
Crown Court. I f you are not happy with the verdict, you can go to the Appeal Court. To talk
about your country's system, you can say, "It's the (Spanish) equivalent o f a Crown Court."
3 Crime - verbs
Use these verbs to complete the story:
suspected arrested heard
questioned charged convicted
A few months ago Ron was (1).........by the police, who (2)…………him of being
involved in a robbery at a local post office. He had been (3)
…………..previously of petty crime, but never anything serious. The police (4)
104
………………him for several hours and finally (5)………….him with robbery. A
few weeks later he got a letter saying that he had to appear in court the
following month when his case would be (6)………….. .

identified called sentenced


committed pleaded defend

Ron hired the best lawyer he could find to (7)……………him. He (8)…………


not guilty. When he was (9)………….to give evidence, he said he had been
somewhere else over 100 miles away when the crime was (10)……………
.Unfortunately for Ron, three witnesses(11)……………..him as the man they had
seen at the scene of the crime. He was found guilty and (12)………….to three
years in prison.
Did you notice the expression petty crime for less serious offences?
Before you give evidence in court, you have to take the oath. You promise to tell the truth. In a
British court the full oath is:
I swear by Almighty God, that the evidence I shall give is the truth, the whole truth, and
nothing but the truth, so help me God.
I f you do not wish to take the oath, you can affirm: "I promise on my honour that the
evidence..."

4 Punishments
Choose the correct ending for each sentence:
1. She was sent…
2. He was sentenced…
3. First offenders can be put…
4. She was fined…
5. He was banned…
a. to life imprisonment / to death.
b. from driving for three years.
c. to prison for 3 months.
d. on probation.
e. £200.
I f you are given a suspended sentence, you only have to go to prison i f you commit another
crime within a certain period of time.
I f you are on probation, you stay at home, but you have to report regularly to and receive
help from a probation officer. For a less serious offence, committed particularly by a young
person, community service is often a more appropriate sentence.
Tagging is when a prisoner is allowed home, but is fitted with an electronic 'tag' so that the
police know where h e is.

5 Prison life
Use these words to complete the text:
society inmates
105
rehabilitate cells
integrate released
criminals recreational
The (1)..............of most prisons spend most of the day locked in their (2)………
In
older prisons, there are few (3)..............facilities. Prison is supposed to (4)……
offenders, but in many cases the prisoners mix only with other more hardened
(5)………….and get deeper into the world of crime. When they are (6)
…………., many find it very hard to (7)………..back into (8)……….. .

6 Ta l k i n g a b o u t c r i m i n a l s
Use these phrases to complete the dialogues:
lock them up
get away with it
be behind bars
make an example
bring back the death penalty
1. Did you read about those two men who killed that young policeman?
> Yes, I couldn't believe it. They should………….for people like that.
2. It makes me so angry that so many criminals are let off with a fine these days.
> I couldn't agree more. Most of them should…………..Then the world would
be a much safer place for the rest of us.
3. Did you see those football hooligans on the news again last night?
> Yes, they should.......................................and throw away the key!
4. Did you see that story about that guy who was caught selling drugs right
outside a school?
> Yes, they should.............................of him. Maybe if he gets a really stiff
sentence, it'll stop other people doing the same thing.
5. It's absolutely terrible that there are still people who think drinking and
driving is OK.
> I agree. They shouldn't be allowed to…………………. .They should be
banned
from driving for life, as far as I'm concerned.

The death penalty or capital punishment has been abolished in many countries. It has been
brought back in some states in the United States, where people are executed usually by lethal
injection.

Serious crime
1 Vi o l e n t c r i m e s
Match the following violent crimes with the extracts from newspaper articles:
terrorism kidnapping rape
mugging hijacking murder
106
11.The body of a man 4. The twenty-year-old woman was
was discovered at dragged into bushes and attacked at
10.30am by a man walking a dog knifepoint.
in the park.

5.The young boy was


2.Three people were snatched on his way
killed and more than twenty to school this morning. Three
injured in an explosion this hours later his family received a
morning. The bomb went off ransom demand for £100,000
without warning in a busy
shopping centre.

