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1967; Psychological Scaling 19601.

81

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1976, . 19].
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16

3.


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1963] ,
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Association) -
; ,

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- ) , 193 . -

. 4.

86

87

17

. 648 .,
: 193/648=0,30.
,
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(Mutual Fre
quency Score or Measure of Belatedness)
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- 219),
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).
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Oak
Pine
Tree
Forest
Shade
Wood

OAK

PINE

(102)
0
88
1
2
2

0
(102)
70
2
1
5

0
0
70
1
1
2
: 74

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OAK 88 , PINE - 70,
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17

- ,
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88

, (. OAK - tree
OAK - shade),
, .

(The Index of Inter-Item Associative strength)
-,
,
. . [Deese 1962]
19 ,
BUTTERFLY ( -),
;
19 .
( : [Deese 1965, . 49];
. . 2.2).
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Moth
Insect
Wings
Bird
Fly

Moth
50
1
2

Insect
2
50

10

Wings

Bird

50
15
12

4
50
15

Fly

3
4
50

50 (.
) - .

, MOTH INSECT.
,
2 + 1 + 9 = 1 2 . 100 (..
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0,12.

, ,
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19 .
,
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bug, wing, bird), a o - (sky, spring);

(wing, bird, bees, fly) (bug,
cocoon, moth, butterfly) .. ,
,
89

;

[Deese 1965, . 77-78]. .

, .
; ,

,
[. ., .79].
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,

: (.: [Deese 1965]).

,
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,


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[ 1971 , .189] ,
.
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:

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.


- .
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mulus Equivalence)
90

, (,
, , ).
.
(Taxonomic Index)
. , .
,
,
.
[Kiss 1968],


. , ,
,
,
[ 1976, . 142], ,
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.


( ) .
, ,
[ 1976, . 143].
,
.
(nodes),
(lines).
( ),
(a directed graph).
. (network),
.
(path).
(length of path) .

(the value matrix) . [Kiss 1968, . 707]
. 2.2 2.2. . 2.2 1, 2, 3,
4 5. , 12; 24; 45. ,
, 44, (loop), .
, (a connector node) 5,
1 4.
91

1 2 3 4
3

X1

X4

5
8

5
. 2.2

.2.2

(. 2.2) .
,
. x1 2
x1 2.

(. x1).
(the outdegree value)
.
, - (the
indegree value)
(
. ). , .2.2 x 1 ,
(.: 2 + 4 = 6 3
+ 8 = 11 ).


. (
- ) , -
.

,
.
-
. ,
(Measure of Relatedness)
,
, .
(The Inter-Item Associative Strength)

(, , ,
,
- .: [Kiss 1968, . 712].
92

- (Measure of Stimulus Equivalence)


,
;
3%.

,
,
, -
.
,

.
[
1983], , .
[Kiss et al. 1972]
.


, . [Szalay & Brent
1967; Szalay & D'Andrade 1972; Szalay & Maday 1973].
,
. ,
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10-12 ( ).
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,
. 6, - 5,
- 4, , , - 3,
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,
. 50 .

.

, ,
. ,
93

SCHOOL : Types of schools ( : school, college, university, etc.), Books, materials (book, library, pencil,
chalk, etc.) .. ( % ) .
, , ,
.

, (The In
dex of Interword Associative Affinity); :

,
, SCHOOL - , EDUCATED ,

LEARN - KHOWLEDOE -

(
., ). .
.. ,

: [ 1978].


1.000

1.000 ,
, . ,
, .. >
> .
() .

.
( ) .
[Szalay & Brent 1967, p. 174].
..


.
( ) 5 25

,
, .

,
.

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> > ) .

, , .


.. ( ), . 2.3
94

. 2.3
,
, . ,

- (. : [
1979].

, .

.
50- . [Osgood et.al. 1957].
,
,
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(.,
: [ .. 1965, 1969; 1970; ...
1974; 1983, 1997, 2005].
95

,
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good 1980]. ,
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teraction Technique).
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.

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, .. [
1983, . 11]. ,
,
[Osgood 1980]. ,

.
1. 50- ,
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:
(
) , , [ 1983, . 10].
2. ,
,


-
[ 1983, . 11].
3.
,

[ 1983, . 12].
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[ 1983, . 48].
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(.: [Paivio & Begg 1981, p. 100-101]).
7.
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.:
[ 1982]).


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1983] (. : [ 2005; 2002]).

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.
(1970); -
: [Osgood 1980].
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103

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/ Interminal, , .:
() vs () vs
() () vs
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[. 1967, . 150].

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35],
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20]). ,

104

105

.
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),
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.


(,
, .: [Paivio et al. 1968;
1989, 1990; 1985,1987]).

(., ,
- [ 1981]
[ 1970]).
(

. ).
,

, : [ 1971; ,
1971].
.

