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..

-

, ,

,
27.03.04


2016
621.3.01(075.8)
31.27-0173
33

:
-

(. . ., . . .. );

..

..
33 : /
.. . : , 2016. 162 .

ISBN 978-5-8295-0425-0

,
.
, -
27.03.04
-
,
.
.: 17 . . 148.

ISBN 978-5-8295-0425-0 621.3.01(075.8)


31.27-0173
.. , 2016

1.
1.1. ..................................................... 7
1.2. ...................... 9
1.3.
........................................................10
1.4. .............................12
1.5. ,
...............................15
1.6. ,
...............................17
1.7.
..............................................................................18
1.8.
..............................................................................21
1.9. ..................................24

2.
2.1. ............................................................28
2.2.
.............................................................29
2.3.
............................................................36
2.4. .
...............................................................38
2.5. .
............................................................40
2.6. .
.................................................................42
2.7. .
...........................................................................43

3.

3.1. ,
......................................45
3.2. RLC-. ....48

3
3.3. RLC-.
.............................................................................50
3.4. RLC- ....................................................53
3.5. ...........................56
3.6. ...............58
3.7. ................................................................60

4.

4.1.
.................67
4.2.
.........................68
4.3.
.......................................69
4.4.
..............................................................71
4.5. ...........................................................72
4.6.
.........................................73
4.7. ....................................................74
4.8. ..............................................77
4.9. ...............................................................80
4.10. ....................................81

5.
5.1.
........................................85
5.2.
......................................89
5.3. .................................................90

6.
6.1. ......................96
6.2. .......................... 103

4
7.
7.1.
........................................................ 107
7.2. ................... 110
7.3. ..... 115
7.4. .... 116
7.5.
........................................................ 119
7.6. ................ 120
7.7.
........................................................ 121

8.


8.1.
.............................................................. 123
8.2.
.............................................................. 125
8.3.
......................................................... 127
8.4.
...................................... 128
8.5. ............................ 130

9.


9.1. .
....................................................... 134
9.2. ... 136
9.3. .
........................................................... 138
9.4. RL- .................................. 140
9.5. RC- .................................. 142
9.6.
RLC- .......................................................................... 144

5
10.
10.1. .......... 151
10.2.
................................. 153
10.3. ................ 155
10.4.
...................................................................... 157

................................................ 160

6
1.

1.1.

-
, , -
.
, (, ,
, , . .). -
, ,
.

- (,
. .) (
, . .). , -
, .

, .
.
,
. .
,
. -
, ,
, .

.
, -
, .

, ,
. , -
,
.
.
.
-
, -
,

7
.
.
:
1) (, )
(. 1.1, ), , -
;
2) (. 1.1, )
. -
t1, t2, t3, . t
-
. t=const;
3) (. 1.1, )
. s 1 ,s 2 ,
. ,
.
s .
;
4) (. 1.1, ) -
. -
.

s 1 ( t) s 2 ( t)

0 t 0 t1 t2 tn t

s 3 ( t) s 4 ( t)
sk sk

s2 s2
s1 s1
0 t 0 t1 t2 tn t

. 1.1

8
1.2.

F(t) , -
-
t
F (t ) = F (t nT ) t .
T 0 , -
, .
, . . ,

1
f = .
T
().
1 , 1 .
-
(. 1.2):
s1 (t ) = S m cos(t + ) ; s2 (t ) = S m sin(t + ) .
,
/2. -

s1(t)
-
Sm
,

.
- - 0 t

: Sm
Sm;
; . 1.2
.

Sm. .

( t) T f
= 2 / T, = 2f.
.

9
(t + ), -
, .
.
.
, ,
.
,
.
, .

/2, ,
.

1.3.


A = Am e j ( t + ) = Am cos(t + ) + jAm sin(t + ) .
-
,
,

a1(t) = Amcos (t + ), -
a2(t) = Amsin (t + ).
A (. 1.3).
t = 0 A ,
-
Im . A
t = 0
mejt
-

t m
A m = Am e j .
0 Re
A = A m e jt.
e jt,

. 1.3 , -

10
.
e jt, .
A = Am e j ( t + )
.
-
:
e j + e j e j e j
cos = , sin = .
2 2j

*
A
[ A
]
Am cos(t + ) = m e j ( t + ) + e j ( t + ) = m e j t +
2 2
A m j t
2
e ,


*

Am sin(t + ) =
2j
e [
Am j ( t + )
e j ( t +)
=
1
]

j 2
A m jt
e
A
2
m
e j t

.


, Amcos (t + ) -
- ,
Am

2
(. 1.4).
Amsin (t + ) -
, j (. 1.5).

Im
jAm sin (t + )
*

Am jt
Im Am jt
e e Am jt
2 e
2 2
Am cos (t + )
0 Re 0 Re
*
*
Am jt Am jt
e e
2 2
. 1.4 . 1.5

11

a1 =Am1cos (t + 1),
a2 =Am2cos (t + 2).
-
, (. 1.6).
, A m1 A m 2 A m 2
A m1 . = 1 2
Im Am1 -
A m1 A m 2 .

1 Am 2 ,
2
0 Re ,
. 1.6 .

1.4.

-
-
. -
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
B C B C , -
A D A D , -
-
. 1.7 .
-
(. 1.7):
(AD);
();
()
;
(CD)
.

12
-
(. 1.8).
()
,
(. 1.8).


s(t) s(t)

t

. 1.8
-
t, U0 Um
(. 1.9).
-
t, t,
t, t, -
t, -
U0 Um,
v = Um / t v = Um / t (. 1.10).

t t
U0
U0

Um
Um

t t t
. 1.9 t
t

. 1.10
, -
, -
(. 1.11):
U0 ;
Um ;

13
t -
0,1Um 0,9Um;
t
0,9Um 0,1Um;
U , ,
Um;
U ;
t ;
U ;
t ;
t (
0,5Um).
0,5Um .

U
U

t
t
0,9Um

Um
0,1Um
0,5Um

U
U0

t t t t

. 1.11
() (. 1.12)
U0, -
Um, t, t,
v = Um / t v = Um / t.

, -
-

:
du du

dt t= 0 dt t = t
K = .
du
dt t= 0

14
(. 1.13) -
t, t,
, F = 1/T, -
Q = T/t, = t / T =
= 1/Q.

Um
t
U0

t t t
t t T

. 1.12 . 1.13

,
t t
(Q = 2), .

1.5. ,

(. 1.14)
: . ,

, -
.
, - i1

. t
-
, i2
.

- t
:
T . 1.14
i (t ) dt ,
1
T 0
I =

15
T
i (t ) dt , .

0
, I
, T
, . -
-
, I = 0.
. -

T
i (t ) dt ,
1
T 0
I . =

22
I . = i (t ) dt .
T 0
-

T
i (t ) dt .
1 2
I=
T 0
, -
, -
, . -
,
, .
-
,
I U
k = =
I . U .

I max U max
k = = .
I U
-
.

16
1.6. ,

i = I m sin t :
T T T
1 1 I
I = i dt = I m sin t dt = m sin t d (t ) .
T 0 T 0 T 0


sin x dx = cos x + C .
T
Im I
I cp =
cos t = m (cos T cos 0) .
T 0 T
, T = 2 ,
I
I cp = m (cos 2 cos 0) = 0 .
2

.
,
:
T T T
T
2 2 2
2 2 2I 2I
= i dt = I m sin t dt = m sin t d (t ) = m
2
I . cos t =
T 0 T 0 T 0 T 0

2I m T 2I m 2
= (cos cos 0) = (cos cos 0) = I m 0,637 I m .
T 2 2

T T
i (t ) dt =
1 2 1 2
I=
T 0 T 0
I m sin 2 t dt .

1 cos 2 x
, cos 2 x = 1 2 sin 2 x sin 2 x = ,
2
T T
I2 2
I= m (1 cos 2t )dt = I m (1 cos 2t )d (2t ) .
2T 0
4 T 0

cos x dx = sin x + C .

17
T
I m2 I2
I= (2t sin 2t ) = m (2T 0 sin 2T + 0 ) =
4T 0 8

I m2 2
= [4 sin 4] = I m = I m 0,707Im.
8 2 2

I
k = m = 2 1,41.
I

I
k = = 1,11.
I . 2 2

U = 220 , Um = 1,41 U =
2 2 2
= 311 , U . = U m = U =

= 0,900 U =198 .

1.7.

, -
, (. . -
[ -, ]),
.
s(t) T
.


a
s (t ) = 0 + (an cos n1t + bn sin n1t ) ,
2 n =1
a0, an bn
2
a0 =
T (T )
s (t ) dt ,

2
an =
T (T )
s (t ) cos n 1t dt ,

18
2
T (T)
bn = s (t ) sin n 1t dt .

2
1 = .
T
, -

(), .
An
n:
an cos n 1t + bn sin n 1t = An cos(n1t n ) ,

b
An = an2 + bn2 , n = arctg n .
an
-
:


a
s (t ) = 0 + An cos(n1t n ) . (1.1)
2 n =1
An, ,
s(t)
(. 1.15). n,
, s(t)
(. 1.16).
.
s(t) .

An

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
. 1.15 . 1.16
, -
(1.1) .

19
a0 a
e j ( n1t n ) + e j ( n1t n )
s (t ) = + An cos(n1t n ) = 0 + An .
2 n =1 2 n =1 2

.
1
s (t ) = 0 +
a
( An e j n e jn1t + An e j n e jn1t ) ) .
2 2 n =1
A e j n , A ,
n n

An e j n = An :
a0 1 jn1t jn1t )
s (t ) =
+
2 2 n =1

( An e + An e ).


n. , s(t)
(n = 0),
1 jn 1t
s (t ) =
2 n =

An e .



A n = An e j n = An cos n jAn sin n = an jbn .

2 2
A n =
T (T )
s (t ) cos n1t dt j
T (T )
s (t ) sin n1t dt .

:
2 e jn1t + e jn1t 2 e jn1t e jn1t
A n =
T (T )s (t )
2
dt j
T (T )
s (t )
2j
dt .


:
1 1 1 1
A n =
T (T )
s (t )e jn1t dt +
T (T )
s (t )e jn1t dt
T (T )
s (t )e jn1t dt +
T (T )
s (t )e jn1t dt .


2
A n =
T (T )
s (t )e jn1t dt .

20
,
, (. 1.17), -
(. 1.18).

An

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
. 1.17

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0

. 1.18

1.8.

s(t) -
, [t1, t2],
s(t) = 0 (. 1.19).
s(t) ,
, .
s(t)
1
s (t ) = A n e jn1t ,
2 n = s(t)

2
A n = s (t )e jn1t dt .
T (T ) T t1 t2 T t
T
- 2 2
1. . 1.19

21

1 jn 1t
s (t ) = An e [n1 (n 1)1 ] .
2 n = 1
2 T
1 =. = .
T 1 2

, -
1:
n1 (n 1)1 = (n1 ) = 1 .