3. The man armed with a knife 6. Two youths came up


and a hand grenade, forced the up behind 73-year-old Arthur
pilot of the 737 to fly to Potter, knocked him to the ground and
ran off with
Madrid, where six elderly his wallet and watch.
passengers were allowed оff.

2 Criminals
Use your dictionary to complete this list of criminals. The first one has been done for you.
1. armed robbery armed robber
2. arson ............................
3. blackmail ............................
4. hijacking ............................
5. kidnapping ............................
6. mugging ............................
7. murder ............................
8. rape ............................
9. smuggling ............................
10. terrorism ………………….

3 Other serious crimes


Match these serious crimes to the descriptions:
smuggling arson armed robbery
drink-driving fraud blackmail
107
1. Police believe the fire which destroyed a factory last night was started
deliberately.
2. Customs seized two kilos of heroin, hidden in a secret compartment in Miss
Henley's suitcase.
3. Three men with shotguns held up a security van in East London this afternoon.
4. The woman threatened to send Mr Baxter's wife the photographs unless he
paid her £2000.
5. Mr Grey was stopped by police on his way home from the pub and found to be
three times over the legal limit.
6. Mr Baker admitted using both his father's and mother's credit cards and
forging his father's signature on several cheques.

4 Police work
Match each verb with a noun on the right:
1. interview a. crime
2. search b. an enquiry / investigation
3. launch c. evidence
4. investigate d. the area
5. take e. witnesses
6. gather f. statements
Put the following events into the order in which they usually happen. The first one is correct.
g. Detectives gather evidence at the scene of the crime, including fingerprints,
DNA samples and other forensic evidence.
h. The suspect is kept in custody or released on bail.
i. A suspect is arrested.
j. The suspect appears in court.
k. The suspect is taken in a police car to the police station where he is
questioned.
1. The suspect is charged.
If you are in custody, you are kept in prison. You could be released on £1000 bail. Bail is
money you lose if you fail to appear in court.

5 Serious crime verbs


Use the correct form of these verbs to complete the sentences:
murder rob rape
set fire to kidnap smuggle
1. Firefighters were called to a pub in Croydon this morning. Police believe a
man……………..the building after an argument with the owner last week.
2. Police believe that Jenkins......his victim at his home and then drove the body
out to the forest, where it was found this morning.
3. The boy was...............as he played outside his house this afternoon. A man was
seen forcing him into a car. He has not yet made contact with the boy's family.
4. Miss Davies is accused of trying to. .£100,000 worth of heroin into the
country.

108
5. Two men..........….a post office in Brighton this afternoon. They got away with
£20,000.
6. A young woman was.............on a train between London and Oxford last night.
Police think her attacker may be the same man they believe to be responsible for
three other similar sexual assaults in recent weeks.
Now choose the correct ending for each of these sentences:
a. assaulted by a gang of youths as he left the
1. The bomb was nightclub.
2. The plane was b. planted in a litter bin in the shopping mall.
3. The man was
C. hijacked thirty minutes into the flight.

I f someone attacks you, you are the victim of an assault. They might use an offensive weapon
such as a knife.

6 Murder
Match the evidence the police found to what happened to the victim:
1. A gun
2. A knife
3. A baseball bat
4. Marks around his throat
5. Something in his drink
6. The body was in the swimming pool
The victim had been:
a. beaten to death. d. stabbed.
b. poisoned. e. shot.
c. drowned. f. strangled.
Now complete the sentences with these words:
weapon murder killer
1. Police are still searching for the murder… .
2. Police now think they are looking for a serial… .
3. Police are treating the case as attempted… .

A serial killer/ rapist is someone who commits the same sort o f crime again and again.
Attempted murder is when someone tries to kill another person but fails.
Manslaughter is the charge o f killing someone when you do not intend to. This could be in a
road accident or in a fight.

