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А.Ю. Наугольных, Е.А. Наугольных, Д.О.

Панов

КРАТКИЙ КУРС ПЕРЕВОДА


НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
(по профилю «Наноиндустрия»)
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное


учреждение высшего профессионального образования
«Пермский национальный исследовательский
политехнический университет»

А.Ю. Наугольных, Е.А. Наугольных, Д.О. Панов

КРАТКИЙ КУРС ПЕРЕВОДА

НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

(по профилю «Наноиндустрия»)

Издательство
Пермского национального исследовательского
политехнического университета
2012
УДК 81’225(035)

Н34

Рецензенты:

доктор филологических наук, профессор Н.М. Нестерова


(Пермский национальный исследовательский
политехнический университет);

кандидат филологических наук, доцент Л.В. Енбаева


(Пермский государственный педагогический университет)

Наугольных, А.Ю.
Н34 Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы (по профилю
«Наноиндустрия») [Электронный ресурс]: учебное пособие / А.Ю. Наугольных,
Д.О. Панов, Е.А. Наугольных. – Пермь : Изд-во Перм. нац. исслед. политехн. ун-та,
2012. – 1 электрон. опт. диск.

ISBN 978-5-398-00912-5

Издано в рамках программы опережающей профессиональной подготовки


(уровень – магистратура), ориентированной на инвестиционные проекты Фонда
инфраструктурных и образовательных программ в области производства
погружных электронасосов для нефтедобычи и их узлов с наноструктурными
покрытиями.
Предназначено студентам магистерских программ технического профиля,
желающим повысить уровень владения письменной формой английского языка
для специальных целей, а также усовершенствовать технику перевода
профессионально ориентированных текстов.

УДК 81’225(035)

ISBN 978-5-398-00912-5 © ПНИПУ, 2012


ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ __________________________________________ 3
ВВЕДЕНИЕ _______________________________________________ 5
1. СПЕЦИФИКА НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОГО ТЕКСТА _____________ 6
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 11
2. НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА ___________________________ 15
2.1. ИНФИНИТИВ __________________________________________ 17
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 19
2.1.1. СУБЪЕКТНЫЙ ИНФИНИТИВНЫЙ ОБОРОТ _________________ 20
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 21
2.1.2. ОБЪЕКТНЫЙ ИНФИНИТИВНЫЙ ОБОРОТ ___________________ 25
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 27
2.1.3. FOR + ИНФИНИТИВ ___________________________________ 28
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 29
ИНФИНИТИВ – повторение __________________________________ 30
2.2. ГЕРУНДИЙ ____________________________________________32
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 34
2.2.1. НЕЗАВИСИМЫЙ ГЕРУНДИАЛЬНЫЙ ОБОРОТ ________________36
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 36
ГЕРУНДИЙ – повторение ____________________________________ 38
2.3. ПРИЧАСТИЕ ___________________________________________39
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 42
2.3.1. СУБЪЕКТНЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ _____________________ 45
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 45
2.3.2. ОБЪЕКТНЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ _____________________ 46
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 46
2.3.3. АБСОЛЮТНЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ ____________________ 47
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 47
ПРИЧАСТИЕ – повторение ___________________________________ 49
ОБОРОТЫ С НЕЛИЧНЫМИ ФОРМАМИ ГЛАГОЛА – повторение _______ 50
3. ОСНОВНЫЕ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ ТРУДНОСТИ ______________ 52
3.1. ПАССИВНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ _____________________________________ 52
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 54
3.2. ПРИДАТОЧНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ ___________________________58
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 59
3.3. ЭЛЛИПСИС ____________________________________________62
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 63
3.4. СЛОВА-ЗАМЕСТИТЕЛИ __________________________________ 64
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 65

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 3


3.5. ИНВЕРСИЯ ____________________________________________ 67
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 68
3.6. АТРИБУТИВНЫЕ СОЧЕТАНИЯ _____________________________70
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 72
3.7. ЭМФАЗА ______________________________________________ 75
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 75
3.8. АФФИКСАЦИЯ _________________________________________ 77
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 81
ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ ТРУДНОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА – повторение __________ 84
4. ПЕРЕВОДЧЕСКИЕ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ ____________________ 89
4.1. ТРАНСКРИПЦИЯ И ТРАНСЛИТЕРАЦИЯ _____________________ 90
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 91
4.2. КАЛЬКИРОВАНИЕ ______________________________________92
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 92
4.3. КОНКРЕТИЗАЦИЯ ______________________________________93
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 93
4.4. ГЕНЕРАЛИЗАЦИЯ ______________________________________ 94
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 94
4.5. МОДУЛЯЦИЯ __________________________________________ 97
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ____________________________________________ 98
4.6. ДОБАВЛЕНИЕ И ОПУЩЕНИЕ _____________________________ 100
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ___________________________________________ 101
4.7. ЗАМЕНЫ _____________________________________________ 104
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ___________________________________________ 105
4.8. ПЕРЕСТАНОВКА _______________________________________ 106
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ___________________________________________ 107
4.9. АНТОНИМИЧНЫЙ ПЕРЕВОД _____________________________ 109
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ___________________________________________ 110
4.10. ЭКСПЛИКАЦИЯ_______________________________________ 112
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ___________________________________________ 112
ПЕРЕВОДЧЕСКИЕ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ – повторение _______________ 113
5. ПРАКТИКУМ ПЕРЕВОДА СВЯЗНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ _______________ 118
СПИСОК РЕКОМЕНДУЕМОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ __________________ 139
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ A _______________________________________ 140
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Б _______________________________________ 142
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ В _______________________________________ 143
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Г _______________________________________ 144
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Д _______________________________________ 146
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Е _______________________________________ 147
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Ж ______________________________________ 150

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 4


ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Настоящее пособие создано для дисциплины «Лингвистическая подготовка –


технический перевод» в рамках программы опережающей подготовки (уровень –
магистратура), ориентированной на инвестиционные проекты фонда инфраструктурных
и образовательных программ «Роснано» в области производства погружных
электронасосов для нефтедобычи и их узлов с наноструктурными покрытиями.
Цель настоящего издания – дать необходимый минимум знаний о специфике
английского научного текста и сформировать базовые грамматические и лексические
навыки, необходимые для понимания и перевода научно-технической литературы
указанного профиля. Особое внимание уделяется грамматическим явлениям английского
научного текста, не имеющим аналогов в русском языке и существенно затрудняющим
процесс перевода.
Грамматический материал иллюстрируется как примерами, не содержащими
сложной технической терминологии, так и усложненным лексическим материалом.
Примеры преимущественно заимствованы из современных периодических научных
изданий и рассчитаны на средний и средневысокий уровень языковой подготовки
обучаемого (уровень вузовской программы обучения иностранному языку для
технических специальностей).
Помимо грамматических аспектов значительное внимание уделено так
называемым переводческим трансформациям, составляющим основу техники перевода и
позволяющим осуществлять профессиональное преобразование исходного текста в целях
создания равноценного ему в смысловом и стилистическом отношении текста перевода.
Наиболее значимые сведения заключены в рамку и выделены лиловым фоном.
Данной информации рекомендуется уделить особое внимание, поскольку низкая степень
ее усвоения существенно увеличивает вероятность грубой смысловой ошибки.
Уточняющая информация приводится в рамке и выделена зеленым фоном. Как
правило, это второстепенные сведения, которые расширяют представления о нормах
английской научной речи, но в меньшей степени влияют на качество перевода.
Осуществлять переход к нужному разделу пособия рекомендуется по оглавлению,
элементы которого оформлены в виде гиперссылок. В тексте пособия также используется
система дополнительных ссылок для быстрого перехода к тематически связанному
материалу, а также внешним ресурсам.
Пособие рассчитано на 108 часов учебных часов, в том числе 38 часов аудиторной
работы и 70 часов самостоятельной работы.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 5


1. СПЕЦИФИКА НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОГО ТЕКСТА

Научно-технический текст – тип специального текста, основная функция


которого информировать специалистов об актуальных и наиболее значимых достижениях
в конкретной области человеческой деятельности. Письменная форма речи отличается от
устной употреблением особых лексико-грамматических средств и в целом ориентирована
на принцип информационной достаточности, объяснительной полноты в отсутствие
реального собеседника. Это приводит к необходимости развернутого синтаксиса
(максимум второстепенных членов предложения), строгого лексического отбора
(минимум расплывчатых фраз) и в целом употребления строго конвенциональных
средств передачи информации (отсутствие черт индивидуального стиля автора).

Выделяют следующие грамматические особенности научно-технической литературы:


1) развернутые предложения с подчинительной связью,
2) разнообразие конструкций с неличными формами глагола (инфинитив, герундий,
причастие),
3) активное использование атрибутивных сочетаний,
4) высокая частотность пассивных конструкций,
5) употребление специфических синтаксических моделей (эллипсис, инверсия,
эмфаза).

Расхождения в нормах синтаксического оформления информации между английским и


русским языком обусловливают необходимость различных замен и перестановок.

Для научного стиля также характерны:

 полные, а не сокращенные глагольные формы отрицания:

won't  will not


didn't  did not
can't  cannot

 использование форм отрицания с меньшим числом слов:

not . . . any  no
The analysis did not yield any new results  … yielded no new results
not . . . much  little
The government did not allocate much funding for the program  … allocated little funding …
not . . . many  few
This problem does not have many viable solutions  … has few viable solutions …

 косвенные, а не прямые вопросы:

What can be done to lower costs?  We wonder what can be done to lower costs.

 срединная (внутри глагольных форм) позиция наречий:

Then the solution can be discarded  The solution can then be discarded.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 6


Лексика научно-технической литературы также специфична и включает:

1. слова-термины – основные носители ключевой информации, представляющей


потребительскую ценность;
2. общеупотребительные слова (объем порядка 2500 единиц) – используются во всех
сферах профессиональной коммуникации независимо от тематики. Данную группу
образуют:
2а) слова, имеющие значения, отличные от значений в ненаучной речи,
2б) слова, не входящие в базовый курс иностранного языка,
2в) слова и словосочетания, обеспечивающие связность изложения,
2г) слова и словосочетания, передающие авторскую оценку излагаемых фактов,
2д) фразеологические словосочетания (см. приложение Д).

Термин – эмоционально-нейтральное слово (словосочетание), передающее определенное


понятие, относящееся к определенной области знаний. Многие термины построены по
принципу добавления значения к уже существующей единице (нередко из класса
бытовой лексики), поэтому прежде всего термин нужно опознать в речевом потоке:
table – стол  таблица
jacket – куртка  кожух
plate – тарелка  пластина, проводник
lip – губа  фланец
cushion – подушка  прокладка, амортизатор

Основной способ передачи терминов – эквивалентная замена принятыми в языке


перевода единицами. Если автор английского оригинала использует описательный
прием, говоря о понятии, для которого имеется русский термин, необходимо применить
этот термин. Если в русской терминологии для данного понятия нет термина, нужно
попытаться создать его, используя принятые способы:

Транскрипция:

nanocomposite – нанокомпозит
crystallization – кристаллизация
photoluminescence – фотолюминесценция

Калькирование:

superpower system – сверхмощная система


parasitic capacitance – паразитная емкость
absolute error – абсолютная ошибка
electrosmelting systems – электроплавильные системы
thermomechanical treatment – термомеханическая обработка

Описательный перевод:

counter-current – ток обратного направления (противоток)


mesh voltage – напряжение между смежными линиями многофазной системы
pocket – область в полупроводниковой подложке с противоположным типом проводимости

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 7


На протяжении всего текста необходимо соблюдать единообразие терминологии,
одновременно учитывая узкий контекст!

В целом лексика научно-технического текста лишена эмоциональности. Это


обусловливает практически абсолютную переводимость специальных текстов. Однако
нужно помнить о большей образности английской лексики, что нередко вынуждает
прибегать к нейтрализации:

extremely (крайне, чрезвычайно)  весьма


exciting (захватывающий, увлекательный)  интересный, перспективный, важный
fascinating (очаровательный, обворожительный)  интересный, любопытный
striking (поразительный, замечательный)  значительный, убедительный
vigorous (сильный, энергичный)  значительный
mysterious (загадочный, таинственный, непостижимый)  неясный, необъяснимый

Для научной литературы характерно употребление вместо исконно английских слов слов
французского происхождения и латинизмов:

ask  request
want  desire
allow  permit
try  endeavour
follow  pursue
begin  commence
finish, complete  finalize
increase  maximize
allow choice  optionalize
start  operationalize
use  utilize
make aware  familiarize

Равным образом в письменной научной речи крайне ограничено употребление фразовых


глаголов (т.е. глаголов с частицей, модифицирующей исходное значение):

build up  accumulate
help out  assist
make up for  compensate
set up  establish
cut down  reduce
go up  increase
come up with  create
find out  determine
look into  investigate
bring up  raise
get rid of  eliminate
turn down  reject
put up with  tolerate

Число подобных «десемантизированных» (т.е. не передающих саму научную


информацию) глаголов достаточно велико, что позволяет нередко унифицировать
переводные эквиваленты:

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 8


использовать  use, make use, utilize, exploit, employ, apply, adopt, realize и т.д.
обеспечивать  provide, allow for, ensure, attain, achieve, obtain, generate, offer и т.д.
достоинство  advantage, benefit, virtue, advance, attraction, strength, bonus, merit и т.д.
перспективный  advanced, viable, desirable, exciting, feasible, promising и т.д.

Другой лексической закономерностью перевода общенаучной лексики является


деинтернационализация, т.е. отказ от формализации при переводе поверхностного
значения:

critical (критический)  важный, значительный, существенный и т.д.


dramatic (драматичный)  сильный, значительный и т.д.
practical (практический)  приемлемый, целесообразный, возможный и т.д.
routinely (повседневно)  постоянно, обычным способом, без особых усилий и т.д.
horizon (горизонт)  перспектива, возможность и т.д.

Доминирующий тип информации в научно-техническом тексте – когнитивный.


Когнитивная информация – это объективные знания о внешней действительности и
сообщение таких знаний – доминирующая функция любого профессионально-
ориентированного текста. Помимо когнитивной информации выделяют информацию
эмоциональную, эстетическую, оперативную. Процент данных видов информации в
научно-технической литературе крайне мал.

Когнитивная информация обладает тремя ведущими свойствами, которые имеют


конкретное языковое воплощение:

ОБЪЕКТИВНОСТЬ АБСТРАКТНОСТЬ ПЛОТНОСТЬ


Настоящее время глагола Сложность и разнообразие Сокращение линейной
(вневременная логических структур протяженности текста
информация) синтаксиса
Модальность реальности Развернутый синтаксис, Лексические сокращения
(реже – вероятности при повышенная длина фраз (аббревиатуры,
выражении гипотезы) сложносокращенные слова)
Нейтральный, Предельная выраженность Компрессирующие знаки
прямой порядок слов средств связности пунктуации (скобки,
субъект : предикат : объект двоеточия)
Безличные / Обилие и разнообразие Компоненты других
неопределенно-личные словообразовательных знаковых систем (цифры,
конструкции моделей формулы и т.д.)
Пассивность глагольных Номинативность Графические и др.
форм (преобладание изобразительные средства
отглагольных существит.) (схемы, фотографии и т.д.)
Преобладание терминов на Десемантизация глаголов
нейтральном фоне (ключевая информация
смещена к подлежащему)
Общенаучная лексика с Активное использование
развитой синонимией шрифтовых средств

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 9


В следующем фрагменте выделен ряд типичных особенностей, обозначенных выше:

Producing nanosized InN structures raises the possibility of making devices whose operation is based
on quantum effects. However, InN nanostructures grown from either indium chloride or indium oxide by
metal–organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) often contain unwanted impurities. Now, Ting-
Ting Kang and colleagues from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing have grown hexagonal InN
„nanoflowers‟ by a „self-catalysis‟ method that does not require either of these precursors or any foreign
catalysts.
In this process, hydrogen gas is deliberately introduced during MOCVD growth to promote the
formation of metallic indium, which acts as a catalyst for the formation of InN. Although hydrogen is
known to hinder the growth of InN by MOCVD processes, careful control of its flow rate allows the
synthesis to proceed.

Расшифровка цветовых обозначений:

термины

средства связности

придаточные предложения

неличные формы глагола

преобладание настоящего времени сказуемого

Основная задача переводчика научно-технической литературы – передать


в максимально возможном объеме научные сведения в привычной для
русскоязычного читателя форме, минимизируя субъективный фактор

Адекватная задаче переводческая стратегия:

1) наиболее полно и точно передавать когнитивную информацию;


2) обеспечивать корректный перевод терминов;
3) сохранять нейтральный стиль изложения;
4) обеспечивать логичность и последовательность повествования.

Поставленная задача решается главным образом применением необходимых


переводческих трансформаций.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 10


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Найдите в приведенных ниже фрагментах языковые средства, обеспечивающие


объективность, абстрактность и плотность информации.

Generally, the evolution of microstructure during tempering includes behavior, such as


the precipitation, spheroidization and coarsening of carbide particles, and the evolution of
thematrix through recovery and recrystallization processes. The behavior of carbide particles
during tempering is shown in Fig. 2. The needle-shaped cementite particles within martensite
laths, which nucleated at dislocations during the third stage of tempering, are observed as a
main feature when tempered at 673 K (Fig. 2a). As tempering temperature increases up to
773 K (Fig. 2b), most cementite particles begin to reduce in terms of the aspect ratio of the
cementite through a gradual spheroidization, although most cementite particles still maintain
a needle shape. Fig. 2c provides evidence of spheroidal cementite particles randomly
distributed within martensite laths, when tempered at 873 K. To explain the formation of an
extended region in engineering stress-strain curves, which is related to the occurrence of
dynamic recovery during tensile deformation, the source and sink of dislocations inthe
microstructure must be determined. However, cementite particles in tempered steels act only
as a barrier to the motion of dislocations during deformation. Accordingly, the distribution of
cementite particles would not play a role in the formation of an extended region, although it
has an influence on hardening rate during deformation.
The ratio of the wavelength λ of the pump radiation to the size of the nanoparticles is the
key parameter determining the length of elastic scattering of photons in a random medium,
and thus controlling the regime of nonlinear optical interactions. Decreasing the wavelength
of the pump radiation in our experiments, we observed a fast growth in SHG (Fig. 4) and
THG (Fig. 5) efficiencies, even though the transmission of nanopowder films is noticeably
lower for shorter pump wavelengths [22]. This wavelength dependence of harmonic-
generation efficiency in nanopowder films cannot be explained in terms of effective-medium
models [25], and thus indicates the important role of scattering effects. To quantify the
significance of scattering, we estimated the length of elastic scattering of photons for our
nanopowder films using the well-known Rayleigh-theory expression [26]

,
where f is the volume filling fraction of the SiC nanopowder and ε1 and ε2 are the dielectric
functions of the SiC nanocrystals and PMMA, respectively. With the pump wavelength
λ = 1.35 µm, f ∼0.01, and a ∼ 50 nm, the elastic scattering length, l ∼ 300 µm, exceeds the
film thickness (L ∼ 200 µm). As the pump wavelength is reduced to 1.15 µm, the elastic
scattering length, estimated for this wavelength as l ∼ 150 µm, becomes less than the
thickness of the nanopowder film. For both wavelengths, the condition λ/2πl << 1 is satisfied,
indicating that Anderson-type localization effects are still negligible, and scattering occurs in
the diffusion regime in our experiments. The efficiency of scattering is, however,
substantially increased when the elastic scattering length l becomes comparable to or even
less than the film thickness L, lowering the transmission of pump radiation through the film.
While transmitted pump photons are lost for harmonic generation, scattered pump photons
still have a chance to generate the second harmonic in the SiC nanocrystals or the third
harmonic in the polymer material. The role of scattering is thus to save pump photons for
diffuse harmonic generation.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 11


B

The experimental apparatus consisted of holding a polished specimen between the jaws
of a vice so that a piezoelectric crystal oscillator traverses back-and-forth the specimen thus
machining the specimen by creating a depth of cut between the diamonds adhered on the
piezoelectric crystal and the workpiece material. Workpiece materials were polished with a
100 nmsized polishing compound. All samples were divided into four sections and each
section was analyzed prior to machining and after machining occurred. The workpieces were
mounted in a vice that was attached to a x-y-z linear slide in order to achieve accurate
positioning of the workpiece. The piezoelectric crystal was mounted on a steel framework
that was orthogonal to the workpiece. The whole unit was located within a tetrahedral space
frame to dampen excess vibrations (Fig. 7.12). When the crystal and workpiece were aligned,
the depth of cut was incremented in stages of 10 nm. The motion of the diamonds attached to
the piezoelectric crystal generates a machining effect that is caused by the action of
diamonds grinding into the workpiece material. Tracks or trenches are created by the
diamond grain gouging the surface of the material when an electric current is applied. The
material is removed until the end of the oscillating motion creates the material to plow.
The mechanism of oscillation can be described as a restricted bending mode that
simulates a shear displacement of the crystal. At this point it is normal procedure to know
how to estimate the number of grains contacting the surface of the workpiece. The estimation
of the number of active cutting grains is estimated quite simply by driving the diamond
coated piezoelectric ceramic at the prescribed specific metal removal rate into a piece of lead.
The impression that the grinding wheel produces in the length of lead is equal to the number
of cutting points that are active during the grinding stroke at that particular depth of cut. The
effect of oscillating the diamond-coated crystal is shown in Fig. 7.13.

2. Переведите следующие фразы, применяя правило интерпретации архаичных


наречий: where(prep.) = (prep.) + which, here/there(prep.) = (prep.) + it:

A
1. Microprobing may entail extensive circuit analysis wherein the failure site is pinpointed
by analyzing the die circuit stage by stage or section by section.
2. The document provides no indications as to the origin of the knowledge contained
therein.
3. Another alternative is to have individual group members work independently before
meeting as a group (hereafter, referred to as an individual-then-group approach).
4. Optical nanomaterials are mainly based on surface plasmon resonances – the property
whereby, in metallic nanostructures, light can collectively excite surface electron waves.
5. The findings and conclusions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

B
1. This rapid transition within a localized region of the deformation zone has also been
observed in SPD of Ti by machining, wherein direct measurement of the deformation
showed this local region to be characterized by high intensity of strain.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 12


2. This observation of rapid aging in the INCONEL 718 chips is similar to that observed in
Al 6061, wherein chips cut from solution-treated 6061 aged more rapidly and at lower
aging temperatures to reach a peak strength significantly greater than that of the
undeformed bulk material in a micro-crystalline state.
3. Figure 7.1 shows a single-crystalline structure, that moved relative towards the cutting
tool, whereupon material is deformed in front of the tool tip, the chip generation is
initiated and dislocation loops can be identified at the generated workpiece surface.
4. These observations suggest the possibility of chips that are machined from solution-
treated bulk material being dynamically aged during a high-temperature consolidation
process, thereby enabling the manufacture of fully dense, bulk nanostructured materials.
5. This aspect is illustrated schematically in Figure 8, wherein colony A, which is more
favorably oriented for deformation at the shear plane, undergoes SPD to result in a
refined pearlitic structure (A') in the chip.
6. The extensive atom probe tomography results presented herein failed to detect e-carbide
at tempering temperatures lower than 450 °C.

3. Выполните перевод следующих фраз:

A
1. There are a number of problems to be solved immediately.
2. The number of possible strategies is truly surprising.
3. This paper is far from being perfect.
4. The book contains far more than its title suggests.
5. The theorem was proved as far back as the nineteenth century.
6. So far as this important problem is concerned we will discuss it in detail below.
7. The number of participants is fewer in usability testing than in scientific experiments.
8. In the next chapter we will examine in greater detail the statistics. In doing so we shall
return to some of the issues raised above.
9. A number of questions arise here, of which the following two can be singled out as
having particular relevance for the focus of the present discussion.
10. One way is to perform numerical experiments to investigate the effects. In doing so there
are a number of important areas to consider.
11. The question to be pursued in the present paper has to do with the limitations of
a different form of analysis.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 13


B

1. A number of large metallurgical enterprises have adopted this nanotechnology.


2. Industrial experience with nanophase microalloying of steel by means of atomic nitrogen
indicates that it is a practically useful nanotechnology.
3. Further decomposition of retained austenite occurs as temperature increases.
4. Scattering of light in powder materials gives rise to a number of fascinating and
practically significant physical effects.
5. Mn sample was investigated by means of XRD measurements; the spectrum is shown in
Fig. 2.
6. The results obtained were comparable with the results of previous techniques as far as the
crystallite size is concerned.
7. It is known that thermally expanded graphite (TEG) and articles made of this material
possess a number of unique properties.
8. To improve the electric contact between graphite particles a load (20-30 gcm2) was
applied to the cylinder by means of a rod 12.
9. It is evident that the lower the interaction temperature, the higher the nitrite ion content in
the salt melt.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 14


2. НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА
Неличные формы глагола – общее название для следующих отглагольных форм:
инфинитив, герундий, причастие. Каждая неличная форма может использоваться
самостоятельно или входить в состав оборота.
Как и личная форма (сказуемое), все неличные формы глагола имеют категорию
залога (актив/пассив), но не имеют категории времени, поэтому форма perfect указывает
не на прошедшее время, а на предшествование действию, выраженному сказуемым,
а форма continuous – на одновременность протекания двух действий.
Одна их самых больших трудностей при осмыслении английского оригинала
связана с омонимичностью грамматических форм. Так, четыре формы герундия
полностью совпадают с четырьмя формами причастия I, хотя выполняют иные функции
во фразе и, следовательно, иначе переводятся. Всего же в английском языке семь
основных форм с суффиксом –ing:

АНГЛ. ЯЗ. РУС. ЯЗ. ПРИМЕРЫ ПЕРЕВОД


Причастие Личная форма This article is building Автор статьи выстраивает
(в составе глагола the theory for the теорию такого научного
Continuous) scientific field of направления, как промышленная
industrial ecology экология
Причастие Деепричастие Building the theory, it При построении теории важно
(как is important to consider учитывать отношения между ее
обстоятельство) the relationships among частями
the components
Причастие Причастие The group building the Рабочая группа, занимающаяся
(как theory intends to invite построением этой теории,
определение) other scientists from намеревается пригласить ученых
around the globe to из самых разных стран для
share their discovery обмена опытом
Герундий – Building the theory Построение теории требует
requires continued постоянного отслеживания
feedback on what того, что представляется
appears to be working реалистичным, а что – нет
and what is not
Отглагольное Отглагольное The building of the Построение теории
существительное существительное theory involves an in- подразумевает всесторонний
depth study of the анализ полученных результатов
obtained results
Прилагательное Прилагательное Glucose is the basic Глюкоза является основным
fuel and basic building топливом и базовым
material for much of строительным материалом
life живых клеток
Существительное Существительное The building is meant Предполагается, что
to provide updated дополнительные площади в этом
spaces for the test здании будут отведены отделу
department испытаний

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 15


Примеры основных оборотов с неличными формами глагола

ИНФИНИТИВ

Субъектный инфинитивный оборот These stages are believed to occur


перейти sequentially
 Считается, что эти стадии происходят
последовательно
Объектный инфинитивный оборот One might expect the events to be closely
перейти connected with each other
 Можно ожидать, что эти явления
окажуется тесно связанными
FOR + инфинитив Here is another vital point for a specialist
перейти to explain
 Есть еще один сверхважный вопрос,
который должен объяснить специалист

ГЕРУНДИЙ

Независимый герундиальный оборот The engineers’ finishing this work


перейти depends on many things
 Время завершения этой работы
инженерами зависит от многих факторов

ПРИЧАСТИЕ

Субъектный причастный оборот One must not consider this distinction as


перейти holding good absolutely
 Такое различение не стоит считать
абсолютным
Объектный причастный оборот We see this complex process taking place
перейти under our eyes
 Мы видим, как данный комплексный
процесс происходит на наших глазах
Независимый причастный оборот The other conditions being equal, the
перейти acceleration will be the same
 Учитывая неизменность прочих
условий, ускорение останется прежним

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 16


2.1. ИНФИНИТИВ

Инфинитив имеет восемь форм, из которых наиболее употребительными


являются четыре (выделены жирным шрифтом):

TO MAKE TO BE MADE
TO BE MAKING TO BE BEING MAKING
TO HAVE MADE TO HAVE BEEN MADE
TO HAVE BEEN MAKING TO HAVE BEEN BEING MAKING

Инфинитив выполняет функции всех членов предложения но, будучи неличной формой
глагола, не может являться сказуемым, хотя может быть его смысловой частью.

ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ:
To prove this law experimentally is very difficult.
 Доказать этот закон экспериментально трудно.
To account for these variations is straightforward.
 Объяснить эти колебания легко.
ИМЕННАЯ ЧАСТЬ СОСТАВНОГО СКАЗУЕМОГО:
Our task was to prove this hypothesis.
 Нашей задачей было доказать эту гипотезу.
The first step will be to observe such deviations.
 Первым шагом будет изучение этих отклонений.
ЧАСТЬ МОДАЛЬНОГО СКАЗУЕМОГО:
One ought to know this concept.
Необходимо знать эту концепцию.
They must have neglected the main cause.
 Должно быть, они не учли основной причины.
ДОПОЛНЕНИЕ:
We try to minimize the old disadvantages.
 Мы пытаемся свести к минимуму прежние недостатки.
We need to deal with this issue at once.
 Нам необходимо решить этот вопрос немедленно.
ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ:
This is the main difficulty to be taken into consideration.
 Это основная сложность, о которой нужно помнить.
This is the principle not to be forgotten.
 Об этом принципе нельзя забывать.
ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВО
 ЦЕЛИ:
Work expands so as to fill the time available for it.
 Объем работы растет, чтобы заполнить все выделенное на нее время.
 ПОСЛЕДУЮЩЕГО ДЕЙСТВИЯ:
Elements combine chemically to form compounds.
 Химические элементы взаимодействуют и образуют соединения.
 СЛЕДСТВИЯ:
The procedure was easy enough to be widely applied.
 Эта процедура была достаточно простой, чтобы получить широкое распространение.

Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели легко перепутать с инфинитивом в функции


обстоятельства последующего действия, хотя переводятся они по-разному. При принятии
решения необходимо руководствоваться логикой контекста и здравым смыслом!

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 17


Инфинитив как вводный член предложения

Помимо указанных функций инфинитив входит в состав целого ряда вводных


конструкций, например:

to anticipate (a little) забегая вперед, следует сказать, что ...


to be sure конечно, несомненно
to begin with начнем с того, что ...; прежде всего; для начала
needless to say нечего и говорить; не стоит и говорить; само собой разумеется
not to mention не говоря уже о ...
to mention only (one) не говоря о других; мы упоминаем только
to put (it) in another way другими словами
to put it more exactly точнее говоря
to say the least по меньшей мере; мягко выражаясь
to say nothing of не говоря (уже) о, не считая
so to say так сказать, как говорится
suffice it to say достаточно сказать, что ...
to sum up / conclude суммируя (в заключение), следует сказать, что ...
to summarize подводя итоги, следует сказать, что ...
that is to say то есть, иначе говоря
to tell the truth по правде говоря, признаться
to take an example приведем пример; например
to name only a few и это лишь (малая) часть примеров

При переводе вводных конструкций с инфинитивом ориентируйтесь не на буквальный


перевод, а на эквивалентную замену русской конструкцией в целом. Это обеспечит
русскому тексту естественное звучание.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 18


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, обращая внимание на различные функции


инфинитива:

1. Mere observations of the stars cannot tell us which are young and which are old, for all
their changes are far too slow to detect.
2. Now we shall discuss the system of units to be employed later in our discussion.
3. Modern theory considers that at extremely high temperatures all molecules break up to
form atoms or ions which are electrically charged atoms or portions of molecules.
4. There are many things to be taken into consideration when designing such a system.
5. The first satellite to be designed and developed in England was Ariel 3 which was
successfully put into orbit on May 5, 1967.
6. To land a high speed aircraft is a delicate operation even when visibility is good.
7. The phenomenon to be observed tends to take place only in the upper layers of
atmosphere.
8. Pump must use energy to carry out its pumping activity.
9. It has long been established that portions of the Earth's upper atmosphere are ionized
enough to cause refraction and reflection of radio waves.
10. To improve the quality it is important to develop a method that makes the preparation
of these products possible at a reasonable cost.
11. This property of matter to resist any change in its motion is called inertia.
12. Element 94 was given the name of Plutonium to follow Uranium in the same order as the
corresponding planets.
13. He was the first to explain this phenomenon theoretically.
14. A most difficult problem to be overcome in the application of nuclear power to aircraft
propulsion is the weight of the ship.
15. To coordinate the efforts of many groups of engineers constitutes a very difficult task.
16. The instrument to be examined lacks accuracy.
17. The voltmeter is connected across the points between which the voltage to be measured
exists.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 19


2.1.1. СУБЪЕКТНЫЙ ИНФИНИТИВНЫЙ ОБОРОТ

ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ СКАЗУЕМОЕ ИНФИНИТИВ


The system seems to be functioning well.
Кажется, что система работает правильно.

Субъектный инфинитивный оборот строится с ограниченным количеством


глаголов, которые делятся на три группы:

I. Глаголы, употребляемые в действительном залоге:

to seem – казаться
to appear – казаться, по-видимому
to prove
to turn out – оказываться
to come out
to happen
to chance – случаться, случайно оказаться, доводиться

II. Глаголы, употребляемые в страдательном залоге:

to believe – полагать, считать to say – говорить


to suppose – предполагать, полагать to show – показывать
to think – считать, полагать to report – сообщать
to consider to announce – объявлять
to hold – считать to state – утверждать
to take to claim – утверждать, считать
to assume – допускать, предполагать to hold – считать
to know – знать (известно) to suffer – терпеть, допускать
(чтобы)
to intend – иметь в виду, предполагать to pronounce – объявлять, провозглашать
to mean – полагать, считать to find – обнаруживать,
оказываться
to expect – ожидать, предполагать to see – видеть
to estimate – подсчитывать to observe – наблюдать
to prove – доказывать to feel – чувствовать, ощущать
to understand – предполагать, полагать to hear – получать сведения
to allege – заявлять, утверждать

III. Составные глаголы:


to be likely – вероятно, может быть
to be not likely – маловероятно, не может быть
to be unlikely – вряд ли, едва ли
to be sure – конечно, несомненно
to be certain – наверное, обязательно

Многие глаголы в составе данного оборота переводятся иначе, чем при независимом
употреблении (т.е. вне моделей)!

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 20


При переводе необходимо учитывать время глагола, стоящего перед инфинитивом, ср.:
These forces are believed to act…  Считается, что эти силы действуют …
These forces were believed to act…  Считалось, что эти силы действуют …

а также форму инфинитива: Indefinite и Continuous переводится сказуемым в настоящем


времени, a Perfect и Perfect Continuous – сказуемым в прошедшем времени; ср.:
It seems to be an exception to the rule  Это кажется исключением из правила.
It seems to have been an exception to the rule  Кажется, что это было исключением.

