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. . , . .

. . , . .

81.2
85

:

(. - . , . .. )

. ., . .
85 .
. 2- ., . .: ,
, 2001. 292 .
ISBN 5-88711-043-0


,



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$

ISBN 5-887| 1-04V0

< 19%
< . 1996




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, , ,
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-
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.

. *
,

. ., , Quirk R., Greenbaum S.,
Leech G., SvartvikJ. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language.
Longman, 1986; Joos M. The English Verb. The University of Wisconsin Press,
Madison and Milwaukee, 1964.


. ,
*,
.
, , ,
(
-ing), (doing, having done,
being done, having been done), , , ,
,
, ,
, . ,
,
(, ,
), ,

(, , , ,
. .).
.
- :


, , ,
. ,
,

.

, .
.

,
.

, .
.

.
, ,
( ) ,
.
,
, .
(
1989 . )
, ,
,
.
. . , ..


R. Quirk ., Kruisinga . and Erodes P. A. An English Grammar.
Noordhoff-Groningen, 1953.




, ,
,
.

: (verbs), (nouns),
(articles), (adjectives),
(pronouns), (numerals),
(adverbs), (prepositions), (conjunctions).


.
,

,

.



,
,
: to do, to live, to speak, to see . .

,
, , , , ,
: Her son works nearjiere (
), /?1~
, , 5

, , 3- ,
.

,
(finite),
.
,
, ,
.
, , . .
,
, , .
(non-finite forms,
verbals). (thelrifinitive),
(the ing-form) (the participle),
:
visit her was a pleasure, ()
Wrffln^fleTferTTsinv^
His wish was to tell her everything, (
)
I want to help you. ()
I like reading in bed. ()
He is the man to do it. ()
We watched the playing children, ()
They live in jhe newly paint efL house. ()
He went to see his mother, ( )
He ran into the room laughing, (
}
,
,
,
.
1.
^_ (dynamic) ' (stativej. ,
,
: to write, to run, to speak .
, , .
, ,
- .
,
6

, ,
.
.
, Continuous.

, ,
:
1) , :
to hear, to see, to noticef
love, to likje. to
?'

/s?

*$} ! : to want, to-wish,'


to desire;4) , , ^^
: to appreciate, to
assume, to believe, to doubt, to consider (), to
expect (), to imagine, to know, to mean, to mind
(), to perceive, to presume, to recognize, to
regard, to remember* to suppose, to think (), to
trust, to understand;
5) , : to be, to belong
to, to concern, to consist of, to contain, to depend on, to
deserve, to differ, to equal, to have, to include, to involve,
to lack, to matter, to owe, to own, to possess, to remain, to
require, to resemble, to result, to suit, to signify;
6) ,
: to appear, to feel, to seem, to smell,
to sound, to taste;
7) : to agree, to allow, to
astonish, to claim, to consent, to envy, to fail, to forbid, to
forgive, to object, to prefer, to prevent, to puzzle, to refuse,
to remind, to tend .
2. , ,
(terminative)
(duratiye), ,
.
,
.
:


to bring
to find
to break

()
()
()

to carry
to look for
to play

()
()
()

, , ,
, ,
()
.
3.
,
.
^ (transitive),
: to tell (a story, the truth), to give (something,
advice), to buy (things, food).
, (intransitive),
, : to walk, l o live, to
smile.
4. ,
,
(notional) (structural).


, :
"Tell me what happened,"
said my mother asjwe sat
l?y the
fire.

, ,
,
.

.
, , (can, may,
must, should, ought, need),

,
:
You must phone your father
tonight.
F^i)jn__his earliest years he
could speak English and
French.
8



.
-
-.


(link-verbs),
, :
It grew cold towards eve/, n i n e
His sister has become
pretty girl.
The house looked deserted.

.
.
.

,

, , .
(auxiliary),
:
My mother is cooking din.
My brother has taught me
^to make such toys.
/The matter was soon forr gotten.
You'll have my answer tos morrow.

.

.
.

.

5.
,
.


.
(: work works, worked,
working)
(: find found, meet met),
(: teach taught).

.
, ,
,
,
,
. , has 'has worked'
3- , ,
9

,
worked .

, . .
'has worked' , ,
Present Perfect.
,

.
, :
The letter has been written. .
, (The Present Perfect Passive)
He has been overworking
lately. (The Present Perfect
.
Continuous)
6.
3-
,
-s/-es .
[z]
(: play plays [pleiz], open opens
[oupnz]), [s] (:
look looks [luks]) [lz]
(: close closes ['klouziz], change
changes ['tjeincljiz].
3-

:
1) , -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -tch -z,
-es (: pass passes, push
pushes, watch watches);
2) , -,
, -es (: go goes,
do does);
3) , -,
, - -i -es
(: study studies, try tries);
4) - ,
-s (: stay stays).

7.
,
-ing (: speak speaking,
do doing).
10


:
1) - -ing
(: close closing, make making);
2) ,
-er (-)
(: cut cutting, begin beginning, prefer preferring,
occur occurring);
3) -1 ( )
(: travel travelling, quarrel quarrelling);
4) - ,
(: study studying, stay
staying);
5) -ie - (: tie
tying, lie lying).

8.
.

(regular) (irregular).

-ed,
[d]
(: play played
[pieid], open opened ['oupndj), [t]
(: look looked [lukt]) [id]
d t (: want wanted ['wontid],
end ended ['endid]).

, : cook cooked, cooked; stay stayed, stayed;
answer answered, answered.

-ed
:
1) -,
, - -i (: study studied, envy
envied);
2) - ,
(: play played);
3) ,

- (-) (: stop stopped, beg
begged, prefer preferred, occur occurred);
4) -1 ( )
(: travel travelled,
quarrel quarrelled).
11



. , ,
(: sing sang sung; write wrote
written; put put put; teach taught taught; come
came come; fall fell fallen).

,
.
9.


.

, ( ),
, ,
, .
,
,
,
.

- ,
.

,
,

,
.
, -

,
.
-


- ,
:
1) (the Present),
(the Past) (the Future);
2) (Indefinite),
;
12

(Continuous),
; (Perfect),

.
.


: The Present Indefinite (
), The Present Continuous ( ), The
Present Perfect ( ) The Present
Perfect Continuous ( -).

.
, , ,
(
). ,
, ,
:
,
.
The Present Indefinite
Present Indefinite :

I
work.

Do
I work?

]
She> works.
It

he
Does she - work?
it

I
do not work.
(don't work)
He 1
She I ^ o e s no* wor ^- '
T. j (doesn't work)

We
You work.
They

we j
Do you > work?
they

We
do not work.
You (don't
work)
They

1. Present Indefinite
,
, .
, , :

13

He wakes around six o'clock


and has a cup of coffee.
Does your son go to school?
I do not wear glasses.

(, )

.

()?
()
.

,
, (. . 7),
Present Indefinite
:
1) Present Indefinite
.

, always,
usually, sometimes, often, never, every day ., :
I

sometimes meet your


father at the station.
Changes happen very quick, ly here.


.
.

2) Present Indefinite
,
, :
My grandfather doesn't walk,
he runs.
sleeps like a log.

^ reads a lot.

,
. (
.)
.
( )
. (

.)

2. Present Indefinite -

,
, :
14

The athletes get out of tfy


bus, riass through the en
trance and there are
crowds of people greeting
them with smiling and
eager faces^.^',;'/'^^^/. .


,
,


.

3. Present Indefinite
, :
How swiftly the years

fly!

4. , Present Indefinite
, ,
, - :
1) Present Continuous
, ,
(. . 6), :
I quite understand what you
mean.
Father wants to see you for
a minute.

,
.
.

.

2) Present Continuous
(. . 6) ,
,
, ,
:
"I give up," she said.
You leave me no choice.
I refuse to listen to you. You
talk too much.

, .

.

.
.

3) Future Indefinite - ,
( when, after, before, till/until,/
as soon as, while), ( if, unless, in case)
( even if, ieven_thoughL/whatever, '
whenever, however .), ^
, :

15

You'll get dinner when it is


ready.
If we don't find him at home
we'll leave him a message.
Even if it rains we'll work in
the garden tomorrow.

,
.

,
.
,

.

4) Future Indefinite ,

,
, , ,
, :
When does the football
match start today?
?
"Your plane leaves in an
hour's time," he said.
, .
In six weeks his regiment
goes back to the front.

.
s
5) Future Indefinite ,
, :
What do we do next?
Where do we go now?
Why don't you take the
children home?


?
?

?

6) Past Indefinite
, :
I remember the scene very
well. Mr. Blake, in a din
ner-jacket, arrives at the
ground floor by lift. The
lift door opens; Blake gets
out, looks at something
on his left, registers alarm
and walks away briskly.

16


.
, -

.
,
,
- ,
.

The Present Continuous


Present Continuous*
:

am working.
('m working)

H e ' is working.
She
('s working)
It
We are working.
You
They (' re working)

Am I

working?

am not working.

he
\ she) working?
it

He is not working.
She
(isn't working)
It

we
Are you >.work
ing?
they

We
are not working.
You
They (aren't working)

1. Present Continuous
,
.

, .
, ,
(. . 6).
Present Continuous :
1) ,
, :
It is raining.
, what are you doing?
You can talk to him. He is
not working.

, (
)
, ()
?

. (
) .

* , Continuous
,
, , .
, ,
,
.
Continuous
was reading for a long time,
. ,
, Continuous,
- .
17

2) ,
, :
They have moved to
London and they are
buying new furniture.
My son is very busy. He is
getting ready for his final
exams.
My husband is working on
an invention.


( )
.
.

, (
)
(
)
.

. ,
.

, ,
.

3) ,
, ,
, :
My husband is staying in
town tonight. He's too
tired to drive to the coun
try.
We are dining out on Satur
day.


()
. ,
.

.

.
, Present
Continuous
.

4) (
, , , . .),
- ( Present
Indefinite), :
You're obsessed by your
stepmother. You're al
ways talking about her.
18


.

.

Your father is always saying


things that he shouldn't
say in front of children.


,
.


always constantly.

Present Indefinite,
.
:
She always shows pictures of
her children.
She is always showing pic
tures of her children.


.
(
.)
(
)
. (
.)

2. (. . 6),
Continuous
. :
1)
, :
I see him crossing the street.

,
.

is seeing his mother to


the bus stop.

is silly.
is being silly.

.
.

He has a car.
He is having dinner.

.
.

2) , ,
,
, :
19

How do you like your life in


the town? I'm hating it.


?
.


,
. ,

, Present Indefinite,
Present Continuous -
. : to feel
( ), to look (), to hurt
(), to ache (), to itch (), to wear
( ), to shine ()
. :
You are looking/look happy,
Mary.
What is she wearing (does
she wear) today?


, .
?

The Present Perfect


Present Perfect* :

have worked.
('ve worked)

Have I worked?

he ]

^
has worked.
She
' (' s worked)
It

Has she > worked?

We
You have worked.
They ( worked)

we
Have you VwOrked?
they

have not worked.


(haven't worked)
He has not
She worked.
It (hasn't worked)
We
have not worked.
You
(haven't worked)
They

1. Present Perfect
,
* Perfect ().
(. .
),
.
,
.
20

.
,
, (, ,
.), , :
We have bought a new TV
set.
The students have left the
room.
Go and wash your hands.
I have washed them.

. (
.)
. (
.)
.
. (
.)

Present Perfect
,
, Present Perfect
.
(I have read it.
has come back) , Present Perfect
(
), . . , Present
Perfect, ,
.
, , Present Perfect,
,
, :
I have heard the doctor's opinion. = I know the doctor's
opinion.
( . = .)
She has gone home. = She is at home now.
( . = .)
has locked the door. = The door is locked.
( . = .)
Present Perfect
, ,

,
-
. , 21


,
Past Indefinite,

( ),
, , :
Have a cup of coffee with
us.
I've had a cup, thank you.
I had one after lunch.

.
, .

.

I have seen the film. I saw it


in London.

. .

Have you read "Winniethe-Pooh" by A.A. Milne?


Yes.
Did you like it?

-
. ?
.
?

I've brought my stamp al


bum, Mrs James. I met
your husband on the
doorstep. He told me to
leave it with you.


, .

.
.


, ,
Past Indefinite, :
Did Tom enjoy the play?
I didn't hear your question.

I'm sorry I lost my temper.


Did you have a good trip?
22

?
(,
.)

. ( ,
-
.)
,
.
?

Present Perfect
,
,
( ) .
Past
Indefinite. :
The weather has changed for
the worse.
The weather changed for the
worse yesterday.

. (
, .)

.

I have heard the news.

()
.


.

I heard the news a few minutes ago.


,
, : today
(), this morning ( ), this week (
), this month ( ) . .

Present Perfect, Past Indefinite.
:
1) ,
. . ,
Past Indefinite, :
I didn't read the newspaper
this morning.
He had a long holiday this
summer.


. ( .
.)

. (
. .)

2)
, ,
,
, Past Indefinite,
:
23

I met him at the theatre


tonight.

The window got broken


during the storm today.


. (
,
,
.)

. (

, ,
.)

.

,
.
Past Indefinite, :
in the morning.
in the park.
during my walk.

I found the ball

3)
, Present
Perfect, :
Nellie hasn't
tonight yet.

washed up

This year we have taken only


one assistant.


. (
.
.)


. (
.
.)


,
- , Present
Perfect. ,
always, never, already, not... yet, before .

, .
Present Perfect,
,
24

. ,
Past Indefinite. :
I have already done my
lessons.
I already did my lessons
after lunch.

. (
.)

.

has never learned to


study.
At school he never learned
to study.

.
.

. , just ( )
Present Perfect, just now ( ) Past
Indefinite, :

has just come back. 1

, . . .
>
came back just now.J

Present Perfect
, when, where how,

, ,
Past Indefinite, :
When did you speak to my
father?
How did it become known?
Where did you buy the
book?


?
?
?


, , what,
who/whom, why, what... for ., ,
Past Indefinite Present Perfect.
:
, Present Perfect;
,
Past Indefinite, :
Why are you crying? What
has happened?

?
?
25

I saw a traffic accident


on my way home.
What happened?
Mary has gone to a
party.
Why haven't you gone
too?

My family were all at a


party last night.
Why didn't you go too?


.
(
) ?
.

( ) ?

.
?

(
) , Present Perfect
,

, :
You must be tired.
afraid I've talked too
much.
How cleverly you have both
kept your secret.
I've been a fool.

, , .
,
.

.
.

2. Present Perfect
,
.
Present Perfect Continuous (.
. 2728), ,
, Continuous,
Present Perfect, :
I've always liked him.
He's been here since the
morning.
His parents have lived in the
house for thirty years.


( ).
.

30 .

,
Present Perfect
,
26

,
,
( . . 2728).
3. Present Perfect
,
,
, :
When we have had tea I'll
show you my collection.
Hell phone me as soon as he
has read my article.

,

.
,
( )
.

The Present Perfect Continuous


Present Perfect Continuous*
:

I have been
working.
('ve been work
ing)
has been
He working.
She
It (' s been
working)

Have I been working?

I have not been working.


(haven't been working)

have been
We
working.
You
They (' ve been
working)

he been
Has she working?
it

has not been


He
working.
She
(hasn' t been
It
working)

we
Have
^

have not been


We . working.

"(
'*
They
working)

[ working?

Present Perfect Continuous


, *
() :
- , , .
,
Perfect Continuous
-, .. ,
.

27

,
, :
I'm afraid you have been
overworking yourself lateThe boy has been riding
horses since he was three.

,

.


.

Present Perfect Continuous


.

Present Perfect (. . 26).

Present Perfect
Continuous, Present Perfect
, :
My mother has been looking/
has looked after her old
sister for many years
now.
Have you been waiting/have
you waited long?



.
?

Present Perfect
Continuous ,
, :
I saw Tom waiting at the
door of my house. "I'm
sorry," I said. "I hope
you have not been stand
ing here long."

The boys are overtired.


They have not been sleep
ing at all well lately.

28

.
, .
,

. (
,
.)
.

.
( ,
.)


Present Perfect, :
lost his job two years
ago. He hasn't worked
since.
Ann hasn't slept for two
days.


.
().
()
.

Present Perfect Continuous,


, ,
.
:
)
all my life ( ), these three years ( ),
all this week ( ), all this year (
), lately ( ) ., :
We have been staying here
all this week.

) ,
for, :
They have been working for
two hours trying to get
the lorry out of the ditch.


,
.

) since, ,
, :
came back at three
o'clock. He has been
reading since.
He has been reading since
three o'clock.
He has been reading since he
came back.


.
.
,
.

,
, since (.
), Past
Indefinite, , ,
,
, Present Perfect Continuous.
29


, , , ,

,
Present Perfect Continuous (
Present Perfect), :
I have been meeting your
friend every day since we
have been working on the
report.
They have been my good
friends since I have known
them.


,

.

,
.

. ,
, ,
, Past Indefinite.
:
At school I studied French for
four years.
I have been studying French for
four years.

,

.

.


, how long ( ). :
How long did he study French at
school?
How long have you been study
ing French?


?

*7

Present Perfect Continuous


,
. ,

, :

30

The streets are wet.


It has been raining.

.
.

You look hot, Tom. Go


and change your clothes.

,
, .
.

Oh, I'm not really hot.


I've just been running.


. .

Present Perfect Continuous


.

. Present Perfect Continuous
, :
"Hello," she said. "I'm glad
you're here. I've been
wanting to talk to you."

, .
, .

.


: The Past Indefinite (
), The Past Continuous ( ),
The Past Perfect ( ) The Past
Perfect Continuous ( -).

, . . ,
.
,
.

.
,

: ,
.
The Past Indefinite
Past Indefinite :

She
worked / wrote.
It
We
You
They

I
he
she
work /
Did it
we write?
you
they

I
I
He did not work /
She did not write.
It
(didn't work/
We
You didn't write)
They

31

Past
Indefinite
.
1. Past Indefinite
,
, ,
. ,
,
, :
You often mentioned it in
your letters.
Mr Jones usually came to
see Father on Saturdays.


.
-

.

, ,
,
,
, :
Dan worked in a factory.
The road led through the
forest.

.
.

. ,
,
: used to +
would + , :
I used to write home twice a
week.
I remember I used to climb that
oak.
In the night she would often
wake up in tears.
On sunny days we would go out
into the garden and sit on the
grass.


. (
.)
,
. (
.)

.
.

.

2. Past Indefinite
, . 32


, :
I only met him six months
ago.
I had a letter from Willy
yesterday.



.

.


,
-
, :
I heard the news in New
York.
Croft informed us of his
plans at breakfast.


- (
-).


(
).


,
,
,
:
Sorry, I didn't mean to hurt
you.
You spoke beautifully, John.
Did you have a good flight?

,
(
).
,
(
).
(
)!

3. Past Indefinite ,
,
, :
Last May I stayed in Lon
don two weeks.
After dinner we sat in the
garden for a long time.
21825


.

.
33

4. Past Indefinite
,
:
We went to the park, walked
down to the fountain and
sat down on a stone seat.
One day I met Meg. We
chatted for a bit. I asked
her to have lunch with
me. She agreed.

,


.
.

.
.
.

5. Past Indefinite
,
, :
) ,
:
She felt ill at ease, and he
felt sorry for her. He
wanted all her troubles for
himself at that moment.
I was so upset that I did not
understand what he was
saying.


, .


.
,
(
),
.

)
, to sit, to lie, to stand, to hand, to shine, to
talk, to speak, to walk, to wear, to carry .,
,
, ,
, ,
:
We went to the bus stop.
The full moon shone
down on the street.
I found Maurice on the
porch. He stood lost in
thought.
34


.
.

. ,
.

. ,
, Past
Indefinite
, :
The school stood at a distance
from the shopping centre.
A few yellow leaves lay on the
window-sill.



.

.

6. Past Indefinite
,

, :
said that if he got tickets
he would give me a call.
The children promised that
they would turn the TV
set off before they went to
bed.

, ,
,
.
,
,
.

The Past Continuous


Past Continuous :

I
was working.
She
It

Was

We
You were working.
They

we
Were you ^working?

sn>rkin*?

they

was not
I
He working.
She (wasn' t
It working)
We were not
You , working.
They (weren't
working)

Past Continuous
,
.
,
. ,
, .
Past Continuous :
35

1. ,
, :
Little came in. She
was eating an ice-cream.
It was raining when I went
out into the street.

.
, (
,
)
,
.

,
,
Past Indefinite.
2. ,
, :
Nick said that his daughter
was taking music lessons.
What were you doing in
London?
I was trying to find a
publisher for my new
book.

,
.

( ) ?


.

3. ,

,
, :
At the end of the week she
wired that she was return
ing.


,
.

4. Past Indefinite
, ,
- (.
. 18), :
She was noisy and con
stantly trying to attract
attention, by any means.

5. Past Continuous
,
:
36

1) ,
:
I was seeing Tom regularly
now (= was meeting).

2) , ,
,
, :
Her face had gone pale
which meant that she
wasn't liking it very much.

,
,
.

to feel, to look, to hurt, to ache, to itch, to


wear, to shine
Past Continuous, Past Indefinite
,
(. . 20), :
I saw that he was feeling/felt
upset.
I met her at the entrance.
She wore/was wearing
warm coat.

, -
.
.
.

The Past Perfect


Past Perfect :

I
I
he

she
She had worked.
>
it
Had
worked?
It
('d
worked)
we
We
You
you
They
[theyj

I
He
She had not worked.
(
It
We (hadn't worked)
You
They

1. Past Perfect
,

. ,
, Past Perfect ,
, ,
37

,
-
,
( ), :
The morning was beautiful.
I took a towel and went
down to the beach. Outside
the hotel I met Max. I had
gone to school with him.

.

.
.

, (
)

I rang the bell. Soon the


door opened and I saw my
brother. He wore a
dressing-gown. He had
evidently just got out of
bed. He took me to the
kitchen and asked if I had
had breakfast.