Theft, drugs, and other crimes


1 Stealing, theft, burglary etc
Match each crime with one of the situations:
109
burglary shoplifting mugging
theft robbery embezzlement
1. I can't believe it. Somebody stole my bike from outside the library
yesterday.
2. Did you hear that somebody broke into our house when we were away on
holiday and took our TV and video?
3. Two armed men attacked security guards as they were delivering money to a
bank.
4. A woman was caught leaving the store with four bottles of perfume in her bag.
5. The head of the accounts department had been transferring money to his own
account systematically for several years.
6. I was walking down the street when a guy knocked me down, grabbed my
handbag and ran off with it.

Use a dictionary to complete this list of criminals:


Crime Criminal
theft ..............
burglary ............
shoplifting ...........
Theft is the general word for stealing. The plural of thief is thieves.
Burglars break into people's homes. Pickpockets steal from your pockets or bags. In spoken
English pinch is an informal word for steal: "Somebody's pinched my bike."
2 Steal or rob
Use the correct form of steal or rob to complete the sentences below:
1. Two men..........a bank in central London this morning.
2. Somebody.........my bike from outside the school yesterday.
3. Somebody's........the money that I left in this drawer.
4. My car was.........last month. When I got back to the car park, it wasn't there.
5. We were.........last weekend while we were in Copenhagen.
3 Crime collocations
Match the words on the left with those on the right:
1. the black a. £10 note
2. a forged b. goods
3. stolen c. market
4. tax d. limit
5. the legal e. evasion
Use each expression in one of these sentences:
6. Somebody gave me..............in my change yesterday.
7. My brother's lost his driving license. He was three times over…………, so he
was lucky to get away with only a two-year ban.
8. The police say that if everybody refused to buy ………..., it would help to
reduce
the number of burglaries.
9. It's quite easy to buy tapes of new films on………………. .
110
10. The Government loses millions of pounds a year because of…………….. .
Tax evasion is illegal. Tax avoidance is making arrangements which are legal so that you pay less
tax.

4 Anti-social behaviour
Match the words with the newspaper extracts:
speeding prostitution
vandalism hooliganism
1.English and Dutch football fans fought a running battle in the centre of Paris
today.
2.The local authority has plans to clean up the red-light district near the station.
3.The two teenagers were arrested after they smashed car windscreens and
destroyed a public phone.
4.Police said he had been doing at least 65mph in an area with a 30mph speed
limit.
Vandals damage property by, for example, spraying graffiti, breaking windows etc. Gangs of
hooligans fight in public, for example, football hooligans. Newspapers often use the word thug
for anyone who behaves in a violent way. A riot is large-scale public disorder.

5 Drugs
Use these words to complete the text:
possession soft hard
decriminalise barons pushers
In most western countries drugs are becoming a bigger and bigger social
problem. Many young people see nothing wrong with (1)…………..drugs such
as cannabis. Experts worry that if they experiment with drugs at all, (2)
………………
soon move them on to (3)..........drugs. It is quite easy for the police to arrest
pushers, but it is much more difficult to catch the powerful drug (4)……….who
control the trade. Some people believe that it would be better to (5)
……………..the (6)……………….of soft drugs and to concentrate police efforts
on the highly organised gangs who control heroin and cocaine smuggling.

6 Crime verbs
Use the correct form of these verbs to complete the sentences:
burgle snatch vandalise
mug forge embezzle
1. Jill's very upset. A man just tried to.....her handbag as she came out of the
bank.
2. The telephone box at the end of our street is always being………….. .
3. Three houses in our street have been ……………….in the last month.
4. My boyfriend was............on his way home from work last night.
5. Over a period of five years Mr Martin…………….more than £15,000 from the
company he worked for.
111
6. One of my colleagues was caught………....the boss's signature on a company
cheque.

7 Contact with the police


Certain verbs are used very often when talking about contact with the police. Choose the correct set of
endings for these sentences:

1. He was accused…
2. He admitted…
3. He denied…
4. He was let off…
5. He was warned…

a. not to drive so fast in future, to be more careful in future.


b. of stealing money from his employers, of shoplifting.
c. that he'd stolen the money, stealing the money.
d. that he was involved, being involved himself, but admitted he knew who'd
done it.
e. with a fine, because it was his first offence.