Примечание. После глагола to expect (to be likely) инфинитив обычно переводится


будущим временем:
The result is expected to agree with theoretical predictions.
 Ожидают (ожидается), что результат будет совпадать с гипотезой.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Сделайте перевод фрагментов следующих фраз, обращая внимание на время и


форму глагола и инфинитива:

1. Light is thought to be…


2. The speed of these particles is found to be…
3. The solid fuel rocket is known to be used…
4. These effects are believed to have appeared…
5. These charged particles are supposed to possess…
6. The direction of the current is assumed to be…
7. The diameter of this star is reported to be…
8. These conditions are likely to be found…

1. The particle is found to develop speed…


2. The particle is found to have developed speed…
3. The particle was found to develop speed…
4. The parcticle has been found to develop speed…
5. The properties of the elements are known to vary…
6. The properties of the elements are known to have varied…
7. This limitation appears to have been overcome…
8. This limitation appeared to be overcome…

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 21


2. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, обращая внимание на субъектный
инфинитивный оборот:

1. Tungsten proves to be suitable for making filaments because of its high melting point.
2. This device seems to have been in operation for a long time.
3. If this can be shown to be true, it would greatly improve our understanding of the
phenomena.
4. There is another important class of objects to which our analysis does not seem to be
applicable.
5. These elements are known to have been found two decades ago.
6. The atomic number is found to correspond to the charge of the nucleus of an atom.
7. In physics the words nucleus and nuclei refer to the positively charged bodies which were
shown by Rutherford to exist at the centre of the atoms of all substances.
8. There seemed to be nothing to disapprove the hypothesis.
9. The proton is found to be 1840 times heavier than the electron.
10. A current which always flows in one direction along a wire is said to be a direct current.
11. The four best conducting metals proved to be silver, copper, gold and aluminium.
12. The speed of light in vacua is one of the fundamental physical constants and has been
found to be very close to 3.00x1010 centimetres per second.
13. There does not appear to be a promising approach to solution of the problem.
14. The data obtained are reported to be in conformity with the preliminary calculations.
15. The theory does not seem to give results which are in good agreement with observation.
16. The term „nanotechnology‟ is believed to have first been used by the late Professor Norio
Taniguchi of Tokyo Science University in 1974.

3. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, обращая внимание на субъектный


инфинитивный оборот:

1. Centrifugal casting is proved to be a versatile casting method for producing different


types of FGM components based on property requirements.
2. This mechanism is believed to be responsible for the narrow grain-size distribution that is
usually found in the products.
3. Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) are in their early stages of evolution and are
expected to have a strong impact on the design and development of new components and
structures with better performance.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 22


4. Al-SiC FGM fishing boat cable pulleys are reported to be fabricated successfully by
centrifugal casting method.
5. While the apparently undoped large platelets might have little influence, both the low-
doped irregularly shaped particles and the highly doped hexagonally shaped particles are
expected to contribute to the magnetic behavior.
6. The synthesized iron nanoparticles are known to have a two-layered shell-core structure
composed of a-Fe in the core, Fe3O4 in the inner shell, and FeO(OH) in the outer shell.
7. The difference in the conductivities between thin films and bulk materials is considered
to be caused by the structure defect.

1. The chemical compositions in those regions are expected to be equivalent and are
eutectic.
2. Also, from Eq. (10.21), the magnitude of the stress on the left-hand face of the wedge is
found to be dependent upon the tangential force component, Ft, and the force component
ratio, n.
3. Laser irradiation is considered to be a point source with heat energy flowing radially
away from the point.
4. Experimental data is provided for two tracks and cooling rates are calculated at the
melting temperature of the abrasive material (2045 K), which is assumed to be the
maximum cooling rate (Figure 10.25).
5. Therefore, for high laser power the cooling rate is expected to be lower compared to
those calculated for 400 W and 500 W.
6. In contrast, the density of molten copper is known to be 7.938 Mg/tn at 1356 K [23],
much larger than that of molten aluminum.

C
1. Recently, ultrafine grained (UFG) materials with grain size less than 1 μm have been
studied extensively because they are expected to provide high strength without the
degradation of toughness.
2. Substitutional elements are expected to redistribute as the mixture of bainitic ferrite and
retained austenite are tempered.
3. Individual dislocations are believed to arise from regions in ferrite with relatively high
dislocation densities.
4. Silicon is known to retard the formation of cementite during the tempering of martensite.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 23


5. Errors in positioning atoms in the present experiments are estimated to be less than 1 nm,
based on the abrupt change in carbon concentration at the ferrite/cementite boundary
from undeformed pearlite, shown in Figure 7(a).
6. This process affects the friction coefficient and the wear rate and is considered to be a
key mechanism for the running-in.
7. Cubic liquid crystalline nanostructured particles (cubosomes) formed from phytantriol
(PHY) were shown to sustain the absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) beyond 48h.
8. Nuclei of atoms with high atomic numbers are more likely to produce drastic changes in
the energies of high energy free electrons. Thus the nucleus of a hydrogen atom is less
likely to produce a substantial change in the kinetic energy of a 50,000eV electron than
the nucleus of an atom of gold.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 24


2.1.2. ОБЪЕКТНЫЙ ИНФИНИТИВНЫЙ ОБОРОТ

ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ СКАЗУЕМОЕ 1-Е ДОПОЛНЕНИЕ ИНФИНИТИВ


We proved this suggestion to be wrong.
Мы доказали, что данное предположение ошибочно.

Объектный инфинитивный оборот строится с ограниченным количеством


глаголов, которые делятся на две группы:

I. Глаголы, после которых инфинитив употребляется без частицы to:


to feel – чувствовать
to hear – слышать
to see – видеть
to perceive – ощущать
to notice – замечать
to watch
to observe – наблюдать

II. Глаголы, после которых инфинитив употребляется c частицей to:

to desire – желать, хотеть to expect – ожидать, предполагать


to hate – ненавидеть to find – находить, обнаруживать
to intend – предполагать to imagine – воображать, представлять
to like – нравиться, любить to judge – считать
to mean – полагать to know – знать
to want – хотеть to prove – доказывать
to wish – желать, хотеть to hold – считать
to assume – считать, полагать to reckon – считать
to nelieve – полагать to suppose – предполагать
to consider – считать to show – показывать
to estimate – считать to think – думать, полагать
would like – хотел бы
(should)

При переводе необходимо учитывать время глагола, стоящего перед инфинитивом, ср.:
We know this device to optimise …  Мы знаем, что это устройство оптимизирует …
We knew this device to optimise …  Мы знали, что это устройство оптимизирует …
а также форму инфинитива: Infinitive Indefinite и Continuous переводится сказуемым в
настоящем времени, a Infinitive Perfect и Perfect Continuous – сказуемым в прошедшем
времени, ср.:
We hold it to be self-evident.
 Мы считаем, что эта мысль самоочевидна.
Experience shows this strategy to have produced better results.
 Опыт показывает, что эта стратегия приводила к лучшим результатам.

Во всех случаях сказуемое имеет форму активного залога.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 25


После глаголов to expect / to hope инфинитив обычно переводится будущим временем:

We hope this study to ignite interest in the broader scientific community.


 Мы надеемся, что данное исследование вызовет интерес широких научных кругов.
We expect the scientist to be involved in the work.
 Мы предполагаем, что этого ученого привлекут к этой работе.

Объектный инфинитивный оборот может использоваться после глаголов, стоящих в


повелительном наклонении и в неличной форме:
Suppose α to be a constant value.
 Предположим, что α является постоянной величиной.
We proceeded calculation, taking the value to be valid.
 Мы продолжили расчеты, принимая, что эта величина является правильной.

Разновидностью объектного инфинитивного оборота является так называемая


каузативная конструкция. Эта модель выражает внешнее принуждение или
возможность совершения субъектом какого-либо действия. Перевод каузативной
конструкции отличается от перевода прочих объектных оборотов.

Порядок слов при переводе будет зависеть от того, в какой форме – активной или
пассивной – стоит инфинитив. В случае с пассивным инфинитивом дополнения при
каузативном глаголе меняются местами.

to allow
to permit позволять, разрешать,
to enable давать возможность
to let

This enabled us to handle cybernetic systems. (активная форма)


 Это дало нам возможность иметь дело с кибернетическими системами.
НО! It enabled the temperature to be measured. (пассивная форма)
 Это позволило измерить температуру.

to have добиваться того, чтобы …


to get заставлять

New techniques got more scientists to pay attention to that issue. (активная форма)
 Новые технологии привели к тому, что больше ученых стали уделять внимание этой
проблеме.
НО! We must get more innovations to be implemented in the production. (пассивная форма)
 Нужно добиться внедрения еще большего числа инноваций в производственный процесс.

to make
to force заставлять, вынуждать,
to cause делать так, чтобы …
to lead

It causes monitor to indicate computer failure. (активная форма)


 Это заставляет монитор отображать сбои вычислительной системы.
НО! This sequence causes digitized images to be stored in core memory. (пассивная форма)
 Такая команда производит сохранение оцифрованных изображений в оперативной памяти.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 26


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, обращая внимание на объектный


инфинитивный оборот:

1. We found that effect to have been unknown.


2. We observe the pressure of a given mass of a gas decrease as the temperature decreases.
3. We know a diode to behave as one-way resistance, this property being used for rectifying
currents.
4. The whole problem is so important that I would like you to go over the facts once more.
5. He supposed the statement not to be obvious and believed it to require a proof.
6. We expect these phenomena to have been investigated.
7. There were some reasons to believe it to be the case.
8. The technique permitted problems to be solved that had been regarded as intractable.
9. Although this quantity is not the same, many workers in the past have assumed it
to be so.
10. We know the research to have been completed successfully.

2. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, обращая внимание на каузативные


конструкции с инфинитивом:

1. This allows fine technological operations to be automated.


2. Such an arrangement permits the voltage to increase.
3. His method of approach was to make higher energy electrons pass through a thin metal
foil.
4. The Internet enabled scholars to present their work to the wider scientific community.
5. There is a lack of good sensor probes that will allow online analysis to be made on the
chemical components of the fermentation process.
6. Recent failures got us to reconsider our support for this software.
7. The advanced capabilities of these devices have led the technology to be named a de
facto standard in the high-speed scanner market.
8. This procedure has the great advantage that it enables us to investigate the interaction of
matter with protons, deuterons and neutrons.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 27


2.1.3. FOR + ИНФИНИТИВ

ПРЕДЛОГ FOR СУБЪЕКТ / ОБЪЕКТ ИНФИНИТИВ


For the material to be published…
Чтобы материал был опубликован...

Конструкция for + инфинитив может располагаться в любом месте фразы, таким


образом выполняя функцию любого члена предложения:

 Обстоятельство:

For this work to continue on firm ground benchmark verification is desperately needed.
 Чтобы выводы оставались аргументированными, необходимо провести оценочные
испытания. [обстоятельство цели]

There isn't enough time for the material to be published this year.
 Недостаточно времени для того, чтобы материал был опубликован в этом году.
[обстоятельство следствия]

 Именная часть сказуемого:

The main problem is for this material to be published as soon as possible.


 Основная задача состоит в том, чтобы этот материал был как можно скорее
опубликован.

 Прямое дополнение:

It is possible for the powder to be selectively removed.


 Возможным является выборочное удаление порошка.

 Определение:

The only conclusion for him to draw was the following.


 Единственный вывод, который он мог сделать, был следующий.

 Подлежащее:

For the method to be used in practical applications is out of the question.


Не может быть и речи, чтобы этот метод был использован на практике.

При переводе данной конструкции предлог for утрачивает свое привычное значение и
требует в большинстве случаев замены на союз «чтобы» (за исключением случаев, когда
конструкция имеет функцию определения или части составного сказуемого – см. выше).
Во всех случаях в русской фразе необходимо построить придаточное предложение.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 28


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, обращая внимание на конструкцию «for +


инфинитив»:

1. The current is large enough for fuse to blow.


2. The exceptions here are too numerous for any rule to be stated.
3. For the pressure to be reduced to safe limits the foundations may be widened.
4. It is quite possible for this method to acquire many advocates.
5. This mechanism is provided with special devices for the whole system to function
automatically.
6. For this experiment to be scientifically valid, the test groups would have to be much
larger and genetically identical.
7. For lost circulation to occur, the size of the pore openings of the induced fractures must be
larger than the size of the mud particles.
8. It is well known, for example, that with people who have often discussed some subject
together a few words are enough for them mutually to understand some very complex
point, which it would take many words for them to explain to an outsider.
9. As with any machine, the corporate innovation machine comprises several components,
all of which must work together for the machine to work properly.
10. This initial data collection has provided a solid base of data for the project to
launch from.
11. In order for the research to be approved, it shall receive the approval of a majority
of those members present at the meeting.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 29


ИНФИНИТИВ – повторение

1. It is quite necessary for him to make common calculations to approach the solution of the
problem.
2. The experiments to be made will help us to approach the subject under investigation.
3. There are two approaches to the solution of the problem, one to be used
in analytical investigations, the other in simulation.
4. Many supposed the statement not to be obvious and believed it to require
a proof.
5. For us to examine the problem from another point of view is crucial.
6. It would be very nice if one could have a computer do the thinking and have
a computer make the decisions.
7. We know this experiment to be followed in many researches on the subject.
8. It is necessary for the investigator to apply the knowledge gained from
his library to the exploration problem.
9. High temperatures allowed the reaction to be carried out in two hours.
10. People‟s knowledge is assumed to be well-organized and to facilitate
the understanding of new information.
11. The talks are intended to share the latest advanced ideas in this field.
12. Two years were sufficient for the work to be done.
13. This change seems to have begun towards the end of the last century.
14. To strengthen the magnetic field means to increase the acceleration of the particles.

1. We know this value to have been derived from that equation.


2. The problem is far too involved for one to be able to solve it.
3. We are going to overcome this difficulty with various means to be tried.
4. There seems to be a general tendency for industrial problems to become more complex.
5. The technology is thought to be extremely expensive, with questionable returns on
investment.
6. The language of specialists is often difficult for the layman to read.
7. There does not appear to be a promising approach to the solution of the problem.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 30


B
1. When sound waves are directed on the diaphragm they cause it to move backwards and
forwards.
2. The resistance of the conductor is known to depend not only on the material it is made of
and its temperature but on its diameter and length as well.
3. For a sound to be heard by the human ear it should be between the frequencies of
approximately 20 cycles and 15,000 cycles.
4. Scientists suppose magnets and their properties of attraction to have been known for
nearly 5,000 years.
5. Newton stated that the force which makes objects fall towards the Earth is only a special
case of a general attraction between any two masses.
6. We now know any sample of ferromagnetic material at room temperature to be made up
of macroscopic domains (of the order of a few thousandths of an inch) where the atoms
are completely lined up.
7. The force between parallel currents can be measured and is found experimentally to be
proportional to the product of the currents and inversely proportional to the distance
between them.

Technology is rapidly growing. Something which is a future in technology will become


history tomorrow. Technology of future is believed to be comparatively more
sophisticated. Anything which is natural will be amalgamated with technology to produce
something beneficial for the human kind. Also, the future of technology is believed to be
more user-friendly. Future technology will be more convenient to use as there would be
enough options for technological devices.

Becquerel experimented with fluorescent substances to see if they emitted X-rays as well
as visible light. He was among the first to suspect that one radioactive element will
change into another one. Becoming interested in the new field of radioactivity he
discovered that radioactive substances emit three kinds of “rays” (“alpha”, “beta”, and
“gamma”). The discovery of X-rays and the discovery by Becquerel which followed
caused the Curies to study radioactivity.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 31


2.2. ГЕРУНДИЙ

Как и остальные неличные формы, герундий имеет пассивную и перфектную


форму, таким образом, возможны четыре варианта герундия:

MAKING BEING MADE


HAVING MADE HAVING BEEN MADE

Отличительная черта герундия – сочетание в себе признаков глагола и существительного,


поэтому переводить его можно обеими этими частями речи.

Герундий (и обороты с ним) выполняет функции всех членов предложения, кроме


сказуемого, но может быть частью сказуемого:

ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ:
Reading сritically is a step demanded for creating a serious paper.
 Критическое чтение – необходимый этап написания серьезной научной статьи.
Defining temperature is not so easy.
 Измерение температуры не такая простая задача.

ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ:
This compound has the advantage of being cheap.
 Преимущество данного соединения – дешевизна получения.
It is one way of making assessment more innovative and authentic.
 Это один из способов сделать процедуру оценки более инновационной и объективной.

ПРЯМОЕ ДОПОЛНЕНИЕ:
We started arranging another series of experiments.
 Мы начали планировать очередную серию экспериментов.

А. После определенных глаголов, как правило, всегда используется герундий:


to avoid – избегать
to deserve – заслуживать
to prefer – предпочитать
to require – требовать
to resist – сопротивляться
to try – пытаться
to favour – благоприятствовать

Б. Глаголы, передающие начало, продолжение, прерывание действия:


to begin, to start – начинать
to continue, to go on – продолжать
to finish – заканчивать
to give up – переставать, отказываться от
to keep (on) – продолжать
to stop – прекращать

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 32


КОСВЕННОЕ ДОПОЛНЕНИЕ:
After heavy analysis made, we had thought of creating a specialized device.
 После тщательного анализа мы приняли решение разработать специальное устройство.

Типично использование герундия после глаголов:


to fall to – начинать, приниматься
to account for – объяснять
to aim at – стремиться
to prevent from – мешать, препятствовать
to succeed in – удаваться
to object to – возражать, быть против
to provide for – предусматривать
to be capable of – быть способным на…

ИМЕННАЯ ЧАСТЬ СОСТАВНОГО СКАЗУЕМОГО:

А. глагол-связка be:
The work of geologists is looking for oil and gas in new areas. [внешнее сходство с present cont.]
 В задачи геологов входит разведка нефтеных и газовых месторождений в новых областях.

Б. словосочетания с герундием:
cannot help … – нельзя не …
it is worth / it is worthwhile … – стоит
no use / no good … – бессмысленно, бесполезно

They could not help using this information.  Они не могли не воспользоваться этими данными.
It is worth discussing this phenomenon.  Данное явление заслуживает обсуждения.
It is no use considering these sources.  В рассмотрении данных источников нет смысла.

ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВО:
This process can never be completed without consuming much energy.
 Этот процесс не может быть завершен без потребления большого количества энергии.

А. времени:
Г. условия:
on (upon) – после, по завершении
in case of – в случае, если
in – при, в процессе
in the event of – в случае, если
after – после
subject to – при условии
before – до, перед
Д. сопутствующих обстоятельств:
Б. цели:
apart from – помимо
for – для
besides – кроме
with a view to – с целью
Е. образа действия:
В. причины:
by – путем, с помощью, посредством
because of – из-за, благодаря
while – одновременно (+деепр.)
due to – из-за, благодаря
without – не (+деепр.), без (+сущ.)
through – посредством, благодаря, из-за
despite (in spite of) – несмотря на
instead of – вместо

Обратите внимание на разницу:


in doing = doing (причастие) – процесс (делая)
on doing = having done (причастие) – результат (сделав)
In solving the problem we applied …  Решая проблему, мы применили …
On calculating this value you must multiply it …
 Вычислив данную величину, необходимо умножить ее на …

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 33


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз с герундием:

1. The author has succeeded in basing his study on sound principles.


2. This work differs from the previous in embracing a wider range of subjects.
3. It is worth noting in this connection that there are at least two kinds of analysis practised
by science.
4. It is possible to change the timing and rate of flow by modifying the structure that
controls the outflows, that is, by changing the size and elevation of weirs, openings,
valves, and other orifices.
5. It is possible to develop a charge at a potential of millions of volts which can be applied
for accelerating elementary particles.
6. In one‟s search to understand what happens in this particular case, one cannot help being
influenced by the history of quite another problem.

2. Переведите, обращая внимание на герундий.

Electrostatic Forces

Forces of attraction and repulsion can be set up between bodies by treating them in
certain ways. The act of rubbing a body with a cloth is the easiest way to charge the rubbed
substance so that it can exert a force on another rubbed body. These forces are electrical in
origin. Two bodies treated in exactly the same manner repel each other, but it is possible to get
two bodies to attract each other by treating them in different ways. In charging a glass rod by
rubbing it with a cloth some of the charge on the rod can then be given to some other objects by
touching them to the charged rod. By making use of electrostatic induction it is possible to
charge conductors over and over again without giving up any of the original charge of the rod. A
conductor has the special property that the outer electrons of each atom are no longer bound to
their particular atom. They are free to flow anywhere in the conductor or into a connecting con-
ductor.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 34


3. Переведите, обращая внимание на употребление герундия.

1. The process of electrization is not one of creating electricity but of transferring electrons
from one material to another.
2. When a rubber rod is charged by being rubbed with flannel and is brought in contact with
a ball or any other light object it charges the ball negatively and repels it.
3. Changing the resistance of a circuit is one of the methods of controlling the flow of
current in a circuit.
4. The rheostat is used in controlling current strength by changing its resistance.
5. We can both increase the resistance of the rheostat by making the diameter of the wire
smaller and decrease its resistance by making the diameter of the wire larger.
6. A machine for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy by making use of the
interaction between a conductor and a magnetic field is called a generator or dynamo.
7. Having discovered the electrical properties of semiconductors scientists were able to use
them for making devices small in size.
8. Obtaining useful energy from mass was strictly forbidden by the old law of conservation
of mass.
9. Notice that the terms positive and negative charge have just been used without first
defining them. The entire next section is devoted to presenting this important new con-
cept of electric charge.
10. Boiling away a pot of water takes a great amount of energy.
11. In a liquid a single molecule will have some difficulty in breaking away from the main
body of molecules.
12. This can be done only by making quantitative measurements and attempting to describe
these measurements by some kind of law or formula.
13. Because of the great difficulty in compressing liquids or solids, we know that atoms must
exert strong repulsive forces on each other when compressed.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 35


2.2.1. НЕЗАВИСИМЫЙ ГЕРУНДИАЛЬНЫЙ ОБОРОТ

ПРИТЯЖАТЕЛЬНОЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЕ ГЕРУНДИЙ ЗАВИСИМЫЕ СЛОВА


или
ИЛИ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ В getting the results …
ПРИТЯЖАТЕЛЬНОМ/ОБЩЕМ ПАДЕЖЕ получим результаты, …
Our
То, что мы

Сложный герундиальный оборот является эквивалентом придаточного


предложения и может выполнять функцию всех членов предложения кроме сказуемого:

 Подлежащее:

The scientist's having discovered this phenomenon made him famous.


 To, что ученый совершил это открытие, сделало его известным.

 Обстоятельство:

After their analyzing the ions a special method to remove them was proposed.
 После того как они сделали анализ ионов, был разработан метод их удаления.

 Определение:

The process of one substance mixing with another is called diffusion.


 Процесс смешивания одного вещества с другим называется диффузией.

 Дополнение:

We have never heard of any country’s applying this technology.


 Мы не слышали, чтобы какая-либо страна применяла эту технологию.

При переводе оборота притяжательное местоимение или существительное, стоящее перед


герундием, становится подлежащим, а герундий – сказуемым придаточного
предложения.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз со сложным герундиальным оборотом:

1. They insisted on the sample being tested repeatedly.


2. Our having investigated the design of the electrode helped us in altering the original
conclusion.
3. We know of Van de Graaf generator being based on the principle of the induction
machine.
4. Mankind is interested in atomic energy being used only for the cause of peace.
5. The experiments made showed the behavior of the particles being influenced by the
magnetic field.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 36


2. Переделайте следующие фразы, используя сложный герундиальный оборот по
образцу:

Immediate recognition of a discovery depends largely on the fact it is made at a proper


moment.
 Immediate recognition of a discovery depends largely on its being made at a proper
moment.

1. The idea that scientists are responsible for most ills of the present-day situation is
unfortunately quite popular.
2. The story of radioactivity begins with the fact that Henry Bequerel reported his discovery
of rays of unknown nature.
3. The fact that Mendeleev had established a periodic law of nature has entered his name
into the history book of the world science.
4. Science is sometimes humorously defined as a practice by which the scientist satisfies his
curiosity at the expense of the Government.
5. A brain-storming session consists in the activity when everybody is proposing as many,
and as wild, ideas as possible, without being concerned as to whether they are workable.

3. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз со сложным герундиальным оборотом:

1. The heat treatment consists in our raising the temperature to about 2500° for a brief
period.
2. Wе know of the earth behaving as a large magnet.
3. Gases and liquids are perfectly elastic, after their being compressed they return to their
original volume as soon as the арplied force is removed.
4. The material is extremely hard, corrosion resistant, and capable of being used at high
temperature.
5. We know of Jacobi's having invented an electromagnetic engine for practical purpose.
6. The potential of a conductor rises because of the electrons being crowded upon a
conductor.
7. By our increasing the pressure we increase the force of friction.
8. There is little chance of our getting the complete analysis of the measurements within ten
days.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 37


ГЕРУНДИЙ – повторение

1. This failure was due to the designer‟s having been careless.


2. They worked very hard with a view to completing the experiments in time.
3. We could solve the problem in case of your giving us all the necessary data.
4. Besides being very involved this procedure is very costly.
5. In burning the fuel unites with oxygen – one of the constituents of air.
6. Every factor preventing the process from proceeding smoothly led to an unsatisfactory
result.
7. His being able to make more discoveries was taken for granted.
8. This reference book differs from the previous in including a greater number of names.
9. In addition to being both creative writer and critic he is also a scholar.
10. Scientific discoveries affected intellectual life by overthrowing many of the old days
ideas respecting the world and nature.
11. His output of scientific work has been great, but it shows every sign of having been
thoughtfully and conscientiously carried out.
12. Of the numerous methods of conducting similar experiments to be found in literature, the
following are among those which have been proved to be most useful.
13. Man alone has succeeded in impressing his stamp on nature, not only by shifting the
plant and animal world from one place to another, but also by so altering the aspect and
climate of his dwelling place that the consequences of his activity can disappear only
with the general extinction of the terrestrial globe.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 38


2.3. ПРИЧАСТИЕ

В английском языке различают причастие I и причастие II. Причастие I имеет


четыре формы:

MAKING BEING MADE


HAVING MADE HAVING BEEN MADE

Причастие II имеет только одну форму:

MADE

При этом оба причастия выполняют одинаковые функции в предложении.

ПРИЧАСТИЕ I
ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ:

Conflicting reports have been published.


 Были опубликованы противоречивые сообщения.

ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВО:

When making experiments, one should follow a number of rules.


 Проводя эксперименты, необходимо соблюдать ряд правил.
We have developed another method, assuring greater performance.
 Мы разработали другой метод, что позволило нам повысить результативность.

В СОСТАВЕ ВВОДНОЙ КОНСТРУКЦИИ:


Allowing for …, – учитывая …,
Judging by …, – судя по …,
Broadly speaking …, – в общем говоря …,

ПРИЧАСТИЕ II
ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ:

The idea as stated by the scientist is not of any interest.


 Эта идея, сформулированная ученым, не представляет особой ценности.

ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВО:

Remarkably modernized, the factory managed to double the output.


 Будучи существенно модернизированным, предприятие смогло удвоить выпуск.
If done properly, this technique can maximize the quality.
 В случае правильного применения, эта методика может максимизировать качество.

В СОСТАВЕ ВВОДНОЙ КОНСТРУКЦИИ:

As emphasised above, … – как подчеркивалось выше, …


Stated differently, … – другими словами, …
Put another way, – иначе говоря, …

Варианты перевода причастий даны ниже.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 39


Причастие I участвует в образовании времен группы Continuous, выступая в роли
смысловой части сказуемого, например:
We are developing a new program.
 Мы (сейчас) разрабатываем новую программу.
В данном примере сказуемое имеет форму Present Continuous (используется причастие I),
глагол-связка to be не переводится.

Причастие II участвует в образовании времен группы Perfect, выступая в роли смысловой


части сказуемого, а также в образовании пассивных форм (см. подробнее здесь):
We have found a proper solution to the case.
 Мы нашли необходимое решение вопроса.
The estimates are considered in their article.
 Эти оценки рассматриваются в их статье.

Некоторые причастия I и II по форме совпадают с прилагательными, при переводе


важно правильно определить, какая из двух частей речи используется в данном случае:

A turning point – поворотный момент (поворачивающий)


The burning question – неотложный вопрос (горящий)
The rising generation – молодое поколение (поднимающееся)
The finished product – конечный продукт (законченный)

Ср.:
The theory advanced in the early 19th – теория, выдвинутая в начале XIX столетия
An advanced theory – передовая теория

An experiment convincing everybody – эксперимент, убеждающий всех


A convincing argument – убедительный довод

The changes involved in this process – изменения, связанные с этим процессом


An involved problem – сложная задача

Как видно, причастие, в отличие от прилагательного, может стоять после определяемого


слова и образовывать обороты.

Причастие II по форме совпадает с глаголом в простом прошедшем времени. Надо


помнить, что причастные обороты в функции определения в английском языке не
выделяются запятой, поэтому особенно важно до начала перевода правильно определить
сказуемое во фразе:
Heat resistant materials developed in the last decade produced a revolution in a number of
industries.
Developed не является здесь сказуемым, поскольку справа от него мы не находим
дополнения (in the last decade – обстоятельство времени), следовательно, истинным
сказуемым является слово produced правее, a developed – это причастие:
 Жаростойкие материалы, разработанные в прошлом десятилетии, произвели
революции в целом ряде отраслей.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 40


Причастия I и II совпадают по форме с некоторыми предлогами и союзами, например:
Предлоги:
concerning касательно, относительно Союзы:
respecting касательно, относительно considering (that) учитывая, что
regarding касательно, относительно assuming (that) при условии, что
considering учитывая, принимая во внимание providing (that) при условии, что
excepting за исключением provided (that) при условии, что
excluding за исключением
following вслед за

Способы перевода английских причастий на русский язык

Форма Перевод
Залог Пример
причастия определение обстоятельство
Неопределенное читающий,
reading (перех.) читая, прочитав
причастие I читавший
действит.
coming идущий,
идя, подойдя
(неперех.) шедший
будучи читаем,
читаемый,
страдат. being read будучи прочтен;
читавшийся
+ придаточное
Неопределенное читаемый, будучи читаем,
причастие II read читанный, прочитан;
страдат. прочтенный + придаточное
come употр. в сложных временах
Перфектное прочитав, прочтя;
having read –
причастие I + придаточное
действит.
придя;
having come –
+ придаточное
будучи (ранее)
having been
страдат. – прочтен;
read
+ придаточное

Наиболее типичные варианты перевода причастия I

The method being applied for…


 Метод, применяемый для …
 Метод, который применяется для …
Being applied in biology this method …
 Будучи применен в биологии, этот метод…
 Когда этот метод применяют в биологии, …
 При применении этого метода в биологии …
Having applied this method we…
 Применив этот метод, мы…
 После того как мы применили этот метод, …
 После применения этого метода мы…

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 41


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз с причастием I:

1. The conclusions being drawn are based on recent finds.


2. Electronic computers perform both arithmetic and logical operations, making it possible
to control the process under rather complicated conditions.
3. Considering the limited scope of the method, it has yet been used by comparatively few
workers.
4. Strictly speaking, this finding means that the hypothesis cannot be rejected.
5. Many of these questions are fundamental to the problem of our interest, yet, having
raised them, the author left them unanswered.
6. System design progresses through several stages, becoming more detailed in each stage.
7. Generally speaking, there is a national trend toward the beneficial use of biosolids.
8. Being interrelated these quantities are studied together.
9. The experiments being demonstrated are closely related to our work.
10. The acceleration of a body when falling is constant.
11. The valve being used for producing short electromagnetic waves is a magnetron.
12. This subject is very complicated, belonging as it does to the theoretical physics.

2. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз с причастием I:

1. Having been employed abundantly in many industrial processes electronic computers


show a notable example of progress contributing to the development of industry.
2. When releasing the nuclear energy in a gram of helium it is possible to produce 190,000
kilowatt-hours of electric energy.
3. Having introduced a purely mathematical definition of a system, let us now make precise
another intuitive concept – that of a process.
4. Certain natural radioactive elements which differ greatly from one another in their
radioactive properties were found to be chemically inseparable, suggesting that their
external structures are identical though their nuclei differ.
5. Having taken everything into consideration we decided to discontinue further research.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 42


3. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз с причастиями:

1. The idea can be pronounced true if tested by experience.


2. A barometer is an instrument measuring atmospheric pressure.
3. The group joined by them consisted of eleven people.
4. The results obtained disagreed with earlier data.
5. If taken separately the sentence may be rendered in quite a different sense.
6. The review is divided into three parts followed by a brief comment.
7. Mercury is used in barometers, having a great specific gravity.
8. The measurements thus made are not accurate enough.
9. The values found are of some interest.
10. If directed properly the particles will be constantly accelerated by a set of strong magnets.
11. Having been discovered many years ago this metal found wide application in industry
quite recently.

4. Проанализируйте следующие примеры и определите, причастием II или


глаголом в прошедшем времени являются выделенные слова. Сделайте перевод
фраз.

1. The hypothesis concerned synthesized materials and did not apply to natural products.
2. The scientist theoretically predicted complicated interaction between the components
involved in the process.
3. The crystal produced revealed cracked faces.
4. Automatized information processing radically modified the method devised.
5. Prof. Smith proposed a new working hypothesis.
The hypothesis proposed accounts for all the experimental observations made.
6. The institute installed modernized equipment.
The equipment installed modernized our laboratory.
7. At that time the problem presented increased danger of radioactive contamination.
8. The method applied increased the accuracy of the results.
9. The results received changed with the material used.
10. The metal discovered found wide application in industry.
11. The work done was of great importance.
12. The laboratory equipment used was of simple construction.
13. The methods of calculation used showed good results.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 43


5. Проанализируйте структуру данных предложений и определите, причастием
или герундием является выделенное слово:

1. Measuring the temperature we used …


Measuring the temperature will help you in …
2. Increasing length is necessary in some cases.
Increasing the length we change …
3. Escaping from the cathode electrons flow to …
Escaping will not begin will we heat the cathode.
4. Accelerating the particles we direct them along …
Accelerating can be made by means of …
5. Using a magnet is not necessary here.
Using a strong magnet we direct the particles to …
6. Finding this ratio we can …
Finding the ratio is very important in our case.
7. Solving such problems helps us greatly.
Solving this problem he discovered …
8. Calculating the speed we must …
Calculating the speed will not give us …

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 44


2.3.1. СУБЪЕКТНЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ

ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ СКАЗУЕМОЕ ПРИЧАСТИЕ I / II


He was seen repairing the engine.
Видели, как он ремонтировал двигатель.

Субъектный причастный оборот – это конструкция, в которой причастие


характеризует действие/состояние субъекта, выраженного подлежащим.

При переводе оборота сказуемое (в пассивной форме) выносится вперед, при этом
образуется неопределенно-личное предложение. Временная форма сказуемого
придаточного предложения зависит от формы английского причастия:
This phenomenon is postulated as having arisen from excessive heating.
 Постулируется, что это явление возникло в результате чрезмерного нагревания.

В некоторых случаях в состав оборота включается субъект действия с помощью предлога


by. В этом случае при переводе вперед выносится вся группа слов между подлежащим и
причастием:
The problem was recognized by many scientists as being of great importance.
 Многие ученые признали, что эта проблема имеет огромное значение.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Переведите, обращая внимание на субъектный причастный оборот:

1. This data set should intuitively be considered as consisting of two clusters.


2. The reaction may be written as proceeding by the following mechanism.
3. The results were interpreted by Arnauch as pointing to the formula mentioned.
4. This method, previously mentioned as affording good results, is being widely used.
5. Active centres are not to be envisaged as occupying fixed positions on the surface.
6. A quadratic cost function is assumed established for the system.
7. Only those substances which can be considered as being mixtures have a depressed
melting point.
8. The problem can be thought of as being a multivariable generalization of the classical
problem.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 45


2.3.2. ОБЪЕКТНЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ

ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ СКАЗУЕМОЕ ДОПОЛНЕНИЕ ПРИЧАСТИЕ I / II


We disliked the problem being treated in this way.
Нам не нравилось, что эта проблема трактовалась таким
образом.

