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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ЖЕЛЕЗНОДОРОЖНОГО ТРАНСПОРТА

Филиал федерального государственного бюджетного


образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования «Сибирский
государственный университет путей сообщения» -
Томский техникум железнодорожного транспорта

Е.В. РЫЛЬСКАЯ

ОГСЭ.03 ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК

(АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК)

Учебное пособие
HISTORY OF RAILROADS

(ИСТОРИЯ ЖЕЛЕЗНЫХ ДОРОГ)

для III курса специальностей:


27.02.03 Автоматика и телемеханика на транспорте (железнодорожном транспорте)
11.02.06 Техническая эксплуатация транспортного радиоэлектронного оборудования (по видам
транспорта)
22.02.06 Сварочное производство
23.02.01 Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте (по видам)
43.02.06 Сервис на транспорте (по видам транспорта)
08.02.10 Строительство железных дорог, путь и путевое хозяйство

2014

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ОДОБРЕНА Составлена в соответствии
с государственными требованиями
Предметной комиссией к минимуму содержания и уровню
подготовки
- Е.В.Рыльская, преподаватель выпускников
Томского техникума
Председатель ___________ для специальности
железнодорожного транспорта – филиала СГУПС
Протокол _____от _________ Заместитель поанглийского
- Т.А. Беломестных, преподаватель УР языка высшей
категории Томского Государственного Промышленно-гуманитарного
колледжа ___________________Н.Н.Куделькина

Протокол _____от
- Л.В.Коростелева, преподаватель высшей_________
категории
Томского техникума железнодорожного транспорта – филиала
СГУПС

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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

1 ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА 5

2 6
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3 UNIT 2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RAILWAYS IN GREAT 19

BRITAIN
4 UNIT 3. THE BEGINNING OF RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION IN RUSSIA 30

5 UNIT 4. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES 40

6 СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗУЕМЫХ ИСТОЧНИКОВ 55

4
ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Предлагаемое учебное пособие «HISTORY OF RAILROADS» предназначено для


студентов III курса специальностей:
27.02.03 Автоматика и телемеханика на транспорте (железнодорожном транспорте)
11.02.06 Техническая эксплуатация транспортного радиоэлектронного оборудования (по видам
транспорта)
22.02.06 Сварочное производство
23.02.01 Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте (по видам)
43.02.06 Сервис на транспорте (по видам транспорта)
08.02.10 Строительство железных дорог, путь и путевое хозяйство
Целью пособия является формирование у студентов умения читать и переводить
оригинальную литературу по железнодорожной тематике. Пособие дает возможность развивать у
студентов коммуникативные способности, расширяет и обогащает их знания о железных дорогах
России, Великобритании, США и других стран мира, стимулирует самостоятельный поиск
информации, повышает их профессиональный и интеллектуальный уровень.
Пособие состоит из 4 разделов (UNITS) и посвящено истории создания и развития
железнодорожного транспорта крупнейших стран мира. Каждый раздел включает в себя главный
текст (TEXT), предназначенный для аналитического чтения, активный словарь
(VOCABULARY), упражнения для формирования и развития лексико-грамматических навыков и
речевых умений.
Все упражнения составлены по принципу нарастающей сложности. Лексико-
грамматические упражнения преследуют такие цели, как закрепление терминологической
лексики, использование ее в новых ситуациях, контроль усвоенных грамматических знаний.
Упражнения для развития навыков устной речи имеют коммуникативный характер и направлены
на развитие творческой активности и самостоятельной деятельности студентов.
Каждый раздел содержит дополнительные тексты для различных видов чтения
(поискового, ознакомительного), тексты для письменного перевода, темы рефератов (проектов),
которые стимулируют обширную поисковую деятельность студентов и позволяют организовать
и провести в группе конференцию по изученному материалу.
Данное учебное пособие составлено в соответствии с рабочими программами
заявленных специальностей и ФГОС СПО и готовит студентов к использованию английского
языка в будущей профессиональной деятельности.

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UNIT 1

I. TEXT
BEGINNING OF RAILROADS

“In more than 200 years of their turbulent history following their birth in the XVIII century,
railroads reshaped the world’s landscape and reoriented human thinking.
The luxury passenger express hurtling past small town depots, the slow freight trains chugging
through industrial zones, the commuter locals shuttling between suburban stations and urban terminals,
symbolized the forces of modernization and touched millions with the romance of the rails”.

David McCulloch “The Iron Road”

Several European countries had a few primitive railroads in the mid-1500's. But they were used
mainly to bring up wagonloads of coal or iron ore from underground mines. The mining railroads
consisted of two wooden rails that extended down into the mines and across the mine floors. Men or
horses pulled wagons along the rails.
In the early 1700's, English coal-mining companies began building short wooden railroads to carry
coal above ground as well as underground. In the mid-1700's, workers began covering the wooden rails
with strips of iron to make them last longer. By the end of the 1700's, English iron-makers began making
all-iron rails. These all-iron rails carried wagons with flanged wheels.
Meanwhile, inventors had been developing the steam engine. During the late 1700's and early
1800's, English inventor Richard Trevithick built the first engines capable of using high-pressure steam.
He mounted one of the engines on a four-wheeled carriage designed to roll along the track. In 1804,
Trevithick used this vehicle to pull 9 tons of iron, 70 men, and 5 wagons along 9 1/2 miles (15 km) of
track. Trevithick's invention became the world's first successful railroad locomotive.
English locomotive builder George Stephenson constructed the world's first public railroad, the
Stockton and Darlington, which opened in 1825. The line had a distance of about 20 miles (32 km). It
was the first railroad to run steam freight trains on a regular schedule. George Stephenson's second
railroad was built in 1830. It was 30 miles (48 km) long and operated between Liverpool and
Manchester. It was the first line to run steam passenger trains on a regular schedule.
Stephenson also originated the idea that all English railroads should have a standard gauge. The
gauge he selected for the railroads he built – 4 ft 8 1/2 in (1.44 m) – was the same as the length of axles
on many horse-drawn wagons. This gauge was eventually adopted by most European railroads and by
railroads in the USA and Canada.
Engineers and inventors of many countries contributed to the development of engines. In 1825, John
Stevens designed the first steam locomotive in the United States. An experimental model of this
locomotive ran on a circular track at Hoboken, New Jersey. In 1829, Pennsylvania company tested the
first full-sized locomotive to be operated on a commercial railroad in the United States. This locomotive,
the Stourbridge Lion, was built in England.
In 1830, a famous race was held between a horse and a steam locomotive, the Tom Thumb. Peter
Cooper, New York manufacturer, wanted to convince officials of the Baltimore and Ohio Line to use
locomotives rather than horses to pull the trains. The horse won the race after an engine belt had slipped
on the Tom Thumb. But this defeat was only a minor setback for the locomotive, often called the “iron
horse”.

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The first successful steam locomotive to be placed in regular passenger and freight service in the
United States made its first run on Christmas Day in 1830. It was built in New York for the South
Carolina Canal and Railroad Company and was called the Best Friend of Charleston. Steam railroad
transportation in the USA was born and developed very rapidly.
The electric locomotive was introduced in the late 1800's. Many designers contributed to its
development. Thomas Edison tested his first model in 1880, and the first electric street car began
operating in Germany in 1881. In 1895, the first electric locomotives were placed in regular service on
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Many European countries electrified their main lines after 1900, but
almost all American railroads continued to use steam trains. By the mid-1900's, some steam locomotives
could reach speeds of up to 100 mph (160 kmph) in passenger service. Nevertheless, in the 1930's US
railroads began to switch to diesel-electric locomotives, which were more fuel efficient and easier to
maintain than steam ones.
Diesel locomotives were introduced experimentally in 1923. The first passenger diesel went into
operation in the USA in 1934; the first freight diesels began to be used on American railroads in 1940.
Today, research engineers are working hard to develop locomotives of higher capacity and greater
pulling power, which are easier to maintain, which are safer, more reliable and fuel efficient.
After the mid-1800's, railroads started to use steel for rails and cars. Steel rails last 20 times longer
than iron ones. All-steel passenger cars were first put into operation in 1907, all-steel freight cars had
almost completely replaced wooden ones by the late 1920's.
Several important inventions after the mid-1800's helped to improve railroad safety. In 1869,
American inventor George Westinghouse patented a railroad air brake. In 1873, American amateur
inventor Eli Janney designed an automatic car coupler. But these innovations came into wide use on
American railroads only after US Congress had passed the Railroad Safety Device Act in 1893. The
building of electric telegraph lines in the mid-1800's made block signaling possible. American engineer
William Robinson patented the track circuit used in automatic block signaling in 1872, but Robinson's
invention was put into common practice only after 1900.
Meanwhile, more and more people traveled by train, attracted by the speed, safety and comfort of
railroads. In 1867, American businessman George Pullman organized the Pullman Palace Car Company.
The Company manufactured a sleeping car that Pullman designed. By 1875, about 700 Pullman sleeping
cars had been in regular service.
Railways were born in the XVIII century, they went through glory and misfortune, and they are still
alive after more than 200 years of their existence.

NOTES
RICHARD TREVITHICK (1771 – 1833), was a British inventor and engineer. He contributed to
the development of the steam locomotive.
Trevithick was born in England in the county of Cornwall, a tin-mining region of Britain. As he
grew up, he became interested in the steam engines that pumped water from the mines. By the early
1800’s, he had developed a new engine that was soon used in most of the local mines. This high-
pressure engine was the model for most later steam engines.
In 1801, Trevithick designed and built a steam-powered carriage that ran on the road. In 1804, he
built the first steam locomotive to run on rails. It pulled a load of iron along a railway for horse-drawn
cars. In 1808, he exhibited a large locomotive in London. None of his locomotives were financially
successful, because they were too heavy for the roads and railways of his time. But Trevithick did prove
that steam-powered locomotives could be built.

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GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE (1846–1914), was an American inventor and manufacturer. He
produced air brakes for railroad cars. Westinghouse was the first to use alternating current for the
transmission of electric power.
Westinghouse was born in Central Bridge, N.Y. As a boy, he worked in his father’s machine shop.
At 15 he invented a rotary engine. He served in the Union Army and Navy during the Civil War (1861–
1865).
By 1866, Westinghouse had already perfected two inventions: a device for replacing derailed cars
and a railroad frog, which made it possible for a train to pass from one track to another. His invention of
an air brake in the late 1860’s led to the formation of his first company, the Westinghouse Air Brake
Company, in 1869. Westinghouse patented hundreds of inventions and organized over 50 companies. He
was president of 30 corporations, including the Westinghouse Electric Company.

