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. .

2001

. . : . : - , 1999. .1. 199 .


ISBN 5-7782-0264-4
( )
, ,
,
, , . , ,
( ) ,
,
, . ,
. -
.

. 73, . 3, . . 50
- . , . . . ,
. . .

ISBN 5-7782-0264-4

. ., 1999 .

, 1999 .
2


...............................................................................................................

1. -
...................................................................................................................

11

1.1. .....................................................................................................................
1.2. .......................................................................................
1.2.1. ...
1.2.2.
.........................................................
1.3. ...........................................
1.3.1. ...............................................
1.3.1.1. ..........................................
1.3.1.2. ..............................................
1.3.1.2.1. ..........................................................
1.3.1.2.2. ............................................................................
1.3.2. .................................................................
1.3.3. ..........................................................................................
1.4. ...........................................
1.5. ................................................
1.5.1. ....................
1.5.2. ......
1.5.2.1. .................................................................
1.5.2.2. .................................................................
1.5.2.3. .............................................................................
1.5.2.3.1. 1 ...........................................................................
1.5.2.3.2. 2 ...........................................................................
1.5.2.3.3. (1) .........................................................................
1.5.2.3.4. 1, 2, (1) ..................................
1.5.2.3.5. . ..................................................

17
21
21
22
26
26
27
32
34
35
40
40
41
41
42
43
44
50
53
55
57

1 ............................................................................................................

58

11
15
15

1 ......................................................................................................

59

2.
........................................................................................

60

2.1. . ............
2.2.
/ .....................................................................................................
2.3. (m1 = 1, m2 = 2, q = 1) ..........
2.4. (m1 = m2 = 1, q = 2) ....
2.5. - (m1 =m2 = 3, q = 1) ...
2.6. - (m1 = m2 = 3, q = 1) ..................................
2.7.
- (m1 = 3, m2 = 2 3, q = 1) ........................................................................
2.8. (m1=m2=3, q=2).. .........
2.9. . ....................

93
101
105

2 ............................................................................................................

109

2 ......................................................................................................

110

3. ( )
......................................

111

3.1. . .................................................................
3.2. Ld ...................................................................................................
3.2.1. ( < 2/qm2) ................................................
3.2.2. - ( = 2/qm2) .............................
3.2.3. ( > 2/qm2) ................................................
3.3. ...........
3.4. - .............................................................................................
3.4.1. (m1=1, m2=2, q=1) ................
3.4.2. (m1=3, m2=3, q=1) ..................
3.5.* ( ) ..........................................................
3.6.
.........................................................................................................
3.7.
................................................................................................
3.8. * . ...........................................
4

60
65
70
79
81
89

111
119
120
123
123
126

127
129
136
138
142
146
149

3.9. *
..................................................................................
3.10.
..............................................
3.10.1. ...................................................
3.10.2. ...................................................................
3.11. ..................................
3.11.1. ............
3.11.2. - ...........................................................................
3.11.3. ,
....................................................
3.12. ( ) ....
3.13. .................................................................................................

154
156
156
158
160
161
162
165
169
173

3 ............................................................................................................

179

3 ......................................................................................................

180

4. ......................

182

4.1. ( ) .............................
4.2. (
) ..............................................................................

182
186

................................................................................................................

192

.................................................................................................................

194

.......................................................................................

197


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13

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1.1.1


,
,

14

1.2.



, .
1.2.1.

.
1.

K . =

U .
,
U .

K . =

I .
I .

(1.2.1)

, , . .
, .
,
, , , .
2. ( )
I =

I (1)
I

(1.2.2)

I(1) , I .
3. ( )
I .
,
(1.2.3)
I
I. (
).
.
I (1)
I (1)
1
1
, (1.2.4)
I =
=
=
=
2
2
2
2
I
I (1) + I .
1 + K .
I .

1+
I (1)

K . =

15


1
1
2I

K . =

(1.2.5)

4.
.
P(1)

cos (1) =

P(12) + Q(21)

(1.2.6)

P(1) , ;
Q(1) ,
.
5.
=

P
,
S

(1.2.7)

P ;
S .

=

P(1) EI (1) cos (1)


=
= I cos (1) .
S
EI

(1.2.8)

6.
=

P
.
P

(1.2.9)


( ) (1.8)
.
P = P ,

U (1) I (1) cos (1) = U (1) I (1) cos (1) ,


cos (1) = K . K . cos (1) .
16

(1.2.10)

7.
=

P
P P
= = .
S
S P

(1.2.11)

8.
K =

X max
,
X

(1.2.12)

Xm ( ) (),
X ().
1.5.3. .
, ( , ,
),
, ,

13109-87.

:
;
;
;
.
: 1) ,
2) , 3) (. 1.5).
1.2.2.


( ) () .
17


(
) ( )
S
U I +U2I2
.
S * = = 1 1
P
2P

(1.2.13)

, , 0,5
-
SL 1 U L IL
=
P 2 P

S L* =

(1.2.14)

W = LI 2 .
() ( )

,
.
QC* =

QC U C I C
=
.
P
P

(1.2.15)

CU2 ( ).

Wc = CU2
, , ,
, .
18

w
.
() :
S = nI aU b max ,

n .
I a ,
:
S = nI a maxU b max .


, ,
.

1. [/]
MS =

M
,
S

(1.2.16)

M ,
S () , .
2. [3/]
VS =

V
,
S

(1.2.17)

V , 3.
[../]
CS =

C
,
S

, ..
:
19

(1.2.18)

[/3]
M MS
,
=
V
VS

MV =

(1.2.19)

[../]
CM =

C
C
= S
M MS

(1.2.20)

[../3]
CV =

C CS
=
V VS

(1.2.21)

[/3]
PV =

P
V

(1.2.22)

[/]
P
M

PM =

(1.2.23)

( ) [/] [/]:

PS =

P
S

PQ =

P
;
Q

(1.2.24)

.
PW =

P
.
W

(1.2.25)


:
20

PM =
VS =

PS
,
MS

MS
,
MV

PV = PM M V =

PS M V
.
MS

(1.2.26)

(1.2.27)

(1.2.28)

,
,
.
(, , , ) [25].
,
.
, [13, 36, 37].
1.3.


, , , .
1.3.1.

,
,
: () (, ). :
1) ;
21

2) .
1.3.1.1.

,

, . . ,
. , . .
, ( )
, . , ,
, ,
.
,
, ()
.

p-n-p-n
( p-), ( n) ( ) p-n-p-n-p , () p-n-p-n
. . 1.3.1
- . . 1.3.2
( , )
- .

22

. 1.3.1

. 1.3.2

, , :
Ia,
-
( ) . (50 ).
= ( ),
= /2 ( ).
1
;
I, ,
. ;
Umax
, .
( 1
50 ), 100 ;
23

t,
( )
, . ( ) (
);
Q, ( ), ;
Ibmax, Q ( ) di/dt:
di
I b max = 2Q ;
dt

(1.3.1)

, -
- , .
;

,
p-n ,
() p-n . ;
, .
400 , 1020 ;
t t
24

;

, :
U ( ), I ( ),
dI/dt (12 /), (20100 ).
,
;
- U0 R. . 1.3.3 () .

1 ,
I

, 1/I [].
. 1.3.3
, ;

, . . p-n ,
[/].
: p-n Rn, p-n Rn, p-n Rnc. ,
(
), p-n ( 150 0,
110120 0);
25

dt -

, ,
.
, , .
1.3.1.2.

, .
() (
GTO Gate Turn Off) (, , , IGBT Isolated
Gate Bipolar Transistor).
1.3.1.2.1.

() () , , ,
.
,
, 45.
,
() ,
. : 2,5 , 4 , 1 ,
35. GTO . 1.3.4, .
GTO-
,
(GCT - Gate Commutated Thyristor IGCT - Integrated
Gate Commutated Thyristor). , -

26

/ ,

. 1.3.4

, , . IGCT 3 ,
3,5 . GTO-,
, .
, . . IGCT- .1.3.4, .
( ) - (MOS Controlled
Thyristor),
GTO-- .
1.3.1.2.2.

,
, , . , ,
.

27

(BPT).
p-n-p n-p-n ,
p-n : .
p-n
, , ,
, . ()

,
, , ( )
.

1 . 1.3.1.
( ) . .
( ), . .
;
.
i ,

i ,
,
.


.
( ) ,
.
. ,
,
()
. (
) 28

, ( ). : n- p.
1.3.1

..

29

p-n - ( n-) 2 . 1.3.1.



( ), ,
.
, . . .
- ,

( ) .
.
. , :
() ( ) - n-.
n- 3 . 1.3.1.
MOSFET FET (Metall - Oxide Semiconductor - Field - Effect Transistor),
() ( ), , , .

( ),
,
() .

,

30

.
. , ( )
( )
() IGBT (Isolated Gate Bipolar
Transistor).
, . , , . . , .

IGBT ,
- n- 4 . 1.3.1.
IGBT-
1200
3500 .

GTO ,
.
,
- . 1.3.1,
()
- .
GTO- .
19801990 2000 .
. 1.3.5 ( Chip News 1999, N1).

31

. 1.3.5

, . . ,
. , ( - ),
(Smart,
Intelligent ).
.
, ,

. ,

, , .
1.3.2.

, , , .

,
32

. , ,

.
, ( ). , 50 ,
(), , ,
.
, .
( 50 ) [25,27,36,37].
, ,
10200
MS = 105 /,

MV = 42 3/.


0,960,98.

, .


, .
Sop
S:
Uk % =

Sop
100 % .
S
33

(1.3.3)

(17 )
, :
MV = 5035 3/.

MS = 2520 /,

, ( ),
10200
MV = 1,70,7 3/.

MS = 3,51,5 /,

1.3.3.

( ) . () , ()
, , ,
() ,
. ( ), .
, - , ,
.
, , () .
, tg .

34

Pc = C1

n =1

nU (2n ) tg ( n ) .

(1.3.4)

tg (n) ,

.
,

. , ,
.
. f = 50
- 0,15 3/, 72-11

500 0,6 3/, 50-27 0,0020,005 3/. ,


2 /3,
. 12 .
1.4.



, .

( ) ( )
. 1.4.1.

.

() () , ,
35

/, AC-DC (Alternative Current - Direct Current, . .