When the police arrest someone, they don't always prosecute. Sometimes, particularly with
young offenders, they let them o f f with a caution.
They say that crime doesn't pay. Do you agree?
War

1 Basic vocabulary
Use your dictionary to translate the words in green:
1. Do you have to do military service in your country?
2. The conflict in the Middle East is escalating.
3. The trouble began with a dispute over territory.
4. A bomb exploded in the city centre.
5. The United States has been supplying arms to Israel.
6. Russia has been supplying them with weapons.
7. The Government has called the bombing of civilians an act of terrorism.
8. Several soldiers were killed in the fighting.
9. More troops arrived in the capital today.

2 Wa r a n d w e a p o n s
Which word goes with which list below?
bоmb war weapons
a. nuclear, conventional, chemical, biological
112
b. nuclear, car, petrol, letter
с civil, world, nuclear, guerrilla, global
Use words from above to complete these sentences.
1. There have been two..........wars in the past hundred years. Let's hope they
were the last.
2. The worst kind of war is..........war when neighbours end up killing each other.
3. The..............war in the mountainous region of North India shows no sign of
ending.
4. Thousands of people are suffering from diseases caused by the use
of………..and
..............weapons during the recent conflict.
5. Youths threw rocks and home-made…………….bombs at soldiers during last
night's fighting.
6. A Government official was seriously injured by a………..bomb, which arrived
in his post yesterday.

3 The armed forces


Write the following nouns in the list where they usually belong:
cruiser submarine landmine
rifle aircrew machine gun
grenade artillery minesweeper
bomber aircraft carrier helicopter
soldier tank parachute
fighter pilot landing craft torpedo
warship destroyer sailor

the army the navy the air force


4 Wa r v e r b s
Use the correct form of the verbs below:
supply clear blow up
bomb shoot down explode
1. The United States has been........arms to anti-government troops for years.
2. Planes have been...........the city for three days now.
3. They..............the bridge in order to cut off the enemy's supply lines.
4. The bomb.............as soon as the General started his car.
5. It will take years before all the mines have been …………….from the area.
6. They claim to have.................5 of our planes.

5 The start of a war


Use these words to complete the sentences:
ethnic attacks
deteriorates disputes
process escalates
involved force
113
1. Most wars are caused by..........over territory by different………..groups.
2. Often there are months of small, separate……………before the situation and
..............into all-out war.
3. The international community is usually unwilling to get……….., but in the
end
it usually has no choice.
4. Pressure increases and someone – usually the US - puts together some kind of
international.............to try to restore peace.
5. It is ironic that as soon as a war starts, so also does the peace …………… .

6 Wa r r e p o r t i n g
Choose the correct ending for each sentence in these reports of a recent conflict:
1. The Government has decided to send in…
2. The invasion was launched…
3. Rebel troops claim to have taken over…
4. Several civilians were wounded…
5. The rebels attacked…
6. Fighting has spread…
7. The rebels sought…
8. The guerrillas have agreed to release…
a. the Government television station.
b. ground troops.
c. to neighbouring villages.
d. help from their allies in neighbouring Chad.
e. in the early hours of this morning.
f. two of the hostages unharmed.
g. in the fight in the city centre.
h. Government forces with grenades and missiles.