VOCABULARY

1. railroad (Amer.) – железная дорога


to put a ~ into operation – пустить ~ в эксплуатацию
to maintain a ~ – содержать ~
to run a ~ – управлять ~

2. track – железнодорожный путь


to design a ~ – проектировать ~
to lay a ~ – прокладывать ~

3. rails – рельсы
wooden ~ – деревянные ~
iron ~ – чугунные ~
steel ~ – стальные ~
to roll ~ – прокатывать ~

4. railroad gauge – железнодорожная колея


standard ~ – стандартная ~

5. railroad line – железнодорожная линия


main ~ – магистраль
to put a ~ into a regular service – ввести ~ в постоянную
эксплуатацию

6. wagon – вагон-платформа, вагонетка

7. vehicle – транспортное средство


railroad ~ – железнодорожный вагон

8. carriage – экипаж, вагон


railroad ~ – железнодорожный ~
four-wheeled ~ – четырехколесный ~
8
9. car (Amer.) – железнодорожный вагон
freight ~ – грузовой ~
passenger ~ – пассажирский ~
sleeping ~ – спальный ~

10. wheels – колеса


flanged ~ – колеса с ребордой

11. axle – ось (колеса)

12. engine – двигатель


steam ~ – паровой ~
diesel ~ – дизельный ~
electric ~ – электрический ~
13. locomotive – локомотив
fuel-efficient ~ – экономичный ~
~ of high capacity – ~ высокой мощности
~ of great pulling power – ~ с большой тягой

14. train – поезд


freight ~ – грузовой ~
passenger ~ – пассажирский ~

15. schedule – расписание (движения поездов)

16. speed – скорость


to move at a ~ – двигаться со ~
to reach a speed – развивать ~

17. air brake – пневматический тормоз

18. automatic car coupler – автосцепка (вагонов)

19. block signaling – блокировка

20. track circuit – рельсовая цепь

21. innovations – новшества

22. safety – безопасность

23. glory and misfortune – слава и невзгоды

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II. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex.I. Study VOCABULARY after the TEXT. Find in the TEXT sentences with VOCABULARY
units. Read and translate them into Russian.

Ex.II. Substitute the underlined words with the synonyms from the TEXT.

1. English coal-mining companies constructed wooden railways to transport coal above ground.
2. Timber rails covered with iron strips served much longer.
3. Steam engines were first employed on railways in the beginning of the XIX century.
4. Those engines were installed on four-wheeled vehicles.
5. The idea of using a standard railroad gauge was put forward by G.Stephenson.
6. The gauge chosen was 4ft 8 1/2 in wide.
7. The first American steam engine was made in 1825.
8. Steam transport in the USA was developing very quickly.
9. The first electric engines had been put into regular maintenance by the end of the XIX century.
10. In the second half of the XIX century railroads began to use steel for making rails and vehicles.
11. Wooden carriages were entirely substituted with all-steel ones in the late 1920’s.
12. Velocity, safety and convenience attracted a lot of passengers who went from place to place by
railroads.

Ex.III. Find pairs of synonyms.

1. main line a. to project

2. wooden rails b. car

3. to design c. velocity

4. to switch to d. locomotive

5. carriage e. to accept

6. engine f. to create

7. to manufacture g. to employ

8. to adopt h. coach

9. speed i. to shift to

10. glory j. bad luck

11. to select k. to construct

12. to originate l. schedule

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13. misfortune m. timber rails

14. innovations n. capacity

15. to use o. trunk line

16. to build p. to produce

17. timetable q. maintenance

18. passenger car r. inventions

19. power s. to choose

20. service t. fame

Ex.IV. Complete the following sentences using prepositions and conjunctions given below. Some of
these words may be used more than once.

across, according to, after, along, between, by, forward, from, in, of, to, with

1. The early railroads consisted ... two wooden rails.


2. They extended ... the mine floors.
3. Then, wooden rails were covered ... iron strips.
4. Cars ... flanged wheels moved ... all-iron rails.
5. R.Trevithick invented the engine capable ... using high-pressure steam.
6. Nowadays, all trains run ... ... the schedule. This idea was first put ... ... G.Stephenson.
7. In 1830 he designed and constructed a railway ... Liverpool and Manchester.
8. Engineers and inventors ... many different countries contributed ... the development ... railroads.
9. ... the invention ... air brakes, automatic car couplers, block signalling and track circuits railroads
became much safer and faster.
10. Now, railroads play an important part ... the economic development ... many countries.

Ex.V. Complete the table

VERBS PARTICIPLES NOUNS ADJECTIVES

I and II

DEVELOP

DESIGN

INVENT

11
IMPROVE

CONSTRUCT

ORIGINATE

USE

SELECT

CARRY

OPERATE

Ex VI. Read the text below. Use the words given in Capitals at the end of each line to form a word
that fits in the space in the same line.

The first primitive railroads were used _____ to carry MAIN

minerals from the mines above ground. Wooden rails,

_____ with strips of iron, were laid on those lines. COVER

By the end of the XVIII century, _____ had designed INVENT

all-iron rails. The greatest _____ of that time was the ACHIEVE

building by R.Trevithick of the first _____ locomotive. SUCCESS

The _____ idea to use a standard gauge on all railways of a country ORIGIN
belonged to the _____ English
FAME
engineer and talented _____ G.Stephenson.
DESIGN

EX.VII. Find in the TEXT English equivalents of the following Russian word-combinations.

- использовать железную дорогу для перевозки угля


- тянуть вагоны по рельсам
- угледобывающие компании
- транспортировать уголь из шахты на поверхность
- покрывать деревянные рельсы металлическими полосками
- тем временем
- первый успешный железнодорожный локомотив
- расписание движения поездов
- выдвинуть идею
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- длина оси конных экипажей
- в конечном итоге
- экспериментальная модель локомотива
- кольцевой железнодорожный путь
- гонка
- убедить официальные власти
- использовать локомотивы вместо лошадей
- небольшое отступление
- поражение
- в качестве эксперимента
- инженеры-исследователи
- более надежный
- служить в 20 раз дольше
- повысить безопасность железных дорог
- изобретатель-любитель
- Закон об использовании устройств безопасности на железнодорожном транспорте

Ex.VIII. Change Active Constructions into Passive.

1. European countries built some primitive railroads in the mid-1500’s.


2. Men and horses pulled wagons along the rails.
3. In the mid-1700’s, workers covered wooden rails with iron strips.
4. By the end of 1700’s, English iron-makers had made all-iron rails.
5. In the beginning of 1800’s, inventors designed a steam engine.
6. American and Canadian railroads adopted a standard gauge of 1.44 m.
7. Pennsylvania Railroad Company tested the first full-sized locomotive in 1829.
8. In 1830, Peter Cooper organized a race between a horse and a steam engine.
9. G.Pullman founded his Palace Car Company in 1867.
10. W.Robinson patented the track circuit in 1872.

III. SPEECH PRACTICE EXERCISES

Ex.I. Answer the following questions.

1. When did the first primitive European railroads appear?


2. What were they used for?
3. Who built the first short wooden railways?
4. What rails were used on them?
5. Describe the steam railway locomotive invented by R.Trevithick.
6. What was G.Stephenson famous for?
7. What ideas did he originate?
8. When did American railroads test the first full-sized locomotive?
9. Who organized the famous race between a horse and a steam locomotive?
10. What did the race result in?
11. How was steam railroad transportation born in the USA?
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12. When were the first electric locomotives introduced?
13. Why did the US railroads switch to diesel-electric locomotives?
14. When did all-steel freight and passenger cars replace wooden ones?
15. What scientific inventions contributed to the increase of safety, reliability and speed of railroad
transportation?
16. What innovation made G.Pullman famous in the history of American railroads?

Ex.II. Express the main idea of the TEXT in 5 – 7 sentences. Write your summary.

Ex.III. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Первые железные дороги, которые появились в Европе в 1700-е годы, были построены для
перевозки угля из шахт на поверхность.
2. Они использовали деревянные рельсы, покрытые чугунными полосками, а в качестве тяговой
силы – лошадей.
3. Эксперименты английских инженеров по использованию пара высокого давления в двигателях
привели к изобретению первого парового локомотива в 1804 году.
4. Дж. Стефенсон развил идеи Р.Тревитика: он построил первые эффективные паровые
локомотивы для товарных и пассажирских поездов, которые двигались согласно расписанию
по железным дорогам со стандартной шириной колеи.
5. Американские инженеры, изобретатели и просто энтузиасты внесли свой вклад в развитие
железных дорог.
6. Дж. Пульман сделал путешествия по железной дороге приятными и удобными благодаря
изобретению спальных пассажирских вагонов.
7. Пневматические тормоза Дж. Вестингхауза, автосцепка вагонов Э. Дженни, рельсовая цепь,
изобретенная У. Робинсоном, способствовали повышению безопасности, надежности,
скорости и точности движения железнодорожного транспорта.

Ex.IV. Fill in the chart and speak about the major events in the history of railroads.

YEAR COUNTRY COUNTRY INVENTION

1700’s

1804

1825

1829

1830

1867

1869

14
1872

1873

1895

1907

1923

Ex.V. Speak about the most outstanding engineers who contributed to the development of
railways. Use the TEXT, the NOTES and the results of your own research.

Ex.VI. Retell the TEXT according to the following plan.

1. The first primitive European railways.


2. The English chapter in the history of railways.
3. The beginning of railroads in the USA.
4. The development of steam, diesel and electric locomotives.
5. Technical innovations and safety devices on railroads.

Ex.VII. Read the text.

WORLDWIDE DEVELOPMENT

Railroad construction spread rapidly from England throughout Europe. By 1870, most of Europe's
major rail systems had been built. Other lines were laid in the late 1800's and early 1900's. Some of
these lines required that tunnels be blasted through the Alps to connect France, Switzerland, and Italy.
The Orient Express, one of the most famous European passenger trains, began operation between Paris,
France, and Istanbul, Turkey, in 1883. Since 1982, the Venice Simplon Orient Express has offered
luxury service only from Paris to Venice, Italy, and back. The nostalgic Istanbul Orient Express offers
similar service once a year from Zurich, Switzerland, to Istanbul.
Canada's first steam-powered railway, the Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad, was started in the
province of Quebec. The line opened for business as a horse-powered railroad in July 1836, and began
steam-powered service later that year. The railway operated between the towns of Laprairie and Saint-
Jean, a distance of 16 miles (26 km). Other small railroads had been constructed in Canada since 1836.
The Canadian Pacific Railway (now CP Rail) completed the construction of Canada's first
transcontinental line in 1885. It extended from Montreal, Quebec, to Vancouver, British Columbia. The
building of this rail line opened vast regions of the country to settlement and trade.
Railroads promoted economic growth and prosperity of the South American continent, too. Brazil
and Argentina were developing rapidly after they had built extensive rail networks in the late 1800's.
Railroads were also constructed across South America's towering Andes Mountains. One such railroad,
the Central Railway of Peru, was started in 1870. It is the world's highest standard-gauge line, climbing
to 3 miles (5 km) above the sea level.

15
Also in the late 1800's, Britain, France, and Germany built railroads in their African and Asian
colonies. Britain, for example, helped to construct almost 25,000 miles (40,200 km) of railway track in
India during the late 1800's.
Russia started working on its 5,600-mile (9,010-km) Trans-Siberian Railroad in 1891. The line had
been 25 years under construction and was completed in 1916. It has become the world's longest
continuous railroad line.
Australia began extensive railroad construction in its southern plains in 1912. The main line,
completed in 1917, extended 1,108 miles (1,783 km) from Port Pirie to Kalgoorlie.
Railroads caused great changes in economy, trade, and transportation systems. They affected every
aspect of human life in all countries and on all continents. They really “have changed the face of the
world”.

Ex.VIII. Choose the right answer to complete each sentence.

1. Railroad construction spread rapidly ...


a) from England to the continent.
b) from England to the USA.
c) from Europe to Asia.
d) from Great Britain to some European countries.