.
,
. .
,
.

,
.

Rudy stopped to admire the


school building. The town
had built it in 1927, before
the Depression.

,

.
1927
, .

She had written only two


letters by noon.

,
,
Past Indefinite (.
)
by (. ).
2. Past Perfect
,
.
Past Perfect
Continuous (. . 3940),
Past Perfect, :
We went to see Mr Fennel
who had been a widower
for two years.
38

-
,
.

He suddenly understood
that she had loved him all
her life.
She began to do all the things
she had wanted to do since
she moved to the house.

,

.

,
,

.

Past Perfect
,
.
, Past Perfect Continuous (. . 4142).
3. Past Perfect
,
.
, ,
, :
decided that he would
not look at his watch till
he had read thirty pages.

,
,
30 .
( 30


.)

The Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous


:

had been
She working.
It
We '('dbeen
You working)
They

I
he
she
been
Had it
working?
we
you
they

>

I
He
She
It
We
You
They

had not been


working.
(hadn't been
working)

Past Perfect Continuous


,
,
39

,
, :
She suddenly realized that it
was now completely dark
and that she had been
walking for a long time.
Alice put down the flowers
she had been holding since
she came into the room.

,


.
,

,
.

Past Perfect Continuous


.
, , ,
Continuous, Past
Perfect (. . 38).

Past Perfect Continuous,
Past Perfect ,
:
Roy mentioned that he had
been dining/had dined at
home since his return.
He was not aware how long
he had been sitting/had sat
there.

,

.
,

.

Past Perfect Continuous


,
, :
When he came back we tried
to pretend that we had not
been discussing him.

,
. (

,
. )

Past
Perfect, :
40

I was told that the sisters


had not met since their
mother's death.

,
()
.

Past Perfect Continuous


,
.
:
)
all his life, those two years, all that month, of late .,
:
Jim said that he had been
writing all day.

,
.

) for,
:
I knew they had been corresponding for years.

,
.

) since, ,
, :
said he had returned
from abroad two years
ago and had been working
in a newspaper office
since.
He said he had been work
ing in a newspaper office
since his return from
abroad.
He said he had been work
ing in a newspaper office
since he returned from
abroad.

,
-

- .
,
-
, -
.
,
-
, -
.

. Past
Indefinite , since
(. ).

Past Perfect Continuous


,
. ,

, :
41

She could see from the wet


look of their costumes
that they had been swimming.


, .

,
, .
, ,
, .
. ,
, . .
,
, ,
, .

,

.
(, I want to see him,
, )
.
.
The Future Indefinite
Future Indefinite :

I
shall work.
(11 work)

Shall I work?

I
shall not work.
(shan't work)

will work.
She ('11 work)
It

he
Will. she
it

He
She will network.
It ' (won't work)

We

Shall

shall work.
(41 work)

You 1 will work.


They/ ('11 work)

work?

we work?

We

shall not work.


(shan't work)

You 1 will not work.


TheyJ (won't work)

Future Indefinite ,
,
-
.
42

1. Future Indefinite

,
(. . ),
:
She'll soon know the result.
Everybody will be at the
meeting tonight.


.

.

2. Future Indefinite
:
)
, ,
:
We'll talk about it when the
TV programme is over.
We shall catch him at home
if we start off right away.
He'll miss the train even if he
takes a taxi.

,

.
,

.
, .

) ,
:
will be invited to the
party, too.

) ,
:
He'll pack his things, lock
the house and wait for us
outside.

,

.

)
,
:
Life will teach her a lesson.
He will sell his little cottage
some day.

.
-
.
43

.
, always, never, some day, forever, in the
future . .

)
,
:
1*11 probably give up my job.
Don't say that to me, or III
go away.

, ,
.
He ,
.

)
,
, , ,
, , . ., . .
, to think, to know, to believe, to hope, to
be sure, to expect, to wonder, to fear ., :
I doubt that he'll talk to
you.
I suppose he'll write to us.

,
.
,
.

3. Future Indefinite
, ,
, -
shall will:
) shall, ,
, 2- 3-
,
, :
shall get the money
tomorrow.
You shall pay for it.

()
.
.

) shall 1-
, , :
Shall I read?
44

Shall we alter the plan?

) will ( '11) 1-

, , , ,

, :
All right, I'll come.
We'll explain everything to
them.

, .
.

) will 2- 3-
, :
My husband will pay for the
taxi.

) will
, :
I won't argue with you.

) will
, :
Will you ask him into my
office?
Will you come in?


, .
, .

Future Indefinite

, . .
.
, :
The temperature will rise up
to 20 tomorrow.

20 .

Present Indefinite
. . 16.
45

The Future Continuous


Future Continuous
:

I

shall be working.
('11 be working)

Shall I be working?

He will be working.
She
It (' 11 be working)

he
Will she be
it working?

We shall be working.
('II be working)

Shall we be working?

You 1 will be working.


They] ( U be working)

I shall not be work


ing.
(shan't be working)
^ will not be

shee ; o r k ' n t
jt

(won't be
* working)
We shall not be
working.

yOU bework
Will{
l
[theyj ing?

(shan't be working)
will not be
You 1 working.
Theyj (won't be
working)

Future Continuous
, ,
, :
Maurice is tired. will be
coming to bed soon.

Meg, will you close the


window? The food will be
getting cold.
'Today is the first of Sep
tember. The evenings will
be getting long soon,"
said my aunt.

.
. (
,

.)
, ,
. .
1 .

,
.

Present Continuous
. . 18.
The Future Perfect
Future Perfect :
46

I shall have worked.


('11 have worked)
will have
He worked.
She ('11 have
It
worked)
We shall have worked.
('11 have worked)
will have
u ^ worked.
1 ne
yJ (' 11 have worked)

Shall I have worked?

he
Willbhe have
it worked?
Shall we have
worked?

waijyou]have

[theyj worked?

I shall not have


worked.
(shan't have worked)
I will not have
e
Q , I worked.
ne
~ f(won't have
* worked)
We shall not have
worked.
(shan't have worked)
will not
You 1 have worked.
They}(won't have
worked)

Future Perfect
,
.
,
:
I suppose he will have made
up his mind before the
meeting.
She will have cleaned the
house by their arrival.

,
-
.

.

to be going +
to be going +
. ,

, :
My sister is going to study
English.
How long are you going to
stay with us?


.

?


, ,
:
It's going to rain.
She's going to have a baby.

.
.
47

. to be going
to go to come.
Present Continuous, :
Are you going to the concert?

The Future in the Past



,
.
Future in the Past
should would
, :
) The Future Indefinite The Future Indefinite in the
Past (shall/will work should/would work);
) The Future Continuous The Future Continuous in the
Past (shall/will be working should/would be working);
) The Future Perfect The Future Perfect in the Past
(shall/will have worked should/would have worked).

,
, ,

, - .
:
I think he'll return soon.
I thought then he would
return soon.

,
.
,
.

I don't know what I shall do


without him.
I didn't know what I should
do without him.

,
.
,
.

I expect we shall be having


coffee after dinner as
usual.
I expected we should be
having coffee after dinner
as usual.

, ,
, .
, ,
, .

48

I hope she will have got


supper ready by the time
we get home.
I hoped she would have got
supper ready by the time
we got home.

,

.
,

.

-
.
,
. -
, :
is staying in the country.
He stayed in the country last
week.
He will stay in the country
on Sunday.


.

.

.

-
,
,
- ,
(. .

). -
, :
I knew he was in the country.
I knew he had been in the
country the week before.
I knew he would be in the
country on Sunday.

,
, (
)
,
.
( )
,
, (
)


,
,
49

, -
, ,
,

.
-

Past Indefinite Past
Continuous, :
Nobody knew what he
meant.
He had never guessed what
she was doing.
I thought he would not notice
that she was upset.

,
.
,
.
, ,
.

-

Past Perfect Past Perfect
Continuous, :
Her family knew where she ,
had been and what she

had been doing.
.
When I came in, he was tell ,
ing them what he had been
,
concealing.
.
She was happy. They had .
said she had not changed
,
after her illness.

.
(. . )
-

.

(. . 4647) ,
. :
said he would think about
it.
50

,
.

He had feared that they


would talk too much.
He thought that they were
going to get married.

,

.
,
.



, :
)
(. . 264):
Why he had voted against
him was a mystery.
My only fear was that Tom
would forget his promise.


,
.
,
, ,

.

) (. . 267):
She had the feeling that
someone hidden in the
bushes was watching her.

,
-,
, .

) :
pinned the note on the
front door so that she
could see it as soon as she
came back.


,
,
.


-

, ,
:
I knew that he had said that
he had been thinking
about what he would do
next year.

, ,
,

.
51

would do
had been thinking; had been thinking
had said; had said
knew.

(, , , ,
.) -
, . .
.
,
, , ,
, :
A tall tired-looking man
whom I had not seen
before came into the
office.
I was in the garden when a
car drove up to the gate.
He was very busy that
month because his com
pany was producing a new
car.

,
,

.
,

.

,

.

,
.
:
1) (. .
),
( )
, :
Meg said he has been ring
ing you up all day,
Mother.
I came to tell you that I'll
vote against you.
You said you came in a taxi.

52

,
,
.
,
,
.
,
.

,

,
:
I came to see how your
health was.
I quite forgot it was my
birthday today.

,
.
,
.

2) , ,
, :
You made me understand
how important education
is.

,
.

3) must, should, ought


need, ,
:
I wrote that I must see him.
I knew that he should do no
more work.

,
.
,
.

, ,

, .
: Active Voice
(, ) Passive Voice
(, ).
The Active Voice
Active Voice , ,
,
, , :
John walked to the window.
Her hands were trembling.

.
.
53

The Passive Voice


Passive Voice , ,
,
, .

(. . 8).
Passive Voice
, to be

. Passive Voice :
The Present Indefinite is (am, are) done
The Past Indefinite was (were) done
The Future Indefinite will (shall) be done
The Present Perfect has (have) been done
The Past Perfect had been done
The Future Perfect will (shall) have been done
The Present Continuous is (am, are) being done
The Past Continuous was (were) being done

()
, : When was the work done? Has
the work been done?

not, ()
, : The work was not done last
week. The work will not be done tomorrow.

, .
-,
, , ,
,
. ,
:
) - , :
,
.
.
54

I don't like it when I'm


ordered about.
One day a letter was brought
to the hospital.

) , :
.

.

.

Many mistakes have been


made.
He was told to stay at home.
This cannot be seen through
the microscope.

-,
,
, ,
,
, :

to help
to manage
to ring

:

.

.
,
.

He was helped to open the


door.
The factory is managed by
two brothers.
The bell was rung and the
game started.

-,
,
, ,
(.
. 229), :
was given a radio set as a
present.
The event was much talked
about in the town.
The young trees were prop
erly looked after.


.

.

.
55

, , ,

,
.


:
1. The Direct Passive ,

, :
They have made no mistakes
in the test.> No mistakes
have been made in the test.
They took the furniture out
of the room. -> The
furniture was taken out of
the room.


.

.

2. The Indirect Passive ,



. Indirect Passive
to tell, to give, to show, to
pay, to leave, to promise, to lend, to send .,
,
,
Direct Passive, , Indirect
Passive, :
They told me the news
today. > The news was
.
told me today. -> I was
told the news today.
They offered him a good
job. > A good job was
.
offered to him. He was
offered a good job.
3. The Prepositional Passive
,
.
,
:
56

They sent for the doctor.


The doctor was sent for.
She felt they were looking at
her. > She felt she was
being looked at.

.
,
.

,

.
,
by, :
Many valuable pictures
were destroyed by the fire.

,
,
:
1) ,

, :
We arranged to meet at 5
o'clock.

5 .

2) ,
, , ,
, . .,
,
it,
, ,
-, :
was known that he would
not accept the offer. (<They knew that...)
It is said that she turned the
job down. (<- They say
that...)

,
.
, .

3)
: to resemble, to suit, to fit, to have, to
possess, to lack, :
57

The boy resembles his fath.


The place holds 500 people.


.

500 .

4) to say, to explain, to announce, to point


out, to devote, to suggest, to propose . .,
,
, ,
Direct Passive, :
Then they explained the
difficulty to them.
Then the difficulty was
explained to them.


.

.


.
:
) -
Perfect Continuous Future Continuous,
Perfect forms
Future Indefinite;
) Indefinite

.

Indefinite
, :
The meeting was held in the
local club. (> They held
the meeting in the local
club.)

He is remembered very well


here. (> They remember
him very well here.)


Indefinite ,
.
, :
58

I know that proper names


are written with capital
letters.
I don't know why these
words are written in
pencil.
The work was finished in
silence.
The work was finished.

,
, (
)
,
. (
)
.
()
.
(
)

Indefinite
, :
The work was finished in silence. > They finished the work
in silence.
Indefinite
Perfect, :
The work was finished. > They had finished the work.
,


. ,
,

.
:
The flood broke the dam.
The dam was broken by the
flood.

.

.


; ?
.
,
, .

,
59

,
, :
The boy was operated on the
next day.
The student was asked to the
blackboard.

.
.

,
,
. ,


:
, .

,
,
. .
,
,
,
. .
can, may, must, ought, shall, should, will, need dare.
,
to have to be.

() ,
, :
-s 3-
; ,
;
(must, should, ought, need).

:
1)
to ,
ought, to have to be;
2)
, ,
do,
to have (. . 70), :
60

Must I come, too?


She cannot do it today.

?

.

:
(, . .)
could (, , , )
could ( ,
. .)
:
1) , , :
can play the piano.
Could the boy read before he
went to school?
I cannot promise you anything.


.
() ,
?
no
.

,
,
. ,
, "
.

to be able,
, :
is (was, will be) able to
phone us twice a week.

(, )

.

could ,

, :
After what had happened I
couldn't trust him.

,
.

, could

61

. ,
, .
,
, to manage
(), to succeed to be (un)able, :
He managed to do everything he wanted.
He succeeded in finishing his
report in time.

,
.

.

,
to fail, :
failed to bring us the
newspaper.

could
*,
, :
We need your advice. Could
you come and see us on
Friday?

.

?

could ,
(.
). could
**, ,
,
, :
Now I clearly see all the
mistakes I made and could
have avoided.


, co
.

2) , ,
:
It's a place where you can
buy everything you want.


, .

* . . 82 .
** . . 9798.

62

The men chose the table in


the corner because they
could not be overheard.


,

.

Can
,
. , ,
.
3) (
), :
You can borrow my .
Can I use your telephone?
You can't speak to me like
that.


.

?
(
)
.

,
.
, ,
.
4) , , :
Can it be true?


. ,
,
:
) ,

,
(Continuous), :
Can he really be ill?
Can she be telling lies?


?
?

) ,
, :
Can he have said it?

?
63

)
,
,
Perfect Continuous, :
Can she really have been at
home all this time?
Can she really have been
waiting for us all this
time?



?


?


could,
, :
Could he really be ill?
Could she be telling lies?
Could he have said it?
Could she really have been at
home all this time?
Could she have been waiting
for us all this time?

-
?
- ?
-
?
- ?
- ?

5) , :
It can't be true.

He (
),
.


.
, ,
(
. . 63), :
She can't be really ill.
She can't be telling lies.

64

,

.
He ,
.

He can't have said it.


She can't have been at home
all this time.
She can't have been waiting
for us all this time.

,
.
He ,

.
He ,
.

could

, :
My wife couldn't have sent
such a letter.

,

.

6) (, ,
. .), :
What can he mean?




, .
could
, :
What could she be doing
here?
Where could he have gone?

?
?

May
may :
may (, , . .)
might (, . .)
might ( ,
. .)
may :
1) , ,
:
31825

65

Can he come here now?


I don't know. may be
busy.


?
. , ( ), .

may
, :
may be at home.
He may not be at home.

(
), .
( ),
.

,
, , may

(. . 63). :
It may rain in the evening.
He may be ill.
He may not know it.
Mother may be cooking
dinner.
Your friend may have taken
your books.
He may have known our
secret for some time.
He may not have got my
telegram.
The baby may have been
crying since it woke up.

, ,
.
, , .
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,

.
, ,
.
, ,
,
.

might
, :
might come soon.
might be at home now.

66

, ,
.
, ,
.

He might be writing letters


now.
might have visited them
yesterday.

,
.
,
.

2) , ,
:
You may order a taxi by
telephone.

may
( ,

);
3) , :
Mr Warren is alone now.
You may see him.

- .

.

may
, ,
,
(), , :
May I smoke in here?
You may not smoke in
here.


?
.

might
, :
Might I come, too?

.
may .
: may ,
;
,
, :

67

A student asks his friend:


"Steve, can I borrow your
book?"
A student asks his teacher:
"Professor, may I borrow
your book?"


: ,
?

: ,
9

4) , :
You might go and help him.
You might have phoned me
and told me not to wait
for you.


.

,
.

,
might.
, might
;
, might
.
Must
must ,

, :
said: "You must do it
yourself."
said that I must do it
myself.

: .
, .

Must :
1) , , (
), :
You must warn him.
Must they do it together?


.

?

must
.
68

2) , :
She's too weak after her ill
ness. She must not do so
much work about the
house.


.
( )
.

must
.
3) , :
You must come and see the
baby.
You mustn't miss this film.
You mustn't cry.


.

.
.

4) , ,
:
looks so pale. must
be ill.

. , (),
.

,
, , must

may (. . 63). :
The streets are deserted. It
must be late.
The book is not on the shelf.
Mary must be reading it.
The light is on in her room.
She must have come.
The streets are wet. It must
have been raining all the
night.

.
, .
. ,
( ),
.
. ,
, .
.
,
.

must
.
,
69

, ...,
, :
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.

must be unaware of it.


He must have misunder
stood me.
He must have failed to find
the book.
He must have read nothing
about it.
He must never have learned
the truth.

must
, . , ,
,
: will probably come soon. He is sure to come soon.
To have
to have
- ,
Perfect Continuous, :
I'll have to work alone.
I've had to stay at home this
week.
I'm having to put up with his
presence.


.

.

.

to
have Present Past Indefinite
do, :
Do you always have to get
up at 6 o'clock?
Did you have to tell them
about it?
You don't have to explain
anything if you don't
want to.
70


6 ?

?

-,
.

He didn't have to set anoth


er experiment.

to have
, ,
:
She has had to give up her
job because she can't find
a nurse to look after her
baby.
Did you have to wait for him
long?
I don't have to cook dinner
because we're going out
tonight.


,
,

.

?

,
.

. 1. has/have got

, :
I've got to type the letter right
away.
He's got to make a telephone
call.

.
.

2. had better + ( to)


, :
It's beginning to rain. We'd better go back home.
She said she had better get
things ready for dinner.

.
.
,
.

be
to be
Present Past Indefinite, :
We are to start off at dawn.
We were to start off at
dawn.

(
)
.

.
71

To be :
1)
, , :
is to arrive tomorrow.
We were to meet and discuss
it on Friday.
Who is to arrange the
meeting?

. (
.)

.

?

. to be
, ,
, :
was to have arrived yesterday.


( ).

2) , , (
), :
The chief says I am to be in
charge of the programme.
The students are to hand in
their course papers by the
1st of May.

, .


1 .

3) , :
didn't know at the time
that he was never to see
his son again.

,

.

4) , ,
:
His father was often to be
seen talking to the workers.
Where is he to be found?


.
?

,
to be .
72

Ought
ought ,

. ought

to, :
said: "The boy ought to : apologize."
.
said that the boy ought ,
to apologize.
.
ought
. , ,

, , :
At your age you ought to
help your mother about
the house.
Your brother ought not to be
so credulous.
Ought I to warn him of her
arrival?



.


.

?

, ought
,
.
,
ought,
, (.
); ,
.
ought
, ,
, ,
ought
, ,
, :
You ought to have put everythingoff.

(
)
( ).
73

I'm sorry. I ought not to have


said it.

.
(
).

Shall
shall
,
, , ,

.
, shall 2- 3-
, ,
:
You shall have my answer
tomorrow.
shall do as I say.


, ()
,
. ()

1 - 3- shall
, ,
, :
Shall I get you a cup of tea?
Who shall meet the delegation?

?
?

. Shall ,

, ,
:
The book is sold subject to the
condition that it shall not be
reprinted without the publisher's consent.

, .

Should
should shall,

.
should
,
, :
74

He said: "It's late. You should


go to bed."
said that it was late and
that I should go to bed.

: .
.
,
.

1. Should .
, ,
,
, :
You should speak to him
right away.
You shouldn't miss the
opportunity.
Should I ask him about it?

() .

.
()
?

, should
,
.

,
;
,
. should

, ,
; should
,
, , :
You are ill. You should have
stayed at home.
Oh, Tom, you shouldn't have
done what you did.

.
( )
.
, ,
, .

. should
ought .
, ,
, should
, ought
, :

75

The word should be spelled with


capital letter.
You ought to be kinder to
people.
should do it today. 1
. A , ., A : >
T
ought to
do it today. J

() .

.

2. should
, ,
, . .
, , , (),
,
.
should :
1) ,
should
:
) , why,
:
Why should he do it?

) ,
why, :
I don't see why we shouldn't
make friends.

,
.

) ,
why
reason, :
There is no reason why they
shouldn't be happy.

,

.

) :
How should I know?
?
, , should

. ,
76

should ,
:
I took a walk in the garden
with her. Why shouldn't I
have done it?
He didn't know why she
should have wanted to stay
on.


.
?
,

.

2) ,
should
,

:
)
, ,
, :
I'm sorry you should think
so.
I'm sorry you think so.

,
.

I'm sorry you should have


misunderstood me.
I'm sorry you misunderstood
me.

, .
.

)
it is (was) wonderful (strange,
natural, terrible, amazing . .),
it surprised (puzzled, amazed, infuriated) me
that..., :
It is strange that he should
ask such a question.
It is strange that he asks
such a question.