:
1 T jn1t
s (t ) = An e (n1 ) .
2 n = 2
A n :
1 jn1t
s (t ) =
2 n =
e (n1 ) s (t ) e jn1t dt . (1.2)
(T )

s(t) ,
[t1, t2], s(t)
[t1, t2].
s(t), T s(t) .
T :
s(t) -
s(t);
A n , -
: A n 0 ;
, -
, (n 1 ) d , . .
;

s (t )e s(t )e
jn1t jt
dt dt .
(T )

22

s(t )e
j t
S ( j) = dt (1.3)

, -
s(t);
(1.2) -
.
, T

1
s (t ) =
2
S ( j)e jt d . (1.4)

, (1.3),
. -

s(t) S(j).
, (1.4), -
. -
S(j) -
s(t). ( -
)
.

s(t)
1
S ( j)d
2
- + .

,

n-
:
2
A n = s (t )e jn1t dt ,
T (T )
+

s(t )e
jt
S ( j) = dt .

= n1

23
+

s(t )e
jn1t
S ( jn1 ) = dt .

S(j) A n ,
2
A n = S ( j = jn1 ) ,
T
. .
(. 1.20, ) -
(. 1.20, ),
( 2/).


| An |

s(t)

t 0

S()

s(t)

t 0

. 1.20

1.9.

,
t (. 1.21) t -
,
(. 1.22).
,
( , , 1850 1925).

24
s(t)
1
1(t) = 0, t < 0;
1(t) = 1, t 0.
0 t t
- . 1.21
t0
(. 1.23). 1(t)
1
:
1(t t0) = 0, t < t0;
1(t t0) = 1, t t0. 0 t
- . 1.22

1(t t0)
, -
1
-
:
s(t)1(t t0) = 0, t < t0; t0
0 t
s(t)1(t t0) = s(t), t t0.
. 1.23
,
E
: s(t)
e(t) = E1(t t0). Sm
-

0 t0 t0+t t
e(t) = 1(t t0) E cos(t + ).
s1(t)

Sm

, -

t (. 1.24): 0 t0 t
s(t) = s1(t) s2(t) = s2(t)
= Sm1(t t0) Sm1(t t0 t) = Sm

= Sm[1(t t0) 1(t t0 t)].


0 t0+t t
. 1.24

25

(. 1.25). ,
.
, ,
,
s(t) , -
1 .
,
t
(t) = 0, t 0;
(t) = , t = 0,
0 t t
. 1.25 +

(t )dt = 1 .

-
.
(t t0) = 0, t t0;
(t t0) = , t = t0.
- ,
. 1.26.
-

(t t0)
1 1
(t t 0 ) = lim 1(t t 0 ) 1(t t 0 t ) =
t 0 t t

1(t t 0 ) 1(t t 0 t ) d
0 t0 t = lim = 1(t t 0 ).
. 1.26
t 0 t dt
-
,
+
1(t t 0 ) = (t t0 )dt ,

. . - ,
-.
-
+
( j) = (t )e jt dt = 1,

26
. . - (. 1.27).
. 1(t)
,
. -
1(t) e- t, .
+

0

0
1( j) = lim 1(t ) e t e jt dt = lim e ( + j)t dt =
0
( + j ) t
e 0 1 1 1 j
= lim = = = e 2.
0 0 ( + j) j j
-
|1(j)| , ,
. 1.28.

|(j)| |1(j)|
1

0 0
. 1.27 . 1.28

. 1.28, -
.

27
2.

2.1.


, -
,
, .
-
. -
, ,

.
, ,

() .

. -

,
(, ,
, , . .).
,

(, , , ,
. .).

, -
(
,
.). -
, , , . .).
-
,
.


. -

28
, -
.

. ,
( -
). ,

. ,
.

, .
, .
-
.
,
. -
.

- .
,
:
, , , ,
.

,

.

2.2.


, -
(,
, . .). -
:
u (t )
R= . (2.1)
i (t )
().
[B/A].

29
, ,
1 i
G= = .
R u
.
[A/B].


, - -
. - -
,
.
- ,
. -
. - -
= arctg 1
R
(. 2.1). -

u1 u 2 u3
= = = R = const ,
i1 i2 i3
i
. . R
B
i2 .
- ,
i1
A -
u3 0 u1 u2 u , .
C -
i3

. 2.1 (. 2.2). -
. 2.2,
u1 u 2
,
i1 i2
. . .
.
U2
u~,
U2. . 2.2,

30
u~ u2 , i i
B
i~ i2 i2
. . -

i1 A
-
2
.
- 1
, - u1 u2 u t
u
(2.1), -
,
-
, - . 2.2

t

du
r= ,
di
. -
,
,
(. 2.3).
, - i

,
p R = ui = Ri 2 = Gu 2 . r>0 r=0
i2
, - r<0
t = t t1, i1 r=0
r>0
t t t u
0

wR = p R dt = Ri dt = Gu 2 dt .
2
. 2.3
t1 t1 t1
i(t) = I = const, wR = RI2(t t1).
- .


. 2.4, , u
10
. 2.4, .
4


, 90. . 2.4

31
-
, -
. -

q
C= , (2.2)
uC
q , ;
uc .
. -
[ / ]. q, -
, uC, - -
. - ,
. -
. -
, (2.2), -

dq
C = .
duC

:
dq
iC = .
dt
dq = d(CuC).
d (CuC )
iC = .
dt
, . . C f(uC),
du
iC = C C . (2.3)
dt
(2.3) .
,
.
. (2.3)
,
t
1
uC =
C
iC dt ,

, t =
uC ( ) = 0.

32
-
t0, ,
t0 t
1 1
uC =
C
iC dt +
Ct
iC dt .
0

t0.
t
1
uC = uC (t0 ) +
CtiC dt .
0

duC
pC = uC iC = CuC .
dt
uC
duC/dt , pC -
. , . . .
uC
duC/dt , pC -
. , -
.
,
t:
t t uc
du Cu 2 q 2



dt 0
2
wC (t ) = pC dt = uC C dt = C uC duC = C =
2C
.

, , -
t
uC u
1,5

q. 8


. 2.5, , -
. 2.5, . . 2.5
, 90.


.


L= , (2.4)
iL

33
iL ;
,
i,
:
N
=
i =1
i
,

N .
, , -
,
= N .
-
(), ().
[2]. .


iL -
- . - -
( L iL),
. -
.

, (2.4), -

d
L = .
diL

R1,5...4 . 2.6. -
iL
eL , 90.
uL -
-
. 2.6
d d
eL = = ( LiL ) .
dt dt
,
di
eL = L L .
dt

34
uL
iL
eL, . . uL = eL.
di
uL = L L .
dt
,
.
iL uL, -

t
1
iL =
L
u L dt .

t = t0
t0
1
iL (t0 ) =
L
u L dt .

iL(t0) , t > t0
t
1
iL = iL (t0 ) +
Lt
u L dt .
0


di
p L = u L iL = LiL L .
dt
iL
di
L , pL -
dt
. , .
iL
di
L , pL -
dt
.
,
t,
t iL
LiL2 2
wL (t ) =


p L dt = L iL diL =
0
2
=
2L
.

, ,
t
iL .
35
, ,
-
.

2.3.


() .
() -
, -
(. 2.7).

i
.
i>0
u(t) = U = const. -
i<0 u .
-
. 2.7 . 2.8.

, 90. -
2.721-74, ,
.
-
R, -
+
u2 .
p=
R
, R 0, p
. 2.8
, . . -
.
(R = 0)
. -
.
. 2.9.

,
(. 2.10). -
. i(t) = I = const,
.

36

. 2.11.
, 90. -
2.721-74, ,
. -
, -
, .

i
+
u<0 u>0
u
. 2.9 . 2.10 . 2.11


R,
p = i2 R.
, R p -
, . . .
(R = ), . .
, .
.
. 2.12.

, ,

.

, ,
- . 2.12
, -
.
,
.
,
-
, .

37
:
, (), . 2.13, ;
, (), . 2.13, ;
, (), . 2.13, ;
, (), . 2.13, .
i

u u = f(u) u = f(i)

u i = f(u) i = f(i)


. 2.13


,
,
y x:
y = K x.
K -
,
. -
,
(x = 0).

2.4. .

,
, , (-
, , .).
, -
, . , , ,
,

38
,
, -
.
.
,
. -
. -
,
.

:

(, -
, );
,
.
,
- u
R LR

. 2.14, , 2.14, 2.14, ,
CR
LR ;
CR ;
u - L RL
;
RL -
; CL R
R -
; LC RC
C
CL -
;
LC ; . 2.14
RC -
.
,
. ,
.
. ,
.
,
, .

39
.
, ,
Ri
(. 2.15).
i ,
Ri
. . Ri = const,
.
e u ,
. . Ri = f(i),
.

i i -
. -
Ri u ,

-
Ri. (. 2.15, )
. 2.15 e
i = .
Ri + R
, i
R , e = Ri = .
-
i R i
R
R
R
u ku u (. 2.16).

. 2.16

2.5. .


.
.
.
,
, . ,

40
-
, .
.
,
, . -
, -
, N- ().
, ,
, (. 2.17).
, , -
,
, (. 2.18).

1 2 1
3 2
3
. 2.17 . 2.18

, -
, , , -
,
(. 2.19). , . 2.19, -
, .

. 2.19


, .

.
41
.
.
. -
.
,
.

2.6. .

:
, , ,
, :
ik = 0 ,
k
k , .
. -
,

.
:
,
,
,
:
k
Uk = 0,

k , .

. -
.
, -
, ,
, -
, . ,
,
( ).

,

42
.
.
RLC-,
2.20.
u L +u C +u R =e.

t
di 1
uL L + U C (0) + idt + iR = e ,
dt C0
. . -
e uC -
. -
,
uR
. 2.20 d 2i di i de
L 2 +R + = ;
dt dt C dt
. .
,
.

2.7. .

-
.
, -

.

. -
-
.
.
,

min, .
t, x. -

. a << min,
. l > min,

43
,
.
-
, ,
, -
, . . .

.
, ,
. ,
, .
,

.
, , -
, -
. -
, -
.

, -
.

. -
, -

.

.

44
3.

3.1. ,

R (. 3.1)
i(t)
u(t) = Um cos(t + ).
R.
u(t)
R
u (t ) U m
i (t ) = = cos(t + ) .
R R . 3.1
Um /R Im.
i(t) = Im cos(t + ).