2. To provide direct railroad communication between ... numerous tunnels were driven through the Alps.
a) France, Spain and Italy
b) France, Switzerland and Germany
c) France and Italy
d) France, Switzerland and Italy

3. The most famous European passenger train Orient Express ran between ...
a) Paris and Berlin, in 1883.
b) Paris, France, and Rome, Italy, in 1883.
c) Paris, France, and Istanbul, Turkey, in 1881.
d) Paris and Istanbul, in 1883.

4. The Venice Simplon Orient Express has offered luxury service ...
a) only from Paris to Venice.
b) only from Paris to Venice and back.
c) only from Paris to Rome and back.
d) from Paris to Venice, Italy.

5. The first Canadian ... railway was started in the province of Quebec.
a) steam-powered
b) diesel-electric
c) horse-powered
d) electric

6. The first Canada’s transcontinental line ...


a) was started in 1885.
16
b) was built in 1895.
c) was completed in 1885.
d) was reconstructed in 1885.

7. The ... was started in 1870.


a) Central Railway of Brazil and Peru
b) Central Railway of South America
c) Eastern Railway of Peru
d) Central Railway of Peru

8. It has become the ... line.


a) world’s highest narrow-gauge
b) world’s longest standard-gauge
c) world’s highest standard-gauge
d) South American highest broad-gauge

9. In the ... Britain, France and Germany built railways in their African and Asian colonies.
a) early 1800’s
b) late 1800’s and the beginning of 1900’s
c) late XVIII century
d) late 1800’s

10. Russia started ... its Trans-Siberian Railroad in 1891.


a) building
b) reconstructing
c) working on
d) surveying

11. The Line has become the ... railroad.


a) world’s longest
b) world’s longest continuous
c) Russian longest continuous
d) longest in Europe

12. Australia began extensive railroad ... in 1912.


a) construction in its eastern plains
b) investigation in its southern plains
c) construction in its central plains
d) construction in its southern plains

Ex.IX. Translate the following passage about the construction of the first Australian
transcontinental railway line. Write your translation and read it in your English group.

Financial, natural and political obstacles have delayed the construction of a truly Australian
transcontinental railway line for a considerable time. Australia had no budget for such a costly project,
17
until well into the XIX century, when the mining of precious metals – zinc, lead, silver and gold –
started to generate the sort of capital needed.
The forbidding character of the natural environment and the local climate that had to be
“conquered” by the railway engineers, the sheer distance from one coast to the other with no timber, no
food and no water for hundreds of kilometers due to the peculiar geological circumstances (a 300 m
thick slab of impenetrable limestone), created extremely serious problems for the designers and
construction workers.
But the biggest obstacle was man – “homo sapiens politicus”. For decades, the ruling elite of New
South Wales, Victoria, South and West Australia preferred interstate quarrelling to cooperation. It took
all the convincing power of a unique politician, John Forrest, the first white man to cross the Nullarbor
(from Latin “no trees”) Plains on foot in 1874, to get a Cross-Continent Railway Agreement accepted
and signed in 1901. Even then, it took the politicians another 11 years to fill in the small print of the
interstate deal.
The “greatest Australian venture” was first completed in 1917. The steep incline of the Blue
Mountains (around 1,000 m), caused the railway builders to lay a zigzag track that was so treacherous
and difficult, that the first generation of train-drivers used to say that they would surely go to heaven, as
they had been through hell so often.
Nowadays, a series of 11 tunnels has made the journey much easier. The train – the world famous
Indian Pacific – slides effortlessly past a string of towns and villages amidst glorious forests and rock
formations.
If you find computer-driven bullet trains a little soulless, and you want to sit back and travel in style
rather than in haste, then Australia’s Indian Pacific is for you.
Long distance rail travel really means something on board the Indian Pacific, one of the longest
national railway connections in the world: from Sydney to Perth it takes 3 days and covers 4,352 km.
The success of this slow train, an average speed of just 85 to 90 kmph, is remarkable in an era where
most trains go faster and faster, leaving the traveler little or no time at all to marvel at the landscape.

Ex.X. Be ready to work on the following projects.

1. The Beginning of European Railways.


2. The History of the World’s Railroads.
3. Outstanding Names in the History of Railroads.
4. The History of Railroads is the History of Scientific Discoveries and Technical Innovations.

UNIT 2

I. TEXT
THE DEVELOPMENT OF RAILWAYS IN GREAT BRITAIN

British railways have a very long history which started more than 200 years ago, when the first
tram-ways were laid in the mineral regions of England for the transportation of coal from the mines to
the sea.
Originally, the rails were made of high quality oak and connected to cross-bars of the same
material. Cast-iron was first tried as a material for making rails by the Coalbrookdale Iron Company in

18
1767. The new rails were 5 ft long, 4 in wide and 1 1/4 in thick. Thus, tram-ways were converted into
railways by employing cast-iron rails.
In 1789, English engineer Jessop worked out a new system of a railway track: he laid cast-iron rails
on cast-iron chairs and joined them to the timber cross-bars, thus creating a prototype of a modern
railroad track.
A new chapter in the history of English railways was written in 1820, when Birkenshaw patented a
wrought-iron rail. In shape and cross-section, it was similar to Jessop’s rail, rolling in continuous
lengths being its main advantage.
Construction of railways, innovations in designing, investigations of new building materials were
always the topics of special attention for scientists and engineers.
A very important step forward in the development of a railroad track was made with the invention
of fishplates by W.Adams. After the first newly designed “fish-plates” had been widely used to join the
rails, the problem of converting them into continuous strings was solved.
The first trains in Great Britain were intended for carrying freight. They used steam traction and
moved at a speed of 4 – 6 mph.
The first great achievement in the development of railway communication in Great Britain was the
Government Act for the construction of the Stockton- Darlington Railway, approved by the Parliament
in 1821. This historical railway was from beginning to end the work of an outstanding English engineer
and designer G.Stephenson. The Stockton-Darlington Railway was a single line with 3 branches, its
total length being 38 miles. It was also the first line to use locomotive engines. The Railway was opened
in September 1825, by a train of 34 vehicles driven by G.Stephenson himself. A steam locomotive
engine made 12 mph and reached a speed of 15 mph on favourable parts of the track.
The principal business of the new line was transportation of loads. But already in November 1825,
the Company began to run a daily coach called the “Experiment”. It made a journey from Stockton to
Darlington and back in 2 hours and carried 25 passengers. The fare was £1 and each passenger was
allowed to take 14 lb of luggage.
In 1830, Great Britain celebrated the opening of a new Railway line between the two industrial
cities – Liverpool and Manchester. The first English high-speed steam locomotive – the “Rocket” – had
been specially designed by G.Stephenson for the new line and won the prize for power, speed and
reliability. The average speed of the “Rocket” was 14 mph, its greatest velocity being 29 mph.
By 1838, a very important Railway – 112 1/4 miles long – had been built in the country. It
connected the capital of Great Britain London and the industrial city of Birmingham.
During the following 5 years, the foundations were being laid for the construction of the major
trunk lines of the XIX century British Railway System.

NOTES
GEORGE STEPHENSON (1781 – 1848)), was an outstanding British engineer whose inventions
helped to create the British Railway System. Stephenson’s skill in repairing coal-hauling engines in the
mines earned him the title of “engine doctor”. He finally decided to build a locomotive of his own. His
first locomotive, the “Blucher” (1814), was able to pull 8 coal cars at 4 miles (6 km) per hour.
Stephenson soon originated the idea to use steam exhausted from the cylinders to increase the draft in
the firebox. The fire in turn became hotter and made steam of higher pressure. His locomotive the
“Rocket” (1829), traveled at the then unheard-of speed of 29 mph (46 kmph). It was a model for later
steam engines.

19
Stephenson invented many useful things, including a miner’s lamp and an alarm clock. He became
well known for building the world’s first public railway, the Stockton – Darlington Line, opened in
1825. Then he constructed the difficult Liverpool – Manchester Railway, where he used his ideas for
tunnels, grading and bridges to make a level roadbed.
Stephenson was born in Wylam, near Newcastle. As a boy, he made models of engines of clay and
sticks that later helped him to work out some of his great projects. He was consulted on many railway
projects in different countries, and spread his ideas for safety and passenger comfort. With the wealth
from his inventions and locomotive factory, he became a philanthropist. His night schools for miners,
libraries, music clubs, recreation rooms and schools for the miners’ children, were as original in his day
as were his inventions.

VOCABULARY

1. railway (Brit.) – железная дорога

2. tram-ways – вагонеточные пути

3. transportation – перевозка; транспортные средства

4. rails – рельсы
high quality oak ~ – ~ из высококачественного дуба
cast-iron ~ – чугунные ~
wrought-iron ~ – ~ из кованого железа
shape of ~ – форма ~
cross-section of ~ – поперечное сечение ~
continuous strings of ~ – плети ~

5. cross-bars – поперечные брусья


timber ~ – деревянные ~

6. chairs – рельсовые подкладки


cast-iron ~ – чугунные ~

7. fishplates – стыковые накладки

8. prototype of a modern track – прототип (аналог) современного пути

9. railway communication – железнодорожное сообщение

10. railway line – железнодорожная линия


trunk ~ – магистральная ~
branch ~ – ~ ветка
single ~ – однопутная ~
double ~ – двупутная ~

11. speed – скорость


20
to move at a ~ – двигаться со ~
to reach a ~ – развивать ~

12. coach – пассажирский вагон


a daily ~ – ежедневный ~

13. locomotive – локомотив


steam ~ – паровой ~
high speed ~ – высокоскоростной ~

14. traction – тяга


steam ~ – паровая ~

15. advantage – преимущество

16. achievement – достижение


17. investigation – исследование

18. building materials – строительные материалы

19. topics of special attention – вопросы особого внимания

20. to lay the foundations – заложить основы

II. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex.I. Study VOCABULARY after the TEXT. Find in the TEXT sentences with VOCABULARY
units and translate them into Russian.

Ex.II. Substitute the underlined words with the synonyms from the TEXT.

1. The history of English railways began more than 200 years ago.
2. The first railways carried coal from the mines to the sea.
3. The first rails were constructed of high quality wood and joined to the timber cross-bars.
4. Tram-ways were turned into railroads by using cast-iron rails.
5. A new system of track was invented by Jessop.
6. He designed a model of a present-day railway track.
7. The first wrought-iron rails were invented by Birkenshaw.
8. Scientific research work and inventions in railway building were always the questions of special
interest.
9. The use of fish-plates solved the problem of turning rails into long lengths.
10. The first English railway – the Stockton – Darlington Line – was constructed by a prominent
engineer G.Stephenson.
21
11. This railway was put into operation in September 1825.
12. The main task of a new line was to carry freight.
13. A very fast engine – the “Rocket” – for the Liverpool – Manchester Railway was worked out by
G.Stephenson.
14. The highest speed of the “Rocket” was 29 mph.

Ex.III. Find pairs of synonyms.