,
.

It surprised me that he
should have come alone.
It surprised me that he had
come alone.

,
.

77


should
,
.

wm
will :
will
would
would
will
,
,
.
will/would :
1) , :
She will (would) sit for hours
by the window.

()
.

will/would
.
2) - , :
The doctor knows I won't be
operated on.
He was wet through but he
wouldn't change.

,

.
,

.


, ,
will/would , -

, :
Give me your pen, please.
Mine won't write.
I pushed the door again but
it wouldn't open.
78

,
.
.
,
.

will/would
.
3) , , ( 1-
), :
I see you don't want to tell
me where he is but I 'will
find him.
We decided that we 'wouldn't
interfere.

,
, ,
() .
, (
)
.

will/would
.
, will/would
,
,
.
4) , , :
Will you get me my spectacles?
Will you sit down?

, , .
, .


. Would

, :
Would you get me my spectacles?

, .

5) , (
), :
We'll be glad if you will come.
1 should explain everything
if you would let me talk.

,
(,
).
,

.


,
.
79

Need
need
() .
1. need
, .

( )
- , :
You needn't come.

()
.

need
, ,
:
You needn't have come. The
problem is settled.

( ) . (
.)
.

need

, :
Need I repeat it?

( )
?

2. need ,
.
to.
have to,
, have to,
, :
I do not need to explain
anything.
Did you need to read all
those books?

( )
.
?

Dare
dare
() .
80

1. dare : dare
dared .
-.

, how,
, :
How dare she come here?
dared not look at her.


?

.

2. dare ,
. ,
dare,
, :
No one dared to ask him
about it.
I knew that he had never
dared to come to their
house since the incident.

.
,

.


.
.
, ,
.
, ,
(The Indicative
Mood), ,
(. . 1260).

(The Imperative Mood).

,
:
Be careful.
Come over here, please.

.
,
.
81


do,
:
Don't be lazy.
Don't listen to him.

.
He .

Do
, :
Do be careful!
Do turn the TV set off.

,
!

!


2- .
3-
let, :
Let her get us something to
eat.
Let your assistants find the
data.

.

.

1 -

let's (let us) + ,
, :
Let's go out and have
smoke.
Let's not talk about it.

.

.

,
,
,
.


(The
Subjunctive Mood). 82


,

.
,
,

.
.

/
/

.
(
),
( -
, ),
.
/
:
1. ,

, . .
, to suggest, to propose, to demand, to
urge, to order, to give instructions, to require, to request, to
insist, to recommend .

(. . ,
)
,
should ( ) ,
:
I suggest(ed) that he go
round the house and see
everything.
I suggest(ed) that he should
go round the house and
see everything.

(),

.

83

2. ,

, : necessary,
important, essential, urgent, advisable, desirable
.


,
should ( )
, :
It is (was) necessary that he
report to us on the progress
of his work.
It is (was) necessary that he
should report to us on the
progress of his work.

, .

3.
wish.

, ,
,
:
1)
,
were Past Indefinite, :
I wish(ed) he were with us.
I wish(ed) you wore a warm
coat.

() ,
. ( ,
.)
( ),

.

2)
,
Past Perfect, :
I wish(ed) you had brought
your camera.

84

() ,

. (
(),

.)

3)
,
would could ,
:
I wish(ed) he would tell me
everything.
I wish(ed) he could come to
the party.

( ),
.
(
),
.
( () ,

.)

. ,
wish
, , : ,
... , ... . .
,
, .

4.
it is time.
were Past
Indefinite, :
It is time the child were in
bed.
It is (high) time we had
dinner.


.
() .

5.
, to fear, to be afraid
(frightened, terrified) .

that,
may , :
She is afraid that he may
leave without seeing her.

, ,
.


, :
Ann was afraid that she
might be misunderstood.

, .
85

lest
( ...),
should , :
feared lest he should miss
the train.

,
.

, lest

.
6. ,
if whether,
.

were (

).
was, :
wondered if it were (was)
true.
did not ask himself
whether his wife were
(was) pretty.

,
.
,
.

7. ,

, suggestion, proposal, demand, order,
decision, agreement, request .
should
( ) , :
I accepted his suggestion
that we should look after
the old man in turn.

,

.


,
, ,

, :
86

The publisher sent me a let- ter with the request that I


,
write a review of a book.

.
8. ,

, suggestion, proposal, decision, aim, idea,
arrangement .

should ( )
, :
His idea was that the theatre
should serve as a means of
education for the mass of
the public.

,



.

9. ,
so that ( that in order
that).

may,
, :
Please, leave the door open
so that Mary can (may)
see the children playing in
the garden.
He left the door open so
that Mary could (might)
see the children playing in
the garden.

,
,
,
.

,
,
.


Future Indefinite ( Future Indefinite in the Past),
:
I want to live in London so
that the boy will have
someone to play with.
She gave him the key so that
he would lock the car.

,

.
,
.
87


should ,
,
, :
Send him out of the room so
that he should not hear
what we talk about.
She turned away so that we
should not see her tears.

,
,
.
,
.

10. , as
if as though.

, ,

,
:
)
,
Past Indefinite ( Past Continuous)
were, was
, :
The house is (was) so quiet
as if there were (was)
nobody in it.
They speak (spoke) of her as
though she did not exist.
Her eyes are (were) spark
ling as though she were
(was) laughing at us.

() ,

.
()
, ()
.
(
), (
) (
) .

)
,
Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous,
:
Our life goes (went) on as if
nothing had happened.
(),
.
88

She is (was) breathing deep (as though she had been


), running.
.
)
,
would , :
moved towards me as
though he would strike me.

,
.

11.
.

.

, . . ,
.
,
: Present Indefinite
Future Indefinite
, :
If he sends me a telegram I'll
have to go to the station
to meet him.

, ,
.


, -
,
.

:
1)
,
Past Indefinite ( were),
should/would + , :
If I were not so tired I should
go with you.
If he were not so tired he
would go with you.

,
.
,
.
89

would +
1-
,
should. ,
should would
'd, :
If we had a car, we'd (would,
should) go to the country.


,
.

2) ,
Past Perfect,
(should) would + ,
:
Nothing would have hap
pened if he had kept silent.
If he hadn't phoned me I'd not
(wouldn't, shouldn't) have
come.

,
.
,
.

3)
,
, :
If he were not so lazy he
would have done it yes
terday.
If I hadn't missed the plane
yesterday I'd be bathing in
the sea now.


(),
.

,
.

4)
may,

could/might +
,
, could/might +
, ,
:
If I could write poems I would
dedicate them to you.
90

,
.

If he could paint he might


find a job with us.
If we could have talked with
him that night, he wouldn't
have gone away.
If his father hadn't been
there something serious
might have happened.

,
, ,
.


, .

,
- .

5)
,
:
a) (should) would +
Past Indefinite
, ,
:
If we allowed him to go on
with his experiment we
would have to stop work
in the other laboratories.


,


.

) should/would +
were to +
,

( , ...),
:
If she were to refuse our
offer it would be very
awkward.
What would he do if he were
to meet them?

, ,

,
.
,
, ,
?

) Future Indefinite
should ( )
+ ,

91

(
..., , ..., , ... . .),
:
I'll let you know if he should
change his mind.
If anyone should call, tell
them I'll be back by 5
o'clock.

,
.
-
, ,
5 .


in case ( , ; ,
), :
I'll be at the flat all day in
case there should be some
delay.


,
- .

6) ,
,
: a) if it were not (had not been) for... 6) but
for..., :
If it were not for his friend
(But for his friend) he
would feel very lonely in
the big city.
If it had not been for the rain
(But for the rain) he
would have gone to the
country on Saturday.

,


.
,
.

7)

, :
Were Mother present, my
brother wouldn't dare to
talk like that.
Had the driver gone straight
on, the accident wouldn't
have happened.

92

,

.

,
.

, , ,

.
12.
,
even if even though.
Past Indefinite
were (should) would +
,

, :
Even if you were right I
would not defend you.

,

.
,
Past Perfect,
(should) would + ,
:
Even though I had been
stranger he would have
invited me to see his
flowers.


,

.

13. ,
oh, if only... .
Past Indefinite
were, ,
Past Perfect, ,
could/would + ,
, :
Oh, if only Father were at
home!
Oh, if only I knew what to
do!
Oh, if only he had listened to
me!
Oh, if only it would stop
raining!
If only their life could al
ways be like that!

Ax,
!
, ,
!

!
,
!

!
93

14.
,
.

, (should) would +
, :
Do you want to marry Meg?
You would be very un
happy with her.
It would be foolish to sell
such a picture.

The house would be too


expensive for them.


?
. (
:
)

, (
:
-
)

. (
:
)

,
(should) would + ,
:
would have said a great
deal but he was tired.
Twenty years ago I wouldn't
have thought it possible.


, .
(
: )

,
, (
:

)


could/might
+ ,
, could/might +
, ,
:
94

He knows I could never tell


him a lie.
I didn't know about the
concert. I might have got
tickets for it.


.

. , ,
.

, (should) would +
() could/might + ()

,
, , :
Do you know Walter Grey?
Could you write to him?
Did you wait long? I
would say five minutes.
Why, I should have thought
there could be no two
answers to such an offer.

?
?
?
.
, ,

.

15. , : had ('d)


better, would ('d) rather would ('d) sooner.
had would
.

,
, :
I think we had better stay in
town for another week.
He would sooner die than
give up his habit.

,

.
,


, -
,
wish (. . 85).
Will you do it?I'd rather ?
you did it.
,
.
95

16. ,
.
Success attend you!
Be yours a happy life!
So be it!
Come what will.
Manners be hanged!
Her portrait had been, as it
were, stamped on his heart.
As luck would have it.
As ill luck would have it.


!
!
, .
!
,
, ( )
.
. / .
( ).


(. . 6).

.
(
),
, :
visits his friends regu
larly.
He wants to visit his friends
regularly.
He insisted on visiting his
friends regularly.


.

.
,

.


, to.
:
to do
to be doing

96

to have done
to have been doing

to be done
to have been done

1. The Simple Infinitive (to be,


to come, to read, etc.) ,
-
, :
seemed to know all about
it.
wanted to ask somebody about it.

, ,
.
.


(to be read, to be kept, to be told, etc.), :
He didn't like to be laughed
at.

,
.

2. The Continuous Infinitive


(to be coming, to be reading, to be telling, etc.)
,
-, :
It was pleasant to be driving
the again.

3. The Perfect Infinitive


(to have come, to have been, to have read, etc.,)
,
-, :
She seemed to have forgotten
our quarrel.

, ,
.


(to have been read, to have been kept, to have been
told, etc.,), :
I took the article to have been
written by my brother.

,
.

4. The Perfect Continuous Infinitive (to have been


telling, to have been discussing, to have been writing, tic.)
,
-
, :
41825

97

She turned out to have been


cleaning the house since
the morning.

,
.

, ,
(Simple
Perfect), , . .
,
, ; ,
(Non-Continuous Continuous),
, . .
;
,
(Active Passive), .
,

( ) .
.
,
.
, ,
- ,
(
* )
( ),
, .
,
,
, :
tried to find the right answer.
.

-
, :
gave me permission to
leave.
My job is to sort out letters.

.

.



98

. (
), :
It's difficult to learn
foreign language.
understand all is to
forgive all.

(
).

.


,
for- (the forphrase), (
)
,
for, :
For Tom to win is going to
be a difficult thing.
He was too tired for us to
ask him about anything.

.
,

-.


-ing ( .
. 1011). 4 :
doing
being done

having done
having been done

1. The Simple ing-form {be


ing, walking, writing, etc.) ,
-
, :
sat drawing cats on
piece of paper.
They insisted on coming
with me.


.
,
.


(being written, being done, being discussed, etcj,
:
She hated being interviewed.

,
.
99

2. The Perfect ing-form


(having told, having walked, having been)
, , :
She was ashamed of herself
for having been so rude to
him the night before.

,

.

, ,
(Simple
Perfect), , . .
,
, -;
,
(Active Passive), .
,

( ) .
.
,
.
, ,
-
,
( ) (
), . .
.
(. () ),
-
(. () ),
( )
(. () ):
) She was used to sitting up
late.
) My mother was angry
with me for seeing you.
) Writing good prose is not
easy.

.

,
.

.


,
:
100

1) , 2)
, 3)

4) ,
:
1) I hope you don't mind my
coming.
2) Forgive me interrupting
you.
3) I told them about Ted's
wanting to come with me.
4) I remember the telegram
coming about Mary's rival.

, .
,
.
,
.
, .


,
(The ing-complex).


( ).
.
,

, ,
-
.

.

,

, , ,
, .




.

101

To find a cook was his most


urgent problem.
To fulfil the condition was
out of my power.
Meeting her seemed a good
end to the day.
Your being here means so
much more than just
pleasure.



.

.


.

,
.


. ,
,
-,
, -.
, :
1)
,
, :
take him seriously would
be absurd.

(
...).

2) ,
there is, , :
There was no avoiding him
now.
Yes, I'm afraid. There's no
denying that.



.
, .
.




(
).
to be, :
102

His greatest wish was to tell


her everything.
My plan was to spend a year
there until I had learned
Spanish.
The only sensible thing is for
you to go away.
All I want to do is to help
you.
The important part of his
job is looking after the
children.
What he had always wanted
was doing what he liked.
Being in love is thinking all
the time about the other
person.



.

,
,
.

,
.

.


.
,

, .


.


, . . ,
() .
, ,
, , : advice, aim,
business, custom, desire, difficulty, duty, function, habit,
hope, idea, instruction, method, plan, policy, problem, reason,
role, thing ( ), thought, way, wish,
work .,
,
(. ).

. , , .

:
1) - to mean,
:
103

I can't ask him for help. It


would mean telling him
everything.


.

.

2) - to be to look
like, :
To read his novels was like
swimming in a clear lake.
Their quarrel looked like
going for ever.


,
.
,

.


:
all, the least, the most,
, to
, :
All we can do is (to) stick to
our decision.
The least (the mosO he
could do at the moment
was (to) give me a
cigarette.

,
,
.
,
,
.



,
(. . 218)
.
.
( to)
why, :
Why waste your time on this
kind of work?
Why not go there right
away?
104


?

?


what about how about, :
What about going to London?
How about seeing what they
are doing?

, ?
, ,
?





, . . .


, :
was so excited that he
couldn't talk of other
things.
should have stayed there.
We had to tell them the truth.

,

.

.

.

(
. . 6081.)

( to)
to seem, to appear, to turn out, to prove, to happen to
chance.
,

,
, :
said he was very worried
about her because he
happened to know her
situation.
They seemed to be getting on
bit better.

, ,
.
,
.
105

The letter turned out to have


been mislaid.
He didn't seem to have been
running all the way.

,
.
,
.


, to
come, to go out (round, about), to lie, to sit (around), to stand
(around), to disappear.
,
, ,
,
. ,
,
. :
The children came rushing in.
The dog went about sniffing
the air.
I woke early and lay listening to the clatter of the
dishes in the kitchen.

.
.
,

.

,
: to go hunting , to gofishing
, to go rowing , to go shopping
, to go out dancing
. .

-

-
.
to turn, to come, to reach, to hurry,
to run, to return, to look, to wake up .

to find,
to discover, to see, to hear , :
One night he woke up to
hear a light knock at the
door.
106

She turned to find him locking the door.


returned 10 minutes later
to see his wife ready for
departure.

(),
.
10 ,
.

-

.
: woke up to hear > woke up and heard;
turned to find - turned and found; returned to see >
returned and saw.

.

.
,
,
-.
, :
She was sitting in the
doorway of the tent
reading.
They ran up the stairs
talking loudly.
Roger, frowning, shook his
head.
Leaving the dog in the boat,
I stepped ashore.

.
,
(
).
no .

(
).




: was sitting... reading was sitting and reading;
ran up... talking > ran up and talked; frowning, shook >
frowned and shook; leaving... stepped -> left and stepped.
.
,
.

107


.

,
: to spend (waste) the time (an hour, the morning, a day,
the week); to have a good (hard, jolly, etc.) time; to have
difficulty (trouble), to be,
, :
She spent the morning
writing letters to her
friends.
We spent Sunday working in
the garden.
I wasted two hours waiting
for him.
He had a good time dancing
at the club.
They had difficulty (trouble)
getting his address.
Mother is out shopping.
Miss Smith is in her office
typing.
Pat is downstairs talking to
Father.


.

.
,
.

.
(
)
.
,
.

.

.



1.
.
,
to agree, to arrange, to attempt, to choose, to
decide, to deserve, to expect, to fail, to help, to hesitate, to
hope, to learn, to long, to manage, to mean, to offer, to omit,
to plan, to pretend, to promise, to refuse, to tend, to threaten,
to want, :
They arranged to visit the
laboratory the next day.

108

I managed to talk her out of


it.
refused to see me.

.
.


can afford
to make up one's mind, to
take care, to take the trouble, to make sure
, :
We can't afford to buy .
took to buy the
newspaper.


.
, () .

.
to, to help,
to , :
Dolly will help (to) make tea.


.
, . .
,
to admit, to avoid,
to consider, to delay, to deny, to enjoy, to escape, tofinish,to
give up, to keep, to leave off, to mention, to postpone, to put
off, to recall, to resent, to resume, to risk, to stop, to suggest
., :
Dancing, I kept stepping all
over her feet.
They enjoyed having a guest
that evening.
I've given up smoking.

, .
,

.
.


, :
can't imagine, can't stand, can't help,
to feel like, :
109

I can't imagine being called


Ted.
I couldn't help laughing when
I saw him wearing those
trousers.
felt like giving up the
whole affair.

,
.
,

.

.


, ,
.
,
.
, to begin, to cease, to continue, to
hate, to intend, to like, to love, to prefer, to start
- ,
:
I began to paint/painting
ago.
It has started raining/to rain.
I liked to work/working in
the hospital.
We preferred talking/to talk
of other things.
hated to pay/paying bills.

.
.

.

.

.


,
-. , to try
,
.
I'll try to do what I can.
tried altering the order of
words in the sentence.

,
.


.

to propose
, ,
.
110

When do you propose to go


back home?
I propose accepting their
terms.


?

.

to go on
...,
, :
The minister went on to say
that the agreement would
be signed within the week.
Tom went on talking with
my sister.

,


.

.

to remember, to forget to regret


,

- .
,
- ,
:
remembered locking the
door before he went to
bed.
He remembered to lock the
door before he went to
bed.

,
, .

Shell forget to tell John


about the letter.

regrets telling me a lie.

,
.

,
,
.

. to stop
. , to stop,
, . :
When Tom saw me he stopped
talking.

,
, (
)

111

When Tom saw me he stopped


to talk.

,
,
.

2.
, .
,
,
able, afraid, amused, annoyed, anxious,
ashamed, astonished, bound, careful, certain, content, crazy,
curious, delighted, determined, difficult, due, eager, easy,
entitled, fit, fortunate, free, frightened, glad, grateful, good,
happy, hard, helpless, horrified, impatient, interested, keen,
likely, lucky, moved, obliged, pleased, (impossible, prepared,
proud, quick, ready, relieved, reluctant, right, safe, slow,
sorry, sufficient, sure, surprised, useless, (un)willing, (un)wise,
wonderful, wrong ., :
I am curious to know the
news.
He is afraid to miss the
train.
He'll be crazy to do that.
I felt reluctant to go out.
The language was not difficult
to understand.
She was not easy to frigh
ten.


.

.
,
.

.

.^
.


,

for. :
was eager to start on the
new job.
He was eager forme to start
on the new job.



.
,

.


. 112


busy worth, :
She was busy cooking
dinner.
.
His idea was worth discuss .
ing.
3.

,
, it
(. . 193194, 254^255).

, ,
: to amaze, to annoy, to delight, to distress, to excite,
comfort, to frighten, to hurt, to interest, to irritate, to
please, to puzzle, to shock, to soothe, to startle, to surprise, to
rouble, to upset, to worry; to mean to
occur,
to do somebody good (harm), to take time, it is in (on)
ime, to be one's turn, to be up to somebody ., :
t excited them to hear the
news.
t pleased her to see him in
high spirits.
t never occurred to him to
pretend that he knew
nothing about the matter.
t can't do you any harm to
clean the house.
t took them two days to
reach the river.
t was time for us to start
off.
t was his turn to cook
breakfast.
t is up to you to decide
what you'll do.

,

.


.

,

.
,
.
,

.

.

.
,
.
113


, it,

, :
advisable, bad, careless, characteristic, charming, complicated,
convenient, correct, curious, dangerous, decent, delightful,
desirable, difficult, dull, easy, enough, fair, fine, foolish,
funny, good, hard, important, interesting, kind, late,
(un)natural, (unnecessary, nice, normal, pleasant, (im)possible,
(unreasonable, right, sad, safe, sensible, silly, strange,
surprising, stupid, sufficient, terrible, typical, useful, useless,
wrong ., :
It's strange to see them
together.
It's important to remember
the
figures.

.
.


,
for-, :
It was necessary for us to
talk to him before he met
his chief.
It was unusual for him to go
out for dinner.

,

.

.


of (of), :
It is kind of you to come.
It's wrong of him to leave his
old mother all alone.

,
.
,

.


, ,
it.
. , , ,
to matter to come (down)
to worth, :
114

It doesn't matter your being


much talked about.
When it comes (down) to
finding a job she says she
doesn't feel well again.
It is worth finding it out.

He ,
.

,
,
.
.

-

,
: amusing, comfortable, difficult,
dreary, easy, great, lovely, nice, odd, pleasant, strange, tough,
wonderful ., :
It will be rather nice seeing
him again.
It was difficult getting him
to do it.


.

.

4. ,
it
to think, to find, to
make to feel., it
, . 114.
, for-.

worth. :
I find it hard to believe the
story.
I thought it silly for him to
refuse the job.