).

, ,
. 1.4.1 , ,
, /,
AC-AC.
, , , /().

,
, , /().
, /().
,
, /
DC-AC.
,
( ), / DC-DC.
() ,
, ( ) (), (),
() . : (
()) (
()). ,
36


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).
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( , . 1.4.1).
, -,
, -,

, -, () . , ( ) ,
, , ,

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, () (). ,
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37

, , .
, . , , ( -, ) . ,
/,
( ):
/()-/ (
, );
/-/ ( ,
);
/-/-/ ( ,

, ) ..
,
.

,
.

, . 1.4.2. ()

,
. 1.4.2
() .
y (, ,
38

) u , . .

y = u = u (0 + (1) + ) = u0 + u(1) + u

(1.4.1)

0 ;
.
u (
), u(1) ,
( u0, u u(1)).
,


.

.
,
, . 1.4.3
. 1.4.3.

U = u,

(1.4.2)

i = i,

i = i,

39

(1.4.3)

u = u.
(1.4.2)
(1.4.3) .
,
, , .
1.5.


.
1.5.1.


. , , , . .
.
,

(, , ),

(1.4.2) (1.4.3). . (, 40

), () .

[20, 38].

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
1.5.2.

1.5.2.1.


,
, , .

I=

1 2
i dt ,
T

1 2
u dt .
T

U=

(1.5.1)

P=

1
uidt ,
T

(1.5.2)

( )
Q=

di
1
1 du
u dt = i
dt ,
T dt
T
dt
0


41

(1.5.3)

1
u 2 dt
T

S =U I =

1 2
i dt .
T

(1.5.4)

,
[20, 21, 39].
Mj =

Cj
T

i dt .
N j {u}L j {}

(1.5.5)

Nj u
Lj i
Mj S.
.
, , .
.
1. , , , .
2.
.
.
3. ( 23)

, ,
.
1.5.2.2.


,
, , 42

() . ,

I=

I(2k ) ,

U=

k =1

U (2k )

(1.5.6)

k =1

I (k), U (k) k- .

P=

U (k ) I (k ) cos (k )

(1.5.7)

k =1

()

Q =

U (k ) I (k ) sin (k ) .

k =1

(1.5.8)


S = UI =

U (2k )

k =1

I (2k )

(1.5.9)

k =1

.
.
.
.
1.
, .
2. , .
, .

43

3. , ,
.
1.5.2.3.

.
, (
), ( ). , ,
() [21],

.
, , .
, . :
( 1);
( 2);
( (1));
, ( 1),
( 2), ( (1)).
1.5.2.3.1. 1


, .
, .
44


, ()
.
LC-
. 1.5.1
R
. 1.5.1.
2. , , , , .
1
pC
U ( p)
1
I ( p) =

=
2
1 R p LCR + pL + R
1
R
R+
pC
pC
pL +
1
R+
pC
U ( p)

p=

d
di
d 2i
, LCR
+ L + Ri = u .
2
dt
dt
dt

(1.5.10)


,
a2

d 2i
dt

+ a1

du
d 2u
di
+ a0 i = b2
+ b1
+ b0u .
2
dt
dt
dt

(1.5.11)


a2 = LCR, a1 = L, a0 = R, b2 = b1 = 0, b0 = 1.
3.
, (
).
45

i (q ) =

K dt idt ,

(q )

K dt udt ,

(1.5.12)

a 2 i + a1 i + a 0 i ( 2 ) = b 2 u + b1 u + b0 u ( 2 ) .

(1.5.13)

. -, u .
( ,
). -, ,
, ,
.
4. :
, . .
1
T

( )

dt .

(1.5.14)

(1.5.13) , .
(1.5.14)
2
T
a 2 T ( 2) 2
a 22 T 2
a2 T 2
( 2)
1
i dt + 1 i dt + 0 i dt +
a 2 i + a1 i + a0 i dt =

T
T
T
T

0
0
0
0

()

2a a T ( 2 )
2a a T ( 2)
2a2 a1 T
i idt + 1 0 i i dt + 2 0 i i dt .

T
T
T
0

46

(1.5.15)
[21],
( ) :
0

T (q ) (q )

1
1
2
i
i
dt = q1 + q 2

T
I 2
0

(q1+q2)
2

(q1+q2)

(1.5.16)

, q1
q2 , q1
q2 .
, (1.5.15)
, , , :

)( )

a22I 2 + a12 2a2a0 I

)( )

( 2)
+ a02 I = b22U 2 + b12 2b2b0 U

( 2)
+ b02 U ,

(1.5.17)

,
:

(U )2 = T1 (u )2 dt ,
T

(1.5.18)

U ( 2) = 1

(u

( 2) 2

(u

(q) 2

) dt

(1.5.19)

) dt .

(1.5.20)

U ( q ) = 1

47

5. (1.5.17), ( I , I , I (2) ),
I.
N = 1 ,
i i (1) ,

( 2)

( 2)

i (1) ,

I I (1) =
I

( 2)

I (1)

( 2)

I (1) =

,
I(1)
2

(1.5.21)
.

(1.5.22)

,
,
k- k
. ,
,
/ ( / ). [21].
6.
(1.5.17), (1.5.21), (1.5.22), , I(1)
(1). -

U , U
.
U=

U (2k )
k =1

(2)

= U (1)

U (k )
1+
U
k = 2 (1)

48

= U (1) 1 + 2

(1.5.23)

(U (k ) )

U=

k =1

( 2)

(q)

U (1)

U (k )
1+
kU (1)
k = 2

2
U (k )
U (1)
( 2)
= U ( k ) =
1 +
2

2
k =1
k = 2 k U (1)

2
U (k )
U (1)
(q)
= U ( k ) =
1 +
q

q
k =1
k = 2 k U (1)

( )2 ,

= (1) 1 +

2
= U (1) 1 + ( 2) ,

2
= U (1) 1 + ( q ) ,

(1.5.24)
2

U (k )

q
k = 2 U (1) k
q- . ,
, , ( ) , -
,
.
q- , q ,
.
( ), (
), ( ).

(q)

(
d qu
u (q) = u (q) =
,
dt q

49

(
U (q) = U

(q)

( )

(
2
U (k ) q
= U (1) 1 +
k = q U (1) 1 + ( q ) ,
U (1)

k = 2

(1.5.25)
2

U (k )

U k q k = 2 (1)

q- . kq q- .
,
( (1.5.17) (1.5.24) ,
. 1.5.1
b2 = b1 = 0)

(
( q ) =

U (21)
a 22

( )

2
b02 1 + K ( 2)

2
2
I (1)
I (1)

2
2
a1 2a 2 a 0
a0

.
4
U (21) 2
U (21) 4

(1.5.26)
(C, L, R) (a2, a1, a0, b2, b1, b0),

U(1), , K , K 2 . . 1.5.1

U(1) K 2 . , ,

, .
50

[21].
1.5.2.3.2. 2

I 1
I(1).
I(1)

2
I = I (21) + I
,

(1.5.27)

I , ( ). 2 I,

I, , I(1).

i i. ,
i = i (1) + i

(1.5.28)

1. . 1.5.1 .
, . 1.5.1.
, , , ,

[21].

51

2. , i.
,
(1.5.11),
a2

d 2 i
dt 2

+ a1

di
d 2 u
du
+ a 0 i = b 2
+ b1 + b0 u . (1.5.29)
2
dt
dt
dt

3. .
(2)
(2)
a 2 i + a1i + a 0 i
= b2 u + b1u + b0 u
.

(1.5.30)

4. (1.5.14). ,
(1.5.29), ,
.

( )

a T ( 2) 2
a T 2
a T
2
1 T
( 2) 2
a 2 i + a1i + a1i
dt = 2 i
dt + 1 i dt + 0 i
dt +

0
T
T
T
T

( )

2a a T
2a a T
2a 2 a1 T
( 2)
( 2)
i i dt + 1 0 i i
dt + 2 0 i i
dt.

T
T
T
0

(1.5.31)
(1.5.16),
(1.5.31) ,

)( ) + a (I ) =
+ (b 2b b )(U ) + b (U )

2
a2I
+ a12 2a2a0 I
2

= b2U

2
1

2 0

52

2 (2) 2
0

2
0

( 2) 2

(1.5.32)
.

5. (1.5.32), (2)
, I, I, I

. ,
1 (1.5.21)
(1.5.22)
i = 0 ,

i = i (1) + i i (1) ,

I = 0 ,

( 2)
i
= 0,

( 2)
i ( 2 ) = i ((12) ) + i
i ((12) ) ,

(1.5.33)

( 2)
I
= 0.

(1.5.34)

6. . :
2
I
=

)( )

1
b U 2 + b12 2b2 b0 U
2 2
a2

U (21)
b K 2 + b12 2b2 b0
=
2 2
a2

( )

( 2) 2
+ b02 U
=

2
K ( 2)

+ b2
0
2

(1.5.35)

(1.5.26) 1 , , b2 = b1 = 0, b0 = 1,

I =

U (1)
a2 2

(K ) ,
( 2)

(1.5.36)

. .
.
()
() , () . , , 1.2.1,
.
53

, 1 2, ,
.
, 10 20 %.
1.5.2.3.3. (1)


1 2,
.
(1).

d 2i
2

dt

(1)

+a

di

(1)

dt

+a i

=b

0 (1)

d 2u

dt

(1)

+b

du

(1)

dt

+ b0 u

(1)

(1.5.37)

( )

( )

2
2
2
2
(2)
(2)
a2 I (21) + a12 2a2 a0 I (1) + a02 I (1) = b2U (21) + b12 2b2b0 U (1) + b02 U (1) .

(1.5.38)
(1.5.21) (1.5.22)
U (1) =

U (1)

U ((12) ) =

U (1)
2

(1.5.38)

54

I (21) = U (21)

(
+ (a

)1 + b
a
1
2a a )
+

b22 + b12 2b2b0


a22

2
1

2 0

2
0
4

2
0
4

(1.5.39)

(1.5.39) ( )
Z(1) k-
, k:

Z (21) =

a22 +
b22

a12 2a2 a0
b12

2
2b2ba0
2

+
+

a02
4 .
b02

(1.5.40)

1 2 , , .
,
, , .