,
.
,


,
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(.: [, 1983, . 19-20]).
,

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.
: , 106


, [.
., . 21-24].
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-
.


.
[Miller 1969]. . .
, (
);
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(

), (.
).

.

. m m ( );
, .
.
Nij (0 < Nij < N),
. (N) .,
i j. N ij

,
N - Nij ..

.
; .
. [Johnson 1967].
(.. ) ,
,
,

, .

.
., , ,
107

108

100

GIRL

98

100

HORSE

45

45

100

FLOWER

30

30

48

100

CHAIR

33

35

100

IDEA

10

18

100

ABOVE

BELOW

88

100

INTO

65

70

100

35

35

48

100

13

100

85

100

60

53

100
43

100

DURING
LAUGH
CRY

GROW

10

10

13

15

35

28

FALL

10

18

15

30

33

43

45

100

RICH

10

10

10

31

100

POOR

10

75

100

43

50

20

10

20

25

100

18

10

35

35

28

100

30

25

18

30

D
U
R
I
N
G

DEAD

POOR

ANGRY

28

RICH

FALL

GROW

CRY

LISTEN

LAUGH

LISTEN

100

I
D
E
A

0
0

INTO

BELOW

ABOVE

WHITE

CHAIR

DEAD

FLOWER

ANGRY

HORSE


,
, .,
.
.

.
; 20
, [Anglin
1970, . 31] . 2.4.
40 . (
% ) . ,
. , 100% (..

), (%) .,
.
, 9 8 % . boy girl, 4 5 % boy horse .. ,
, ,
(
).
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; ,

BOY

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, 1983, . 108; , 1983, . 74-75]).
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.

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100

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glin 1970, . 37] . 2.5.
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109

1;
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66],
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. . : [ 1983, . 72-73]).
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110

111

, [. .,
. 76-77].

2.6.


[ 2001].
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: [, 1989; 2010].


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113

. 2.6
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[Kiss et al. 1973]; . : [ 1983].

, P.M. (. .
[1982]).
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, .
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[ 1982, . 8].


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).
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1, 2 [ . 2001, . 1009-1068]
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II

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1

3.0.

(., , : [ 1966; Deese 1965]).
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( , ,
, , , ).

[ 1966, . 274],
[Ervin-Tripp & Slobin 1966, .452]
[ .. 1969, . 202],
(., ,.
[ 1971; Scalay & Brent 1967]
[ .. 19696, . 124].

[
1971, .6], ,

[ .. 19696, . 118].
,

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[ 1971],
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119

1000 . - ,
100000 ,

2
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[Kurcz 1967] .
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,

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.


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3.1.

100 , 1910 . .
.


,
3
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XX
2

, ,
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[Postman & Keppel 1970].
3
-
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120

, . , .
. 200 [
1966, .253], [Gerrow &
P o l l i o 1965] 360 ,
4
500 .
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, ;

(bath, comfort, dream, order, sleep, trouble, wish, whistle).
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[ 1966].

,
,
5
.
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100-115
( 111 ).
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[ 1963].
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4

1977 .

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121


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125

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cold, ,
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, - ., , - .
- .
, , .
126

?
.

: - i - - - for; - - - among; - i - - - on.
, ,
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).
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10

, -,
, lamp 52,
light - 58.
11
50 .,
, . .

128

13

[Kurcz 1967] -,
32 ,
.

129

3.3.

.

.

[Gerrow & P o l l i 1965],
1008, 182 100 .
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131

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5, 10 [Bol 1967, . 5] 25
[ 1966, . 255]
[Kurcz 1966, . 152]. ,

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133

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135

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136



. , , : 1)

; 2) ( )
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[Kurcz 1966, . 155],

.

,
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() -podrozny(ik) (', ' ',
18
") .: -() .
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).
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100 ).
()
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[Kurcz 1967];
( ) [ 1970, . 135].

137

62. - 4 5
12
11
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4

3 , ,
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,
[1970],
,
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, [ 1971].


, ,
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, ,
.
3.5.


.

.
138

, .
.
,
. , ,
.
,
,
, ,
. ,
FAHA () 15%, YIH () - 13%, () - 13%. ,
.
(41, 40 48 ).
- 20%. ,
,
14% 11% ( 50 55 ).
: - 13%, - 10%, - 9%, - 7%.
,
, .

, .
,
. ,
, , . -
% .

.
,

.
,
:
(. MOTHER - father, brother),
(. LIGHT - knight, might),
.
,
. (
) . ,


( ,
, 139

);

(
).

(. = 1% 10% AP1),


(., SHEEP - ship)
(COLOUR - parlour, labour), (CAT-pat, sat, mat, rat) ..