His sister's arrival made it


possible (for them) to take
better care of his mother.
She didn't find it worth
pressing the point.

(
)
.
-,
,
. (
,
...)
()


.
,
.
115

.
.

, :
made it a rule to get up at
sunrise.
He made it a point for the chil
dren to get up at sunrise.
He found it no use waiting for
them any longer.
I thought it no good our oppos
ing her.


.

,
.

.
,
.

5.
(what, who, whether, when,
where, why, how, how long, how much/many)
, :
My mother advised me
where to go and what to
buy.
He could not decide when to
arrange the meeting.
He knew how to talk her
into doing it all.

,

.
,
.
,
.

6.

, :
insisted on being told the
result.
He thought of going to the
seaside for his holiday.
He objected to my selling the
car.
She complained about the
porridge being lumpy.
She suspected them of try
ing to cheat her.
116

,

.

.
,
.
,

.
,
.

He apologized for coming


late.
I am tired of doing much the
same thing every day.
He was pretty certain of
finding the letter.
I'm sorry for giving you so
much trouble.


.

.
,
.
,
(
).


.



:
,
to advise, to allow, to ask, to
believe, to consider, to expect, to feel, to find, to force, to
hear, to instruct, to intend, to invite, to know, to leave, to let,
to make, to mean, to order, to persuade, to report, to request,
to require, to rumour, to say, to see, to show, to surprise, to
teach, to tell, to think, to understand, to watch .,
:
They were heard to discuss
the possibility.
He has been instructed to
report to you.
I have been advised to rest.

- ,

.

.

.


, ,
,
() :
They were heard to discuss the possibility.
they + to discuss
(complex
subject), , ,
, - ,
.
117


, :
was believed to be work ,
ing on the report.
.
The church is supposed to ,
have been built in the 11 th
XI
century.
.
Ted was thought to have ,

been staying with his
,
friends since he was seen
.
last in the town.
,
,
.

.
,
, : to catch, to find, to hear, to leave, to
notice, to report, to see, to set, to show, to watch, :
He knew he was caught
boasting.
The baby was found sitting
on the
floor.

,
.
() .


to hear, to see to watch.
,
.
,
,
, :
A car was heard to arrive.
A car was heard arriving.

,
.
,
.


,
:
118

They were heard to laugh/


laughing in the kitchen.

,
.

to find, to report to show


, to be;
,
:
was found to be at home.
He was found sleeping.
He was reported to be out of
danger.
He was reported feeling
much better.

, .
, .
,
.
,
.

to leave
, ,
, ,
:
The boys were left to do
their lessons.
The boys were left doing
their lessons.

,
.

,
.

to accept, to consider, to explain, to


guarantee, to mention, to regard, to take, to treat, to
understand ., as,
, :
At school we were consid
ered as going together.
In the town we were
regarded as being "poor
as church mice".

,
.
,

.





, ,

119

.
to advise, to allow, to ask, to
believe, to cause, to consider, to enable, to expect, to find, to
forbid, to force, to get, to guess, to hate, to imagine, to
instruct, to intend, to invite, to know, to like, to love, to mean,
to order, to permit, to persuade, to press, to request, to
require, to suppose, to suspect, to take (= to understand), to
teach, to tell, to think, to trust, to understand, to want, to
warn ., :
He advised me to call him up
tonight.
Why don't you get him to
explain it to you?
I took him to be a foreigner.
I want you to believe me.

no
.

?

.
,
.


, ,
,
() : I like him to come in
time for dinner ,
.
'him to come'
(complex object), , ,
, , ,
.

,
to. : to feel, to have (= to make),
to hear, to let, to make, to notice, to see, to watch,
:
I felt her touch my hand
softly.
She made me stand up and
give her the medicine.

,

.

.

to help
to, , :
120

He helped me (to) pack my


things.

. , , to know
Indefinite,
to be ( to), :
I knew him to be a good pilot.

,
.

to know Perfect,
( to be)
to, :
I've never known her lose her
temper.
said he had known his brother
behave like that.

,
.
, ,
.


,
,
, to arrange for, to long for, to look
for, to manage for, to wait for, to watch for, to listen to, to
call upon, to rely on ., :
He was looking for someone to help him.
They waited for the rain to
stop.
I arranged for him to meet
the professor.

, .
,
.

.

. to listen
to, :
listened to her talk of his
mother.

, .



, .
to catch, to discover,
to feel, to find, to hear, to imagine, to keep, to leave, to
(dis)like, to notice, to see, to send, to set, to stop, to watch
., :
121

I felt him looking at me.


The news set me thinking.
I noticed him talking with
the policeman.

,
.

.
, .


to
listen to to look at, :
I listened to Ann explaining
why she was late.

, ,
.


to see, to hear, to notice, to feel, to listen to to
watch. ,
.
,
,
, :
I saw him cross the street.
I saw him crossing the street.

,
.
,
.


, :
They watched the doctor
work/working.

, .

to find, to imagine, to fancy to


understand ,
to be;
, :
They found him to be an
intelligent person.
They found me working in
the garden.

,
.
()
.

to like to hate
, :
122

I like my porridge having/to


have a salty taste.

,
.

to
accept, to consider, to explain, to guarantee, to mention, to
regard, to speak of, to take, to think of, to treat, to understand
., as, :
I took his article as being an
expression of his views.
They thought of him as being
a "promising" scientist.



.


.




:
1) , :
dressed and went out to
buy the morning paper.
I went in to see if they were
ready.


.
, .

in
order so as,
, :
I was silent in order to give
him time to think.
We had a swim so as to cool
off.

,
.
, .

so as
, :
I hired a taxi so as not to
miss the train.

,
.

2) , :
123

I had only to (had but to)


look at Mother to know
the answer.


, .

, ,
, :
.

, have (had) only to...
have (had) but to.

, .
:
) + enough, :
was old enough to be my
father.

) so + + as, :
Are you so stupid as to believe him?


, ?

) too + , :
She is too tired to go out.

,
-.

3) , :
I've got more important
things to do than wait for
him.


, .


,
,
than.
4) , :
There was nothing to do
except escape.
124

,
.

What could he do but smile?

,
?



, except
but. to .

.
-
,
. , when while
,
:
continued to speak while
walking down the path.
She wore spectacles when
reading.

,
.
, .

while
,
-; when
, .
as if as though
, :
She stopped speaking as if
waiting for him to speak.

, ,
.
looked at me as though ,
seeing me for the first ( ) time.
.

, though (), if
(), than () . .,
.

without. ,
,
:
The bus passed us without
stopping.

,
.
125

He said something without


raising his eyes.

-, .

. not
;
, without
, :
I returned home, not noticing
the letter on the
floor.

by
,
:
You begin learning a language
by listening to the new
sounds.
I cut him short by giving him
a cup of tea.

,

.
,
.

after, before on
, :
thought a long time
before answering.
After hesitating a moment or
two, he knocked at the
door.
On arriving at the cottage
she found it locked.

,
.
,
.
,
,
.

in
, ,
-, :
I've done something foolish
in coming here tonight.
In speaking to you I always
have to check my emotions.

,
.


.

, instead of, through,


from, besides . .,
.
126

,

.

.

without, before by,
, :
threw the cigarette out
of the window without
putting it out.
She did some shopping before
going home.
Learn to swim by swimming.


, .

,
.
, .



.

(. . ),

, (
) ,
with, ().

, :
The house was quiet now,
with only her old maid to
see to her meals.
I can't sleep with the noise
coming from the street.
A room lit up on the third
storey, somebody work
ing late.

:

,
.
,
.

.




, , :
127

He is the man to do it.


It is a matter for you to
decide.
He had a keen desire to learn.

,
.
,
()
.

.


,
,
, :
Have you got anything to
eat?
I've got a lot to do.
He was the first to come.

-
?
.
.


:
1)
,
, :
He was not a man to tell a
lie.
He brought me some letters
to type.

,
. (''

'')

,
. (
''
'
'.)



,
, :
I had nobody to talk to.> I
had nobody I could talk
to.
128


.
,
.

There was an hour to kill.>


There was an hour we
had to kill.

.

.

2) , ,
,
; ,
, . .
, :
made an effort to collect
himself.
You have no right to ask
such a question.

, ( =
)

.
( =
)


advice,
attempt, chance, decision, duty, effort, freedom, impulse,
intention, instruction, matter, necessity, need, obligation,
occasion, opportunity, order, permission, promise, proposal,
refusal, right, tendency, sign, way, will, wish . .
,
,
of

( . . 237).
3)
, ,
,
;
:
,
have (get, possess, lack) + the +
+ , :
had the courage to tell
them what he thought of
them.
She lacked the cheek to tell
lie.
51825


,
.

.
129


,
.
,
.
1)
-
:
)
.
, , -
, :
The clouds were lit up by
the setting sun.
A barking dog ran out
towards me.


.

.

,
(. .
), :
Arthur gave a creaking laugh.

)

.

there is/are,
, :
There was a strong wind
blowing outside.
There were children playing
out in the garden.

.
.

,

.
)
. ,
, . . ( 130

) .
:
came up to the kids
waiting for the school bell
to ring.
The wardrobe was empty,
except for one dress,
swinging on a hanger.
It was a standard speech,
gaining nothing, losing
nothing.

,
,

.
,
,

.

,

.

2)
of, for, in,
at, about to,
.
, . . ,
.

(disadvantage, aim, attempt,
attitude, business, chance, choice, consequence, custom,
danger, delight, difficulty, effect, emotion, evidence,
experience, fact, fear, feeling, gift, grief, guilt, habit, hope,
horror, humiliation, idea, illusion, importance, impression,
intention, interest, irritation, issue, joy, luck, madness,
manner, means, method, fortune, mistake, necessity, notion,
object, opinion, opportunity, pleasure, policy, possibility,
privilege, process, prospect, purpose, question, result, right,
risk, role, rule, satisfaction, sense, shock, sign, standard,
success, surprise, talent, task, terror, thought, trick, trouble,
use, way , :
I don't want her to make a
habit of being late.
I have no hope of finding
their address.
I began to have a feeling of
being watched.

,

.

.
,
.
131

He was upset at the thought


of Dan's leaving them.
Did he have any special
reason for saying that?
He felt irritation at being
disturbed.


,
.
-
,
?

,
.



: attempt, chance,
intention, necessity, opportunity, possibility, right, sign, way.
, :
I haven't had a chance to see
him yet.
.
We haven't had a chance of
learning the truth.
.
He was trying to find a way
to earn a little money.
They were trying to find a
way of talking to him
alone.



.


.

He made no attempt to
stand up.
I made another attempt at
going.


.

.

I had no opportunity to
speak to them.

I had no opportunity of
doing so.



,
,
132

,
- ,
.

, : to tell the truth (no
), to put it mildly ( ), to be quite frank
( ), so to speak ( ), to
make matters worse ( ), generally speak
ing ( ), roughly speaking (),
strictly speaking ( ) .
put it mildly, she is just
bit inquisitive.
Strictly speaking, their presence
is not necessary.

, .
,
.


. .
-ed
(
. . 11), : closed, discussed, painted, played.
,
: written, begun, shut.

,
:
wore suits made to order.

, .


,
,
-, :
When she came up the steps
she found the door
locked.


, , .

Left alone, he stood motionless for a few minutes.

,
.
133


, ,
, :
The man came out of the
house accompanied by
two dogs.
I had heard these topics
argued between scientists
for years.



.
,
.
.

,
, .
,
-, :
She sat on a fallen tree.

,
, . .
. -
,
. ,

, very, so, too,
as, rather, really ., :
The road was as deserted as
ever.
Is your brother very alarmed?

, .
?



. ,
. ,
,
:
I am naturally very disappointed.
134

,
.

We felt more disposed to one


another.
I was cold but too excited to
mind it.



.
,

,
.




to sit, to
stand to lie, :
He stood surprised in front
of his house.
He was lying back relaxed in
the arm-chair.
Joe sat hunched in
corner.

the


.
,

.
, ,
.




to find, to hear, to see
to make, :
He was seen engaged in a
conversation with a girl.
The children were found
locked in a shed.


.

.




to believe, to consider, to feel, to find, to get,
to have, to hear, to keep, to leave, to like, to make, to see, to
think, to want, to watch ., :
She turned round to pick up
her bag and found it
stolen.

,
,
, .
135

I had a new suit made.


.
I must get the book pub ,
lished.
.
I consider the work finished.
.




- -
(when, till, until, once, as, if, unless, though, as though, even
if, while), ,
:
may be very rude when
roused.
If cornered, he can tell a lie.
He did not usually say a
word unless spoken to.
"Does he know it?" said
Dan, as though surprised.


, .
(, )
,
, (.
)

,
. (,
)
?
,
. (,
)



.
,
,
, with .
, ,
-. :
I lay idly in a big chair with
my eyes closed.
136

She got up, the clothes folded


over her arm.

,
.



.
,
, -
, :
didn't like her dyed hair.
I went toward the lighted
window.


.

.

,
:
She had an affected, absent
way of talking.

,
.

,
, ,
( ),
:
carried the crate to the
parked in the narrow
passage behind the house.
I rode about the countryside on a horse lent me by
a friend.

, .

,
.


, , ,

-, :
Shocked by his words, I
sank into the chair.
went out surrounded by
his students.

,
.
,
.
137





, , ,
, , , : book,
factory, woman, student, dog, snake, flower, tree, bread,
snow, problem, friendship.

(proper names), :
Tom, London, Asia . .,
(common nouns), , ,
.
(countable nouns)

() , ,
: pen, worker, horse; idea, question, effort. (uncountable nouns)
()
, , : sand,
sugar, oil; time, love, progress.


.

:
1) , :
Life was slower in the XIX
century.

XIX
.

2) (, , ),
:
You did such splendid work.
They gave their son good
advice.
They sent for the doctor.


.

.
.

3) , :
My brother is a student.
138

4) (. . 226), :
They elected him president
of the club.

5) (. . 225), :
was appointed the head
of the delegation.

6) , :
found the house without
difficulty.
lived in the country.

.
.

7) , :
likes to read travel
books.
It is my brother's room.
set off on a tour of
inspection.


.
.
.

8) (. . 233), :
His mother, a teacher, was
popular figure in the
town.

, ,
.


: ,
(:
man, husband, boy, son, ox, cock),
,
he ()\ ,
(:
woman, wife, girl, daughter, cow, hen), ,
she
(); (: box,
rose, family, rain, opinion, bird, pride)
,
it ().
, cousin,
friend, teacher . .,
,
.
139


. :
host hostess
actor actress
tiger tigress
a man servant a maid
servant
a torn cat a tabby cat
a he-wolf a she-wolf


ship, boat, ,
, ,
she, :
Sam sailed on the Globe. She .
was a ship any seaman
,
could be proud of.

.
Where is your car?
?
She is under repair.
.
He said, "England is :
finished. She is living in
.
the past."
.


, ,
,
.


-s (-es), [z]
(: days [deiz], dogs
[docjz], birds [baidz]), [s]
(: books [buks], coats [kouts]) [iz]
(: horses ['hD:siz], roses
[rouziz], brushes ['brAjlz]).

: [s > z] [0 ], :
house houses, bath baths, mouth mouths, path
paths.
140


:
1) -es ,
-s, -sh, -ch, - - (: glass glasses,
watch watches, box boxes);
2) -es ,
-,
(: tomato tomatoes, hero heroes);

, -s (:
cuckoo cuckoos, radio radios, piano pianos, photo
photos);
3) -,
,
-ies (: story stories, fly flies);
, -s (:
boy boys, day days);
4) , -f -fe,
-ves (: wife wives, life
lives, knife knives, wolf wolves, shelf shelves, leaf leaves);


(: roof roofs, cliff cliffs, gulf gulfs, proof
proofs, safe safes, cuffcuffs, belief beliefs);

(:
scarf scarfs/scarves, hoof hoofs/hooves, kerchief kerchiefs/
kerchieves).


,
.
:
man men
woman women
child children
tooth teeth
foot feet
mouse mice
goose geese
ox oxen
sheep sheep
swine swine
deer deer

,
,






, ,



141

fish fish
craft craft
means means
works works
headquarters headquar
ters



,
,



, :
analysis analyses
basis bases
crisis crises
criterion criteria
datum data
phenomenon phenomena
medium media


,
: bookcase bookcases, handful handfuls,
forget-me-not forget-me-nots.

,
: father-in-law fathers-in-law, passer-by
passers-by.
, ,
,
.
,
, : advice,
fun, hair, luck, money, news, knowledge, information,
progress, work, weather.
:
Her hair is blonde.
The money was on the table.
His knowledge is great.
The information was interesting.
Their progress is great.
142

.
.
.

.
.


,
-s, : news, politics, phonetics, physics.
Your news is very interesting.


, , ,
.
, ,
(: trousers, pants, shorts, trunks,
pyjamas, braces, scissors, spectacles, glasses, scales, tongs),
(: billiards, cards,
dominoes, draughts) (:
riches, contents, clothes, troops, goods, whereabouts,
bowels, surroundings, savings).
-
,
:
,
, , ,
,
,
:
My father likes beer.
All men like beer.

.
.


,
.
,
family, group, audience, army, crew, team, delegation,
party, crowd, staff, herd, flock, board .

,
-
, :
The audience was enormous.

(
)
.
143

The family was large.


.
The team has won five
games this month.

.

, ,
, :
The audience were enjoying
every minute of it.
My family keep a close eye
on me.
The team are now resting.

(, )
( )
.
( )
.
( )
.

, people
, police cattle ,
,
:
There were few people out in
the street.
The police are looking for
the murderer.
He found the field where the
cattle were grazing.

.
.
,
.



: (the common case)
(the genitive case).

.
-'s -'.
,
(.
. 140).
-'s
,
144

,
, : boy's,, girl's; men's, children's.
-'
,
, : soldiers1, workers'.
, -s,
(Burns' poems,
Dickens' novels) , -s
(Burns's poems, Dickens's novels).

[1Z].
,
,
.
(: Sam's job, Shakespeare's plays),
(: my friend's visit, the teacher's question, the
student's books), (
: the team's victory, the party's appeal, the
government's policy, the family's house)
(: the dog's barking, the lion's
cage). ,
, ,
, ,
.
, (:
few days' trip, a moment's pause, a seven months' pay, a
mile's distance),
(: Europe's future, the island's
outline).

, : the sun's rays,
Nature's sleep.
,

: a pin's head ,
out of harm's way , at one's finger's
end .


.

, :

145

the children's toys


the parents' consent
the girl's story

(?)
(?)
(?)


of
, , :
the father of the boys
the explanation of the
teacher
the windows of the house
the handle of the door


, :
sheep's eyes
cow's milk
soldier's uniform
a girls' school
a mile's distance

,
( )
(,
)

-'s
, :
1) ,
( ),
:
the Prince of Denmark's tragedy
the man we saw yesterday's
son
Tom and Mary's toys

2) of- (
), :
is an old friend of my
father's.

3) shop,
school, house, hospital, church (
), :
146

I was in the grocer's when I


heard the news.
She didn't stay long at her
daughter's.

,

.
.


,
.
:
the ( an).


.

,

,
, ,

.

.
.
. :
gave me a
gave me

flower.
flowers.

.
.

I saw a letter on the table.


I saw letters on the table.

.
.

saw snow in the

fields.

saw admiration in her


eyes.


, ,
, : the
147

street the busy street the long busy street; a cat a


dirty black cat.
an
, , : an
aunt, an old man.

1.
,
. .
, .

. ,
, ,
.
,
,
( ).

,

,
, :
What did he give you?
cigarette.
What did he tell you?
asked me a question.

? .
?
.



, :
gave me cigarettes.
asked me questions.

.
.


,
.
,
,

, :
148

Ann, put the kettle on the


stove, please.
The children have again left
the toys lying around.

,
, .
.

,
, , , ,
0 .
2. ,
,
, .
:
-,

.
1: -
.
,
saw the child in the
garden.
2: -
.
,

saw a child in the garden.
:
When I came in they were
t a Iking about a
film.
didn't like the film.

1 gave him a book to read.


In two days he returned the
book.

, -
.

( , ,
,
).
(, ) .

( ,
).



, :
149

When I came in they were


talking about films.
They didn't like the films.
I gave him books to read.
In two days he returned the
books.

,
-
.

.
.

() .

3. ,
,
, .
.

,

.

, :
drove to the main postoffice.
He went to the nearest tele
phone-box.
He didn't understand the
question Ann asked him.
The windows in his house
have not been washed for
months.


. (

.)

-. (
,
.)
(
) ,
.
( ,
)
.


,
, ,
,
, :
made her a present.
150

He made her a wedding present.


made her an expensive
wedding present.


.
.

, :
, ;
,
.
,

. ,

, .


, :
At the park gate he saw
white cottage.

They own the white cottage


opposite the church.


. (

,
.)

.
( ,

.)



.
:
,

(opposite the church).
4. ,
, ,
, .
:
1) right
(, ; ), wrong ( ),
very ( ), only (), main (),
151

principal (, ), central (), left


(), right (), same ( ), coming
(), following (), present (
, ), former (), latter (),
proper (), previous (), opposite
(), necessary (), usual
(), upper (), lower ()
, :
She felt she had given the
right answer.
Are you sure it's the only
way to do it?
He said he would give me a
job on the usual terms.
I'll see him at the end of the
present week.
At lunch we discussed the
coming elections.

,
.
,

?
,

.

.


.

2) ,
, :
She was the laziest woman in
the village.
You are here the most unre
liable person of all.


.

.

: 1. most +
,
. most
,
, ,
:
is a most amusing man.
It's a most difficult problem.

.
.

2. next last
,
, :

152

Let's get off at the next stop.


turned over the last page.


.

.

next last ,
, ,
:
She went back home last week.
You won't find me here next
.


.
.

3) ,
, :
won at the Wimbledon
tournament.