J(i) cos , . .
2
2T

( ) cos t dt = 1 .

(1.5.41)


J(i) sin , . .
2
2T

( ) sin t dt = 2 .

55

(1.5.42)


J(i) cos J(i) sin
= arctg

I(1) cos
I(1) sin

(1.5.43)

I (1) = I (21) sin + I (21) cos .

(1.5.44)

1.5.2.3.4. 1, 2, (1)

1.2 , .
1, 2, (1). , 1, 2,
(1).
,
, 4
.


(1.5.5).
2.
. 1.5.1 , u,
i. , (1.5.10),

56

LC

d 2 i .
dt

+L

di .
du
+ Ri . = RC + u .
dt
dt

(1.5.45)

(1.5.11)
a2 = LC, a1 = L, a0 = R1

b2 = 0, b1 = RC, b0 = 1.

,
( 2)
a 2 i . + a1i . + a 0 i ( 2.) = b1u + b0 u
,

(1.5.46)

. (1.5.46)

( (1.5.2)), . .
1
T

( ) u dt ,

(1.5.47)

:
a 0 T ( 2)
a2 T
a1 T
+
+
i
u dt =
i
u
dt
i
u
dt
T .
T .
T .
0

b T ( 2)
b T
= 1 u u dt + 0 u
u dt .
T
T
0

(1.5.48)


(1.5.33) (1.5.34).
(1.5.48)
2
2
b
b U (1) (K )
2
1 U (1) (K )
P. = 0 (U ) = 0
=
(1.5.49)
a2
a2
RLC
2
2
2


.
57

1.5.2.3.5.

1. ,

,

.
2. ,
( ) .
( )
(1.5.27) = (1) + b2 . , (I(1), M(1))
, .

, ,
.
( ), .
,
.
.
3.
n-

.



,
[20].

58

,
.
. .

1. ?
2. ?
3. , ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. ?
10. ?
11.
?
12.
?
13. ?
14. .
15. IGBT- MOSFET ?
16. .
17. ?
18.
?
19. .
20. ?
59

21. ?
22. ?
23. 1 ?
24. 2 ?
25. (1)?
26. 1 ?
27. (1) ?

,
...
..

1.*
.
2.*
.
3.
s = 5 / Vs = 3 3/.
Mv.
4. = 400
0,9, 0,8. 300 , 200 3.
.
5.* RL-
.
6.* RL-

60

2.


-
\
- ...
. .


.
..
2.1. .



:
= {Z, S, P, V, X, Y}

(2.1.1)

Z ;
S = {PS, CS} , PS CS,
-, , ,
.., ;
P = {PP, CP} PP
CP;
V (
, ,
);
X (, , );
61

Y ( , , (, ..)).
.
1. .
, . . S, V, P.
, .
.
.
2. . ,
, S, V, Y. , -
Z Xlim. ,
( ).
() .
3. . , . . V, Y Y.
,
, . . S, P, X (
V ). , .
,
, .
, .
4. .
, . . V, Y.
S P, .
.
.
,
, . .
, 62

, . . ().
- . 2.2.1.
/, , , (),
,
1 2

/,


. 2.2.1
.

. .
{S} -, .

- 2 .
{PP}
: , .
{CP} 2.
, {V, X, Y}
.

. ,
e, u, i, (63

, , ) E,
U, I. , , , 1
(u1, i1), , , 2 (u2, i2), ,
, d (ud, id) ( direct ,
3040- ). m,
f = 2f.
S , P , s = ui
, Q ,
Q = S 2 P 2 .

.
, ,
.
: .
( ) .
. q = 1 q = 2.
p = qm2,
.


1
=
1t.
. 2.1.2

64

F F f (t)
F =

1
T

1
T

(t ) dt =

F =

1
T

1
2

() d =

f (t )dt =

1
T

f ()d =

1
2

() d , (2.1.2)

f ()d .

(2.1.3)


- ,
, .
,
F. F. , (2.1.2) (2.1.3),
. 2.1.2,
F =

1
T

F =

1
T

(t ) dt

t
=
t

f (t ) dt

t 1
T t

t 1
=
t t

f 2 (t ) dt =

f (t ) dt =

F .
q0

F .
,
q0

(2.1.4)

(2.1.5)

T
.
t
, ,
. , , ()
.
q 0 =

2.2.
/

65


() ()
,
.

. 2.2.1

. 2.2.2

. 2.2.3

. 2.2.4

66

()
. 2.2.1, , ud
id . 2.2.1, , . 2.2.1, - .
Ld
(),
. -
,
Ld, Rd .
, ,
. . . , ,
, , .
:
V0, . 2.2.2, ;
q = 1,
, q = 2 ( , , ), . 2.2.3, ;
,
. 2.2.4, ;
Ld.
V0 2 , Ld.
1, 2, 3, 4, , . 2.2.1, .

67


f = qm2f1 , . 2.2.4 .
, .

,
, . . Rd,
Ld, , m.
,
,
( )
Xd

did
+ id Rd = e2 = 2E2 sin ,
d

(2.2.1)


Ld

did
did
did
= Ld
= Xd
.
dt
d (t )
d

id = id + id =

2E 2
sin ( ) + A1e ,
Zd

(2.2.2)

Xd
Xd
, =
.
Rd
Rd
1 ( 2.2.2)
id = 0 = .

Zd =

Xd 2 + Rd 2 , = arctg

A1 =

2 E2
sin ( ) .
Zd

(2.2.3)

(2.2.2)
id =

2 E2
sin ( ) + sin ( )e .
Zd

68

(2.2.4)

(2.2.4) , id = 0 = +:
sin ( + ) + e

sin ( ) = 0 .

(2.2.5)

,
= f (, xd/Rd),
. 2.2.5.

,

. 2.2.5
( ),
, , . 2.2.4:
=

+.
2 qm

(2.2.6)


1 (2.2.1)
id

= id

(2.6)

69

2
=
qm

(2.2.7)

id =

2 E2
Zd

2
sin +
sin ( )

qm

sin ( ) +
e .
2

qm

1
e

(2.2.8)
, (2.2.4) (2.2.8) ,
:
1. , ,
, (, ),
.
2. Ld
, .
3. Ld
,
, . . .
4. Ld
Rd, . .
, , .
( Rd)
. ( )
3.3.5.
5.

, . :
, . .
=U1/U2;

70

, . . ,
( ) ,
;
, , . .
Ld (Xd) = ,
, .


, , . ,


. ,

, , .
2.3.
(m1 = 1, m2 = 2, q = 1)

( ) , . , ,
,
. 2.3.1.

. .

. 2.3.1
.
71

,
.

( = 0)
. 2.3.2.


u2a,
u2x
,
.

. 2.3.2

(, ) : ,
. .
ud id
Xd = . .
,
Id.
,
( ) .
i1 ub1. 3, u2x , 1 u2 u2x, . .
u2.
72

: ,
. , , .
, .
u2a 1, , . . i2a = ia1, .
u2x, . . i2x = ia3, , , i2a,
. , ,


i1 u1, u2a
, .
, :
i1w1 = i2a w2 i2 x w2

i i
w
i1 = (i2a i2 x ) 2 = 2 a 2 x ,
w1
K

(2.3.1)

w1, w2 .

, .
,
. (
)
,
73

, .
. -,
, -, . ,
,
, .
,
, .
.
, -,
, . . , , ,
. -, .

.
1. Ud0 . 2.3.2.
Ud0 =

u d d =

2 2
1
2 u 2 sin d =
U 2 = 0.9U 2 ,

U2 =

Ud0
KE

2 2

U d 0 = 1.11U d 0 .

2. Ia

74

(2.3.2)

Ia =

1
2

i a d =

1
2

I d d =

Id
.
2

(2.3.3)

3. I.
I a. =

1
2

i a2 d =

1
2

I d2 d =

Id
2

(2.3.4)

I .
= 2.
Ia

(2.3.5)

4.
Ia.max = Id .

(2.3.6)


= Ia.max/Ia = 2.

(2.3.7)

5.
Ud0
U b*. max =

U b. max
U d0

2U 2. max 2 2 U 2
=
= .
U d0
U d0

(2.3.8)

6.
()
S b*1 =

S b1
nU b max I a
=
= ,
Pd o
Pd o

(2.3.9)

(, )
S b*2 =

S b 2 nU b max I a max
=
= 2 .
Pdo
Pdo

75

(2.3.10)

7.

I 2 = I . =

Id
2

(2.3.11)

8.

I1 =

Id
,
K

(2.3.12)


1
=

Id
= .
I1

(2.3.13)

9.

S 2 = 2U 2 I 2 = 2

2 2

U do

Id
2

P , S 2* = 2 = ,
Pd 0 2
2 do

(2.3.14)

Pd0 .
10.
S1 = U 1 I 1 = K

I
S

U d 0 d = 1.11Pd 0 , S1* = 1 = 1.11 .


Pd 0
K
2 2

(2.3.15)

11.
( ),

S + S 2 1.11 + 1.57
S
S = 1
=
Pd 0 = 1.34 Pd 0 , S * = = 1.34 .
Pd 0
2
2

(2.3.16)

12. Ld
.

, (Ld = )
76

.
( )
.


2. , (),

Ld

di d .
= u d . .
dt


I d . =

U K
1
U d . = d 0 ,
L d
Ld

(2.3.17)


U d (k )
K =
U d0
k =1

(2.3.18)

(2.3.17)
I
U
K
.
K = d . = do
Id
I d Ld

(3.19)

,
Ld =

U d0 K
.
I d K

(2.3.20)

77

P K
W L = Ld I d2 = d 0 .
K

(2.3.21)

, ,
, (
), .
, (
),
. ,
,
(3.21) :
S
K
W L
= .
S *.L = .L = Q L* =
Pd 0
Pd 0
K

(2.3.22)

qm2 = 2, K = 0,24.
, , ,
,
,
.


.
,
S *.L =

K
W L
= ,
Pd 0
K

(2.3.23)

. . . = 0,67.
13.

78

P
1
= 1 = I =
= 0.9 , cos 1(1) = 1 ,
S1
S1*

(2.3.24)

= 0,48.
14. ( )
K =

U d0 2 2
=
K .

