Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

...

3
........4
Infrastructure Ad-Hoc..6
.7
AD HOC....8
Ad-hoc ..8
Ad hoc ..11
Wi-fi..13
Wi-Fi: .14
Wi-Fi ..14
Wi-Fi15
..16
.16
Wi-Fi...17
Wi-Fi.18
Wi-Fi...19
Wi-Fi...20
Wi-Fi ..20
IEEE 802.11 ..21
..27
Wi-Fi29

.

, .

, ,
.
,
,
.
PAN ( ) , 10 ,
, ,
. .
, ,
.
PAN Bluetooth.
WLAN ( ) 100 .
,
. .
.
WLAN .
WLAN 802.11.
WWAN ( ) ,

. ,
GPRS
.
,
Wi-Fi
, . Wi-Fi ( . wireless
fidelity - ) -
802.11 1997. , Wi-Fi

,
.
Wi-Fi ,

802.11 .
Wi-Fi

.

,
,
(, Ethernet),
.
-.

. IEEE 802.11
Ad-hoc -. Adhoc ( -) ,
() ,
. -
, , ,
, .
,
,
, -.
IEEE 802.11b
:
500 , ,
100 , 30 . ,
(
)
2,4 , ,
, .
(
) ,
20 (
50 ).

Wi-Fi, (,
).
- . ( Ad-hoc IEEE 802.11)
.
.
,
.

7 . ,
,
7 , -.
,
.
,
IEEE 802.11, 0,1 ,

, 0,2-0,5
. , ,
( - 2 ). ,
, ,
,
, .

, , , ,
.
Wi-Fi ( [-], . Wireless Fidelity
,
Wireless LAN.
,
.

Wi-Fi . WiFi Alliance IEEE 802.11.
Wi-Fi : Ad-Hoc
. Ad-Hoc

.
- , -
. Ad-Hoc ,
, Independent Basic Service Sets
(IBSS).
,
.
,

. ,
, , ,
.

Wi-Fi
:
- Infrastructure. ( (host)
, )
(Access Point). ,
, 30$.
,
Wi-Fi-.

. , -
,
, .

. ,

. - .
- Ad-Hoc.
.
.
.

Infrastructure Ad-Hoc:
1) Ad-Hoc-
11 / (802.11b). Infrastructure
450 / (802.11n), 54 / (802.11g) 11
/ (802.11b). .
2) ,
.
,


3) Infrastructure , Ad-Hoc.
4)
DHCP, NAT, .


WiFi
. WiFi
. . WiFi
Ethernet,

.

AD HOC
- ,

, .
.

:
( ).
.
, Ad Hoc
11 /,
. ,
11/N /, N .
,
.
.

Ad-hoc
Infrastructure
() ad-hoc ().

. adhoc .
,

.
Ad-hoc
(, ),
.

, ,
.

.
, -.

,
.
Ad-hoc , .. , ,
, .
IBSS
IBSS, ad-hoc,
-. ad-hoc.
IBSS, ad-hoc IEEE
ad-hoc. IEEE 802.11.
ad-hoc, Lucent ad-hoc (,
, ad-hoc). ,
802.11, ad-hoc,
.
.
,

.
, .
. , ,

.

WEP ip-sec:

WEP. WEP Wired Equivalency Protocol


( ). WEP
,
.
IP-sec. ip-sec
.
.

,
:
bsd-airtools
bsd-airtools ,

WEP-, ..
bsd-airtools net/bsd-airtools.
wicontrol, ancontrol raycontrol
,
. Wicontrol ,
wi0.
Cisco,
an0, ancontrol


,
BSS ( ), ,
Prism 2, 2.5 3).
802.11a 802.11g
, ,
open source,
. ,
:
,


Microsoft Windows.
(wpaul),
Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS). FreeBSD
NDISulator ( Project Evil)
Windows , Windows.
,
.

Ad hoc :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .

Ad-Hoc:
.
Ad-Hoc ,
,
. ,
, , .
, ,
, (
).
Ad-Hoc
. ,
, .
.

, , ,
.
,
,
.
.
.

. ,
Ad-Hoc,
. AdHoc ( ).
,

.

ad hoc :
- Bluetooth
2.1 /,
1 100 .
Bluetooth
(, , , ). ,

.
- ZigBee
,
, ZigBee.
,
.
20 250 /.
- WiFi
.
WiFi 11 108 /,

(,
).
ad hoc ,
PCI, PCMCI, CompactFlash.
USB 2.0. Wi-Fi
, .
.
Centrino
Wi-Fi,
. Wi-Fi-, ,
( ),
.
Ad hoc
( ).

.
ad hoc
, , , , .