:
, -
;

,
:
U U
Im = m ; I= .
R R
pR, R,
:
pR = ui = Um Im cos2(t + ) =
U I
= m m [1+cos 2(t + )] =
2
= U I [1+cos 2(t + )].
pR :
, . .
;
P =
= Um Im / 2 = U I ,
,
U I
p~ = m m cos 2(t + ) = U I cos 2(t + ).
2

45
,
:
T T
P=
1
p R dt =
1 UmIm
[1 + cos 2(t + )]dt = U m I m =UI .
T 0
T 0 2 2

T
1
P=
T p
0
R dt

.

(. 3.2). L
i(t) = Im cos(t + ).

i(t) di
uL = L = LIm sin(t + ).
dt
uL L LIm
Um, , -
-
. 3.2
,
uL = Um cos(t + + /2).
uL
, :
-
/2;
-
, :
Um = LIm = xL Im; U = xL I,
-
.
xL = L, , -
. , -
,
1 1 1
bL = = = .
xL L 2 f L
pL
:
pL = uLi = Um sin(t + ) Im cos(t + ) =

46
UmIm
= sin 2(t + ) =
2
= U I sin 2(t + ).
, -
pL , -
.
, .
(. 3.3).

u(t) = Um cos(t + ).

iC du
() iC = = CUm sin(t + ).
u(t) C dt
CUm
Im, , -
-
. 3.3
,
iC = Im cos(t + + /2).

:
,
/2;

, ,
Um = Im /C = xC Im; U = xC I,
-
.
xC = 1/C = 1/2fC, -
, ,
bC = C .
p, -
:
p = ui = Um cos(t + ) Im sin(t + ) =
U I
= m m sin 2(t + ) =
2
= U I sin 2(t + ).

47
,
, . -
,
.

3.2. RLC-.

RLC- (. 3.4)

i = Im cos(t + ).
i R L C

uR uL
uC
u = uR + uL +uC. u
, . 3.4
uR, uL, uC
:
I
u = RIm cos(t + ) + LIm cos(t + + /2) + m cos(t + /2).

, cos(t + /2) = cos(t + + /2),

1
u = RIm cos(t + ) + (L )Im cos(t + + /2).

(L 1/C) = xL xC = x -
. x -
. L > 1/C, x > 0. L < 1/C, x < 0.

, -
.

. 3.5 -
Im UL RLC-.
,
UC
2
1 2
U m = ( R I m ) + L
2
Im .
U C
I
Im .
2
1
0 Re U m = R + L
2
Im .
C
. 3.5

48

2
1
Z = R + L
2
= R 2 + x 2
C
.
, -
RLC- -
, :
Um = zIm; U = zI.

1
L
x C
= arctg = arctg .
R R
,
u = Um cos(t + + ),
. . RLC-
,
, || /2.
x = xL xC = 0,
.
RLC- .
-
(. 3.6).
U = U 2 + U 2 ;
U = U cos ;
U = U sin .
U
U
-
I, - >0

(. 3.7), U

z = R2 + x2 ; U
R = z cos ; <0
x = z sin .
. - U
RL- U
. 3.6
z = R 2 + ( L ) 2 ;

49
x L
z = arctg ;
R
>0 0 < < /2.
R RC-
2
R 1
z = R +
2
;
<0
z 1
= arctg ;
x R
. 3.7 /2 < < 0.

3.3. RLC-.


.
.
,
.
1883 1884 .
-

( , ).



.

:
-
-
. -
;
-
;

.

50
-
RLC-,

i = Im cos(t + ).

RLC- :
t
di 1
u = Ri + L +
dt C
idt .


:
I m cos(t + ) Im e j t ;
U m cos(t + ) U m e jt ;
d
[I m cos(t + )] d Im e jt = j Im e jt ;
dt dt
t t jt
[I m cos(t + )]dt Im e jt dt = I m e .


j
.
,

j;

j.

:
1 j t
U m e jt = RIm e jt + jLIm e jt + I me .
j C
e jt,

1
U m = RIm + jLIm + Im . (3.1)
j C
Im :
1
U m = R + jL + Im .
jC

51

1 1
Z = R + j L + = R + j L = R + jx
j
.
Z -
:
Z = z cos + jz sin ;
Z = ze j ,
z = mod Z = R 2 + x 2 ;
x
= arctg Z.
R
(3.1) , -
:
U mR = RIm ;
U = jLI ;
mL m
1
U mC = Im .
j C

Z L = j L
1 1
, Z C = =j
j C C
.
,
Z = R + Z L + ZC .
,
U m = ZIm .
2 ,
:
U = ZI .

U m = ZIm = ze j I m e j = zI m e j ( + ) .

:
u = zI m cos(t + + ) = U m cos(t + + ) .

52

.
RLC-,
(3.1),
.

, -
:

U ml = 0 ,
l
l , .
2 ,

:
U l = 0 ,
l
. .
.

3.4. RLC-

RLC- (. 3.8) -

i
u = Um cos(t + ).
iR iL iC
i, u R
, L
C
.

. 3.8
i = i R + i L + iC .
,
:
t
1 du
i = Gu +
L
udt + C
dt
.

-
:

53
1 j t
Im e jt = GU m e jt + U m e + jCU m e jt .
j L
e jt,
1
Im = GU m + U m + jCU m . (3.2)
j L

R, L
C:
ImR = GU m ;
1 1
ImL = Um = j Um ;
j L L
I = jCU .
mC m
-
,
: -


Imk = 0 ,
k
k , .
2 ,

:

I = 0 .
k
k

,
1 1
. L = =j
j L L
, C = jC
.
(3.2) -

Im = (G + YL + YC) U m .
Y = (G + YL + YC) -
. ,
RLC-

54
1 1
Y = (G + YL + YC) = G + + jC = G j C .
jL L
1
b = C = bL bC -
L
.
Y = G jb = y e j = y cos j y sin .
y = mod Y = G 2 + b 2 -
RLC-.
, :
Im = YU m I = YU .

.
,
I m = yU m , I = yU ,
. . -
RLC- .
,
RLC-
Im = YU m = ye j U m e j = yU m e j ( ) = I m e j ( ) .
Im :
i = I m cos(t + ) .

1
C
= arg Y = arctg = arctg L
b
, Im
G 1

R IR U
|| /2.


0 Re
RLC- (. 3.9).
, I
, - IC

IL
(. . b > 0) . 3.9

(. . b < 0).

55
bL = bC,
= 0.
.
IR IL + IC -
I . I = GU
. I = bU
.

b I = I 2 + I 2 ;
y
I = I cos ;
>0 I = I sin .
G
G U,
(. 3.10),
<0
y y = G 2 + b2 ;
b G = y cos ;
. 3.10 b = y sin .

3.5.

,
u = Um cos t,

i = Im cos(t ),
.
,
= . = .

p = ui = Um Im cos tcos (t ).

cos cos = [cos( ) + cos( + )] ,
1
2

56
p=
UmIm
[cos + cos(2t )]
2

p = UI [cos + cos(2t )] .
,
UIcos -
UIcos (2t ), .
( )

P = UIcos .
cos . -
().
, -
S = UI,
- ().
S, S,
,
:
S = S e j.

S = S cos + jS sin .
, -
:
Re[S] = S cos = P.

Im[S] = S sin = Q
-
().

, -

.
(sin > 0) (sin < 0).

:
S = P + jQ.

57
S ,
-
P Q.
, S
P Q, (. 3.11).
,
P Q
Im
S = P 2 + Q 2 ; cos = ; sin = .
S S
S Q , , -

Z
z, R, x:
0 P Re
S = UI = I 2z = U 2y;
. 3.11
S = Se j = I 2ze j = I 2Z;
P = UIcos = I 2z cos = I 2R = U 2y cos = U 2G = U I = UI;
Q = UIsin = I 2z sin = I 2x = U 2y sin = U 2b = U I = UI.
S -

*
S = Se j = UIe j ( ) = Ue j Ie j = U I ,
. . S
-
.

3.6.

() -

Y Y
H ( j) = m = ,
X m X
X m ;
X ;
Ym ;
Y .
, -
. H(j),
,

58
H ( j) = H () e j( ) .
H()

Y Y
H () = m = .
Xm X
()

() = y x.
X = 1 . ,
m
-
. H ( j) X =1 = Ym , . .
m

.
H()
- () . -
()
() .

, - -
, .
,
H(j) 0 .
.
,
.
i- (. 3.12).
Ii , U i ,
U
H ( j) = i = Z ii ( j) ,
Ii
. . Ii

Ui
i- .

U i , Ii ,

. 3.12
I
H ( j) = i = Yii ( j) ;
i U

59
. .
i- . ,
.
, -
. i- k-
(. 3.13).
:
-

Ii Ik
U
KU ( j) = k ;
Ui Uk U i
-

. 3.13
I
K I ( j) = k ;
Ii

U
Z ki ( j) = k ;
i I

I
Yki ( j) = k .
U i

3.7.

() -
,
120o (. 3.14). -
, ,
, -
.

, , .
A, B C. , -
:
;
,
.

60
-
, ,
120 (. 3.15), A, B, C
; X, Y, Z .

C
Im
EC X

120 B C
120 S N
EA Re A
120 Z Y

EB A

. 3.14 B . 3.15


(. 3.16).
, .

EA ZA

ZC ZB

EC EB

. 3.16

A, B, C -
ZA, ZB, ZC , -
(. 3.17).
,
. ,
,
.
|| = |B| = |C| ZA = ZB = ZC ( -
), -
.

61
. ,
,
.

EA ZA

ZC ZB

EC EB

. 3.17

,

, E, U, I.
-
U, I.

I = I.
,
.
(. 3.18).

U = U.
,
,
EA A . ,
:
;
EB B
;
;
EC C .
-
.
. 3.18 || = |B| = |C|
ZA = ZB = ZC.
.

. -, -

62
,
. -,
-
. -, -
.
-
-
(1862-1919). ,
. -
--
1891 .

(. 3.19).
A

UA ZA
0 0'
ZC ZB
B
C UC UB

. 3.19

0 0'
.
A + B + C + = 0.
U A , U B , U C ,
:
U U U
IA = A ; IB = B ; IC = C .
Z Z Z

U AB = U A U B ; U BC = U B U C ; U CA = U C U A .

(. 3.20). ,
U = 3 U .
0 0'
. 0 0' ,
ZN (. 3.21).

63
0'
A
ZA ZB ZC

UA U A B C ZN
UCA AB
UC 0'
UB UA UB UC

C UBC B 0
. 3.20 . 3.21


(. 3.22).
0'
IA IB IC
YA YB YC YN UN

0
. 3.22

U U U
IA = A ; IB = B ; IC = C
ZA ZB ZC

IA = U AYA ; IB = U BYB ; IC = U C YC .
-

I = IA + IB + IC = U AYA + U BYB + U C YC .
-

Y = YA + YB + YC + YN.