U1

(2.3.25)

15. ( )
K =

Id
I
K
= d = = 1.11K .
I 1(1) I I 1 I

(2.3.26)



I
= d = K = I K .
K
I1

(2.3.27)

Ia (Ia.max), Ub.max . U2, I2, I1, S ,


.

.

.
, S * > 1 34 %. , -
.

, .

79


( ).
.
U1 = 220
Pd0 35 300
15 .
2.4.
(m1 = m2 = 1, q = 2)

. 2.4.1.
( ) ( ).

.

. , .
,
, . . . 2.4.1
.
, . .
,
.

. 2.4.2 ,
.
.
80
. 2.4.2


. 3, 4 1
u2. ,
, , 1 4 .

.

.
.

U *. =

2 U2
U .

2
=
=

U = .
U d0
U d0 2 2 d0 2
Ed0

I2 =

1
2

2
2

d =

I d d = I d .

S2 = U 2 I2 =

2 2

U d I d = 1,11 P d 0
0

S 2* = 1,11.


S = S 2 = S1 = 1,11 P d 0

S * = 1,11 .

,
.
81

,
, .
:
, - (
) ;

, (
);
, p=qm2 = 2;
,

, .
, ,

( ).
2.5.

(m1 = m2 = 3, q = 1)

. P d 35 0


1625 ( ,
).
. -

82

(, , , ) e
.
,

, ,
. 2.5.1.

.
:

. 2.5.1
, .
, .
. 2.5.2 ,
u2a, u2b, u2c
, .
,
,
(
83

. 2.5.2

, ). ,


,
. 2.2.4,
.
u d 0 , id
Xd = .
, () . ia1
ub1.
(u2a) udo, ()
. .
, i2a ia1, , .

, . . I2(=), , . .
Ia.

I2(=) (
I2(=)) i2()
i2= i2() + I2(=).

(2.5.1)


( - ). 84

, ,
,
i1 =

i 2 I 2( = )
K

(2.5.2)

,

, , ,
2.3 3.5.
, .
- .

,

= , , .
,
, , . .
( 1/3 , ).
(
,
), ,
1/32, . . 16,5 %.

16,5 %, 85

.
.
, , , ( d ),

, - . , , ,
,
[8].

. , ,
,
, .
.
1.
U d
0

Ud0 =

3 6
1
2 U 2 cos d =
U = 1,17U 2 ,

2 2
2
3 3

(2.5.3)

U2 =

U d0
1,17

= 0,84 U d 0 .

(2.5.4)

, .
2.

86

Ia =

1
2

i a d =

2 / 3

1
2

I d d =

Id
.
3

(2.5.5)

3.
I . =

1
2

i a d =

1
2

2 3

I 2d d =

Id
3

(2.5.6)


K =

I a.
= 3.
Ia

(2.5.7)

4.
I a max = I d .

(2.5.8)


Ka =

I a max
= 3.
Ia

(2.5.9)

5.
U *b max =

2 3 U2
=
U d0

2 3 2

2
= 2,09 .
3

(2.5.10)

2 U d 0 I d 2
Sb
U
I
,
= n b max a = 3
=
33
3
Pd 0
Pd 0

(2.5.11)

U b max
=
U d0

3 6

6. :

S *b1 =


S *b 2 = S *b1 K a = 3

87

2
= 2 .
3

(2.5.12)

7.
I 2 = I a =

Id
.
3

(2.5.13)

8.
I1 =

1
2

i12 d =

2 3
1
2
0

2
2 Id

d +
3 K
2 3

1 Id
2 Id

d =
3 K

3 K

(2.5.14)
9.
S 2 = 3U 2 I 2 =

3 2
U d0
3 6

Id
3

2
P d 0 = 1,48 P d 0 .
3 2

(2.5.15)

10.
S1 = 3 U 1 I 1 = 3 K U 2

2 Id
2
2
2
=3
U d0
I =
P = 1,21 P d 0 .
3 KT
3 d 3 3 d0
3 6

(2.5.16)
11.
S =

S1 + S 2 1,21 + 1,48
=
P d 0 = 1,345 P d 0
2
2

S * = 1,345 .

(2.5.17)


.

S * = 1,165 S * = 1,57 .

(2.5.18)

12.
(2.3.19), (2.3.21) (2.3.22).

88

K = 0,06,

K = 0,25.

(2.5.19)

13. (2.3.23)
X = I =

1
S1*

1
= 0,79 .
1,21

(2.5.20)

14.
K =

U d0
U1

3 6
K = 1,17 K .
2

(2.5.21)

15.
K =

K
= 1,21 K
I

=
K

K .
2

(2.5.22)

(m1=1, m2=2, q=1).


1. S * -
.
2. 1,5 , .
.
3.
4 K 2,5 K ,
.
1,5 ( qm2 = 2 qm2 = 3), . . 2
. ,
K , ,
. K ,
.

89

4. , , , 3.13, .
, ( ),
(. 2.7).
2.6.

- (m1 = m2 = 3, q = 1)


, ,
,
.
, .
.
. . ()
, . , ,
, , , [8], .

90

. 2.6.1.

.
, , ,
.

U20, . 2.6.2.

. 2.6.2

. 2.6.1

, ,
.
, , 3 150
.
,


u20a, u20b, u20c,

. 2.6.3 91

. 2.6.3

. ,
,

. ,
U20x 150, . 2.8.2.
i1A
(2.5.2),
,
a x,
,
i 2a i 2 x i a5 i a1
=
.
i 1A =
K
K

(2.6.1)

,
.
- -,
,
1 1 0
1 0 1
1
1 1

i 1A
i 1B
i 1C

w2
w1

1 1
2
1 1 2

i a1
i a3
i a5

(2.6.2)

(. 3.5)
,
.

, ( , , ),
.

U2:

92

U d0 =

3 6
U = 1,17 U 20 ,
2 20

U 20 = 3 U 2 ,

, (1.1.3),

I1 =

Id
K

2
.
3


S 2 = 6U 2 I 2 = 6

2 U d 0

Id
4
=
P = 1,71 P d 0 ,
3 3 6 d0

3 6 3

S 2* = 1.71.


S 1* =

3U 1 I 1 3 K U 2 I d
=
Pd0
Pd0

2
2
=
= 1,21 .
3 3 3


J =

1
S1*

= 0,827 .


K =

Ed 0
E1

3 6
2

3 K = 1,17 3 K .


K =

Id
I
2
= d =
K = 1,48 K ,
I 1(1) I 1 J 3 2

=
K

Id
=
I1

3
K = 1,225 K .
2

. 93

- . ( ) . , Id > 85120
, , , .
2.7.

-
(m1 = 3, m2 = 2 X 3, q = 1)

(. 2.7.1)
,
.

. 2.7.1

u2a
u2x, u2b u2y, u2c u2z,
. , . , ,
,
94

, . .
.
.
:

.
:
, ;
,
, .
, , ,
.

15 %
.
, ,
,
. 2.7.2.
,
,
u2a, u2b, u2c u2x,
u2y, u2z..
i2a i2x
a
, . ,
,
1' 1''.
95
. 2.7.2


.
u d ,
0

u d .
0

, ,
.
, . , -, , -,
, , ud, ( )
. , . .
, p = qm2 = 6. id (Xd = ) .
u,
. ,
, , , . ,
1.3.3, ,
, .

( ) 12 % . ,

96


.
1 (
), , .

. ,
.

, .
i1A.
(2.5.2), i2a i2x .
,
.
.
1. , , , . .
U d0 =

3 6
U .
2 2

2.
Ia =

Id
I
= d .
23 6

97

3. ,
(1.1.3):
I a =

Id

K =

2 3

I a

Ia

= 3.

4.
I a max =

Id
2

Ka =

I a max
= 3.
Ia

5.
U max = 2 3 E 2 =

2
U
3 d0

U * max =

2
.
3

6.
S *1 =

2 1 2
U
Sb
I
= n max a = 6
=
,
3 6
3
Pd0
Pd0


S *2 = n

U max I a max
2 1
=6
= 2 .
3 2
Pd0

7.
I 2 = I a =

Id

2 3

8. (1.1.3)
I1 =

Id
2K

2
.
3

9.

98

S 2 = 6U 2 I 2 = 6

2
2
Id
=
U
P , S *2 = 1,48 .
3 6 d0 2 3 3 2 d0

10.
S1 = 3 U 1 I 1 = 3 K

Id
2
U d0
2 K
3 6

2
= P ,
3 3 d0

S1* = 1,045 .

11.
S =

S1 + S 2
= 1,26 P d 0
2

S * = 1,26 .


, (150 ) .
, , ,
,
,
. [8], , 150 , . . 50 ,

S * = 0,07 .

S = 0,07 P d 0 ,

12. (2.3.19) . (2.3.21) (2.3.22),


K = 0,0067,

= 5,7 % = 0,057.

13.

99

1
S1*

0,955 .

14. ,
,
K =

U d0
U1

3 6
K = 1,17 K .
2

15.
-
Id

K = I

1(1)

=2

K = 2,56 K ,
2 3

Id
= 2,45 K
I 1(1)


:
1. , .
2. .


.
3. ,
, - ( )
.
K , 9
. ,
.

:
100

= I =

1
S 1*

= 0,955 ,

. . ( )
, I = 1. ,
K =

I =
I 1(1)

1
2I

1 = 0,3 .

. . 30 %
.

.
. ,
.
,
U d0 = 2U 2

m2

6
3 2
sin
= U 2 sin U 2 =
U 2 = 1,35U 2 .

6
m2

15 %.
,
U max = 2 2 U 2 = 2 2

2
4
U =
U = 2,42U d 0 ,
3 6 d0 3 3 d0

101

. . 15 % , .
.
, ,
, ,
( ,
).
15 % ,
.
2.8.
(m1 = m2 = 3, q = 2)

, ( ),
. , . 2.8.1, .

. 2.8.1

( 2.6) - .
102

,
, . 2.8.1, .
() , (). ()

().
, : .
.
. 2.8.2
.

.

,

ud(k), ud(a)
.
,


.
ud id.

ud(a),
u.
d(k)
2.8.2
, ud0. , , , ,
, . . .

103

uLd.

, , . ,
. , i2a ( )
ia1 ia4,
,
.
u1A, , i1A.
( ), .

.