1. Construction a. to put into operation

2. investigation b. benefit

3. outstanding c. to turn into

d. to invent
4. journey
e. to begin
5. luggage
f. form
6. load
g. to join
7. main
h. strings
8. to work out
i. alike
9. to convert
j. power
10. to start
k. building
11. speed
l. main lines
12. to connect
m. research
13. shape
n. principal
14. similar
o. prominent
15. lengths
p. fast
16. advantage
q. velocity
17. traction
r. baggage
18. to open
s. freight
19. speedy
t. travelling
20. trunk lines

22
Ex.IV. Complete the following sentences using prepositions and conjunctions given below. Some of
these words may be used more than once.

after, by, for, in, into, of, on, than, to

1. More ... 200 years ago railways were used ... the transportation ... coal ... the
sea.
2. The first railroad track consisted ... oak rails joined ... the timber cross-bars.
3. Cast-iron rails, invented ... 1767, converted tram-ways ... railways.
4. Jessop laid cast-iron rails ... cast-iron chairs and connected them ... the timber sleepers, thus creating a
prototype ... the modern track.
5. Wrought-iron rails, patented ... Birkenshaw, allowed engineers to roll rails ... continuous lengths.
6. A very important period ... railway construction started ... the invention ... fish-plates ... Adams.
7. The wide use ... fish-plates solved the problem ... converting rails ... long strings.

Ex.V. Complete the table.

VERBS PARTICIPLES NOUNS ADJECTIVES

I and II

CONNECT

CONVERT

CREATE

INTEND

MOVE

APPROVE

CELEBRATE

INVESTIGATE

EMPLOY

START

Ex.VI. Read the text below. Use the words given in Capitals at the end of each line to form a word
that fits in the space in the same line.

The Museum of _____ Transport is situated in South BRITAIN

23
London and devoted to the history of public _____ in TRANSPORT

Great Britain.

The first bus _____ in London started in 1829. The SERVE

buses were drawn by 3 horses and looked like very

large _____. CARRY

The first double _____ was built in 1851, but the DECK

_____ deck had no roof, and the UP

_____ were given raincoats or umbrellas if it PASS

started _____. RAIN

In 1829, the Liverpool – Manchester Railway

Company offered a prize of £ 500 for the _____ CONSTRUCT

of the best steam locomotive. The prize was

won by a talented English engineer and _____ INVENT

G.Stephenson, the _____ of a high-speed British, DESIGN

train, the _____ “Rocket”. FAME

Now, that “grandfather” of modern super-trains is

in the Museum.

Ex.VII. Find in the TEXT English equivalents of the following Russian word-combinations.

- более 200 лет назад


- горнодобывающие районы Англии
- высококачественный
- прототип современного железнодорожного пути
- новая глава
- по форме и в поперечном сечении
- новшества в проектировании
- важный шаг вперед
- предназначаться для перевозки грузов
- значительное достижение
- железнодорожное сообщение
- правительственный акт, одобренный парламентом
- от начала до конца
- однопутная линия с тремя ветками

24
- общая длина
- участки пути с благоприятными условиями для движения поездов
- плата за проезд
- приз за мощность, скорость и надежность
- средняя скорость движения поезда

Ex.VIII. Translate the following sentences with the Absolute Participle Constructions into
Russian. Find similar sentences in the TEXT.

1. Tram-ways were converted into railways, cast-iron being used as a building material for making rails.
2. Jessop worked out a new system for the track, cast-iron chairs being placed between the rails and the
cross-bars.
3. “Fish-plates” having been invented by Adams, rails were easily converted into long strings.
4. The average speed of trains on the Stockton – Darlington Railway was 12 mph, much greater velocity
being reached on the favourable parts of the track.
5. The journey from Stockton to Darlington and back lasted about 2 hours, each passenger being
allowed to take 14 lb of luggage.
6. New steel-producing works having been constructed, the mass production of high-quality steel rails
began.
7. The engines were tested by the engineers, all of them being in perfect condition.
8. The size of cars and trains having been increased, it was necessary to increase the weight of rails.
9. The cars having been coupled, the train was ready to start.

III. SPEECH PRACTICE EXERCISES

Ex.I. Answer the following questions.

1. When did the history of English railways begin?


2. What were the first tram-ways used for?
3. What material was used for making early rails?
4. What event caused the turning of tram-ways into railways?
5. What was the importance of Jessop’s ideas?
6. How did Birkenshaw contribute to the further development of track construction?
7. What were the problems of prime importance for railway engineers and scientists?
8. What invention made it possible to convert rails into long strings?
9. What event put the beginning of railway construction in Great Britain?
10. Describe the Stockton – Darlington Line:
a) as a freight railway;
b) as a passenger railway.
11. What was the role of the Liverpool – Manchester Railway for the British economy?
12. What famous locomotive was built for that Railway?
13. When were the trunk lines of the XIX century British Railway System laid?
14. What outstanding engineers and designers contributed to the foundation and development of British
Railways?

25
Ex.II. Express the main idea of the TEXT in 5 – 7 sentences. Write your summary.

Ex.III. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. История Британских железных дорог датируется XVIII веком, когда вагонеточные пути,
проложенные в горнодобывающих регионах страны, использовались для доставки угля из
шахт к морским портам.
2. Первые рельсы были сделаны из дуба, их заменили на чугунные рельсы 1767 году.
3. Чугунные рельсы символизировали превращение вагонеточных путей в настоящие железные
дороги.
4. Прототип современного железнодорожного пути был разработан английским инженером
Джессопом в 1789 году.
5. Открытие изобретателя Адамса – стыковые накладки для соединения рельсов и превращения
их в длинные плети – произвело “революцию” в строительстве железнодорожного пути.
6. Дж. Стефенсон был выдающимся инженером-изобретателем и главным действующим лицом в
истории английских железных дорог. Он построил первые скоростные локомотивы и
спроектировал важнейшие грузовые и пассажирские железные дороги в стране.
7. К концу XIX века Британская железнодорожная система была создана и успешно развивалась.

Ex.IV. Fill in the chart and speak about the major events in the history of British Railways.

YEAR INVENTOR INVENTION, EVENT

1767

1789

1820

1821

Sept. 1825

1830

Nov. 1825

1838

Ex.V. Speak about the most outstanding persons who contributed to the development of Railway
construction in Great Britain. Use the TEXT, the NOTES and the results of your own
research.

26
Ex.VI. Retell the TEXT according to the following plan.

1. The role of the first tram-ways.


2. The evolution of the rail.
3. Innovations in track building.
4. Railway construction in Great Britain during the period of 1821 – 1838.

Ex.VII. Read the text.

BRITISH RAILWAYS IN THE XX CENTURY


Great Britain has a highly-developed network of railway communication all over the country.
British Railways nowadays are characterized by high speeds, safety, order and comfort for both
passengers and personnel. The total length of British railway tracks exceeds 30,000 miles.
The maximum speeds are lower than those on the first-class routes in France, Germany and Japan,
but average speeds are higher on British Railways: 80-100 mph. Intercity Passenger Trains (IPT) in
Great Britain often reach speeds of 125 mph. The Advanced Passenger Train (APT), designed for
speeds of 200 mph, is the pride of British Railways. This train covers an 85-km stretch of modern track
in less than 20 minutes.
The density of traffic and the volume of both passengers and freight carried by British Railways are
extremely high. Almost all British railway lines are operated and maintained by the government. The
process of privatization has begun since the last part of the XX century.
The high speeds of trains make high demands upon the track, and the government pays special
attention to the increase of its stability, efficiency and durability. Concrete sleepers and modernized
fastenings are widely used on British Railways nowadays. This process started during World War II
because of timber shortage, and is still going on. More than 30 million concrete sleepers have already
been installed on the track.
This has resulted in lower costs of both sleepers and fastenings, improved track standards and
reduced track maintenance. Nowadays, modernized concrete sleepers of higher quality and strength are
being designed.
British concrete sleepers are 8 ft 3 in long and 10 3/8 in wide. Each weighs 620 lb and carries a 113
lb per yd. bull-headed rail.
All British tracks use crushed rock and gravel for making ballast, its depth under the sleepers being
15 in.
New highly efficient techniques, computers, Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) and other automatic
electronic devices, widely employed on British Railways, have greatly improved maintenance of the
track, increased safety and comfort of passengers and railway men and reduced transport costs.

Ex.VIII. Match the words on the left with their synonyms on the right.

1. network a. planned way

2. efficiency b. convenience

3. safety c. amount

27
4. order d. cross-ties

5. comfort e. requirements

6. personnel f. fittings

7. first-class g. broken stone

8. route h. strict rules

9. density of traffic i. high standard

10. volume j. (ability to give) benefit

11. demands k. constancy

12. stability l. workers, employees

13. durability m. ties, links

14. modernized n. methods

15. fastenings o. quantity of traffic

16. sleepers p. updated

17. crushed rock q. net, system

18. quality r. long life

19. techniques s. absence of danger

20. devices t. the best

Ex.IX. Find in the text “British Railways Nowadays” sentences with these words. Read them and
translate them into Russian.

Ex.X. Complete the following sentences, using the information of the text.

1. Great Britain has a highly-developed ....


2. British Railways are run by ....
3. They are characterized by ....
4. The APT is the ....
5. The density of traffic and ....
6. High speeds of trains make ....
7. The government pays special attention to ....
8. Nowadays, concrete sleepers and ....
9. All British tracks use ....
10...., .., ... and other... have greatly improved ..., increased ... and reduced...
28
Ex.XI. Correct the following statements. Consult the text.

1. Great Britain has a wide network of railways in the central part of the country.
2. British Railways are characterized by low speeds and high safety.
3. The total length of British tracks is about 30,000 kilometers.
4. The average speeds of French trains are higher than those of British trains.
5. The famous IPT very often reach speeds of 125 kmph.
6. British Railways are controlled and maintained by private companies.
7. The British Government pays little attention to the stability, efficiency and durability of the track.
8. Concrete sleepers have recently begun to be used on British Railways.
9. They improved track standards but increased costs of both sleepers and fastenings.
10. Each concrete sleeper of British Railways weighs 620 kg and carries a flat-foot rail.

Ex.XII. Be ready to work on the following projects.