Объектный причастный оборот – это конструкция, в которой причастие


характеризует действие/состояние объекта, выраженного 1-м дополнением при
сказуемом (само причастие играет роль 2-го дополнения). Иногда перед причастием
ставится слово as, которое не переводится:
They thought the reactions as being of the first order.
 Они считали, что реакция была первого порядка.

При переводе объектного оборота после сказуемого ставится союз что (реже: чтобы,
как), а причастие становится сказуемым придаточного предложения.

Для корректной передачи временного плана важно следить за временем сказуемого


главного предложения и формой причастия:
We know him working on this problem since late 90ies.
 Мы знаем, что он работает над этой проблемой с конца 90-х годов.

We know the problem having been solved long ago.


 Мы знаем, что эту проблему уже давно решили.

Если сказуемое выражено глаголом have или get оборот приобретает значение
каузативности, т.е. «внешнего воздействия», например:
We got the device repaired.
 Мы добились того, чтобы прибор был починен.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Переведите, обращая внимание на объектный причастный оборот.

1. We have already mentioned this method as affording good results.


2. Bohr recognized the substance as having a condensed-ring system.
3. He conceived valence as being a property of atoms and to be a constant for each element.
4. We may think of this molecule as being just like one of benzene.
5. We know the small NH2 group as conjugated with the ring in durene.
6. He regards this concept as being not a simple one.
7. We have the program debugged.
8. He had our research group presented at the last symposium.
9. He considered these finds as belonging to the 2d millennium.
10. Faraday never considered bodies as existing with nothing between them but distance,
and acting on one another according to some function of that distance.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 46


2.3.3. АБСОЛЮТНЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ

СУБЪЕКТ ДЕЙСТВИЯ ПРИЧАСТИЕ ЗАВИСИМЫЕ СЛОВА


The other conditions being equal, …
Если все остальные условия будут равны, …

Абсолютный (независимый) причастный оборот представляет наибольшие


трудности из всех причастных оборотов. Этот оборот:
 имеет свой собственный субъект действия, не совпадающий с подлежащим
главного предложения,
 чаще всего отделяется запятой и может вводиться служебным словом with
(не переводится),
 выполняет в предложении функцию обстоятельства времени, причины и условия.

Абсолютный (независимый) причастный оборот переводится в зависимости от


положения во фразе либо с помощью подчинительных союзов так как, когда, если,
хотя, после того как и др. (если стоит в начале фразы), либо сочинительных союзов типа
причем, а, и (если стоит в конце фразы).

Время сказуемого, которым переводится причастие в составе оборота, определяется


сказуемым главного предложения:
With water being cooled, the rate of the reaction was low.
 Когда воду охлаждали, скорость реакции была низкой.

The temperature reaching the boiling point, the heater will be automatically switched off.
 Если температура достигнет точки кипения, нагреватель будет автоматически
выключен.

Перфектное причастие, как правило, переводится придаточным предложением с союзом


после того как:
The choice having been made, all other alternatives have been rejected.
 После того как выбор был сделан, все другие возможности были отвергнуты.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз с абсолютным причастным оборотом:

1. Chromium having been added, strength and hardness of the steel increased.
2. Their work completed, all the equipment was removed.
3. A body can move uniformly and in a straight line, here being no cause to change that
motion.
4. Performance observations were recorded, with particular attention paid to the variables.
5. Spectrophotometric methods of analysis being restricted to the determination of minor
constituents, we used gravimetric and titrimetric techniques.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 47


6. The works from which to take the samples having been selected, the second question to
decide was that of the quality and quantity of the sample.
7. A new technique having been worked out, the yields rose.
8. Some scientists do not distinguish between pure and applied mathematics, the distinction
being, in fact, of recent origin.
9. The session was over, with many aspects of the problem left unsolved.
10. All factors considered, we believe that the trend is the most likely.
11. The matter of definitions settled, we may begin our consideration of technical aspects.
12. Lesser authors have been chosen for presentation, care having been taken not to crowd
the book with names, dates and details of little importance.

2. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, обращая внимание на абсолютный


причастный оборот:

1. In the metric system the unit of mass was originally defined as the amount of mass
contained in 1 cc of water (at a specified temperature and pressure), this amount of mass
being called the gram.
2. In physics the quantities such as force and energy are usually measured either in meters,
kilograms, and seconds or in centimetres, grams, and seconds, the former being called the
MKS system of units and the latter the CGS system of units.
3. With an object moving with constant velocity, the distance travelled is directly
proportional to the time.
4. Kinematics is the branch of physics which describes motion with respect to speed, time
and distance, the nature of particle or object whose motion is under study being not
specified.
5. The transformer is an apparatus designed for changing the alternating voltages and
currents by means of magnetic induction, the frequency remaining unchanged.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 48


ПРИЧАСТИЕ – повторение

1. When frozen water is a colourless solid.


2. The results so far received do not satisfy us.
3. Unless otherwise stated the value will be considered constant.
4. The results obtained are consistent and may be summed up in one simple rule.
5. Given certain conditions, such work could be done by everybody.
6. Nearly all the technical problems as documented in the literature were solved by this
method.
7. Once designed and if designed properly a relational database is very flexible.
8. Vectors are essentially geometrical quantities, being defined by a magnitude and a
direction.
9. The orientation of a compass needle with respect to the earth‟s north and south poles is
thought of as being due to the presence of a magnet in the interior of the earth, with its
ends or poles close to, but not quite coinciding with the geographic poles.
10. Wear mechanisms in nanogrinding processes appear to be similar to that of single-point
cutting tools, the only difference being the size of swarf particles generated.
11. Sound is known to travel in water at the speed of about a mile a second, the exact speed
depending upon the temperature of water.
12. Scientists constantly explore the unknown, looking for new knowledge and the answers
to unsolved questions.
13. These data must be taken into account, the effect of interconnections being by no means
negligible.
14. The DTA effects are associated with mass losses, with the total mass loss being 11 %.
15. In general there are several ways by means of which electric current can be generated by
magnetic action, all of them being based on the same principle, namely, on the cutting of
the magnetic lines by a conductor.
16. It was thus possible to measure the friction coefficient continuously via on-line
monitoring, with different friction loads chosen as 1, 2, 5 and 10 N, and different rotating
speeds as 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 rpm in testing.
17. Superconductivity is the name given to a phenomenon, shown by some conductors of
electricity, which lose all electrical resistance when cooled below a certain temperature.
18. A good high vacuum is practically a perfect nonconductor, since in it no carriers of
electricity are present. If two metal plates or electrodes are enclosed in a vacuum by a
glass tube, we have an open circuit and no current will flow. However, one of the
electrodes being heated to a high temperature, the thermal velocity of some of the
conduction electrons in the metal becomes high enough for these electrons to escape.
Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 49
ОБОРОТЫ С НЕЛИЧНЫМИ ФОРМАМИ ГЛАГОЛА – повторение

1. High temperatures allowed the reaction to be carried out in two hours.


2. This is a result of their not having specified input variables properly.
3. We consider the process as consisting of three stages.
4. The experiment that is being conducted is of great interest and is thought
of as being highly efficient.
5. They regard the technology as being too complicated.
6. There are two approaches to the solution of the problem, one to be used
in analytical investigations, the other in simulation.
7. This category includes the data known to have been derived from quite different sources.
8. He conceived valence as being a property of atoms and to be a constant
for each element.
9. Many supposed the statement not to be obvious and believed it to require
a proof.
10. This may be taken as being the result of overheating.
11. For us to examine the problem from another point of view is crucial.
12. We disliked the problem being treated this way.
13. He is responsible for the error not having been detected in time.
14. We rely on the experiment being conducted correctly.
15. This device was regarded as affording good results and involving no difficulties in
operating.
16. With the model reconstructed we may start rethinking of the whole process.
17. This machine is being designed without sufficient consideration being given to
programming issues.
18. These conditions cannot be considered as being favourable.
19. Other theories having so far proved inadequate, the dynamic theory
is regarded as the most promising.
20. They took all the measurements during actual operation, this being the usual practice in
those days.
21. Thanks to technology considerable progress has been made with the difficult task of
processing the information quickly enough for it to be of use for weather forecasting.
22. The application of cybernetics to electronic computers is known to be leading to a better
understanding of the working of the brain, and conversely a deeper knowledge of the
„human mechanism‟ is expected to lead to the development of machines of almost human
capability.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 50


23. The thermal treatment of nanostructured materials to improve their properties generally
results in undesirable aggregation and sintering.
24. These plasmonic and carbon nanostructures are believed to offer great potential for high-
resolution color displays and spectral filtering applications.
25. We consider the possibility of using aluminum nanostructures for enhancing the intrinsic
emission of biomolecules.
26. Further studies will focus on extending the results obtained from this study to evaluate
the additional potential for this material to be used in technical applications.
27. For this material to be optimized for use as a compact, tunable laser source operating
between 780 and 1010 nm, several initial growth runs will be conducted.
28. Nano-structural synthesized materials can be fabricated utilizing intensive milling after
combustion synthesis.

Theory of Magnetism

A magnet is an object that can attract certain materials to itself. Such materials known as
magnetic materials are pure or alloyed iron, nickel and cobalt.
Ancient man knew of some magnetic as well as electrostatic phenomena. The ancient
Greeks thought magnetic and electric forces to be of common origin. However, by the sixteenth
century philosophers learned to base their laws of nature more on experiment than contemplation
and there being no experimental evidence of any relationship between magnetic and electrostatic
phenomena, they concluded that magnetic and electric effects were independent. No one was
able to find any force between a charged object and a magnet. The discovery that there is indeed
a force between a moving charge and a magnet was made accidentally in 1820 by Hans Christian
Oersted, a Danish physics teacher. At the end of a lecture on the subject he attempted to
demonstrate the lack of relationship between electricity and magnetism by turning a current next
to a magnetized needle. To his great astonishment he saw the needle making a great oscillation.
Thus the ancient doctrine that magnetism and electricity are related was suddenly given
new life. Magnetic field is quite analogous to electric field. It is a mathematical definition for the
purpose of simplifying calculations and making things easier to understand.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 51


3. ОСНОВНЫЕ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ ТРУДНОСТИ

3.1. ПАССИВНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ

Соотношение пассивного и активного залога в научно-технической литературе


составляет примерно 30/70 %. Такой высокий процент пассивных конструкций
объясняется типичным для научного текста акцентированием действия (процесса,
явления, факта), а не субъекта, совершающего его.

Сохранение порядка слов Изменение порядка слов


английского предложения при переводе

1. Перевод сказуемым Подлежащее содержит новую


в страдательном залоге: информацию:

А. Кратким причастием: Ср.:

These data are presented in Fig. 2. The correctness of the conclusion was
 Эти данные представлены на рис. 2. confirmed by many facts.
 Правильность этого вывода была
The variable was computed. подтверждена многими фактами.
 Эта переменная (величина) была
вычислена на машине. Но!
A number of experiments was performed
This regularity was observed by many to test this prediction.
scientists.  Для проверки данной гипотезы был
 Эта закономерность была выявлена проведен ряд экспериментов.
(обнаружена) многими учеными.
In fact, many criteria are needed to consider
Б. Глаголом с окончанием -ся / -сь: such a weighty decision.
 На самом деле, чтобы принять
The answers are given instantly upon
взвешенное решение, необходимо
demand.
учитывать многие критерии.
 Ответы даются сразу же после
запроса.
Ср.:
Noise is reduced by filtering.
 Шум уменьшается с помощью The phenomenon was explained by
фильтрации. a well-known researcher.
 Это явление объяснил известный
исследователь.
2. Перевод сказуемым в действит. залоге
(рус. неопределенно-личное предложение): Но!
This method was successfully utilized An interesting phenomenon was registered
to predict a reliable model. by this researcher.
 Этот метод успешно использовали для  Этот исследователь отметил
построения надежной модели. интересное явление.

См. также следующую тему.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 52


Правила перевода сложных пассивных форм

Если русский глагол требует предлога, перевод следует начинать с него!

It is quite evident that not every experiment can be relied upon.


 Вполне очевидно, что не на каждый эксперимент можно положиться.

The problem was not dealt with before.


 С этой проблемой раньше не имели дела.
(Эта проблема ранее не рассматривалась.)

Many questions were answered correctly.


 На многие вопросы были даны правильные ответы.

Если за сказуемым стоят два предлога подряд, то первый из них относится


к подлежащему, а второй – к обстоятельству, которое стоит после сказуемого
в пассивной форме!

These conditions, however, will be objected to by other scientists.


 Однако против этих условий будут выступать другие ученые.

The work is often referred to in special literature.


 На эту работу часто ссылаются в специальной литературе.

Обычно в полной форме представлено только первое сказуемое, а второе (и, если есть,
последующие) – только его смысловой частью. При переводе следует использовать
подлежащее для каждого глагола (во втором случае употребляется местоимение)!

This material is much experimented upon and worked at in many institutes.


 С этим материалом проводится много экспериментов, и c ним работают во многих
институтах.

Обратите внимание на перевод следующих сочетаний в пассивной форме:

to give consideration to = to consider – рассматривать


to make allowance for = to allow for – учитывать, делать поправку на
to make an attempt = to attempt – пытаться, делать попытку
to make contribution to = to contribute to – вносить вклад в
to make mention of = to mention – упоминать о
to make reference to = to refer to – ссылаться на
to make use of = to use – использовать(ся)
to place emphasis on = to emphasize – делать упор на, подчеркивать
to take account of = to consider – принимать во внимание, учитывать
to take advantage of = to use – воспользоваться, использовать
to take care of = to care – следить, заботиться
to take note (notice) of = to pay attention to – обращать внимание на

The increase of temperature was taken account of in calculating the value.


 При вычислении данной величины учитывалось повышение температуры.
In this method use was made of pyramid structures.
 В этом методе используются пирамидальные структуры.
An attempt must be made to elaborate a novel approach.
 Должна быть предпринята попытка разработать новаторский подход.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 53


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, соблюдая правила перевода пассивных форм:

1. The discovery of radium was followed by a number of important inventions.


2. This project must be given due consideration.
3. A floating body is acted upon by two sets of forces.
4. The process will be gone on on the surface of the isolating coating.
5. This problem may be approached from different standpoints.
6. Conclusions arrived at at this stage are subject to revision.
7. The general plan should be submitted to, and approved by the committee.
8. His remarks were taken no notice of.
9. The report was followed by a discussion.
10. This author is often referred to.
11. This subject will be given detailed treatment in another essay.
12. This is certainly a great inconvenience, but it must be put up with.
13. This raises more questions than can be dealt with here.
14. That was the principle upon which his attitude to all the problems was formed.

2. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, соблюдая правила перевода пассивных форм:

1. The reaction was followed by measuring temperature.


2. The details will be dealt with later.
3. Fallacies of this kind can often be met with.
4. A decision was arrived at and this is hardly to be wondered at.
5. This central idea must not be lost sight of.
6. This paper was shortly followed by another by the same author.
7. The exceptions are not easily accounted for.
8. These rules were arrived at independently.
9. These aspects will be commented upon in the following paragraph.
10. Some urgent problems of our work have been touched upon here.
11. This system was agreed upon after much debate.
12. The first question is readily answered.
13. This volume was followed by a second one.
14. Efforts were made to elucidate the problem.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 54


3. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, соблюдая правила перевода пассивных форм:

1. The congress was referred to as a most representative forum in this field.


2. No amount of selected examples, however convincing, can be relied upon.
3. As far as other compounds of this series are concerned they will be dealt with in another
chapter.
4. While such special cases are rather easily dealt with the general problem is considerably
more difficult.
5. It is possible, however, that too much emphasis has been placed upon this fact.

4. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, соблюдая правила перевода пассивных форм:

1. This issue has been touched upon earlier in this chapter but it bears repeating here
because it is central to the concept of our interest.
2. In a previous chapter note was taken of one peculiarity that is of crucial importance for
understanding the phenomenon being analyzed.
3. Except where explicit reference is made to the work of others, one is not able to be sure
about the authorship of the theses advanced.
4. Taking account of low quality fuel it is not critical whether use would be made of an
imported engine.
5. Energy from tides, the oceans and hot hydrogen fusion are other forms that can be used to
generate electricity. Each of these is discussed in some detail with the final result being
that each suffers from one or another significant drawback and cannot be relied upon at
this time to solve the upcoming energy crunch.

5. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, соблюдая правила перевода пассивных форм:

1. In his book emphasis is placed on the localization problem.


2. Mention is made of an improved version of this method.
3. An important contribution was made to the study of this phenomenon.
4. In deriving these formulas no allowance was made for temperature increase.
5. Care must be taken to assure that an even number of logical inversions occur.
6. An attempt was made to measure samples by immediately raising the temperature/
7. In their discussion no account was taken of the environmental conditions.
8. Advantage is often taken of the effect of temperature on solubility.
9. In this chapter detailed consideration is given to digital computers.
10. In the following notice is chiefly taken of the former point.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 55


6. Сделайте перевод следующих фраз, обращая внимание на пассивные формы:

1. Ferrite is easily identified by its comparatively low density of carbon atoms.


2. The evolution of the wear curve can be split into three regimes.
3. Only few experimental studies are carried out on evaluation of mechanical properties by
this approach.
4. The highest points of the topography are covered by 200-500 nm thick and compact
layers.
5. No changes of the intensity as a function of temperature have been observed.
6. Heating and melting were performed under argon atmosphere.

1. Emphasis is put on the nanochemical composition of individual grains, as well as on the


magnetic behavior of powder ensembles and of single particles.
2. Various strategies are used to maximize the film thickness. First, it is essential to ensure
there is good adhesion between the film and the substrate.
3. A major effort has been made to reduce stress by alloying with, for example, Si[83] or
metals[84].
4. A gradual increase of the specific surface area with increasing nitrogen pressure up to 3.5
MPa is observed.
5. Laser particle analyzer is here employed to test the dispersity of nanoscale iron particles
in aqueous medium.
6. It is concluded that micrograin boundary carbides reduce creep rates by several orders of
magnitude.
7. Films can be made that are inhomogeneous or graded, so that they have internal stress
relief mechanisms.
8. It is established that the properties of articles made from thermally expanded graphite
(TEG) depend mainly on methods and conditions of their formation.
9. However, no direct proof has been provided so far that these photons contribute to the
harmonic-generation process.
10. Considering the result shown in Fig. 3, it is determined that the concentration of iron
vapor in the chamber increased with the increasing volume fraction of hydrogen.
11. It is postulated that the change in the particle size with the volume fraction of the
hydrogen gives rise to the change in the coercivity of the synthesized iron nanoparticles.
12. It is well known that the presence of excess mobile dislocations in fully martensitic steels
causes the occurrence of continuous yielding in engineering stress-strain curves.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 56


C

1. The formation of microstructures of tempered martensite ferritic steels during a standard


heat treatment, which involves a martensitic and/or bainitic transformation, can be
thought of as a ''severe internal micro SPD process'' (resulting in micrograin sizes and
dislocation densities similar to those achieved by an external macro SPD, e.g. by ECAP).
2. It is well known that the particle size in particle-reinforced or dispersion-strengthened
composite materials plays an important role in controlling its mechanical properties, as
well as the volume fraction of particles does.
3. It is anticipated that the occurrence of recovery and recrystallization in the martensite
matrix during tempering at high temperatures, would possibly enhance the formation of
an equiaxed ultrafine ferrite grain.
4. It is indicated that nanoscale iron particles may agglomerate into larger aggregates of
chain-like structures in aqueous suspension due to their nanoscale size effect, while the
single particle of nanoscale iron ranges from 30 nm to 40 nm as evidenced in the TEM
image.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 57


3.2. ПРИДАТОЧНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ

В английском языке выделяется пять типов придаточных по числу членов


предложения:

 Подлежащее:

That the method is too complicated is obvious.  То, что ...


What has been said above indicates one of the limitations of the method.  То, что ...
Whether these phenomena are related has to be discovered  Являются ли …

 Сказуемое:

The question is how secure the data transfer is.  … насколько …


A serious difficulty will be in that such cases have not yet been considered.
 … в том, что ...
The question remains whether these data are reliable.  … являются ли …

 Определительное:

The methods (that) we have developed may be easily extended to other objects.
 … которые …
He is a scientist whose achievements to date rank him among the world’s top authorities.
 … чьи … / … которого …
These quantities were to be determined correctly, for which purpose we used …
 … и для этой цели …

 Дополнительное:

A computer will do only what it is precisely told to do.  … то, что …


We try to learn whether the value is changeable.  … может ли …
One cannot be sure how long they will continue to produce this model.  … как …

 Обстоятельственное:

Problems cannot be solved until they are accurately defined.  … до тех пор, пока …
Two different sources were used lest there be interference.  … чтобы не …
After the system has been running for some time, it will be possible to …  После того как

Согласование времен в придаточных дополнительных

Сказуемое главного предложения в настоящем времени:

They think (that) the methods differ. (отличаются)


the methods differed. (отличались)
the methods will differ. (будут отличаться)

Сказуемое главного предложения в прошедшем времени:

They thought (that) the methods differed. (отличаются)


the methods had differed. (отличались)
the methods would differ. (будут отличаться)

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 58


Условные предложения (придаточные обстоятельственные)

Союзы: If / only if, even if / even though, but for / not for, unless, in case
+ given that, provided that / providing that

Условное I типа (реальное условие):

The system will fail unless the requirements are satisfied.


 Система не будет функционировать, если все требования не будут удовлетворены.

Given reliable data, it was possible to determine the reaction rate.


 Если имелись надежные данные, возможно было определить скорость реакции.

Условное II типа (возможное, но маловероятное условие):

If the tools were used with greater force, the depth of the cut would be affected.
 Если бы инструменты использовались с большей силой, то изменилась бы глубина реза.

If the question were less important it would not be worth labouring in a review.
 Если бы вопрос был менее важен, он не попал бы в обзор.

Условное III типа (нереальное условие – относится к прошлому):

If this had occurred, individual fractures would have been visible.


 Если бы это произошло, то отдельные трещины были бы видны.

If the system had been checked more carefully, the accident would have been averted.
 Если бы систему проверили более тщательно, аварию удалось бы избежать.

Бессоюзная связь:

Had we time we should test the sample twice.


 Если бы у нас было время, мы испытали бы образец дважды. (Имей мы …)

Had the author concentrated upon a single aspect of his subject, his study would have proved easier
to read.
 Если бы автор сосредоточился на одном аспекте проблемы, …

Were we to compare these data, our representation would take a numerical form only.
 Если бы нам нужно было сравнивать эти данные, то наше изложение приняло бы только
числовую форму.

Were friction removed walking would be impossible.


 Если бы трение отсутствовало, мы не могли бы ходить.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Выполните перевод фраз, обращая внимание на придаточные предложения


разных типов.

1. This is the only way by which we can distinguish which of the two events came first.
2. That it is easy to confuse the two notions is indicated by this example.
3. The decision was that the similarities and differences should be explored in detail.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 59


4. A new approach is being advanced that amateurs should take a look at.
5. What has been achieved thus far is insight into complex material interactions.
6. The problem is whether the results of the test should be recorded.
7. Whether this could be achieved with mechanization was to be determined.
8. The question remains whether this approach is applicable in all cases.
9. There is no particular reason why this should be so.
10. Whether the methods have been used since then is not known.
11. There are some infinite numbers which are larger than any number we can possibly write
no matter how long we work.
12. Whether or not this synthesis will take place is not known.
13. The result is that after many modifications a program becomes nearly unintelligible.
14. What a decision problem is must be clearly defined.
15. Now you must have one thing or the other, for which reason you should make up your
mind which you want.
16. Which method is preferred depends entirely on circumstances.
17. Another set of questions of importance is whether automation is likely to increase capital
requirements materially.
18. That these patterns can be critical has been demonstrated by Fogg.

2. Выполните перевод фраз, соблюдая правила согласования времен.

1. Roberts proposed what was essentially a two-stage process.


2. All this implied that the data had been correct.
3. It was found that although most cases were well handled, things went wrong much too
often.
4. We learned that the results reported by these scientists were erroneous.
5. This was exactly when we felt that performance would exceed our expectations.
6. It was not long before we decided that the question had to be turned on its head.
7. The analyst warned that there would not be enough trained, experienced counselors to
successfully operate the full program.
8. They argued that many variables observed over time exhibited correlated data
structures that could not be ignored without overestimating the effect of an intervention.
9. In the previous study we reported that these compounds were structurally lacking nitro
group.
10. It wasn‟t clear why the same absorbent was not suitable for the separation of sodium
constituent.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 60


11. It was demonstrated that phytoremediation, the process of using plants to remove
pollutants from the environment, had been a success for many chemicals.
12. The scientists hypothesized that this strategy promised to be a fruitful source of new
materials with diverse properties.

3. Выполните перевод фраз, обращая внимание на условные придаточные


предложения.

1. Provided the institute continued along this path, it would succeed in carrying out its task.
2. Had these facts been fully appreciated the cooperation would have taken a different
course.
3. This information would have been highly satisfactory, had it not been for that delay.
4. Of course the waves might have been discovered if Maxwell had not predicted them from
his mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism, but they were not so discovered.
5. Difficulties in interpretation of the results arise unless the particles are of known size.
6. This could have been noticed by the observer if he had inspected the details carefully.
7. Should we weigh this body, we should find its weight so small as to be negligible.
8. If the masses of equal volumes are not the same, the density is not uniform.
9. Were the speed of the rocket equal to that of light, its mass would be infinite.
10. There is little doubt that, had it been fitted to the unit, the trouble would have been
located at once.
11. If there had been fuel salt in the tubes, the increased mass would have reduced their
natural frequency.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 61


3.3. ЭЛЛИПСИС

Эллипсис – это неполное придаточное предложение с опущенным подлежащим


и/или сказуемым.

 Уступительные союзы whatever, no matter how, however, though

No matter how complex the equipment [can be, may be] it is made up of standard simple units.
 Каким бы сложным ни было оборудование, оно состоит из простых узлов.
 Независимо от сложности оборудования, его можно представить в виде простых узлов.

This parameter is not constrained to a specific range, however high [it is].
 Этот параметр не ограничен особым диапазоном, каким бы широким он ни был.

 Конструкции if any / if anything

Objections to this plan, if [there are] any, should be reported to the committee at once.
Если и имеются возражения против этого плана, то они должны быть немедленно
представлены комитету.
Возражения против этого плана, если они имеются, должны быть немедленно
представлены комитету.

Very little, if [there is] anything, could be advanced in the defense of this technology.
Почти ничего нельзя было сказать в поддержку такой технологии.

 Конструкции if + причастие II / прилагательное

If [it is] considered from this point of view, the problem takes on a new aspect.
Если рассматривать проблему с этой точки зрения, то она приобретает (принимает)
другой характер.
But the decision, if [it is] logical, requires a measure of courage.
Но это решение, хотя оно и логично, требует известной смелости.

 Парный союз whether … or

The general principles of operation whether with automatic or semiautomatic equipment are similar.
Общие принципы работы оборудования, будь то автоматическое оборудование или
полуавтоматы, одинаковы.
Общие принципы работы оборудования одинаковы, независимо от того, идет речь об
автоматическом оборудовании или полуавтоматах.

При переводе эллиптических конструкций производится восполнение полной


грамматической формы!

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 62


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Выполните перевод фраз, обращая внимание на эллиптические конструкции.

1. Ideas will have little impact, no matter how good the research, if they are not
communicated well.
2. The list of parameters specifies what information, if any, have to be provided in order to
use the new function.
3. Any order of phenomena, however complicated, may be studied scientifically provided
the rule of proceeding from the simple to the complex is always observed.
4. If considered classically, a molecule with a finite permanent dipole moment will suffer a
torque due to the electric field generated by the other molecules in the system.
5. Each gas has its own critical temperature – the temperature above which it cannot be
liquefied, no matter how great the applied pressure.
6. All glasses contain one or more of the listed substances, but few, if any, contain all of
them.
7. In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear
stress, no matter how small.
8. If anything, technology is giving us new opportunities to connect and interact with one
another.
9. The perception that nanotechnology associated with water has health implications, such
as leakage of the nanostructure/nanoparticles, no matter how unlikely, needs to be
addressed if nanotechnology is to be commercialised.
10. Today, you will investigate a battery of compounds that differ structurally from a known
substrate to determine what makes a proper substrate molecule, what structure renders
a molecule a competitive inhibitor, and what, if anything, makes a molecule simply
innocuous.
11. Though crucial, step 2 involves more than simply identifying issues.
12. Carboxylic acids, whether soluble or insoluble in water, react with strong bases to give
water-soluble salts.
13. Most modern equipment has a good energy rating but, however efficient, will never use
“zero” energy.
14. Any object in orbit, however low, requires more launch energy than to shoot it straight
up to a height of one planet radius, which is half of the escape energy from planet
surface.
15. It is clear that the sides which have been coated in the superhydrophobic composite have
little, if any, ice while the uncoated sides are largely covered.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 63


3.4. СЛОВА-ЗАМЕСТИТЕЛИ

I. Заместители существительных:

1) that, those служат для замены существительных, которые имеют правое


определение, выраженное существительным с предлогом (чаще всего of),
причастием (чаще всего Participle II) или прилагательным:

The most extensive investigation was that of Lehman.


 Наиболее обширным исследованием было исследование Лемана.

We use the method similar in form to those derived in (4).


 Мы используем метод по форме схожий с методами, изложенными в работе
(4).

2) this, these обычно используются в качестве подлежащего (за ними идет глагол).

Typical vibration sensitivities have been established. These are shown in Table 1.
 Были установлены типичные значения вибрационной чувствительности.
Последние (данные значения) представлены в таблице 1.

3) one (ones) может заменять существительное в ед. и мн. ч., которое имеет левое
определение (чаще всего прилагательное):

It is possible to relate this phase diagram to a more conventional one.


 Можно связать эту фазовую диаграмму с более привычной диаграммой.

Слово one, часто встречающееся в литературе, выполняет также функцию формального


подлежащего (переводится безличной конструкцией) и дополнения (опускается):
One should be aware of the conditions
 Нужно принимать во внимание эти условия.
Technological development allows one to reach more and more ambitious goals
 Технологическое развитие позволяет достигать все более смелых целей.

4) the former ... the latter – первый … последний (из названных)

The latter procedure is much more complicated than the former one.
 Последняя процедура гораздо сложнее предыдущей (первой).

II. Заместители глаголов-сказуемых:

1) do / did / does (одночленное сказуемое)

It is a mistake to believe, as does the author, that …


 Ошибочно считать, как это делает автор, что …

2) вспомогательный глагол (многочленное сказуемое)

As science has evolved so has its meaning.


 По мере того как развивается наука, развивается и ее значение.

При переводе всех случаев замещения рекомендуется повторять замещенное слово.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 64


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Найдите в следующих фразах существительные, которые заменены


выделенными словами, и переведите фразы:

1. The system studied in this section is identical to that studied in the previous section.
2. People are usually more convinced by reasons they discovered themselves than by those
found by others (Blaise Pascal).
3. The method adopted was similar to that used in the previous work.
4. These findings can be compared to those carried out by Ashley Craig.
5. The area covered by the present study does not overlap with that examined by Jefferson.
6. Electricity produced from windmills generally costs more than that produced from
traditional sources like natural gas and coal.
7. The behavior of a diode is similar to that of a transistor in that the current flows only in
one direction.

2. Определите функцию слова one и выполните перевод.

1. Among the disadvantages the following ones can be mentioned.


2. The reduced problem has the same structure as the original one.
3. The problem to be solved is fundamentally a mathematical one.
4. One may postulate that this hypothesis holds good under the circumstances.
5. The use of an analogue computer permits one to obtain such records quite rapidly.
6. In Fig. 2 one can see the negative influence of the strategy.
7. This chapter considers the alternative ways in which one could try to bring about such an
improvement.
8. One can expect to obtain unique graded distribution patterns by an application of a
simultaneously combined method with the centrifugal solid-particle and in-situ methods.
9. However, the traditional anodic oxidation of metals in aqueous solutions does not allow
one to prepare powders with a developed surface.

3. Найдите слово-заместитель, определите замещаемое им слово и переведите.

1. These figures should be compared with those in Table 3.


2. Our values are not in accord with those obtained by previous workers.
3. We hope that our research will one day enable computers to understand and communicate
knowledge as well as people do.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 65


4. No structure is possible other than that indicated in formula XVII.
5. As the project size increases, so does the project duration though not at the same rate.
6. The conditions may sometimes be rigorous and at other times less so.
7. It is easier to understand electricity if we regard electric charge as a sort of fluid, like
water, as scientists did for the first 200 years.
8. As a result, the remaining variables then become subdivided into those which do and do
not affect the output.
9. In between the early atmosphere and the present day, atmospheric carbon dioxide has
fluctuated considerably and so has the temperature of the earth.
10. His approach to the problem had much in common with ours.
11. These are the only factors under which the operator has control.
12. Some metals (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, zinc) bioaccumulate, while others
do not (e.g., copper, nickel).
13. This model is a reasonable, if imperfect, approximation that works quite well for some
metals but less so for others.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 66


3.5. ИНВЕРСИЯ

Английский язык относится к так называемым аналитическим языкам, в которых


порядок расположения членов предложения жестко фиксирован и в целом подчиняется
следующей схеме:

ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВО ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ СКАЗУЕМОЕ ДОПОЛНЕНИЕ ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВО

ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ

Дополнения после сказуемого выстраиваются в следующем порядке:

беспредложное косвенное  прямое  предложное косвенное

This brought the research team some interesting information about the system.
 Это дало исследовательской группе некоторую интересную информацию о (этой) системе.

The achievements earned the scientist great popularity among his colleagues.
 Эти достижения сделали ученого очень известным среди его коллег. (… привели к большой
известности)

Such approach gives new researchers a major advantage over conservative scholars.
 Подобный подход дает плеяде новых исследователей большое преимущество перед учеными
с консервативными взглядами.

Для акцентирования внимания на какой-либо части фразы производится инверсия:

 Дополнения:

This mistake we observed in all his articles.


 Именно эту ошибку мы наблюдали во всех его статьях.

Коммуникативный смысл инверсии такого типа должен быть передан лексически на


языке перевода с помощью усилительных слов типа именно, как раз такой и пр.

 Сказуемого:

In Table 3 are given radii of the free ions.


 В таблице 3 приводятся радиусы свободных ионов.

A brief overview is given in this paper of some concepts required for applying formal methods to
software design.
 В статье дается краткий анализ некоторых понятий, необходимых для применения
формальных методов в разработке программного обеспечения.

 Смысловой части сказуемого:

Running through the period of the life cycle are control systems and decision stages at which the
position of the project is reviewed.
 Контрольные системы и этапы принятия решений, на которых оценивается состояние
проекта, сохраняют значимость на протяжении всего жизненного цикла.