5. ,
, . :
1) such,


, :
asked where I had heard
such a word.
gave such answers
before.

,
.

.

2) all,

, ,
, :
All children like to play with
toys.
She had strong opinions on
all subjects.


.
.


, all
, :
153

Of all the newspapers I read


this morning only one
carried an interesting artide.
When Tom fell ill his
mother took all the usual
measures.

,
,

.
,
.

3) , :
That morning I found three
letters in the mailbox.


,
, :
I corrected the three mistakes I had made in the
test.

,
.

6.

, :
I have a black and a blue
pen. Which do you
want? Give me the blue
, please.


. ? , .

'blue' 'black'
, 'blue'
()
.
They felt hot and they took
a path leading through the
woods.
As they wanted to get back
home as soon as possible,
they took the path leading
through the woods.
154

,
,
.
no
,
,
.

'leading through the woods'


,
( , ...);
'leading through the woods'
, , ,
.

,
.
:
1) other


, ,
:
Give me the other glove.
wanted to get to the
other side of the river.

.

.


.
,
, , -
, , :
Can I have another apple?
This pen won't write. Give
me another pen, please.
Come back when you're in
another mood.


?
.
- (
) ,
.
,
()
.

,
other,
,
() ,
:
My mother needed me more
than the other members of
the family did.


,
() .
155

I've read two of the books


you gave me. I'll bring the
other books next Monday.

,
.
.


,
,
other, ,
:
I didn't see many friends in
those days as I was busy
with other things.
Do you want to know what
other people think of you?

,

.
,

?

2)
,
,
,
,
:
left the theatre at the end
of the third act.
.
got off at the second stop.
.
,

, ,
,
,
, :
You should speak to him
today. You may not have
second chance.
I ate two pears. pressed
to have a third pear
but I refused.
156


.
.
.
,
( ),
.

. ,
,
,
:
Open the book at page 23.
Number 39 is the house with the
green roof.

23-
.

.

3) of
of +
. of +
,
.
of +
,
:
) a book of interest ( ),
a feeling of relief ( ), a sense of humour
( ), a man of culture and wide reading
( );
) a temperature of 20
( 2(f), a distance of 3 miles (
), a depth of 5 metres ( ),
a fine of 3 dollars ( 3 );
) a group of children ( ),
crowd of people ( ), a team of hockey players
( );
) , , a ring of
gold ( ), a scarf of thick wool (
);
) a cup of tea ( ), a box of
matches ( ), a bottle of milk (
);
) a boy of five ( ),
man of middle age ( );
) a building of enormous size (
), a street of great width (
).
:
She had a glass of orange
juice.

.
157

The course was planned to


run a full academic year of
47 weeks.



47 .

of +
,
:
) ( ) the
foot of the mountain ( ), the collar of the
shirt ( ), the development of science
( ), the shot of a gun ( );
) the name of John ( ), the
city of New York ( -), the position of a
teacher ( ), the colour of amber
( ).
:
Tom looked at the glassy
surface of the lake.
The head of the department
was a man called Coles.
The lamplight made his skin
the colour of red brick.

.

Ko.


.

7.
, ,
, -
:
1) ,
,
.
(. . 267).

, :
The idea that he can be of use
made him happy.
I have the impression that
you don't trust me.
158

,
,
.
,
.

,

, , : fact, feeling,
idea, thought, impression, sense .;
2)
,

, .

.
,

. ,
:
began to climb the stairs.
which were dark and smelt
of cats.

Gray offered him a cigarette


which he refused.

Her husband made her


presents of books she did
not read.


.
.
(

,
,

.)

,
. (

,
,
.)
,
. (

,

,
:.)

3)
,
,
.
(. .
159

), (. .
),
:
It was not a job he liked.
I dislike people who talk
about their private lives.
He knows a woman who
could come once a week to
clean the house.
He picked up the package
which she had dropped.
She wanted to fill the wine
glasses which she had re
ceived as a wedding pre
sent.
He gave a suspicious look to
the box I carried in my
hands.

,
.
()
,

.
()
,

.
( )
,
.
(
) ,
.

( )
,
.

8. ,

(: Tom's school, a boys' school),
,

, .

(. . 146):
1)
( )
?,
, :
Have you seen Bob's wife?

160

?
(
,
.)

The chiefs remarks left me


indifferent.

She is out visiting a neigh


bour's daughter.
Coming closer to the water I
saw children's clothes
lying about on the sand.


. (

,

. )
.
() .
,
() ,
. (
)

2)

?,
, :
They were promised a four
days'rest.
Thirty years ago she taught
at a smart girls' school.

By the clown's grimace on


his face I understood
what he was suffering.


.

()

(
).

,
.

9.
.
:
1) (
)

, ,
,
, :
My friend is a student.
My friends are students.

61825

.
.

161

London is a big city.


Manchester and Birmingham are big cities.

.

.

-
,
, :
is the student who came
to see you this morning.

( ) ,

.


,
,
, :
James Smith is (the) chairman of the committee.


- ,
:
She is the daughter of a
doctor.
She is a daughter of a doc tor.
She is daughter of a doc tor.


. ,
.
.
.
2) (
)
. :
Do you know Tom Brown? He is a student.
Do you know Tom Brown, a student?
,
-
, , :
162

This is Tom Brown, a


student from my class.
My friends, all students,
often go skiing.
Tom Brown, the brightest
student in the class,
couldn't take part in the
contest.
After the concert he ar
ranged an interview with
Mr Crosby, (the) leader of
the orchestra.
Ann, the daughter of the
landlady, cooked break
fast for the boarders.
Ann, a daughter of the
landlady, cooked break
fast for the boarders.
Ann, daughter of a pro
fessor,
worked
as
secretary to the head of
the firm.

,
.
, ,

.
,
,
*
.

-
,
.
, ,

.
,
,
.
, ,

.

-
, .
:
) , , ,
, ,
:
The article was about
Fellini, the film producer.

,
.

) , ,
, ,
, , :
Professor Lee, Colonel Elliot, Doctor Colman, Lord Byron.

, ,
:
The doctor has come, Mother.

, .
163

My brother is a history professor.

) ,
, ,
, : Aunt Bella, Cousin
John;
)
,
) ), ,
: the boy Dick, the painter Turner, the widow
Douglas, the dog Tatty, the planet Mars, the verb 'to be1,
the figure 5, the letter X.
3) , as,

, :
She worked as (a) teacher
for years.


, as ,
:
went to the conference as
the head of the delegation.

4)
: from street to street ( ),
cheek to cheek ( ), from town to town (
), day by day ( ), from East to West (
), hand in hand ( ) .
5) what


, :
What a stupid letter!
What marvellous pictures
you've got!

!
!

6)
one (some, any, each, every, many,
all, none, several, most) + of the first (second, third,
etc., last, rest) + of, :
164

I missed one of the lectures.


I've read several of the
books.
I ate the last of the apples.


.

.
.

7) ,
,
: a (the, this, that, some, any, each, every, what) kind of
(sort of, type of), :
What kind of man is your
father?
bought a new type of TV
set.

?
.

8)
,
,
, : by train
(), by plane (), by boat (),
by bus (), by car (), by sea (),
by land (no ), by post (no ), by phone (no
), by radio (no ), by mistake (no ), by
hand ( ), by chance (), at hand (
), in detail (), in person (), on foot
(), on business (no ), on holiday ( )
. :
I had to go home by taxi.

9)
,
, : in addition to (
), in contrast with ( ), in regard to (
), in reply to ( ), in connection with (
), on account of ( ), in comparison with (no
), in place of (), by way of
() . :
I sent him a letter in connection with the article in the
Times.

, .
165




,

.
.
1. , :
day, night, morning, evening, noon, afternoon, midnight,
dawn, dusk, sunrise, sunset, daytime, nightfall .


, :
The night was warm and
still.
decided to spend the
afternoon with his friends.
The weather was cold on the
day of my arrival.

.
(
)

( ) .

.


,
, :
It was evening when he put
his books aside and went
out for a walk.
It was nearly midnight, but
none of us was in bed yet.

,

.
,

.

,
early, late, high
broad,
() ,
, :
It
It
It
It

was late evening.


was early morning.
was high noon.
was broad day.

166

.
.
.
.

-
,
, :
It was a wet day, and there
were few people in the
street.
It was a fine summer
morning when I set out
for the railway station.

,
.

,
.


,
(,
, ) (-) (
. .), :
We were having tea in my
room on a cold January
afternoon.
I promised to spend an
evening with them.



.

(-)
.

,

yesterday tomorrow,
, :
She was here yesterday
afternoon.
rang me up on Friday
evening.

.
.



in, through, during, : in the morning (evening,
afternoon, daytime, night), all through the morning, during
the night, etc.
at,
by, about, past, before, after, towards, till until, :
at night, at dawn, at sunset, at midnight; by day, by night;
about midnight; past noon; before (after) dawn, before
167

(after) noon, before (after) sunset; towards evening; till


(until) daylight, till (until) evening.
2. , :
spring, summer, autumn, fall, winter.
,
,

,
, .
,
:
The winter was very fine that
year, and we were happy.
The summer went on. He
was still working very
hard.


,
.
,
.

,
, :
In those parts (the) spring
sets in early.
(The) winter is very long
here.


.
.


,
, :
spent the summer at the
seaside. *
My father loves the winter.

.

.


,
, :
It was summer, and all his
friends were on holiday.
168

,
.

,

early late, :
It was late autumn.


,
, :
"It was a terrible summer/'
he said.


through, during for,
:
Are you going to stay here
for the winter?

in, till, until, before after


, , :
In (the) autumn my son is
going to school.

3. breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner


supper.
, :
Lunch is ready.
Dinner is over.
came when we were
having breakfast.
"Stay to tea," he said.
We'll talk about it before
(after) dinner.
We kept silent at tea.

() .
.
, .
,
.

() .
.

,

, :
169

He had a light breakfast.


You can get a good dinner
here.

.

.

,
, :
was greedily eating the
breakfast his mother had
given him.


,
.

4. bed, school, hospital, prison,


church, college, jail, market .

, ,
.
,
,
. , bed , school
, hospital, prison
. .
. :
There was a bed and a small
table in the room.
I knew he was badly ill, so I
softly drew the chair to
the bed and sat down.
He went to bed early.
She is a teacher at a secon
dary school.
My wife has gone to the
school to speak to the
teacher about our son.
My son went to school at the
age of 7.
170


( )
.
,
.

(
) .
.

()
().
(
),

.

() 7
.

Is Tom back from school?

(
)?

They had a hospital in the


town during the war.


, (
)
10
, (,
)

. ()

At 10 o'clock the doctor


went to the hospital.
My mother is in hospital.

5.
,

,
.
, the corner, the window(s), the table, the door,
the wall, the stairs, the steps, the street, the house(s), the
trees, the leaves, the flowers, the birds . :
I looked up from the gate
and saw my mother
waving from the window.
It was a cold day. The trees
swayed in the wind. The
gulls flew over the water.


,
.
.

.
.


,
, :
, , ;
(); , , .
I couldn't find my seat and
asked the attendant to
help me.
I placed my bag on the
counter and the saleswom
an put all my purchases
into it.



.

,

.

6.
,
171

,
, : to go to the forest (to
the fields, to the country); to go for a walk in the forest (in the
fields, in the country); to come back from the forest (from the
fields, from the country); to go to the cinema (to the pictures,
to the theatre); to be at the cinema (at the theatre); to play
the piano (the violin, the guitar).
,
,
, : to play hockey, to play ball, to play golf, to
play cards, to play dominoes.

1. ,
, ,
,
,
-
. :
.
.


, - ,
,
:
The tractor has replaced the
horse in the fields.
The violet is a lovely flower.
The philosopher is a scientist
who tries to explain the
world.


.

.
,
.



,
, :
Tractors have
horses in the
172

replaced
fields.

Violets are lovely flowers.


Philosophers are scientists
who try to explain the
world.


.
,

.



,

, :
The book is a source of
learning.
A book is a source of learn
ing.

(,

) .
(,
) .

:
A book makes a good pres
ent.
The telephone was invented
by Bell.

(,
)
.
(,
)
.

man woman
,
, :
Man does not live by bread
alone.
No man born of woman can
live in such conditions.

He
.
,
,

.

2.

,
, : the proletariat (), the
peasantry (), the bourgeoisie (),
the aristocracy (), the nobility (173

), the intelligentsia (), the public (


), the clergy () .
3.

, :
The noun may have different
functions in the sentence.
Not long ago the atom was
considered to be the
smallest particle of an
element.



.


.

4.

, )
)
.
, ,
:
The Tories will not lift a
finger to help the workers.
"I can't understand why the
Americans are supplying
the tribes with such
things," he said. "


,
.
,


, .


,
,

. :
The Americans have entered
a new period of arms
race.
Do you know why Ameri
cans like chewing gum?

174

(
)

.
,
( ,

)
?

There was an. American


staying at the hotel.
The Americans who lived in
the villa must have been
very rich people.

()
.
,
, ,
,
.

5.

:
1) ,
, : the rich (,
), the poor (, ), the young (,
), the blind (, ), the old (,
), the wounded (), the unemployed (
) .
She spent a great part of her
life looking after the sick.
In 1981 the number of the
unemployed reached 2.5
mln in Great Britain.


,
.
1981

2,5 .
.

.
, ,
- (man,
woman, person, people)
, :
The sick was taken to
hospital.
There was unemployed
lying on the grass.

.
-
.

2)
, : the Swiss (), the British
(), the French (), the Chinese
() .
The Swiss haven't had a war
in over a hundred and
fifty years.
The French are an easy
going nation.



.

.
175

.
, ,
- (man,
woman, person, people)
, :
Her sister Rose is married to a
Frenchman.
He spent most of his time with
the French people he had met
on the ship.


.

,

.

3) , :
the unknown (), the ordinary (), the
average (), the unusual ().
Do you believe in the super
natural?
It was the unknown that
excited him.


?

.

,


,
() (),
, :
) the sun, the moon, the earth, the world, the globe, the
universe (), the Milky Way ( ), the
ground, the cosmos, the atmosphere;
) the present, the past, the future, the singular, the
plural, the South, the North, the East, the West, the
equator, the horizon, the post, the press, the telegraph, the
telephone, the radio, (the) television (: TV).
The moon was high up in the
sky.
Presently the sun rose over
the horizon.
**The telephone in this
town," he said, "is as
private as the radio."

176


.

.

,

, .

,

,
, ,
:
said he wanted to see
better world.
Everyone believed that he
had a brilliant future before him.

, ,
.
, .


()

(, idea, method, suggestion),


.
,
,
,
, :
a decision
a work
an experience

a grammar
a society,

decision
work
experience

grammar ()
society

, ,
.
, , : anger,
beauty, curiosity, freedom, happiness, love, modesty, pride,
respect, strength, time, violence.

,
- , ,
:
177

Indifference and pride look


very much alike.
There was despair in her
eyes.



.
.

,

(
?, ?, ?) (
?), :
An odd feeling of curiosity
made him look over the
fence.
She turned her eyes away
with a sense of guilt.
The old man looked at me
with interest.
Ann examined everything
with great attention.



.

.

.

.


,
, :
They were surprised by the
abruptness of his answer.
He told us of the respect
people always treated his
father with.


.

,

.


:
1) ,
(great respect, sufficient ability, perfect
confidence, complete happiness, profound satisfaction,
immense joy . .),
(modern music, ancient sculpture, eternal beauty,
contemporary literature),
(Greek architecture,
French poetry, Moscow time, world peace),
(real fear, genuine sorrow, false
sympathy),
178

(bourgeois
culture), :
I have perfect confidence in
him.
She has great experience in
this work.
I didn't think the problem
had real importance.
They talked about modern
poetry.
It's three o'clock by Moscow
time.
I'm interested in ancient
philosophy.

sociology,

proletarian

.

.
,
.

.
3
.

.

2) ,
certain peculiar,

,
,
, :
There was a peculiar ten
derness in her letter.
Didn't you feel a certain
impatience?
He had a patience that
amazed his friends.
A dull anger rose in his
chest.
She recognized a pleasant
irony in his voice.

-
.

?
,

.

.

.


:
weather, money, news, luck, fun, nature, space, health,
progress, advice, permission, information, concern, work
(), nonsense, :
I'm not sure if it is good
news.
It's man's work.

, .
.
179

I was given permission to


begin the experiment.
I asked Father for advice.


.
.



,
,
,
, :
These sleeping pills should
be dissolved in water.
A lot of European countries
buy oil from Russia.
I liked thick coffee with
sugar and tinned milk.



.


.


.


,
,
, :
The bread on his plate
looked grey and stale.
Father began to slice the hot
meat.
They walked through the
slush and mud.


.

, (
)

. ( )

,
,
. ,
:
1) , :
There was a beautiful
display of cottons in the
shop window.
180

2) , :
If you want to please the
boy, buy him an ice.
want a salad and two
coffees.



, (
) .

.

3) , :
There was a full glass of
orange juice in front of
him.
I bought a tin of sardines.



.
()
.




,
.

1. ,
:
did not see Charles for
several weeks.
I've had a letter from dear
Emily.


.

.


Mother, Father, Aunt, Uncle, Grandmother,
Grandfather, Baby, Nurse, Cook,
, :
Mother is lying down and
Aunt is with her," my
sister said.

,
,
.

2.
, ,
, :
181

He didn't even know the


Browns had a daughter.

,
.


,
, :
Is he the Jim who called you
up this morning?

,
?


-, ,
..., :
My landlady knocked at the
door and said: "A Mr
Parker wants you on the
telephone."


: Ka-
.

1.
, : Europe, Asia, South America, Northern
Europe, Central Africa, South-East Asia.
2.
, : the Arctic, the
'Antarctic.
3. , , , ,
, , ,
, : France,
Brazil, China, California, Kashmir, Oslo, Rome, Brighton,
Tartu, Grasmere (), Appledore (); ancient
Greece, old England.
:
) the USA, the Argentine/Argentina, the Netherlands
(the Low Countries), the Kameroon, the Senegal, (the)
Congo, (the) Lebanon;
) the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Ruhr, the Tyrol, the
Transvaal, the Riviera, the Saar;
) the Hague.
4. , , , ,

, : the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the
182

Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, the North Sea; the Magellan
Strait, the Bering Strait, the Kattegat, the Bosporus; the
English Channel, the Suez Canal, the Panama Canal; the
Nile, the Mississippi; the Baikal, the Ontario (: Lake
Baikal, Lake Ontario).
5.
, : Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay.
6.
, ,
: Indo-China, Kamchatka, Labrador, : the
Balkan Peninsula, the Kola Peninsula.
7.
, : the Sahara, the Gobi.
8.
, : the
Rocky Mountains, the Alps, the Pamirs; the Philippines, the
Azores, the Bermudas.

, : Elbrus, Everest,
Mont Blanc; Cuba, Cyprus, Madagascar.
,
,
,
, :
In his novels Walter Scott
described the England of
the Middle Ages.


, , .


,
, .

.
1.
, ,
, ,
: Oxford Street, Pall Mall, Piccadilly, Fleet Street,
Whitehall, : the Strand, the High Street, the Rue de
Rivoli ( ), the Via Manzoni ( ) . .
183

2.
, ,
,
, : Hyde Park, Regent's Park, Central
Park; Trafalgar Square, Russel Square, Piccadilly Circus,
HO: the Botanical Gardens, the Snowdonia National Park,
the Gorki Park ( ), the Tiergarten ( ).
3.
, : London University, Cambridge University,
Harward University, Moscow University, : the Univer
sity of London, the University of Moscow.
4.
, : London
Airport, Moscow Airport, Victoria Station.
5. , , ,
, ,
, : the
Covent Garden ( ), the Bolshoi Theatre;
the British Museum; the Tate (Gallery), the Tretiakov
Gallery; the Festival Hall, the Albert Hall, the Tchaikovsky
Hall; the Odeon (cinema), the Empire (cinema); the Rotary
Club, the National Liberal Club; the Ambassador Hotel,
the Savoy.
6.
, : the Titanic, the
Sedov.
7.
, : The Times, The
Manchester Guardian, The Lancet.
8.
, , :
Scotland Yard, Westminster Abbey, : the Old Bailey, the
Tower, the Royal Exchange.
9. ,
,
, : the Lake District, the Yorkshire
Forests, the Virgin Lands.
10.
, : March, June; Monday, Friday.
11. ,
184

, : the Liberal Party, the


Church, the London City Council, the Russian Army, :
Parliament ( ), (the) Congress ( ),
NATO.
12. ,
language, : English,
Spanish, Japanese, : the Italian language, the French
language.

,
,
, :
I wanted to buy a book.
I wanted to buy an easy
English book.

.
.


:
1) so,
as too, ,
:
I've never seen so happy
man.
It was too good a chance to
miss it.


.
xo,
.

2) rather
quite,
, , :
He's
He's
He's
He's

rather a hard man.


quite a hard man.
a rather hard man.
a quite hard man.

()
.

3) such
what,
, :
185

I've never heard such a (silly)


story.
What a (funny) story!

() .
() !

4) both
all, , :
She was ill all the week.
.
Both the boys were late.
.
5) half twice,
, :
Half the men were too tired
to continue the work.
It took us half an hour to get
there.
paid twice the price for it.
They used to meet twice
week.


,
.
,
.

.

.


,
, : large, blue,
simple, delightful, progressive.
:
1) , :
It was early spring.

2) (. .
), :
The weather was cold yet.

3) ,
:
She lay motionless with her
head towards the wall.
186

,

.

4) (. . 226), :
I thought him very clever.

5) (. . 225), :
The door was closed tight.


, ,
.


: (the positive
degree), (the comparative degree)
(the superlative degree).

, : slow, straight, productive,
curious.