U Y + U BYB + U C YC
U N = U 00 = IY = A A .
YA + YB + YC + YN

IA = (U A U N )YA ; IB = (U B U N )YB ; IC = (U C U N )YC .

64
, -
.
.
U A , U B
U C ( ).
IA = U AYA ; IB = U BYB ; IC = U C YC .
0' -
:
U AYA + U BYB + U C YC = 0 . (3.3)
U B U U A
:
U B = U A U AB , U C = U A + U CA .
U U (3.3).
B

U AYA + (U A U AB )YB + (U A + U CA )YC = 0 .


U ,
A

U Y U CAYC
U A = AB B .
YA + YB + YC

U Y U ABYA U Y U BCYB
U B = BC C ; U C = CA A .
YA + YB + YC YA + YB + YC
,
.


(. 3.23). IA
- A
()
IAB
:
U U U ZCA ZAB
IAB = AB ; IBC = BC ; ICA = CA .
Z AB Z BC Z CA ICA
ZBC
C B
IB
IC IBC
A, B C: . 3.23

65
A = AB CA; B = BC AB; C = CA BC.

ZAB = ZBC = ZCA = Z.

66
4.

4.1.

,

. -
, k , l ,
m n (. 4.1).
i R1 Rk L1 Ll

u en e1
+ + Cm C1

. 4.1

t t
di di 1 1
dt
+ ... + Ll +
R1i + ... + Rk i + L1
dt C1
i dt + ... +
Cm i dt = u (e1 + ... + en ).

:
t
di 1
R i + L +
dt C i dt = u e ,

k l m n
1 1
R = Ri , L = Li , = , e = ei .
i =1 i =1 C i =1 C i i =1

,
. 4.2. , -
, ,

.
i R
L
, -
R, L, C u e
C
+

. 4.2

67
1
Z = R + jL + .
jC
.
I Z

.
U
.
E
+ Z I = U E .

. 4.3 . 4.3,
Z.

4.2.

,
k , l , m n
(. 4.4).
i
i1 in
C1 Cm
u R1 Rk L1 Ll

. 4.4

t t
1 1 1 1
i = u + ... +
R1 Rk
u+
L1
u dt + ... +
Ll u dt +

du du
+ C1
+ ... + Cm (i1 + ... + in ) .
dt dt
.
t
1 1 du
i=
R
u+
L u dt + C dt
i ,

k m l n
1 1 1 1
= ; = ; C = C i ; i = ii .
R i =1 Ri L i =1 Li i =1 i =1
,
. 4.5. .

68
i
-
i
, -
u R L
R, L, C

1 1
Y = + + jC . . 4.5
R jL


I = YU I .
. 4.6,
.
I

I
-
- U Y

-
(). . 4.6

4.3.

, ,
(. 4.7). ,
,
.

I1 I1
1 1
I12
Z31 U12 Z1 U12
U31 U31
Z12
I31 Z3 Z2
Z23
3 2 3 2
I2 I2
I23
I3 I3 U23
U23
. 4.7
69
, Z12, Z23, Z31. Z1, Z2, Z3,

.

(). ,

. 1 2
I1 + I31 I12 = 0 ;
I + I I = 0 .
2 12 23
, -
:
Z12 I12 + Z 23 I23 + Z 31 I31 = 0 .
1- 2- I31 I23 ,
3- , I12 ,
Z 31 Z 23
I12 = I1 I2 .
Z12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z12 + Z 23 + Z 31
1 2
Z 31Z12 Z 23 Z12
U12 = I12 Z12 = I1 I2 .
Z12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z12 + Z 23 + Z 31

U12 = Z1I1 Z 2 I2 .

1 2 .
Z 31Z12 Z 23 Z12
I1 I2 = Z1I1 Z 2 I2 .
Z12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z12 + Z 23 + Z 31
I1
I2 , ,
Z 31Z12
Z1 = ;
Z12 + Z 23 + Z 31
Z 23 Z12
Z2 = ; (4.1)
Z12 + Z 23 + Z 31
Z 23 Z 31
Z3 = .
Z12 + Z 23 + Z 31

70
,
,
.
, -
,

.
-
Z1, Z2, Z3,

Z12, Z23, Z31. , (4.1)
Z12, Z23, Z31.
ZZ
Z12 = Z1 + Z 2 + 1 2 ;
Z3
Z Z
Z 23 = Z 2 + Z 3 + 2 3 ;
Z1
Z Z
Z 31 = Z 3 + Z1 + 3 1 .
Z2

.

4.4.

-
, -
. I1
Z
(. 4.8)
U = E I1Z . E U

(. 4.8)
U = ( I I1 ) Z = IZ I1Z . I I1

, - Z U
:
E = I Z .
. 4.8
71
, -

,
. ,
,

I 2z.
,
.
, -
,

,
.
,
, ,
,
, .

, -

U
,
-

, -
.
U U
4.5.
-


.
-
(. 4.9): -
U U -
-
,

. 4.9

72
,
.
,
, ,
, . .
.
:
, ,
(. 4.10).
-

-
, I
. . -
- I

. I


. 4.10

.

4.6.

-
. 4.11.
. -
.
p = 6, ,
. .
(. .

q).
. ,
, .
, , -
, . -

73
I3 Z3
. -
I4 Z4 III Z5 I5 n = p
3
1 q + 1.
I1 2 I6 I2
Z1 Z6 Z2 ,
I II .

E2
E1 E6
I1 I3 I4 = 0 ,
0
I + I I = 0 ,
. 4.11 4 5 6

I3 I2 I5 = 0 .
(. 4.11)
( ,
, ).

Z1I1 + Z 4 I4 + Z 6 I6 = E1 E 6 ,
Z I Z I + Z I = E + E ,
6 6 5 5 2 2 2 6

Z 3 I3 + Z 5 I5 Z 4 I4 = 0 .
,
, I1 , ..., I6 .
, -
:

p;
-
, q 1
p q + 1 ,
.

4.7.


, ,
,
, .

74
, (. 4.11),
1, 2 3. I4 , I5 , I6
I , I , I :
1 2 3

I4 = I1 I3 ,
I5 = I3 I2 ,
I = I I .
6 1 2
-
:
Z1I1 + Z 4 ( I1 I3 ) + Z 6 ( I1 I2 ) = E1 E 6 ,
Z ( I I ) Z ( I I ) + Z I = E + E ,
6 1 2 5 3 2 2 2 2 6

Z 3 I3 + Z 5 ( I3 I2 ) Z 4 ( I1 I3 ) = 0 .
:
( Z1 + Z 4 + Z 6 ) I1 Z 6 I2 Z 4 I3 = E1 E 6 ,
Z I + ( Z + Z + Z ) I Z I = E + E ,
6 1 2 5 6 2 5 3 2 6

Z 4 I1 Z 5 I2 + ( Z 3 + Z 5 + Z 4 ) I3 = 0 .
, .
( Z1 + Z 4 + Z 6 ) I1 , ( Z 2 + Z 5 + Z 6 ) I2 ( Z 3 + Z 5 + Z 4 ) I3
,
, .
Ii ,
-
Zii.
Z11 = Z1 + Z 4 + Z 6 ,
Z 22 = Z 2 + Z 5 + Z 6 ,
Z 33 = Z 3 + Z 5 + Z 4 .

Zij, ,
. , Zij = Zji. i- j-
, Zij = 0. . 4.11
Z12 = Z21 = Z6,
Z13 = Z31 = Z4,
Z23 = Z32 = Z5.
,
.

75

,
.
, -
, Ei.
. 4.11
E1 = E1 E 6 ,
E = E + E ,
2 2 6

E 3 = 0 .
,
, .
,
, n-
:
Z11I1 + Z12 I2 + ... + Z1n In = E1 ;

Z 21I1 + Z 22 I2 + ... + Z 2 n In = E 2 ;

. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Z I + Z I + ... + Z I = E .
n1 1 n 2 2 nn n n

m-
.

Im = m ,

, -
;
m , m-
.
m m- ,
n

Im = 1m E1 + 2 m E 2 + ... + nm E n = im E i , (4.2)
i =1
im im
.
:
, ,
p q + 1;

, .

76

:
, n = p q + 1;

;
.
.
,
,
;

;
;
.

4.8.

-
,
, -
, .

.
, .

. 4.12.
(. 4.11), -
, -
.

I3 Y3

I5
1 I4 Y4 2 Y5 3
J1 I1 J6 I6 I2 J2
U10 U20 U30
Y1 Y6 Y2

0
. 4.12

77
,
.
,
.
.
1, 2 3
J1 I1 I3 I4 = 0 ;
J + I + I I = 0 ;
6 4 5 6

I3 I2 I5 J2 = 0 .
:
I1 = Y1U 10 ;
I = Y U ;
2 2 30

I3 = Y3U 13 = Y3 (U 10 U 30 );
I 4 = Y4U 12 = Y4 (U 10 U 20 ) ;
I = Y U = Y (U U ) ;
5 5 32 5 30 20

I6 = Y6U 20 .
.

(Y1 + Y3 + Y4 )U 10 Y4U 20 Y3U 30 = J1 ;
Y U + (Y + Y + Y )U Y U = J ;
4 10 4 5 6 20 5 30 6

Y3U 10 Y5U 20 + (Y2 + Y3 + Y5 )U 30 = J 2 .


, -
. .
. i-
Yii ,
.
Y11 = Y1 + Y3 + Y4 ;
Y22 = Y4 + Y5 + Y6 ;
Y33 = Y2 + Y3 + Y5 .
Yij -
, -
.
Y12 = Y21 = Y4 ;
Y13 = Y31 = Y3 ;

78
Y23 = Y32 = Y5 .
,
i- j- , Yij = 0.
i- Ji
, i- .

J1y = J1 ;
J = J ; 2y 6

J3 y = J 2 .
, -
, ,
q :
Y11U 10 + Y12U 20 + ... + Y1,q 1U q 1,0 = J1y ;
Y U + Y U + ... + Y U
21 10 22 20 = J ;
2 , q 1 q 1, 0 2y

;
Yq 1,1U10 + Yq 2, 2U 20 + ... + Yq 1,q 1U q 1,0 = J q 1, y .

,
.
k- .

U k 0 = k ,

;
k ,
k- .
k k- ,
q 1,k q 1
ik
U k 0 = 1k J1y + 2 k J 2 y + ... +

J q 1, y =
i =1
J ij ,(4.3)

ik ik.
:
, ,
q 1;
,
.

:

79
, -
;
;

;
.

:
1. ,
,
.
2. ,
. -
, -
,
( ,
).
, .
3.

,
-
.
4. ,

, ,
, -
.
5.
. , -
, -
.
,
.

4.9.

,

.