Эта разновидность инверсии требует особого внимания, так как форма –ing первого слова
может ошибочно интерпретироваться как герундий или существительное в функции
подлежащего.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 67


 Смысловой части сказуемого в уступительном придаточном
предложении:

Difficult though it may be the problem will be formulated.


 Какой бы сложной ни была задача, она будет сформулирована.
 Хотя задача и сложна, она будет сформулирована.

Their theory, crude as it is, helps to overcome the difficulties.


 Их теория при всех ее недоработках помогает преодолеть эти трудности.
 Какой бы незрелой ни была их теория, она помогает преодолеть эти трудности.

 Вспомогательного глагола при ряде наречий, словосочетаний,


союзных слов (как правило, в начале предложения):

hardly – едва
in vain – напрасно
little – мало
neither – также не
never – никогда
nor – также не
not only – не только
hardly … when/as – едва … как
no sooner...than – как только, не успел ... как
only – только
rarely – редко
scarcely – едва
seldom – редко
nowhere – нигде
frequently – часто, нередко
so – так

Seldom have we seen such outstanding results.


 Редко мы могли наблюдать такие превосходные результаты.

 Придаточные с бессоюзной связью:

Had it been known that the cycle would last up to now, many conclusions would have been made
differently.
 Если бы мы знали, что цикл продлится до настоящего момента, многие выводы были бы
иными (см. подробнее условные придаточные с бессоюзной связью).

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Исправьте ошибки, применив инверсию, и переведите фразы.

1. Only recently we have appreciated the potentialities in this field.


2. Nor we know how to evaluate the performance of the system.
3. Only then a better result becomes achievable.
4. Scarcely we could know environmental consequences that would follow.
5. This book does not attempt to deal adequately with these details. Nor it covers the
techniques used in this device.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 68


6. For this purpose no direct method has been devised, nor it is likely that such a method is
possible.
7. No sooner we have figured out one scientific puzzle than we are called onto the next.
8. Nothing in science is ever completely new, nor the independent work of different persons
is ever identical.
9. Scarcely effect has vanished before it appears again in another place.

2. Переведите, учитывая инверсию различных членов предложения.

1. Remaining to be discussed is the main problem.


2. In Table 2 are given the calculation results.
3. Important for this combustion method is careful comminution, as typically a very small
sample is analyzed.
4. Many of these techniques we used to build 1:35 scale models for various air shows and
conferences.
5. Strange though it may seem, the study of the development of an insignificant germ-cell
will teach the student of nature the genesis of a world or even of a universe.
6. This idea we observed in all his articles.
7. Related to the chemical activity are many other effects.
8. But this kind of argument, highly significant though it may be, does not exhaust the topic
nor does it even go to the heart of the matter.
9. That figure, rough as it is, still compels researchers at leading institutes around the world
to search for planetary needles in the galactic haystack.
10. But scarcely have we made out the structures here when they begin to dissolve
amorphously.
11. Not only should unauthorized users not be permitted to use the device, but sometimes
only one authorized user should be allowed to open the device at a time.
12. Exciting as these developments are, their impact upon society is likely to be limited.
13. This technique we found in the present study devoted to graphene nanostructures.
14. Going through a transition from a uniform period to a variable period (Figure 3c) are all
the helical nanostructures.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 69


3.6. АТРИБУТИВНЫЕ СОЧЕТАНИЯ

Атрибутивные сочетания – это цепочки слов, состоящие из определений и


определяемого слова. Существуют определенные правила перевода таких сочетаний.

Артикль (местоимение), стоящее перед рядом существительных


(без предлогов), относится к последнему слову ряда,
с которого и нужно начинать перевод. Остальные существительные
ряда переводятся в «зеркальном» порядке !

(1) (2) (3)


These errors recovery techniques are well known.

Эти методы исправления ошибок хорошо известны.


(3) (2) (1)

Acceleration factor Vs Integrated circuit

Коэффициент (чего?) ускорения Vs Интегральная схема (какая?)

Но! Supporting point ≠ подпирающая точка  точка опоры

Phase-modulated signal – сигнал, (какой?) модулированный по фазе

Если первым словом ряда является прилагательное, оно обычно относится


к последнему слову, однако для окончательного решения требуется тщательный
смысловой анализ конкретного сочетания !

Global nuclear power production – мировое производство атомной энергии

Но!

Liquid metal cooled reactor – реактор с охлаждением на жидких металлах

В состав атрибутивной цепочки могут входить неличные формы глагола и


прилагательные. Образуемый ими средний компонент сохраняет форму в переводе.

The rock-feeding system [Part.I]  система, подающая горную породу


A water-cooled conveyor [Part.II]  конвейер, охлаждаемый водой
The job scheduling problem [Ger.]  проблема планирования работ
A replication-dependent process [Adj.]  процесс, зависимый от репликаций
An oxygen free gas [Adj.]  газ, свободный от кислорода
The failure-prone device [Adj.]  устройство, склонное к отказам

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 70


Распространенные варианты атрибутивной связи и их перевод

(1) вещество/материал + (2) предмет


 (1) прилаг. + (2) сущ. (им. пад.)
metal surface – металлическая поверхность;
cast iron disc – чугунный диск

(1) вещество/материал + (2) предмет, воздействующий/производящий его


 (2) сущ. (им. пад.) + (1) сущ. (род. пад.)
steam superheater – перегреватель пара
НО! concrete mixer – бетономешалка; stone breaker – камнедробилка

(1) предмет + (2) действие, направленное на предмет


 (2) сущ. (им. пад.) + (1) сущ. (род. пад.)
water treatment – очистка воды

(1) предмет + (2) действие, производимое предметом


 (2) сущ. (им. пад.) + (1) сущ. (род. пад.)
wave propagation – распространение волн
 (2) сущ. (им. пад.) + (1) сущ. (твор. п./предл. пад.)
water treatment – обработка водой (см. контекст!)

(1) предмет + (2) свойство предмета


 (2) сущ. (им. пад.) + (1) сущ. (род. пад.)
metal viscosity – текучесть металла
НО! tank pressure – давление в баке

(1) часть предмета + (2) сам предмет


 (1) прилаг. + (2) сущ. (им. пад.)
ball mill – шаровая мельница

(1) предмет + (2) часть этого предмета


 (2) сущ. (им. пад.) + (1) сущ. (род. пад.)
microscope lens – линза микроскопа

В практике перевода возможны случаи отклонения от данных правил.


Главный ориентир – контекст !

tolerance extremes предельные отклонения


maximum theory теоретический максимум
power output выходная мощность
pressure rating номинальное давление
steel plate толстолистовая сталь
oil solubility растворимость в масле
chlorine substitution замещение хромом
metal-working liquids жидкости, используемые при обработке металла

В отличие от предлога of союзы and или or не прерывают ряда:


It is here that the skills of the process or biochemical engineer and the microbiologist must come
together.
 Именно здесь должны объединить усилия инженер-технолог или инженер-биохимик и
микробиолог.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 71


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Определите, при переводе каких сочетаний потребуется изменение порядка


слов.

microstructural stability film deposition techniques


dislocation motion proton exchange membrane fuel cell
heat treatment fuel flexibility
carbon nanotubes pulsed laser deposition
creep strength anode substrate
subgrain boundaries nanoparticle coating
yield strength wear resistance
cell performance surface topography
oxygen conductivity silicon wafer
friction pair ice matrix
power applications tool deflection

2. Проанализируйте данные фрагменты, выделите атрибутивные сочетания.


Составьте список выделенных сочетаний, указав тип атрибутивной связи в
них, и предложите вариант перевода.

The thermal and electrical properties of thin films play vital roles in determining the
performance of many components and devices used in modern engineering systems. Many
measurements have demonstrated that the thermal conductivities of various thin films, as well as
the electrical conductivities of electrically conductive thin films, are much smaller than those of
their corresponding bulk materials [1–6]. The difference in the conductivities between thin films
and bulk materials is considered to be caused by the structure defect [7], boundary scattering
(surface scattering [8–10], and grain boundary scattering [11–13]).
For metallic thin films, theoretical models based on carrier scattering have been proposed
to predict the conductivities. In most of the considerations, the thermal conductivity of a thin
film is calculated from its proportional relation to the electrical conductivity via the Wiedemann–
Franz law [14–16] or a similar analogy [9]. Several experimental studies investigated either the
thermal conductivity or the electrical conductivity and used the electrical–thermal relation to
determine the other property [17, 18]. Although two methods [19, 20] that were used to measure

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 72


the thermal conductivity and specific heat may also be used to measure the electrical
conductivity, very few investigations deal with both conductivities together. Furthermore, most
of the previously studied thin films are deposited on substrates and the considerations of the
effects caused by the substrates are not sufficient.
For this reason, we report on measurements of the in-plane thermal conductivity of
suspended Pt nanofilms, for which there is no effect caused by a substrate. Also a four-wire
method is used to measure the electrical resistance. Results show that the electrical conductivity,
resistance-temperature coefficient, and in-plane thermal conductivity of the nanofilms are much
smaller than the corresponding bulk values, but the Lorentz numbers are larger than the
corresponding bulk values.

It can be seen from Table that induced tensile stresses account for the loss of grain
material from the diamond coated piezoelectric ceramic material. Therefore, the maximum
tensile stress is the best indicator of diamond performance, in terms of grinding ratio, during a
nanogrinding operation. The analysis performed on perfectly sharp diamond grains has provided
a strong correlation between maximum tensile stress induced in the grain material and the wear
parameter, grinding ratio, for the experimental data used in this chapter.
Correlations with other data sets have not proved so fruitful. From this, we can safely
assume that the mechanism of grain fracture is not the dominant mechanism, which implies that
other mechanisms are operating. The correlation coefficient demonstrates that a tougher grain
material must be used in order to limit the effects of abrasive wear and the formation of wear
flats, or a stronger bond, and possibly a higher volume of bond between diamond and
piezoelectric crystal, is required to nanogrind under the current experimental conditions.
Therefore, the present method of calculating the correlation coefficient between the maximum
tensile stress and the grinding ratio demonstrates its potential application to the wider problem of
selecting abrasive grains based on specific metal removal rates and the nature of the
nanogrinding operation.
When porous tools are used to embed diamonds or any other abrasive material, the same
analysis can be used but account of the properties of the bonding bridge must be made. The
bonding bridge can be made of a variety of different materials but the most common one used for
dressable applications is the vitrified type, which is made from a mixture of clays, glasses, and
minerals. The emphasis on using dressable types for nanogrinding is based on their ability to be
re-sharpened by dislodging worn grains and by microstructural phase transformations by
focusing optical energy on the bonding bridges that hold the grains in place.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 73


C

The microstructure of Aluminium-SiC functionally graded metal matrix composites


fabricated by centrifugal casting method in Fig. 1 show the graded distribution of SiC particles in
Al(356) alloy matrix at three different locations from the outside periphery of 16 mm thick ring
casting. The outer periphery of the casting shows higher concentration of SiC particles than the
interior of the casting. The image analysis results depicted in Fig. 2a shows that the outer
periphery of the cylindrical casting contains a maximum of 45 vol. % SiCp followed by a graded
and reduced SiC volume percentage of 43, 37, 33 and 30 at 2, 3, 4 and 4.5 mm away from the
outer periphery respectively. After 5.5 mm, the volume fraction drops sharply reaching zero at
6.5 mm. By subjecting a homogenous composite melt of Al(356)-15% SiC to a centrifugal force,
a maximum volume fraction of 45% has been obtained at the outer periphery leading to selective
improvement in specific properties such as hardness and wear resistance. Figure 2b shows higher
hardness near the outer periphery of the casting in as cast and aged conditions. The inner
periphery of the casting at 15.5 mm from the outer edge has shown the presence of gas porosity
and few agglomerated particles. The gas bubbles present in the melt are thrown towards the inner
periphery of the casting by the centrifugal force due to their lower density. The agglomerates
constituting partially wetted or non-wetted particles or both and gases having lower overall
density are also pushed towards the inner periphery. Further, the movement of gas bubbles from
the outer periphery towards the inner during the rotation can hinder the particle movement in the
opposite direction as well as carry away few particles. The gas and shrinkage porosities thus
pushed to the inner periphery can be removed by machining to obtain a sound casting.
The comparison of distribution pattern of centrifugally cast silicon carbide particles
reinforced 356 alloy with 2124 and 6061 Al alloys fabricated by the authors shows that there is a
sharp transition between the SiC enriched and depleted zones in 356 alloy matrix, whereas a
gradual or smooth transition is seen in 2124 matrix alloy. This is obviously due to the presence
of varying amount of eutectic liquid, i.e. 356 alloy contains more eutectic liquid compared to
2124 alloy, the difference in freezing range (longer freezing range of 2124 alloy – 637–490°C
than 356 alloy – 615–564°C) and viscosity of the alloy [11]. Hence, the freezing range of the
matrix alloy dictates the nature of transition from particle enriched to depleted zone.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 74


3.7. ЭМФАЗА

Эмфаза (эмфатические конструкции) – это особые средства акцентирования


ключевой информации, своеобразный аналог интонационного ударения в устной речи.

 усилительно-выделительная конструкция «it is … that/which»:

It is the computers which provide the key to the fully automatic factories of the future.
 Именно компьютерные системы – ключ к полной автоматизации предприятий будущего.
 Ключ к полной автоматизации предприятий будущего – в компьютерных системах.

It is only recently, as a result of the application of more sophisticated techniques, that the fact has
come fully to light.
 И только недавно, благодаря применению более совершенных методик, данный факт стал
полностью осмыслен.
 Данный факт стал полностью осмыслен лишь недавно, благодаря применению более
совершенных методик.

Если it используется в качестве местоимения, замещающего ранее упомянутое


существительное, сочетание «it is … that/which» теряет функцию выделительной
конструкции (часть фразы, начинающаяся с союзов that/which, переводится
придаточным предложением с соответствующим русским союзом):

Analysing ideas, we should always have one critical parameter in view. It is feasibility that draws the
line between imagination and materiality.
 Анализируя наши замыслы, необходимо всегда иметь в виду один важнейший показатель.
Это осуществимость, которая проводит черту между воображением и материальным
воплощением идеи.

 служебные слова do / does / did:

In spite of their many similarities the properties of the transition metals do vary considerably.
 Несмотря на большое сходство, переходные металлы действительно (все же) существенно
отличаются.

 прилагательное very:

In that very laboratory a number of great discoveries were made.


 Именно в этой (в этой самой) лаборатории был сделан целый ряд открытий.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Выполните перевод, обращая внимание на эмфатические средства:

1. The combination of temperature at 31 and 56°C and pH. 5.0 did increase
precipitate in the supernatant, which interfered with measurement of surface
tension.
2. It is through science that we prove, but through intuition that we discover. (Henri
Poincare)
Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 75
3. Knowing what it would be like to select thousands of samples allows us to make
assumptions about the one sample we do select and study.
4. Infrared radiation does penetrate the skin further than visible light and can thus be used
for photographic imaging of subcutaneous blood vessels.
5. It is the acidity that is measured by a common soil test and is expressed as pH.
6. It is the catalyst which changes the monomeric unsaturated polyester resin to a
polymeric saturated resin.
7. The essay does maintain focus on the specific issue in the prompt.
8. The telescope is simply passing on light rays that are arranged in a certain pattern, but it
is the scientist who imposes an image on the light rays, calls it a galaxy and attaches a
particular interpretation to the word “galaxy.”
9. It is in the laboratory where the use of conceptual models for predicting the behavior of
various devices and systems can most fully be appreciated and where their limitations can
be recognized.
10. In contrast to what the term suggests, it is not the index that is supposed to be
clustered, but the relation itself.
11. The experiment did stimulate gas production in greater quantities than in similar
conventional gas wells.
12. It was the aqueous solution of a thermoresponsive polymer that contained a tiny amount
of large polymer aggregates at low polymer concentrations far below the lower critical
solution temperature.
13. The approach proposed in this paper differs in that we do not need to fix any of these
coefficients in advance, but rather it is the analysis itself that determines all coefficients.
14. It is the physico-chemical properties of the materials in contact which ensure the
immobilisation of the panels, which are thus not subjected to any severe stresses likely to
damage the coupling means or more generally the panel.
15. Taking into account the measurement on particle it is necessary to test any prediction
made by quantum mechanics on that very particle.
16. What may be considered a strength of a model to one modeller could be that very
model's weakness to another.
17. Types give you important structure, but that very structure constrains what you can do in
a program.
18. If you isolate one individual molecule that very molecule has its two individual hydrogen
atoms and its oxygen atom essentially.
19. It is when asbestos materials are degraded, broken, or otherwise disturbed through
handling, that they can pose a hazard.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 76


3.8. АФФИКСАЦИЯ

Аффиксы – совокупное название приставок (префиксов) и суффиксов, играющих


ключевую роль в словообразовании. Аффиксы модифицируют части речи и задают
смысловые нюансы. Знание аффиксов позволяет быстро ориентироваться в речевом
потоке и определять значения слов, еще отсутствующих в индивидуальном лексиконе.

Суффиксы имен существительных

CУФФИКС ПРИМЕР

1. Суффиксы существительных, обозначающих лицо:

to work работать – worker работник


-er (-or) to do делать – doer исполнитель
один из самых продуктивных суффиксов, to invent изобретать – inventor изобретатель
присоединяется к глаголам to cool охлаждать
– cooler охладительное устройство (камера)
Существительные с суффиксом -er (-or) могут to sense ощущать – sensor сенсор
обозначать не только лицо, но и устройство, (чувствительное устройство)
машину, которая совершает действие, to refine рафинировать
обозначенное исходным глаголом (а также – refiner рафинирующее вещество
вещество)
-ian Russia Россия – Russian русский
обозначает национальность, звание, профессию academy академия – academician академик
statistics статистика – statistician статистик
-ее to address адресовать – addressee адресат
обозначает лицо, на которое направлено to train – обучать
действие исходного глагола – trainee практикант, обучаемый

2. Суффиксы абстрактных существительных:

-ance importance важность


-ence difference различие
-age to pass проходить – passage проход
-dom free свободный – freedom свобода
to act действовать – action действие
-ion (-ation, -tion, -sion, -ssion) to conclude заключать, делать вывод
– conclusion заключение, вывод
-ment to agree соглашаться – agreement соглашение
-ness cold холодный – coldness холод, холодность
-ure to press давить, прессовать – pressure давление
able способный – ability способность
-ity
active активный
соответствует русскому суффиксу -ость
– activity активность, деятельность
-ship partner партнер – partnership партнерство
-hood likely вероятно – likelihood вероятность
-th
образование существительных от
long длинный – length длина
прилагательных при помощи этого суффикса
wide широкий – width ширина
нередко сопровождается изменением корневого
гласного
-ing to meet встречать – meeting встреча

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 77


Суффиксы и префиксы прилагательных

СУФФИКС ПРИМЕР
-able, -ible
используются для образования прилагательных to understand понимать
от основ глаголов – understandable понятный
-al centre центр – central центральный
to differ отличаться – different другой (перед
существительным в единственном числе),
-ant, -ent различные (перед существительным во
множественном числе)
to insist настаивать – insistent настойчивый
-ful
care забота – careful тщательный
передает наличие качества
-less
harm вред – harmless безвредный
передает отсутствие качества
-ish
передает следующие значения:
а) национальность; Poland Польша – Polish польский
б) небольшую степень качества red красный – reddish красноватый
-ive to act действовать – active активный
-ous danger опасность – dangerous опасный
-у dirt грязь – dirty грязный
-ic organ орган – organic органический

ПРЕФИКС ПРИМЕР
regular регулярный, равномерный
– irregular нерегулярный, неравномерный
in- (il-, im-, ir-), un- possible возможный – impossible невозможный
передают отрицание known известный – unknown неизвестный
definite определенный
– indefinite неопределенный

Следует помнить, что прилагательные с суффиксом -able можно переводить


придаточными предложениями, начиная со слов который можно + инфинитив
исходного глагола:

to detect обнаруживать – detectable который можно обнаружить


to observe наблюдать – observable который можно наблюдать (а не наблюдаемый)

Если такое прилагательное стоит после глагола-связки be, то при переводе слово
который опускается и в предложении остается только можно + инфинитив исходного
глагола.

The phenomenon observable in this case is not understood.


 Явление, которое можно наблюдать в этом случае, непонятно.
Но!
The phenomenon is observable in all cases.
 Это явление можно наблюдать во всех случаях.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 78


Суффиксы и префиксы наречий

СУФФИКС ПРИМЕР
strong сильный – strongly сильно
-lу
wide широкий – widely широко
side сторона – sideward в сторону
-ward back задний – backward назад
обозначает направление in в – inward внутрь
out из – outward(s) из, наружу
drop капля – dropwise по капле
-wise
clock часы – clockwise по часовой стрелке
обозначает способ действия
anti-clockwise против часовой стрелки

Слова с суффиксом -lу не всегда являются наречиями. Существует целый ряд


прилагательных, образованных от существительных путем прибавления суффикса -lу,
например: hour час – hourly почасовой, ежечасный; like нечто подобное – likely
вероятный; friend друг – friendly дружеский, дружественный.

ПРЕФИКС ПРИМЕР
round круглый – around вокруг
а-
new новый – anew заново, по-новому

Суффиксы и префиксы глаголов

СУФФИКС ПРИМЕР
threat угроза – to threaten угрожать
-en, -ify, -ize
wide широкий – to widen расширять
служат для образования глаголов от
simple простой – to simplify упрощать
существительных и прилагательных
active активный – to activize активизировать

ПРЕФИКС ПРИМЕР
en-
large большой – to enlarge увеличивать
обычно выражает охват, окружение
re- to activate активировать
обычно выражает повторяемость действия – to reactivate возобновлять, реактивировать
dis- to appear появляться – to disappear исчезать
обычно выражает обратное, to agree соглашаться
противоположное действие или отрицание – to disagree не соглашаться
to adjust регулировать
mis- – to misadjust неточно регулировать
обычно выражает ошибочность действия to understand понять
– to misunderstand неправильно понять
de-
to aerate газировать – to deaerate дегазировать
обычно выражает изъятие, удаление
pre- to determine определять
обычно выражает предшествование; в русском – to predetermine заранее определять
переводе можно использовать слова заранее, to heat нагревать
предварительно – to preheat предварительно нагревать
over-
to load нагрузить
обычно выражает чрезмерность
– to overload перегрузить
(действия, состояния)
under- to estimate оценить
обычно выражает недостаточность – to underestimate недооценить

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 79


Примеры частотных употреблений аффиксов

 mal- / неправильно  en- / включение внутрь


 mis- / выполненное действие  out- / вынесение за пределы

malfunction – неисправная работа, encircle – окружать


maloperation – неправильная работа, enclose – ограждать
mal(mis)adjustment – неправ. регулировка, encase – заключать в корпус, герметиз-ть
misalignment – смещение, несоосность, encode – шифровать
miscalculation – неправильный расчет,
outlook – вид, перспектива
misfit – несоответствие, плохая пригонка,
misfocusing – расфокусировка outcircle – исключать
output – выход, выпуск
 semi- / полу-  re- / повторное действие

semiconductor – полупроводник renew – обновлять


semicircle – полукруг readjust – повторно регулировать
semiautomatic – полуавтоматический reuse – повторно использовать
semiannual – полугодовой repay – компенсация
semirigid – полужесткий reshape – восстановить исходную форму
reset – вернуть в исходное состояние
 anti- / анти-  pre- / предварительное действие
 counter- / контр-, противо-  post- / последующее действие

antibody – антитело precoating – предварительное покрытие


antiphase – противофаза prewatering – предварительное увлажнение
antistatic – антистатический pretuning – предварительная настройка
antiglare – противобликовый postacceleration – послеускорение
counterbody – контртело postdose – последующее облучение
counterbalance – противовес postprocessing – последующая обработка
 inter- / внутри-, меж-, между-,  over- / пере-
взаимо-, со-  under- / недо-

interaction – взаимодействие overcharge – перегрузка


interpolymerisation – сополимеризация overlayer – верхний слой
interchange – взаимообмен overvalue – переоценить
interatomic – внутриатомный underactive – недостаточно активный
intercalation – интеркалирование underestimate – недооценить
 de- / обратное действие  fore- / пред-, передний

decode – декодировать foresee – предвидеть


demodulation – демодуляция forego – предшествовать
dewater – обезвожить foretell – предсказать
degrease – обезжирить forecast – прогзнозировать
decolouring – обесцвечивание forewheel – переднее колесо
decomposition – расщепление, разложение foreground – передний план
forechamber – аванкамера
foreclose – предотвращать,
препятствовать

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 80


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Определите суффиксы отрицания у следующих прилагательных. Возможные


варианты: dis-, in-, im-, ir-, il-, un-, nоn-.

correct ___correct (правильный – неправильный)


charge ___charge (заряжать – разряжать)
standard ___standard (стандартный – нестандартный)
connect ___connect (соединять – разъединять)
logical ___logical (логичный – нелогичный)
continuous ___continuous (продолжительный – непродолжительный)
material ___material (материальный – нематериальный)
regular ___regular (стандартный – нестандартный)
complete ___complete (полный – неполный)
important ___important (важный – неважный)
accurate ___accurate (точный – неточный)
movable ___movable (подвижный – неподвижный)
visible ___visible (видимый – невидимый)

2. Определите аффиксы следующих английских слов.

производительный – productive  производительность – product • …


осторожный – careful  невнимательный – care • …
результат – fruit  безрезультатный – fruit • …
терпение – patience  нетерпеливый – … • patient
доверять – trust  недоверчивый – … • trust • …
широкий – wide  расширять – wide • …
равный – equal  непревзойденный – … • equal • …
способный – able  неспособность – … • abil • …
ценность – value  недооценивать – … • value
ответственный – responsible  безответственность – … • respons • …
судить – judge  ошибочное суждение – … • judge • …

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 81


3. Определите по аффиксам часть речи и значение следующих слов.

antiferromagnetic deteriorate mismatch


instability nonlinearity to determine
inhomogeneous nonconducting to decrease
interlamellar incorporate detection
dispersion involve to deionize
dissociation inverted decade
precalcination inorganic disadvantage
precipitation intense distribution
pretreatment desorption to display
preparation device immediate
undeformed precursor to improve
unchanged interspersed impact
unreacted investigate impose
disappearance imply impurity
dissolution unusually non-metal
displacement nonoxidizing nonreactive
degradation inner nonequilibrium
decomposition misorientation

4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимания на значения префиксов и


суффиксов выделенных слов:

1. Serum cholesterol levels are underevaluated and undertreated.


2. The term is unlikely to be indefinable.
3. It is an insoluble problem.
4. The radiation loss is unavoidable.
5. His speculations were illogical.
6. The degree of success was unexpectedly great.
7. This is not a process to be oversimplified.
8. The range of variability is enormous.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 82


B

1. То put the question in this way is to predetermine a negative answer.


2. Some of the service stations were underutilized while others were over-utilized.
3. A mathematical theory is strongly intertwined with the systems of the real world.
4. To achieve these goals interdisciplinary research is essential.
5. In this case the theory yields to unacceptable errors.
6. This makes possible a re-examination of the doctrine.
7. All conferees are able to read the comments left by other conferees.
8. It was unfittingness of ideas that caused that difference.
9. There are two reasons for denying the validity of the postulate.
10. An underweight in the technology sector was the largest performance detractor during the
quarter.

5. Переведите следующие слова, учитывая значение аффиксов.

Current – ток Solid – твердый; твердое тело


Current • less Solid • ity
Solid • ify
Power – мощь Solid • ifi • ed
Power • ful Solid • ify • ing
Solid • ifi • cat • ed
Force – сила Solid • ifi • cat • ion
Re • in • force
Re • in • force • d Place – место
Re • in • force • ment Place • ment
Dis • place
Detect – выявлять Dis • place • ment
Detect • ion Mis • place
Detect • ed Mis • place • d
Detect • able Mis • place • ment
Detect • abil • ity
Fine – качественный
Dimension – размер Re • fine
Dimension • al Re • fine • d
Dimension • al • ity Re • fine • r
Dimension • ed Re • fine • ry
Dimension • ing Re • fin • ing
Dimension • less Re • fine • ment

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 83


ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ ТРУДНОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА – повторение

1. If the density of the particles is larger than that of the matrix, particles move toward the
outer periphery of the ring, and vice versa.
2. This anomaly in the graded distributions must be closely related to the viscosity of the
melt considering the fact that the manner of composition gradient formation is different
from those of the Al3Ti and Al3Ni particles.
3. It uses Al-Ti and Al-Ni master alloys simultaneously and the processing temperature is
lower than the liquidus temperature of Al-Ti master alloy but higher than that of Al-Ni
master alloy.
4. Fig. 2. Microphotograph of the friction surfaces of unreinforced specimens (a) and those
reinforced with a copper net (b).
5. In the case of the centrifugal method, it is known that the cooling rate at the outer region
of the ring is higher than that at inner region [21].
6. It should be noted that TEG (thermally expanded graphite) samples with parameters
exceeding those of commercial graphite can be prepared on passing an appropriate
amount of electricity.
7. Although the electrical conductivity decreases to 9 S cm-1, it substantially exceeds that in
materials with a carbon black.
8. The SPD of 1080 steel with a coarse pearlite micro-structure shows a deformation
mechanism that is nonuniform as compared with that observed with single-phase CP-Ti
or solution-treated INCONEL 718.
9. The coatings obtained by the sol-gel route present a resistivity, p higher than those
obtained by other processes.
10. This observation of rapid aging in the INCONEL 718 chips is similar to that observed in
Al 6061, wherein chips cut from solution-treated 6061 aged more rapidly and at lower
aging temperatures to reach a peak strength significantly greater than that of the
undeformed bulk material in a micro-crystalline state.
11. The structural parameters of the resulting material and the size of Pd clusters on the
graphite surface are similar to those for a G-Na TEG sample.
12. Therefore, the formation mechanism of the composition gradient is different from those
of FGMs fabricated by the centrifugal solid-particle method.
13. There have been few, if any, examples of drilling riser fatigue failure due to VIV (Vortex
induced vibration).