Wi-fi
Wi-Fi 1991 NCR Corporation/AT&T ( Lucent
Agere Systems) , . ,
,
WaveLAN 1 2
/. (Vic Hayes) Wi-Fi WiFi , ,
IEEE 802.11b, 802.11a 802.11g. 2003 Agere Systems.
Agere Systems
, , Wi-Fi
. 802.11abg all-in-one Agere ( : WARP)
, Agere Systems Wi-Fi 2004 .
Wireless-Fidelity - " ".

Wi-Fi:
Wi-Fi (AP,
. Access point) .
SSID (. Service Set IDentifier, Network name ,
) ,
, 100 .
1 M/ ,
. 1 M/
Wi-Fi, , ,
, , 1 M/.
( SSID), ,
. , Wi-Fi
, .
SSID
. WiFi
. Wi-Fi, ,
.
, zero
configuration,
. ,
. Wi-Fi
, ,
ethernet-,
, ethernet-.

Wi-Fi
, Wi-Fi
, GSM.

(. 802.1x, SIM- RADIUS),

Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi
, GSM, UMTS CDMA.
, Wi-Fi VoIP
SOHO. 90, 2005 .

Zyxel, UT Starcomm, Samsung, Hitachi


VoIP Wi-Fi . 2005
ADSL ISP VoIP
( ISP XS4All). VoIP
, , ,
VoIP,
VoIP. GSM
Wi-Fi VoIP ,
.
Wi-Fi . ,
Wi-Fi ,
. ,

, , . ,
,
.

Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
, -, (
Wi-Fi-)
: Ozone OzoneParis .
2003 Ozone OzoneParis The City of
Lights. Wi-Fi,
. Ozone Pervasive Network
, . WiSE
Technologies ,
, ; T-Mobile
Starbucks ,
7500 ; Pacific Century Cyberworks
Pacific Coffee ; Columbia Rural
Electric Association 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi
9,500 ?, -
, ;
: Boingo, Waypor iPass; Sify,
-, 120 ,
, . Vex

, . Telefonica
Speedy WiFi ,
Sao Paulo. BT Openzone
, McDonald's,
T-Mobile UK ReadyToSurf.
The Cloud. Netstop
. Golden Telecom
Wi-Fi ,
.Wi-Fi. EarthLink
2007 ()
. -
Wi-Fi. 20-22
1 /.
12-15 .


.


Wi-Fi
. Siemens Automation & Drives
Wi-Fi SIMATIC
IEEE 802.11b ISM- 2,4-
11 /.

, , Ethernet.


- .
,
,
. FON ,
2005.
2006 30000 .
: linus, ; bills,

; aliens,
bills. , .
, FON , Google
Skype, ,
. .
,
.
,
-
-. -
.
, MP3.
, FON , ,
.
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi, , , ,
Wi-Fi ,
, .
.
,
Wi-Fi . Wi-Fi ,
.

, Wi-Fi ,
(. Wi-Fi
). OLSR ,
. ,
OSPF. Wireless Leiden

LVrouteD Wi-Fi ,
.
, .

Wi-Fi Wi-Fi
. , ,
Wi-Fi

. , OzoneParis
, Pervasive Network,
Wi-Fi . Unwire Jerusalem
Wi-Fi
.
Wi-Fi , ,
.
, Panera Bread, WiFi . McDonalds Corporation
Wi-Fi 'McInternet'.
-, ; .
, ,
, ,
, , ,
. Sparknet
. Sparknet OpenSparknet ,
Sparknet,
.
Wi-Fi Wi-Fi .
, Wi-Fi-
.

Wi-Fi
,
. ,
, , ,
, . Wi-Fi-
.
.
Wi-Fi ,
, .
Wi-Fi . ,
Wi-Fi .

Wi-Fi

;
, ;
, , ,
. ,
, , Wi-Fi ,
, Wi-Fi-.

,
. , Wired Equivalent
Privacy WEP,
(- ). ,
Wi-Fi
Protected Access (WPA),
. 802.11i (WPA2) 2004
, .
, ,
.
( VPN) .
Wi-Fi . Wi-Fi
802.11b 802.11g 45
90 . . Wi-Fi
2.4 , Wi-Fi 5 ,
, Wi-Fi ( -Wi-Fi) 900 .

,
.
, ,
,
Wi-Fi.


.

Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
.
Iwata, Nintendo Nintendo Wii, Wi-Fi,
, , Super Smash Brothers .
Nintendo DS Wi-Fi. Sony PSP
, ,
Wi-Fi .

Wi-Fi
BSD (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD)
1998 . Atheros,
Prism, Harris/Intersil Aironet ( Wi-Fi
) BSD 3. Darwin Mac OS X,
FreeBSD, c ,
. OpenBSD 3.7,
, RealTek RTL8180L, Ralink RT25x0, Atmel
AT76C50x, Intel 2100 2200BG/2225BG/2915ABG.