1. The Formation and Development of the British Railway System of the XIX Century.

2. Outstanding Personages in the History of British Railways.

3. The Three "S" of Modern British Railways: Stability, Safety, Speed.

UNIT 3

I. TEXT
THE BEGINNING OF RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION IN RUSSIA

The beginning of railway construction in Russia may be traced as far back as the second half of the
XVIII century. Road building was closely connected with the development of mining industry.
Among the numerous works built in the Urals at that time, the most important and the best equipped
ones were the Voskresensk Works. It was at those works that the first tram-ways in Russia were laid to
link the mines and the works. K.D.Frolov, a highly qualified and talented engineer, took part in the
construction of those industrial tracks.
The next, very important step forward was the use of cast-iron rails, proposed by A.S.Yartsev,
manager of the Petrozavodsk Works. In 1788, a 173.5 m long track was constructed to meet the needs of
the works.
In 1809, another line, using cast-iron rails, was laid in the Altai Mountains by R.K.Frolov, a son of
K.D.Frolov. The line was 1,867 m long and its technical equipment was much superior to that of all
railways built in Russia at that time. R.K.Frolov used elliptical rails and was the first engineer who
applied the graphic method of timing train movements.
29
A very significant innovation, which promoted the development of Russian Railways, was the
introduction of steam traction. The first steam-powered locomotive in our country was built by the
Cherepanovs, father and son, the most skilled and talented mechanics of their time. Thanks to their
invention, the first railway in Russia, using steam traction was put into operation at the Nizhni Tagil
Metallurgical Plant in 1833. It was a short distance line covering only 854 m.
Some 4 years later, in October 1837, the first public railway St.Petersburg -Pavlovsk, was laid and
opened to traffic. It was a 6 ft gauge line, 27 km long, built by Franz Anton Ritter von Gerstner.
Locomotives were supplied by Stephenson and Hackworth Company, England.
The most significant event in the history of Russian Railways was the construction of the
StPetersburg - Moscow Railroad, 644 km long. The line was begun in 1843 and was 8 years under
construction: it was opened to traffic in November 1851. It was the first railway in Russia to adopt a 5 ft
gauge (now the standard). The StPetersburg – Moscow Railway was a first-class double-track line,
which connected the largest industrial and cultural centers of the country. 185 bridges and 19 viaducts
were built along the track to make it as straight and level as possible. PP.Melnikov and N.O.Kraft, both
prominent Russian engineers, were in charge of the construction.
After the end of the Crimean War in 1856, railway construction in Russia was developing very
rapidly. Many new railroads were laid in the distant parts of the country. The first Asiatic line, in the
Caucasus, more than 300 km long, was opened in 1872. The connection between the Black and the
Caspian Seas had been completed by 1885, when the Trans-Caspian Railway was built. A really great
event for the development of Russian economy was the beginning of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
By the end of the XIX century, more than 30,000 km of railway tracks had been laid across the vast
Russian territory.
By 1913, the railway network of the country included 25 state lines and 13 private tracks, belonging
to different companies.
Although the Russian Railway System was the largest in Europe, it was inadequate to the great
territory and did not meet the growing demands of the country’s national economy.

VOCABULARY

1. mining industry – горнодобывающая


промышленность

2. works – завод, мастерские

3. equipment – оборудование
technical ~ – техническое ~

4. train movement – движение поезда


graphic method of timing ~ – график расписания ~

5. locomotive – локомотив
steam-powered ~ – паровой ~

6. rails – рельсы
elliptical ~ – эллиптические ~

30
7. track – путь
straight ~ – прямой (без кривых) ~
level ~ – ровный (без уклонов) ~

8. gauge – колея
standard ~ – стандартная ~

9. bridge – мост

10. viaduct – виадук

11. national economy -национальная экономика

12. professions – профессии


manager – управляющий
engineer – инженер
mechanic – механик
designer – проектировщик
inventor – изобретатель
scientist – ученый
railwayman – железнодорожник

13. qualified – квалифицированный

14. talented – талантливый

15. skilled – умелый

16. distant – отдаленный

17. vast – обширный

18. private – частный

19. to trace back – проследить

20. needs (demands) – требования (запросы)


to meet the ~ – выполнять ~

21. traffic – движение


to open to ~ – открыть для ~

22. construction – строительство


to be under ~ – находиться в стадии ~
23. to be in charge of – руководить, отвечать за

31
II. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex.I. Study VOCABULARY after the TEXT. Find in the TEXT sentences with VOCABULARY
units. Read and translate them into Russian.

Ex.II. Substitute the underlined words with the synonyms from the TEXT.

1. Building of the earliest railways in Russia goes back to the XVIII century.
2. A lot of plants and factories were constructed in the Urals.
3. The first industrial tracks were built to connect the mines and the works.
4. In 1788, a long railway line was laid to meet the needs of the factory.
5. Machinery, mechanisms and devices of the Altai Works were more efficient than those used on other
railways.
6. The Cherepanovs, father and son, built the first steam engine in Russia.
7. The first steam traction railway in Russia was opened to traffic in 1833.
8. The steam engines for the St.Petersburg – Pavlovsk Line were provided by the English Railway
Company.
9. The opening of the St.Petersburg – Moscow Railway was a very important event for the development
of the Russian Transport System.
10. The line was being built for 8 years.
11. It was the first railway in Russia to use a 5 ft gauge.
12. The railway joined the most significant industrial cities of the state.
13. P.P.Melnikov and N.O.Kraft, both skilled engineers of their time, were responsible for the building
of this railway line.
14. In the second half of the XIX century, many railroads were laid in the far away parts of Russia.
15. By the beginning of the XX century, 25 state-owned and 13 private tracks had been built all over the
huge Russian territory.

Ex.III. Find pairs of synonyms.

1. needs a. to be responsible for

2. to connect b. significant

3. works c. many, a lot of

4. superior to d. to open to traffic

5. prominent e. huge

32
6. to be in charge of f. to comprise

7. to use g. to go back to

8. important h. higher

9. tram-ways i. fast, quickly

10. numerous j. far away

11. to put into operation k. to provide

12. vast l. eminent

13. different m. demands

14. to include n. owing to

15. to trace back o. to suggest

16. rapidly p. to join, to link

17. to supply q. to apply

18. thanks to r. various

19. to propose s. plant, factory

20. distant t. industrial tracks

Ex.IV. Complete the following sentences, using the suitable words given below. Each word should
be used only once.

significant elliptical numerous talented

qualified cultural skilled private

technical largest prominent first-class

superior angular steam-powered state

vast important double-track industrial

1. ... industrial tracks were built in the Urals in the XVIII – XIX centuries.
2. K.D.Frolov, a highly ... engineer, contributed much to the construction of the first Russian railways.
3. ... equipment of the Altai Works was much ... to that used on all other railways of that time.
4. R.K.Frolov was the first Russian engineer who used ... rails instead of ... ones.
5. The first ... locomotive in Russia was built by the Cherepanovs for the Nizhni Tagil Railway in 1833.

33
6. The Cherepanovs were very ... mechanics.
7. The St.Petersburg – Pavlovsk Railway was designed by a ... engineer Franz Anton Ritter von
Gerstner.
8. The opening of the St.Petersburg – Moscow Railway in 1851, was the most ... event of the time.
9. It was the ... ... line, having connected the ... and the most ... ... and ... centers of the country.
10. P.P.Melnikov and N.O.Kraft, both ... Russian engineers, headed the construction.
11. By the end of the XIX century, more than 30,000 km of railroad tracks had crossed the ... territory
of Russia from the east to the west and from the south to the north.
12. 25 ... lines and 13 ... tracks constituted the railway network of Russia of that period.

Ex.V. Complete the table.

VERBS NOUNS ADJECTIVES


PARTICIPLES
I and II

TRACE

WORK

PROPOSE

INCLUDE

ADOPT

CONNECT

SUGGEST

INTRODUCE

APPLY

QUALIFY

PROMOTE

Ex.VI. Find in the TEXT English equivalents of the following Russian word-combinations.

- относится ко второй половине XVIII века


- многочисленные мастерские (заводы)
- оборудовать наилучшим образом
- высоко квалифицированный и талантливый инженер
- управляющий
- техническое оснащение
- значительно выше (лучше)
- использовать графический метод составления расписания движения поездов
34
- важное новшество
- умелые и талантливые механики своего времени
- благодаря этому изобретению
- спустя 4 года
- открыть для движения
- принять стандартную колею
- первоклассная двупутная линия
- крупнейшие промышленные и культурные центры страны
- прямой и ровный железнодорожный путь
- отдаленные регионы России
- железнодорожная сеть страны
- растущие потребности национальной экономики России

Ex.VII. Analyze the function of the word “it” in the following sentences and translate them into
Russian.
1. It was K.D.Frolov, who built the first tram-ways in Russia to link the mines and the works.
2. You can look up the time-table in the office. It is open the whole day.
3. It was R.K.Frolov, who constructed a line with cast-iron rails in 1809.
4. It was he, who used elliptical rails and not angular ones.
5. It is easy to transmit electric power, therefore it is more advantageous to use electric locomotives than
steam ones.
6. It is extremely important to keep all equipment moving over the track in perfect condition.
7. It was very difficult to push into an overcrowded passenger car.
8. When the railroad gauges were different, it was necessary for the freight and passengers to be
transferred from one car to another at all points where there was a change of gauges.
9. It was the introduction of a standard gauge in 1851 that made railway communication in Russia
easier, more convenient and much more economical.
10. It was the beginning of the Trans-Siberian Railway that promoted the development of the distant
parts of Russia.

Ex.VIII. Read the text.

THE TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILWAY


The Trans-Siberian Railroad was the first railroad built across Siberia, the vast area that makes up
most of the Asian part of Russia. When completed, it became the longest railroad of the world,
extending over 5,000 miles (8,000 km) from Yekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains to Vladivostok, east
of China. It was originally called the Great Siberian Railroad. Today, a train called the Trans-Siberian
Express travels from Moscow to Vladivostok in 6 days. It runs from Moscow to Yekaterinburg, where it
joins the original Trans-Siberian Railroad line. The whole route with minor gaps has been electrified.
Construction of the Trans-Siberian Line marked the beginning of a new era in the history of Siberia.
Industries and trade began to develop rapidly, and the population grew.
During World War I (1914 – 1918) and World War II (1939 – 1945), the line was used to transport
troops and supplies across the vast territory of Russia.

35
The Trans-Siberian Railroad was built in several sections. The land had been investigated and
surveyed; and construction started in 1891 and was finished in 1916. The section in the Far East,
between Vladivostok and Khabarovsk, was completed about 1897. From 1892 to 1912, other sections
were being built across western and central Siberia.
Between 1897 and 1903, Russia built the Chinese Eastern Railway across Manchuria, in northeast
China. That railroad connected Vladivostok with the sections of the Trans-Siberian Railroad in western
and central Siberia. By 1904, a continuous railroad stretched from Vladivostok across China and Siberia
to the Ural Mountains.
But the country needed a railroad route that did not cross the territory of China. Therefore, a line
north of China, from Khabarovsk to Kuenga, was constructed.
Completed in 1916, it became the last link in a continuous railroad route on Russian land between
Vladivostok and the Ural Mountains. Another railroad led from the Urals west to the capital of the
country, Moscow. Since the 1920's, the Trans-Siberian Railway line has been joined to the other
railroads in the region.

Ex.IX. Write questions to the underlined parts of the sentences. Discuss the text with the students
of your English group.

III. SPEECH PRACTICE EXERCISES


Ex.I. Answer the following questions.
1. What period can the beginning of railways in Russia be traced back to?
2. What region of Russia were the first tram-ways and railways built in? Why?
3. What works were the best equipped ones in Russia?
4. Who took part in the construction of industrial tracks at those works?
5. Who suggested laying cast-iron rails in the track?
6. When were the elliptical rails used for the first time?
7. Who designed them?
8. What other innovations was R.K.Frolov famous for?
9. Who constructed the first steam-powered locomotive in Russia?
10. What line was it intended for?
11. Describe the first public railway in Russia – the St.Petersburg – Pavlovsk Railroad.
12. What line was opened in 1851?
13. Why was the opening of the St.Petersburg – Moscow Railway so important for Russia?
14. What innovations were being used in the process of its construction?
15. What engineers were in charge of this project?
16. When did the railways in the distant parts of the country begin to be built?
17. What were the most significant of them?
18. Describe the Russian Railway System at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX centuries.

Ex.II. Express the main idea of the TEXT in 5 – 7 sentences. Write your summary.