,
(. : I ,
- ),
.
(
).
: , , , ; - , , , ; - ,
, , ; - , , , ,
,

.
,
, ,

. ,
.
ZIMNY ()
: .: czlowiek (), gracz (), lor (), mezczyzna (), chiopiec (), grob (), pan
(), serce ().

, NOZYCZKI (
)
.


-
- ,
-
,
.
-
-
-
- ..
-
- )
,
, ..

,
(., : [Miller 1953]),
. ,

.

,
.
, , THINK () :
1) brain (); 2) thought (); 3) school ().
(
),
Verb - Noun.
:
- ,
( Verb-Noun),
- - ,
(.. Verb~>Noun). ,
, ( ).

-
., .: - -1) ; 2)
; 3) , - -1) , (); 2) (); 3)
(). ,


,
.

140

141

, ,
, ,
. ,

,
(.: [ 1971]).

.


.

(19
) .
,
.
-
;
. , ,
.

,

. , The Concise Oxford Dictio
nary of Current English [1957], smart (adj.)
'showing quick wit', wit intelli
gence, intellect.
The Original Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and
Phrases [1966], thought.
, , thought
: 'process, power of thinking; idea, conception, chain of reasoning,
etc., produced by thinking'.
, ,
, .
-,
,
. , , Webster's New World Dictionary [1965]
think plan, ,
plan think ahead.
-
,

.
. 3.3.
. 3.3
-


.
19

3.7,
, .

142

3.3


,
,
.
.6.
.

.
, ,
.
143


5 ( . 3.4),
(. . 3.1,
,
, . .
, , ,
5).
3.4
29
1

30 31 32 33 34
3 1 2 1
7

50 51 52 53 54
6 5 8 5 5
29

35 36 37 38 39
1
1 3 4
9

55 56 57 58 59
4 2 1 4 2
13

40 41 42 43 44
3 3 3 8 4
21

60 61 62 63 64
1
1 1
3

45 46 47 48 49
7 7 5 3 3
25

65 66 67 68 69
1
1
2

70



. . 3.5,
,
, .
3.5
A (N = 1008)
MAN
WOMAN
BOY
GIRL

71
1
1

. 3.1

,
(., , . 3.2).

70
87
72
106

n (N= 1000)

P (N = 100)

MEZCZYZNA 200
KOB1ETA
236
CLOPIEC
218
DZIEWCZYNA 236

44
46

52

49

Ka

(N = 100)
38
36
40
34


, .,
,

(. . 3.6).
3.6

FOOT
BLUE
107
146
HAND
BOY
72
218
HEAVY
BREAD
70
148
HOUSE
BUTTER
72
154
HUNGRY
CITY
92
201
LAMP
HAIR
75
151
LIGHT
COLD
79
131
LONG
GIRL
106
263
:

A
103
156
99
194
122
197
143 210
116
178
66
139
91
145
113 213

MAN
RED
Short
SPIDER
SQUARE
WHITE
WOMAN

A
200
70
132
106
176
82
174
83
180
126
177
83
236
87
94

179

, . 3.6, ,
.-
, . ,

,
(., , BLUE: 107 - 146, BOY: 72 - 218).

,
(. . 3.7).

,

. 3.2
144

145

., , .
3.7
.

.
.

31-71
48,4

16-45
32,1
20

11-56
31,1

.
.
35-68
50,2
22-49
36
27-58
40,3

.
.
31 - 5 4
42,8
23-42
28,7
14-48
25,4

.
.
29-50
44
26-48
37,1
20-33
24,3

, , . 3.5,
,

. . 3.6
, ,
. 3.7 ,
,
,
,
, ..

,
.
,


.
, ,
,
, , ,


. ,
18 30
50% . ,
30%
, , 70%
.
. , 20

. ,
.

146



.,
,
.



.
(.
: [ 1971, .183-184]).


, . . 3.3, 3.36,
- ( );
% ,
).

)
. 3.3


.
. 3.4

THINK - - .



. ,
, : [ 1969]).

147

. 3.4


. ,

(., : [Mar
shall & Cofer 1963; Kiss 1968].
,
. (. . 3.8 . 3.8).

3.8

GIRL
BOY
WOMAN
MAN

3.8

GIRL
I

BOY

WOMAN

MAN

GIRL

II

III

IY

1008
768

704

49

88

1008
2

10
41

1008

646

31

65

767

1008

...

GIRL
BOY
WOMAN
MAN

BOY

WOMANj MAN

II

III

IY

0,70

0,07

0,09
0,05
0,70

0,05

. 3.8a,
, , 1008 .,
, ,
. , GIRL .
. ,
, 704 . boy, 49 - wo
man, 10 - man.
.