-
-est, most.
:
1) , : new
newer newest; quick quicker quickest;
2) ,
-, -ow, - -1, : clever cleverer cleverest;
narrow narrower narrowest; happy happier hap
piest; simple simpler simplest;
3)
, : polite politer politest.

:
1) , -,
, - -i, : heavy
heavier heaviest;
2) , -,
, , : gay
gayer gayest;
3)
, : big bigger biggest;
fat fatter fattest;

187

4) , -,
- -st, : fine finer finest.


,
, : careful more careful most careful;
personal more personal most personal; tired more
tired most tired; afraid more afraid most afraid.

:
good better best;
bad worse worst;
far farther farthest ( );
far further furthest ( );
late later latest ( );
late latter last ( );
old older oldest ( );
old elder eldest ( ;
).

, ,
, :
My father is much older
than my mother.
found the work easier
than he had expected.
I'm now experienced
than two years ago.


.
, ,
.
,
.


,
, :
Mine is the smallest room in
the flat.
Pete is the best student of us
all.

.

.

,
as... as, :
It was as cold as in winter
there.
188

, .

,
not so... as not as... as,
:
The sun is now not so (as)
hot as in the afternoon.


, .

less...
than, :
I am less musical than my
sister.

,
.

( )
,
the -... the -, more...
as... -, :
The longer I stay here the
better I like it.
became more careful as
he grew older.


,
.

.



, .

:
1)
, :
Anyone intelligent can do it.
1*11 tell you something wonderful.


.
-
.

2) ,
: court martial (- ), attorney
general ( ), the discussion proper
( );
3)
absent (), present (),
189

concerned () involved (),


:
The men present were all his
friends.


,
, :
They were the two boys
easiest to teach.
They have a garden larger
than yours.

,

.
.

,
,
:
1
2
,

:
a brilliant (1) young (4) man
a small (2) round (3) table
a large (2) green (5) Chinese
(6) carpet
a famous (1) German (6)
medical (8) school
a tall (2) young (4) London
(6) policeman

6
7
8
9

, , .


, . .

.
:
190

1) , : the poor
, ; the dead ; the old ,
.

.
The blind are taught trades
in special schools.


,

- .
:
The young are usually intolerant.
The young men are

fishing.

The young man phoned you


again this morning.

( )
.
(
) .
()

.

2) , ,

, :
The good in him overweighs
the bad.

,
.



, ,

,
.
,

.


:
191

1
2
3

I
you
he, she, it

we
you
they

I ()
.
you , .
he ()
(
).
she ()
( ,
. . 140).
it (, , )
,
.
(. . 113, 193194).
we .
they ()
, ,
.
:

, ;
(,
),
.

1
2
3

I
you
he
she
it

me
you
him
her
it

1
2
3

we
you
they

us
you
them

192

:
Does he know what I want? , ?
Tell him to call me up right
away.
.
it
, it
,
, :
I looked at the window. It
was closed.
gave me good advice and
I followed it.
got down the horse and
tied it to the rail.

.
.
, .
.

it ,
-
, :
I heard a knock at the door.
I thought it was my wife.
gave me a book to read.
It was a detective story.

.
,
.
. .

it
,
, :
tried to break the lock. It
was not easy.
The music had stopped. He
didn't notice it.

. .
.
.

it
,
, ,
, :
It is freezing.
It is very cold in the room.
It is three o'clock.
71825

.
.
.
193

It's two miles to the station.


It's 20 above zero.

.
20 .

it
,
,
(. .
84, 113, 193194, 254), :
It is useless to wait for them
any longer.
It is a pleasure to see you
again.
It upset me not to find them
at home.
It won't be easy finding our
way home.
It's no use asking him about
it.
It's clear that he's made a
mistake.


.

.
,
.

.

.
,
.

it
(. . 115), :
I find it difficult to explain
anything to him.

,
-.

it
(it is/was... who that),

, :
It was my brother who was
offered the job.
It was the job that my
brother was offered.

.
.

194


1
2
3

your
his, her, its

.
our
your
their


, :
This is my brother Tom, and
that is his wife Betty with
their children.

,
.

,
, ,

, :
Do you know your lesson
today?
There were a lot of people
coming back from their
work.


?

,
.


, .
,
,
, :
The man put his hand into
his pocket and took out
his wallet.
My wife never wears her
spectacles when she is not
working.



.

,
.


,
,
:
my mine
our ours
his his
your yours
her hers
their theirs
its its
195

:
"I've got some roses in my
garden, too." "I expect
yours are more beautiful
than mine."


. ,

.

1
2
3

myself
yourself
himself, herself, itself

ourselves
yourselves
themselves


: one oneself.
, ,
, ,
, :
She washed herself.
They talked about them
selves.
Can one be angry with
oneself?

(
).

.

?



.
-
.
,
, , .
You yourself told us the
story.
The parting itself was short
but it made her ill with
grief.
196


.

,
.


this,
that, such same.
this that : this
man these men; that house those houses.
this these ,
, a that those
, .
Take this apple. It'^ bigger.
Have you seen these pota
toes?
Can you see that village?
Look at those people. Do
you know what they're
looking for?

.
.
?

?

. ,
?

: 1. , ,
, . .,
,
:
Someone suggested going to the
cinema but I didn't like the
idea.
I read the books when I was a
child.

-
,
.
.

2. this morning, this evening, this summer


, , . that
morning, that day, that winter , ,
.

such , ,
.

;
, :
I've never seen such a film
before.
I know such people.


.
.
197

They've made such great


progress.

same ,
, .
,
, :
This summer we'll go to the
same place as last year.


,
, .


:
1) some, any, no
some (-, - ,
)
, :
I can buy you some ice- cream.
.
I've got some money.
.
I found some English books
on the shelf.
.
Some of the guests have arrived.
.
, some
.
some any,
:
Have you got any money?
I didn't find any English
books on the shelf.
Have any of the guests
arrived?

-
?
.
-
?

,

, some,
, :
198

Can I give you some more


tea?
I could not answer some of
his questions.

(-
) ?

.

any, ,

, :
"Which newspaper do you
want?" "Any will do."

?
.


(-, -, -) ,
:
There is no milk in the jug.
has no friends.
There are no new words in
the text.

.
()
.
() .

. ,
-
.

2) , some-, someone anyone no one; somebody anybody


nobody; something anything nothing.

,
,
some, any no.
, -one
-body,
, :
There is someone (somebody)
in the office.
Is there anyone (anybody) at
. home?
I saw nobody (didn't see
anybody) in the garden.

- .
- ?
.
199

Anyone
(anybody)
can
understand that you are
wrong.

() ,
.

, -one
-body, ,
:
Let's use someone's (somebody's) dictionary.

, -thing,


, :
There is something wrong
with him.
Did you learn anything from
him?
said nothing (didn't say
anything).
can do anything for you.

- .
- ?
.

.

,
, any-,
, not ( no, never)
.
, -thing, -body
-one, ,
, :
Nobody knows anything
about it.
Nothing is ever right with
my mother.
No one could answer any of
my questions.


.
.
( )

.

3) one
one
,
.
200

,
(ones) (one's).
:
One no longer makes one's
life when one is old.
I prefer red roses to white
ones.


,
.

.

4)

, .

, :
None of us knows Spanish.
None of them really know
how ill she is.
I wanted some more coffee
but none was left.

( )

.

,
.
,
.

5) all
all
.

, :
All is well that ends well.
All agree that the meeting
should be held tomorrow.
All the furniture was packed.
All the books were packed.

,
.
,

.

.

.

all
:
201

AD the children are in bed


The children are all in bed
All of them are in bed.
They are all in bed.

6) every
every ,
,
, :
remembered every word
of her letter.
After the gale every flower in
the garden was broken.


.

( )
.

7) , everyeveryone everybody everything



.
Everyone everybody
,
:
Everyone (everybody) wants
to have a word with him.
He is sure of everyone's con
sent.

(,
)
.
,
().

Everything

, :
No wonder everything goes
wrong in this house.

He ,
, ,
.

8) each
each
, :
202

I told them what each was


to do.
He gave each boy a present.

,
.

(
).

. all, every each,


,
, , .
: all
; every
; each .
:
All (the) books had supercovers.
Every book had a supercover.

Each book had a supercover in a


different colour.


. (
.)

. (
,


.)

. (
,

.)

9) other
other (, )
.
other, ,
(others),
(other's, others'); other,
, , :
That may be your opinion
but the others think dif
ferently.
One of his daughters is
married to a teacher. The
other's husband is a doc
tor.
I have no other friends but
you.


,
.

,
.
,
.
203

other
. . 155156.
10) either neither
either , ;
neither ; , .
"Which of the two books
?
would you like to take?"
( ).
"Either. I don't care."
.
The houses on either side of (
)
the street were tall and

big.
.
I have travelled by both ,

trains and neither train
-.
has a restaurant car.
11) both
both . both

( all):
Both the children are mine.
The children are both mine.

Both of them are mine.


They are both mine.

12) many much


many
, a much , :
hasn't many friends now.
I haven't much time left.
Do you know many people
in London?
Did you have much rain on
your holidays?
204


.

.

?

?

,
many much
.

.
, , : a lot
of /lots of (
), plenty of (
), a large (great, small)
number of ( ) .,
:
She knows a lot of girls
who go dancing every
Saturday.
I have a lot of work to do.
He has done a great deal of
research.
A large number of people
gathered
round
the
smashed car.


,

.
.

.

.

many much
: ) )
(very, so, too, how, as),
:
a) Many think that the
situation will im
prove.
Much of what he says is
true.

,

.
,
, .

) There are too many


mistakes in your exer
cises.
You have so much fruit
in your garden.


.

.

Many much
: many/much more most.
205

He made more progress than


I had expected.
Most people hold the same
opinion as you do.


, .


, .

13) few little


few little
, . Few
; little
, :
has few friends. is
very lonely.
I have little time left. I'm
afraid I'll be late.

.
.
.
, .

a few a little ,
, :
I bought a few apples.
I bought a little coffee.

(
) .
(
) .

:
I know little about painting.
I know a little about
painting.

.
-
.

There are few flowers in my


garden.
There are a few flowers in
my garden.

(
) .

( )
.

Few little
: few fewer fewest; little less least.
There were fewer people
today than yesterday.
Harry made the fewest
mistakes.
206


, .

.

He earned less money this


month.
George gives me the least
trouble.


.

.

,
,
.

( ).

all/eveiy
most

(none, not...any)


each other ( ) one
another ( ) , -
, :
They disliked each other.
They had come to under
stand one another.


.


( ).


.
They forgot each other's
names.


.
207



who (whom), whose, what, which, how many how much. Bee

.
who ()
, :
Who is coming with me?
Who are the people over
there?

?
?

Who whom,
;
who
, :
Who did you see there?
Who are you thinking of?
(Of whom are you think
ing?)

?
?

whose ()
, :
Whose is it?

what
(),
, (, -,
-, -), :
What do you mean?
What are you going to ask
him about?
What languages do you
know?

?

?
?

.
:
"Who is your teacher?" "Mr
Smith."
"What is your father?" "
doctor."

208

(
)? - .
( )? .

which ()

, :
Which of your friends is
coming tonight?
Which pen does the cap
belong to?

()
?

()?

:
What TV programmes do
you usually watch? Which
of them are your favou
rite ones?



? (
)
?

how many ()
, how much (
) , :
How many films have you
seen this month?
How much snow is there in
the fields?


?
?



:
. who
(whom), whose, what, which, how many, how much that,
:
Do you know who lives in
the house over there?
The man who I spoke to is
my neighbour.
The news that he brought
upset us all.
Life in the country is not
what it used to be.

,
?
,
, .
,
, .

,
.
209


.
:
one, two, three, ten, twelve, fifteen, twenty-four, thirty-five,
ninety-seven, a hundred, one hundred and eight, one
hundred and sixteen, a thousand, four thousand nine
hundred and eleven . .
, ,
,
-th, :first,second, third, fourth,
tenth, eleventh, twentieth, twenty-fifth, one hundredth,
three hundred and forty-eighth . .
. .
154, 156.


.
. (here, well,
why), -1
(slowly, happily),
(nowhere, downstairs, afterwards),
(at first, all of a sudden, the day
after tomorrow).

, :
1) now, then, yesterday, soon,
recently . .;
2) often, sometimes, ever,
constantly . .;
3) here, everywhere,
below, inside, abroad . .;
4) badly, quickly,
suddenly, deeply, willingly, dryly . .


-1, : slow slowly, careful carefully.
,

.
, :
210

It was early spring.


He woke up early.

.
.

He drew a straight line.


went straight home.

.
.

5) very, highly, perfectly, comple


tely, much, too, so, little, enough . ., :
is very tired.
Did he travel much?

.
?

6) therefore, conse
quently, as a result . .;
7) , , theoretical
ly, personally, economically, technically, financially . .,
:
Economically, the plan is no
good.

,
.

8) when, where, how


why, ,
:
Why didn't he tell you about
it?


,
, :
I don't know where he livs.

, .

9) certainly, of course, surely,


really, indeed, perhaps, possibly, evidently .;
10) ,
(never, nowhere),
,
(hardly, barely, scarcely, seldom, rarely), :
The book was never found.


.
211

The book was nowhere to


find.
I hardly (barely, scarcely)
know him.
We seldom (rarely) go to the
cinema.


.
.
.

,
,
, ,
:
late

near

lately - nearly

came late.
has been busy lately.

hard
()
hardly

.

.

She lives near the school.


.
The work is nearly finished. .
works hard.
can hardly walk.

()
.
.

still yet,
.
still
, ,
,
:
It is still raining.
Are your children still at
school? Yes, they are.

() .
?
.

yet
, ,
, :
212

He doesn't know about the .


letter yet.
Have you seen the film
yet? No, I haven't.
? .

: ,
,
, , :
ate slowly.
It was a remarkably good
show.
She drives too quickly.

.

.

.


,
,
more most,
: quickly more quickly most quickly; carefully
more carefully most carefully.

- -est, :
soon sooner soonest; early earlier earliest.
well, badly, far, near, late
,
, (. . 188).
, , ,
.

,
( )
, :
looked at the picture.
walked with difficulty.
lay down on the grass.
stopped at the door of
the house.

.
.
.
.


(in, for, under), (inside,
213

throughout), (thanks to, because of, on


account of, in accordance with).

, : from , ; under ;
during ; instead of.
(of, by, for, with .)
, :
He's brought a letter for
you.
He's been here for two
weeks.
Did they pay you for the
work?
They went out for a walk.
There is a man waiting for
you.


.

.

?
.
-
.

:
1) , :
The picture is on the desk.
The picture is under the
desk.
The picture is over the desk.
The picture is in the desk.

.

.

.
.

2) , , :
The book belongs to me.
My decision depends on you.
He is proud of his son.
He looked after his old
mother.

.

.
.

.

3) , ,
:
Who spoke at the meeting?
is on holiday now.
214


?
.

He woke up at 8 o'clock.
We discussed everything in
detail.

8 .
.


,
,
, .
:
1) , :
What are you looking at?
What article did you talk to
him about?

?

?

2) ,
:
I know who he is looking
for.
Do you know what question
they are going to begin
with?

, .
,
?

3) , :
was taken good of.
The repairman was sent for.

.
.

4) ,
:
There is nothing to worry
about.
hated to be made fun of.

.
,
.

,
, ,
.

(and, but, after, as, while, if .),
(in case, as soon as, as if .), 215

(both... and, either... or, not only... but


also .).
,
(and,
but, or, therefore, moreover, for, yet .)
(that, if, as, though, when, since .).
,
,
, :
Her hair was dark and long.
He was tired but he didn't
want to go to bed yet.


.
,
.


,
, :
When she read the letter, she
locked it in her desk.
He knew that I should go
with him if he asked me
to.

,

.
,
,
.





, ,
(the sentence).

.
,
. :
fire
Fire!
silence
Silence!

!
,
!

.

(
, ,
).

, ,
(syntactic
functions). ,
,

(subject) (predicate).
,
, ,
,
217

, ,
:
The train is late.
The girl is crying.
The weather will change.

.
.
.


(principal functions). ,
,

. , ,

(, , , ),

() (the
subject phrase),
() (the predicate
phrase).
,
, (two-member
sentences). , ,
. ,
,
(one-member sentences).
. :
1) ,
, :
Open the window.
Tell me the truth.

.
.

2) -,
,
, :
What a
film!
What fine weather!
Great!
How wonderful!

!
!
!
!

3) -, ,
:
218

Why not send him a telegram?


What about inviting him to
dinner?


?

?

4) - -
, :
Yes.

No.

5) , :
Hello!
!
Good-bye.
.
,
,
, :
The water is cold.
The sun is shining.

.
.

,
,
(secondary syntactic functions)
, , ,
, :
My watch is five minutes
slow.
I often watch TV in the
evening.


.
.


,
(homogeneous
parts). ,
(. . 216). ,
, ,
, , :

219

The hotel was expensive but


dirty.
is kind, friendly and
willing to help.

,
.
,
.


,
, :
A pretty young woman came
up to me.

,
,
,
,

.

.
(subject)

, ,
.
:
1) , :
The stranger came early in
February.
Hospitality was a passion
with him.


.

.

2) (, ,
, ), :
can't do it.
This is my wife .
Someone was singing an
Italian tune.
Nobody can help him under
the circumstances.
220

.
.
- .

.

Little was known about his


life then.
What depends on them?


.
?

3) , :
fulfil this condition was
out of my power.

4) , :
Watching TV has become
his favourite pastime.

5) , :
The English are great lovers
oftea.

(predicate)

, ,
,
, . .

.

,
,
.
,

.

:
1) (simple verbal
predicates),
( - ,
), :
His words frightened me.
I am working tonight.

.

.
221

He has never been taken for


an Englishman.
If it had rained I would not
have come.

.
,
.


,
,
, : to take , to pay
attention, to go mad, to have breakfast, to enjoy oneself, to
amuse oneself . .
He asked me if I had breakfast.
She was amusing herself at
our expense.

,
.

.

2) (compound verbal
predicates),
(, ). ,
, ,

,
, .

:
) ,
,
:
You can learn a lot from
him.
May I have a taxi called?
You should have gone to the
concert.
must have regretted
doing it.

.

?

.
, ,
.

) , - ,
to seem to appear
, :
222

He seems to know all about


it.
For a moment she appeared
to be hesitating.

,
.
- ,
, .

) , ,
to happen, to turn out, to
chance, to prove , :
They happened to meet at
their friends' house.
turned out to have no
feeling for his nephew.

,

.
,
.

) ,
to be out (around, in . .), to stand, to
sit, to lie, to come, to go ,
:
So I sat staring at the book.
They've gone
fishing.
lay tied up on the floor.

,
.
.

.

3) (compound nominal
predicates), - (linkverb) ,
,
.
(be, become, look, seem, turn, get,
grow .)

, ,
(
), :
My brother is a student.
is very bright. But he
works very hard and
often gets tired.

.
.

.
223

(predicative)


.

:
1) , :
Fanny was the daughter of
village doctor.

2) , :
It was turning dark.

(
).

3) , :
Dave looked hurt.

4) , :
My first thought was to ask
him for support.

5) , :
My job was getting it all
done in time.

,

.

(a second action)

, ,
, ,
. -

,
(and), :
sat at his desk writing.

224


-,
.
,
-,
, :
woke up to see it was
already high noon.

,

.

,
-,
, :
walked down the path
humming a tune.

, (...
).

,
-,

, :
Having locked his office he
started for home.

(
...),
.

(subjective predicative)

, ,
,
(subject) .

, to see, to hear, to ask, to find, to know, to make, to
order, to tell, to think, to watch .,
(. . 117119).
The train was heard whistling.

, .


, , (
),
81825

225

, , , . .
. ,
, ,
'the train', a 'the train... whistling' ,
:
The train + whistling

L-T'
was heard
,
(the train)
(whistling),
(complex subject).
:
1) , :
was seen to carry a big
crate.

, .

2) , :
She was heard shouting
something to the children.

,
- .

3) , :
The box was found empty.

4) , :
Johnson was appointed secretary of the committee.
His friend was regarded as
young promising writer.

.

.

(objective predicative)

, ,
,
(object) .
, to see, to hear,
to ask, to find, to know, to make, to order, to tell, to think, to
226

watch ., (. . 119
123).
I heard him cry out.

,
.


, , (
),
, , , . . .
,
, ,
'him', a 'him cry out' ,
:
him
+
I heard
cry out
,
(him)
(cry out),
(complex object).
:
1) , :
They heard him mention it.
wanted them to believe
him.

,
.
, .

2) , :
I saw him walking across the
field.

,
.

3) , :
found the box empty.

4) , :
They appointed Johnson secretary of the committee.


.
227

We regarded his friend as


promising young writer.

5) , :
had his car fixed.
had his hair cut.


.
(
).

,

. ,
.
-,

. :

was heard to mention it.
The box was found empty.


They heard him mention it.
He found the box empty.

(object)


. ,
-.
:
1) , :
I saw the man on the steps
of his house.

2) , :
I heard him on the radio.
changed everything in the
house.
We didn't find anyone there.
found it difficult to cope
with the task.

.
.
.
.

3) , :
228

She agreed to stay at home.


It started to rain.
I'm sorry to disturb you.
It was foolish to speak like
that.


.
.
.
.

4) , :
I usually avoid asking him
questions.
She was busy packing
things.

.
.

: (direct),
, (indirect), (preposi
tional).


,
.
()
,
.
, (
?),
,
:
They offered him a new job.
My father sent John a telegram.


.
.


, :
waited for Nora a long
time.
That doesn't depend on me,
you know.
was afraid of dogs.
is very keen on collecting
stamps.

.
,
.
.
.
229

* (adverbial Modifiers)

, ,
.
,
,
, ,
,
( ?, ?,
?, ?, ?, ? . .),

, , , ,
, . .
,
, ,
, ,
.

:
1) , :
found himself in a lonely
street.
The
procession
moved
slowly towards the embankment.
He'll be here tomorrow.