7 Restoring peace
Use these words to complete the text:
ceasefire talks
peacekeeping treaty
sides deal
Three weeks after the United Nations sent a(1)……….force to the area,
both sides in the conflict have agreed to a temporary 2)…………….while peace
(3)……..are held. A UN spokesperson said that they hoped to negotiate a peace
(4)……….in the next few days which would be acceptable to both (5)
…………..in the conflict. The official added that he was confident that a formal
peace (6)………..could be signed before the Presidential elections take place in
March.
Now without looking back, complete these common collocations:
a. send an international.............force
b. agree to a...............ceasefire
c. hold peace...............
d. negotiate a peace.............
e. sign a formal peace.............
114
A ceasefire can be temporary or permanent.
Politics
1 Political systems
Complete the list below with these words:
democracy president king / queen Prime Minister dictator
dictatorship (2)
1. Britain is a parliamentary democracy with either a……….or a……….as Head
of State. The government is headed by the…………… .
2. Under the............, Mussolini, Italy was a……………. .It is now a republic
with a…………….. .
3. People living in a..............want to vote, but can't. People living in a……….can
vote, but often don't exercise their right.
Every country has a different political system. To talk about the British system, for example,
you need: MP (Member o f Parliament), House of Commons / Lords. For the American
system you need: Federal government, Senate, senator etc. For your own country you may say,
for example, "The Duma is the Russian parliament."
2T h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s
Only one of the expressions is correct. Cross out the wrong one.
1. Politicians / Politics are all the same. They never do what they say they will.
2. I think there should be an election / a referendum on really important issues so
the Government knows what the people think.
3. It's easy for the opposition / opponents to make promises but it's much harder
to carry them out once they get into power / control,
4. No party had a clear majority. Two parties have formed a co-operative /
coalition.
5. No American President can serve more than two four-year terms / periods in
office.
6. Britain has to have a national / general election at least once every five
years.
7. The Manager / Minister of Finance has said that taxes will be cut in the budget
in May.
8. The most important members of the government are all in the cupboard /
cabinet.

3 Elections
Complete the dialogue with these words:
voter candidate
manifesto power
campaign polling station
vote parties
constituency policies
A: Have you voted yet?
115
B: No, but I'm going to the (1)........on my way home.
A: Sometimes I don't know why we bother. The main (2)………..might have a
few
different (3)............, but basically they're all the same - they make lots of
promises during the election (4)…………..and as soon as they're in (5)
………..,
they do something completely different.
В: I know. I saw the Conservative (6).......in town yesterday, but he didn't say
anything I haven't heard a thousand times before, and in my (7)………….the
Social
Democrat always wins anyway.
A: I voted for the Green Party last time, and Social Democrat the time before,
but this time my (8)……………is going to somebody who promises to reduce
income tax and that's in the Conservative (9)……………, but none of the
others.
B: A different party every time! You're a politician's nightmare - the floating
(10)..........!
Use the correct form of these verbs to complete the sentences:
get call hold win
a. I've just heard on the news, the Government has an election. It's going to be
..........on June 6th.
b. In the last election the Social Democrats…………..with a huge majority.
c. I don't agree with anything the Socialists say. They'd never……………my
vote.
Another way to say “won with a huge majority’’ is “won by a landslide”.

4 Political promises
Political parties often make promises in their election manifestos. Match the verbs and the endings:
We are going to ...
1. build a. crime, unemployment
2. create b. more houses, schools, hospitals, roads
3. protect c. more jobs
4. reduce, fight, tackle d. the environment
5. reduce, cut e. better education, better health care
6. provide f. taxes

5 Political ideologies
Use a dictionary if necessary to complete the table:
System / belief Person
1. capitalism ..................
2..................... socialist
3. communism ..................
4..................... fascist
5. nationalism ..................
116
6..................... anarchist

Complete this comment using the following words:


socialists middle working-class
extreme right-wing independence

In Britain both the Conservative Party and the Labour Party like to think they
occupy the (7)…………..ground of British political life. Both parties, however, find it
difficult to escape their roots: the Labour Party in traditional (8)……………. and
trade union politics; the Conservatives
in the countryside and business communities. In many parts of the world groups like the
Scottish Nationalists would like (9)………………. .It can be difficult to say exactly
what many political words mean because they can mean different things to different
people and different things in different countries. As a rule, (10)………………..are
more left-wing than social democrats, while conservatives are more (11)
……………… . Fascists are people with (12)……………..right-wing views.

6 Personal views
Use these words to complete the sentences:
liberal left-wing extreme patriotic right politically
aware
1. My Dad gets very upset if I say anything negative about Britain. He's
very………….. .
2. She's got some very..........views. She thinks all immigration should be
stopped.
3. My parents didn't mind when Dave and I said we were going to live together.
They've got quite……………views on most things.
4. Students tend to be more..................than most other sections of the community.
Like most young people, they're usually fairly……………. . As they get older,
they move more to the..........................!
People can have reactionary / conservative / progressive / liberal / radical views on
political and social issues.
Mark each of the following ideas:
L (left-wing) R (right-wing)

5. The rich should be taxed more to pay for education and health care for the
poor.
6. People should take out private pensions.
7. Immigration laws should be stricter.
8. We should give more to help developing countries.
9. Nursery education should be free for everyone.