. 3.8
I, II, III
2N, ..
. ,
GIRL BOY. I
- 704, - 768, - 2,
- 31. ,
: 704 + 768 + 2 + 31 = 1505.
148


1008 + 1008 = 2016, 1505 2016,

GIRL, BOY, .. = 0,70. I III , I
IY, GIRL
WOMAN, MAN (0,07 0,09 ).
3.86. BOY II
III IY , WOMAN -
III IY .

,
.
.

,
.
, , ,
(
), (.. 2N).
, , ,

. ,
.


(., , . 3.9).




, .

,
;

, ,
.



,
.

149

3.9

0,70
0,16
0,22
0,18
0,43

0,07
0,02
0,01
0,06
0,02

0,09
0,01
0,01
0,06
0,03

0,05
0,02
0,01
0,03

0,05
0,01
0,01
0,04

0,70
0,23
0.31
0,12
0,39

3.7.

-

()
( ).
,

.

(
- )
.
-
,

- -
.
, 150

,
,
;


.
,
, - ,
, (..

- ).

, ,
-

.
-
( - ),
.
,
,
.


.


,
[
1970, . 83], ,
, ,



.


.


- 151

,
. , ,
.
( : [ 1966]),
.

,
, ,

.
,
.
-,
, ,
, , ,
.



.
,
:
1) ; ,
-
. : 1 (); 2 (); 3 ().
: (), (),
(), (), i ( ), -
: (), (), (), i (),
oi (), (), - : (,
), (), ( -.) .;
2) (.
, );
3) -
, . , SQUARE
: 1) triangle (), circle (); 2) rk (), trees (
), green (); 3) Madison (), street (), block (
); 4) mile ();
4) , ,
: ( ) - ii ( )
: () - () .


.;
152

-
. ,
,

, .

,

.


,
.
,
,
.
3.8.

,
.



.
,
SPIDER - web ,
. , . 8%
, 3 1 % (,
, , ). 3% .
, 14% , ..
(, , ).
I () 3 1 % . , , 6yui (
), eipme (), (), (), . 53% , 12%
(i). ()
4% , 7% .
PAJAK () 17% .
'': pajczyna (), siec (, ), nic ().
(26% ) krzyzak (),
. 7% . 153

(owad), 8% : mucha (), r


(), robak (). , - ,
- - .
13% ,
.
: obrzydlrwy (), wstretny (),
brzydki (), okropny ().

, ,
: wstret (), strach (, ), brzydzenie (, ) ..
,
,
EAGLE - bird ( - ). .- 14%
(I) (), 37%
, , (), (
). . 10%
15% (, , , ). .-
16% - ORZEL - ,
2% : jastrzab, sep (), sokol (
), golab (), berkut (), dzieciol (), kondor (), wro (), nietoperz ( ). 36%
: biafy (), wysoki (), piqkny (), drapiezny
() ..). , 20% .-
: godlo (),
reszka (), czapka ( ), herb (), symbol (), ta (), znak (), zolnierz (), blacha (), blacszka (),
lach (, ), panstwo (, ), zloty ().
(godlo, moneta)
(czapka, zolnierz, lach, reszka).
, polski ()
. 2%
: skrzydlo (), dziob (), pazur ().
SCIS
S O R S - cut
. .
- 13% - 7% - 1 1 %
. 30% .
(),
cut, 11% . 7%
(, , , ,
).
: I) , 2) . 2 3 % 154

, ,
. .
() - 2 1 % ( ) - 9%.
(), ( ) (
) 7% .
.- NOZYCZKI ()
ciac, kroic (, ) 13% . 20%
, , ostry (), (), male (
), stalowe () .. 42%
,
.
FRUIT ()
apple (). .
18% , 50%
(, , , ).
7% , , , ,
, . 2%
, 3%.
I () () - 37% . 2 5 % .
(), 1 1 % , ,
(), (), () .
: i ().
[Lambert & Moore 1966]
L O N G - SHORT
. ,

(0,55) 0,54
- .
,

( - 16%, 10%; 23%, 19%). .,
-
0,32 ,
,
. ,
- 55% - 44%,
- - 25%, 18%.
. ,
( 68% 78% ,
), , ..
, 0,32. ,
17% 18% 155

, - 19% 6% , .
,
, ,
, NEEDLE - thread ( - , - ).

,
. ,
CHAIR table,
sit, .
. 29% ,
, , ,
, , 37% .
5% ., 7%
(, , , ). .- ,
() - 24% ,
(23%). , (, )
7% . 2%:
(), i (), - 1%: ().

. , . 3.10
.
,
. ,
, ,
. , ALIVE dead
44% , DEAD alive 22% .
3.10

alive - dead

44-22

bad - good 43-29


big-little

14-15

gold-hot

20-41

heavy - light

18-5

new-old

13-20

old-young

7-20

P
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

31-26
24-22
19-20
9-19
22-14
26-3
17-20

ipi -

oi

52-

-
61-30
- i 6-46
- ,
18-50
i
60-64
-

i -

0-0

45-52

,
. 3.10,

. ,
. ,
156

- I , , , . (6)
( ''
''),
kii () - 48% .