.

.
.

2) , :
I'll phone you on Sunday.
seldom spoke with such
frankness.


.

.

3) , :
She was crying bitterly.
arrived by taxi.
She opened the drawer with
difficulty.

.
.

.

4) , :
230

He walked very fast.

is so happy.

5) , :
It is very romantic to take
walk by moonlight.
I don't feel like going out in
this weather.

.

-

6) , :
I did my best to prevent her
from making this mistake.

,

.

7) , :
Our flight was delayed
owing to the storm.


- .

8) , :
She sat still like a statue.
was as ugly as a monkey.

.
,
.

9) , :
was clever enough to un
derstand it.
She was too tired to go for a
walk.

,
.
,
.

10) , :
Whatever the reason, she
should have come.
Though tired, he agreed to
accompany us.


,
.
,

.
231

11) , :
look at her you wouldn't
believe she was a famous
actress.
said he would do it if
necessary.

,
,
.
,
.

12) , :
had no choice but to
obey the orders.


,
.

(attribute)

,
.
:
1) , :
A large cat jumped down
from the big armchair.

2) , :
Give me another cup of tea,
please.
There is little milk in the jug.
gave each child an apple.

,
.
.

.

3) , :
The garden was surrounded
by a low stone wall.

4) ,
:
They are all in Jane's room.

5) , :
It was a question of great
importance.
232

6) (
), :
The clouds were lit by the
setting sun.
She admired his way of
doing things.


.
,
.

7) , :
was not a man to rely
upon.
It was a pleasure to listen to
him.

,

.

.

8) , :
We saw the lighted windows
of the cottage.

,
, ,
.
,
, .
,
,
.
.
,
, :
I could hear the voices of
the kids waiting for the
school bell to ring.
They behaved like school
boys, afraid of the
teacher.

,

.

,
.

| (apportion)

, ,
, ,
,
, :
233

Ann, the daughter of the


landlady, helped us to
pack.
There I met Mr Nesfield,
film producer.
The Glory, a British steamship, was to arrive on
Monday morning.

, ,

.

- ,
.

.

(parenthetic words and phrases)

,
,
.

, :
The day was rather rainy,
but fortunately it was not
cold.
tell the truth, I didn't like
her at first.
It isn't quite correct, strictly
speaking.


, , , .
,
.
, .



,
. ,
,
:
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, , ,
(. . 224).


,
,
234

.

,
.
:
1. (complex subject)

, . .
(.
. 117, 224).
, ,
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
, :
Bob was made the leader of
the team.
The door was painted green.
Everybody was found in.
They were expected to agree.
The children were left
playing on the floor.
The car was last seen parked
at the hotel.


.

.
,
.
,
.

.


.

2. (complex object)


(. . 119, 226).

, ,


,
,
235

,
, , ( to
), , :
Tom's humour made him a
welcome guest.
When they came they found
the house empty.
I don't want anybody here.
Why don't you get somebody
to explain it to you?
I watched her walk away
from us.
I felt him looking at me now
and again.
I had never before seen the
game played.


.
,
,
.
,
- .
,
-
?
,
.
,

.

,
.

3. (prepo
sitional infinitive phrase)

, ,

, .
.
for (. . 112114),
, :
was looking for someone
to help him.
You can rely on Father to
forget nothing.

-,
.


.


,
:

236

) :
For him to wake up so late
was a most unusual thing.

To,
,
.

) :
All he wanted was for me to
get out of his sight.

,
,
.

) :
We were waiting for the
train to arrive.

,
.

) :
The boy stood aside for us
to go by.


,
.

) :
I was too young for them to
tell me the truth.

,

.

e) :
It was an easy plan for
Roger to fulfil.

4. (-ing complex)
,
,
,
,
, (. . 100
101).

, :
237

) :
At first she was not sure
that his coming here had
been a good thing.


, ,
.

) :

The only thing I'm afraid of


is the family being too
sure of themselves.

,
, ,

.

) :
That's a risk I just can't
think of your taking.
His future depended on
Guy's lending him some
money.


,
.

,
.

) :
Of course you understand
that after John breaking
his promise I'm never go
ing to speak to him again.

, , ,
,

,

.

) :
We spoke about the possibil
ity of such a thing hap
pening.


,
.

5. (absolute constructions)

, , ,
,
, . .
, (
).
238


,

,
,
, . :
They walked in the cold
night, fresh snow crunch
ing noisily underfoot.


,

.


,
, , ,
( ),
.
, with
without. . :
With nothing to do, the
actors stood about and
made small talk.
She ran up the stairs, her
heart thumping painfully.
I wouldn't dare go home
without the job finished.
He sat motionless, his hands
over his eyes.
I can't sleep with the radio
on.

,
,

.


.

,
.
,
.

.


, ,
:
(
) .
. :
The teacher is reading.

.
239


(. . 8), ,
:
The teacher is reading
story.


,
, :
The teacher is reading the
children a story.


( )
, :
I'll tell them the truth about
my sister.
They arranged the party on
Saturday.
They lived in on old house.
phoned her to tell her the
news.


.
.
.
, co .


,

. :
went to the cinema yesterday.
Yesterday he went to the
cinema with his friends to
see a French film.

.


.



(always, never, ever, sometimes, often, seldom, already, just
. .),
, :
always came home by
the seven o'clock train.
240

He sometimes went boating.


Do you ever see him now?
They often had to work late.


.
-
?

.


,
, :
has never talked like
that.
He is already phoning for
the doctor.
The report has just been
completed.


.

.

.


.

,

,
, :
pass the time, Ann left
the kitchen to see whether
her father was all right.
On the beach some people
were lying in the sun and
others were swimming in
the sea.

,

,
.
-
, -
.

-

, :
On you go!
Right you are!

, , !
, !


,
241

.
, .
:
1) ,
to be, :
Is the chief in his office?
Are you students?

?
?

2) ,
,
:
From downstairs came the
sound of a radio playing
song he had never heard
before.

, ,
.

.
,
, ,
, ,
:
1) , :
Do you know the man?
Are vou coming tomorrow?
Are vou happy?
Can you see anyone over
there?


?
?
?
- ?

2)
, :
Had he come, we should not
have known what to talk
to him about.

, , .



;
3)
, , ,
:
242

Never did he come in time!


Only then did he remember
the girl's name.


!

.

.
, ,
,

, .

. ,
, , ,
. :
Show me the book.
Show the book to me first.

.

.



:
1) (general questions),
(yes)
() .


,
, ,
, :
Is Betty washing up yet?
Have you been to the circus?
Were the visitors shown the
new pictures?
Will he be looked after
properly?
Have you been staying here
long?
Can I speak to you now?
Must he do it at once?


?
-
?

?

?

?

?

?
243

Present
Indefinite Past Indefinite,

do ,
. :
They usually spend the
summer by the sea.
Do they usually spend the
summer by the sea?

.
?

He did a lot of work last


week.
Did he do much work last
week?


.

?

often comes to visit


them.
Does he often come to visit
them?

.
?

to be,

,
, :
Is he in his room?
Was she a good student?
Are they very lazy?

?
?
?

to have
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite,
:
) , to have

,
do, :
.: Have 3you a sister?
1 /

/
,
. . ,
?
r
AM.: Do you have a sister? J
.: Had he a car?
l v

a
0
/
~.. . ,
0 ?
AM.: Did he have a car?
244

) to have ,

do, :
Does he often have to get up
early?
Did you have to work late
last night?

pa ?


?

) to have
(: to have a walk
, to have a smoke , to have
dinner , to have fun . .),

do, :
Did you have a good breakfast?
Did you have much trouble
finding the taxi?

?

?


yes
, :
Is Tom waiting for me?
Yes.
Did you see the manager?
No.

? .
? .


yes ,

, ,
, :
Does he wear glasses?
Yes, he does. (No, he
doesn't.)
Is it beginning to rain?
Yes, it is. (No, it isn't.)
Has Mother gone to bed?
Yes, she has. (No, she
hasn't.)


(.)

? .

? .
(.)
? .
(.)
245

Can they give him a job?


Yes, they can. (No, they
can't.)


? . (.)


.
, ,
. ,

.
not
n't
, , :
Haven't you had lunch yet?
Didn't you see him?

, ?

?

not
,
, :
Are you not coming tonight?

,
?

,
,
.
, yes. ,
No Isn't he here yet? ( ?)
,
, Yes , . -
No,
( is here).
2) (special questions),

- .

,
( ).

. :

246

What is Betty doing?


Whodn) did you see there?
What book have you been
looking for?
When was the telegram sent
ofl?
Where can I phone you?
Why were you late?

?
?

?
?

?
?

,

, :
What have you come here
for?
Who did you have a talk
with?

?
?


,
. :
Meg gave him a present.
Who gave him a present?
The news will upset him.
What will upset him?

.
?
.
?

3) (alternative questions),

, ,
. .
,
(), :
Are you coming or are you
staying behind?



, ,
, :
247

Are you leaving tonight or


(are you leaving) tomor
row?
Did you take a walk with
Betty or (did you take a
walk with) Susan?
Do you want a black (pen) or
(do you want) (a) blue pen?


?

?

?

4) (disjunctive questions
tail-questions),

.
:
, ,
,
, .
,
, :
The train leaves at 9 o'clock,
doesn't it?
She is playing tennis, isn't
she?
Nick must provide for his
family, mustn't he?

9 ,
?

, ?

,
?


, ,
:
The explanation doesn't
sound convincing, does it?
You didn't have to stand in
a long queue, did you?
There was nobody at home,
was there?
We must never mention it to
anybody, must we?

248


, ?

,
?

, ?


, ?

,
: ,

, . :
You are not coming with us,
are you? Yes, I am.
You haven't met the man,
have you? No, I haven't.

,
? , .
, ? ,
.

5) (4hink'-questions),
.

(), (, , . .)
?

:
, .

;
.
:
) , :
Do you think he is really ill?
Do you think it will rain?

,
?
,
?

6) ,
, :
What do you think he told
them?
Why do you think they can't
stay a little longer?
How long do you think they
have been talking?

,
?
,

?
,

?

) , :
249

Do you think he plays golf or


tennis?
Do you think he will phone
us or send a telegram?

, ?
, no


?

to think
: to suppose, to believe, to
say . ., :
Where do you suppose he's
gone?
How old do you believe the
woman is?
When did you say they had
come back?

,
?
,
?
, , ?

. ,
,
.
, ( ),
.

,
, :
You are ready?
You've been to London?

? ( , ?)
?


,
,
. :
Nobody ever told me anything about it.


not.

,
, ,
, :
250

I shall not be able to finish


the work in a week.
My daughter is not married
yet.
The tree has not been cut
down.
cannot speak Spanish.
She must not go home alone.

.
.
.
.

.

Present Indefinite
Past Indefinite,
do,
:
She does not do much travelling.
did not lock the door.

.
.

to be,

, not , :
is not in town now.
The boy was not very clever.

.

.

to have
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite,

:
) to have , ,


,
, , :
I have (had) no relatives in
London.

( ) .


not have,
:
251

I haven't (hadn't) any relatives in London.

( )
.


have
do, :
does not have friends
among his fellow students.

) to have ,

do, :
I did not have to go there
again.

) to have
, : to have
talk (), to have tea ( ), to have a good
time ( ) . .,

do, :
We did not have a good time
there.

not
, ,
(),
. :
1) , :
wants no more cake.
is no pianist.
No student can answer the
question.


.
.

.


to have
there is/are, :
252

I have no news for you.


We had no flowers in the
garden that year.
There are no matches left.
There were no newspapers in
the letter-box.
There is no chance for him to
go to the university.


.

.
.

.
()

.

2) nobody, no one, ,
nothing, neither, nowhere, :
Nobody has any right to
interfere in this matter.
I found no one in the house.
I know nothing at all.
None of the family was up
yet.
I want neither of the two
books.
Dick is nowhere here.


.
.
.

.

.
.

3) neither... nor, :
We had neither food nor
water for three days.

,

.

4) never, hardly, scarcely, seldom, rarely, barely,


not, :
He never reads anything.
There is hardly any place in
the house where we can
talk.
They
scarcely
(seldom,
rarely, hardly) talk to
each other.


.

,
.

.

5) without, :
253

He went out of the room


without saying good-bye.

6) un- in-, :
This is unjust.
The sentence is ungrammatical.
Mother is unaware of what
is happening.
is incapable of understanding other people's
troubles.

.
.
, .

.



: , : ;
; .

: ,
it.
:
1) , :
It often rains here.
It snowed every day last
week.
It has been freezing since the
morning.
It was getting dark.
It is cold today.

.

.
.
.
.

2) , , , :
It was three o'clock in the
night when I woke up.
It is two miles to the lake.
It is an hour's flight from
here to the sea.
It is 20 below zero.

,
.
.

.
20 .

3) ,
254

, ,
, :
It's pleasant to be out in the
shade on such a hot day.
It was great seeing you
again.
It's quite possible that the
train may be late.
It annoyed him to see so
many people around.
It is a good thing for you to
have a place you can go
to.
It's no good giving him
books as presents. He
never reads them.


.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.

. .



, , ,
. .
, ,
.
,
, :
You are so stupid!
How can you be so lazy!
Oh, please, forgive me!
Hasn't she grown!

!

!
, ,
!
!


:
1) ,
what ,
:
What a cold day it is!
What interesting news I've
heard!

!
!
255

What strange ideas he has!



(.
).
2) ,
how
, :
How clever you are!
How beautifully she dances!

!
!

,
(.
).

, :
What a girl!
How wonderful!

!
!

there is/are

( ) ,

,
(), .
,
(. .
), :
The letter is on your desk.
The dog was in the kitchen.
The children are at the
pond.

.
.
.

, ,
, (. .
),
there is/are,
:
256

Look, there is a letter on


your desk.
There was a dog in the
kitchen.
Look, there are some chil
dren by the pond.

,
.
()
(-) .
, () .

,

: , ,
.
there is/are

, , :
There is a table and two
chairs in the room.
There are flowers and a box
of chocolates on the table.


.

.


to be there,
:
Are there any letters for me?
Were there any mistakes in
my test?
What was there in the par
cel?
Why were there only two
apples on the plate?
How many books are there in
your library?
Is there milk or juice in the
jug?
There is a new film on at the
Odeon cinema, isn't there?

?

?
?

?

?

?

, ?

there is/are

,
, :
There was no car in the
garage.
91825


.
257

There is no note for you.

not :
1) ,
any, :
There isn't any news in the
letter.
There weren't any crumbs on
the
floor.

.
() .

2) ,
- (. .
), :
There are not many books on
the shelf.
There are not English books
on the shelf.

,
.
,
.

,
, to be.
, :
Once upon a time there lived
an old man by the sea.
There came a knock at the
door.

-
-
.
.


,
, :
There was a man standing at
the front door.
There were children running
about in the garden.
There was a horse tied to the
tree.
There was a car parked by
our gate.

258


- .
.

.

.


:
, -
, ,
,
, -
, :
The window is open.
The windows are open.

.
.


,

:
1) ,
, -
, :
How thev got there doesn't
concern me.

,
.

2) , , ,

, -
, :
'Crime and Punishment* is
good novel, and The
Brothers Karamazov' is
just a masterpiece.


,
.
The Cedars is the name of the village.
.
3) , -s,

(mathematics, measles, billiards),
- ,
:
Billiards is an indoor game.

.
Measles is sometimes seri- ous.
.
259

4) people (), police cattle


-
, :
There are some people cross
ing the street.
The police were called for.
The cattle are moving to
wards the river.


.
.
.

5)
, and
both... and, -
, :
Tom and Pete are now
ready to write a test.
What I sav and what I think
are my own affair.
Both you and I were late
today.


.

.
,
. (
.)

6)
, either... or neither... nor,
-
, :
Either you or I am wrong.
Either the teacher or the
students are at fault.
Neither the students nor the
teacher is at fault.

,
.
,
.
,
.

7)
, -
, :
Five pounds is a lot of mon
ey for him.
25 students is an average
group.
260

( 5
)
.
25
.

8)
each, every, everybody, anybody,
nobody, -
, :
Everybody is here.
Every student takes his
exams twice a year.

.

.

9) all,
, -
,
all , -
, :
All is clear.
All are late.

.
.

10) there is/are


-
, :
There are two books and
newspaper on the table.
There is a newspaper and
two books on the table.

.
.

11)
family, team, delegation, company,
public, audience, committee . ., -
,

, ,
,
. :
The team has won.
The team are taking
shower.
His family is large.
His family play different
kinds of sport.

.
( )
.
.
.
261


, ,

,
.
.


(
, ).
,
and, but, or, yet, for,
, :
Nowadays he was busy and
he saw few of his old
friends.
I have not much news to
convey but there are some
things to add.
I began to miss London, yet
I was not coming back.
You can boil yourself an egg
or I'll make you a cheese
sandwich.
They liked the house or they
wouldn't have bought it.
Ann had a headache, for she
had slept badly last night.
They asked for food
there was none.
My parents are quite young
people, they live their
own life.



.
,
-
.

,

.

,
.
,
.
,

.

.

,
.

,

, .
:
262

I know the girl's name.


I know what the girl's name
is.

.
,
.

She learned to play tennis at


school.
She learned to play tennis
when she went to school.


.

,
.

(the
principal clause); ,
( -
),
(a subordinate clause).

.
,
,
(. . 4953).

,
, ,
-
. :
I know (that) he is right.
I was out when he came.
She had only a cup of tea
because she was not
hungry.

, .
,
.

,
.

'that1, 'when'
'because' ,
, .
knew who had brought
the letter.
He knew when I would come.
He showed me the picture
that he was given as a
birthday present.

,
.
, .
,

.
263

'who', 'when' 'that'


, 'who'
, 'when'
'that'
.



.
,
,
.

:
1) (subject clauses),
that, if whether,
who, what, when, where, why, how
., :
That you may meet them at
the hotel is quite possible.
What I need now is someone
to do the job.

,

.

,
.

2) (predicative clauses),
,
, :
His only desire was that his
family shouldn't interfere
with his plans.
The question was why no
one had heard the shot.

,
.
,

.

3) (object clauses),

,
, :
264

I thought (that) they were


joking.
We were sorry (that) we
didn't find them at home.
It was announced over the
radio that the flight was
delayed.
He could not understand
why they insisted on such a
decision.
Time will show if (whether)
he is right.
It was not clear what had
happened and who was
injured.

, .
,
.
,
.
,

.
,
.
,

.

4) (adverbial
clauses),

:
) (clauses of time),
when, while, as, until, till, before, after,
since, as soon as, as long as, whenever ., :
When they reached the vil
lage, Jane got out of the
taxi and looked about
her.
I won't leave until you come.


,
.
,
.

) (clauses of place),
where, wherever, :
They stopped where the road
turned to the river.

,

.

) (clauses of cause),
because, as, since, :
was glad to talk to her
because it set her at ease.


,

.
265

) (clauses of purpose),
so that, that, in order that, :
He spoke loudly and clearly so that all could hear
him.

, .

) (clauses of condition),
if, in case, unless, once,
:
If we start off now we'll
arrive there by dinner
time.

,
.

) (clauses of concession),
though, although, even if, even
though, whatever ., :
Whatever happens, she won't
have it her own way.

,
.

) (clauses of consequence),
that, so... that, such... that,
:
He was so embarrassed that
he could hardly understand
her.

,
.

) (clauses of comparison),
than, as, as... as, not so (not
as)... as, as if, as though, :
Her lips moved soundlessly,
as if she were rehearsing.

, -
.

5) (attributive clauses)
(. . 158160),


that, who(m), which, whose, as, when, where .,
, :
266

I know a man who can help ,


us.
.
We caught a breeze that ,
took us gently up the river.

.
All the presents (that) he had ,
given her were in their
,
usual places.
.
Where is the letter (which) I ,
gave you to read?
?
6) (appositive clauses),
that
,

,
, ,

, :
I had the impression that she
was badly ill.
We turned down his sug
gestion that we should
take in a boarder.
The thought that she was
unhappy kept him awake
all the night.

,
.
(
.)


. (

.)
, ,

. (
. )



idea, hope, news, thought, problem, question, feeling,
chance, suggestion, offer, impression, sense . .

.

(. 1),
(. 2),
(.
267

3).
,
.
1) wanted to know when
I had arrived, what I had
been able to do and how
long I was going to stay
with them.
2) He said that he was
sleepy because he had sat
up late the night before
talking to his brother
whom he hadn't seen for
five years.
3)The question that he
wanted to find an answer
to was how it had come
about that his son, who
had always been a quiet
boy, had got mixed up
with a gang and killed a
man.

,
,


.
,
,

,
,

.
,
,
,
, ,

,

.



, .. ,
:
1)

(. . 49)
, (to say, to
tell, to reply), :
He said, "Tom was alone
most of the day."
He said (that) Tom had
been alone most of the
day.

:
.
,
.

He said: "The students are


having an English class."

:

.

268

He said (that) the students


were having an English
class.

,

.

said, "The next show


will begin in an hour."

:

.
,
.
4
.

He said (that) the next show


would begin in an hour.

, ,
, ,
,
,
:
said: "I'm hungry."
said (that) he was hun
gryThey said, "We've been here
since yesterday."
They said (that) they had
been there since the day
before.

: .
, .
:
.
,
.

. ,
to answer
, :
,
.

said (that) he would go back


home by the seven o'clock
train.

2)


,
,
:
asked: "When did you
see him?"
He asked when I had seen
him.

:
?
,
.
269

He asked, "Why is he
here yet?"
He asked why he was
there yet.
He asked, "How will he
it out?"
He asked how he would
it out.

:
?
not ,
.
find :
?
find ,
.
not



if whether, :
asked: "Have you met
my wife?"
asked if (whether) I had
met his wife.

:
?
,
.