80
m- ,
, (4.2):
m

Im = im E i = 1m E1 + 2 m E 2 + ... + nm E n . (4.4)
i =1
, -
-
,
. (4.4) -
.

, .
-
k- (4.3)
q 1

U k 0 = ik J i
i =1
, - -

,
.
:
1. -
-
, , -
.
2.
.

4.10.

: -
( ,
-) -
( ). .
. -
,

, -
, -

81
, -
, .
,
k- (. 4.13).

. 4.14. E
k- (. 4.15). -
Z
,

(. 4.16).
Ik Z Ik

A Uk Zk E Uk Zk

. 4.13 . 4.14
Ik = 0

A Uk = E
Z = Z

. 4.15 . 4.16

. k-
E E (. 4.17),
E = E . , .
. Ik -
Ik , E
, Ik ,
E' E''
Ik E
(. 4.18):
Ik = Ik + Ik .
A Uk Zk
E = E , -
. 4.17 Ik = 0 . ,

82
(. 4.18)
U kxx .
E = E = U . k

E' E''
I'k I''k

A Zk + Zk

. 4.18

Ik :
E
Ik = .
Z + Z k
Ik = 0 ,
E E
Ik = Ik + I k = = .
Z + Z k Z + Z k
. 4.14, . .
.

.
. -
(. 4.19),

(. 4.20),
(. 4.21), -
,
, (. 4.22).
,
k- (. 4.19).
. 4.20,

I = Ik ,
1
Y = Y = .
Z

83
Ik Ik

A Uk Zk I Y Uk Zk

. 4.19 . 4.20

A Ik = I
Y = Y

. 4.21 . 4.22

,
,

:
U k E
I = Ik = = .
Z Z


.
,
.

84
5.

5.1.


, . .
,
.


L= .
i
,
,
. -
,
.
,
, .

-
M. 12 i2
,

M 12 = 12 .
i2
21 i1
,

M 21 = 21 .
i1
M12 = M21 = M.
M .
, -
. 5.1.
, -
-
.
-
. .

85
i1 M i2 , -
, -

L1 L2 .


, ,
. 5.1
.

(. 5.2). i1, L1, -
11. L1,
L2.
S1. ,
i1, , .
21
. , i1,
11 = 21 + S1.
21 , i2,
L2,
S1 22.
11

L2,
L1.
22
S2
S2.
i1 12 i2 ,
i2, ,
. 5.2
.
12 -
. ,
i2,
22 = 12 + S2.
11 22, -
,
.
, -
, -
:

86
1 = 11 12 ;
2 = 22 21 .
+ ,
.

,
1 = N11 = N111 N112 ;
2 = N 2 2 = N 2 22 N 2 21 .
, .

d d d12
e1 = 1 = 11 ;
dt dt dt
d d d 21
e2 = 2 = 22 .
dt dt dt

, . -
e1 e2 :
d di d di
e1 = 11 1 12 2 ;
di1 dt di2 dt
d di d 21 di1
e2 = 22 2 .
di2 dt di1 dt
, :
d11 11
= = L1 ;
di1 i1
d 22 22
= = L2 ;
di2 i2
d12 12
= = M 12 ;
di2 i2
d 21 21
= = M 21 .
di2 i2

87
M12 = M21 = M.
di di
e1 = L1 1 M 2 ;
dt dt
di di
e2 = L2 2 M 1 .
dt dt
:
di di
u1 = L1 1 M 2 ;
dt dt
di2 di
u 2 = L2 M 1 .
dt dt

,
, . -
,
,
.
-
k, -

,
21 12
k = .
11 22
21 11, 12 22, 0 km 1.
k = 1 , .
k .

:
11 L1i1
11 = = ;
N1 N1
22 L2i2
22 = = ;
N2 N2
Mi
21 = 21 = 1 ;
N2 N2
Mi
12 = 12 = 2 .
N1 N1

88
,

M
k = .
L1 L2
-
M = k L1 L2 . 0 M L1L2 , . . -

.

5.2.


:
di1 di
u1 = L1 M 2 ;
dt dt
di di
u2 = L2 2 M 1 .
dt dt

.
:
U 1 = jL1 I1 jMI2 ;
U 2 = jL2 I2 jMI1 ;

ZL = jL -
,
.

ZM = jM,
,
.
U = Z I Z I ;
1 L1 1 M 2

U 2 = Z L2 I2 Z M I1 .

89
n :
U = Z I Z I ... Z I ;
1 L1 1 M 12 2 M 1n n

U 2 = Z M 21 I1 + Z L2 I2 ... Z M 2 n In ;

U n = Z M n1 I1 Z M n 2 I2 ... + Z Ln In .


.
-
, -
, ,
.

5.3.

,
(),
.
. -

.
-
.
, , -
,
.
-
,
. -
.

.
,
,
Z
(. 5.3). R1 R2
.

90

:
U = ( R + jL ) I jMI ;
1 1 1 1 2

U 2 = ( R2 + jL2 ) I2 jMI1 .

M
I1 R1 R2 I2 (. . I2 = 0 )
-
U1 L1 L2 U2
R
U 1
I1 = = I10 ,
I 2 =0 R1 + jL1
. 5.3
.
I1
I2 , -
U 2 = Z I2
I .
1
Z + ( R2 + jL2 )
I1 = I2
jM
-
U 1 U 2 , -

I2 = U 2 / Z .
( R + jL1 )[ Z + ( R2 + jL2 )] U
U 1 = 1 jM 2 .
jM Z
:
U1 ~ U 2 I1 ~ I2 , -


Z;
U 1 U 2 . I1 I2
, U U 1 2

I1 I2 -
Z.

91
,
Z:
U 2 M 2
Z = 1 = R1 + jL1 + .
I1 Z + R2 + jL2
R1 + jL1
, ,
.
,
2 M 2
Z =
Z + R 2 + j L 2
-
.
, -
-
.
,
,
. ,
R1 = R2 = 0, M = L1 L2 .
-
:
jL1 ( Z + jL2 ) U L 2 L1 L2 2 M 2
U 1 = jM 2 = 1 + U2 .

j M Z M jMZ jMZ
,
L
U 1 = 1 U 2 .
M
M L2 L2
: n = = = .
L1 M L1
U 2 = nU1 .
n, ,
. n

.

92
-

Z + jL2 Z I L
I1 = I 2 = 2 + 2 I2 .
jM jM M
Z I2 = U2, L2 / M = n.
U 2
I1 = + nI2 .
j M
L1:
U 2 L1
I1 = + nI2 .
jM L1
, M / L1 = n, U 2 / n = U 1 ,
U
I1 = 1 + nI2 .
jL1

U / jL -
1 1

I10 .
I = I + nI .
1 10 2
, -
-
.
n , U1 U 2 -
. I I ,
1 2

I10 .

M 21 i1 N
n= = = 2 21 .
L1 i1 11 N111

21 = 11,
N
n= 2 .
N1
, U2 > U1 n > 1, -
, U2 < U1 n < 1 .

93
-
, . I10 = 0 ,
,
U = nU I = nI
2 1 1 2

Z.
:

;
.
,
n ;

. ,
-
:
u
u1i1 = 2 ni2 = u 2i2 .
n
,
Z,
Z
Z = 2 ,
n
. . Z Z . ,
U U 2 Z
Z = 1 = = 2 .
I1 n n I2 n
-

.
.
-
, ,
, ( , -
), . .
,
,
(. 5.4).
, -
.

94
,
.

I1 I2

I2 I1
U1 M M U2
U2 U1

. 5.4


N
n= 2 ,
N1
N2 , ;
N1 , .

. -
,
,
.

95
6.

6.1.

, -
, -
. ,
,
. , ,
.

, -
,
.
-
.
. 6.1.
R -
.
:
1
I R Z ( j) = R + j L .
C
= 0 ,
E L 1
x = 0 L =0.
C 0 C

. 6.1 1 1
0 = f 0 = .
LC 2 LC

1
0 L = =.
0 C
,
, -
. -

L
= ,
C

96
. . -
.

R
L
L 1
Q= = 0 = = C .
R R 0 RC R

E
U L = U C = I = = EQ ,
R
. .
Q , .
.
Q .
, -
.
, , -

1 R
d= = .
Q
,

d.
-
: Z(j)
Y(j).

2
1
Z () = R + L
2
.
C

1
L
x
Z () = arctg = arctg C .
R R
-
(. 6.2). -

.

97
,
.
0 ,
,
:

xC xL = 0 f = f f0;
z

x f
= = ;
0 f0
R
0 1
L
= =
x C =
R R
L 0

= 0 =
Z() R 0
/2 0
/4 = Q .
0
0 0
/4

/2 , ,
. 6.2 , -
.
-

2
1
2 L
1 C
Z () = R 2 + L = R 1+ = R 1 + 2 ;
C R 2

x
Z () = arctg = arctg .
R
-

Y ( j ) =
1 1 1
= = .
Z ( j) 1 R (1 + j)
R + j L
C
98

1 1
Y () = = .
R 1 + 2 0
2

R 1 + Q 2
0

0
Y () = arctg = arctg Q .
0
-
- Y()
1/R
(. 6.3).
I = E Y ( j) ,
-
Y().

0
. - Y()
: /2
U L /4
KUL ( j) = ,
E
0 0
U C /4
KUC ( j) = ,
E /2

KUR ( j) =
UR
. . 6.3
E
, KUR(j) -
Y(j).
U IR
KUR ( j) = R = = RY ( j) .
E E
-
KUL(j):
U I 1 0
KUL ( j) = L = jL = jLY ( j) = jL =
E E R (1 + j) 0
1
= jQ .
0 0
1 + jQ
0
99
KUL(j):
1
KUL () = Q .
0
2
0
1 + Q 2
0

KUL(j):
0
UL () = arctg Q + .
0 2

,
:
U 1 I 1 1 1 0
KUC ( j) = C = = Y ( j) = =
E
j C E j C jC R (1 + j) 0
1 1 .
= Q 0 .
j 0
1 + jQ
0
:
1
KUC () = Q 0 ;
0
2

1 + Q 2
0
0
UC () = arctg Q .
0 2
KUL() KU() , ,
KUL()
0
L = ,
1
1
2Q 2
, KU()

1
C = 0 1 ,
2Q 2
.

100
L KUL(),
KU(),
Q
KUL ( L ) = KUC (C ) = = KU max .
1
1
4Q 2

(. 6.4).
, L
0 KU max Q.
, -
.
,
-
K
. K max
Q


KC() KL()
, , -
. -
1
- 0 C L
0
.
. 6.4
-
.
-
-
, -
,

2 .
1/ 2 = 0,707 . -
, ,
, .

.