, .
1.
, , . .
U d0 = 2

3 6
3 6
U2 =
U 2 = 2,34 U 2 .

2, 3, 4. , , , . .
Ia =

Id ,
3

I a =

Id ,
3

I a max = I d .

5. (-
)

104

U * max =

U d max
=
U d0

2 3 U 2
= = 1,045 .
3
3 6U2

6.

S *1 = n

I d U d 0 2
I a U max
=
=6
;
33Pd0
3
Pd0


S *2 = n

I d U d 0
I a max U max
=6
= 2 .
3Pd
Pd0
0

7, 8.
( )
, (1.1.3.):
I1 =

I2 = Id
K K

2
.
3

9, 10, 11. , .
.
S *2 = S 1* = S * =

3U 2 I 2
2

=3
= = 1,045 .
3 6 3 3
Pd0

12. ,

, . .
K = 0.0067,

= 0.057.

13.

1
= * = 0,955 .
S1
105

14.

K =

U d0
= 2,34 K .
U1

15.
K = I d =
I 1(1)

= 1,282 K ,
K
2 3

= I d = 1,225 K .
K
I1


, .


.

, .
() ,
()
, .

.
,
- ,

.
4.1.

106

2.9. .

, . : ,
.
2.9.1.


.

.
m2-
. 2.9.1,

.

,

, , .
1.

()
. 2.9.1
, . .
(
K K 3.7)
.
2.

107

.
, .
(
) ,
(1.3.7).

3.3.10.
3. ,
, . .

Ud0 ,
. ud
. 2.9.1
1
U d 0 =
2
qm2

q m2

qm2
cos = U d 0 cos ,

qm2

sin
2 U 2 cos d = U 2

q m2

U2

U 2 =
3 U 2

q = 1,
q = 2.

(2.9.1)


.
U d 0
= cos . (2.9.2)
Cp =
U d0

108

. 2.9.2.
0 < < 90o
.
2.9.2

, 90 < < < 180o


, 3.3.4.
2.9.2.


() .
( ) : ( = 0) ,
. 2.9.3 .
()

(Xd = ) , . 1.2.1, . ()

.

ud
t

id

u1

i1

T
. 2.9.3



().
[. (1.1.4 )]
109

t
Cp = u ,
T

(2.9.3)

.
,

. , (2.9.3)
C p Ed I d
Ed I d
K K
P

0
= 1 =
=
= . C p .
(2.9.4)
m1
S1 m1U1 I1
I d tu
m1U1
K T
( , ) ,
1/ 1 ,
1. ( )
, , .
, , , , , , .
2

,
...
. .

1. - ?
2. ?
3.
?
110

4. ?
5. :
,
?
6.
?
7. /0
/Z0?
8.
?
9.
?
10.
?
11.
?
12.
?
13.
?
14.
?
?
15. ?
2

,
...
..

111

1. Xd = Rd = 20 .
2. Xd = 0 Rd = 20 .
3. . 2 .
4. Ud0 =
= 500 Rd = 100 ? Xd = Xd = 0?
5.*
Xd = () .
6. , /0.
7.*
.
8.* .
9.
.
10. 10 .
11.*
.

3.


,

.
. .
3.1.
.

112

, , , . .
, , , , , .
( ), , , .
, ,
.
-

. 3.1.1.
,

,
. . , . 3.1.1
.
: , , , .


( 1.2.1,
),
. ,
, . , .
, .
,
. , 113

, i , . L
. La, , R, . , ()
, .
,
LR- , 1.2.1, ,
. , ,

35 , . La , Ra
.
,
(
. 2) ,
. 3.1.2
(La),
. 3.1.2

114

. 3.1.3 , Xa = La .
- ,
Xa.
, , 3,
, 1, , .
,
U2b, Xa, 3, 1,
U2a Xa .
,
,
, ,
.

()
.
. 3.1.3
(
, , . 3.3.4), .
i
:
2X a

. 3.1.4

di
= u 2 a u 2b .
d

(3.1.1)

U2
m2- ,
,
. 3.1.4
(3.1.1)
,
115

, , , :
i = ia 3 =

2U 2
1

sin d =
sin
cos + C 1 . (3.1.2)
2 U 2 sin
m2
m2
Xa
Xa

1 ia3 = 0 = , . .
2U2

sin
cos .
m2
Xa

C1 =

(3.1.3)

(3.1.2)
i a3 =

2 U 2 sin
Xa

m 2 (cos cos ) .

(3.1.4)

3, , Id,
, , ,
i a1 + i a 3 = i d = I d

(3.1.5)

. () , , , . ia3 = Id = +
(3.1.4)
Id =

2 U 2 sin
Xa

m 2 [cos cos ( + )] ,

116

(3.1.6)

I
X
d
a
= arc cos cos
.

2 U 2 sin
m 2

(3.1.7)

, ,
(3.1.4), ,
(3.1.5), .
ud, , u2a u2b, , Id,
u d =

u 2 a + u 2b
.
2

(3.1.8)


, .
. 3.1.5
ud
.
, ,
. . , . 3.1.5

,
La. id
,
.
,

ux,
. ,
117

, ,
(3.1.7)
. U d = f (I d ) = const . ( , .) :
Ud0
Ux , . .

U d = U d 0 U x = U d 0 cos U x ,

(3.1.9)

U x ,

U x =

1
2
qm2
=

u x d =

1
2
qm2

Id

1
2
qm2

x a dia 3 =

Xa

dia3
d =
d

(3.1.10)
XaId
.
2
qm2

(3.1.10) (3.1.9)
Xa
U d = U d 0 cos I d .
2
qm2

, , ,

,

118

(3.1.11)

U x . . 3.1.6.
, . 3.1.6 La

R.:

R . =

Xa .
2
qm2

(3.1.12)

,
U d 0 cos R.., . 3.1.7.
,
, Ux,
, , La.
(3.1.12)
,


,
. 3.1.7
R..

R ,
, R1 + R2, R,
R, . .

R = R. + R1 + R2 + R + R.

(3.1.13)

119

X
a
+ R1 + R2 + R + R q U 0 .
U d = U d 0 cos I d
2

qm

(3.1.14)

U0.
, U1k %,
, Xa.
Xa =

X 1k
X 2

U U %
= 1K K = La .
I1H 100

(3.1.15)

,
, , ( Ld = ), ,
,
.

Ld
,
.
.
3.2.
Ld.

. , , :
1) ,
RL- ;

120

2) ,
;
3) , ;
4) , ,
..

- ( , ..) ( ). () . ,
(3.1.14) qU0,
( ).

, , ,
. 3.2.1.


Ld
. 3.2.1
: .
Ld
, , , .
, 2.2. , - ,
.
3.2.1. ( < 2/qm2)

121

. 3.2.2 ,
.
,
,

. 3.2.2
.

,
,
. 3.2.3.
Rd
, (3.1.13). , - qU0. . 3.2.3

La q, m2=3, q=2
.
2.2.2, RL- ,

. , , .
. . [40] . . [41] .
(Rd = 0).
, . .

122

U d = f 1 (, ),

(3.2.1)

I d = f 2 (, ).

, j < 2/qm2,
(3.2.1) U d j , I d j = onst .
, (
,
, ) . 3.2.2
U d =

u d d =

1
1
(u u x ) d =
a
2

2 U 2 sin d =

(3.2.2)

2U2
[cos cos( + )] = f 1(, ),

+ , 2 qm2
,
.
, (3.2.2)

U 0 = U d =

2U2
[cos cos ( + )] = f 1(, ) .

(3.2.3)

,

, (. 3.2.3) :

123

(qX a + X d )

di d
+ i d Rd = u 2 U 0 .
d

(3.2.4)

Rd = 0
id =

2 U 23
[ cos ] + C1 ,
qX a + X d

(3.2.5)

U0
,
2 U 2

m2 = 3, q = 1,
m2 = 3, q = 2.

U2
U 2 =
3 U2

: id = 0 =
C1 =

2 U 23
[ + cos ] .
qX a + X d

(3.2.5)
id =

2 U 2
[cos cos + ( + )] .
q Xa + Xd

(3.2.6)

(3.2.6)
Id =

1
2
qm 2
=

i d d =

2 U 2 qm 2
(qX a + X d ) 2

[cos cos( 0 + ) + ( )] d =

2
2 U 2 qm 2
sin( + ) sin + cos = f 2 (, , ).

(qX a + X d ) 2
2

(3.2.7)
(3.2.7) ,
(3.2.3),
124

I d = f2 (, , ) = f2 (, , f1 (, )) = f2 (, ) .

(3.2.8)

(3.2.7).
3.2.2. - (=2/qm2)


(3.2.2) (3.2.7) (3.2.3)
=2/qm2
U d. = 2 U 2

I d. =

1
sin

qm 2

qm 2

sin
cos = B cos ,

qm 2

(3.2.9)

1 ctg sin = A sin . (3.2.10)


qm
qm
2
2

(3.2.9) (3.2.10)

. 3.2.4 ..
3.2.3. ( > 2/qm2)


: .
( ), .

( ), ,
, .
, Xd Xa. , [8]. ,
. 125

, . . , Xd = .
Rd.:
Rd =

U0
,
Id

(3.2.11)

,
, U0.
, . . .
- Xd = 3.1.1
(3.1.11)
(3.1.14). , ,
. 3.2.4.
.


Xa
. 3.2.4
Xd.
, Xa.

Xd .

,
,
, , . 3.2.5
. 3.2.5.
() .
126

U0 .

+ = arcsin
2 qm2
2U2

(3.2.12)

, > , .
,
, :

, ;
,

( ),
;
( =2/qm2) (
3.3.10);

, ( ).
, , Xd .

(3.2.3). ,
.
, , . ..
.
, ( , , ,
), -

127

.
,
(qm2) .
3.3.

Ld, , , Ud - .
, , Rd, , Cd, ,
. 3.3.1 .

.
3.1
La, , . . La ,
.
.
d = CdRd

. 3.3.1

Cd ,
, .
Pd:
Pd =

U 2d

128

Rd

(3.3.1)

,

d = C d R d = C d

U d2
Pd

0,02
T1
=
,
qm 2 qm 2

(3.3.2)

C d >>

0,02 P d
.
qm 2 U 2
d

(3.3.3)

,
220 ( ), . . 300 . (3.3.3), ,

6
C d = 0,11 10 P d

[] .