18 - , . ,
- ( ). ,
,
, , . 3.11.
,
( - )

. ,
: (24), (7), (6), - (9),
(4).
3.11

COLD


hot

warm

cool

cold

34
9
18

3
4
11
16
6
33

-3

62
19
50


- - . ,
- I
. ,
old ,
,
old - young new, kapi
,
(, , )
().
, kapi
, - : I
(), (), (),
ii (), () ..; 157

i, , (), (),
: eci (, , ),
(), i (), i ().
,
, , ,
, ,
.


.


.


,
.
3.9.



[ 1967].

,
, , , : )

,

; )
.

,
[ 1967].


, ..
.
, 37 ., .


. II . 158

,
. III II- ,
2 .
I


. ,

. (, butter 21
B R E A D , bread 17
BUTTER). ,
(
, 37 . 16 BUTTER 18
B R E A D ) .
, (
, T H I N K - 34).

II III
,
.,

. II III
, .
, .


.



, 1 .


,
,
.
.
I. ,
.
, . ,
. ,
, .
.
. ,
159

,
.
,
.
2. ,
( I ),
,
II III .
3. , ,
,

. ,
LIGHT - bright, sight, right YELLOW - fellow
( ) ,
II III (
, ,
,
). LITTLE - small, ROAD - way,
street, path ,
.

MOTHER, FATHER - aunt, grandfather, wife, husband,
.
4.
,
.
. ,
. ,
.

;
1-43, YOU - 49, THEY - 31, WE - 85
OTHER-103, B O T H - 2 3
SIT - 108, STAND - 72
RED - 28, YELLOW - 9, BLUE - 51


(GIRL - 50, BIRD - 37; COW - 54, KNOW - 24),
(CITY - 95, BIG - 105), (FOOT - 81, HAND - 1) ..

(BOY, BROTHER, BUTTER; READ, RED, ROUND).
5.

. , 160

. II III . ,
. people, mother, son, brother, sky, colour, mouse, eagle,
go, make, father, bird, find, speak, see, young, old, red
:

:
people, mother, son, brother, ...father
:
sky, colour, blue; son, brother, ...father, ...young, old
: eagle, bird
:
go, make, ...find, speak, see;young, old, red


,

(read, red, square)
(gay, day, they, we, I).

, :.
sleep, stand, go, on, among, ...(go on)
we, you, I, together, go, round... (go together, go round)

: hurry, angry, hungry,
,
(. hurry - HUNGRY)
(angry - HUNGRY) .
6.
.





21
.

,
. ,
,

21

, ,

161

,
, .

.
3.10.
, 1971
.
(.
4).
, ,


, [ 1977].
,
,
.

,
/
.
,

,

(., , [ 1992, 1994]).


,
, , -
.
,


, ,
. , 1960- .

,
,
.
.

162


4.0.

.
/ ( ,
[ 1979, 1988, 1990]), -

.
/

4.1.


, ,
, . 4.1, ,
[ 1971, 1979].
4.1

( )

( )
( )

- .
100
100
500
200-700
1000
1000
1000
240
1008
209
145
100
331
288
100
100
1000
100

163

1971
1972
1975
1977
i 1981
1979
Kurcz 1967
Marsalova 1974
Russell & Jenkins 1954
Jenkins 1970
Rosenberg & Carter 1965
Rosenberg 1965
Kiss et al. 1972
Russell 1970
Rosenzweig 1970
1971a
1971a
1975
1971a


.
,
, ,
.

10 ( ,
. ) . 4.2 ( % ) ;
. 4.1

- .. .
%
, .

,
,

.

4.2

ZIEMIA
EARTH
TERRE
ERDE

422
983
989
985
1000
284
323
675
97
98

-
'
''
''
''
39
22
15
27
45
28
33
16
14
16

27
50
58
46
32
32
31
48
24
12

11
5
3
3
14
26
21
20
45
62

11,5
13
9
11

I
1,5
1
-

11,3
10
15
13
9
20
14
14,5
16
10

. 4.2 . 4.1, ('', '', '')



, 75 9 1 %
.
. . ,
, '',
, - ,
, . ''
, , , -
. , '',

, - , .
. 4.2 4.3.
. 4.2
[ 1979, . 4243]. 164

.4.1
, '', '',
'', ''
, ,
. 4.2.
% , ''
., - ,
: ,
- , ,
(
, ).
,
,
,
(. : - ,
).

165


''. , ,

(.: [ 1977]), (
14% , , ,
. .),
.
,
,
, ''.
, '',
,

- ,
(.: -). '' , , ,
.
(4 1000), ,
,
.