OpenBSD. ,
BSD , ,
. Ndiswrapper FreeBSD.
Linux: 2.6, Wi-Fi
Linux. Orinoco,
Prism, Aironet Atmel , ADMtek
Realtek RTL8180L
, , . Intel Calexico
, Sourceforge.
Atheros Ralink RT2x00 .

ndiswrapper, Linux ,
Intel x86,
Windows .
. FSF
.

IEEE 802.11 ,
2,4; 3,6 5 .
IEEE 802.11
1 /
2 /.
IEEE
802.11a 54 /.
5 .
, 1999 IEEE 802.11b
802.11a,
: DSSS (, HR-DSSS)
802.11b OFDM 802.11a.
2,4 . 11
/.
IEEE 802.11b, ,
Wireless
Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA),
Wi-Fi Alliance.
, Wi-Fi,
Wi-Fi.
IEEE 802.11b ,
.
G,
N.
IEEE 802.11g 2002 .
2,4 ,
54 / , ,
IEEE 802.11b, 11 /.
, 802.11b.
IEEE 802.11g
DSSS,
OFDM,
54 /. ,
.

5 , 14-.
20 ,
3-
.

IEEE 802.11a Wi-Fi. ,


- IEEE 802.11b
802.11g, .
OFDM
.
,
. IEEE 802.11 54 /
. ( )
48 /, 36 /, 24 /, 18
/, 12 / 6 /.
IEEE 802.11a 802.11b 802.11g.

IEEE 802.11n 802.11 Wi-Fi.


11 2009. [1] [2]

802.11n
802.11g (
54 /), 802.11n
802.11n. 802.11n
600 /
. , 150 /.
802.11n 2,42,5 5,0 .
, 802.11n :
(Legacy),
802.11b/g 802.11a;
(Mixed), 802.11b/g,
802.11a 802.11n;
802.11n (

,
802.11n).
802.11n (DRAFT 2.0)
. (DRAFT 11.0),
11 2009 , 600
/, /, , MIMO
. 2011 ,
. D-LINK,
2008 .

. ,
2010 .
. WiFi ,
, .
, ,
:
;
,
, (a/b/g) . .;
( ,
);

, , , 2,4 ( , 1-, 6- 11-). ,


1- , 3-,
- ,
.
802.11n
2,4 5 . ,
.
- ,
802.11n CardBus ExpressCard
2,4 ,
mini-PCI .
802.11n
20 , 40
. 2.0
40- 5 ,

2,4 .
802.11n MIMO (Multiple Input,
Multiple Output , )


, ,

.

802.11n. 802.11n
,
802.11b 802.11g 2,4
802.11a 5 . 802.11n
,

.
Wi-Fi . 2.5
, ,
,
, .


Wi-Fi
()
,
.
Wi-Fi (,
) .

24002483,5 ( 802.11b 802.11g),
.
, 5 (
802.11a), .
2007 : 25
2007 . 476
12 2004 . 539
.
,
:
()
( ) 24002483,5
100
.
19
2009 . 09- 04-09, :
5150-5350 5650-6425
,
2,


.

13.3 13.4
( ).
, 2006 --
Wi-Fi (-).
,


, Wi-Fi.
, ,
, .

802.11b

2.4

11/c

0.4/c

38

140

802.11a

54/c

2.3/c

35

120

802.11g

2.4

54/c

1.9/

38

140

802.11n

2.4, 5

600/c

7.4/c

70

250

802.11n .
.
802.11n
24002483.5, 51505350 56505725
14 2010 .
124 .
I.
30 66 .
-
().

, .
802.11 1 / 2 /c, 2,4
(1997)
802.11a 54 /c, 5 (1999, 2001)
802.11b 802.11 5,5 11 / (1999)

802.11c ; IEEE
802.1D (2001)
802.11d (2001)
802.11e : QoS, packet bursting (2005)
802.11F Inter-Access Point Protocol (2003)
802.11g 54 /c, 2,4 ( b)
(2003)
802.11h 802.11a (5 GHz)
(2004)
802.11i (2004)
802.11j (2004)
802.11k
802.11l
802.11m ;
802.11n (600 /c). 2,42,5 5 .
802.11a/b/g .
D-Link, Cisco Apple. ( 2009)
802.11o
802.11p WAVE Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment
(
,

)
802.11q , 802.1Q
802.11r
802.11s ESS Mesh Networking (Extended Service Set

; Mesh Network )
802.11T Wireless Performance Prediction (WPP,
)

802.11u -802 (, )
802.11v

802.11x .
802.11y ,
3,65-3,70 .
54 b/ 5000
.
802.11w Protected Management Frames (
)

:
1. 802.11F 802.11T , ,
.
2. .
IEEE 802.16 (
802.16a ),
70 /.

Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
, .
Wi-Fi ,

. 802.11
: ,
. ,
Wi-Fi , ,
, ,
Wi-Fi.

Оценить