(3.3.4)

,
. Ld , , Rd,
( Pd >
> 35 ).
( 35 ) LdCd
, -, -
- [10, 11].
, ( )

.
[11].
3.4.

-

129

.
,

.
. , -
. ( )
,
. , () (. 3.12). , . ,
- ,
.
.
,

. , (2.9.2)
>900. , , , 1(1) = .
(1.3.1) 1(1)>900 , . . , , .
,
,

130

. , (), , ,
,
, .

.
,

, - ( ,
, ).
,
,
,
900. ,
.
, , .

.
3.4.1. (m1=1, m2=2, q=1)

,

.
. 3.4.1.
, 2.9,
La, .

131

,
. ,
, ,
,

.

, 900.


. 3.4.1

. , 1800, . .
+ = 1800.

(3.4.1)



.

, , . 3.4.2
(.3.4.2, )
(. 3.4.2, ).
, Xd = . .
-, :
= ,

(3.4.2)


()
132

.

min =

max +

(3.4.3)

. 3.4.2

. ,
.
-, (3.1.4)
> /2 > /2 : , , . . .

, ,
, , . , , , 133

, .
. ,
Udx Id , . , (3.1.19) (3.4.2):

U d = U d 0 cos U x = U d 0 cos + U x .

(3.4.4)

Ud .
Ux , ,
. . 3.4.3.

. 3.4.3

. 3.4.4

, ,
,
. 3.4.4.
134

. (2.9.1) (3.4.1)
Id = 0:
U d = U d 0 cos = U d 0 cos .

(3.4.5)


. . 2.9.2.
. ,
, , .
Idmax, max
(3.4.2)
max = .

(3.4.6)

,
, , , (. .
Ud max),
.
, ud . 3.4.2, -
. ud ud . 3.4.2, , ,
+ .
, , . 3.4.3

135

U dmax = U d 0 cos U x = U d 0 cos

Xa
.
I
d max

(3.4.7)

. .
, ,
,
, . .
= 0, . 3.4.2, .
Ud ,
, .

(.3.4.5,) (. 3.4.5, ).

. 3.4.5

, .

Ld
, (. 3.2)
180 - U0
U0.
136

. ,
min ,
= 0.
min U2 , (3.4.7) (3.1.6).
(3.4.7) Ud0, , U2:
U d0 =

U d max + U x

(3.4.8)

cos

U2 =

U d 0 U d max + U x
=
KU
K U cos

K U =

2 2
.

(3.4.9)

(3.1.6) = 180
Id =

2 2
[cos cos ]
Xa

cos min Id

max

(3.4.10)

(4.9):

X I
cos min = cos 1 a d max .
2 2

(3.4.11)

( ) (. 2.3), U2, , K,
. U *b max , K I , S *2 , S 1* , S *T , S *b , S *T .L , , K
La
137

U %,
.
U %, min,
.
.
3.4.2 (m1=3, m2=3, q=1 )

La . 3.4.6, Xd = . 3.4.7.

. 3.4.6


1800,

, (. 3.2).
138


U2 (3.4.9)
3 6
K u =
min Id.

Id max
I d max =

2 3U 2

sin [cos cos min ] ,


3
2X a

. 3.4.7

139

(3.4.12)

cos min

2
cos min = cos 1 X a I d max .

2 3 U2

(3.4.13)

,
3.4.1, , 2.7, ,
.

140

3.5*
( )

,
.
,

. , .
. 3.5.1.

. 3.5.1

, ,
, . . 3.5.2.

= 0 + (n 1)

2
,
m2

0 ,
n (n = 1, 2, ... m2).
138

(3.5.1)


i1A, i1B, i1C
.
, , , . 3.5.1,
,
i1A + i1B = i a1

wa
w
i b ,
w1
w1

w
w
i1A + i1C = ia1 a ia1 c .
w1
w1

(3.5.2)
. 3.5.2

i1A + i1B + i1C = 0 .


i1 A =

2 1
1
1
=
0,5
0,5
i a1
3 K a
K b
K c

2 i a1
(U + U 2b cos120 + U 2c cos 240).
3 U 1 2a



U2.1 , . .
i1 A =

2 U 2.1
2 i a1
cos =
cos .
i
0
0
3 a1 U 1
3 K .

(3.5.3)


. 139

(3.5.3) .
:
i1 =

2
3K

m2

h =1

2
2
= 3K i a cos ,
2

i a.m cos 0 + (h 1) m

(3.5.4)

,
, ia.
(3.5.4)
, :
.
, ,
0
,
.

.
.
,
2.8,
.

140


, ,
d = , = 0 (. 2.5).

0, /6,
. 3.5.3.
. 3.5.3
2. 2 Id

, ia = Id
3 K
.
3. , ,
/6, (/6)+2(/3), (/6)+2(2/3) .. , , 2/m2 ( 2/3) , ,
. 3.5.4. ( )
, . 2.5.2
.

. 3.5.4

141

d =
, .
. ()
(d ).
, ,
d = . ,
1
2

I1 =

m2 2 / m2

h =1

2
Am2 cos 2 0 + (h 1)
d = m ,

m2
2

(3.5.5)

2 Id
, . . 3 K
.
,

. ,
, .
Am =

3.6.

, , .

, . . 3.6.1
, ec ( ) Lc,
ZH
. 3.6.1
142

I1,
.
:
1. u,
u c = ec X c

d
(i + i ) ,
d 1

(3.6.1)

i1
uc.
() , Z.
2. ,
(, , ).
3. -

,
LC-. .
( ) .
,
,

[20].

,
,

.

. 3.6.2
,
143

. ,
( ).
. 3.6.2 d = , Xa = 0.
n-

I a. max( n ) =

22
2

m2

I d cos n d =

2 1

sin
nId
n
m2

sin
2
m
2
cos n = I a.max( n ) cos n ,
i a( n ) =

n Id

(3.6.2)

(3.6.3)

n .
n- (3.5.4) ,
( i1 in),
h-
i 1( n ) =

2 m2
I a. max( n ) cos n
3 K h
=1
=

2
2
(h 1) m cos 0 + (h 1) m =
2
2

1 m2
I a. max( n ) cos

3 K h =1

2
0 + n (n 1) m h +
2

2
2
(n 1) .
+ cos n 0 +
h
m2
m2

(3.6.4)

,
m2- . 3.6.3,,
, m2 , . 3.6.3,.

144

. 3.6.3

( h = 1)
(n 1)(2/m2) = 2k,
(n + 1)( 2/m2) = 2k.
n
n = km2 1,

(3.6.5)

k (k = 2, 3, 4 ...).
(q = 1)
(q = 2) ,
, , ,
.
.
, (3.6.5) , (p = qm2 )

n = kqm2 1= kp 1.

(3.6.6)

, (3.6.6). ,
,
p = 6, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 ... .
(3.6.2) (3.6.4) ,

145

sin n
sin (kq m2 1)
I 1( n)
m2 =
m2 = cos kq = 1 .
=

n
n
I 1(1) n sin
n sin
m2
m2

(3.6.7)

. .
:

, . . ,
;
() d = , ,
n-
(n)=n . , sin (1) ()
, 3.10;
,
, , -
. - () (,
3.1) [8].
() [42 ].
3.7.

, ,
146

, .
, . 3.7.1,

. , u 2 ,
u 2 =

2 U 2 cos

q = 1,

2 3 U 2 cos

q = 2,

. 3.7.1

n-

U dS ( n) =

= U 2

2
2
2
p

+
p

+
p

2U 2 cos sin n d =

(3.7.1)

p 2kp
2kp

sin sin = U d 0
sin
p
p2 1
(kp )2 1

k
n = kqm2 = kp

147

(3.7.2)

.
, n-

UC
d ( n) =

+
p

2
2
2
p

+
p

2 U 2 cos cos n d = U d 0

(kp )2 1

cos

(3.7.3)
n- (n=kp)
U d ( n) =

(U dS )2 + (U Cd )2 =
n

(kp )

1 + (kp tg )2 U d cos .
0

(3.7.4)
Ud(n)/Ud0
. 3.7.2.

qm2

, ,
U *d ( n) =
. 3.7.2

U d ( n)
= K cos = K C p .
U d0

(3.7.5)



K , , 2, . ,
148

qm2 = 2, 3, 6
36:9:1 = 0.
, ,
(3.7.1) (3.7.4)
180 .

= , ,
.

, 3.1, 3.4, 3.5.
, , - (3.7.2), . , (3.7.4), [8].
,
,
. , .
3.8.
.


. ,
,
. 149

,
, , . , , , S 2* .
S 2* q = 1,
q = 2.
, .
Xd = , Xa = 0 (
) =2/m2
I2 =

Id
m2

(3.8.1)


(2.9.1)
S *2 =

Ud
m U I
m
S2
0
= 2 22 = 2
Pd
Pd
Pd m2

0
0
0
sin
m2

2 sin
m2

Id
=
m2

(3.8.2)

.
m2

. 3.8.1. m2
, m2 =
= 2, 3, 6, 12. ,

150

. 3.8.1

m2 = 3,
.
,
.

, 2/m2 , .
3.8.2, . .
I 2
.
I2 = d
m2

(3.8.3)

3 8 2

S2 = U 2I 2 = U 2I d

2
.
m2

(3.8.4)

,
,
.
. 3.8.2

I 2(1)

42
2 2

/ m2

I d cos d =

2 2 Id

sin

.
m2

(3.8.5)



P2 = U 2 I 2(1) = U 2 I d

2 2

sin
.

m2

(3.8.6)

(3.8.4) (3.8.6)

151

S 2* =

S 2
=
P2

U 2I d 2

U 2I d

m2 2 2 sin
m2

2 m2 sin

m2

. (3.8.7)

m2
2 (3.8.2).
, S 2* .
.
, 2/3, , . .
(
) , . 3.8.3.

, .
30 ( ) , . . 3.8.3,
, ,

2
(Xd = , Xa = 0).

,
u d i 2 a
. 152

.
u d u d . ,
u d 30, . . .
, i1A , i1C
, i1A
. ,
K
K
K =

3 ,

3 U1
U 1
U
=
= 3 K " = 3 1 = 3 K " = K .
U 2
U 2
U 2

,
(3.5.3) .