, , ,
.. ,
EARTH - heaven,
' '. ,
, , ,
( , , ); ,
, ..

, ,

. ,
. . [
1971, . 168] ,

,
,
. .. [
1972, 1976] ,

.
,
166

167


.

,

.
, . '',
; 9 . 10 , - , 4 ,
, 6 , - , 6 ,
. , 9 .
, 8 - , 7 - , 1 -
, 2 - , 3 - ,

, - .
,

( , .
- ). , ,
,

:
,
, ,
,
..
, ''
'',
,
,
. , '' 9 .
(.: - ;
EARTH - soil; ZIEMIA - gleba; ERDE - Boderi). .
,
(.: 9 - , 6 - ,
, ). , : ,
, , .
'' :
- - , 10 .
4 -

- , , ,
,
.
168

.
1. , ,
. , .
2.
, , ,
. . ,
,
-,
- .
.
3.

(. ,
'', )
,
,
- ,
.
4.

.
5. ,
.

.

,
: ,

, -
,
, .

(. : [
1990, .103-107; 2005, .74-77]).
4.2.



, 169

.
,
.,

.

(.: [ 1979; 1971; 1975; i
1981; Jenkins 1970; Kiss et al. 1972; Kurcz 1967; Marsalova 1974; Rosenzweig
1970; Russell 1970]).
,
12 .
,
, .
, ,
, , , , (
), , ,
, .
,

,
. , ,
. ,
, , , ( 40, 30, 30, 30, 28
20 ).
1-2 .
,
,
''.

: 75
,
[Kiss et al. 1972]
, black (
) - 549 , red () - 477 , white () - 450
green () - 395 (
. [ 1981,1983;
1989,2003,2005]).
,
, , , , ,
,
,
,
170

- , ,
- .
, , .
. (,
, , , )

.
:
'',
'', ,
.


, 12
: 1) ; 2)
; 3)
; 4)
.

: ,
.

:
,


-
.


(
.: [ 1979, 1992, 1994]).

; ,
- ,
- (. ),
,
,
. (.. , -)
: - () .
171



. , . ,
, , ,
[Lyons 1977, . 297],

,
.
,

., ,


. ,
,
. ,

, , , , , .
. .
,

. , ,
- - 1910 1952
. ,
, [Jenkins, Russell 1960].
,
, -
[Rosenzweig 1964],

, [.
.]. ,

, ,
[Lambert, Moore 1966].

111 ,
:
-,
-
( )
(,
);
172

-, ,
:
;
,
;
,
.
,

;

( - ) ( - ),

( - - ) ..,
(.
..
).

,
,
(),

,
.
.
, . 10 12
; 9 11 , 5
- ; 8 12
, , 6 - ; 7 12
, .
,
, . . ,
, ,
- ( - ). ,
., , ,
.
, ,
, - ,
- , ,
- , - .
.,
- .
. ,
, ,
173

. , ,
, : .
(BLAU) '',
,
-, . betrunken
-
BLAU - Alkohol BLAU - Bier ( - ; - ).
(YELLOW) ''; coward ''
.
'', ,
, , ( - , - ,
- ).
(RED), .-
' ' (. RED - Indians).
.
, , .
', ',
-
( '')
: ' ' - ! ' !'.
-
'', - ( - ) - ', '. ,

,
- .

- ,
' ';
,
, .

, . WEIB - Weifikraut ( ), . - ( - ), . - ( ) . - ( - ''), . - '
'. ,
; , ,

,
, . 174

'' ''
. , ,

. ' ',
-
[ 1975, . 42].

WHITE - house ( - )
CZERWONY - Kapturek ( - )
.
,

- (., ,
[ 2010: , 2008; . 2010]).

-
. , , ,
, ,
, , , (
,
). ,
, ; -
, - . (
WHITE - Christmas ( -
). , , , ,
, ,
, , , - , -
, , , - ;
, ,
.
, (
) ( -
); ;
,
, , , - ,
. ,
, , - , - ;
, ,
.
,
,
, .
, - 175

.
,

- . , . ;
, , ,
- , - , -
,
(. : -
).
,
7- (
) .
,
.
: , , , ,
, , , .
,
( -
), .
.
, ,
, . ( )

,
. ,

.
-

. ,
.. , .
,
, ,
, -
.
. , ,
(. . , ,
. , ; . zboze).
,
,
. , '' '' 176

, , ,
.

. . . - , , , ,
. - '', '', ''; .
- , , . - ( - ).


, ,
.
: ) ( ); )
( ); )
(
); ) .