Y () 1
= .
Y ( 0 ) 2

101
Y() Y(0),
1 + 2 = 2 .
= 1, . .
|| = 1, , Y () = arctg = /4.
.

0
Q = 1 .
0
,

= 0 4Q 2 + 1 1 ,
2Q

= 0 4Q 2 + 1 + 1 .
2Q


= 0 .
Q
, -
.

1
= =d .
0 Q
,
.
.
Ri.

Q
Q = = = ,
Ri + R R R
R 1 + i 1 + i
R R
. . Q < Q.
Ri
R
= 0 = 0 1 + i ,
Q Q R
. . ,
.

102
, ,

, . .
.

6.2.

-
, -
.
.
-
.
. 6.5.
R1 R2
.
I
-
IL IC
L C
. U
-
R1 R2
1 1
Y ( j) = + .
R1 + jL R j 1 . 6.5
C
2

,
,

1
R2 + j
R j L C .
Y ( j) = 21 +
R1 + L
2 2 1
R22 + 2 2
C

1

L
Im [Y(j)] = 2 C = 0.
R1 + 2 L2 1
R2 + 2 2
2

C
, Im [Y(j)] = 0 ( -
).

103
1
p L R22 + 2 2

p C p C
1
( )
R12 + 2p L2 = 0 .

C2:
2p LC 2 R22 + L R12C 2p L2C = 0 .
,
.
2p LC ( L + R22C ) = L + R12C .

L R12C
1
p = .
LC L R2 C
2

C ,

1 2 R12
= .
LC 2 R22
1
= 0 -
LC
, .
2 R12
p = 0 .
2 R22
0, R1 = R2 R1 << R2 << ,
= 0.

,
, :

(R1 + jL ) R2 j 1
C
Z ( j ) = =
U
.
I 1
R1 + R2 + j L
C
, . . R1 << L, R2 <<
1
<< ,
C

(R1 + jL ) R2 j 1
j L j
1 L
= = .
2

C C C
104

2
Z ( j) .
1
R1 + R2 + j L
C
R1 + R2:
2
Z ( j) .
1
L
( R1 + R2 ) 1 + j C
R1 + R2


/(R1 + R2) = Q -
, ,
j .
Q
Z ( j ) .
1 + j
:
-
Z() -
Y() , -
;
-
Z()
Y() ,
;

: Z(j) = Q.
-
.
U() = IQ.

U IQ
I L = IC = = QI ,

. . Q
I.
-
.
,
105
IL U 1
K IL ( j) = = = Z ( j) =
I
jLI jL
.
1 Q 1 1
= = Q .
j L 1 + j j 1 + j
,

I U
K IC ( j) = C = jC = jC Z ( j) =
I I
.
Q 1
= j C = jQ .
1 + j P 1 + j
, KIL(j) -
KUC(j)
,
, KIC(j) KUL(j).

106
7.

7.1.

:

, . .
. ,

, . , -

. -
,

.

, , . . -
.
,

.
, , -
(. 7.1). ,
, .
, , -
.

1 2
' '
1 2

. 7.1

-
, , ,
, .
, -
, . -
,

107
.
, , -
.

.
-
- (. 7.2, ), - (. 7.2, ), -
(. 7.2, ), (. 7.2, ), -
(- ) (. 7.2, ).
,
.

. 7.2

,

. -
.
1 1',
2 2'
, -
. -
.
,
.
,

. -
. -

108
-
, -
. .
,
-
.
:
(. 7.3, );
(. 7.3, );
- (. 7.3, );
- (. 7.3, );
(, . 7.3, ).

. 7.3

,

.
,
, .

109
7.2.

(. 7.4). -
-
: U 1 , 1,
U 2 , 2. ,
, -
.
' '
I1 I2
1 I1 I2 2 ,

U1 U2
.
1
'
2
'
. , -
. 7.4

1 2, 1 2. , -
1 2, -
I1 I2 .
, -
,
E1 = U 1 E 2 = U 2 (. 7.5).
-
1 1 I I 2 2
E1 E2 n .
U1 U2 -
' '
,
1 2
. 7.5 ,
.
, . .
, 1 2,

1 = 1, 2 = 2, 3 = 4 = = n = 0.
1 1,
2 2.
:

110
Z11 I1 + Z12 I2 + ... + Z1n In = E1

Z 21 I1 + Z 22 I2 + ... + Z 2 n In = E 2
.
...................................................
Z I + Z I + ... + Z I = 0
n1 1 n 2 2 nn n
1 2:

I1 = 1 ; I2 = 2 ,

, -
;
1 ,
;
2 ,
.
1 , -
2 ,

I1 = 11 E1 + 21 E 2 ,


I2 = 12 E1 + 22 E 2 ,

11, 12, 21, 22
.
-
.

Y11 = 11 ; Y12 = 21 ; Y21 = 12 ; Y22 = 22 .

:
I1 = Y11U1 + Y12U 2

I 2 = Y21U1 + Y22U 2
,
.
Y11, Y12, Y21, Y22 Y- .
Y-. U 2 = 0 ,
.

I1 = Y11U1 , I2 = Y21U1 .

111

I1 I2
Y11 = , Y21 = ,
U 1 U 2 = 0 U 1 U 2 = 0

. . Y11
;
Y21
.
U1 = 0 ,
.
I1 = Y12U 2 , I2 = Y22U 2 .

I I
Y12 = 1 , Y22 = 2 ,
U 2 U =0 U 2 U = 0
1 1
. . Y12 -
;
Y22
.
Y- , -
. Y-

.
, Y12 = Y21.
,
. ,
, Y11 = Y22, . . -
.


U1 U 2 , 1 2 -
.
, -
(
).
Z-:
U1 = Z11I1 + Z12 I2 ;
U = Z I + Z I .
2 21 1 22 2
H-:

112
U1 = H11I1 + H12U 2 ;
I = H I + H U .
2 21 1 22 2
G-:
I1 = G11U1 + G12 I2 ;
U = G U + G I .
2 21 1 22 2
A-:
U1 = A11U 2 + A12 I2 ;
I1 = A21U 2 + A22 I2 .
B-:
U 2 = B11U1 + B12 I1 ;
I2 = B21U1 + B22 I1 .

, -
. , Y, Z, H, G, A B-
.
Z- Y-,
Y- U 1
U .
2
Y Y
U1 = 22 I1 12 I2 ;
Y Y
Y Y
U 2 = 21 I1 + 11 I2 ,
Y Y
Y = Y22Y11 Y12Y21
Y-.
-
Z-,
Y Y Y Y
Z11 = 22 ; Z12 = 12 ; Z 21 = 21 ; Z 22 = 11 .
Y Y Y Y

-
. ,
-
, .
:
Y, Z, H A- .

113
Z- .
Z-:
U1 = Z11I1 + Z12 I2 ;
U = Z I + Z I .
2 21 1 22 2
2 = 0, -
.
U U
Z11 = 1 ; Z 21 = 2 ,
I
1 I2 = 0 I 1 I2 = 0

. . Z11
1 2

;
Z21 -
.
1 = 0, -
.
U U
Z12 = 1 ; Z 22 = 2 ,
I2 I = 0 I2 I = 0
1 1
. . Z12
;
Z22
2 1
.
H- .
H-:
U1 = H11I1 + H12U 2 ;
2 I = H I + H U .
21 1 22 2

U 2 = 0 ,


U I
H11 = 1 , H 21 = 2 ,
I
1 U 2 = 0 I 1 U 2 = 0

. . H11
;

114
H21
.
1 = 0, -
.
U I
H12 = 1 , H 22 = 2 ,
U 2 I = 0 U 2 I = 0
1 1
. . H12
;
H22
2 1

.

7.3.

,
,
. , -
-
. -
- (. 7.6).
-
- Z1 Z3 Z2

-
, Z2 Z1 Z3


. 7.6
.
, -
, - , ,
- ,
- -
.
-
H- .
H-:

115
U1 = H11I1 + H12U 2 ;
I = H I + H U .
2 21 1 22 2

U1 Z 2T Z 3T
H11 = = Z1T + ;
I1 U Z 2T + Z 3T
2 =0

I Z 2T Z 3T 1 Z 2T
H 21 = 2 = = ;
I 1 U 2 = 0 Z 2T + Z 3T Z 3T Z 2T + Z 3T
U1 Z 2T
H12 = = ;
U 2 I1 = 0 Z 2T + Z 3T
I2 1
H 22 = = .
U 2 I1 = 0
Z 2T + Z 3T
, H- -
- .
,
, -
H-.


. , - -
.

7.4.

-

.
, -
,

.
H-
:
U1 = H11I1 + H12U 2
.
I 2 = H 21I1 + H 22U 2

116


U
Z1 = 1 = H11 .
I1 U =0
2



U
Z1 = 1 .
I
1 I2 = 0


H-
H
U 2 = 21 I1 .
H 22
U :
2
H H H H H12 H 21
U1 = H11I1 12 21 I1 = 11 22 I1 .
H 22 H 22


H H H12 H 21
Z1 = 11 22 .
H 22


U
Z 2 = 2 .
I
2 U1 = 0


H-
H
I1 = 12 U 2 .
H11

I :
1
H H H H H12 H 21
I2 = 12 21 U 2 + H 22U 2 = 11 22 U2 .
H11 H11

117
H11
Z 2 = .
H11 H 22 H12 H 21


U 1
Z 2 = 2 = .
I H 22
2 I = 0
1

,
-
.
Z1 Z
2 .
Z1 Z 2


Z1 H11 H 22
= .
Z1 H11 H 22 H12 H 21


Z 2 H11 H 22
= .
Z 2 H11 H 22 H12 H 21
,
Z1 Z 2
= .
Z1 Z 2
, -
.
Z1 = Z2 Z1 = Z2, . .

.

-
, -
.

118
7.5.


Z1C Z2C, -
:
-
Z = Z2C,
Z1 = Z1;
-
Z = Z1C,
Z2 = Z2.
Z1C
, Z2C -
.
,
. Z1C Z2C

, -
:
Z1C = Z1 Z1 ,
Z 2C = Z 2 Z 2 ,
. . -
.
Z1C Z2C -
.
, Z1C = Z2C = ZC.
,

Z1C,
Z2C, -
, .

, ,
.

119
7.6.


(. 7.7).

I1 = I1A I2A = I1B I2B = I2

U1 = U1A A U2A = U1B B U2B = U2

. 7.7

U U
KU ( j) = 2 = 2 B .
U1 U1 A
U .
1B

U U U
KU ( j) = 2 = 2 B 1B ,
U 1 U 1 A U 1B
, U1B = U 2 A ,
U U
KU ( j) = 2 B 1B = KUA ( j) KUB ( j) ,
U 1A U 2A
. . -
-
.

:
I I I I I
K I ( j) = 2 = 2 B 1B = 2 B 2 A = K IA ( j) K IB ( j) ,
I1 I1 A I1B I1 A I1B
. .