153

A B C

i'1A i 1A
i'A

i'C

U1A

U"d

U'd
Rd

Ld
Ud

. 3.8.3
154

,
=2/3

,
24-, 48- 96- (
140 ) .
3.9*.


, 3.1,

.
,
(. 3.6). , , , .

. 3.9.1



(3.1.4) .
( = 1)
. 3.9.1, , .
, I1
I 1 =

Id
2
2
1 = I1 1
3
3
K


155

(3.9.1)

I 1 =

Id
1
2
K

2
= I1 1
3
2

(3.9.2)

.


S = U 1 I 1 = U 1 I 1 1

2
2
= S2 1
3
3

(3.9.3)


S = 3U1 I1 = 3U1 I1 1

= S1 1
= S 1 1 ( , m2 ) . (3.9.4)
2
2

, (), S1, .
, ,
, .
. , , .
, ,
3.13,
. (1.5.25)
(
I
I(
(
K =
I (1)

156

1 .

(3.9.5)

(
I ,
. 3.9.1. , .3. 9.1,

I
Id
(
1
I = d
=
.
K K

(3.9.6)

,
. 3.9.1, , [42], ,
I (1) =

6 Id
.
K

(3.9.7)

(
K =

1 .

(3.9.8)

, 3.13,

.
3.10.


.
3.10.1.

() .
=

Pd
Pd
,
=
P1 Pd + P
157

(3.10.1)

P1 Pd P
=
.
Pd
Pd

(3.10.2)

P .
P,
P, P,
P, . .

P = P + P + P + P .

(3.10.3)

.
P, ,
( ).
P,
,
, .

P = P + P (Id/Id)2.

(3.10.4)


P, P, ,
, P.

P = P + P + P .

(3.10.5)

P - , . 1.1.3.
, 158

U0 ( )
R.. , ,
2
P = I a U 0 + I .
R = I a U 0 + I a2 K 2 R .

(3.10.6)


P, ,
.
P
( ), 400 .
.

,
,
.
Pd
Xd , . .
Pd =

k =0

k =0

Pd (k ) = U d (k ) I d (k ) cos (k ) .

(3.10.7)

(Xd = )

Pd = U d I d .

(3.10.8)

Pd P Ud.
3.10.2.


( ) .

159

m1U 1 I 1(1) cos 1(1)


P
= 1 =
= I cos 1(1) ,
S1
m1U 1 I 1

(3.10.9)

I

, .

, , . -, , -,
,
1 2
1(1) + .
2 3

(3.10.10)

1/2 , 90, 2/3


, . (. )
0,5.
(3.10.10)
1 2
1(1) = .
2 3

(3.10.11)

, (3.10.9) , ,
P1 = S1. , ,
3.13.

Xa = 0, Xd = ,
=0, 1(1) = . (3.10.9) (2.9.3)
:
= I cos 1(1) = I cos = I C p .

160

(3.10.12)


,
.
,
. () (). ,
0,9. ( ), .
3.11.

, ( ,
).
,
()
. .

.

, , . (

.
[12, 17, 19].)
161

- , . :
;
- ;
.
3.11.1.

. 3.11.1, . 3.11.2.

. 3.11.1

162

. 3.11.2


.
,
.


,
.
( ),
.
,
, - ,
.
, , Xd =
()
,
.
( ), . .

. , ( )
. ,
|| = , , ,
, [17].
,

163

-
, .
3.11.2. -


, .
.
.
- ()
. 3.11.3.

u1A

u 1B

u1C

i1a
Id/

ud

t 1 t 2 t4
t3

t
T

.11.3

. 3.11.3


,
.
, 1 6 t2t3.
t3t5 6
164

( 1) , . . 4 ( 2). , Ld,
, 1 4
( 2 6).
,
, ( ), , , .
,
,
.
, (), .
, . 2, 3, 4 ...
, t1t4 2, 3, 4 ... (. . -, -, ... n- ).

=

P1 Pd U d I d
=
=
=
S1 S1
3U 1 I 1

C pU d I d
0

3K E 2

Id
K

6T
4t u

3
Cp

(3.11.1)

., ( )
Cp =

U d t n
=
.
Ud
T
0

(3.11.2)

, (3.11.1) (3.10.12)
. 165


() .

, . . .
, , . . .
3.11.3. ,


. ,
, , , .
, . .

.
, . , , -, ,
, -,

, .

. 3.11.4.
1, 2. 1, 2, Ud. L,
,
,

, 2
L

i1

D2

C2

166
u

ud

D1

C1

( ) .
- () , ,
, . ,
Ud ,
- u.
. 3.11.4

u
2 2 (
),
UL
u
U1
U
1 1.
I1
u1 u i1 , L. , . 3.11.5, .

. 3.11.5

( )
, . . .
,
. 3.11.6. ,
, .

167

4
A
B
C

i1

2
C

ud

.3.11.6

. 3.11.5,
u, . ,
.
, . , -
- (.
3.4).

( 2) , ,
.
, . .
,
, . 3.11.7, ,
. 3.11.7, .
, Ld, (
), D. ,
168

, .
.
, (
U . 3.11.7, ). D . , , Ld,
.
i1
i

Ld

id

u1
VT

u
u

u1
i1

169

i +e i -e

ic
u

3.11.7

( )
(1.4.2). ,
. Ud
.
Ld ,

, , .

, . , ( , -, - ),
.

.
,
[20].
, . 3.11.4 3.11.6, , . 3.11.7.
, .
,
( , )
().
, . .
170

, .
3.12.
( )

,
.

(. . 3.4.4).
, , , .
, ,
, .
, ,
.
(). , ,
, , -.

, . . , () ..
- .
-
. 3.12.1.

171

. 3.12.1

-
1 2 (. . 3.12.1) , . 1 2 , , , .

, 1 2 .

. 1 2
( U ):
U d1 = U d 2 .

(3.12.1)

, ,
, ,
, , , ,
1(2) < 900, 2(1) > 900. (2.9.2)
U d 0 cos 1 + U d 0 cos 2 = 0

172

+ 2
2
2 cos 1
cos 1
=0,
2
2

1 2 1 2 .

1 + 2 = 180;

(3.12.2)

1 2 = 180.

(3.12.3)

(3.12.2)
.
, 1 2
.
(3.12.3)
,
1 > 1800, 2 < 0, . (3.12.3). p ,
, [16].
(3.12.2)
(
).
() .
(3.2.12) 1 2 , 1 < 90, 2 > 90 ,
. . , . (3.4.1)

2 = 180 1 = 1,

(3.12.4)

. . ,
1(2), 1(2) .
Ud1 Ud2
, ,
173

,
u. , .
. 3.12.2. . 3.4.4 , -
.
, ,
.
. 3.12.2

3.13.


.
, ,
() ,

, ().
, , , . , , , , ( , , 174

,
..). ,
, , , .
, - , ,
.
[20].


. , () , , () .
. ,
,

, .
: ( ) ( ),



( ) ,
175

, ..
.

, [43].

.


.
.

. .
,
. 3.13.1, ,
. 3.13.1, i
( X d = ), e u.


L. .

176

eA
eB
eC

LC

uA
uB
uC

LC
LC

L
k

Lk

Lk

Ld

Rd

. 3.13.1


e Lc, .
u ,
ux (. 3.1)
Lc Lk
Lc
di
.
(3.13.1)
= e Lc
u = e u x
Lc + L k
dt
177

.
,
. 3.13.2.

. 3.13.2


u
di
(3.13.2)
u = e Lc
dt
2 [21]
(
( 1)
U = L I
= L I(1)K
(3.13.3)

1

( )

( 2
U1 = E12 2Lc E1I1 sin 1 + 2L2c I12 K .

,
K., 1310998, 0,08,
(
Lc I1K
U
K =
=
( 2 K . . (3.13.4)
U1
E12 2Lc E1L1 sin 1 + 2L2c I12 K

( )


, 178

K =

S
E1 1
E
E2
1
1 = 1
= ,
L I1. E1 Lc E1I1. S1.

(3.13.5)

(3.13.4)
K =

( 1)
K

( )2

(
2
K
2K sin 1 + K

K . .

(3.13.6)

U1 1
(3.12.4), ..
(
(
U Lc I1K K
K =
=
=
K . .
(3.13.7)
E1
E1
K

(3.13.7) ,

K =

S
K
= ,
S
K .

K
S = S (. .
K

(3.13.8)


.

.


, , . [20].
( ) -

179

( = 6, 12)
.
, , , ,
, ,
.
, :
1) (. 3.6 3.8);
2) (. 3.11.3);
3) , , LC,
(5, 7, 11, 13) [20];
4) , [20] (. 2 ).

,
...

..

1.
?
2. .

180

3. ?
4.
?
5. .
6. .
7.
?
8.
?
9. ?
10. , ?
11. .
12. =0?
13*.
?
14*. ?
15. ?
16.
?
17.
?
18*. ?
19. .
20. .
21*. ?
22*. ( )?
23.
?
24. ?
181

25. ?
26*.
?
27. ?

,
...

..

1.* ( La), .
2. Id = 10
U1 = 220 , = 2, La = 0,01 . (Xd = ).
3.* -
?
4.*

200 .
5.* , = 2 La = 0,005 , = 800 . ?
6. /0 .
= 300, = 1, La = 0,01 , U0 = 200 .
?
7. min

, 200 (Xd = )?
182

8.*
= 300, La =
= 0,005 , = 2
?
9.* .
10.
, = 600
= 200.
11. = 200
: 600 ,
200 , 400 ,
, , 1:1. 10
. , Ud = const.
12.
, , ,
10 ,
2 .
13. ,

= 200, 1000
.

4.

...

..
, ,
, ,
183

, .

..

. 2
()
. : = 100 , U = 440
, n = 1000 /. 7 %
Id. : UB = 220 . ,
,
. :
0,8. 220/380
. S = 5 000 , .. =50.

.
1. ,
( ) .
2. , ( )
.
4.1. ( )

() , [19,49]. . ,
. ,
,
, .

4.1.1
. , , 184


. (Pd0,
Ud0, Id) :

. ,

10001500 ,
1,52.
,
, .
. 4.1.1
(Pd0 = 100 ) ( ),
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
,
( ), ( ). ,
,
- , (),
.