.
, 5 5 % .-, 42,5%
, 20,6% , 18,4% , 16% , 16% ,
15,8% , 14% , 11,5% , 9% 7%
.
- 37% -
, ,
. (,
, ), , ,
12% .
,

( 1 1 % . ''). - 23% , .: (), (
, ).
- 51%, - 3 3 % - 30%.
- 24% -
, , , godlo (
), herb (), symbol () ..
, . 7
1000 , 4 983 ,

: .,
,
, , , .
.,
,
,
, .: . - , ; - , 177

; . - (), , ; , ; . - (), ();


- (), , (); . ORZEL wolnosc (, ), potega (), sila (); PAJAK - obrzydliwy (), wstretny (), brzydki ();
. OROL - vyska (), sila (); PAVUK - odpor (),
hnus (), fuj () ..
,
,

. ,


, ,


.
,
,
.
4.3 .
,
() , (), ()
.., . .
[Porzig 1957] ,

(
,
. ). ,
,
, .
,
,
.
,
- , -
. ,
,
(
).
.
178


, ,
,
,
. , ,
( ) ,
,
, .
,
- .
,
; . . SCISSORS - cut - 67%,
. NOZNIGE - strihat' - 4 1 % , . - - 34%, .
CISEAUX - - 22,5%, . - - 19%, . SCHERE schneiden - 14,5%, . 1 - piamu - 11,5%,
-
. , . . '', '',
''; . - '', ''; . - '', '', .,
. . - ''.
,


. ,
,
.,


-. , , ,
,
,
,
.

, ,
, , , , ..,
. [1969], .


(.: > , ; > ),


(.: ; ; ).

179

- ;

- , - .



(.: [ 1979, . 53-64]).
,
..
[1976, . 93, 112], ,
, -
.
,
.
, ,
()
; , ,

. ,
( ) ,
: )
)
.
,
, .. ,


.

[Kiss et al. 1972]
( - AT) :

,

;

,

.

, (
) ,
.

, (.
[1969, . 94] ,
).

I - ,
;
II - ,
.


,
..; . 1-8 . 4.3,
, .
(I)
,
.
(2) , ,
,
, (.: either ...

180

181

(,
).
; . . ( ),
; . . 1 (), (), (
), (), ! ().
(.. )
, .
- () .
-
. .
. (); . (), (); . ().
,

; . . , , , ; . krajclr
(), latka (), holic (); . (),
; . couture (), taille (); . Nadel (), Faden (
); . krawiec (), material (), szycie () . .

:

or). (3) , ,
,
, (
- ,
).
4.3

17
18

19
20

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

10
11
12

DING - 88 dong
H O N G - 8 5 Kong
PING - 85 pong
E I T H E R - 7 8 or (15)
N E I T H E R - 6 8 nor (42)
A C C O R D I N G - 6 6 to
TROVE - 82 treasure (29)
STARK - 79 naked (4)
SILL-78 window (11)
M O R T E M - 6 1 post
SAPIENS - 60 homo
N O A H - 7 1 ark (69)
JESUS - 65 Christ
J U G U L A R - 7 8 vein
D U O D E N A L - 7 1 ulcer
OUTBOARD - 86 motor
E J E C T O R - 6 9 seat (1)
C O R N E D - 6 4 beef (1)
DEVALUED - 53 pound
PUSSY - 78 cat (1)
MACKEREL - 79 fish
T H R U S H - 5 9 bird (2)
E L M - 7 8 tree (11)
UDDER - 69 cow (4)
M A N E - 5 2 horse (1)
RUNGS - 82 ladder
PLEATS - 57 skirt
HOLSTER 8 3 gun (1)
RESERVOIR 75 water
P U R S E - 7 1 money (1)

13

ASSIST - 72 help
S H O V E - 7 2 push (18)
I N Q U I R E - 6 2 ask

14

NOURISHMENT - 75 food
U N T R U T H - 7 3 lie
DIN - 61 noise (4)
U N W E L L - 6 0 ill
STINGY - 58 mean
ARCHAIC - 50 old
CONTEMPLATE - 54
think (-)
M E D I T A T E - 5 1 think (-)

15
16

-)
( - )
(-)
( - )
( - )
( - )
.: treasure-trove ( )
.: stark-naked ( )
.: windowsill ()
.: Lat post mortem
.: Lat. homo sapiens
.: Noah's ark ( )
.: ( )
.: jugular vein ( )
.: duodenal ulcer ( )
.: outboard motor ( )
.: ejector seat ( )
.: corned beef ()
.: devalued pound (
)
.: pussy cat ()
( - ) X (is a) Y
( - ) X () Y
( - )
( - )
( - ) X () Y
( - ) X (makes) Y
( - ) X ()
( - ) X (is for) Y
( - ) X ( ) Y
(-^
(, - )
(-)
( - )
(, - )
(-)
( - )
( -
( - )
( - )
( - )
( - )