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 84


B
1. The density of Al3Ni intermetallic compound (~4 g/cc) is more than that of aluminium
(2.68 g/cc), and hence a composite having graded radial distribution of Al3Ni near the
outer periphery of a hollow cylinder casting can be formed by centrifugal casting.
2. The thermal conductivities of various thin films, as well as the electrical conductivities of
electrically conductive thin films, are much smaller than those of their corresponding
bulk materials.
3. The size of Mg2Si insitu reinforcement phase is comparatively smaller to that of the
primary silicon and it is observed to be distributed in the edges of primary Si particles as
well as individually in the matrix.
4. For example, at room temperature the bulk value of the thermal conductivity of Pt is
71.4W-m-1-K-1, whereas those of the present measurements are 26.5 and 27.3 W-m-1-
K-1, less than half of the bulk value.
5. For the S-doped TiO2 (sample 4), the effect of sulfur counters that of increasing
temperature; indeed the rate of crystallite growth is larger for sample 1 compared to
sample 4. Concerning u.c.v. (unit cell volume), the decrease with increasing temperature
is less significant for sample 1 than for sample 4.
6. The microstructures and hardness profile of Al- Al3Ni FGM formed from Al-20% Ni
shows better graded structure compared to those formed in Al alloys with 10, 30 and 40%
Ni [15].
7. Since the density of B4C is 2.52 g/cc is closer to that of aluminium matrix, the particles
are distributed throughout the matrix from outer to the inner periphery of the casting.
8. The structural evolution (XRD results) of the CN-Ag-TiO2 gel with temperature, is
presented in Table 10 and compared to that of pure TiO2 (TiO2-M) and C-Ag-TiO2 gel,
obtained by co-gelation.
9. The density of Al3Ni intermetallic compound (~4 g/cc) is more than that of aluminium
(2.68 g/cc), and hence a composite having graded radial distribution of Al3Ni near the
outer periphery of a hollow cylinder casting can be formed by centrifugal casting.
10. It is about 13 folds higher than that of P25 TiO2 powder even though P25 TiO2 powder
has also dispersant on the surface.
11. There should continue to be some opportunities for entry-level field crew workers to
acquire the skills that qualify them for higher level jobs within the industry.
12. Probability can only be expressed mathematically as much as it can be measured
mathematically. The truth is that it is more often estimated, concluded from averaging
data, deduced or even induced in engineering studies.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 85


С
1. The carbon concentration in the cementite is approximately 24 at. pct and that in ferrite is
0.07 at. pct; these values are similar to those obtained from the as-patented (undeformed)
wire.
2. These clusters are ~6 nm thick and have a maximum carbon content of ~14 at.%, much
higher than that detected in austenite, but with chromium and manganese contents too
low (less than 2 at.%) to be identified as M6C carbide particles.
3. This shows that the chemical driving force, AGAM, for the transformation from austenite
to martensite achieves microstructural effects comparable to those produced by severe
plastic deformation.
4. The carbon concentration in the ferrite is inhom-ogeneous and varies from 0.2 to 3 at.
pct; the carbon concentration in nanocrystalline cementite is less than 18 at. pct,
significantly lower than that in stoichiometric Fe3C.
5. These measurements distinguished cementite particles formed during tempering at low
temperatures from those previously formed in lower bainite.
6. In the first category, Gridnev et al. [18] suggested that a larger binding energy between
interstitials and dislocations in ferrite than that between carbon and cementite makes it
possible for dislocations to drag carbon out of cementite.
7. By contrast, the previously [10] measured nominal concentrations of silicon and
manganese in ferrite and cementite after various tempering heat treatments showed that
the redistribution of manganese into cementite occurred faster than that of silicon into
ferrite for a steel with a nominal silicon alloy concentration of 3.84 at.% and a nominal
manganese alloy concentration of 2.95 at.%.
8. On the other hand, the carbon concentration in the ferrite ranges from 2 to 3 at. pct and is
significantly higher than that observed in as-patented ferrite.
9. The efficiency of scattering is, however, substantially increased when the elastic
scattering length l becomes comparable to or even less than the film thickness L,
lowering the transmission of pump radiation through the film.
10. Conventional TiO2 powder catalysts present the disadvantages of agglomeration and of
difficult separation of the final particle-fluid for the catalyst recycling.
11. Powder materials offer new strategies for laser physics and optical technologies and have
been intensely studied in the context of fundamental phenomena related to the
propagation of light in disordered systems.
12. Taken separately, ratios are mere numbers. This can lead to some problems in making
comparisons among and drawing conclusions from them.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 86


D
1. When the combustion temperature reaches its maximum level, the thermal decomposition
of silicon nitride occurs, giving free melted silicon and/or silicon vapor, which reacts
with carbon or silica to form silicon carbide or silicon oxynitride nanopowders.
2. Nano-size iron particles are of particular interest in fundamental studies of magnetism.
3. Various strategies are used to maximize the film thickness. First, it is essential to ensure
there is good adhesion between the film and the substrate.
4. A major effort has been made to reduce stress by alloying with, for example, Si[83] or
metals[84].
5. A gradual increase of the specific surface area with increasing nitrogen pressure up to 3.5
MPa is observed.
6. Laser particle analyzer is here employed to test the dispersity of nanoscale iron particles
in aqueous medium.
7. Emphasis is put on the nanochemical composition of individual grains, as well as on the
magnetic behavior of powder ensembles and of single particles.
8. The Qwin image analyzer is used for determining the percentage of various phases and
reinforcement at different locations along the casting.
9. Films can be made that are inhomogeneous or graded, so that they have internal stress
relief mechanisms.
10. However, no direct proof has been provided so far that these photons contribute to the
harmonic-generation process.
11. The mold-heating furnace is removed and the mold is cooled in air until complete
solidification occurs.
12. A large number of methods providing a way of preparing oxide thin coatings on metals or
oxide nanopowders have been developed to date. Anodic oxidation of metals in aqueous
and nonaqueous electrolytes and physical high-energy methods for producing nanopow-
ders through combustion, evaporation of metals with subsequent oxidation at low
pressures, etc. [4-7] have been most extensively used.
13. Emphasis is placed on the formation mechanism of graded composition by the centrifugal
method as a practical FGM fabrication method.
14. In addition to the formation of very thin bonding layers in vitrified silicon carbide
grinding wheels, the use of high clay content bonding systems implies that there is an
increase in the amount of quartz in the bond bridges between abrasive grains.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 87


E
1. Regarding the temperature distributions in MD cutting it should be further noted, that in
most of the published work only the thermal conductivity through phonons is considered.
2. When this severely deformed chip sample is subjected to heat treatment at 600 °C in air,
very rapid aging is observed, which is likely associated with accelerated precipitation
kinetics in the nanostructured chip.
3. A partially formed chip specimen was created and was metallographically prepared to
reveal the bulk micro-structure and the resulting SPD microstructures. (SPD – severe
plastic deformation).
4. It is also evident (Fig. 1c) that the ferrite plate thickness has not changed, although
recovery of dislocation substructure occurs to some extent.
5. Further decomposition of retained austenite occurs as temperature increases, and some
large regions of retained austenite transform into colonies of pearlite with a fine
interlamellar spacing.
6. Hardness is maintained at high levels (between 615 and 640 HV) and some recovery of
dislocations takes place.
7. At a depth of 830 nm below the surface a second zone exists that contains remnants of
AW films surrounded by nc grains.
8. There is no fundamental difference between substructure strengthened materials [41-44]
and tempered martensite ferritic steels.
9. The TEM micrograph in Fig. 11(b) shows that there is still a high density of free
dislocations after short-term tempering.
10. Progress in ferrous metallurgy in the second half of the twentieth century was associated
with rapid replacement of the basic production systems, in a kind of technical revolution.
Large-capacity converter and electrosmelting systems were organized, along with ladle
treatment of the steel, vacuum treatment, continuous casting, coke-free metallurgy,
powder metallurgy, and hydroextrusion. Thus, effective new approaches to the
production of high-performance steel were introduced.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 88


4. ПЕРЕВОДЧЕСКИЕ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ

Переводческие трансформации – это особые приемы перевода, выработанные


практикой и обобщенные теорией перевода. Трансформации применяются тогда, когда
словарь не способен дать готовых вариантов перевода или в языке перевода отсутствует
аналогичная синтаксическая модель. Наиболее частотные в научно-техническом
переводе трансформации можно сгруппировать следующим образом:

ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЕ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ КОМПЛЕКСНЫЕ

ТРАНСКРИПЦИЯ ДОБАВЛЕНИЕ АНТОНИМИЧНЫЙ


ПЕРЕВОД

ТРАНСЛИТЕРАЦИЯ
ОПУЩЕНИЕ
ЭКСПЛИКАЦИЯ

КАЛЬКИРОВАНИЕ
ЗАМЕНЫ

КОНКРЕТИЗАЦИЯ
ПЕРЕСТАНОВКИ

ГЕНЕРАЛИЗАЦИЯ

МОДУЛЯЦИЯ

Основные мотивы применения лексических трансформаций

1. Картина реального мира, отражаясь в сознании людей, может члениться различным


образом, знаки разных языков могут называть большие или меньшие ее сегменты.
2. Один знак может иметь большую или меньшую по объему семантическую
структуру, чем его словарное соответствие в другом языке (т.е. называть большее
или меньшее количество понятий).
3. Некоторые понятия могут не иметь в языке специальных средств выражения, тогда
как в другом языке для их называния существуют специальные знаки.
4. Одно понятие может иметь в разных языках разное количество названий
(синонимов).
5. Знаки, называющие одно понятие, в разных языках могут иметь различное
употребление и различную сочетаемость, и потому не могут переводиться
словарными эквивалентными соответствиями без смысловых или стилистических
отклонений.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 89


4.1. ТРАНСКРИПЦИЯ И ТРАНСЛИТЕРАЦИЯ

Транслитерация – это побуквенная передача формы слова на другом языке. Как


автономная трансформация она практически вышла из употребления, и к ней прибегают
в основном для передачи удвоенных согласных и некоторых непроизносимых букв.
Транскрипция – это пофонемная передача формы слова на другом языке.
Современная переводческая практика руководствуется принципами практической
транскрипции, т.е. ориентируется на передачу звучания иностранного слова с
помощью алфавита языка перевода (а не специальных знаков, используемых в словарях).
Транскрипция в специальной литературе применяется, как правило, для передачи имен
людей, названий, а также терминов (см. подробнее приложение А):

 компаний:
General Electric Corp. Дженерал Электрик Корпорейшн
Johnson & Johnson Inc. Джонсон-энд-Джонсон инкорпорейтед

 периодических изданий:
Journal of Applied Mechanics Джорнэл оф Эпплайд Меканикс
International Journal of Technical Sciences Интернешнл Джорнэл оф Текникал Сайенсиз

 географических названий:
Newfoundland Ньюфаундленд (Вновь найденная земля)
New Mexico Нью-Мексико (Новая Мексика)
Salt Lake City Солт-Лейк-Сити (Город соленого озера)
Anchorage Анкоридж (Якорная стоянка)

Во всех случаях перевод должен выполняться с учетом устоявшейся традиции (так


называемый канонический перевод). Спорные случаи должны проверяться по словарям
(атласам, энциклопедиям и т.п.). При отсутствии принятого эквивалента название
транскрибируется, а в скобках указывается оригинальное написание (только при первом
упоминании). В отличие от названных выше случаев названия международных
организаций, государственных органов и тому подобные переводятся, при этом также
учитывается уже существующий в языке перевода вариант:

Bureau of Industry and Security Бюро промышленности и безопасности


Federal Information Exchange Федеральный центр обмена информацией
Technical Advisory Committee Технический консультативный комитет

Institute for New Generation Computer Technology


Институт вычислительной техники нового поколения
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
Корпорация Интернета для специализированных адресов и номеров

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 90


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Переведите следующие имена собственные.

Nova Scotia, Trident Capital, The House of Commons, Gaza Strip, Los Angeles Times, the
Federal Reserve System, Heathrow, Canaveral Cape, The Observer, Optima Numerics, London
Stock Exchange, British Broadcasting Corp., South Carolina, the World Health Organisation, the
UN General Assembly, The Herald Tribune, Middle East, Gatwick, the Royal Academy, Hudson
Bay, Singapore Airlines, Rhode Island, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development,
Ivory Coast, Political Affairs, Suez Canal, the Central Intelligence Agency, Ulster.

2. Найдите существующие переводы имен лауреатов Нобелевской премии.

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes


Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Robert Hofstadter
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
Nicolaas Bloembergen
Saul Perlmutter
Albert Abraham Michelson
Maria Göppert-Mayer
Leo James Rainwater
Edward Mills Purcell
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Aaron Ciechanover
Johann Deisenhofer
Alan Graham MacDiarmid
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin
Karl Barry Sharpless
Dudley Rоbert Herschbach
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Willem Einthoven
Georg von Békésy

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 91


4.2. КАЛЬКИРОВАНИЕ

Калькирование – это покомпонентный (пословный/поморфемный) перевод


лексической единицы оригинала, при этом возможны замена исходных частей речи и
перестановка слов (см. также перевод атрибутивных сочетаний). Калькирование является
альтернативным транскрипции способом перевода терминов и некоторых имен
собственных (напр., географических названий).

 Полная калька:

film deposition techniques методы осаждения пленок


anode substrate анодная подложка
ionic conductivity ионная проводимость
phosphoric acid fuel cell фосфорно-кислотный топливный элемент

 Полукалька (aффикс  самостоятельное слово):

maldistribution of costs неправильное распределение затрат


maltreatment неправильная обработка

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Переведите методом калькирования:

the Irish Sea database development


the North Sea transnational
the Salt Lake tensile deformation
the Orange River ferroalloy
Montenegro low-alloy steel
Easter Island severe plastic deformation
Cape of Good Hope equal channel angular pressing
the Rocky Mountains high pressure torsion

scanning electron microscope tribological properties


alkaline fuel cell asbestos-containing material
oxygen conductivity perforated tape
porous electrodes composite materials
pulsed laser deposition hydraulic press
operating temperature lubricant material
low and high angle boundaries catastrophic wear
microdeformation metallographic studies
strengthened materials optimum characteristics
plastic deformation friction loading conditions
thermally expanded graphite dark film

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 92


4.3. КОНКРЕТИЗАЦИЯ

Конкретизация – это сужение значения исходной единицы. Объективные мотивы


конкретизации таковы:

1) в ИЯ понятие может называться одним словом, а в ПЯ – по его понятийным


компонентам; при переводе вычленяется тот понятийный компонент, о котором идет
речь в конкретной ситуации.

trouble: беспокойство, волнение, тревога, беда, неприятность, горе, заботы, хлопоты, болезнь,
неполадка, дефект, изъян + источник любых неприятностей (одуш./неодуш.)

2) в ИЯ одно слово может употребляться для называния и общего, и конкретного


понятий, а также используется метонимически для называния целого и части, вещества и
изделия из него и т.п.:

cotton: хлопчатник + хлопчатая бумага; нитки; вата.


iron: l) железо (элемент); 2) черный металл – сталь, железо, чугун; 3) железное изделие;
4) утюг; 5) оковы, кандалы; 6) (мн.ч.) стремя; 7) (мед.) препарат из железа (БАРС).

3) в контексте конкретное понятие называется словом, которое обычно называет более


общие понятия:

all possible power histories for t < 0 – все возможные кривые мощности для t < 0
reliability history – данные по надежности т.п.

4) в ИЯ для называния конкретного понятия используется слово широкой семантики:

It can also handle a large number of measuring ranges.


 Прибор также обеспечивает большое число измерительных диапазонов.

These cars feature a radar sensor system.


 эти автомобили оборудованы радиолокационной системой.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Переведите, применив конкретизацию выделенных единиц.

1. Low efficiency of the system is notable: it still runs at 50 %.


2. In addition to the technological challenges there are also important social, economic and
environmental challenges that must be addressed.
3. There is no other choice but to adopt the same manner of commitments in as aggressive
and effective schedule as possible.
4. This was sufficient to handle most hydrocarbon carryover conditions.
5. The MPSJ is a new concept that will be qualified for use on semisubmersible rigs on the
first Kristin trial well.
6. If pipe coating has not been damaged beyond repair, pipe can go directly to a coating
facility or threading facility, depending on its intended use.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 93


4.4. ГЕНЕРАЛИЗАЦИЯ

Генерализация – использование при переводе знака, называющего более общее


понятие, чем слово исходного текста (т.е. расширение значения). Генерализация, как
правило, связана с переходом от видового понятия к родовому:

The numbers are in accordance with those reported in the literature.


 Эти данные соответствуют указанным в литературе.

Starting with an assumed stagnation pressure and temperature, an initial value of stagnation entropy
was obtained from published data.
 Начиная с предположительных давления и температуры торможения, начальное значение
энтропии застоя было получено из известных данных.

Однако генерализация может потребоваться и для нейтрализации образности некоторых


лексических единиц (иерархические связи между понятиями в этом случае менее
выражены):

The approach is attractive.


 Данный подход является перспективным.

Another attraction of the structure is extremely low parasitic capacities at the inputs and outputs of
the transistors.
 Другим достоинством данной структуры являются чрезвычайно низкие входные и
выходные паразитные емкости транзисторов.

The beauty of the method is its speed.


 Достоинство такого метода – скорость.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Переведите, применив генерализацию выделенных единиц.

1. Some of these benefits are summarized in Table 1.1.


2. The Zagreb topochemical index is a coefficient sensitive to the presence and the
arrangement of heteroatoms in a given molecule.
3. We hypothesized on the basis of these studies that the substitution of the hydroxy group
at the phenyl ring at different positions can be an interesting target
4. Ethanol, one of the most abused drugs, is a preferred fuel once consumed.
5. The usefulness of such exchange is apparent from the results given above.
6. The plasmons generate very large electromagnetic fields right at the surface–in other
words, right where the molecules are sitting.
7. A more ambitious method for determining both the orientation and the locations of the
molecules in the unit cell has been suggested by Milledge.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 94


2. Определите, какую трансформацию – конкретизацию или генерализацию
применил переводчик. Обоснуйте переводческий выбор:

1. Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to


the organization's effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives.
 Определение, понимание и управление взаимосвязанными процессами как
системой повышает результативность и эффективность организации в достижении
ее целей.
2. Requirements for products can be specified by customers or by the organization in
anticipation of customer requirements, or by regulation.
 Требования к продукции могут быть установлены потребителями или
организацией на основе ожидаемых запросов потребителей, а также в нормативных
документах.
3. All relevant resistances are summarised in Table 2.3.
 Все необходимые сопротивления представлены в Таблице 2.3.
4. In this International Standard, data are expressed in both the International System (SI) of
units and the United States Customary (USC) system of units.
 В этом международном стандарте величины приведены как в единицах …
5. A key enabler in this respect would be a more detailed understanding of high-pressure
deposition for a wider range of materials.
 Ключевым фактором в этом отношении является более глубокое понимание
технологии нанесения покрытий на широкий спектр материалов.
6. However, this number may be further determined by the protection type selected and bus
power.
 Но это количество может уменьшаться в зависимости от выбранного типа
защиты и мощности питания на шине.
7. … communication protocol PROFIBUS FMS, which was tailored to demanding
communication tasks.
 … протокол обмена PROFIBUS FMS, который был разработан для передачи
важных данных.
8. Finally a practical case study where stability of a milling process is being investigated
using an analytical model will be given.
 Применимость полученных данных подкреплена практическими
исследованиями, в которых изучается устойчивость процесса фрезерования при
помощи аналитической модели.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 95


9. A cornerstone of this effort is the ability to accurately simulate blade stresses.
 Основная цель данных работ – описание возможности точного моделирования
напряжений в лопатках.
10. … generate the equivalent magnetic circuit diagram, and calculate the total equivalent
reluctance.
 … нарисовать схему эквивалентной магнитной цепи, и посчитать суммарное
эквивалентное магнитное сопротивление.
11. First, there are a wide variety of hard-body FOD sources, ranging from very small
impactors such as sand and small rocks, up to large impactors such as tools and bolts.
 Во-первых, твѐрдые объекты, вызывающие ППО, могут быть самыми разными:
от небольших крупинок вроде песка или мелких камней, до крупных тел, таких как
инструмент или крепѐжные детали.
12. This material combines a reduced density and high elastic, compressive, impermeable
and thermal properties with excellent acoustic insulation and dumping absorption
characteristics.
 Этот материал сочетает малую плотность и высокую упругость, сжимаемость,
непроницаемость и теплоизолирующие свойства с превосходной звуковой
изоляцией.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 96


4.5. МОДУЛЯЦИЯ

Модуляция – это отступление от лексического оформления малого фрагмента


исходного сообщения в целях соблюдения языковой и/или речевой нормы языка
перевода. Модуляция, как правило, связана с логическим выводом и ориентирована на
воспроизведение переводчиком привычного способа описания заданной оригиналом
экстралингвистической реальности. При этом возможны различные варианты замены
причины следствием, процесса – его результатом, признака – процессом, одного
признака другим и т.п.

combined thickness – суммарная толщина


combined improvement – общее улучшение

… resistors of comparable performance – регисторы аналогичного качества


… comparable problem occurs – возникает похожая проблема

… at the sacrifice of high-frequency performance


 … ценой некоторого ухудшения высокочастотной характеристики

The control panel of the new washer features three slide switches instead of rotary switches.
 Ha панели управления новой стиральной машины вместо обычных поворотных
переключателей имеется три ползунковых переключателя.

One such design modification is the addition of a cavitating inducer upstream of the inlet to a
centrifugal or mixed flow pump impeller.
 Одно из таких изменений конструкции – добавление обратной лопатки центробежного или
диспергирующего рабочего колеса на входе в насос.

In an outsourcing situation, the processes are shifted away and become the responsibility of
the supplier.
 В ситуации аутсорсинга данные процессы осуществляются за пределами предприятия, и
отвечает за них поставщик.

Модуляция часто основана на терминологизации исходных единиц:

the rate of supply of neutrons – скорость генерации нейтронов


elephant trunk – всасывающий шланг
nitrogen free – очищенный от азота
contributor of unreliability – источник ненадежности
dirty registers – занятые регистры

Модуляция также может быть связана со специализацией общеразговорной лексики:

heart of the system – основной узел системы


heart of the control chip – основной элемент направляющего модуля
shotgun approach – беспорядочный подход

To combat noise – уменьшить шум

The entire world of physical properties …


 Вся совокупность физических свойств …

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 97


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Переведите, применив модуляцию к выделенным единицам:

1. The basic idea behind this elegant approach is simple.


2. Groupthink is very common, it happens all the time, in almost every group. Members that
are defiant are often turned down or seen as a negative influence by the rest of the group,
because they bring conflicting ideas and disturb the central culture.
3. From the outset, it was clear that the construction of MOS transistors on an insulating
sapphire substrate results in mixed blessings.
4. Lasers alone have never been considered very good candidates for frequency standards of
high accuracy.
5. Linear stability criteria for systems with feedback are still meaningful.
6. For example, a lack of available transmissions may prove to be a bottleneck in
the production of vehicles.
7. Regardless of these details, the temperature can be altered at least 500° С by choosing
gases with widely different hydrodynamic and thermodynamic properties.
8. If the wire is alive, the tester will detect the EMF [electromagnetic field] around the wire
and still beep.
9. A wave generator known as Aquabuoy, designed by a Canadian firm, takes a different
approach.

2. Прокомментируйте случаи использования модуляции:

1. To translate the static model into its dynamic counterpart the circuit is changed to
the dynamic circuit of Figure 2.7.
 Чтобы перевести статическую модель в ее динамический аналог, цепь
заменяется динамической цепью (рис 2.7).
2. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be
the subject of patent rights.
 Необходимо учитывать, что некоторые элементы настоящего документа могут
быть объектами патентных прав.
3. Sustainable success can result from different types of innovations.
 Источниками устойчивого прогресса могут выступать различного рода
инновации.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 98


4. This standard shall become effective on the date printed on the cover but may be used
voluntarily from the date of distribution.
 Этот стандарт вводится в действие с даты, указанной на обложке, но по
желанию он может использоваться с даты получения.
5. The complexity of the cutting process is due to the interwoven physical phenomena such
as …
 Сложность процесса резания обусловлена целым комплексом физических
явлений, таких как …
6. This is based on the philosophy that cycles accumulate so quickly under HCF loading
conditions that cycle counting is impractical.
 Это следствие того принципа, что непрактично вести подсчѐт циклов
нагружения, т.к. в условиях МнЦУ они накапливаются слишком быстро.
7. It should be straightforward to recognize that this energy is equal to the area above the λ-i
curve of Figure 16.7.
 Это выражение должно давать прямое представление о том, что энергия равна
площади участка, расположенного выше кривой λ-i на рис.16.7.
8. For certain temperatures and workpiece materials, mechanical properties are not capable
of sustaining a steady-stress field …
 В зависимости от возникающих в зоне резания температур и характеристик
материала заготовки, еѐ механические свойства не всегда способны образовывать
поле постоянных напряжений …
9. For this discussion, static compression stress or static shear stress can be considered the
stress which is exerted on the elastomer by normal rated torque delivery.
 В этом случае, статическим напряжением сжатия или статическим напряжением
сдвига можно считать то напряжение, которое оказывается на эластомер
нормальным номинальный крутящий момент.
10. …the superscript 00 indicates temperature and pressure of reference.
 … индекс «00» означает, что данные получены при н.у.
11. In addition, the strategic requirement to focus on core competency has been an additional
catalyst for outsourcing services.
 К тому же оперативно-стратегические требования, чтобы фокусироваться на
основных областях специализации, были дополнительным аргументом в пользу
отдачи услуг на аутсорсинг.
12. Section 5 discusses operationalization.
 В пятом разделе рассматривается практическая сторона вопроса.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 99


4.6. ДОБАВЛЕНИЕ И ОПУЩЕНИЕ

Добавление – это введение в перевод дополнительной лексической единицы в


связи с формальной невыраженностью семантических компонентов в исходном языке,
что особенно типично для английских словосочетаний типа:

 «существительное + существительное»:

electricity cut прекращение подачи электроэнергии


auxiliary power applications источник электропитания вспомогательных устройств

 сочетания типа «прилагательное + существительное»:

solid engine двигатель на твердом топливе


chemical vapour deposition химические методы осаждения из газовой фазы

Добавление может потребоваться при некоторых существительных во множественном


числе, которые либо в принципе не имеют этой формы в русском языке, либо
используются крайне редко:

philosophies философские школы


defences оборонительные сооружения
humanities гуманитарные науки
industries отрасли промышленности
energies источники энергии

Добавления нередко обусловлены высоким информативным потенциалом английской


лексики (в частности, глаголов) – нередко для передачи равного объема информации
английскому языку необходимо меньше выразительных средств:

This allows further improvement without much effort.


 Это позволяет добиться дальнейшего улучшения показателей без особых усилий.

A Newtonian behaviour, in the whole range of shear rates tested, is always observed.
 Битумы вели себя как ньютоновские жидкости во всем диапазоне напряжений сдвига.

Добавления нередко обусловлены различной сочетаемостью русских и английских слов:

This approach is indispensable for the industry to exploit qualified expertise and complex equipment
with high efficiency.
 В данной отрасли такой подход незаменим для высокоэффективной эксплуатации
сложного оборудования и внедрения опыта квалифицированных специалистов.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 100


Опущение – удаление при переводе семантически избыточных единиц, то есть
единиц, выражающих значения, которые могут быть извлечены из текста и без их
помощи. Подобной трансформации подвергаются, прежде всего, так называемые
«парные синонимы»:

each and every каждый


insight and understanding постижение
drawbacks and disadvantages недостатки
accuracy and precision точность
readily and easily легко
operating and maintenance cost эксплуатационные расходы
optional and non-obligatory characteristic необязательная характеристика

В некоторых случаях при переводе парных синонимов имеет смысл сохранить один из
них и акцентировать сообщение соответствующим наречием, например:

Installation of the automation equipment must be performed neatly and carefully.


 Установка автоматического оборудования должна выполняться очень аккуратно.

Учитывая высокую информативность научного текста при повышенной плотности,


опущением целесообразно пользоваться во всех случаях, где в оригинале создается
информационная избыточность (правило экономии выразительных средств):

But there is insufficient detail in our understanding to describe the nature of the risks or methods used
to mitigate these risks.
 Но мы еще недостаточно знаем, чтобы описать природу рисков или методы, используемые
для снижения этих рисков.

The dielectric dissipation factor was lowered slightly, the specific electrical resistivity was expectedly
higher due to the removal of aromatics, which are the most polar hydrocarbon constituents of mineral
insulating oil, the surface tension was improved (also due to the removal of polar aromatic com-
pounds) and oxidation stability decreased.
 Фактор проводимости незначительно снизился, электроустойчивость ожидаемо
увеличилась по причине удаления ароматики, которая является самым поляризующимся
компонентом электроизоляционных минеральных масел, по этой же причине улучшились
показания поверхностного натяжения.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Проанализируйте выделенные единицы и переведите, используя добавление или


опущение.

1. This method is mentioned here only for the sake of completeness.


2. You can also choose additional coverages that are optional, not required, that could
increase the premium.
3. The partnership is also developing interfaces that will allow inter-operation with other
grids at the institutional, national and international levels.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 101


4. Renewable energies such as wind, hydro, solar and biomass emit no greenhouse gases,
but tend to cost more than coal, oil or gas, which do.
5. Burning or combustion is the process of uniting a fuel or combustible with the oxygen in
the air.
6. It's a good thing for these practices to be passed on.
7. Static stress, if held to practical limits, is not the major criterion for determining service
life of the elastomer.
8. Apomorphine doses impair the reaction time of fast reacting but not slow reacting
rats.
9. One suggestion is that the lone pair electron in p z of F is readily and easily donated and
overlapped to empty pz orbital of boron.
10. From the invention of the telescope to the time of particle accelerators, insight and
understanding have grown.
11. It is true that all the advances and improvements that occur within nanotechnology, have
their drawbacks and disadvantages when misused, can also cause pollution and produce
undesirable effects on the environment and our surroundings.
12. LC-MS/MS gives unequalled accuracy and precision for analysing small molecules in
complex biological systems.

2. Прокомментируйте случаи использования добавления и опущения.

1. Technical expert is person who provides specific knowledge or expertise to the audit
team.
 Технический эксперт – лицо, обладающее специальными знаниями или опытом,
которые могут быть необходимы группе по проведению аудита.
2. These are the impetus for a growing demand for the Availability of IT Services that are
time and place independent.
 Эти тенденции являются стимулами для растущей потребности в
работоспособности ИТ-услуг вне зависимости от времени и места их
предоставления.
3. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all
matters of electrotechnical standardization.
 ИСО тесно сотрудничает с Международной электротехнической комиссией
(МЭК) по всем вопросам стандартизации в области электротехники.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 102


4. Stress-relief features are optional.
 Снятие напряжений такого рода производится при наличии требований
заказчика.
5. The intrinsically safe transmission technology MBP is usually limited to a specific
segment.
 Использование искробезопасной технологи MBP обычно ограничено особыми
участками производства.
6. This will not only increase confidence in the methods, but will make them more robust.
 Это не только увеличит степень достоверности методов, но и гораздо уменьшит
погрешность.
7. Initially, this was attributed to the deflection of the impactor on striking the blade thus
creating a smaller notch than expected.
 Первоначально причиной этого посчитали отклонение ударного тела при
столкновении с лопаткой, из-за чего образовывавшиеся зазубрины оказывались
меньше прогнозируемых.
8. API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so.
 Публикации API могут использоваться любым желающим.
9. … at a temperature low enough to ensure or cause permanent strain of the metal.
… при температуре, достаточно низкой, чтобы вызвать постоянное остаточное
напряжение в металле.
10. In order to ensure a high degree of device interchangeability among devices of the same
type…
 Чтобы обеспечить взаимозаменяемость устройств одного типа…
11. Thus, the density of flux lines around the conductor would be far greater in the presence
of a magnetic material than if the conductor were surrounded by air.
 Таким образом, индукция вокруг проводника будет значительно больше в
магнитной среде, чем в воздухе.
12. Annex A includes concept diagrams that provide a graphical representation of the
relationships between terms in specific fields relative to quality management systems.
 Приложение А включает схематические изображения, на которых графически
представлена взаимосвязь терминов в области систем менеджмента качества.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 103


4.7. ЗАМЕНЫ

Замены – совокупное название для целого ряда грамматических преобразований,


к числу которых относится замена формы слова, члена предложения, части речи, типа
предложения, синтаксической конструкции. Необходимость замен обусловлена
различиями в нормативных грамматиках русского и английского языков. Наиболее
характерными являются:

 Замена части речи

Each change needs to be managed individually.


 При этом каждое изменение требует индивидуального рассмотрения.
[наречие  прилагательное]

This approach will help to best capture the behaviour of interest. [существительное  причастие]
 Такой подход является наилучшим для получения интересующих данных.

…when handled and mixed with mineral aggregates at high temperatures.


 … после смешивания с минеральными компонентами при высоких температурах…
[причастие  существительное]

 Замена члена предложения

An example is the multinational computer manufacturer and retailer, Dell Corporation.


 Примером может служить корпорация Dell, которая является транснациональным
производителем и продавцом компьютерной техники. [подлежащее  дополнение]

A Newtonian behaviour, in the whole range of shear rates tested, is always observed.
 Битумы вели себя как ньютоновские жидкости во всем диапазоне напряжений сдвига.
[подлежащее  сказуемое]

Fig. 22-1 shows distribution of charges in the sample.


На рис. 22-1 показано распределение зарядов в образце. [подлежащее  обстоятельство]

 Замена синтаксических моделей (фрагментов модели)

This low-pressure shot is also shown in Fig. 6, and again demonstrates that the interstitial gases did
not affect the initiation process.
 Выстрел низкого давления показан также на рис.6, что в очередной раз демонстрирует
отсутствие влияния промежуточных газов на начало процесса [замена сочинительной связи
на подчинительную].

Переводчик имеет дело с заменами каждый раз, когда в русском языке отсутствуют
аналоги английским моделям. Особенно часто данная трансформация применяется при
переводе неличных форм глагола и оборотов с ними.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 104


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Переведите, используя замены выделенных единиц.

1. Both series of experiments were followed by the separation and identification of labeled
metabolic intermediates.
2. The last year saw OxSciBlog report on emerging technologies and record how new
technologies are changing science.
3. Industrially produced enzymes are used in a broad variety of sectors to increase quality,
speed and yield of processes, and reduce energy consumption and use of hazardous
chemicals.
4. The experiment revealed that only one “observing” electron suffices to induce the
emergence of classical properties such as loss of coherence.
5. In the second stage, when the medium was nitrogen free, the polymer
concentration in the cells grew to its maximum (80 ± 5%).
6. However, among the reported topological indexes noteworthy quantities are Wiener‟s
index, Hosoya‟s and Balaban‟s index J.
7. Test samples were metallographically investigated.
8. The experiment proved that more ablation was caused by the sapphire probe than by the
metal probe.
9. This monograph presents a number of different unsteady flow problems that are
of concern in the design of hydraulic pumps and turbines.
10. This is an artificially created contributor to hydraulic limit.
11. It is magnetically coupled to a tool outside the cell.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 105


4.8. ПЕРЕСТАНОВКА

Перестановка – изменение порядка следования групп слов. Одной из причин


перестановок является расхождение в системах английского и русского языков.
В частности, перестановки могут использоваться в случае инверсии. Перестановки также
применяются для придания лаконичности фразе, для облегчения ее восприятия. Однако
основная причина перестановок при переводе – так называемое коммуникативное
(смысловое) членение предложения. В основе любого предложения, независимо от
синтаксической организации, лежит двухкомпонентная структура – тема («данное») и
рема («новое»). Смысловая структура противопоставлена грамматической, т.е. тема (T) не
всегда совпадает с подлежащим, а рема (R) – со сказуемым:
If natural pressure is not great enough to force the oil to the surface, pumps (R) may be used (T).
 Если естественное давление недостаточно для вытеснения нефти на поверхность,
задействуется (T) насосное оборудование (R).

В английской речи рема может быть и в конце, и в начале фразы!


В русской письменной речи рема всегда стремится к концу фразы!
Перенос исходного порядка слов в русское предложение может привести
к смещению смыслового ударения!

Для правильного обнаружения ремы необходимо учитывать следующие индикаторы:

 Неопределенный артикль:

A copper water-carrying cooling coil was activated during the freezing of the material.
 В процессе замораживания материала включался в работу медный змеевик с охлаждающей
водой.

 Подлежащее главного предложения при наличии придаточного


обстоятельственного времени:

Other instabilities generally became increasingly important as the coupling factor was increased.
 По мере увеличения параметра связи все более важными становились другие неустойчивые
решения.

One sensor was positioned in each of 25 tubes after the bundle was assembled and installed in the test
facility.
 После сборки и монтажа пучка в экспериментальной установке в каждую из его 25 труб
установили датчик.

 Подлежащее главного предложения при наличии обстоятельства цели:

To reduce the resistance of the bed, larger particles were required.


 Чтобы уменьшить сопротивление (кипящего) слоя, требовалось использовать более крупные
частицы.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 106


 Подлежащее придаточного дополнительного:

It was generally observed that a heat affected zone was present in the surface region of each
specimen.
 В поверхностной зоне каждого образца обычно наблюдалось присутствие зоны
термического влияния.

The data clearly show that large quantities of pyrites can be removed from coal.
 Эти данные убедительно показывают, что из угля можно удалить большое количество
пирита.

 Подлежащее придаточного обстоятельственного причины:

Results were rewarding since much knowledge was derived for a relatively small investment in
computer time.
 Результаты окупили эти усилия, так как за относительно малое компьютерное время была
получена большая информация.

Полезно учитывать и прочие средства выделения ремы:


- глагол-сказуемое в пассиве с ослабленной информативностью (is discussed, is considered,
is investigated, is discovered, is explored);
- глагол-сказуемое в активе с «бытийным» значением (appears, occurs, takes place);
- слова-выделители only, just, merely, such as, at least, rather than;
- конструкция there is;
- формальное подлежащее it;
- as в значении «в качестве»;
- словосочетания типа of particular interest, of particular concern.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Переведите, изменив по необходимости порядок слов:

1. Very little machining is necessary to prepare the sample.


2. As employers develop and implement sophisticated new equipment more workers who are
capable of using new technologies will be needed.
3. At present chemical methods of purifying water are extensively made use of.
4. Fig. 13 suggests total flame radiation is reduced rather than increased by using emulsified
fuels.
5. Little attention has been given, however, to the combustion of pyrites as an impurity in
coal.
6. Risk probability is often concluded from averaging data. Perhaps the full range of risk
factors should be looked at instead, and presented to senior management when trying to
make a 'go-no go' decision.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 107


2. Проанализируйте следующие цепочки фраз и обоснуйте необходимость
применения перестановок сообразно смысловому членению.

1. The alloy was supplied as a cast ingot, samples of which were then homogenized at
1200°C for 48 h in partially evacuated sealed quartz capsules that were flushed with
argon. The sealed samples were cooled in air following the homogenization heat
treatment.
2. Both horizontal and vertical centrifugal casting methods are used for making FGMs.
There are various other variants and methods of using centrifugal casting techniques for
making FGM. Centrifugal infiltration process is one of the techniques.
3. Taking advantage of the possibility of improving the quality of local values by calculating
them as time averages over sufficiently long period of time provides the means to obtain a
deeper insight of the model and the simulated process. Thus, aiming at macroscopic
thermodynamic properties, suitable time intervals for averaging these properties have to
be identified.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 108


4.9. АНТОНИМИЧНЫЙ ПЕРЕВОД

Антонимичный перевод – замена лексической единицы оригинала антонимом


или утвердительной формы оригинала отрицательной формой в переводе (и наоборот).
В ряде случаев применение данной трансформации диктуется исключительно личными
предпочтениями переводчика:

The station will not be manned until phase 3.


 Станцию введут в эксплуатацию только по завершении третьей очереди строительства.
(… не введут раньше …)

Additional tests shall not be made unless authorized.


 Дополнительные эксперименты должны производиться лишь с особого разрешения.
(… не могут производиться без …)

A complete classification of the various types of unsteady flow arising from cavitation has yet to be
constructed.
 Полной классификации различных типов нестационарных потоков, вызванных кавитацией,
на данный момент не существует.

В других случаях антонимичный перевод необходим во избежание нарушения


нормативов языка перевода:

It is not uncommon to wait for several hours for the result to be obtained.
 Ждать несколько часов до получения искомого результата – обычное дело.