Religion
1 Wo r l d r e l i g i o n s
117
Complete the text with these words:
Jews Islam Hindus
Catholics Christianity Buddhism
The main religious tradition in the West is(1)………… .Among
mainstream Christian churches are: Anglicans, Baptists, Methodists, Roman (2)
………….and
Orthodox. Others are: Free, Evangelical, Lutheran and Reformed. In countries
such as Thailand and Japan, the main tradition is (3)………….. .In the Arab
countries of the Middle East, the main tradition is (4)…………., whose
followers are called Muslims. The (5)…………have spread all over the world
from Israel. Sikhs and (6)……………come mostly from India.
Fundamentalists are people who take a strict and traditional view o f particular parts o f their
religious doctrine.

2 People and places


Put the following words into the correct column. Then mark each person or place С, I, B, J according
to which religion(s) they belong to.

temple bishop the Pope mosque


priest church nun monk
chapel minister muezzin synagogue
vicar shrine convent monastery
imam rabbi minaret cathedral

People Places

118
3 . Ve r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s
Match each verb with the correct endings:

a a sin, an immoral act

b God, Heaven and Hell,


1. worship the devil, evil spirits,
reincarnation, life after
2. believe in death
3. pray c God, an idol, a superior
go being
5. commit d a prayer, your prayers
6. read e the Bible, the Koran,
7. say St John's gospel
to Heaven or Hell, to
church, on a pilgrimage
g for peace, that your son
will get better

4 Beliefs and rituals


Now use words or expressions from the box above to complete these sentences:

1. In some religions, people say a........before starting a meal.


2. Some people believe in.....................but others believe death is the end.
3. Muslims try to go on a...........to Mecca at least once during their life.
4. Nowadays, in times of conflict, religious leaders from different traditions
often get together to pray.......
5. In most western European countries, fewer people go…………….than twenty
years ago.

The person who leads Christian religious services is a minister. Roman Cathоlics call their
ministers priests and address them as Father. Vicar is only used in the Anglican tradition. The
word which is used for all priests, ministers etc is clergy. Monks live in monasteries and nuns
live in convents.
The main Catholic service is the Mass. This is called either Communion or the Eucharist in
other Christian traditions.

5 Christian festivals
Use the following words in these descriptions of the most common Christian Festivals:
Good Friday Easter Ascension All Saints Holy Week Advent
Christmas Lent
119
1. Giving presents is what makes........so popular with Christians and non-
Christians all over the world.
2. The week before Easter is known as......……. .
3. Christ's death is remembered on..........……. .
4. The forty-day period before Easter is known as………………. .
5. The date of...........moves from year to year. The Orthodox churches usually
celebrate it on a different date.
6. The four-week period before Christmas is known as………………. .
7. The day when Jesus went to Heaven is known as……………………Day.
8. The day when Christians remember everyone who has died is known
as………………………Day.

6 In church
Use these words to complete the sentences:
hymn aisle altar
pulpit service pew
lectern sermon font
1. You walk down the............... .
2. You sit in a................ .
3. You sing a................ .
4. The minister goes into the..........to preach the…………… .
5. You attend a morning or evening.........….. .
6. The main focus of most Christian churches is the…………….. .
7. In many churches there is an open Bible on the……………… .
8. The...............contains water which is used to baptise children.

7 Ta l k i n g a b o u t b e l i e f
Complete the dialogue below with these words:
faith atheist devout
religious agnostic
A: So, Paul, I hear you're getting married. Will it be a church wedding?
B: Well, we haven't decided yet. It's a bit of a problem. Liz and I aren't
very…………… . I'm actually an…………….- I don't believe in God and Liz is
an…………… .
A: So, she can't make up her mind if he exists or not! I can see your problem.
B: So, we'd really like to just have a civil ceremony, but her mum and dad
are……………..Catholics. Their……………is very important to them. So,
they'll be really upset if we don't have a church wedding.