185

4.1.1

qm2

Ud0
KU1

Id
K I1

K(1)

Ia *

Ka

Ubm*

Sb/Sb

S2 *

S1 *

S *

m1=1, m2=2, q=1

0,9

1,11

0,9

0,667

0,24

0,5

3,14

3,14/6,28

1,57

1,11

1,34

m1=m2=1, q=2

0,9

1,11

0,9

0,667

0,24

0,5

1,57

3,14/6,28

1,11

1,11

1,11

m1=m2=3, q=1
-

1,17

1,21

0,79

0,25

0,06

0,33

2,09

2,09/6,28

1,48

1,21

1,345

m1=m2=3, q=1
-

1,17

1,48

0,83

0,25

0,06

0,33

2,09

2,09/6,28

1,71

1,21

1,46

m1=3, m2=6, q=1


1,17

2,56 0,955

0,057

0,0067

0,166

2,09

2,09/6,28

1,48

1,045 1,26+
0,07
()

m1=m2=3, q=2

2,34

1,28 0,955

0,057

0,33

1,045 2,09/6,28

184

1,045 1,045 1,045

Ud0 200

m1=1
m2=2
q=1

Pd0 35

Ud0 200

m1 =m2=1
q=1

q=1
m1=m2=3

Id 300500

m1=m2 =3
q=1

185

. 4.1.1

q=2
m1=m2=3

q=1
m1=3
m2=6

Id 70100

4.2.
( )

3 .
2 .
.
2 .

3.
4.2.1.

[43]
10 %. ,

. (2.2.8), , U.. = Ud0,

U 2 min =

Ud

2,34

440
= 188 B ,
2,34

,
K =

U1 min 0,9 220


=
= 1,05 .
188
U 2 min

2.2.8,
.

I d =

P. 100 10 3
=
= 227 A.
440
U .


I
454,5
= 76 A.
I a = d =
3
3

186

I
454,5
= 131 A.
I a. = d =
3
3

, = 3. 9-100,
[25, 27 ]: R = 0,002 , U0 = 1,3
. .

2
2
I 2 = I d
= 227
= 185 A.
3
3

I
371
= 177 A.
I 1 2 =
K 1,05

S = S2 = S1 = 3U1max I1 = 3 1,1 220 177 = 143 .


[25, 27]
-160 :
= 2,3 ,
= 0,7 ,
U = 6,2 %.

, ,
.
- .

U
0,062 220
Z 1 = =
= 0,077 .
I 1
177
,
,
P
2300
R = R1 + R 2 = =
= 0,022 .
3I 2 3135 2
,
,
187

X 1 = Z 12 R 2 = (0,077) 2 (0,022) 2 = 0,073 .

,
,
X
X
0,073
X a = 1 =
= 0,067
La = a = 0,2 10 3 .
2
2

K
1,05


Ld,
max.

Ud = Ud0max cos max = 2,34 U2max cos max.

cos max =

U d
440
=
= 0,87,
2,34U 2 min 1,2 2,34 180 1,2

max = 30 0 .

0,07,
. .
I d ( 6)
0,07 , Id(6) = 0,07 227 = 16 ,
K . =
I d
Id(6) ,
.
, (3.7.4)
242 Ud(6) = 0,18 556 = 102
.

U d ( 6 )
102
=
= 3,4 10 3 .
L d =
61 I d (6) 6 314 16

Ld = L d 2 La = 3,4 10 3 2 0,2 10 3 = 3 10 3 .

188

[27] 225 . -250. R = 0, 012


3,210-3 .
.
4.2.2.


U, ,

(3.1.14) ( )
X 3

U d + I d a + 2 R1 + R 2 + qR + R + qU 0

Ud
=
=
0 min
cos min

3
= 440 + 227 0,067 + 0,022 2 + 2 2 10 3 + 0,012 + 2 1,3 = 479 B.

U
U = U d

0 min

U d = 479 440 = 39 B .


Ud
479
0 min
U 2 min =
=
= 204,7 B
2,34
2,34

U
0,9 220
= 0,97 .
K = 1 min =
U 2 min
204,7
,
7 %, (5 %, +5 %) [43].
10 %

189

3 %. .
,
. (3.1.7)
:

Id X a
=
= arccoscos

2U 2 sin
m2

227 0,067
0
= arccoscos 30
30 = 6 .
2 230,5 0,87

(3.9.4) .
,
:
U b max = 1,2U d

0 min

1,045 = 1,2 479 1,05 = 670 B.

1,52. 9-100 10 .
, 100, .

max,
cos max =

U d
440
=
= 0, 75,
2,34U 2 min 1, 2 2,34 208, 4 1, 2

max = 410 .

[8]

Ud(6) = 0,24 556 = 133,4 .

190

30 % Ld.

.
.
P

I
= Pxx + P d
I d

= 0,7 + 2,3 = 3 .

2
P = 6 I a U 0 + I a.
R. = 6(76 1,3 + 1312 2 10 3 ) = 0,8 .


P = I d2 R = 252 2 12 10 3 = 0,7 .


P = P + P + P = 3 + 0,8 + 0,76 = 4,56 .


P + P (100 + 4,56) 10 3
P
= 1 = d
=
= 0,9 ,
S1 3U 1 I 1
3 220 177

min =

P1
S1max

Pd + P
104,56 10 3
=
= 0,81,
3U 1max I1 3 242 177

. . , .

P
Pd
100
= d =
=
100% = 95,6 %.
P1 Pd + P 104,56

,
.
, 13109 [43]
.
191

(3.12.7) ,
. = 100 ( U1 = 220 ,
= 150) (3.9.8)
K . =

1 =

18
1 = 4,12.

I d X a

= arccos cos
=

2 U 2 sin
3

227 0,067
0
0
= arccos 0,966
15 = 10 .
2 209 0,866

, 13109 ,
(
K 4,12
K =
=
= 0,08,
K
50

13109-98,
01.01.2000 .

(. 1.1.2).

.

, ,
, .
..


,
,
.
192

[40, 41],
[42].

[43], [45]. (,
, ) [46]. ,
[47, 48], 130 . ,
[49, 50] [39], [50],

.
.
, ,
,
,
.
LC-, .
,
(. 2 ).
.

(, ), , , . 3.11. , , 193

. , , , , .


...
..

1. .. ( ). .:
, 1968.559 .
2. .. . .: , 1982.
496 .
3. .., .., . . . : , 1985. 450 .
4. .., .. . .:
, 1988. 320 .
5. .. . .: , 1992. 296 .
6. .., .. . .:
-, 1994. 320 .
7. . . : / . , 1958.87.
8. .. . .3. .:
, 1956. 528 .
9. .. . .:
, 1967. 527 .
10. .., .., .. . .: , 1974. 430 .
11. .., .., ..
. : , 1978. 424 .
12. .., .., .. . .: , 1980. 424 .
13. . : ,
1978. 447 .
14. . . .: ,
1982. 384 .
15. : . .: , 1987. 464 .

194

16. .. . .1. / . , 1971. 102 .


17. .. . .2. / . , 1971. 79 .
18. .. . .3.
/ . :, 1975. 91 .
19. .. . .4.
/
. :, 1981. 115 .
20. .. . : - , 1998. 90 .
21. .. . : - ,
1990. 220 .
22. .., .. . .1: . : , 1998. 21 .
23. .., .., .. . .2: . : - , 1999. 31 .
24. .., .. . .3:
. :
- , 1999. 35 . ( ).
25. .., .., .., ..

: - . : Copy Center, 1996. 58 .
26. .. : / . :, 1980. 40
.
27. .. . / . :, 1980. 35
.
28. .. : / .
:, 1987. 33 .
195

29. .., .. / .
:, 1988. 25 .
30. .., .. .
. : - , 1997. 18 .
31. .. : . : - , 1996. 72 .
32. ..
: . : - , 1998. 20 .
33. .., .., ..
. .1. : - , 1997.
60 .
34. ..
. :
. : - , 1998. 168 .
35. .., .. .
: - , 1997. 396 .
36. : .:
, 1988. 319 .
37. / . ..
.: , 1986.
38. . ., . . . : , 1980. 208 .
39. / .. , .. , .. . : , 1992. 312 .
40. .. . .:
, 1970.
41. .. . .;.: , 1966. 239 .
42. . .
. ; , 1987. 344 .
43. .. . .: , 1988.
240 .
196

44. 13109-87.
. .: - ,
1989.
45. .. . :
- , 1995. 355 ..
46. / . .. .
.: , 1978. 448 .
47. .. // . . . 1980, 4. . 7194.
48. ..
Skm(M)lRL // . . , 1983.
. 8, .1. . 4461, .2. . 6281
49. / .. , .. , .. . : , 1989.
336 .
50. .. . .: , 1978. 320 .


()
1 41
2 50
(1) 53
1 55
2 55
(1) 55
:
70
66
22
22
:
71,79
81,89
93,101
151

160
65
65
170
:

147
145

140

123
:
( ) 129
() 167
167
La
:
114
160
160
113

169
:
74
15
( (q)
K
49
197

q-
(q)
K

U 25

,

49

15

177
16
192

.. 15
.. 15
16
17
17
s 16
69
74

:
41
43
42
:
41
S 177
S 41
Q 41
Q1 41
()
S 19
Sc 18
SL 18
S 18

U 118

133
:
Ib.m.ax 24

t, t 24,130

t 24
Q 24

- 25
:
Ub.m.ax 23

du
24

dt

di

dt

24

di

dt

24


I 23
I 23
,
fmax 24


84
85
2

i dt 26
:
s 19
Vs 19
Cs 19

PM 20

PV 20
PS 20

63
63
:
/
36
/()
36
/()
35
/()
36
200

198

/ 35
/ 36
/
36

120,66
81
93,172

:
107

160
105
- 161,163
()
36
128
22
11,60
64
27

R 25
Rni 25

107
109,174
:
25

176
117
111,113

GTO
( ,
) 26
(JGCT) 26

( ) 22
95,170
82

() 27
(IGBT) 30
(FET, MOSFET) 28

22


115
105
124
162
105

172

130

36
69
79
127
:
38
39
:
-
23
23
29

116
107
159

130
133
132

201

199