36
Ex.III. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. История железных дорог России датируется XVIII веком и тесно связана с развитием
горнодобывающей промышленности на Урале.
2. В XVIII–XIX веках там были построены многочисленные заводские цеха, которые
использовали вагонеточные пути для перевозки угля и других грузов.
3. Многие талантливые, умелые и высококвалифицированные механики, инженеры и
управляющие – Черепановы, Фроловы, А.С.Ярцев – принимали участие в строительстве
первых железных дорог в России.
4. С именем Р.К.Фролова связаны изобретение эллиптических чугунных рельсов и разработка
графика движения поездов.
5. Черепановы знамениты благодаря изобретению первого в России парового локомотива.
6. Изобретения русских инженеров и механиков заложили основы для строительства главных
железных дорог России XIX века – Санкт-Петербург – Павловск и Санкт-Петербург –
Москва.
7. Железная дорога Санкт-Петербург – Москва строилась 8 лет; благодаря 185 мостам и 19
виадукам она была прямой и ровной.
8. Строительство железных дорог в отдаленных регионах страны началось после окончания
Крымской войны в 1856 году.
9. Особое значение имела величайшая и самая длинная в мире Транс – Сибирская железная
дорога, связавшая центр России с Дальним Востоком.
10. Обширная территория России требовала большого количества первоклассных железных
дорог для эффективного развития национальной экономики страны.

Ex.IV. Fill in the chart and speak about the most significant events in the history of Russian
Railways.

YEAR INVENTOR, ENGINEER INVENTION, RAILROAD

XVIII century

1788

1809

1833

1837

1843 – 1851

1872 – 1885

1891 – 1916

Ex.V. Speak about the most outstanding engineers, mechanics and inventors who contributed to
the development of Russian Railways. Use the TEXT and the results of your own research.

37
Ex.VI. Retell the TEXT according to the following plan.
1. The Urals – the birthplace of Russian Railways.
2. Innovations and inventions in railway construction.
3. The major Russian railroad lines of 1837 – 1851.
4. The railroad development in the distant regions.

Ex.VII. Read the text.


MODERN RUSSIAN RAILWAYS
The territory of Russia stretches across 2 continents, from the Pacific Ocean to the Baltic and Black
Seas. From the east to the west the territory of our country extends over 10,000 km, and from the north to the
south almost 5,000 km.
The tremendous area of the country, the highly developed industry and trade and the unique natural
resources, determine the necessity for a widely developed transport system, including all modes of
transportation.
Russian Railways occupy an outstanding position as a great freight and passenger carrier,
accounting for about 60% of the country’s entire traffic and for 50% of the world’s freight turnover.
Russia has the largest single railway system in the world, its total length being about 150,000 km.
Direct passenger service is available to the capitals of many foreign countries.
The railway map of our country is changing all the time; new lines are constantly being projected
and built. These new lines cross former desert and roadless regions, far from the central parts of Russia.
Intensive railway construction is going on in the Far East and Siberia.
Besides building new railway routes, our country has been improving and modernizing old tracks,
and electrifying many trunk lines with particularly heavy traffic. The length of the electrified railways in
Russia is about 90,000 km, some of them being the longest lines in the world: the Moscow –
Vladivostok Railroad (9,500 km).
Russian Railways are equipped with new powerful electric and diesel-electric locomotives, high
speed and high capacity freight cars and passenger coaches. To increase the safety of traffic and the
comfort of passengers, trains are fitted with automatic air brakes and coaches are designed to have air-
conditioning systems.
Much attention is being paid to the improvement of track facilities. On trunk lines, 65 and 75 kg
high quality alloy steel rails are laid in the track. Continuous rails, welded into strings of 700 meters and
more, and reinforced concrete sleepers are laid on crushed rock and gravel ballast. Over 90 million
concrete sleepers have already been installed. They are 8 ft 10 in long and 11 3/4 in wide, their life
ranges from 40 to 50 years.
Average traffic on Russian Railways is 25 MGT a year, reaching 176 MGT a year on the double-
track Moscow – St.Petersburg railroad route.
Passenger trains travel at speeds that vary from 100 to 220 kmph.
Various modern and efficient machines and mechanisms are widely employed for track repair and
maintenance. Thousands of kilometers of railways are equipped with automatic block signaling and
Centralized Traffic Control (CTC).
The wide use of new electronic equipment and highly efficient techniques has greatly improved
track standards and reduced transport costs on Russian Railroads.

38
Although the future belongs to the air and automobile transportation, railways are and will always
remain very popular, important and the most universal mode of transport in Russia.

Ex.VIII. Prove the following statements with the examples from the text.
1. Russia has a great territory.
2. Our country has a highly developed transport system.
3. Railways occupy a special place in this system.
4. Russia has the greatest railway network in the world.
5. Modernization is a priority in the development of railways.
6. Track facilities and safety devices are in the focus of special attention.

Ex.IX. Comment on the following data from the text.

10,000 km 9,500 km 50% 40 – 50 years

5,000 km 700 m 8 ft 10 in 100 – 220 kmph

150,000 km 65 – 75 kg 11 3/4 in 25 MGT

90,000 km 60% 90 million 176 MGT

Ex.X. Answer the following questions.


1. Why does Russia need a wide and highly developed transport system?
2. Why do railways occupy a special position in this system?
3. What Russian territories have the most significant railway lines?
4. What are the major tendencies of railway construction in Russia nowadays?
5. What is being done to improve the railroad track standards?
6. What safety devices and comfort facilities are widely used on Russian Railways?

Ex.XI. Be ready to work on the following projects.


1. The Russian Railways of the XVIII – XIX Centuries.
2. The Great Trans-Siberian Railway: the Past and the Present.
3. The Prominent Engineers and Outstanding Inventors in the History of Russian Railways.
4. The Railroad Map of the Present Day Russia.

UNIT 4

I. TEXT
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES
Several horse-powered railroads began operating in the Eastern United States in the early 1800's. In
1815, American engineer John Stevens obtained a charter from the state of New Jersey to build a steam

39
railroad across the state. He constructed a circular track near his estate in Hoboken, New Jersey, and
built a small steam-powered vehicle to run on it. In 1825, this vehicle made a successful run.
In the late 1820's, the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company of Pennsylvania decided to build a
railroad. In 1829, the company ran a locomotive built in England along a section of wooden track. This
locomotive, called the Stourbridge Lion, became the first full-sized vehicle to run on a track in North
America.
In 1830, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad began service over 13 miles (21 km) of track between
Baltimore and Ellicott's Mills (now Ellicott City). The first cars of this railroad were powered by horses.
The Baltimore and Ohio also experimented with a car equipped with sails. In the summer of 1830, New
York businessman Peter Cooper built a steam locomotive, the Tom Thumb, but it was not a success. In
1831, the railroad began regular passenger service with a locomotive called the York.
Meanwhile, the West Point Foundry of New York had built a steam locomotive for the South
Carolina Canal and Railroad Company. In 1830, this vehicle, called the Best Friend of Charleston,
pulled a train along 6 miles (10 km) of track between Charleston and Hamburg, South Carolina. This
event marked the beginning of regular steam-powered passenger and freight service in the USA.
The number of locomotives and railroads multiplied rapidly in the United States after 1830. The
most famous historic locomotives included: the De Witt Clinton on the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad
in New York in 1831; the John Bull on the Camden and Amboy Railroad in New Jersey in 1831; the
Old Ironsides on the Philadelphia, Germantown, and Norristown Line in Pennsylvania in 1832; the
Pontchartrain on the Pontchartrain Railway in Louisiana in 1832. By 1835, more than 200 railroad
charters had been granted in 11 states, and over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of track had been opened for
traffic.
Meanwhile, engineers and inventors were developing locomotives especially for the Eastern United
States, where roadbeds had many curves. These locomotives had an independent wheeled undercarriage
called a leading truck, attached to the vehicle by a center pin, which allowed the truck to swivel. The
truck gave the locomotive more flexibility on curves. Most of the new locomotives had a four-wheeled
truck and four driving wheels. They became the most common type of US locomotives during the last
half of the 1800's.
Railroads were under construction in all states east of the Mississippi River by 1850. Most of these
lines were concentrated in the Northeast, and ran only short distances. A network of lines radiated from
Boston, New York City, and Philadelphia. Railroads also linked the major cities in the Southeast.
Competition for trade promoted railroad construction in the East. By the early 1850's, four railroads
had built rail lines that enabled them to carry freight between the Great Lakes region and the East Coast.
In 1853, ten small lines along the Erie Canal joined to form the New York Central Railroad, which
provided service between Albany and Buffalo. By 1852, the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Baltimore
and Ohio had opened lines to the Ohio River, one of the most important trade routes in the country.
Large railroad companies took over many smaller lines and so expanded rapidly.
During 1850's, railroad lines connected Chicago with the Mississippi River, which was a major
trade route. The Baltimore and Ohio reached St. Louis on the Mississippi in 1857. Both Chicago and St.
Louis became large transportation centers.
In 1850, Congress began granting federal land to develop railroads. Some Government leaders
thought that railroads would help to attract settlers to the undeveloped regions of the Midwest and the
South. The first grant helped to build a railroad from Chicago at the Great Lakes to Mobile, Alabama, at
the Gulf of Mexico. Settlers rushed into the area along the route after the railroad's completion in 1856.
The success of the experiment convinced Congress to continue granting federal lands for railroad

40
development. In return, all United States railroads agreed to carry government troops and property at
half the standard rates and the mail at 4/5 the standard rates. These rates remained in effect until the
mid-1940's.
Railroads continued to expand during the 1860's. They played a major role in the Civil War (1861 –
1865) by moving army and supplies to battle. The South was at disadvantage because it had far fewer
railroad tracks and locomotives than the North. After the War, iron and steel bridges were built across
such major rivers as the Ohio, the Mississippi, and the Missouri.
In the early 1860's, the US government decided to extend rail lines across the country. The
proposed route followed the 42d parallel from Omaha, Nebraska, to Sacramento, California. The
Eastern rail lines were to be extended westward from Chicago to meet the new railroad at Omaha.
Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act in 1862. The Act gave two of the companies responsibility for
building the railroad. The Union Pacific Railroad (UP) was to start laying the track westward from a
point near Omaha. The Central Pacific Railroad (CP) was to lay the track eastward from Sacramento.
The US Congress granted both railroads large pieces of land and millions of dollars in government
loans.
Work began on the Central Pacific in 1863, and on the Union Pacific in 1865. The railroads faced
the gigantic task of crossing the rugged Rockies and the huge towering Sierra Nevada. To obtain the
necessary labour, the Central Pacific hired thousands of Chinese immigrants. European immigrants
worked on the Union Pacific. On May 10, 1869, the tracks of the two historic railroads finally met at
Promontory, Utah. One of the finest UP passenger trains was the Overland Limited. That luxury train,
inaugurated in 1890, made its run between Omaha and San Francisco in just 70 hours.
North America became the first continent to have a rail line from coast to coast. But it was just a
start: by the end of the 1800's, the United States had already built 5 transcontinental railroad lines.