120
8 Religious idioms
Religious words are often used in metaphorical ways. Use these words to complete the sentences:
paradise idolise faith pray Bible worships Mecca angel
shrine
1. You've done the washing up. You're an absolute …………. .
2. Mark has fallen in love with a girl called Kirsty. He………..the ground she
walks on!
3. We've just come back from a week in Barbados. It was
absolute…………!
4. Brian was doing a great job at first but recently the team have lost………in
him.
1. Most young boys...........David Beckham.
2. The Michelin guide is my....……when I go to France.
7. The barbecue is on Saturday. Let's just.……..it doesn't rain.
8. Elvis Presley's house in Memphis has been turned into a in his memory.
8. St Andrews is a............for golfers from all over the world.

Social issues
1. Now complete the phrases:
a. Politicians say we are living in a.......…..society.
b. More and more young people are sleeping … … … …. . o n t h e s t re e t s.
c. Homeless youngsters can easily become … … … … w i t h drugs and prostitution.
d. Police believe the attack was..........motivated.
e. A lot of crime in the area is drug-.......... .
f. Many people believe it is wrong to discriminate against people on the basis of
their sexual.........................

2 Collocations
Match each word on the left with a word on the right:

1. race a. families
2. the gay b. rights
3. inner-city c. minorities
4. ethnic d. relations
5. human e. community
6. single-parent f. areas

Now use the complete phrases in the following sentences:


7. In some countries people are denied basic …………….like free speech.
8. Community leaders are working to improve…………after a number of recent
incidents involving black and white youths.

121
9. Senior police officers, concerned that there are so few black and Asian
officers, are hoping that a new campaign will encourage more people from
…………..to join the force.
10.A recent report confirms that schools in……………have the worst exam
results.
11.Members of the......................................have been warned to take extra care
after a rise in the number of homophobic attacks in the area.
12. Many of our current problems are unfairly blamed on the growing number
of……………. .

3 Problems with drugs

Now use these words to complete the text below:


addicts overdose soft drugs
hard drugs dealers

A recent report says that in some parts of the city, more than a quarter
of young people are regularly using drugs.
Most teenagers start by taking (1)…………..like cannabis and marijuana, but
many soon begin to experiment with cocaine and heroin. Once they have
moved on to (2).............................., they are much more likely to become
addicted. People in the worst affected area say that it's impossible to leave
the house without being stopped by (3)………….asking for money to buy
drugs
or by (4)..............trying to sell them. Last week a 14-year-old boy died from
a heroin (5) …………….. .

4 What you can do


Choose the correct ending for each sentence:
1. I'm protesting a. the petition.
2. I went on b. a demonstration / protest march.
3. I'm boycotting c. against the new motorway / the arms trade /
nuclear weapons.
4. I've already signed d. them until they pay their workers properly / the
meeting.
5. Ta k i n g a c t i o n
Do these verbs fit in sentence A or B?
avoid tackle face ignore address
A.................................................The Government needs to …..the problem.
B. The Government can't … … … . the problem.
Now mark each of the expressions below, С or D, depending on which pattern it fits:
C.............................................................The Government needs to
D. The Government can't just..............
122
1. leave things as they are
2. do something about it
3. hope the problem will go away
4. take action
5. do nothing
6. act now

Other issues
Use the following words to complete these short descriptions of other social issues:
trap bullying housing abuse domestic

1. We hear a lot today about child.........but it's not new. In the past people just
didn't talk about it.
2. One issue which is still a taboo subject in a lot of families is………………
violence.
3. We don't like to admit it, but there is still far too much sub-
standard………………around.
4. A major cause of suicide among young people is………………at school.
5. Today thousands of people are caught in the poverty……………. .

123
Оригинал-макет и компьютерная верстка:
А.П. Афанасьева, Т.Н. Игошина, Е.Н. Федоров,
методисты отдела информационных технологий

663606, г. Канск, ул. 40 лет Октября, 65


тел. (39161) 2-56-30, факс (39161) 2-55-91
E-mail: kanskcol@rambler.ru

124