Most of the risk factors looked at in this study were not unusual.
 Большинство факторов риска, рассмотренных в настоящем исследовании, вполне типичны.

It's speculative but not unreasonable to imagine that the primordial crust was rich in radioactive
elements like thorium, uranium, potassium, and rubidium.
 Чисто теоретически, хотя это вполне логично, можно предположить, что первобытная
земная кора была богата радиоактивными элементами, такими как торий, уран, калий,
рубидий.

Традиционным является применение антонимичного перевода для акцентирования


временных параметров (чаще всего обстоятельства времени):

Typically new batteries do not reach their full capacity until 30/40 charge/discharge cycles.
 Обычно новые аккумуляторы достигают максимальной емкости после 30-40 циклов
разрядки/зарядки.

The results of many models offer varieties of evidence that have not until recently found their way into
the literature.
 Результаты применения различных моделей свидетельствуют о фактах, которые лишь
недавно стали упоминаться в литературе.

The results of these analyses are usually not available until several hours after sampling.
 Результаты этих анализов, как правило, доступны лишь через несколько часов после взятия
пробы.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 109


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Переведите, используя прием антонимичного перевода.

1. Such observations reported by many are not uncommon.


2. Natural resources are not invulnerable and infinitely available.
3. For experiment to give reliable data it is important to keep the flask out of drafts – in as
warm a place as possible.
4. It is not improbable that these facts will help to solve the issue.
5. It is not unlikely that controlled fusion will some day help relieve the world's energy
crisis.
6. Thomson had an inkling that the „rays‟ emitted from the electron gun were inseparable
from the latent charge, and decided to try and prove this by using a magnetic field.
7. It is not unknown for authors to attempt to „bury‟ inconvenient findings in difficult-to-
find journals or to fail to publish them at all.
8. It wasn't until the early 1990s that screens with moving pictures became a practical
reality, the key development being digital image processing.
9. Although self-assembled quantum dots are grown on wetting layers, most
simulations exclude the wetting layer.
10. Quantum tunneling is when particles will jump from point A to point B without passing
though the space in-between.
11. Atoms of a radioactive isotope of any element are chemically indistinguishable and
inseparable from atoms of its normal stable isotopes.

2. Найдите и прокомментируйте случаи использования антонимичного перевода.

1. Due to the complex nature of Accounting for IT usage, it is rare that the actual running
costs of the IT Services are properly identified.
 В связи со сложными методами расчѐта стоимости пользования ИТ-услугами,
зачастую возникает ситуация, когда действительная стоимость ИТ-услуг
определена неверно.
2. The model shown in Figure 1 does not show processes at a detailed level.
 Модель, приведенная на рисунке 1, показывает процессы в общем виде.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 110


3. If the material properties remain unchanged a dynamic component of the cutting force
can be calculated by differentiation …
 В случае если свойства материала остаются постоянными, динамическая
компонента силы резания может быть вычислена путѐм дифференцирования ...
4. Here the uncut layer (initial depth of cut), h0, of the workpiece in the form of continuous
chip without built-up edge is seen to be removed along the shear plane.
 Здесь показано, что срезаемый слой (изначально глубина резания) h0 заготовки,
проходя плоскость сдвига, удаляется в виде сливной стружки без образования
нароста на режущей кромке инструмента.
5. A common misconception is that ice is a hard body impactor.
 Распространенное заблуждение заключается в том, что лед – это твердое
ударное тело.
6. Second, even at the best test houses, repeatability and control are not as good as the
solenoid gun.
 Во-вторых, даже лучшие установки по этим характеристикам уступают
электромагнитной пушке.
7. Allow the fluid to stand undisturbed for 10 seconds.
 Дать постоять раствору в спокойном состоянии 10 секунд.
8. It is not unreasonable to presume that each turn of the coil links the same flux.
 Разумно предположить, что это вращение вокруг витков катушки и есть поток.
9. Welding should not be done on these tools without consulting the manufacturer.
 Проведение сварочных работ на данном оборудовании допускается только после
предварительного согласования с изготовителем.
10. The consequence of not managing everything correctly is shorter engine life and higher
operating and maintenance cost.
 Последствием небрежного отношения является сокращение срока службы
двигателя, а также увеличение эксплуатационных расходов.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 111


4.10. ЭКСПЛИКАЦИЯ

Экспликация – описательный способ перевода, наиболее востребованный при


переводе терминов, отсутствующих в опыте общения носителей языка перевода. В этом
случае исходная единица заменяется ее определением (толкованием).

balanced drilling бурение на равновесии давлений в скважине и пласте


slickwater fractures гидравлический разрыв пласта жидкостью на водной основе

Экспликация также применяется во избежание неестественности/неприемлимости


способа оформления исходной информации. В этом случае переводчик производит
интерпретацию оригинала:

Intel has been chasing the speed of bipolar RAMs.


 Компания «Интел» постоянно стремилась к созданию модулей памяти, способных
конкурировать по быстродействию с биполярными ЗУ.

Judging by its capabilities, the system is clearly not the “me-too product” the company had said it
would take pains to avoid.
 Cудя по возможностям этой системы, она явно относится не к разряду товаров-
подражателей, которого фирма всячески стремилась избежать.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Проанализируйте возможные варианты экспликации выделенных единиц:

1. … stability of milling for regular cutters.


2. However the major requirement is to perform the technological operation under the
chatter free conditions.
3. The experimental stability limits (Weck et al., 1994) and simulations for a half-
immersion (up milling) case are shown in Figure 11.
4. The absolute stability limit is the minimum stable depth of cut without the effect of
lobing.
5. A 6-fluted carbide taper ball end mill with length-to-average diameter ratio of over 10 is
used on a 5-axis machining center.
6. From the outset, it was clear that the construction of MOS transistors on an insulating
sapphire substance results in mixed blessing.
7. The objective of this paper is to model the trajectory of particulates in the exhaust
chimney of a small scale wood combustion furnace with an electrostatic precipitator.
8. The method uses effective stiffnesses for wall-beam elements developed in an earlier
paper.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 112


ПЕРЕВОДЧЕСКИЕ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ – повторение

1. Прокомментируйте, какие грамматические трансформации применил


переводчик.

1. Each card is displaced forward by a small distance with respect to its neighbours
as the cutting tool progresses.
 По мере движения режущего инструмента каждая карта перемещается вперѐд
на небольшое расстояние относительно соседних карт.
2. The mechanics of chip formation has again been revisited in order to understand
functional relationship between the process and the technological parameters.
 Для того чтобы понять функциональные зависимости между технологическим
процессом и его параметрами, был вновь пересмотрен механизм образования
стружки.
3. The piezoviscous coefficient, in the temperature range studied, is normally higher as bitu-
men penetration grade decreases.
 Пьезовязкостный коэффициент в экспериментальном диапазоне температур, как
правило, выше у битума с меньшей величиной пенетрации.
4. Another important parameter that should be considered carefully is the design of the
circulating rate.
 Другой важный параметр, который нужно учесть – это подача бурового раствора.
5. This monograph presents a number of different unsteady flow problems that are of
concern in the design of hydraulic pumps and turbines.
 Данная работа представляет ряд различных проблем нестационарных потоков,
которые связаны с проектированием гидравлических насосов и турбин.

2. Переведите с помощью указанных трансформаций.

1. Normally, these cases the theory misses completely. (антонимичный перевод)


2. The device can also handle a large number of measuring ranges. (конкретизация)
3. The second generator described takes a different approach. (модуляция)
4. All relevant resistances are summarised in Table 2.3. (генерализация)
5. Older spectrophotometers still exist whose precision and accuracy are not this good.
(опущение)
6. The complexity of the cutting process is due to the interwoven physical phenomena.
(модуляция)
7. The usefulness of such technique is apparent from the results given above.
(генерализация)
Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 113
3. Прокомментируйте сделанные трансформации.

1. Because customer needs and expectations are changing, and because of competitive
pressures and technical advances, organizations are driven to improve continually their
products and processes.
 Изменяющиеся потребности и ожидания потребителей, а также давление со
стороны конкурентов и технический прогресс заставляют организации постоянно
совершенствовать свою продукцию и производственно-управленческие процессы.
2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards.
 Главной задачей технического комитета является подготовка международных
стандартов.
3. Once the appropriate impact procedure is selected, the next step is to determine which
specimen geometry will be used.
 После выбора способа имитации нужно определиться с геометрией образца-
мишени.
4. … Displays all screens currently open in the Screen Editor and allows you to visualize
how the screens fit together during runtime.
 … Отображает все окна открытые в редакторе экранов и позволяет вам
отслеживать расположение окон во время работы программы.
5. The first one is strictly related to the current advancement in the cutting tool technology,
where due to the use of diamond tools, their geometries and the material properties, the
tool wear and breakage, have been significantly reduced.
 Первое определѐнно связано с текущим прогрессом в технологии производства
режущего инструмента, так как благодаря использованию алмазного инструмента,
особой геометрии и свойств материала, в значительной степени удалось снизить
износ инструмента и уменьшить число поломок.
6. This rotor-stator interaction problem is an example of a local flow phenomenon.
 Эти проблемы взаимодействия между ротором и статором – пример местного
явления в потоке.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 114


4. Сопоставьте фрагмент английского текста с его официальным переводом.
Определите, к каким лексическим и грамматическим трансформации прибегнул
переводчик.

Physics has a history of synthesizing many phenomena into a few theories.


История физики состоит в синтезировании на основе множества явлений нескольких
теорий.
For instance, in the early days there were phenomena of motion and phenomena of heat; there
were phenomena of sound, of light, and of gravity.
Например, с давних пор были известны тепловые, световые, звуковые явления,
движение и гравитация.
But it was soon discovered, after Sir Isaac Newton explained the laws of motion, that some of
these apparently different things were aspects of the same thing.
Однако после того как сэр Исаак Ньютон объяснил законы движения, оказалось, что
некоторые из этих, на первый взгляд, не связанных вещей – разные стороны одного и
того же явления.
For example, the phenomena of sound could be completely understood as the motion of atoms in
the air.
Например, звуковые явления – это не что иное, как движение атомов воздуха.
So sound was no longer considered something in addition to motion.
Так что звук перестали считать чем-то отдельным от движения.
It was also discovered that heat phenomena are easily understandable from the laws of motion.
Обнаружилось также, что и тепловые явления легко объясняются законами движения.
In this way, great globs of physics theory were synthesized into a simplified theory.
Таким образом, огромные разделы физики сливались в более простую теорию.
The theory of gravitation, on the other hand, was not understandable from the laws of motion,
and even today it stands isolated from the other theories.
С другой стороны, гравитацию не удавалось объяснить законами движения, и даже
сегодня она стоит обособленно от всех прочих теорий.
Gravitation is, so far, not understandable in terms of other phenomena.
Гравитацию пока нельзя объяснить никакими другими явлениями.
After the synthesis of the phenomena of motion, sound, and heat, there was the discovery of
a number of phenomena that we call electrical and magnetic.
За синтезом явлений движения, тепла и звука последовало открытие целого ряда
явлений, которые мы называем электрическими и магнитными.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 115


In 1873 these phenomena were synthesized with the phenomena of light and optics into a single
theory by James Clerk Maxwell, who proposed that light is an electromagnetic wave.
В 1873 г. Джеймс Кларк Максвелл объединил их со световыми и оптическими явле-
ниями и создал единую теорию, в которой свет рассматривается как электромагнитная
волна.
So at that stage, there were the laws of motion, the laws of electricity and magnetism, and the
laws of gravity.
Итак, на этой стадии существовали законы движения, законы электромагнетизма и
законы гравитации.
Around 1900 a theory was developed to explain what matter was.
Примерно в 1900 г. была создана теория, объясняющая, что такое вещество.
It was called the electron theory of matter, and it said that there were little charged particles
inside of atoms.
Она получила название электронной теории вещества и гласила, что внутри атомов
находятся маленькие заряженные частицы.
This theory evolved gradually to include a heavy nucleus with electrons going around it.
Развитие этой теории привело к пониманию того, что электроны движутся вокруг
тяжелых ядер.
Richard P. Feynman. QED The Strange Theory of Light and Matter

5. Сопоставьте оригинальный фрагмент с его переводом и определите, к каким


грамматическим и лексическим трансформациям прибегнул переводчик.

We go about our daily lives understanding Мы живем [1], почти ничего не понимая в
almost nothing of the world. устройстве мира [2].
We give little thought to the machinery Не задумываемся [3] над тем, какой механизм
that generates the sunlight that makes life порождает солнечный свет, который
possible, to the gravity that glues us to an обеспечивает наше существование [4], не
Earth that would otherwise send us думаем [5] о гравитации, которая удерживает
spinning off into space, or to the atoms of [6] нас на Земле, не давая ей сбросить [7] нас в
which we are made and on whose stability пространство. Нас не интересуют [8] атомы, из
we fundamentally depend. которых мы состоим и от устойчивости которых
мы сами существенным образом зависим.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 116


Except for children (who don't know За исключением детей (которые еще слишком
enough not to ask the important мало знают [9], чтобы не задавать такие
questions), few of us spend much time серьезные вопросы), мало кто ломает голову [10]
wondering why nature is the way it is; над тем, почему природа такова, какова она есть,
where the cosmos came from, or откуда появился космос и не существовал ли он
whether it was always here; if time will всегда? не может ли время однажды повернуть
one day flow backward and effects вспять [11], так что следствие будет
precede causes; or whether there are предшествовать причине? есть ли непреодолимый
ultimate limits to what humans can предел [12] человеческого познания [13]?
know.
There are even children, and I have met Бывают даже такие дети (я их встречал [14]),
some of them, who want to know what a которым хочется знать, как выглядит черная дыра,
black hole looks like; what is the какова самая маленькая частичка вещества?
smallest piece of matter; why we почему мы помним прошлое и не помним [15]
remember the past and not the future; будущее? если раньше и правда был хаос, то как
how it is, if there was chaos early, that получилось, что теперь установился видимый [16]
there is, apparently, order today; and порядок? и почему Вселенная вообще
why there is a universe. существует?
In our society it is still customary for В нашем обществе принято, что родители и
parents and teachers to answer most of учителя в ответ на эти вопросы большей частью
these questions with a shrug, or with an пожимают плечами [17] или призывают на
appeal to vaguely recalled religious помощь [18] смутно сохранившиеся в памяти
precepts. ссылки на религиозные легенды.
Some are uncomfortable with issues like Некоторым не нравятся [19] такие темы, потому
these, because they so vividly expose the что в них живо обнаруживается узость [20]
limitations of human understanding. человеческого понимания.

Carl Sagan. Introduction to: Stephen Hawking. A brief history of time

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 117


5. ПРАКТИКУМ ПЕРЕВОДА СВЯЗНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ

1. Проанализируйте выполненный перевод и устраните допущенные ошибки:

Фрагмент 1

For the present study a test plan was carried out by virtue of which the errors resulting
from tool deflection were predicted. The test variables taken into account were cutting strategy,
tool dimensions, material hardness and surface slope. It was then possible to determine what
cutting strategies should be used to minimise errors resulting from tool deflection. In some cases
the best strategies for minimising deflection may have negative aspects, for example, it induces
more dynamic problems and tool wear. In such cases, the optimal solution will be a compromise.
Для настоящего исследования план испытаний был проведен качественно, ввиду
того, что ошибки, связанные с отклонением инструмента, были спрогнозированы.
Тестируемые переменные принимают во внимание стратегии резания, размеры
инструмента, материал и твердость наклонной поверхности. Именно тогда можно
определить, какие стратегии резания должны быть использованы для минимизации
ошибки, связанной с отклонением инструмента. В некоторых случаях наиболее
эффективные стратегии для сведения к минимуму отклонения могут иметь негативные
моменты, например, они могут вызывать большие проблемы динамики и износа
инструмента. В таких случаях оптимальным решением будет компромисс.

Фрагмент 2

The ferritic component develops a strong (110) wire texture, and the cementite lamellae
appear to fragment into planar arrays of small particles. No preferred texture has been identified
for the cementite phase. The pearlite interlamellar spacing decreases in proportion to the wire
diameter, and the range of spacings broadens markedly with increasing strain.
Ферритный компонент развивает сильно текстуру провода и цементитные
пластины, по всей видимости, фрагменты в плоских массивах малых частиц. Было
определено, что нет предпочтительнее структуры в цементитной фазе. Межпластинчатое
расстояние перлита уменьшается пропорционально диаметру провода, и диапазон
расстояний заметно расширяется с ростом напряжения.

Фрагмент 3

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM)
observations of pearlitic steel wire show that drawing to a true strain of 4.22 causes
fragmentation of cementite lamellae into nanoscale grains. The drawing strain amorphizes some
portions of the cementite lamellae in regions where the interlamellar spacing is very small, but
most of the cementite lamellae are polycrystalline with nanoscale grains.
Наблюдения просвечивающей электронной и атомно-силовой зондовой
микроскопии показывают, что перлитный стальной провод, который подходит к истинной
деформации 4,22 вызывает измельчение пластин цементита до наноразмерных зерен.
Рисунок деформированного состояния некоторых пластин цементита в регионах, где
межпластинчатое расстояние очень мало, но большинство поликристаллических пластин
цементита с наноразмерными зернами.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 118


Фрагмент 4

It is possible to create bainite in the form of long, slender crystals of ferrite whose scale
compares with that of carbon nanotubes [1]. These crystals are approximately 20 nm in thickness
and are generated by the partial transformation of austenite at low temperature. The result is an
extraordinary combination of strength and toughness as well as the highest hardness ever
reported for a bainitic microstructure [2, 3]. The transformation mechanism leads to a ferrite
carbon concentration, which are many orders of magnitude greater than its equilibrium solubility
[1]. Atom probe tomography revealed that this excess of carbon was trapped at dislocations in
the vicinity of the ferrite/austenite interface. As a result, decarburization of supersaturated
bainitic ferrite and subsequent carbide precipitation sequences are modified [4]. Further studies
have shown that the cementite is similar to the one found in lower bainite despite the high silicon
content of the steel used. This result confirmed that e-carbide is not always a precursor to the
precipitation of cementite in lower bainite [5]. Moreover, the growth of cementite in lower
bainitic microstructure is not associated with partitioning of substitutional elements, including
silicon. The above results were explained in terms of a displacive mechanism with
paraequilibrium, i.e. a homogeneous deformation of supersaturated ferrite combined with the
necessary diffusion of carbon [6] by which the cementite lattice is generated.
Можно создать бейнит в виде длинных, тонких кристаллов феррита, масштаб
которых сопоставим с размерами углеродных нанотрубок. Эти кристаллы размером около
20 нм в толщину и образуются в частично превращенном аустените при низкой
температуре. В результате, необыкновенное сочетание прочности и вязкости, а также
высокой твердости не сообщалось для бейнитной микроструктуры. Механизм
преобразования для феррита приводит концентрацию углерода на много порядков
больше, чем его равновесная растворимость. Томография атомным зондом показала, что
избыток этого углерода захваченный дислокациями в непосредственной близости от
границы раздела феррита/аустенита. Как результат, обезуглероживание пересыщенного
бейнитного феррита и последующее выделение карбида последовательное
видоизменение. Дальнейшие исследования показали, что цементит аналогично можно
найти в нижнем бейните, несмотря на высокое содержание кремния в использованной
стали.

Фрагмент 5

Interference effects in disordered media give rise to interesting new phenomena in


nonlinear optics, leading to the appearance of sharp peaks in the angular distribution of the
second-harmonic intensity [7], resulting in correlations of second-harmonic waves in
transmission and reflection [8], and allowing the integration of lasing and second-harmonic
generation capabilities by the use mixtures of powders [9]. The importance of scattering effects
for the enhancement of optical harmonic generation in porous silicon [10] and porous gallium
phosphide [11] has recently been demonstrated. Nonlinear optics is also a powerful tool for
composition-, morphology-, and spatial-symmetrysensitive analysis and time-resolved studies of
nanocomposite materials, as well as assemblies of nanocrystals and nanoclusters [12–15]. An
understanding of scattering-induced effects in nonlinear optics would allow harmonic-generation
and wave-mixing methods of laser metrology to be extended to strongly scattering media, giving
new insights into fundamental aspects of nonlinear scattering problems and permitting practical
devices to be created with the use of nanopowder and nanocrystal materials.
Интерференционные эффекты в неупорядоченных средах приводят к интересным
новым явлениям в нелинейной оптике, котрые приводят к появлению острых пиков в
угловом распределении интенсивности вторичных гармонических колебаний [7],
результату в корреляции вторичных гармонических волн в пропускании и отражении [8],
и позволяет возможности поколения с использованием смеси порошков [9]. Важность
эффекта рассеяния для повышения оптического гармонического возбуждения в пористом
Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 119
кремнии [10] и в пористом фосфиде галлия [11] была недавно продемонстрирована.
Нелинейная оптика является также мощным инструмент для построения, морфологии, и
пространственного симметрично-чувствительного анализа и временно-разрешенных
исследований нанокомпозитных материалов, а также для сборки нанокристаллов и
нанокластеров [12-15]. Понимание рассеянно-индуцированных эффектов в нелинейной
оптике позволит методам гармонико-генерации и волно-перемешивания лазерной
метрологии быть продлеными в сильно рассеивающих средах, давая по новому взглянуть
на фундаментальные аспекты нелинейных задач рассеяния и разрешения практических
устройств, созданных с использованием нанопорошков и нанокристаллических
материалов.

2. Сделайте перевод следующих текстов. При необходимости используйте


гиперссылки для повторения грамматического материала из первой части:

Small is different

Depending on who you ask, nanotechnology started in 1981, 1974, 1959 or the Bronze
Age. And depending on who you believe, and the definitions they use, the world market for
nanotechnology products will be worth $2,600 billion in 2014, or $1,000 billion in 2015.
There is, however, consensus about some matters. First, for something – a material,
device, system or process – to be truly nano, the relevant length scale must be small enough for
its properties and behaviour to be different from those observed in the bulk. Second, nanoscience
and nanotechnology are genuinely multidisciplinary and broad-based subjects.
At the recent International Conference on Nanoscience and Technology in Basel, for
instance, it was notable that most of the plenary speakers were active in many different areas of
nano: it is not uncommon for a group to be working on nanowire-based biosensors and, say,
devices for quantum-information processing at the same time. Third, governments and
companies around the world are not investing billions in the field because the science is
fascinating – they will want to see returns on their investments.

Nanotechnology is believed to hold great promise for an efficient, environmentally


friendly creation of entirely new material: for example, flexible glass, concretes stronger and
lighter than aluminium, self-cleaning fibres, and medical technologies. However, it may also
harbour as yet unknown health problems if nanoscale materials are indiscriminately
manufactured and used.
The debate surrounding nanotech is not yet as fierce as that of genetically modified crops.
There are always risks associated with emerging technologies; their further development and
wider use is formed by the balance between these risks and the potential societal benefits.
Nanotechnology first made its way to public consciousness via a book written in 1986 by
Dr. Eric Drexler, founder of the Foresight Institute in California. Engines of Creation detailed a
possible scenario in which self-replicating nanomachines run amok, reproducing uncontrollably
and consuming all organic matter on Earth until nothing is left but a thick blanket of nanorobots.
This nightmare is popularly known as the „grey goo‟ scenario, and has now been joined by a
„green goo‟ counterpart due to the advent of medical nanotech (in which biologically active
nanodevices invade and alter human bodies). The original „grey goo‟ scenario has been revived
in the media both by Michael Crichton‟s recent book Prey, and by the concerns of
environmentalists, including Prince Charles and the ETC Group. The ETCG have called for a
moratorium on the development of nanotechnology, citing potential environmental problems and
societal concerns.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 120


Nanoscale Evolution of Sliding Metal Surfaces During Running-in

Experienced automotive engineers know that the running-in of an engine will


significantly determine its performance and lifetime. An optimized running-in procedure is able
to increase the lifetime of a mechanical system by 40% and more and to reduce the engine
friction without any material modification or use of special coatings [1]. Therefore a better
understanding of running-in phenomena is very interesting for cost-reduction as well as from a
fundamental point of view.
A widespread opinion is that running-in is caused by breaking off the peaks of the surface
profiles, which will reduce the maximum contact pressures and thus the wear rate (see e.g. [2]).
More recent studies have shown that running-in also leads to changes of the microstructure,
elemental composition and the micro topography on the first few hundred nanometres of the
rubbing surfaces [3-5]. Finally, anti-wear (AW) additives, that form part of the lubricant, have
been assumed to be responsible for the reduction of the wear rate during running-in as well. The
most prominent of these AW substances is the organo-metallic compound zinc
dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), which has already been studied for decades (see e.g. [6-9]).
A recent overview on ZDDP literature can be found in [10]. It is known that ZDDP decomposes
to form "anti-wear" films, which are comprised of long-chain and short-chain zinc
polyphosphates. Wear prevention is assumed to occur by separating the two metallic surfaces
[9, 11].
Figure 3 shows the friction and high-resolution wear data for the experiment that was
stopped after 8 min, 16 min and 2.5 h. Not shown is the 4.5 h test since wear had not been
measured in this test but the friction data were very similar to the 2.5 h test. The evolution of the
wear curve can be split into three regimes. Initially the wear increased rapidly and within the first
4 min the wear rate amounts to dW/dt = 1165 ± 295 nm/h. Then a transition can be observed,
where the wear rate dropped rapidly to a value close to zero within the error margin of the
measurement (–12 ± 23 nm/h). At a rubbing time of approx. 12 min a third regime can be
recognized, where an increase of the total wear amount could be clearly detected again. After
about 2 h of sliding the wear curve adopted a linear characteristic.
While the friction remained constant or even increased (see Fig. 3) in the first two
periods, it decreased significantly in the third. Beyond approx. 4 h of sliding the friction
coefficient levelled off at l = 0.05, meaning that both friction and wear rate obtained steady-state
values subsequently.

Atom Probe and Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations


of Heavily Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wire

HEAVILY drawn pearlitic wire has been investigated extensively over the years for its
unusual strain-hardening behavior and for the high strengths that can be attained, with a
toughness sufficient for many engineering applications. Widely used for tire cord, springs, wire
rope, and suspension bridge cable, it is typically produced by rolling or drawing wire of an
approximately eutectoid composition to an intermediate diameter, patenting it to produce a fine
pearlitic microstructure, and then cold drawing it to strains between 1.5 and 5.0. Previous
microstructural investigations have established a number of salient characteristics associated
with the wire drawing process. The strength of the wire increases exponentially with the drawing
strain, and, despite the limited ductility of monolithic cementite crystals, the cementite lamellae
in pearlitic wire co-deform with ferrite. The ferritic component develops a strong (110) wire
texture, and the cementite lamellae appear to fragment into planar arrays of small particles. No
preferred texture has been identified for the cementite phase. The pearlite interlamellar spacing
decreases in proportion to the wire diameter, and the range of spacings broadens markedly with
increasing strain.
In addition to these microstructural traits, drawn pearlitic wire has several interesting
chemical characteristics. Atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) studies indicate that silicon

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 121


in undeformed (as-patented) wire is piled up at ferrite/cementite boundaries, while manganese
shows no significant tendency to segregate or partition to either ferrite or cementite. Internal
friction and Mossbauer experiments suggest that a substantial proportion of the cementite (from
20 to 50 vol pct) dissolves during deformation at room temperature. This phenomenon is
intriguing, since cementite is stable at room temperature and the solubility of carbon in ferrite is
quite low. Direct support for cementite dissolution is provided by the aforementioned APFIM in-
vestigations, as well as by several analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies
show that deformed ferrite lamellae contain significantly more carbon than ferrite in undeformed
pearlite.
Explanations for why cementite dissolves during cold drawing are based upon either
interactions between carbon and dislocations or upon thermodynamic arguments. In the first
category, Gridnev et al. suggested that a larger binding energy between interstitials and
dislocations in ferrite than that between carbon and cementite makes it possible for dislocations
to drag carbon out of cementite. Others suggested that cementite dissolves during annealing,
when carbon leaves cementite to form atmospheres around dislocations in ferrite. In the second
category, Languillaume et al. invoked capillarity to argue that an increase in surface energy
associated with steps in pearlite lamellae destabilizes the cementite phase.
The distribution of carbon in deformed pearlitic wire is important, as it affects the
response of drawn wire to subsequent thermal treatments. Commercial pearlitic wire is often heat
treated at temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 450 °C during the bluing or galvanizing
processes, and the mechanisms associated with observed changes in mechanical properties
depend on the behavior of carbon after drawing. For example, the increase in yield strength that
results from brief exposures to temperatures below approximately 250 °C has been attributed to
strain-age hardening accompanying cementite dissolution. Also, the softening accompanying
annealing at higher temperatures has been attributed to a variety of processes, including a drop in
the carbon concentration in ferrite, recovery and recrystalli-zation, and cementite spherodization.
The present study aims to clarify the mechanism by which carbon is transferred from
cementite to pearlite during deformation, as well as to determine how annealing between 200 °C
and 500 °C affects the distribution of carbon and silicon. Toward this end, three-dimensional
AP-FIM and TEM techniques were used to obtain both chemical and microstructural information
with spatial resolutions of near-atomic dimensions.

The production of nanostructured or ultrafine grained (UFG) materials has been of great
interest in the research community recently due to their high strength, wear resistance, ductility,
and high strain-rate superplasticity. These properties, achieved through their small
microstructures (100-300 nm) and unique defect structures (of grain boundaries and dislocations)
make these materials ideal for lightweight medical implants and aerospace structural
components. Methods of actually manufacturing UFG materials for these advanced engineering
designs have yet to be considered.
For UFG materials to be manufactured and used in industry, further machining research
is needed to form and shape these materials into their final dimensions. Because of their high
internal energy, UFG materials are known to have microstructures which are susceptible to
undesirable changes at low temperatures. Since machining is a heat dissipating process, the
thermal stability of UFG materials must be carefully considered as not to deteriorate their unique
properties. The machinability is also of interest due to its importance in possible part production.
In this study, pure nanostructured copper and titanium as well as their respective coarse grained
(CG) counterparts were tested for their relative machinability and microstructure stability
through lathe turning. To evaluate the machinability cutting forces, tool wear, chip morphology,
and surface roughness were studied using different cutting conditions. Tungsten carbide (WC)
and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) cutting tools were utilized for turning the copper workpieces
while only PCD was used for titanium. Microstructure stability was examined by measuring

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 122


grain size and dislocation density using X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques with some
subsequent electron microscopy imaging.
Experimental results confirmed that both the UFG Cu and Ti bars could be machined as
efficiently as their CG counterparts. Cutting forces generated were less for the UFG copper
compared to the regular copper but were approximately equal for the two titanium bars. Similar
tool wear patterns and mechanisms were observed for the nano and coarse grained Cu and Ti.
Chip morphology changed little during the course of machining. Surface roughness was
improved when machining the UFG copper bar, yet was slightly larger for the UFG titanium at
higher speeds. XRD results showed little changes in grain size after machining while dislocation
density was shown to reduce the greatest near the machined surface.

3. Выполните полный перевод следующих фрагментов.

Nanotechnology in the Metallurgy of Steel

Progress in ferrous metallurgy in the second half of the twentieth century was associated
with rapid replacement of the basic production systems, in a kind of technical revolution. Large-
capacity converter and electrosmelting systems were organized, along with ladle treatment of the
steel, vacuum treatment, continuous casting, coke-free metallurgy, powder metallurgy, and
hydroextrusion. Thus, effective new approaches to the production of high-performance steel
were introduced. In the past decade, progress in ferrous metallurgy has been characterized
primarily by the development of nanotechnologies – in particular, the production of high-quality
materials used in electronics, optics, construction, the power industry, manufacturing,
astronautics, and elsewhere.
In large-scale metallurgy, nanotechnologies are already in use: for example, the intense
plastic deformation in closed dies and closed roller grooves; thermodeformation with large
reduction and a low final deformation temperature; and thermocyclic treatment of final profiles.
To date, nanotechnologies play a small role in ferrous-metal production. Currently, the mass
production of high-quality rolled steel relies on alloying with expensive ferroalloys. The costs of
producing fine-grain steel free of oxides and other nonmetallic inclusions are high. Steel
composed of smaller crystals will be of higher quality: this should guarantee high strength, low-
temperature stability, and corrosion resistance of the product.
The competitiveness of metallurgical products in the global marketplace depends on
those properties of the steel that permit the production of more reliable and more economical
machines and mechanisms, metal structures, oil and gas pipelines, railroad lines for eastern and
northern regions, and defense technology. This calls for steel whose mechanical strength,
characterized by the elastic modulus and the deformation, is sustained under external and internal
loads corresponding to elastoplastic processes, with a sufficient margin.
Taking account of random overloads, the presence of defects, and differences in
mechanical systems, it is conventional to adopt a safety margin of more than two in calculating
the design stress for machine parts and structural components. In operation, enormous plastic
strains (hundreds of percent) accumulate in microvolumes of the steel, which should lead to
rapid loss of strength and failure. However, this is not observed, on account of nanostructuring,
i.e., self-organization of strengthening nanophases in stress-concentration zones with
fragmentation of the matrix phase; this is a protective reaction of the material to the external
stimulus.
The strength and durability of the part depend both on its initial structure and on the
dynamic structural changes and self-organization of the strengthening nanocomposite phases,
which scatter (dissipate) the supplied energy. Ordered nanocomposites provide a unique set of
properties: hardness, strength, and plasticity. This offers the prospect of minimizing the safety
margin in determining the strength of the material.
By regulating the formation of a fine-grain structure, taking account of the self-
organization of nanophases, not only the strength but also the plasticity and cold strength of the
Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 123
steel may be increased on the basis of local synergetic transitions and thermomechanical
treatment. Therefore, production technologies – in particular, for massive rolled sheet made of
carbon and low-alloy steel – must ensure the formation of a finely crystalline structure, with the
maximum possible quantity of strengthening metallic nanophases (carbides, nitrides,
carbonitrides, intermetallides) and a minimum quantity of sulfur, phosphorus, oxides, and other
nonmetallic inclusions.
The production of a fine-grain structure has always seemed challenging. Today, an
approach based on nanosystems is promising. The strength of the metal in the nanostate may be
increased by a factor of 3–4, and the hardness by an order of magnitude, with improvement in
the cold strength and great increase in the corrosion resistance.
Nanotechnological methods have been used, at least by trial and error, for more than two
millennia, as indicated, for example, by Damascus steel blades and the iron column in Delhi.
However, the beginning of the twenty-first century has brought the recognition that such
methods hold the key to human progress [1]. Forecasts show that, within 10–15 years,
nanotechnology will have created a multitrillion-dollar world market for materials with
unforeseen properties.