VOCABULARY
1. charter – привилегия, разрешение
to grant a ~ – выдать, даровать ~
to obtain a ~ – получить ~

2. to grant – передать во владение,


~ federal lands – ~ федеральные земли
~ government loans – ~ денежный заем

3. to carry – перевозить
~ government troops – ~ правительственные войска
~ property – ~ собственность, имущество
~ army and supplies – ~ армию и продовольствие
~ mail – ~ почту

4. rates – тарифы
standard ~ – стандартные, установленные ~

5. to remain in effect – оставаться в силе, действовать

6. disadvantage – недостаток
to be at ~ – находиться в невыгодном положении

7. to face – встретиться, столкнуться

41
~ the gigantic task – ~ с огромной, сложной проблемой

8. transportation center – транспортный центр, узел

9. competition – соревнование, конкуренция

10. to take over – брать на себя управление,


поглощать мелкие компании
11. a successful run – успешный пробег (поезда)

12. to experiment with – экспериментировать с

13. to mark – отмечать, знаменовать

14. regions – регионы, территории


highly developed ~ – высокоразвитые ~
developing ~ – развивающиеся ~
undeveloped ~ – неосвоенные ~

15. curve – железнодорожная кривая

16. roadbed – дорожное полотно

17. undercarriage – шасси


independent ~ – ~ с независимой подвеской

18. a leading truck – передняя бегунковая тележка


локомотива

19. flexibility – маневренность

20. wheels – колеса


driving ~ – ведущие ~

21. luxury train – роскошный поезд-салон

22. ward – направление движения


west ~ – западное ~
east ~ – восточное ~
north ~ – северное ~
south ~ – южное ~

States Cities, Towns


Alabama Albany
California Baltimore
Louisiana Boston
Nebraska Charleston
New Jersey Chicago
Ohio Hamburg
Pennsylvania New York
South Carolina Philadelphia
Utah
42
Rivers Mountains
Delaware Rockies
Hudson Sierra Nevada

Mississippi
Missouri

II. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex.I Study VOCABULARY after the TEXT. Read all Proper Names, paying attention to their
pronunciation. Find in the TEXT sentences with VOCABULARY units. Read and translate
them into Russian.

Ex.II. Substitute the underlined words with the synonyms from the TEXT.

1. Some horse-powered railroads started working in the USA in the beginning of the 1800’s.
2. Several engineers had got permission from the government for building railroads.
3. After 1830, the quantity of railroads grew very quickly.
4. By 1835, the number of charters given in 11 states had exceeded 200.
5. All engines built for the Eastern states were supplied with leading trucks.
6. Such trucks made locomotives extremely mobile on curves.
7. That type of car had become the most typical one by the end of the 1800’s.
8. Railroads were being built in all states east of the Mississippi River.
9. The greater part of them spread out from Boston, New York city and Philadelphia.
10. In 1853, 10 minor railroads along the Erie Canal united to form the New York Central Railroad.
11. Big railroad companies swallowed a lot of smaller lines and grew quickly.
12. The most significant trade route linked Chicago and the Mississippi River.
13. The US railroads transported army, property and post for the state at much cheaper costs than the
standard ones.
14. In the 1940’s, those costs were still in use.

Ex.III. Find pairs of synonyms.

1. flexible a. to suggest, to offer

2. to operate b. to get

3. to propose c. transcontinental line

4. to connect d. to be in use

5. common e. to grow in number

6. to allow f. to grow

43
7. area g. to work

8. to obtain h. main

9. to concentrate i. to join, to link

10. rail line from coast to coast j. mobile

11. to remain in effect k. to transport

12. fewer l. quickly, fast

13. independent wheeled m. less in number


undercarriage

14. to convince
n. track
15. to expand
o. to assure
16. rapidly
p. typical
17. to carry
q. territory
18. to multiply
r. leading truck
19. major
s. to come in one place
20. roadbed
t. to enable

Ex.IV. Find in the TEXT English equivalents of the following Russian word-combinations.

- получить разрешение на строительство железной дороги


- поезд, имеющий паруса
- пассажирское и грузовое сообщение на паровой тяге
- колесное шасси с независимой подвеской
- локомотивы особенно маневренные на кривых
- быть сконцентрированным на Северо-востоке
- быстро расти
- главный торговый маршрут
- крупные транспортные центры
- передавать во владение федеральную землю
- привлечь переселенцев на неосвоенные территории
- убедить Конгресс
- оставаться в силе, действовать
- стальные мосты через главные реки
- предложенный маршрут
- привилегия (право) на строительство железной дороги
- правительственный заем
- неприступные Скалистые Горы
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- вздымающиеся ввысь горные хребты Сьерра Невады
- железная дорога от восточного до западного побережья

Ex.V. Complete the table.

VERBS PARTICIPLES NOUNS ADJECTIVES

I and II

POWER

EXPERIMENT

MULTIPLY

ATTACH

CONCENTRATE

RADIATE

EXPAND

PROPOSE

CONVINCE

DECIDE

Ex.VI. Read the following text and fill in the spaces in the sentences, using the words and the
word-combinations given below.

Irishmen rocks and cliffs

Chinese Promontory Point in Utah


granted land and money
golden spike
picks, shovels and gunpowder
under contract
to join the gold-rich settlements
growing excitement
difficult and dangerous tunneling
transcontinental lines

YEARS OF GROWTH

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During the Civil War (1861 – 1865), the US Congress had become anxious ... along the Pacific
Coast more closely to the rest of the country. In 1862, it ... to the Union Pacific Railroad Company to
built a railroad west from the Mississippi. At the same time, it gave a similar grant to the Central Pacific
Railroad Company to build eastward from California.
Throughout the 1860's, gangs of workmen laboured with ... to build the two lines. Most of the
workers on the Union Pacific were ... or other recent immigrants from Europe. The Central Pacific
workers were mainly ..., who had been brought to America ... specially to do the job.
The railroad workers' progress depended mainly on the land over which they had to build. On the
flat Great Plains they could move forward quickly, building up to six miles (9600 m) of railroad a day.
Among the ... of the Sierra Nevada Mountains their progress was much slower. Sometimes it would take
days of ... to move forward a few yards.
The whole country watched with ... as the two lines were gradually approaching one another. Both
moved forward as fast as they could, for the grants of land and money that each company received from
the government depended upon how many miles of railroad track it built. Finally, on May 10, 1869, the
Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Lines met at ... . A ... fixed the last rail into position. The first
railroad across the North American continent was completed.
The new railroad was quickly joined by others. By 1884, four more major lines had crossed the
continent to link the Mississippi Valley with the Pacific Coast. These ... reduced the time of travelling
across the United States from weeks to days.

Ex.VII. Find in this text synonyms to the following words and word-combinations.

to be eager to get to join teams, groups

to work with to finish fast main lines

to move ahead to cut chiefly by agreement

to come nearer to need the same simultaneously

Ex.VIII. Complete the following sentences, using the verbs given below in the Passive Voice.

to build to cross to take over to join to attract

to carry to grant to concentrate to obtain to develop

to pass to open to promote to construct

1. The first charter to build a steam railroad ... in the USA in 1815.
2. A circular track in New Jersey ... by John Stevens.
3. The famous steam locomotive Tom Thumb ... in 1830.
4. By 1835, more than 200 charters ... in 11 states.
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5. 1,600 km of railroad track ... to traffic.
6. Cars with leading trucks ... specially ... for the Eastern US railroads.
7. In the middle of the XIX century the greater part of US railroads ... in the Northeast.
8. Railroad construction ... by the competition for trade.
9. In 1853, ten small lines ... to form the New York Central Company.
10. Small companies ... by larger and more powerful railroads.
11. The first settlers ... to undeveloped regions of the country by the land, granted by the US Congress.
12. The government mail ... by railroads at 4/5 the standard rates.
13. The Pacific Railroad Act ... by the US Congress in 1862.
14. After the construction of the first transcontinental line, the US territory ... with a railroad from coast
to coast.

Ex.IX. Translate the following passage from the book “The Iron Road” by David McCulloch.
Write your translation and read it in your English group.

“Only trails and wagon tracks crossed the wideness in the mid-XIX century. To bridge that
wideness with rails took 6 years and an army of 20,000 men, most of them immigrants from China and
Europe. It took brute human effort, as the building was done entirely by hand. To this day, no one
knows how many died in the effort, or what it really cost.
Grenville M.Dodge (1831 – 1916), the Civil War general and the chief engineer of the Union
Pacific, wrote: “When you look back to the beginning at the Missouri River, with no railway
communication ... and 500 miles of the country in advance without timber, fuel or any material
whatever from which to build or maintain a railroad, except the sand for the bare roadbed itself; with
everything to be created, with labour hard and long, you can only look back upon the work with
satisfaction and ask, “under such circumstances could we have done more or better?”
This is the story of the first transcontinental railroad; the greatest, most daring engineering effort the
country had yet seen. The time was 1860’s. Imagine the task. The idea was to span the west with iron
rails from Omaha to Sacramento, to build a railroad across two-thirds of the continent and some of the
most difficult terrain on earth. “Ruinous space”, a Boston paper called it. Not in all that distance, not in
1,700 miles, was there a single settlement of any appreciable size except at Salt Lake. The railroad
would join what essentially were two different countries: California and the East. Construction crews
would cross hundreds of miles of desert, push into the mountains at elevations as high as 8,000 feet. It’s
hard to believe that one river alone, the Weber, would have to be crossed 31 times. And all this without
the benefit of bulldozers or rock drills, modern explosives, or modern medical facilities. They called it a
work of giants. But like all great stories, it’s about people: construction bosses, politicians, thousands of
workers, and the people who got the whole thing started in the first place”.

III. SPEECH PRACTICE EXERCISES

Ex.I. Answer the following questions.

1. Who obtained the first state charter to build a steam railroad?


2. When did the first steam-powered vehicle make a successful run?
3. What railroad was built between Baltimore and Ellicott’s Mills?
4. How long was that line?
5. What do you know about the famous locomotives Tom Thumb and York?
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6. What event marked the beginning of regular steam passenger and freight service in the USA?
7. What were the most notable locomotives in the country in the 1830’s?
8. How many states had been granted charters for railroad construction by 1835?
9. How many kilometers of track had been opened for traffic?
10. What was specific about locomotives designed for the Eastern US railroads?
11. Where had most of the US railroad lines been concentrated by the mid-1850’s?
12. How was the NY Central Railroad Company formed?
13. When did Congress start granting federal land to develop railroads?
14. Why was it very important?
15. What was the role of railroads during the Civil War (1861 – 1865)?
16. When did the US government decide to build the first transcontinental line?
17. Describe the routes of the Union Pacific (UP) and the Central Pacific (CP) Lines and the most
interesting details of their construction.
18. When was the first US transcontinental railroad opened?
19. How many such lines had been built in the USA by the end of the XIX century?

Ex.II. Express the main idea of the TEXT in 5 – 7 sentences. Write your summary.

Ex.III. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Первые паровозы и железные дороги появились в США в начале XIX века.


2. К 1835 году 11 штатов США получили более 200 лицензий на строительство железных дорог,
длина которых достигла 1,600 км.
3. Все эти линии были сконцентрированы на самой промышленно-развитой территории США –
на Северо-восточном побережье.
4. Число железных дорог росло очень быстро, крупные компании поглощали мелкие.
5. Чикаго в Огайо и Сент-Луис на Миссисипи превратились в крупнейшие транспортные центры
страны.
6. Чтобы привлечь переселенцев в неосвоенные регионы страны, американский Конгресс стал
отдавать федеральную землю под строительство железных дорог.
7. Железные дороги перевозили армию, продовольствие, имущество, почту и другие грузы.
8. В 1862 году Конгресс США принял закон о строительстве первой в мире
трансконтинентальной железной дороги в стране.
9. Были образованы две железнодорожные компании, которые вели строительство навстречу
друг другу.
10. Рельсы этих двух дорог встретились в штате Юта 10 мая 1869 года.
11. К концу XIX века в США было построено уже 5 железных дорог от одного побережья до
другого.