3)
, (to
ask, to beg, to implore), ,
, (to tell, to order, to compel),

, ,
, ,
:
said, "Close the door,
please."
He asked me to close the
door.
He said: "Stop the car."
He told me to stop the car.
He said, "Don't bang the
door."
He told me not to bang the
door.
The officer said: "Line up!"
The officer ordered us to
line up.
270

: ,
.

.
:
.

.
:
.

. :
!

.


1. (full stop) :
) , :
.

The class is over.

) , ,
:
id est i.e. (that is = )
exempli gratia e.g. (for example = )
) ,
:
Department Dept. ( = , ); Doctor Dr.
*

2. (comma) :
)
,

(. . 159), :
George Lamb, your old
school friend, has just
telephoned.
The driver, who was very
young, had only just got
his licence.
They soon repaired the car,
which had not been badly
damaged.


,
.
,
,

.

,
.

) ,
:
According to Jack, London is far too crowded.
,
.
271

Jack London, ,

.
left early, because I saw
him go.

paHov (
), ,
.


,
.
After dark, men and women
strolled
around
the
square.

dark, men and


women,
.
) (
), , :
However, there may (, how
ever,) be a few exceptions
to the rule (, however).
Naturally, that is not the
whole story.
I did not mention it to him,
naturally.
From the window he, fortu
nately, couldn't see what
was happening in the
street.
Between you and me, he
failed his exam.
To put it mildly, he has been
impolite.
He won't come today, I'm
afraid.
He is, I think, a teacher.

(,
,)
(, ).
,
.
,
, .
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
, .

) ,
, :
272

Morally, it is important that


he should explain his
absence.
Geographically, these islands
are closer to the mainland
than the neighbouring
ones.
Technically, it's not a
difficult operation.


,
.

,
, .
,

.

)
, :
often invited, besides his
old friends, some people
he worked with.


,
.

)
,
,
:
Out of breath, he slumped
down in a chair.
In his underclothes, he ran
out of the burning house.
In great excitement, they
hurried on.
Though suffering great pain,
he walked home alone.
Built in 1468, the castle was
the scene of many battles.

,
.

.

.

,
.
1468 ,

.

) , :
She bought eggs, butter, , ,
cheese, bread, rice(,) and
, ,
coffee.
.
He can, must(,) and will do ,
it.
.
101825

273

) ,
:
said,(0 "I'm afraid I
don't understand what
you mean."
"Mother is asked on the
telephone," he said.

: ,
,
.

, .

. ,

, :
told me that he knew exactly
what he was going to do.

,
,
.

3. (semicolon) :
)
, :
The house badly needs painting; the garden is overgrown with weeds.

;
.

)
,
, :
The Committee agreed that
the next meeting would be
held in two weeks; that
Mr Evans would be asked
to present his report at it;
and that the decision
would be worked out on
the basis of his report.


,

, -




.

4. (colon) :
) , ,
,
, :
274

We must sell this house: its


maintenance costs are far
too high.

) , :
asked:(,) "Have you had
letter from ?"

: ?

) , ,
:
Please send the following
items:
1) birth certificate.
2) passport.
3) correct fee.

:
1)
.
2) .
3)
.

5. (quotation marks) :
) , :
I said, "The road is closed."

:
.

) ,
, :
I don't want to hear any
"dirty" words coming
from you.

,
-
.

6. (exclamation mark)
, :
How nice!

7. (question mark)
, :
Who told you about it?

?
V5

, ,
,

, ,
,
.

abide
arise
awake
be
bear
beat
become
befall
beget
begin
behold
bend
bereave
beseech
beset
bet
bid
bind
bite
bleed
blend
bless
blow
break
breed
bring
broadcast
build
burn
burst
buy
cast
catch
choose
cleave
cling
clothe
come
cost
creep
crow

abode, abided
arose
awoke
was, were
bore
beat
became
befell
begot
began
beheld
bent
bereaved, bereft
besought
beset
bet, betted
bade, bid
bound
bit
bled
blended, blent
blessed, blest
blew
broke
bred
brought
broadcast, broadcasted
built
burnt, burned
burst
bought
cast
caught
chose
clove, cleft
clung
clothed (clad)
came
cost
crept
crowed (crew)

abode, abided
arisen
awaked, awoke
been
borne, born
beaten
become
befallen
begotten
begun
beheld
bent, bended
bereaved, bereft
besought
beset
bet, betted
bidden, bid
bound
bitten, bit
bled
blended, blent
blessed, blest
blown
broken (broke)
bred
brought
broadcast, broadcasted
built
burnt, burned
burst
bought
cast
caught
chosen
cloven, cleft
clung
clothed (clad)
come
cost
crept
crowed


cut
dare
deal
dig
do
draw
dream
drink
drive
dwell
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
flee
fling
fly
forbear
forbid
forecast
forego
foresee
foretell
forget
forgive
forsake
freeze
get
gild
give
go

grind
grow
hang
have
hear
heave
hew
hide
hit
hold
hurt
inlay
keep
kneel

278

cut
dared (durst)
dealt
dug
did
drew
dreamed, dreamt
drank
drove
dwelt
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flung
flew
forbore
forbade, forbad
forecast, forecasted
forewent
foresaw
foretold
forgot
forgave
forsook
froze
got
gilded, gilt
gave
went
ground
grew
hung, hanged
had
heard
heaved, hove
hewed
hid
hit
held
hurt
inlaid
kept
knelt

cut
dared
dealt
dug
done
drawn
dreamed, dreamt
drunk
driven
dwelt
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flung
flown
forborne
forbidden
forecast, forecasted
foregone
foreseen
foretold
forgotten
forgiven
forsaken
frozen
got, gotten
gilded
given
gone
ground
grown
hung, hanged
had
heard
heaved, hove
hewed, hewn
hidden, hid
hit
held
hurt
inlaid
kept
knelt


knit
know
lade
lay
lead
lean
leap
learn
leave
lend
let
lie
light
lose
make
mean
meet
melt
mislay
mislead
mistake
misunderstand
mow
outdo
outgrow
overbear
overcast
overcome
overdo
overdraw
overhear
overtake
overthrow
overwork
partake
pay
put
read
rebuild
recast
relay
rend
retell
rid
ride
ring
rise

knitted, knit
knew
laded
laid
led
leant, leaned
leapt, leaped
learnt, learned
left
lent
let
lay
lighted, lit
lost
made
meant
met
melted
mislaid
misled
mistook
misunderstood
mowed
outdid
outgrew
overbore
overcast
overcame
overdid
overdrew
overheard
overtook
overthrew
overworked
partook
paid
put
read
rebuilt
recast
relaid
rent
retold
ridded, rid
rode
rang
rose

knitted, knit
known
laden
laid
led
leant, leaned
leapt, leaped
learnt, learned
left
lent
let
lain
lighted, lit
lost
made
meant
met
melted, molten
mislaid
misled
mistaken
misunderstood
mown
outdone
outgrown
overborne
overcast
overcome
overdone
overdrawn
overheard
overtaken
overthrown
overworked
partaken
paid
put
read
rebuilt
recast
relaid
rent
retold
rid, ridded
ridden
rung
risen

279


run
saw
say
see
seek
sell
send
set
sew
shake
shear
shed
shine
shoe
shoot
show
shrink
shut
sing
sink
sit
slay
sleep
slide
sling
slink
slit
smell
smite
sow
speak
speed
spell
spend
spill
spin
spit
spoil
spread
spring
stand
stave
steal
stick
sting
stink
strew

280

ran
sawed
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
sheared
shed
shone
shod
shot
showed
shrank, shrunk
shut
sang
sank
sat
slew
slept
slid
slung
slunk
slit
smelt, smelled
smote
sowed
spoke
sped,speeded
spelt, spelled
spent
spilt, spilled
spun, span
spat
spoilt, spoiled
spread
sprang
stood
staved, stove
stole
stuck
stung
stank
strewed

run
sawn, sawed
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn, sewed
shaken
shorn, sheared
shed
shone
shod
shot
shown, showed
shrunk, shrunken
shut
sung
sunk, sunken
sat
slain
slept
slid, slidden
slung
slunk
slit
smelt, smelled
smitten
sown, sowed
spoken
sped, speeded
spelt, spelled
spent
spilt, spilled
spun
spat
spoilt, spoiled
spread
sprung
stood
staved, stove
stolen
stuck
stung
stunk
strewn, strewed


stride
strike
string
strive
swear
sweat
sweep
swell
swim
swing
take
teach
tear
tell
think
thrive
throw
thrust
tread
undergo
understand
undertake
undo
upset
wake
wear
weave
wed
weep
win
wind
withdraw
withhold
work
wring
write

strode
struck
strung
strove
swore
sweat, sweated
swept
swelled
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
throve, thrived
threw
thrust
trod
underwent
understood
undertook
undid
upset
woke, waked
wore
wove
wedded
wept
won
wound
withdrew
withheld
worked
wrung
wrote

stridden, strid
struck, stricken
strung
striven
sworn
sweat, sweated
swept
swollen, swelled
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thriven, thrived
thrown
thrust
trodden, trod
undergone
understood
undertaken
undone
upset
waked, woken, woke
worn
woven, wove
wedded, wed
wept
won
wound
withdrawn
withheld
worked
wrung
written


127,
136, 238239
49, 52
()
134135, 137
910,
54,83,241,243,250
103,
129, 131,267
5, 147186, 197, 204,
256
. 147
172, 180182, 185186,
197, 242, 256
. 147186,
190, 197, 198
. ( .)
148186, 197
250, 255,
275
16, 2526, 30, 242
250
. 247
248, 249, 270
. 249250
. 25, 243246, 247,
249, 270
. 248
249
. 25, 30, 65,
215,246247,249
217, 275

282

() 5, 9, 1253,
5758
.
12,4852,87
. 42, 46,
58
.
15, 16, 4 2 ^ 5 , 54, 58, 87,
89
. 42,
4647,54
-
. 12, 2731, 58
-

. 2830
. 12,
15, 1720,48,54

. 1316, 19, 45, 54, 70,
71,89,243245,251

.
. 1516

.
. 1415

. .
16
.
12, 2026, 2830, 54
.

. 26, 2829,
30
.

. 2126
-
. 31, 3842, 50, 88

.
. 4041
. 31,
3537, 50, 54, 84, 88
.

. 3637

. 2224, '2526, 29,
30, 3135, 36, 37, 38, 41,
4952,8081,84,85,88,
89,91,243245,251
.
31, 3739, 40, 50, 54, 84,
89, 90, 93
.

. 38
5138, 217218, 221,
228, 230, 264, 265

. 9, 21,
45, 48, 5455, 60, 70, 74,
78, 80, 82, 241, 242, 243,
244246, 248, 250252
. 6, 15, 17,
19, 20, 28, 35, 40, 4245,
61
. 8, 53, 6081,
83, 105106, 222, 242,
243245, 252
be 60, 71 72
can 6165, 87, 90
could 60, 61,6465, 85,90,
93,94

dare 8081
have 45, 7071, 244245,
250
have got 71
may 60, 6568, 85, 91
might 60, 6568, 90, 91, 94
must 53, 60, 6870
need 53, 60, 8081
ought 53, 60, 7374
shall 44, 74
should 53, 60, 7478, 83
84, 8688, 8990, 91
96
will 4445, 7879
would 7879, 85, 8990,
9195
. 8, 133
134
. 11, 12,
133,277281
. 7, 1415,
28,32,34,40,58, 118, 122,
134
. 8, 54, 57,
119, 133,239
. 9
. 11, 8081,
133
. 7, 14, 32,
5859, 118, 122, 133
. 9, 102103,
223, 242, 244, 251
to be 102, 103, 108, 119,
121,223,250,256257
. 8
. 6, 15, 19
20, 26, 28, 30, 34, 3637,
38, 40, 4245, 63
274275

. 14, 32
33,78, 125
283

. 14,
34, 43, 49
229, 238
. 55, 138, 229,
240
. 5556, 58,
116, 121, 122, 138, 229,
240
. 55, 56, 57, 58,
119, 138,227,229,240
. 119, 227
5, 9, 53, 98, 100, 221, 228
. 5358, 106,
215,228
. 43, 5458,
117, 135,214,225,235
107, 131, 137, 233, 239,
241,271275

96, 108, 165, 171


6, 10, 60, 96,
99101, 101133, 194, 220,
222, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228,
230, 233, 235, 236, 239, 255,
258, 273
. . 99
. . 100, 225
. . 99
.
. 100
100101,
237239
6, 32, 4748, 57, 60,
62, 80, 83, 85, 86, 87, 8990,
9192,
9496,
9699,
101133, 194, 215, 220, 222,
224, 226, 227, 228, 230, 233,
235, 236, 239, 244, 255, 270
. 73, 97

. 6180,
8894, 9496, 9798,
99135
284

. 6180, 8396,
97135
.
9899, 112, 114, 128
275

5960, 149,
177,243,256257

12,13,31,52,62,68,73,74

12,21,31,61
68, 73, 74, 268
270
() 5, 4445, 74,
79,82
() 191193,
194196
6, 96,
107, 222, 234
5, 57, 96, 101
103, 119121, 137, 139, 147,
153,
155156,
164165,
185186, 191210, 213, 220,
228, 232, 239, 245, 246, 248,
255
. 195
. 207
. 196
. 25, 30,
76,81, 104,208209,220
. 128
. 101, 139140,
191193, 220, 269
.
99, 133, 139, 140,
193, 235, 236, 237
. 195
. 99, 119,
128, 189, 196, 198207,
220, 236, 261
. 252253

. 25,
194196, 237, 269270
. 209
. 197198,
220
. 194, 196
all 104, 153154, 164,
186, 201202, 203, 207,
261
any 164, 165,199, 258
both 186, 204
each 164, 202203
either 204
every 164, 165, 202203,,
207, 261
few 206207

half
it 193194
little 206207
many 164, 204206
much 204206
neither 204
no 199, 207, 252, 257
one 196, 200201
other 155156, 203204
some 165, 198
such 153, 185, 197
twice 186
what 164,185

4243, 44
() 5, 9,
8196, 221
. 81, 89
. 8182,
91,218,270
. 60, 63,
64, 78, 8296, 102
5, 14, 19, 24, 29, 41, 134,
185, 210213, 230, 235, 236,
239, 240, 246, 253, 255, 272
hard 212
hardly 2\2} 253

just 25
just now 25
late 2\2
lately 212
near 212
still 2\2
yet 24, 212213
. 25, 30,
210
. 14, 18, 24, 41,
210, 240

. 211,272273
. 210
. 211
. 210
. 211
. 211
. 134, 185, 205,
210
. 14, 18, 41,
210, 240

5253
6, 80,
81,96137, 194,222223
8993, 242
213
50,
83, 84, 88, 9798, 99, 102,
105, 125, 134, 195,225
127132, 147
177, 177185, 190
. 127
130, 146
. 150
177, 177185, 198
. 150151,
153177, 177185
. 131132

-
49
285

138,
144147
. . 144
147, 160161,232,237
. . 144, 153, 232,
235, 236, 237
215
. . 56
. . 5657
. . 56, 58
130
93, 185186,
189190,
239243, 247,
269270
. . 247, 249, 256,
269270
. . ()
88, 241243
5, 29, 38, 41, 56, 57, 99,
104, 112, 125127, 131132,
136, 137, 146, 157158, 164,
165, 167, 213215, 228, 230,
232, 236, 239, 247, 253
5, 217220
. 54, 254255
. 16, 25,
30, 45, 61, 63, 73, 75, 79,
80, 105, 125, 189,208,215,
242, 243250
. 15,
2425,93,218,255256
. 43, 48, 8387,
209,211,216,263
. 21$, 239
- .
54
. 104105,
218
. 28, 40,
45, 61, 62, 64, 66, 70, 73,
76,79,80,81,83, 102, 125,
198,200,212,250254

286

. 29, 57, 127,


158160, 194, 209, 211,
215, 216, 255, 259, 263,
264268, 274
. . 51,
86, 158,266
. . 15, 27, 29,
35, 39, 43, 52, 265
. . 44,
48, 50, 52, 76, 77, 83
86, 9596, 264265,
268270, 274
. . 265
. .
52, 8792, 265266
. .
52, 76, 159160, 266,
271
. . 51,
264
. . 51,
87, 264
. . 52, 265
.. 266
. . 88, 266
. . 15, 35, 43,
79, 8993, 266
. . 15, 34, 93,
266
. . 51, 8788, 266
. 262264
49,
50, 57,80,88,92,98, 111, 134,
225
5, 79, 112113,
116, 124, 134, 151152, 166,
168, 175176, 179180, 185,
186191, 198, 201, 203, 208,
209, 210, 223, 224, 226, 227,
228, 230, 232, 235, 236, 239,
255, 264, 265
. 134,
187189

. 151152,
187188

. 187188
6, 11, 52, 60, 133
137, 222, 224, 227, 233, 235,
236, 239, 258, 273
137
98
59,
133
139

102, 144147, 160
161
. . . 146
. . . 146
9, 10
11
6, 101, 107, 143144,
194195, 221224, 224225,
239243, 243250, 250
254, 258261
. 221
. 107
.
135, 186, 195, 222223,
254255
. 7,
104, 107, 134, 195, 223,
224, 254
26, 50,
85, 89, 9798, 99, 102, 105,
111,225

for 29, 41, 99, 111, 112, 114
115,225
of
114, 131132, 146, 157158,
164165, 205

117119,
225226

after 15, 126, 169,215,265
before 15, 24, 126, 127, 169,
265
even if 15, 123,266
even though 15, 123,266
how 25, 76, 116,210,256
however 15
// 15, 86, 8992, 125, 136,
266, 270
in case 92, 266
in order (that) 87, 123, 266
lest 86
till/until \ 5, 136,169,265
what 25, 116, 165, 208, 209,
266
what ... for 25, 208209,
210,215,249,256
when 15, 25, 116, 125, 136,
264, 265, 266
where 25, 116,211, 264, 265,
266
who/whom 25, 116, 208, 209,
215,264,266
why 25, 76, 104, 249, 264
4953,
81,85,87,88,268270

143144,
191, 199200,258261

12, 13, 2122
15, 29, 41, 86, 87, 88, 92,
93, 124, 125, 136, 164, 165,
188189, 215216, 219, 224,
247, 260, 262, 264, 266, 270

:
6264, 66
67,75,79,95,218

287

62
63, 67, 72, 79, 128
6869
6573,
74,75, 128

45, 79

67, 69
45, 270

45, 4748, 79

64
80

68, 71, 80
65, 76
6364

44, 74

68, 72, 75

45,78

44, 8385, 218
69, 72, 75, 79,
8182, 8385
65, 69, 87,
91

71
74

44, 79, 82

45, 72, 82, 270


44, 64, 79, 82, 270

63, 67


69, 7375
69, 73, 75
6364, 86

6162
44, 74

6162
68

175176, 190191,221
5, 86, 99, 101,
103, 116, 119, 127, 128, 129,
137,
138147,
147186,
190191, 195, 198, 199, 201,
203, 208, 209, 213, 214215,
220, 223, 224, 226, 227, 228,
230, 232, 233234, 235, 236,
237, 239, 251, 255, 257, 258,
266
. 82, 129,
177180,266
. 138,
145, 153, 163164, 181
185

.
142143

.
143
. 138, 147
177, 180181, 197,255
. 138

.
138,
147177, 177181

. 168169

. 169170

. 166168

. 143144,
173174,261
216, 271
274
it 57, 114115,
194195, 254255
: 217234

. 132133, 234,
272

()
. 106108,
135,224225
. 6, 108117,
138, 208, 217, 228229,
237, 238, 251
. 6, 123
127, 136137, 139, 165,
217, 230232, 238, 239,
240
. 15, 18, 2223,
28, 38,43,46, 125126,
230, 240
. 124125
. 230
231
.
108, 230, 269
. 125
126,230
. 231
. 123, 124,
231,237
. 124125,
231
. 125, 231
. 125, 231
. 123, 231, 237
. 14, 18, 41,
230, 240

. 119123, 135136,

139, 186, 226228, 235


236
. 6, 127
132, 137, 139, 145146,
178186, 189, 217, 232
233, 237, 238
. 6, 32, 35,
9899, 101102, 138,
200, 205, 217, 220221,
225, 235, 237, 238, 239
. 6, 102
104, 138, 161162, 165,
168, 186, 223, 224, 234,
237, 238
. 139, 162
163, 233234, 271
. 6, 102103,
104, 105106, 135136,
217218,221224,239

. 117119, 135, 139, 186,
217,225226,235
5
5, 128, 147, 153,
156157, 164,210
. 153, 210
. 128, 156,
157, 164,210
5, 143144, 191,
199200,201,258261
138,
140144,
145185,
257,
258261
. 140143,
144177, 177185, 255,
258
. 140
144, 145177, 177185
16, 18,
19,31,36,65,7678, 115,246
82, 92, 194, 196, 241, 242

289


-

The Present Indefinite
The Present Continuous
The Present Perfect
The Present Perfect Continuous

The Past Indefinite
The Past Continuous
The Past Perfect
The Past Perfect Continuous

The Future Indefinite
The Future Continuous
The Future Perfect
to be going +
The Future in the Past

The Active Voice


The Passive Voice

Can
May
Must
To have
To be
Ought
Shall
Should
Will
Need
Dare



290

5
12
13
13
17
20
27
31
31
35
37
39
42
42
46
46
47
48
49
53
53
54
60
61
65
68
70
71
73
74
74
78
80
80
81
83
96
96


101

102

104


105

-
106

108

117

119


123

127

132

133
135

135

,... 135

136

137

138
140
144


147

148

166

172
,
176

()
177


180

181

185

186
291

187
189
190

191
191
193
194
196
196
197
198
207
208
209
210
210
213
215


217

217
217

234

239

243

250

254

255
there is/are
256

259

262

264

268

271

... 277

282

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