Effect of tempering temperature on tensile behavior of ultrafine grained


low carbon steel

Recently, ultrafine grained (UFG) materials with grain size less than 1 μm have been
studied extensively because they are expected to provide high strength without the degradation
of toughness. Earlier work has shown that severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques, such as
equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), accumulative roll bonding (ARB), multiple compression
and severe torsional straining (STS), etc. are effective in manufacturing UFG materials [1–5].
Through the application of severe deformation, it is possible to produce reasonably uniform
submicron grain structures in Al alloys, Cu alloys and low carbon steels.
One of the distinguishing features of UFG ferritic steels during tensile deformation,
compared with coarse-grained ones, is the presence of the extended region, where little strain
hardening occurs, at strains less than 5% in engineering stress-strain curves. This unusual
behavior could be explained in terms of dynamic recovery associated with the balance between
the dislocation generation rate and the spreading rate of trapped lattice dislocations at grain
boundaries during tensile deformation. According to Park et al. [6], the formation of a
dislocation cell structure would be inhibited in UFG steels during deformation, since the grain
size is too small to form dislocation cells within grains. Thus, the mean free dislocation length at
the corresponding stress level, which is comparable to a nanoscale grain size of 0.2–0.4 μm, in
UFG ferritic steels and the dynamic recovery during tensile deformation, would cause the
occurrence of the extended region in engineering stress-strain curves.
Meanwhile, similar tensile behavior in engineering stress-strain curves is often observed
in steels with a tempered martensite structure. It is worth mentioning that the characteristic
dimension of the lath martensite, 0.1–1.0 μm, is similar to the grain size in UFG ferritic steels
reported in [6], although the characteristics of lath boundaries, i.e., low-angle boundaries, are
somewhat different from those of UFG ferritic steels. Furthermore, Ueji et al. [7] observed the
formation of the UFG microstructure through cold rolling and annealing of the martensite in low
carbon steels. Thus, it is anticipated that the occurrence of recovery and recrystrallization in the
martensite matrix during tempering at high temperatures, would possibly enhance the formation
of an equiaxed ultrafine ferrite grain. However, most previous work [8–11] has focused on the
evolution of carbide particles during tempering and the variation of mechanical properties, which
are influenced by microstructural features such as prior austenite grain size, tempering
temperature and alloying elements.
In view of the foregoing, the present investigation was carried out to investigate tensile
behavior manifested in engineering stress-strain curves, in conjunction with microstructural

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evolution during tempering, starting from a martensite structure, especially the formation of
equiaxed ultrafine ferrite grains.
The steel used in this study was hot-rolled and had a chemical composition of 0.21%C,
0.22%Si, 0.73%Mn, 1.08Cr, 0.19%Mo, 0.014%P, 0.012%S (in wt%) and the balance Fe. The
resulting wire rods were induction-heated at 1223 K for 50 s, and quenched to room temperature
by water jet spraying. The measured AGS (average grain size) of induction-heated steels was
ASTM No. 10.5. Then, specimens were tempered at various temperatures from 523 K–973 K in
a molten salt bath for 30 min. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens, machined to the
ASTM subsize form of 6.25 mm gauge diameter and 25 mm gauge length, at a constant
crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The strain gage was removed from the specimens after the
occurrence of the peak in the engineering stress-strain curve. For a detailed understanding of the
microstructural evolution during the heat-treatment, a transmission electron microscope (TEM)
was used to analyze thin foils obtained from the samples tempered at various temperatures.
TEM samples were prepared by utilizing a conventional jet polishing technique in a mixture of
10% perchloric acid and glacial acetic acid. The representative engineering stress-strain curves
of tempered steels are shown in Fig. 1. The stress-strain curves can be classified in three groups,
according to their shapes. The first one shows a typical continuous yielding behavior e.g., the
steel tempered at 523 K. It is well known that the presence of excess mobile dislocations in fully
martensitic steels causes the occurrence of continuous yielding in engineering stress-strain
curves.
The engineering stress-strain curves of the second group showthat continuous yielding
disappears and the formation of an extended region, where flow stress is independent of a strain,
starts to appear without the formation of an upper yield point. It is interesting to note that as
tempering temperature increases, the extended region becomes more prominent and
progressively expands up to a tempering temperature of 873 K in Fig. 1. This phenomenon must
be related to the microstructural variation occurring during tempering of a martensite structure.

Redistribution of alloying elements during tempering of a nanocrystalline steel

It is possible to create bainite in the form of long, slender crystals of ferrite whose scale
compares with that of carbon nanotubes [1]. These crystals are approximately 20 nm in thickness
and are generated by the partial transformation of austenite at low temperature. The result is an
extraordinary combination of strength and toughness as well as the highest hardness ever
reported for a bainitic microstructure [2, 3]. The transformation mechanism leads to a ferrite
carbon concentration, which are many orders of magnitude greater than its equilibrium solubility
[1]. Atom probe tomography revealed that this excess of carbon was trapped at dislocations in
the vicinity of the ferrite/austenite interface. As a result, decarburization of supersaturated
bainitic ferrite and subsequent carbide precipitation sequences are modified [4]. Further studies
have shown that the cementite is similar to the one found in system at 700 °C and reported that
most of the silicon was rejected from cementite. However, Babu et al. [10] and Thomson and
Miller [11] found that there was no initial partition of silicon between ferrite and cementite in
tempered martensite of Fe-0.15C-2Si-3Mn and Fe-(0.15, 0.4)C-2.2Cr-1Mo-0.3Si-0.5Mn alloys.
Silicon is eventually rejected from cementite during prolonged tempering.
However, a systematic study of the partitioning between ferrite and austenite and also
carbide precipitation during tempering of bainite has not been done. There are important
differences in the tempering behavior of bainite and martensite. Much of the carbon precipitates
as carbides or partitions from the ferrite to the remaining austenite during bainite formation. As a
consequence the bainitic microstructure is less sensitive to additional tempering heat treatment.
In contrast, the level of carbon in the bainitic ferrite of this novel bainitic steel is unusually high.
Previous work focused on carbon atom redistribution processes, such as segregation of carbon
atoms to defects and carbon enrichment in the retained austenite, that occur during auto-
tempering conditions [4]. The goals of this work are to analyze the following physical processes:
 Substitutional and interstitial element redistribution between ferrite and austenite
Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 125
 Redistribution of solute across the lower bainite cement-ite/ferrite interface
 Precipitation of carbides within the ferrite
The initial microstructure is the result of isothermal decomposition of austenite at 200 °C
for 10 d. A transmission electron micrograph of the resulting microstructure consisting of fine
plates of bainitic ferrite separated by carbon-enriched regions of retained austenite (29 ± 2%
according to X-ray analysis) is shown in Fig. 1a. The retained austenite is sufficiently enriched
with carbon (6.69 ± 0.44 at.%) that it remains stable during cooling to ambient temperature, so
that martensite does not form at all. The thickness of the bainite plates measured from a selection
of transmission electron micrographs is extremely fine, 35 ± 2 nm, which is the main reason for
the high hardness value resulting from this microstructure (617 HV).
The chemical composition of the steel studied is given in Table 1. The alloy was supplied
as a cast ingot, samples of which were then homogenized at 1200 °C for 48 h in partially
evacuated sealed quartz capsules that were flushed with argon. The sealed samples were cooled
in air following the homogenization heat treatment. Homogenized specimens were austenitized
for 15 min at 1000 °C, and then isothermally transformed at 200 °C for 10 d before quenching
into water. The microstructure thus obtained was tempered between 400 and 600 °C for 30 or
60 min.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the original
microstructure of the steel and its evolution during tempering. For this purpose, specimens were
machined to 3 mm diameter rods and electropolished with a twin-jet electropolisher at room
temperature in a mixture of 5% perchloric acid, 15% glycerol, and 80% methanol at 40 V until
perforation occurred.
X-ray experiments were conducted on etched samples using a Philips PPW1730
diffractometer and a scanning rate of 0.1° min-1 over the range 20 = 30-110°, with unfiltered Cu
Ka radiation. The system was operating at 45 kV and 45 mA. Peak positions and widths of Bragg
reflections were determined by a self-consistent profile-fitting technique using the Pearson-VII
function [12]. Retained austenite volume fraction in the microstructure was evaluated by the
integrated intensities of the 111, 200, 220, and 311 austenite peaks and the 110, 002, 112, and
022 peaks of ferrite. Using this number of peaks avoids possible bias due to crystallographic
texture. Moreover, austenite and ferrite carbon content was calculated from the measured lattice
parameters [13-15].
Atom probe tomography specimens were cut from heat-treated material and
electropolished using the standard double-layer and micropolishing methods [16]. Atom probe
analyses were performed in the ORNL local electrode atom probe. The large field of view and
rapid analysis capability of this instrument facilitated the analysis at an atomic scale in this
material. The local electrode atom probe was operated with a specimen temperature of 60 K, a
pulse repetition rate of 200 kHz, and a pulse fraction of 0.2.
The initial microstructure is the result of isothermal decomposition of austenite at 200 °C
for 10 d. A transmission electron micrograph of the resulting microstructure consisting of fine
plates of bainitic ferrite separated by carbon-enriched regions of retained austenite (29 ± 2%
according to X-ray analysis) is shown in Fig. 1a. The retained austenite is sufficiently enriched
with carbon (6.69 ± 0.44 at.%) that it remains stable during cooling to ambient temperature, so
that martensite does not form at all. The thickness of the bainite plates measured from a selection
of transmission electron micrographs is extremely fine, 35 ± 2 nm, which is the main reason for
the high hardness value resulting from this microstructure (617 HV) [1]. It is important to point
out the high carbon content of the ferrite (2.52 ± 0.30 at.%) as well as the high dislocation
density present in this phase, as shown in Fig. 1a. Carbide particles within bainitic ferrite plates
were not observed by TEM; however, cementite precipitated inside bainitic ferrite (i.e. lower
bainite cementite) was identified in the initial microstructure by atom probe tomography. More
details on the characterization of this initial microstructure are summarized elsewhere [1,4].
Tempering for 1 h at 400 °C did not change the hardness (619 HV), suggesting negligible
change in the initial micro-structure. Extremely fine plates of ferrite and thin films of retained
austenite were still observed (see Fig. 1b). The austenite volume fraction also did not change (29

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 126


± 1%). Only a few carbide particles seem to precipitate within the ferrite. At 450 °C for 30 min
(Fig. 1c), some of the retained austenite has decomposed into cementite and ferrite. This discrete
precipitation would explain a small increase in hardness (up to ~670 HV). The volume fraction
of austenite according to X-ray analysis decreased from 29 ± 1% to 2 ± 1%. It is also evident
(Fig. 1c) that the ferrite plate thickness has not changed, although recovery of dislocation
substructure occurs to some extent. Similar microstructural changes are observed when
increasing tempering temperatures to 500 or 550 °C (Fig. 1d and e). Hardness is maintained at
high levels (between 615 and 640 HV) and some recovery of dislocations takes place. Ferrite
plate thickness increases to 49 ± 2 nm following tempering at 550 °C for 1 h. Further
decomposition of retained austenite occurs as temperature increases, and some large regions of
retained austenite transform into colonies of pearlite with a fine interlamellar spacing (Fig. 1e).
By contrast, the films of retained austenite decompose into discrete particles of cementite and
ferrite because there is insufficient volume to establish the cooperative growth of pearlite [17].
Ferrite plate morphology still remains. Finally, there is a significant reduction in hardness to
~100 HV after 30 min at 600 °C due to coarsening of the microstructure, as shown in Fig. 1f.
Carbon atom maps and concentration profiles of bainite at the early stages of tempering (400 °C
for 30 min) reveal the presence of carbon-enriched regions randomly dispersed throughout the
ferrite matrix (see Fig. 2). These clusters are ~6 nm thick and have a maximum carbon content of
~14 at.%, much higher than that detected in austenite, but with chromium and manganese
contents too low (less than 2 at.%) to be identified as M6C carbide particles. These features
resemble those carbon clusters with a modulated structure consisting of alternating carbon-rich
and carbon-poor bands reported for Fe–Ni–C martensite after natural aging [19,20]. Taylor et al.
[20] attributed the nature of the carbon atom clustering processes to a spinodal decomposition
mechanism since the formation of the carbon cluster was found to occur via a continuous
increase in composition amplitude, which is characteristic of this kind of mechanism. However,
this fluctuation of solute concentration may be also associated with a redistribution of solute to
dislocations in bainite [4].

On the contribution of carbides and micrograin boundaries to the creep strength


of tempered martensite ferritic steels

Tempered martensite ferritic steels with 9-12% Cr are used for fossil fuel fired power
plant components operating in the creep range at temperatures between 773 and 923 K. Many of
the critical components in modern fossil fuel fired power plants consist of tempered martensite
ferritic steels [1-13]. As creep limits their service life, there is a need for understanding the role
of their microstructure during creep [14,15]. Typical laboratory heat treatments of tempered
martensite ferritic steels consist of austenitising (e.g. 1273 K, 1 h, air cooling) followed by
tempering (e.g. 1023 K, 2 h, air cooling) [15,4]. It is important to emphasise that the term
''tempered martensite ferritic steel'' is associated with the heat treatment history of these materials
and does not imply that the microstructure after heat treatment is martensitic. The microstructure
of tempered martensite ferritic steels consists of a high density of internal interfaces, carbides
and free dislocations in body centred cubic (bcc) ferrite [16-20]. The decrease of a high initial
density of free dislocations in tempered martensite ferritic steels accounts for a strong decrease
of creep rate during primary creep within a very small primary strain range of the order of <1%
[20,21]. Free dislocations therefore do not directly contribute to creep strength.
In contrast, internal interfaces and carbides increase the creep resistance of tempered
martensite ferritic steels because they represent obstacles to dislocation motion [15,22]. There
are several types of internal interfaces including prior austenite grain boundaries, prior packet or
block boundaries, prior martensite lath boundaries and subgrain boundaries [19]. Small
micrograins with low (>90% of the boundaries) and high angle boundaries (<10% of the
boundaries) represent the most prominent microstructural feature of tempered martensite ferritic
steels [19]. Finally, small carbides precipitate on or very close to the boundaries of these
micrograins [15,23-25].

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It is well known that subgrain boundaries represent obstacles to dislocation motion during
creep [26,27] in materials which show pure metal type of creep behaviour [28]. Since a high
percentage of the micrograin boundaries in ultrafine grained tempered martensite ferritic steels
possess subgrain boundary character [19], it seems reasonable to assume that the ultrafine
micrograins are a decisive reason for their creep strength. It is also clear that carbides contribute
to the creep strength of tempered martensite ferritic steels. The mechanisms of particle
strengthening of creeping materials have been in the focus of materials science research for
several decades [29-34]. While particles have been shown to strengthen alloys in various ways,
their role in contributing to the creep strength of tempered mar-tensite ferritic steels has so far
not been fully understood. In crept tempered martensite ferritic steel specimens, Orowan type of
processes [29], where dislocation lines bow out between particles, are hardly ever observed. Nor
can detachment processes [35-37] (which govern creep of oxide dispersion strengthened
materials) be detected. It is also clear that strengthening effects associated with ordered
intermetallic lattices [33,34] do not account for the creep strength of tempered martensite ferritic
steels. Instead, it was suggested [38,39] that particles contribute to the creep strength of tempered
martensite ferritic steels by interrupting knitting reactions between free dislocations and sub-
grain boundaries [22] and by exerting Zener forces [40] on micrograin boundaries. In this
microstructural scenario, carbides play the role of pinning agents keeping micrograin boundaries
in place. Based on observations like those, the term ''carbide stabilised substructure hardening''
was proposed for the creep strengthening mechanism in tempered martensite ferritic steels
[38,39].
It seems reasonable to assume that carbides stabilise the micrograin boundaries in
tempered martensite ferritic steels. The first experimental evidence for a stabilising effect of
particles on subgrains was reported by Hausselt and Nix [46]. They performed a detailed study
on the effect of particles on the development of a dislocation substructure and found that more
strain is required to develop a homogeneous steady-state dislocation structure than in single-
phase metals. Secondly, the particles seemed to impede the development of a steady-state
dislocation structure, albeit indirectly. The micrographs presented in Ref. [46] suggest that
particles are rather statistically distributed and are not related to subgrain boundaries on a one to
one basis (each particle being situated on or very near a subgrain boundary) as is characteristic
for tempered martensite ferritic steels [38,39].
Thus, while there is a good qualitative understanding of the creep strengthening
mechanism in tempered martensite ferritic steels, it is not known how much exactly the micro-
grain boundary carbides contribute to creep strength. Dlouhy and co-workers [39] tackled this
problem. They used well thought out thermomechanical treatments to independently affect
micrograins and carbides in a 9% chromium tempered martensite ferritic steel (P91). During
creep, both micrograins and carbides coarsen, but while carbide coarsening is time dependent,
the growth of micro-grains more strongly depends on accumulated strain. Therefore, appropriate
aging treatments allow the mean carbide size to increase without strongly affecting the
micrograin size. Conversely, overaging followed by creep to different amounts of accumulated
strains results in different micrograin sizes while the precipitate population remains nearly
unaffected. From the creep response of such microstructures Dlouhy and co-workers [39] were
able to prove that there is an interaction between both strengthening effects. However, as was
carefully discussed by Dlouhy and co-workers [39], their method represents an indirect approach
which suffers from a number of drawbacks associated with microstructural complexity. Thus,
even the most sophisticated thermomechanical treatments do not allow to specifically affect only
micrograins without simultaneously affecting boundary carbides and vice versa. When carbides
precipitate on micrograin boundaries, it is difficult to differentiate between the carbide spacing
and the micrograin dimensions. In summary, it is presently not clear how strongly micrograin
boundary carbides affect the creep strength of tempered martensite ferritic steels.

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Piezoelectric Nanogrinding

The piezoelectric nanogrinding process is a process that relies on using a nickel-coated


ceramic material with microscale diamond particles bonded to it that are cubo-octahedral in
shape to machine nanoscale features in a variety of workpiece materials. The diamonds are
bonded to the piezoelectric material by gaseous deposition, laser cladding, or directly bonding a
porous tool to the material via an adhesive paste. The process is executed by applying a known
sinusoidal frequency to the piezoelectric crystal in order to achieve a desired oscillatory
displacement. Rapid vibration of the crystal will allow material removal rates to be increased,
thus making it a nanomanufacturing process. The nanogrinding process is accompanied by wear
of the diamond grains, and the rate of this wear plays an important role in determining the
efficiency of the nanogrinding process and the quality of the nanomachined surface. Wear
mechanisms in nanogrinding processes appear to be similar to that of single-point cutting tools,
the only difference being the size of swarf particles generated. Fig. 10.1 shows the arrangement
of grinding swarf and abrasive grains that have been lost during the nanogrinding process.
Figure 10.1 shows abrasive grains with blunted cutting edges (wear flats), and abrasive
grains with sharp cutting edges that are released from the surface of the piezoelectric crystal
before they have chance to grind nanoscale chips from the surface of the workpiece.
The process suffers with a loss of diamond grains even when the interfacial adhesion
between diamond and piezoelectric material is very good. A more closely related process that
has been reported widely is that of the wear of probes used in atomic force microscopy [1,2].
However, these observations were purely experimental with no explanation of how to design
probes that inhibit, or retard, wear. Grinding ratios for processes at the nanoscale have not yet
been characterized. However, the complexities of wear of abrasive materials at any scale lead us
to believe that the variety of different and interacting wear mechanisms involved, namely, plastic
flow of abrasive, crumbling of the abrasive, chemical wear etc., makes the wear of diamond at
the nanoscale too complicated to be explained using a single theoretical model [3].

High-Temperature Electrochemical Synthesis of Oxide Thin Films


and Nanopowders of Some Metal Oxides

At present, metal oxides have been one of the most important class of industrial
compounds. In the last years, special attention of researchers all over the world has been focused
on the design and investigation into the properties of nanostructured coatings and powders [1, 2].
Nanocoatings and nanopowders are of particular scientific and practical interest for the
understanding of fundamental electrochemical properties of materials (dependence on the
particle size, development of new electronic devices with qualitatively new characteristics)
and the manufacturing of ceramic materials with a fine homogeneous structure (characterized by
the highest density, strength, and crack resistance) [3].
A large number of methods providing a way of preparing oxide thin coatings on metals or
oxide nanopowders have been developed to date. Anodic oxidation of metals in aqueous and
nonaqueous electrolytes and physical high-energy methods for producing nanopowders
through combustion, evaporation of metals with subsequent oxidation at low pressures, etc. [4–7]
have been most extensively used. However, the traditional anodic oxidation of metals in aqueous
solutions does not allow one to prepare powders with a developed surface, and all physical
methods described in the literature, as a rule, are very expensive, involve complexities in
application, and require a high vacuum.
All these disadvantages are absent in the proposed method of anodic oxidation of metals
in a chloride–nitrate melt. The high-temperature synthesis of metal oxides in molten salts offers a
number of advantages: (1) the possibility of varying the activity and/or reactivity of reactants,
(2) the possibility of varying the oxidation temperature (over a wide range) with the aim of
forming specific crystalline modifications, (3) a high reaction rate (reactions in liquid salt phases
are usually determined by the chemical equilibrium and proceed considerably faster as compared

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 129


to solid-phase reactions controlled by diffusion), and (4) a wide variety of possible chemical
reactions depending on the electrolyte composition and the interaction temperature.
The purpose of this study was to prepare tantalum pentoxide, titanium dioxide, aluminum
oxide, and zirconium dioxide nanopowders with grain sizes of no larger than 100 nm and to
fabricate oxide thin films through the oxidation of tantalum, titanium, aluminum, and zirconium
in a chloride melt containing sodium nitrate additives (0.1–50.0 wt %) in an argon atmosphere.
For our investigations, we chose the metals satisfying the following requirements: the
metals should have a high affinity to oxygen, their oxides should exhibit a high thermal stability
and strength, and these materials should be in large demand for different industrial applications.
Zirconium, titanium, tantalum, and aluminum (purity, 99.00%) served as the initial
materials for the oxidation. The experiments were performed in a three-electrode quartz cell with
an encapsulated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A preliminarily fused and finely crushed eutectic
mixture of cesium and sodium chlorides was placed in a quartz tube. Sodium nitrate (reagent
grade, 0.1–30.0 wt %) was added to the tube.
In all cases, the total weight of the salts was equal to 50 g. The anodic polarization in the
potentiostatic mode was performed using a PI-50-1 potentiostat. The potential was changed in
steps of 10 mV for 10–30 min to the attainment of a constant current After performance of
required operations in the melt, the samples were washed, the cooled salt melt was dissolved in
distilled water, and the precipitate was filtered off and dried. The filtrate was analyzed on an
Optima 4300 DV spectrometer. The surface of the aluminum, titanium, zirconium, and tantalum
samples after oxidation and the powders separated from the solution were investigated using a
GEOL SM-5900 LV scanning electron microscope, a Camebax electron probe microanalyzer,
and a DRON-3 X-ray diffractometer.

Analysis of Microstructural Deformation

The availability of the co-ordinates of the atoms in MD calculations allows one to


visualize the instantaneous positions and to track the motion of the atoms individually as well in
sequence. This information is not only useful for so-called snapshots of atomic arrangements,
through which the progress of process simulations can be monitored, but it can be used for
dynamic analyses on the basis of animations as well. For this purpose often the radii of the atoms
are chosen in order to enhance a certain aspect or view of a specific arrangement than
representing realistic atomic sizes. Using instantaneous co-ordinates rather than averaged
positions, due to the vibration of the atoms, does not cause a significant error, because the
maximum vibration amplitude of an atom in a stable MD calculation is less than 1% of the
minimum bonding length.
The model in Fig. 7.1 was employed to study the chip formation process and the surface
generation at a cutting edge in nanoscale cutting. By employing onedimensional PBC along the
y-axis, the orthogonal cutting condition reduced the model to a quasi-2D type with a small width,
that allows one to correctly model the 3D fcc crystal structure of the copper workpiece. The
model contained 71,000 work atoms and 11,000 tool atoms. Atoms at the bottom and to the left
and right hand side of the model represent fixed boundaries, but were shifted with cutting speed
to create the relative motion between workpiece and tool. Atoms in the layers next to these hard
boundary atoms had thermostatic properties controlling the temperature at the workpiece
boundary. For diamond cutting of copper, no plastic and no significant elastic deformation of the
tool was expected, calculating its internal structure was not of special importance, but its shape
and surface structure were for the tool-workpiece interactions.
Its surfaces were formed by preferred diamond/fcc cleavage planes and were used as rake
and clearance faces. The edge radius was not chosen to be atomically sharp (2 nm) in order to
consider limited minimum edge radii because of surface stresses. To further provide a reasonable
tool-workpiece contact model, the tool structure had the atomic density of diamond. Although
the tool was modeled as a hard body with collectively moving atoms, i.e., no interaction within
the tool, the interaction potential between tool and workpiece atoms needed to be specified. Data
Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 130
for the diamond/copper interactions based on a pair potential function were found. The cutting
forces were calculated as reaction forces at the tool due to its feed motion. The work atom
interactions are described by the EAM potential for copper. The cutting speed was restricted to
100 and 50 m/s. Lower speeds were not practical to simulate due to computational limitations.
Figure 7.1 shows a single-crystalline structure, that moved relative towards the cutting
tool, whereupon material is deformed in front of the tool tip, the chip generation is initiated and
dislocation loops can be identified at the generated workpiece surface. It shows areas of plastic
deformation, dislocations and large elastic deformations in the sub-surface region. The method is
based on horizontal and vertical connections between initial-neighbor atoms. Deformations show
as sharp equilateral folds in neighboring layer lines within the otherwise rectangular structure or
by narrowing mesh spacing as in case of strong elastic deformation. For large displacements
between initial-neighbor atoms, the bond was considered to be broken and was not drawn
anymore. In this way, highly deformed areas, like the chip and the newly generated surface,
show few initial-neighbor lines. Deep running dislocations, observed in 2D MD cutting
simulations if pair potentials are being used, could not be confirmed by employing this 3D model
and the better EAM potential. This model predicts intensive plastic deformation at the generated
surface with a thickness of only a few atom layers. At the same strain, a 2D model always
predicts larger dislocations than its 3D counterpart. The cutting process changes drastically when
changing the ratio of depth of cut to cutting edge radius from 0.5 to 1.0, depending also on the
crystalline orientation of the work. At a ratio of a/r=1.0, the tool begins to utilize more its rake
face for the chip formation. With the increase in depth of cut, the portion of twin dislocations in
chip formation increases over dislocation slipping. Such twinned areas can be seen ahead of the
tool and the chip. The lower energy requirement for twinning makes the chip removal process at
larger depth of cut more efficient and the cutting forces only increase under proportionally.
Figure 7.2 shows two subsequent 2D views of microstructural snapshots of the same model as in
Fig. 7.1, but at smaller depths of cut than before. Analyzing the changes in the microstructure
deepens the understanding of the mechanisms of material removal for specific cutting conditions.
In Fig. 7.2 areas with different crystal orientation are separated by lines and slip lines drawn for
identified dislocations. Until state (a) was reached, the pre-deformation area in cutting direction
(ahead of the chip) increased without an increase in chip length. Until state (b) was reached, this
process had stopped, the pre-deformation area decreased while the chip grew in size. The micro
structural plots show a change of the crystal orientation in the chip root area, that supports either
the deformation away from the chip root (a) or the chip formation in the chip root area.

Microstructures of Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated


by Centrifugal Solid-Particle and In-Situ Methods

The formation of gradients of chemical composition, phase distribution or microstructure


represents a now fervently pursued concept in the design of advanced engineering components.
In light of this concept, a significant progress has been made in the area of FGMs [1,2]. FGMs
are of practical interest because a wide gradation of physical and/or chemical properties can be
achieved across a given material depending on the material design. Thus, FGM holds continuous
changes of the microstructure, the composition and the properties in some specific directions,
i.e., inhomogeneous on both macroscopic and microscopic scales. On the other hand, particle-,
fiber- or platelet-dispersed composites are regarded as macroscopically homogeneous and
microscopically inhomogeneous.
Several FGM fabrication methods have been proposed [1,2]. One of the methods is a
centrifugal method, which is an application of the centrifugal casting technique [3-5]. In the
method, a centrifugal force applied to a homogeneous molten composite assists the formation of
the desired gradation.
The composition gradient is then achieved primarily by the difference in the centrifugal
force produced by the difference in density between the molten metal and solid particles. The
fabrication of the particle-dispersed FGMs made by the centrifugal method can be classified into
Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 131
two categories based on the liquidus temperature of the master alloy. One is a centrifugal solid-
particle method, where the processing temperature is lower than the liquidus temperature of the
master alloy as shown in Fig. 1(a), and the dispersed solid phase or particles in the master alloy
are stable in a liquid matrix. On the other hand, if the liquidus temperature is lower than the
processing temperature as shown in Fig. 1(b), a centrifugal force can be applied during the
solidification both to the nucleated intermetallic compound and to the molten matrix. This
method is named as a centrifugal in-situ method.
Centrifugal casting is a kind of a pressure casting method in which the centrifugal force,
when pouring molten metal into the mold, is increased related to the speed of rotation of the
mold [16]. The principal advantage of centrifugal casting is good mold filling combined with
good microstructural control, which usually facilitates excellent mechanical properties.
In general the segregation, caused by the density difference between the particle and the
melt, is avoided from the viewpoint of homogeneity. However, seeing from a different angle, it
is possible to create a composition gradient utilizing the difference in material density [3-5].
Fig. 2 shows the apparatus used for the centrifugal method in our studies. The ingot is
melted under an argon gas atmosphere and the plug is then pulled out to cast the molten metal
directly into the rotating mold through the inlet. The rotating mold is preheated before the
casting. The magnitude of the centrifugal force is expressed in G, which is the ratio of the
centrifugal force to the gravity. After casting, the mold-heating furnace is removed and the mold
is cooled in air until complete solidification occurs. The present products are rings having an
outer diameter of 90 mm and a thickness of over 10 mm.
The fabrication of the FGMs by the centrifugal method can be classified into two
categories depending on the processing temperature. Schematic illustration of Fig. 3 shows the
difference of mechanisms to form compositional gradients. An important parameter to control
the formation of graded composition in the centrifugal method is a G number and applied G
number is up to G = 250.
The FGMs introduced in this review are Al/SiC [6], Al/Shirasu [7], Al/Al3Ti [8-10],
Al/Al3Ni [11-13], Al/Al2Cu [14] and Al/(Al3Ti+Al3Ni) FGMs [15]. Since SiC and Shirasu
have higher melting points than processing temperatures, the dispersed solid phases in the master
alloy remained in liquid matrices. Therefore, these two systems are application of the centrifugal
solid-particle method. Al/Al3Ti FGM is also a typical example fabricated by the centrifugal
solidparticle method, since the liquidus temperature of Al-Ti master alloy is higher than the
processing temperature [17]. Al/Al3Ni and Al/Al2Cu FGMs are examples by the centrifugal in-
situ method. The liquidus temperatures of both Al-Ni and Al-Cu master alloys are enough lower
than the processing temperature [17]. The last one of Al/(Al3Ti+Al3Ni) FGM is named a hybrid
FGM and is fabricated from a view of scientific interest because the fabrication is done together
with the centrifugal solid-particle and in-situ methods. It uses Al-Ti and Al-Ni master alloys
simultaneously and the processing temperature is lower than the liquidus temperature of Al-Ti
master alloy but higher than that of Al-Ni master alloy.

Wet Chemical Deposition of Crystalline, Redispersable ATO and ITO Nanoparticles

Transparent conducting oxides deposited on glass and plastic are widely used as
transparent electrodes in the field of optoelectronic devices such as electrochromic windows,
solar cells, electroluminescence and liquid crystal displays [1]. Typically, the compounds are n-
type semiconductors such as indium tin oxide (ITO), fluorine or antimony doped tin dioxide
(FTO, ATO) or aluminium or gallium doped zinc oxide (AZO, GZO). Practically all known
coating processes have been used for their preparation [1, 2].
The preparation of transparent coatings by wet chemical processes using crystalline
powders is possible if stable suspensions of particles with sufficiently small size (<100 nm) can
be obtained. In conventional ceramics synthesis, particulate systems minimize their surface free
energy by growing into larger particles and forming larger agglomerates which are then difficult
to redisperse. These reactions can be avoided by controlling the growth of the particles during

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the precipitation process and by adjusting the particle‟s surface free energy by in-situ surface
modification. The basic principle of this concept has been applied to many oxide materials [7–9].
The preparation of ATO and ITO powders was carried out as already reported [8, 9]. Colloidal
suspensions were prepared by redispersing the dried ITO and ATO powders in water or ethanol.
The ATO solutions are clear with a yellowish orange colour and no evidence of precipitation was
found after several months with a solid content up to 8.8 vol.%. The ITO suspensions showed a
blue colour and are stable (no precipitation) during several month with solid content up to 6.2
vol.%.
ATO coatings were deposited on clean borofloat substrates by spin coating process (2000
rpm, 15 s). ITO films were prepared by dip coating clean silica or borosilicate substrates at a
withdrawal speed of 3 mm/s. The thermal densification of the films was carried out in a furnace
in air up to 900ºC. ITO coatings were also annealed afterwards in a N2 atmosphere at a
temperature of 300ºC in order to decrease their resistivity. To deposit coatings on substrates
which do not withstand heat treatment at high temperature, the ITO suspension was modified by
adding up to 40 wt.% organofunctionalized silanes and a photostarter. These additives allow to
polymerise and harden the layer by UV irradiation at room temperature. ITO sols modified by
addition of alkoxysilanes were also used to coat glass substrates at room temperature by spraying
process.

Effect of Powder Synthesis Atmosphere on the Characteristics of Iron


Nanopowder in a Plasma Arc Discharge Process

Metal nanoparticles with a diameter between 10 and 100 nm have a wide range of
potential applications, including magnetic recording media, catalysts, conductive or resistive
pastes, ferrofluids, and others [1]. Iron is one of the main elements for the application of metal
nanoparticles in various industrial fields. Nano-size iron particles are of particular interest in
fundamental studies of magnetism. The magnetic properties of nano-sized iron particles,
prepared by varied methods under varied conditions, are very different [2,3].
The physical and chemical properties of metal nanoparticles strongly depend on the
particle and surface characteristics, including size, morphology, surface area, surface oxide, and
others. In practical applications of metal nanoparticles, the relationship between the preparation
process parameters and their properties should be identified.
Nanoparticles can be produced by several different methods, such as colloidal
precipitation, mechanical attrition, and a vapor condensation process [4,5]. The latter is the most
widely used method at present, based on its advantages of being relatively simple to scale up to
high-rate production.
Vapor condensation processes typically involve nucleation and growth of nanosized
particles from a supersaturated vapor produced either by the evaporation of bulk materials or by
the chemical reaction of gas-phase precursors. The plasma arc discharge process can be used for
preparing metal, ceramic, and their composite nanoparticles by vaporizationcondensation of
metals or alloys in an active atmosphere using a DC arc-plasma [6-9].
In the present study, nano iron particles were prepared by a plasma arc discharge process
in various powder synthesis atmospheres. The morphology, phase structure, and magnetic
property of the synthesized iron particles in the different synthesis atmospheres were
subsequently studied using FE-TEM, XRD, XPS, and a vibration sample magnetometer at room
temperature.
Fig. 1 shows the apparatus for preparing the nanoparticles by the plasma arc discharge
method. This apparatus basically consists of a vacuum chamber, a tungsten cathode, a copper
anode, a gas flow system, and a DC power supply. Pure bulk iron (above 99.99 % purity) was
used as the raw material. The vacuum chamber was evacuated to 10-5 Torr and then backfilled
with a hydrogen/argon mixture gas to 300 Torr. The arc plasma was then initiated between the
tungsten cathode and the bulk iron on the copper anode under an arc current of 60 A, an arc
voltage of 21~25 V, and a reaction time of 1 h. The mixing ratio of the hydrogen: argon was

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 133


varied from 1:9 to 5:5. Atomic iron smoke was subsequently generated around the arc spot area
of the molten iron. The nano iron particles were formed by collisions between the quenched iron
atoms due to collisions with the atmospheric gas atoms. The formed nano iron particles were
then separated with a working gas. Before the particles were removed from the chamber, they
were passivated in an argon/oxygen mixture atmosphere at room temperature for 12 h to prevent
any rapid spontaneous combustion. The variation in microstructure, phase structure, and
magnetic properties of the synthesized iron particles with the change in the mixing ratio of the
hydrogen/argon in the powder synthesis atmosphere were studied using FE-TEM, XRD, XPS,
and a vibration sample magnetometer at room temperature.