.

120
7.7.

, , -
,
. ,
.

,
.
-
,
(. 7.8).

I1 U1 I1 Z0I1
Z1 Z3 Z1 Z3

U1 Z2 U2 U1 Z2 U2

I1 Y0U1 I1 I1
Z1 Z3 Z1 Z3

U1 Z2 U2 U1 Z2 U2

. 7.8

-
,
(. 7.9).


.

(. 7.10).

121
I1 Z2 I1 Z2

Y0U1 U I1
U1 Z1 Z3 2 U1 Z1 Z3 U2

I1 Z2 I1 Z2

Z1 Z3 Z1 Z3
U1 U2 U1 U2
U1 Z0I1

. 7.9

Z12I2 Z21I1
I1 Y12U2 Y21U1 I2 I1 I2

U1 Y11 Y22 U2 U1 Z11 Z22 U2

H12U2
I1 H21I1 I2

U1 H11 H22 U2
. 7.10


Y-, Z- H-.

122
8.

8.1.

h(t) , -
,

.
g(t) , -
,
-.
, -
,
, -

,

, -
.
, -
(. 8.1). y(t)
x(t) -
g(t).

(. 8.2),
d.
, t = .

x(t)

x()

d
x(0)

x(t) g(t) y(t)

0 t0 t
. 8.1 . 8.2
123
, t0
g(t0 ), t0
t0 .
x()d,
x()d
g(t0 ) :
dy(t0) = x()dg(t0 ).
t0
x(t), ,
,
t0:
t0


y (t 0 ) = x() g (t 0 )d .
0
-
t0, :
t


y (t ) = x() g (t )d .
0

.
y(t) x(t)
h(t) (. 8.3).
x(t) x(0)

, d (. 8.4).

x(t)
dx

x(0)
d
x(t) h(t) y(t)

0 t0 t
. 8.3 . 8.4
,
. dx = x'()d.
124
,
t0 h(t0 ),
t0 t0 -
. x'()d,
x'()d
h(t0 ) -
:
dy(t0) = x'()dh(t0 ).
t0 x(t)
, -
x(0) , -
t0:
t0


y (t0 ) = x(0) h(t0 ) + x() h(t0 ) d .
0
t0 ,
t


y (t ) = x(0) h(t ) + x() h(t ) d .
0

.
-

.

8.2.

,
KU (j) (. 8.5).
u2(t) u1(t).
.
1. u1(t) -
. ,
u1(t)

U1 .
u1(t) KU (j) u2(t)

U
KU ( j) = 2 ,
U
1 . 8.5

125

U 2 = KU ( j)U 1 .


U 2 u2(t).
2. u1(t)
, .
u1(t) :
1
u1 (t ) =
2 n =
U1n e jn 1t .

,
,
n1, U1n 1n.
n- :
U 2 n = KU ( jn1 ) U 1n .
,
u2(t) u1(t)
:
1
u 2 (t ) =
2 n =
KU ( jn1 ) U 1n e jn1t .

3. u1(t)
,
(
+
, u (t ) dt ).

1

u1(t) -
.
+


U1 ( j) = u1 (t ) e j t dt .


U2(j) = KU (j)U1(j).
U2(j), ,

+
1
u 2 (t ) =
2
U 2 ( j) e j t d .

126
,
.
. u1(t)
, .
.

8.3.

-
. -
K(j). -, -
g(t) (. 8.6).

G(j) = (j)K(j).
(j) = 1. G(j) = K(j). G(j) -
,
+
1
g (t ) =
2
K ( j) e j t d .
(t) K(j) g(t)

+

g (t ) e
j t . 8.6
K ( j) = dt ,

. . g(t)
K(j) .
1(t),
h(t) (. 8.7).

K ( j)
H ( j) = 1( j) K ( j) = .
j 1(t) K(j) h(t)
1(j) = 1/j.
K ( j)
H ( j) = . . 8.7
j
H(j) , -
, h(t)
K(j):
+
1 K ( j) j t
h(t ) =
2 j
e d .

127
-
- ,
K ( j) G ( j)
H ( j) = = .
j j
j
.
t
h(t ) = g (t )dt .
0

d
g (t ) = h(t ) = h(t ) .
dt
, -
: -
,
.
, -
-
:
+

h(t ) e
j t
K ( j) = dt .

8.4.

-
s1(t) ,
Sm
,
t0

0 t t
(. 8.8).
s2(t)
, -
kSm

s2(t) = ks1(t t0),
0 t0 t t k , t0

. 8.8 .

128
K(j),
.
s1(t) S1(j). -
s2(t):
+ +

s2 (t )e dt = k s1 (t t0 )e dt .
j t j t
S 2 ( j) =

:
t t0 = x.

+


S 2 ( j) = k s1 ( x) e j x e j t0 dx = kS1 ( j) e j t0 .


S ( j)
K ( j) = 2 = k e j t 0 .
S1 ( j)
, -
, -
(. 8.9)
K() = k = const, K()
k

() = t0.
0

, , ()
, t0 = 0. 0
( ) -

. 8.9
-
= 0 = .
, -
,
.
- -

. -
, -
, .

129
()
-
. -

.
-
, -
, . , -

,
.
, .

8.5.

, E
Zi, Z
(. 8.10).
Zi = Ri + jxi,
Zi I Z = R + jx.
,
U Z
.

. 8.10 E 2 R
P = I 2 R = (8.1)
( Ri + R ) 2 + ( xi + x ) 2
R x.
x , ,
x = xi.
E 2 R
Pmax = P x = x = .
i
( Ri + R ) 2
R. -
:
dPmax ( R + R ) 2 R 2( Ri + R )
= E2 i .
dR ( Ri + R ) 4

130
Ri2 + 2 Ri R + R2 2 Ri R 2 R2 = 0 ,

R = Ri.
, x = xi R = Ri -

E 2 Ri E 2
Pmax max = P x = xi = = .
R = Ri 4 Ri2 4 Ri



Z = Z i ,
. .

.

R = Ri.
, -

Z = Z i ,
. , -
- -
= 0,5,
- .
,
KU(j),
U E ,
.

U R + jx
K U ( j ) = =
Z
= .
E Zi + Z (Ri + j xi ) + (R + jx )

x = xi R = Ri
R j xi
K U ( j ) = i .
2 Ri
, KU(j) -
, xi . x = xi
, -
,

131
- -
. ,

,
.
, -
, -

.
,

U
K U ( j ) = =
Z 1 1 1
= = = .

E Zi + Z 1 + i 1 + i
Z R + j x xi
Ri 1 + j
i
Z R + jx
1+
Ri
x
R 1 + j
R
,

xi x
= ,
Ri R
. .
.
-
, R / xi.
R x
= =.
Ri xi
-
. ,
R = Ri, x = xi, -
(8.1)
R
P x = xi = E 2 2 i 2 .
R = Ri Ri + xi (1 + )2
,
= 1, . .
,

R = Ri, x = xi,
132
, ,
Z = Zi .


1 E 2 Ri
Pmax Z = Z = .
i 4 Ri2 + xi2
,
Z = Z i , -
.

133
9.

9.1. .

-
,
, -
, .
-
( , -
. .).
.

,
.

.


( , , . .).
, , .
,
,
.

-
( ), -
.

,
-
,
.
:

.

134

-
.
-
,
. -
, , .
t = 0. -
t = 0+ t = 0.
, , -

, . ,

.

, .
, ,
, .
, , ,
. , ,
Li 2
wL = ,
2
, ,
Cu 2
wC = .
2
, -
.
.
: -

iL(0+) = iL(0).
: -
-

uC(0+) = uC(0).

,

135
, -
.
,
t = 0+ .
. -

t = 0+. -
t = 0+
.
-
t = 0. -

,
t = 0+.
, , -
, , ,
.
.
,
, , ,
.
.

9.2.


-
, . -

. -
, , ,
.
-
-
dy d 1 y dy
a + a 1 1 + ... + a1 + a0 y = x(t ) .
dt dt dt
, -

136
-

dy d 1 y dy
a + a 1 1 + ... + a1 + a0 y = x(t ) ,
dt dt dt
x(t) = 0.
,
. x(t) -
, -
.

, . . -
-
.
. -
,
.
,
y y :
y = y + y .

lim y 0 ,
t
y = lim y .
t
-
.
y -

a p + a 1 p 1 + ... + a1 p + a0 = 0 .
(),

pt p t
y = A1e 1 + A2 e 2 + ... + A e pt ,
A1, A2,, A ;
p1, p2,, p .
- pk n,

(k )
y = ( A1 + A2t + A3t 2 + ... + An t n 1 )e pk t .

137
9.3. .

RL- RC-,

.
,
:
y (t ) = y + y = y + Ae pt .
= 1/p. ,
, .
,
t

y (t ) = y + Ae .
-
. -
A. t = 0 y(0) = y(0) + A.
A = y(0) y(0).

[ ]
t

y (t ) = y (t ) + y (0) y (0) e .
x(t)
, y
. -
x(t) = const, y(t) = const. x(t)
, y(t) .

, , -
x(t) .

t y 0.
y(t)
. 9.1.
B, . -
y(t) B -
. BE . CE, -
BE ,
.

138
. y
C E
BCE 0 t

BC
= tg . B
CE A
. 9.1
t

BC y Ae
CE = = = = ,
tg
y 1
t
Ae

. .
,
y(t). ,
.
-
:
t
t
y Ae
= =e .
y (0) A
,
:

t 0 2 3 4 5
y
1 0,368 0,135 0,050 0,018 0,007
yc (0)

.
, -
t = (3 5) .
x(t) = const. t = t2 t1, -
y(t) y(t1) y(t2)
(. 9.2). x(t) = const, y(t) = y(0) = y() = const. t = t1
t
1
y (t1 ) = y () + [ y (0) y ()] e .
:
t
1 y (t1 ) y ()
e = .
y (0) y ()

139
y
y()
y(t2) y (0) y ()
t1 = ln .
y (t1 ) y ()
y(t1)
y(0) t
y (0) y ()
0 t1 t2 t t 2 = ln .
y (t 2 ) y ()
. 9.2

y (0) y () y (0) y ()
t = t 2 t1 = ln ln .
y (t 2 ) y () y (t1 ) y ()

y (t ) y ()
t = ln 1 .
y (t 2 ) y ()

, , -
.

9.4. RL-

t = 0 RL- -
e(t) (. 9.3). -
t 0
di
2 t=0 R
Ri + L = e .
dt
e(t)
1 R + pL = 0.
L
-

. 9.3 R
p= .
L
RL-
L
= .
R
e(t) = E = const, . .
RL- -

140
.