182

21

P O N D E R - 5 0 think (2)
F I L T H - 6 0 dirt (15)
GRIME - 53 dirt (2)
W E A R Y - 7 2 tired (8)
EXAUSTED-59tired(4)
FATIGUED - 70 tired (2)
PLAICE - 67 fish (4)
STARLING - 68 bird (2)
FIREARM - 64 gun (-)
RODENT - 55 rat (1)
V E H I C L E - 7 9 car(3)
P E R S P I R E - 6 7 sweat (6)
S P L A S H - 6 1 water

22

F L O C K - 7 6 sheep (5)
LEASH-61 dog(l)

23

M O O - 7 0 cow (3)
C R O A K - 5 1 frog (6)
L O A F - 7 7 bread (5)
L O B E - 9 1 ear (5)
H U S B A N D - 8 5 wife (46)
BOY - 78 girl (60)
G O O D - 7 8 bad (55)
W R O N G - 7 1 right (42)
LOW - 67 high (59)

24
25
26

27

S E L L - 5 3 buy (42)
B O R R O W - 5 1 lend (43)

( - !
(, - )
( - )
( - )
( - )
( -)
( - )
(-)
(- )
(-)
( - )
( - )
( - )
( - )
( - )
(-)
(-)
.: loaf of bread ( )
.: lobe of the ear ( )
(-)
(-)
( - )
( - )
(-)
( - )
( - )

(4),
,
.
, ,
(5), (6) (7),
(8).
,

(., , [ 1972, . 66; 1974, . 51];
).

. ,
DEVALUED - pound. ,

, ,
. ,
(., , [ 1979, . 56]),
. [Mandler 1980, . 176], ,
,
, 183

, .

,
,
(.: [ 1976],
: [ 1979, . 56-57]).
,
(1) - (8) . 4.3
:
(
) .
, ,
ONE - 63 two (7),
, AT,
( : 1, 2 . .). ,
,

,
..

,
, .

(.: [ 1979, . 57])
,
, , .



.
, , ,
, ,
,
(
).


,
,
, (.
: [ 1975, . 61]).
,

184

XY, (9)(12) . 4.3


,

(. ),

- . , (9)
,

; .: thrush, bird, elm, tree.
He
,
, .
,
(13)(15) . 4.3.
. ,
(.
[Porzig 1957, S. 123]), ,

( ). ,
shove to push roughly [Webster's Dictionary 1965, p.
501]; din distracting noise [The Concise Ox
ford Dictionary 1957, p. 337]; .
(13), (14) . 4.3.
, , ,
,

,
[The Original Roget's Thesaurus 1966, p. XIII].

. ( . [1969])
(
). ,
, :
,


.
[ 1979: 60-61] ,



: ,
185

(..
), -
(.. ,

).

, -

.
,
, ,
( ).

.

, - ,
,
- , ,
, -

,
.

90-
XX , ..
. ,
, -



, .. ,
, -
. , ,
,
, .. .

,
;


, ();


-
,

- , ,
,
.
,


, ,
,
,
.
[ 1994] ,
,
, ""
, "" ,

.
""
[. ., . 12].
, 1993 .

186

187

4.4.
,

,
. ,
, ..
, ,

,
, .
,
,
(.: [, 1995; 1994, 1995,2010,
2010, 2010, 2010, 2011]).

,

,
,

, .


,
- , (
)
.
2010 . ,
.
4.6.

, , ,

, .. ;
,
-
.

,
. 1993
.
, :
) / ,
;
) , ,
, ;
) , , ,
( ) , ,
- .
:
, : 1) ; 2)
. ,
: 21 17-20 ( 19 ) 21
, : 6 - 40 , 5 -
50 , 3 - 60 7 - 70 ( 16 ).

,
- .

,
, ,
.
, ; ,
,
188

, ,
.

,
, , .
, (17 .)
( ):
, , , (
), , , .
, ,
,
, .
,
. , ,

, ,
.
, , , , , ,
, , (47 , ).
, , , , , ,
, , , (30 , ).
,
,
- .

.
-, ,
.
, ,
; ,
, .. :
- ( - )
-
- ( )
- -
-
-
(, )
- - - ( )
- ( )
- ( )
- ( ; )
-,
189

, ,
, . :
( .)
, ( , , )
( -)
(, )
( )
()
()
, , , -
( , )
( - )
( )

-,
, /
() :
, :
, , , , , , ,
(19 )
, , , , , , ,
,-, , /(19 )

-,
,
,
, / ,
, , ,
..
(, , , ...), . :
, ( , )
,
,
- ; - , -
, , ,
, ,
, ,
, , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, ,
, , , ,

42
369 1 30 .
4 : 1-2, 3-4, 5-9,
10 . , .
190

3-4 : , , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , (34 ).
5-9 : , (), , , , , ,
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