Formation of solidification microstructures in centrifugal cast functionally


graded aluminium composites

Functionally Graded Materials exhibit gradual transitions in the microstructure and/or the
composition in a specific direction, and hence different functional performance within a part.
FGMs are in their early stages of evolution and are expected to have a strong impact on the
design and development of new components and structures with better performance. The
conventional approach of materials selection for component design and fabrication is based on
the list of existing engineering materials. In the case of FGM approach of component design, an
„inverse design procedure‟ is followed, where the choice of basic material ingredients and
material processes are combined with three dimensional mechanical analysis to form the graded
structures and components for demanding applications. Even though the phenomena of graded
structures is prevalent in nature and some of the conventional engineering materials, a
formulated concept of making functionally graded materials had been proposed in mid-1980‟s in
Japan. Fabrication of FGM and their components with gradient microstructures and properties
are challenging and have technological relevance for the coming years. A wide variety of
processing methods such as chemical vapour deposition, physical vapour deposition, sol-gel
technique, plasma spraying, molten metal infiltration, self propagating, centrifugal casting,
diffusion bonding, laser cladding and controlled mould filling are being developed for the
fabrication of functionally graded metalceramic composites. Among these Centrifugal casting
has emerged as the simplest and cost effective technique for producing large size engineering
components of functionally graded metal matrix composites. Functionally graded aluminium
composites used for tribological components have attracted more and more interests in recent
years and are expected to be used in high speed rotating or reciprocating mass items such as
pistons, connecting rods, drive shafts, brake rotors and cylinder liners.
Centrifugal casting is the process, where molten metal is poured into a rotating or
spinning mould to solidify it to a desired shape by the high compressive pressure exerted by the
centrifugal force. The first patent on centrifugal casting process was obtained in England by
Echardt in 1809 and the first industrial use of the process was in 1848 in Baltimore, USA when
centrifugal casting was used to produce cast iron pipes [1]. Until the mid-1980s, the process was
used exclusively for the production of large symmetrical components such as pipes, bushings,
rolls for steel mills, bearings cylinders, shafting, gears and other shapes. Since then research and
development on centrifugal casting of metal matrix composites and on different types of
functionally graded materials (later in 1990s) were initiated. This process uses the radial forces
generated from centrifugal casting to segregate a second discrete phase from the matrix of
composite materials. When particle-containing slurry is subjected to centrifugal force, two
distinct zones of particle enriched and depleted are formed. The extent of particle segregation
and relative locations of enriched and depleted particles zones within the casting are mainly
dictated by the melt temperature, metal viscosity, cooling rate, the densities of the particle and
liquid, particle size and magnitude of centrifugal acceleration. Depending on the density of
particles, the lighter particles segregate towards the axis of rotation, while the denser particles
move away from the axis of rotation.

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Both horizontal and vertical centrifugal casting methods are used for making FGMs.
There are various other variants and methods of using centrifugal casting techniques for making
FGM. Centrifugal infiltration process is one of the techniques, where a mold containing a packed
ceramic preform located at an end of an elongated runner is rotated and infiltrated with liquid
metal. By controlling the metal level above the preform in the runner, the pressure can be varied
during the infiltration process. In another process, continuous aluminium matrix composite wires
have been used as cylindrical preform material and liquid aluminium metal is poured and
infiltrated under centrifugal force. This process produces Aluminum Matrix Composite (AMC)
wire reinforced cylindrical aluminium component. Processing of FGM by centrifugal casting
having a vacuum chamber (vacuum pressure: P < 03 Pa) located in the extremity of a rotating
arm moving around a vertical axis is described by Velhinho et al [2]. During rotation of the
mould, the molten metal is forced to the cavity under centrifugal force and the particles in the
melt moves towards the extreme end. The variation in the structural features within a part or
component is predominant in the case of FGM formed from composite systems than in alloys. In
the case of aluminium matrix composites, the particle enriched zone of the heavier particles such
as SiC, alumina and zircon are at the outer periphery and the lighter particles such as graphite,
mica and microbaloons of carbon enrich at the inner periphery of horizontally spun cylindrical
centrifugal castings [3, 4]. The thickness of particle enriched zone decreases with increasing
pouring temperature and speed of rotation. Depending on the extent of gradation in
microstructure, the properties vary significantly or slightly. Large difference exists between the
particle enriched and depleted zones of centrifugally cast FGM and hence it is difficult to
generalize their properties. During centrifugal casting, the segregation of particles due to particle
movement is slowed down as a result of decreasing melt temperatures and crowding of particles
occurring in progressively narrow zones during solidification. Velhinho et al producing a
functionally graded SiCp reinforced aluminium matrix composites by centrifugal casting have
observed that SiC particles are partially clustered with some pores due to imperfect wetting of
ceramic particles by the molten aluminium alloy [2]. Hence, proper wetting between the particles
and the matrix is necessary to reduce particles clustering.
In Al-SiC FGM, a graded distribution of SiC particles are observed near the outer
periphery of the casting and higher strength and modulus are observed near the outer periphery.
Unlike other castings, sampling is also a difficult job. One of the approaches in sampling is
selecting specimens from different locations representing the diverse composition or
concentration of phases or particles within a component. Only few experimental studies are
carried out on evaluation of mechanical properties by this approach. Results of tensile tests
performed on specimens taken from different positions of the functionally graded Al
(A359)/SiCp composite produced by centrifugal casting have shown that ultimate tensile
strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), the hardness and modulus of the FGM are higher near the
outer periphery compared to the inner [5]. Further higher hardness values are observed near the
outer periphery with higher rpm (1300) than lower one (700) due to the presence higher
percentage of SiC particle near outer periphery in the former case. The gradient distribution of
particles in FGM allows the matrix to absorb the energy by plastic deformation leading to
improvement in fracture toughness. The fracture toughness of Al 359/20 vol% SiCp FGM
composite is low for small crack lengths due to the limited dissipation of energy by the thick
concentration of SiCp at the edge. On the contrary, for longer crack lengths and decreased SiC
content, the material surrounding the crack tip is able to plastically deform more. Therefore,
there is more absorption of the energy imposed by the external loads leading to increased
fracture toughness of the composite [5]. Al-Graphite FGMs show higher volume fraction of
graphite particles near the inner periphery of the casting [3].
FGMs fabricated by centrifugal casting. Al-SiC FGM fishing boat cable pulleys are
reported to be fabricated successfully by centrifugal casting method. Centrifugal casting has been
applied to develop clutch drums composed of hard TiC particles embedded in aluminium bronze
matrix for naval applications. The lighter TiC particles, initially suspended in the heavier molten
bronze, migrate to the centre during centrifugal casting, producing a highly abrasion resistant
carbide-rich inner surface. Selectively reinforced casting MMC Power train Components have
Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 135
been developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the automotive sector using
centrifugal casting. Thus, engineering components requiring functionally graded properties can
be identified, designed and fabricated through centrifugal casting. Even though few selected
systems are investigated and reported in the literature, there is lot of scope for investigating
newer possible FGM systems as well as effect of various parameters on the structure and
properties.

Characterization of nanoscale iron and its degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol

Gillham and O‟Hannesin found that granular iron can be exploited for in situ remediation
of groundwater in the 1990s [1−3], leading to the development and proliferation of a number of
environmental applications with zero-valent iron for the transformation and degradation removal
of chlorinated organic compounds in groundwater and soil, particularly so far as nanoscale iron
is concerned [4−11].
Ample evidence indicates that compared to conventional zero-valent iron, nanoscale iron
particles offer much more advantages for treatment of chlorinated organic pollutants with high
dechlorination efficiency due to their small particle sizes, large specific surface area, high
surface reactivity [4], and the tendency to remain suspended for extending periods of time (6−8
weeks) under very gentle agitation [5].
Despite the potential for transformation of chlorinated contaminants, the zero-valent iron
still faces the challenges as follows: (1) incomplete dechlorination leading to production and
accumulation of chlorinated byproducts due to the low reactivity of iron powders toward lightly
chlorinated hydrocarbons; (2) decrease of iron reactivity over time, probably due to the
formation of surface passivation layers or the precipitation of metal hydroxides and carbonates
(e.g., Fe(OH)2, FeCO3, etc.) on the surface of iron [4]. Nevertheless, nanoscale zero-valent iron
provides an alternative technology with promising for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated
organic pollutants.
Due to the benzene ring structure and the presence of chlorine atoms, chlorinated phenols
are exceptionally recalcitrant towards biodegradation. Since chlorinated phenols were widely
used as industrial chemicals, intermediates for organic synthesis, herbicides and pesticides, they
came into the environment through both their manufacturing process and the industrial uses, and
became a kind of important contaminant in soils, sediments and aquifers as well as in the
groundwater. Most chlorophenols (e.g, 2,4-dichlorophenol, abbrev. 2, 4-DCP) are listed as
priority pollutants by the US EPA (1988) and Environmental Monitoring of China.
In this paper, nanoscale iron ultrafine carbonyl powder (Nanotechnology Centre, Central
Iron and Steel Research Institute) is detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray
diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Experiments are performed to
investigate the reduction of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) by the nanoscale iron. To improve its
performance, dilute HCl is used to remove the passivation layers and activate the particle
surfaces. The adsorption and dechlorination properties of the nanoscale iron with and without
HCl treatment are finally discussed for comparison.
2,4-DCP being of analytical grade was from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Corporation;
phenol standard solution was obtained from National Institute of Metrology, China; methanol
with analytical grade was from Fisher Scientific, USA; purified water was from Wahaha Group.
Nanoscale iron ultrafine powder was obtained from China Iron and Steel Research Institute
Group and manufactured via the vapour deposition process by the thermolysis of carbonyl iron
under N2 protection.

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Diffuse optical harmonic generation in SiC nanopowder films: hunting scattered
photons

Powder materials offer new strategies for laser physics and optical technologies and have
been intensely studied in the context of fundamental phenomena related to the propagation of
light in disordered systems [1, 2]. Scattering of light in powder materials gives rise to a number
of fascinating and practically significant physical effects, including Anderson-type localization
of light [2–4] and lasing [5, 6] with randomly distributed feedback provided by disorder-induced
scattering. Interference effects in disordered media give rise to interesting new phenomena in
nonlinear optics, leading to the appearance of sharp peaks in the angular distribution of the
second-harmonic intensity [7], resulting in correlations of second-harmonic waves in
transmission and reflection [8], and allowing the integration of lasing and second-harmonic
generation capabilities by the use mixtures of powders [9]. The importance of scattering effects
for the enhancement of optical harmonic generation in porous silicon [10] and porous gallium
phosphide [11] has recently been demonstrated. Nonlinear optics is also a powerful tool for
composition-, morphology-, and spatial-symmetrysensitive analysis and time-resolved studies of
nanocomposite materials, as well as assemblies of nanocrystals and nanoclusters [12–15]. An
understanding of scattering-induced effects in nonlinear optics would allow harmonic-generation
and wave-mixing methods of laser metrology to be extended to strongly scattering media, giving
new insights into fundamental aspects of nonlinear scattering problems and permitting practical
devices to be created with the use of nanopowder and nanocrystal materials.
In this paper, we explore the potential of powder materials for nonlinear optical
frequency conversion. We investigate second- and third-harmonic generation (THG) in polymer
films doped with a silicon carbide (SiC) nanopowder. Due to its pronounced polytypism, SiC is a
challenging and an extremely interesting object for nonlinear optics. The properties of the
second-order nonlinear susceptibility of SiC have been analyzed recently in several detailed
theoretical papers [16, 17], with a few experimental works [18–22] demonstrating the potential
of second-harmonic generation for the investigation of a broad class of SiC samples [18, 19],
including SiC nanopowders [20] and SiC-nanocrystal-doped polymers [21, 22].
The procedure employed to produce nanopowder films used in our experiments included
two stages [22]. In the first stage, silicon carbide nanopowders were produced by laser synthesis
from gaseous precursors. An important advantage of this technique is that it allows nanopowders
with a narrow distribution of nanoparticle sizes to be synthesized.
The laser synthesis process starts with the injection of silane gas (SiH4) into a reaction
chamber, where this gas is mixed with acetylene. Silane molecules absorb 10.6-μm radiation of a
1.5-kWcw CO2 laser, which leads to gas heating and dissociation of silane and acetylene
molecules. The production and growth of nanopowder grains in the reaction plume follows this
dissociation process. Argon and nitrogen gases are also delivered to the reaction chamber. The
function of argon is to confine the silane–acetylene flow, carry the reaction products, and clean
the focusing lens by preventing powder deposition. Nitrogen is injected at the output of the
exhaust throttle valve to dilute the remainder of the silane and acetylene to avoid the formation
of flames at the output of the rotating pump. The dimensions of the nanopowders typically
ranged from 10 to 80 nm.
In the second stage of nanopowder film preparation, PMMA/SiC nanocomposite films
were produced by an in situ polymerization methodology. This preparation strategy includes
dispersing the inorganic nanoparticles into a precursor of a polymeric matrix (monomer). This
mixture is then polymerized by adding an appropriate catalyst [23, 24]. The advantage of
utilizing the in situ polymerization technique with respect to other methods is related to the
possibility of more direct and easier dispersion of nanoparticles in the liquid precursor of the
polymeric matrix. This allows the agglomeration of nanopowders in polymer matrices to be
avoided and improves the interfacial interactions between the two components. Nanopowder
samples were produced by adding different concentrations of SiC nanoparticles (from 0.25 to
0.5wt.%) to methylmethacrylate containing 1 wt.% of an organic peroxide. This mixture was
stirred mechanically at 90 ◦C until the critical viscosity corresponding to the prepolymerization
Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 137
phase of the monomer was achieved. The viscous mixture was then inserted into a mould and
kept at 100 ◦C for 24 h to complete the polymerization process. Finally, the nanocomposites thus
obtained were kept for 4 h at 140 ◦C to ensure that the entire pre-polymer fraction had been
converted. The yield of polymerization was estimated as 90%–96%.
Luminescent spectroscopy studies [21] indicated the predominance f the 6H-SiC polytype
in the prepared samples. Typical surface SEM images of a nanopowder film with 0.25 wt.% of
SiC are presented in Fig. 1a and b. The SEM data were used to estimate the characteristic sizes
of the nanoparticles in the films, as well as to assess the spatial distribution of SiC nanocrystals
and to detect agglomerates. Nanopowder films with a low content of SiC were characterized by a
spatially uniform distribution of SiC nanocrystals and a sufficiently high transmission (around
75% for 1-μm radiation in the case of nanopowder films with 0.25 wt.% of SiC). As the
concentration of the SiC nanopowder was increased, nanoparticles tended to agglomerate [21],
dramatically increasing the absorption of laser radiation. We therefore chose to work with low-
SiC-content nanopowder films in our nonlinear optical experiments.

Analysis of Particle and Crystallite Size in Tungsten Nanopowder Synthesis

EXTENSIVE research over the last two decades on both metals and ceramics has shown
that the sintering of highly agglomerated nanocrystalline powders usually results in bulk
compacts with grain sizes in the micrometer range. In many cases, this is due to the long
sintering times and high temperatures associated with the specific sintering technique, which
inevitably results in significant grain growth. However, in cases where the sintering time is kept
purposefully short and the processing temperatures are lowered, such as in spark plasma
sintering (SPS), grain growth can still be significant due to the agglomerated nature of the
powders. Indeed, it has been found that for some materials, the particle (i.e., agglomerate) size of
powders tends to define the final grain size of the dense compact under typical SPS conditions.
Thus, characterizing the crystallite size of a powder from X-ray diffraction or transmission
electron microscopy is necessary, but not sufficient, in order to determine the sintering behavior
of a powder and the final grain size after completion of sintering.
We report here the synthesis and characterization of tungsten nanopowders of varying
degrees of agglomeration. The motive behind this work is twofold: (1) to develop a precipitation
process for the synthesis of tungsten nanopowders and (2) to determine the effect of processing
conditions on both the crystallite size and the particle (agglomerate) size of the powders. Our
interest in this material is justified both from an applications point of view and as a model
metallic material to elucidate behavior of high-temperature metals during postsynthesis heat
treatments of powders prepared by precipitation. Thermal treatments are usually necessary when
using precipitation processes for nanopowder preparation, and they can affect the levels of
agglomeration very dramatically, depending on the particular material, in turn affecting the
sintering behavior of the powders.
Several techniques have been used for the preparation of nanocrystalline powders of
tungsten and tungsten oxides, with varying degrees of success. These include self-propagating
high-temperature synthesis, reverse micelle synthesis, thermal methods, mechanical milling, and
electrochemical techniques. Most of the resulting powders from these processes are very likely
heavily agglomerated, although a determination of the levels of agglomeration have not been
reported in most cases. In this study, we endeavor to present a full analysis of morphology from
the perspective of both the crystallite size and particle size.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 138


СПИСОК РЕКОМЕНДУЕМОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

1. Алексеева И.С. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. – М.: Союз, 2004.


2. Борисова Л.И. Лексические особенности англо-русского научно-технического
перевода. – М.: НВИ-ТЕЗАУРУС, 2005.
3. Вейзе А.А. Чтение, реферирование, аннотирование иностранного текста. – М.:
Высшая школа, 1985.
4. Докштейн С.Я., Макарова Е.А., Радоминова С.С. Практический курс перевода
научно-технической литературы (английский язык). – М.: Военное издательство,
1973.
5. Климзо Б.Н. Ремесло технического переводчика. – М.: Р.Валент, 2006.
6. Красневская З.Я. Этот скучный перевод: об особенностях англоязычных научно-
технических текстов, и не только о них. – М.: Дикта, 2009.
7. Кривых Л.Д., Рябичкина Г.В., Смирнова О.Б. Технический перевод. – М.: Форум,
2008.
8. Курашвили Е.И., Медведева Т.Г., Михалкова Е.С. Лабораторные работы по
переводу английской научно-технической литературы. – М.: Высшая школа, 1976.
9. Носенко И.А., Горбунова Е.В. Пособие по переводу научно-технической
литературы с английского языка на русский. – М.: Высшая школа, 1974.
10. Рецкер Я.И. Теория перевода и переводческая практика. – М.: Международные
отношения, 2004.
11. Рубцова М.Г. Чтение и перевод английской научной и технической литературы. –
М.: АСТ, 2004.
12. Цатурова И.А., Каширина Н.А. Переводческий анализ текста. Английский язык. –
М.: Перспектива: Союз, 2008.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 139


ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ A
Рекомендации Союза переводчиков России (www. translators-union.ru)

При транскрибировании фамилий и имен известных ученых, государственных


деятелей и др. следует руководствоваться установившейся практикой, поскольку
традиционное написание их фамилий и имен может не соответствовать фонетическому
принципу, например: Louis de Broglie – Луи де Бройль, Carl Friedrich von Weizsackar –
Карл Фридрих фон Вейцзеккер, Ван Клиберн, а не Вэн Клайберн, Рузвельт, а не
Розевельт. Иностранные имена нельзя русифицировать, их следует транскрибировать в
соответствии с правилами произношения данного имени, например: Johann – Иоганн, а не
Иван, Paul – Пауль (нем.), Поль (фр.), Пол (англ.), а не Павел, Georg – Георг (нем.) –
George – Джордж (англ.), Жорж (фр.), а не Георгий. Исключение составляют имена,
которые по традиции русифицированы, например: Nikolaus Kopernikus – Николай
Коперник.

Артикли, предлоги (в том числе однобуквенные), частицы в иностранных фамилиях и


именах da, das, de, del, der, don, doña, du, la, le, van, von и др. транскрибируют и пишут со
строчной буквы и раздельно с относящейся к ним частью имени, например: Leonardo da
Vinci – Леонардо да Винчи, von der Stolz – фон дер Штольц. Артикли, предлоги и частицы
пишут с прописной буквы, если они с фамилией образуют одно слово, если они по
традиции соединяются с фамилией через дефис или апостроф или если в иностранном
написании они имеют прописную букву, например: O'Neill – О'Нилл, Van de Graaf – Ван-
де-Грааф, Laplace – Лаплас.

Частицы Мас-, Mс-, Saint чаще всего присоединяют к имени через дефис (Сент-, Санта-,
Мак-, Сен-) и пишут в переводе с прописной буквы, например: McClain – Мак-Клейн,
Saint Lawrence – Сент-Лоуренс, Saint-Simon – Сен-Симон, San Marino – Сан-Марино, Santa
Cruz – Санта-Крус. Однако имеются и устоявшиеся отклонения от этого общего правила
(например, Маккарти, Макдоналдс, Маккензи). Если в середине имени встречаются
предлог, союз или частица, то они пишутся через дефис и со строчной буквы, например:
Fernandez у Gõzâles – Фернандес-и-Гонcалес.

Названия торговых марок на русский язык, как правило, не переводятся, а


транслитерируются. Рекомендуется руководствоваться языковым узусом при решении
конкретных переводческих задач, связанных с передачей названий торговых марок.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 140


Наименования иностранных фирм, компаний, акционерных обществ, корпораций,
концернов, монополий, промышленных объединений и т.п. транскрибируют и
заключают в кавычки; перед названием ставят обобщающее слово «фирма», «компания»,
«акционерное общество», «концерн», «корпорация» и т.п. – в зависимости от их
традиционного употребления в русскоязычной литературе. С прописной буквы в этих
названиях пишут только первое слово и имена собственные. Примеры: Montedison –
концерн «Монтэдисон», La Société Anticorrosion – фирма «Сосьете антикорозьон». Вместе
с тем следует отметить современную тенденцию к отказу от практической транскрипции
наименований фирм в информационных, научно-технических и даже юридических
текстах и к использованию вместо этого их написания на латинице (т.е. «самолет
компании TWA» вместо «самолет компании «Ти-Дабл‟ю-Эй»)

Союзы и предлоги в названиях (the, and, of, und, et и др.) транскрибируют (зе, энд, оф,
унд, э) и пишут со строчной буквы. Встречающиеся в наименованиях фирм сокращения
Corp., Со., Ltd., Inc., GmbH, GmuH, К.К. и др., если они не являются составной частью
наименования, в переводе можно опускать, например: Union Carbide Co. – фирма «Юнион
Карбайд», Fawsett Preston and Co. – фирма «Фосетт Престон энд компани», Henschel-
Werke GmbH – фирма «Хеншель-верке». Однако в переводах на русский язык,
предназначенных для официального использования и последующего нотариального
заверения, слова, обозначающие форму собственности, опускать нельзя. В таких случаях
название компаний требуется переводить так, как их зарегистрировали в России (как
записано, например, в уставных документах).

Фирменные наименования машин, приборов, различных химических веществ, изделий,


материалов, выраженные одним или несколькими словами, транскрибируют и заключают
в кавычки, причем первое слово пишут с прописной буквы. Фирменные наименования,
ставшие широко употребительными, пишут без кавычек и со строчной буквы. При этом,
если за словом следует цифра или буква, то между словом и цифрой (буквой) ставят
дефис, например: Goodright-2007 – «Гудрайт-2007», Hastelloy X – сплав хастеллой-Х. В
ряде случаев (в спецификациях и т.д.) рекомендуется сохранять в тексте оригинальные
названия и наименования во избежание возможных осложнений при использовании
перевода, например, для оформления заказа на оборудование.

Названия иностранных журналов в тексте перевода, библиографических ссылках и в


списке литературы оставляют в оригинальном написании без кавычек. При этом
соблюдаются правила употребления прописных и строчных букв, присущие исходному
языку.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 141


ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Б

Расхождение значений однокоренных прилагательных и наречий

bad badly
плохой; плохо 1) сильно, в значительной степени
2) плохо
eventual eventually
возможный в конце концов, в конечном счете
hard hardly
тяжелый; упорно едва (ли), вряд ли
heavy heavily
тяжелый сильно, усиленно
high highly
высокий очень, весьма, сильно, чрезвычайно
increasing increasingly
увеличивающийся все более и более
large largely
большой главным образом, в основном
late lately
поздний недавно, в последнее время
near nearly
близко почти
necessary necessarily
необходимый обязательно
ready readily
готовый легко
repeated repeatedly
повторный многократно
ultimate ultimately
последний, конечный в конечном счете, в конце концов

Не путайте также значения похожих прилагательных:


successful (успешный) / successive (последовательный)

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 142


ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ В

Советы начинающему техническому переводчику


(дано по изданию: Климзо Б.Н. Ремесло технического
переводчика. – М.: «Р.Валент», 2006. – С. 465–466).

Рекомендуется:

• Опираться в первую очередь на логику и контекст, и уже затем на словарь.


• Стремиться к максимально точному выбору слова.
• Анализировать предложения не только на синтаксическом,
но и на логическом уровне, чтобы правильно расставлять акценты.
• Устранять неприемлемые по нормам русского языка английские лаконичность и
импликации.
• Разбивать длинные предложения.
• Устранять очевидные синонимы.
• Расшифровывать аббревиатуры.
• Переводить описание рисунков и графиков, а также таблицы, обращаясь к
относящемуся к ним тексту, а текст – сверяясь с рисунками, графиками и таблицами.
• Заголовки переводить в последнюю очередь.
• Встречаясь с многозначными словами, не полагаться на память и обращаться к словарю.
• Следить за своим стилем изложения.
• Проверять «написанные с ходу» слова, в которых не уверен, по словарю русского языка.
• Иметь представление о системах единиц измерения и при необходимости
пересчитывать размерности.
• Читать статьи в российских научно-технических журналах, обращая внимание на стиль
изложения и словоупотребление в этой литературе.
• Заканчивать работу собственным редактированием. (Время, затрачиваемое на
редактирование, невелико, но достигаемый эффект огромен: уточняется смысл,
унифицируются термины, обнаруживаются пропуски, устраняются глазные ошибки,
шлифуется стиль.)

Не рекомендуется:

• Переводить буквально (т.е. переводить слово словом, копировать синтаксис, забывать


о разной лексической сочетаемости в двух языках и о разном управлении).
• Слепо верить тексту оригинала (возможны оговорки автора, описки, нарушения
логики).
• Слепо верить словарям.

Запрещается:

• Выступать в роли самозваного соавтора (дополнять автора, пояснять в скобках мысль


автора).
• Вводить отсутствующие в оригинале кавычки и «спасительные» слова
«так называемый».
• Самовольно вводить синонимы термина (из соображения «не наскучить» читателю).
• Опускать непонятные фрагменты текста.
• Оставлять непонятое и переведенное наугад место, не попытавшись
проконсультироваться со специалистом.

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 143


ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Г

Чтение простейших математических формул

Addition 5+3=8 five plus three is eight


the sum of five and three is eight

Subtraction 8–3=5 eight minus three leaves five


three from eight is five

Multiplication 3 x 4 = 12 three times four is equal to twelve


the product of three and four is twelve

Division 12 : 4 = 3 twelve over four is three


twelve divided by four is three

0.73 zero / nought / o [ou] point seventy three

⁄ two forths

43 four to the third power


the third power of four
four cubed

a-7 a to the minus seventh power

a2 a sub two or a second

pm p super m

√ the cube root of 64 is equal to four

2 : 10 the ratio of two to ten

a:b=c:d a is to b as c is to d

y= ( ) y is a function of x [eks]

{} braces

[] square brackets

() round brackets

а) 3x – 2 = 13 three x minus two equals thirteen

b) 16 : 4 = 4 sixteen over four equals four / sixteen divided by four is four

c) 5 x 8 = 40 five times eight is equal to forty / the product of five and eight

d) ⁄ five thirds

e) a2 – 2 = b a sub 2 minus two is b

f) a : b = 25 : 5 a is to b as twenty five is to five / the ratio of a to be equals …

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 144


g) 34 = 81 three to the forth power is eighty one

h) √ the square root of sixty four is equal to plus minus eight

i) y = ( ) y is function of eks minus one fifth

j) ⁄ three sevenths

k) 7 + 6 = 13 seven plus six equals thirteen

l) c = 2(a1 – b1) c is equal to the product of two brackets opened


a sub 1 minus b sub 1 brackets closed

m) xn + axn-1 + bxn-2 = 0 x to the nth power plus the product of a by x to


the power n munis one plus the product of b by x
to the power n minus two equals zero

Обратите внимание на возможность представления формул в текстовом формате:

This model can be generalized by assuming that the optimal ratio level attained by the firm is
last period’s industry ratio average times (=умноженный на) an adjustment factor.

The collection-period ratio is Accounts Receivable times 365 over (=деленный на) net sales.

Особые тригонометрические функции в английской литературе

Функция Обозначение Значение


versed sine x vers x 1 – cos x
versed cosine x covers x 1 – sin x
external secant x exsec x sec x – 1
haversine x hav x ½(1 – cos x)

При переводе данные обозначения заменяются на принятые в русской литературе

Примеры различий между британской и американской системами


измерения

Единица Британская имперская Американская


система система
1 баррель для сыпучих 163,6-181,7 л 117,3-158,98 л
тел
1 галлон 4,546 л 4,405 л
1 пинта 0,568261 л 0,551 литра
1 кварта 1,136 л 1,101 л

См. подробную статью на http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Имперская_система_мер

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 145


ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Д

Некоторые ложные друзья переводчика

Английское слово Истинное Ложное


(высокочастотное) (малочастотное)
значение значение
actually фактически актуально
alternative вариант альтернатива
article изделие артикль
commercial промышленный коммерческий
complex сложный комплексный
data данные дата
decade десятилетие декада
design расчет; проектирование дизайн
detail подробность; узел деталь
dramatic резкий драматический
figure рисунок; число фигура
fragment обломок фрагмент
fundamentally теоретически фундаментально
history временная зависимость история
instrument прибор инструмент
list список лист
operation эксплуатация операция
originally первоначально оригинально
philosophy основные принципы философия
probe зонд проба
procedure метод; методика процедура
production производство продукция
progressive постепенный прогрессивный
prospect перспектива проспект
qualification требуемое качество квалификация
record запись; протокол рекорд
revision изменение; пересмотр ревизия
simulation моделирование симуляция
specific удельный специфический
strategy методика стратегия
technique метод; процесс техника

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 146


ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Е

Характерные для научного текста фразеологические единицы

to be under test – испытываться, находиться на стадии испытаний


to be under study – изучаться, находиться на стадии изучения
to be under development – разрабатываться, находиться на стадии разработок
to be under consideration – рассматриваться
to be under way – осуществляться, разрабатываться
to be in use – использоваться
to be in operation – применяться, работать, действовать, функционировать
to be in excess of smth – превышать что-либо
to be in position to do smth – быть в состоянии, иметь возможность сделать что-либо
to be in progress – осуществляться, идти полным ходом
to be in service – применяться, использоваться, эксплуатироваться
to be of interest – представлять интерес
to be of importance – иметь значение, быть важным
to be of value – представлять ценность
to be of significance – иметь значение
to be of consequence – иметь значение
to be of no account – не иметь значения

to bring into action – приводить в действие


to bring into use – начинать использовать
to put into operation – вводить в действие
to put into practice – вводить в действие, осуществлять
to set into (in) motion – приводить в движение (в действие)
to come into action – вступать в действие
to come into use – начинать применяться (использоваться)
to come into play – начинать действовать
to come into being – возникать, появляться на свет
to go into play – вступать в действие
to go into service – вступать в действие (в строй)
to keep (bear) in mind – помнить, учитывать
to take into consideration – принимать во внимание, учитывать
to take into account – принимать в расчет (во внимание)

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 147


up to date – современный, новейший
out of date – устаревший
to date – до настоящего времени, до сих пор, на сегодняшний день
for the most part – главным образом, по большей части
in part – частично, до некоторой степени
at times – иногда
in time – своевременно, вовремя
for the time being – в данное время, на настоящий момент, пока, на некоторое время
as a matter of fact – фактически, на самом деле
no matter how (when, what) – независимо от того, как (когда, почему)
in view of – ввиду, принимая во внимание
at all – вовсе, вообще
for all – хотя
above all – главным образом, прежде всего
all in all – в целом, в общем, в общем и целом
after all – в конце концов

as to (for) srnth – что касается, в отношении чего-либо


as (so) far as – насколько, поскольку
as (so) long as – до тех пор пока, поскольку
as follows – следующим образом, следующее
as soon as – как только
so as to – с тем, чтобы
so far – до сих пор
and so on (so forth) – и так далее, и тому подобное
apart (aside) from smth – помимо (кроме) чего-либо
along with smth – наряду с чем-либо, вместе с тем
combined with smth – наряду с чем-либо, вместе с тем
on account of smth – из-за, вследствие, благодаря
owing (due, thanks) to smth – из-за, вследствие, благодаря
in (by) virtue of smth – в силу чего-либо, благодаря чему-либо
with respect (reference) to smth – в отношении, что касается чего-либо
with (in) regard to smth – в отношении, что касается чего-либо

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 148


in addition – кроме того, в дополнение
in common – общее для всех
in turn – в свою очередь, по очереди
at length – подробно
at last – наконец
in brief (in short) – вкратце
in detail – подробно
by now – к настоящему моменту
by then – к тому времени
on the whole – в целом
at (on) the average – в среднем
no longer – больше не
a great (good) deal – много
once more – еще раз
at once – сразу, немедленно

just now – только что


just as... so – так же, как; так и
just as (like) – точно так же, как
as regards smth – в отношении, что касается чего-либо
prior (previous) to smth – до, перед чем-либо
in contrast to – в противоположность чему-либо
contrary to – в противоположность чему-либо
according to – согласно чему-либо, в соответствии с чем-либо
in accordance with – согласно чему-либо, в соответствии с чем-либо
as compared with (to) – по сравнению с
in comparison with – по сравнению с
at the expense of – за счет as distinct from smth – в отличие от
irrespective of smth – независимо от
in spite of smth – несмотря на что-либо
except for smth – исключая что-либо
no matter – независимо от того

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 149


ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Ж

Интернет-ссылки на популярные переводческие ресурсы

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Коллекция словарей самой обширной тематики.


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Поисковая система с поддержкой более чем 1000


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Российская система автоматизированного


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Система автоматизированного перевода


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www.wordfast.com

Бесплатная программа «переводческой памяти».


Онлайновый сервис с поддержкой чужих баз
доступен по адресу: www.freetm.com
www.lexilogos.com/english/index.htm

Коллекция ссылок на Интернет-ресурсы для


переводчиков и изучающих английский язык
http://www.wikipedia.org/

Фундаментальный справочный ресурс по любым


темам. Интересен возможностью переключения
языка для чтения параллельных текстов

Краткий курс перевода научно-технической литературы 150


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Наугольных Антон Юрьевич


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КРАТКИЙ КУРС ПЕРЕВОДА


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