Ex.IV. Fill in the chart and speak about the most notable events in the history of the US Railroads.

YEAR ENGINEER INVENTION RAILROAD LINE

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1815

1829

1830

1831

1835

1850

1853

1862

1865

1863

1869

Ex.V. Read about the most outstanding personages who contributed to the development of the US
Railroads. Discuss in your English group the role of politicians, engineers, inventors,
managers, financiers and workers in railroad construction.

THE UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD: SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS


ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1809 – 1865), the 16th President of the United States of America. In
1862, President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into Law, directing the Union Pacific and the
Central Pacific to build the nation’s first transcontinental rail line.

Dr. THOMAS C.DURANT (1820 – 1885), formerly associated with the construction of other
railroads, notably the Mississippi and Missouri Railroads across Iowa with engineer Henry Farnam,
Durant came to the Union Pacific Railroad as vice president and general manager. Durant worked at
every level within the project, from lobbying President Lincoln and maneuvering in Congress to
participating in the business of track-laying itself. Sidney Dillon, president of the UP in the 1870's and
the 1880's, described Durant as “a fast man”: “ He was a man who, when he undertook to help to build a
railroad didn't stop at trifles in accomplishing the end."

SAMUEL REED (1818 – 1891), began his career working on the Erie Canal. In 1864, he was hired
by T.C.Durant as locating engineer of the UP. Reed spent 6 months surveying between the Green River,
Wyoming, and the Salt Lake Valley, recommending the route over which the railroad was finally built.
It was Reed who had supervision of all grading, bridging, tunneling and track laying during
construction.

GENERAL GRENVILLE M.DODGE (1831 – 1916), the Civil War general and chief engineer of
the Union Pacific Railroad during its construction. No other man would be more important or more
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closely connected with the history of the Union Pacific and all western railroading than General Dodge.
Trained as a civil engineer, Dodge influenced the destiny of the UP line from the first steps of its survey
and construction to its reorganization 30 years later.

PETER A.DEY (1825 – 1911), a surveyor and a civil engineer. Formerly chief engineer of the
Mississippi and Missouri in Iowa, Dey, together with a young assistant by the name of Grenville Dodge,
undertook the first survey of a railroad across the state of Iowa. From 1863 to 1865, Dey directed
surveys of the road to Promontory, helped to secure land for right-of-way, ordered equipment, arranged
tie contracts, and served as chief engineer.

THE CASEMENT BROTHERS: JOHN STEPHEN CASEMENT (1829 – 1909), DAN


CASEMENT (1832 – 1881), together, the Casement brothers laid the entire track and undertook some
of the grading on the Union Pacific Road from Fremont, Nebraska, to Promontory, Utah. The brothers
went on building railroads in Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia, Canada
and Costa Rica.

OAKES AMES (1804 – 1873), OLIVER AMES (1807 – 1877), undertook the financing of the
construction of the Union Pacific. The Ames brothers invested more than $1 million of their own money
in the railroad and raised an additional $1.5 million upon the credit of their business, placing all the
resources of their factories at the Line's disposal. During a difficult and uncertain period of building,
Oakes Ames wrote General Dodge: “Stand by the company and let the Ameses take care of
themselves.” Later Dodge wrote in his reminiscences: "Nothing but the faith and courage of the Ameses
supported with their extensive credit, carried the thing through." Oliver Ames, a bright, tactful manager,
was later to become president of the UP from 1866 till 1871.

PRESIDENT ULYSSES S.GRANT (1822 – 1885), the Civil War general and the 18th president of
the United States (1868 – 1876). President Grant was in office during the construction of the
transcontinental line, and was one of its strongest advocates.

EDWARD HENRY HARRIMAN (1848 – 1909), railroad magnate, president of the Union Pacific
from 1904 to 1909. In 1897, Harriman bought the bankrupt UP for $110 million. Very soon he
improved the Line, spending over $240 million, and creating a mighty railroad empire.

GEORGE PULLMAN (1831 – 1897), together with ANDREW CARNEGY, in 1867, put forward
the idea of sleeping-cars. Pullman cars of the 1860's and 1870's offered comfort and luxury. The
Pullman Company eventually added diners, parlour cars, observation cars and other passenger cars.
Luxury, food you couldn't find at any restaurant back home, high taste and perfect service were the
Pullman's stock in trade.

EX.VI. Retell the TEXT according to the following plan.

1. The beginning of American railroad history (1815 – 1830).


2. Major railroad lines in the period of 1830 – 1850.
3. Locomotives for railroad tracks: experiments and engineering innovations.
4. Construction of the first transcontinental railroad in the USA.
5. The role of railroads in the development of the country.

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Ex.VII. Read the text.

UNION PACIFIC: ONE OF THE LARGEST IN THE USA

Union Pacific is an operating subsidiary of Union Pacific Corporation (UPC). It is one of the largest
railroads in North America, operating in the western 2/3 of the United States. The system serves 23
states, linking all major West Coast and Gulf Coast ports. It also serves four major gateways to the east:
Chicago, St.Louis, Memphis and New Orleans. UP is the primary rail connection between the US and
Mexico. It interchanges traffic with the Canadian rail system.
The railroad has one of the most diversified commodity mixes in industry, including chemicals,
coal, food, and food products, forest products, grain and grain products, metals and minerals,
automobiles and parts.
Union Pacific's largest single customer is APL Limited, a steamship company that operates in the
Pacific. The second is General Motors, followed by a number of chemical companies.
The railroad is the nation's largest hauler of chemicals, much of which originates along the Gulf
Coast near Houston, Texas. The line is also one of the major carriers of truck trailers and marine
containers.
Having access to coal-rich Powder River Basin in Wyoming and coal fields in Illinois, Colorado and
Utah, the railroad moves more than 130 million tons of coal annually. It's one of Union Pacific's fast-
growing business areas. The company is investing millions of dollars every year to add capacity to handle
coal traffic, including new locomotives, and new double and triple track main lines.
Although the Union Pacific Railroad's primary role is transporting freight, it also runs a substantial
commuter train operation in Ohio and California.

UNION PACIFIC fast facts: miles of track 33,705


employees 52,523
annual payroll $ 3 billion
locomotives 6,913
freight cars 156,308

Ex. VIII. Choose the right answer to complete each sentence.

1. Union Pacific Railroad is ...


a) a major railroad line in the USA.
b) the principal freight and passenger carrier in the country nowadays.
c) an operating subsidiary of Union Pacific Corporation.

2. Union Pacific is ...


a) the largest American railroad.
b) one of the largest railroads in the USA.
c) one of the largest railroads in North America.

3. Union Pacific operates ...


a) in the western part of the country.
b) in the western two-thirds of the USA.
c) on the eastern territory of the USA.
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4. The railroad serves ...
a) all states of the country.
b) most of the states in the country.
c) 23 states of the country.

5. The system links ...


a) the most important ports of the West and the East.
b) the major West Coast and Gulf Coast ports.
c) the major ports of the USA.

6. It also serves ...


a) four major gateways.
b) four major gateways to the north-east.
c) four major gateways to the east.

7. Union Pacific is the primary rail connection between ...


a) the USA and Canada.
b) the USA, Canada and Mexico.
c) the USA and Mexico.

8. Union Pacific interchanges traffic with ...


a) South America’s rail systems.
b) Mexico’s rail system.
c) Canada’s rail system.

9. The Union Pacific’s largest customer is ...


a) a steamship company APT Limited.
b) General Motors Corporation.
c) GMC and American Air Lines.

10. The other two are ...


a) General Motors Corporation and Ford Motor Company.
b) General Motors and American Truck Companies.
c) General Motors and a number of chemical companies.

11. The Line is the largest carrier of ...


a) truck trailers and marine containers.
b) coal and chemicals.
c) chemicals, truck trailers and marine containers.

12. Union Pacific has access to a coal-rich river basin ...


a) in Wyoming.
b) in Wyoming and coal fields in Illinois and Colorado.
c) in Wyoming and coal fields in Illinois, Colorado and Utah.

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13. Union Pacific moves ...
a) more than 130 million tons of coal every month.
b) 130 million tons of coal annually.
c) more than 130 million tons of coal every year.

14. Union Pacific Corporation is investing millions of dollars every year to add capacity to handle ...
a) freight and passenger traffic.
b) coal traffic.
c) new coal-hauling locomotives and new multiple-track trunk lines.

15. The Union Pacific Railroad also runs ...


a) a commuter train operation in Chicago and California.
b) some commuter train operation in Chicago and California.
c) a substantial commuter train operation in Chicago and California.

Ex.IX. Be ready to work on the following projects.

1. The American Railroads: Historical Background.


2. The Union Pacific Railroad: History and Present Day.
3. The Significant Individuals in the History of American Railroads.

53
СПИСОК ИСТОЧНИКОВ И ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

Основная литература:

1. Тарануха Н.А. Английский язык для транспортных специальностей вузов. Базовый


профессиональный курс. II том.- М:. «Солон-Пресс» «Библиотека студента» 2011 - 288с.
2. Хведченя Л.В. Английский язык для поступающих в ВУЗы. – Минск: «Высшая школа»
2008 - 345 с.
3. Христорождественская Л.П. Практический курс английского языка для начинающих.(2
части). – Минск: ООО «Попурри», 2008 -379 с.

Дополнительная литература:

1. Evans V. Round-Up. English Grammar Practice Books 4, 5, 6 / V. Evans. – Addison Wesley


Longman Limited, 2001.
2. Fisher L. Tracks Across America: The Story Of The American Railroad 1825-900 / L. Fisher. –
USA, 1992.
3. Spangenburg R., Moser D.K. The Story Of America’s Railroads / R. Spangenburg, D.K. Moser.
– Facts on File, USA, 1991.
4. Armstrong J. The Railroad – What It Is. What It Does / J. Armstrong. – Boardman, USA, 1993.
5. Spangenburg R., Moser D.K. The Story Of America’s Railroads / R. Spangenburg, D.K. Moser.
– Facts on File, USA, 1991.
6. Drury G.H. Guide To North American Steam Locomotives / G.H. Drury. – Kalmbach, USA,
1993.
7. Uyera O.A. Diesel Engine / O.A. Uyera. – University Of Wisconsin, USA, 1997.
8. Vernon P.R. Electric Railroad / P.R. Vernon. – Mechanical Engineering, University Of Florida,
USA, 1999.
9. The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. – Chicago, USA, 1997.
10. Encyclopedia Britannica CD. Standart edition CD. – Oxford University Press, UK, 2001.

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Интернет – ресурсы:

http://enterprise.alcatel-lucent.com/private/images/public/si/pdf_globalRailways.pdf
www.macmillanenglish.com
www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/leamingenglish
www.britishcouncil.org/learning-elt-resources.htm
www.developingteachers.com (lesson plans, tips, articles and more)
www.longman.com
www.oup.com/elt/naturalenglish
www. oup. com/elt/englishfile
www, oup. com/elt/ wordskills
www.cambridgeenglishonline.com

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