[ ]
t

i (t ) = i + i (0) i (0) e .
E E
i = , i (0) = , i(0) = 0.
R R
E E E
t t
i (t ) = e = 1 e .
R R R
R

t
u R (t ) = Ri = E 1 e .


L
t t
di E R
u L (t ) = L = L e =Ee .
dt RL
-
e

. 9.4. E
.
-
, -
, - 0 t
2 1 (. . 9.3). i
E i
, R
i

, -
. 0 t
i
E
i (0 + ) = i (0 ) = . _E
R
R
u
, ,
E
,
uR
,
R ,
uL
RL-
0 t
. 9.4
141
e , . . i = 0.
E i(0) = 0.

[ ]
t t
E
i (t ) = i + i (0) i (0) e = e .

R
R
0 t t

i u R (t ) = iR = Ee .
E L
R di E R
t t
u L (t ) = L = L e = E e .
dt R L
0 t -
u
. 9.5.
E

uR

0 t
uL

E
. 9.5

9.5. RC-

t = 0 RC- -
e(t) (. 9.6). -
t 0
Ri + uC = e,
2 t=0 R du
RC C + uC = e .
e(t) dt
1 C
RCp + 1 = 0.

. 9.6 1
p= .
RC
RC-
= RC.

142
e(t) = E = const, . .
RC- -
E.
uC(t)

[ ]
t
e
uC (t ) = uC + uC (0) uC (0) e .
E
,
:
uC(0) = 0,
uC = E, 0 t
uC(0) = E. u
uC
E

t

t
uC
uC (t ) = E Ee
= E 1 e . uR

RC- 0 t
t t uC
du 1 E
i (t ) = C C = C E e = e .
dt RC R E
-
R E
i
t
R
u R (t ) = i R = . Ee
-

. 9.7. 0 t
: . 9.7
-
C R.
, , 2 -
1 (. . 9.6).

uC (0+) = uC (0) = E.
C R
t uC = 0. uC(0) = 0.
:

[ ]
t

uC (t ) = u (t ) + uC (0) uC (0) e ,

143
e
t

E uC (t ) = E e .

t
duC 1
i (t ) = C = CE e ,
dt RC
0 t t
E
u i (t ) = e .
R
E R
t

uC u R (t ) = i R = E e .

0 t -
uR
. 9.8.
E
i 9.6.
RLC-
0 t

_E
R RLC-
. 9.8 -
.
t = 0 1,
, 2, RLC-
E (. 9.9).
.

u L +u C +u R =E.
2 t=0 L
+ E i
1 C :
R t
di 1
L + uC (0) + idt + iR = E .
dt C0
. 9.9
-
1 ,
2
, .. i(0) = 0 uC(0) = 0.

144
t
di 1
dt C 0
L + idt + iR = E . (9.1)

(9.1) ,
:
d 2i di i
L 2 +R + =0. (9.2)
dt dt C
(9.2) -

1
L p 2 + R p + = 0.
C
:
R 1
p2 + p + = 0.
L LC

2
R R 1
p1, 2 = . (9.3)
2L 2L LC
:
R 1
= , = 0 , (9.4)
2L LC
;
0 RLC-.
(9.3) :
p1, 2 = 2 02 .
0 :
> 0,
;
< 0,
;
= 0,
( ).
, > 0 0/ < 1.
0/ (9.4):
L
2
0 1 2L C = 2 = 2Q,
= =
LC R R R

145
Q -
RLC-.
, 0/ < 1 -
RLC-: Q < 1/2.

:
i = i + i .
,
, , C -
.
-
:
i = A1e p1t + A2 e p2t , (9.5)
A1 A2 .

, A1 A2.
(9.5) t = 0 :
A1 + A2 = 0. (9.6)
,
(9.5),
di
= p1 A1e p1t + p2 A2 e p2t .
dt
(9.1) t = 0
:
di E
= . (9.7)
dt t =0 L
, -
:
E
p1 A1 + p2 A2 = . (9.8)
L
(9.6) (9.8) ,
E
A1 = ;
2 L 2 02
E
A2 = .
2 L 2 02

146
-
RLC- :
E 2 02 t + 2 02 t
i (t ) = e e
.
2 L 0
2 2

, , -
, ,
, . 9.10.
, .
, < 0
.
R < 2, Q > 1/2.
- i

( )
A1
p1, 2 = 2 02 = 02 2 .

02 2 = , (9.9) 0 t

RLC-.
A2
p1, 2 = j , . 9.10
j .
, -
RLC-
(9.5),

E E
A1 = = ;
2 L 2 2 j 2 L
0

E E
A2 = = .
2 L 2 02 j 2 L
-
(9.5), -
RLC- :
i (t ) =
E
j 2 L
[ ]
e ( j )t e (+ j )t .

147
i (t ) =
E
j 2 L
[ ]
e t e j t e t e j t .

e t :
E t e j t e j t
i (t ) = e .
L 2j

E t
i (t ) = e sin t.
L
, RLC-
Q > 1/2
.

(. 9.11).
(9.9) 0
RLC-.
i

0 t

. 9.11

(9.9) ,
0 = 2 +
2
.

0, .. -
148
( < 0) -
0 (. 9.12).
0 0. 0
0.
-
Im
. - p1 j0
j
=1/ -
RLC-.

- 0 0 Re
e .
,
j
p2
j0
p1 = p2 = .
- . 9.12
(9.2) t 0
:
i = ( A1 + A2 t )e pt = ( A1 + A2 t )e t . (9.10)
t = 0
A1 = 0.
A2 -
(9.10):
di
= A1e t + A2 e t A2 te t .
dt
t = 0
di
= A2 .
dt t =0
(9.7), -

E
A2 = .
L

(9.10) RLC- :
E
i (t ) = t e t .
L

149
, R = 2 (Q = 1/2) -
RLC- .
RLC- -
-
.
,
RLC-
.

.

150
10.

10.1.

,
.
.

,
,
. , -

. -

() , , ,
,
, , ,
. ,
-
, -
.
() (-
, ) . -
, -
,
. -
.
,
.
, -
y(x) = y(x), x , y , -

(. 10.1),
(. 10.2). -

, . -
, , , -
. -
.

151
-
. -
dy
0 (. 10.1, 10.2).
dx
dy
, <0
dx
(. 10.3, 10.4). -
-
.

i i
i i

u u

u u
. 10.1 . 10.2 . 10.3 . 10.4

-
, - -
.
S- N-. -
S- S (. 10.3),
N- N (. 10.4). -
S-
, N-
.
, , . .
. - -
S- , ,
, . N- ,
.
-
. -

-
.
- ,
. -

152
, , , -
.
- -
.

. -
, ,
.
, -
. -

,
. ,

.
, -
( ,
), .
-
.
,

( ), -
.
.
,
. -
(
), ,
.

10.2.

(. 10.5) -
R1 R2, - -
. 10.6.
R1 R2 i. -
u
R1 R2 :

153
i0 R1 R2 u(i)= u1(i) + u2(i).
u u , -
u1
u0
u2 -

. 10.5 , -
i(u)

i
u1(i) u2(i) i1 = i2 = i (. 10.6).
i1(u) i2(u) ,
i0(u) , -
i0

.
(. 10.7)

0 u 1 u 2 u 0 u R1 R2 , -
. 10.8.
. 10.6 R1 R2
u. -
i
R1 R2 :
i(u)= i1(u) + i2(u).
i
i0(u)

i0
i0
i2(u)
i1 i2
i2
u0
R1 R2 i1 i1(u)
u u
0 u0 u
. 10.7 . 10.8

,
-
, - i(u) -
i1(u) i2(u) u1 = u2 = u (. 10.8).

154
,
.
-
, -
,
.

10.3.



.
(. 10.9) -
R1 R2, - -
. 10.10.
R1 R2.
I R1 R2
-
R1 R2 - u u
U1 U2
: E
- -
i(u)
(. 10.10); . 10.9
- - i
E
I ; i1(u) i2(u)
I , - I i(u)
R1
R2 U1 U2.

, -

. 0 U1 U2 E u

. 10.10
,
-
- .
,
. R2
(. 10.11).

155

I R1 R2
U2 = E U1 = E IR1,
u
U1 U2 . . U2
E I ,

.
. 10.11 , -
i . I = 0 U2 = E.
E U2 = 0 I = E / R1.
(. 10.12) -
R1
i2(u) -
( R1
I -
R2).
,
I,
0 U2 U1 E u -

. 10.12 R2, . . I
i Eu1(i) U2
-
i2(u)
- -

I R2.
.

,
-
0 U2 U1 E u
,
-
. 10.13


.
, -
, R1 R2
. I U2 -
- -
R2 u2 = E u1(i) (. 10.13).

156
10.4.

, -
, . 10.14,
u(t) = U0 +Um sin t, -
U0
Um sin t. U0 . -
- -
.
.

i i

i(u) i(t1)

I0
0 u 0 t1 t
u(t1)
0 u
t1

U0

. 10.14
t


. -
t1,
u1 = u(t1) -
- .
i1 = i(t1) -
(t1, i1).

,
.
.

157
. 10.14, -
, .
,
, , -
.
, -

. -

I nm2
n=2
k = .
I1m
n ;
I1m ;
Inm n- .
-
,
k = 0. -
,
.
:
:
, ;
-
I0 . -
, - -

.

.
u(t) = U0 +Um sin t, ,
.
-
,
(Um << U0),
. -
, - -
-
. -
158
,
. ,
- ,
.


r = du/di.
, r
.

. ,
, -
. -
,
( )
. , -
. -
, .


.

159

1. .. : /
.. . 6- ., . . : . ., 2007. 575 .
2. . . : . /
. . . 2- ., . . : , 2006. 432 .
3. .. : . /
.. . 4- . . : , 2005. 280 .
4. .. .
, : . / .. .
. : , 2005. 384 .
5. .. .
30 : . /
.. . 2- . . : , 2006. 576 .
6. .. . -
: / .. . .
11-, . . . : , 2006. 701 .
7. .. : . /
.. , .. , .. . . :
: , 2007. 591 .
8. .. :
/ .. , .. , .. . . :
, 2002. 464 .
9. .. : /
.. . . : , 2002. 480 .
10. .. : /
.. , .. , .. ; . .. .
2- ., . . . : , 2000. 592 .
11. .. : /
.. , .. , .. ; .
.. . 2- ., . . . : ,
1998. 444 .
12. .. :
/ .. . . : . ., 1987. 512 .
13. .. :
/ .. . . : , 2000.
368 .
14. .. : .
/ .. , .. . . : .
., 1990. 224 .

160
15. .. : .
. . / .. , .. , .. ;
. .. . 2- ., . . . : . .,
1998. 254 .
16. .. :
. / .. , .. . . :
. ., 1989. 270 .
17. .. . -
: . /
.. . . : , 1989. 328 .

161

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