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. .

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. .

1989

551,46

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The book L ong-W ave D ynam ics of the C o astal Zone b y N. E, V oltzinger,
K. A. K levanny an d E. N. Pelinovsky p resen ts a physical an aly sis and- m ethods
for solving hydrodynam ical problem s concerning calcu latio n of the .sea elevation,
c u rren t field and flo o d in g of the co astal zone. L ong-w ave m odels w ith allow ance
fo r dissipative and dispersive effects are discussed. An an aly tical theory of longw ave run-up is developed. A ttention is p aid to the m ethod of cu rv ilin ear co-ordin a te s w hich allow s m ap p in g an a rb itra ry reg io n onto a canonical one in w hich
th e tran sfo rm ed equations are in te g ra te d u sin g the finite-difference m ethod w ith
sim ple boundary -v alu e conditions.
The m ethod of cu rv ilin ear co-ordinates is tested fo r m odel problem s an d is
used fo r calc u la tin g floods, m odelling the stead y three-dim ensional circulation,
processes of the tra n sp o rt an d diffusion of co ntam in an ts, etc.
The book is inten d ed for specialists concerned w ith co m putation of geophysical phenom ena, p o st-g ra d u a te s and stu d e n ts of geophysics.

J Sen

- -

...
- 155196 .,. 9

1805040600-042
069(02)-89
ISBN 5-286-00144-0

, 1989 .

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Q(x, ) dQ
1 = , ) , " \(,),
Q 2*.

,
, . -

^

2*
.
2(, , z ) + + 2*; 2*, .
2 2*
;
89

,

<3Q dQ*.
, ,
Q*
.
, . ,


[15, 116],
[8, 28, 56,
76, 103].
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[15, 62]
[137].
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[82].

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= ', = 1
0 ,
; ;
. , [,
,
.
[68].
.

.
,
,
,
.

-
-.
.
1.1.
1.1.1. .
Xo Y ,
oZ ,
t, = t,{x, y , t ) , h = h { x , y ) , t
. -

10

:
- + (W )v + - g + | v p = F;
dw

|,

dw

1 dp

/1

^ + (^ ) ; + -1 + - 1 + = 0;

(1.1.1),

Vv + dw/dz = 0,
v = (u,v) ; w
; ,
; ; g
;
V=
= (/, / )\ F .
- QT
= { ^ , < ',h ^ z
t ^ },
(1.1.1)
:

(vV)/z + = 0,

z = h',

dUdt + ( W ) Z = w,

(1.1.2)

z = E;

(1.1.3)


= ,

z= l

(1.1.4)

( ),
: v|*=o = v; w\t=a = w\ ^ 1f=0 = S;
.
,
(v, w ) = ( 7 , )
: , .

2 -{- = 0,
(1.1.5)

? - + = 0 , . z = h;

(1.1.6)

g, + V. V = 8, z = t

(1.1.7)


^ + [( )2 + ] + ? + ( - ) / = 0,

z = .

(1.1.8)

(1.1.5) ,
(1.1.8) (1.1.1)
.
(1.1.5) (1.1.8) .

QT, ;
, t > 0, , ,
, ;
.
.

1. -

1.1.2. .

,
.4 ,

(1.1.5) (1.1.8), h =f const (1.1.6)


2 == 0,
,
() :
r = cteiv] = () '4; u U ( z ) e iv\ w = IV (z) eiv,
(1.1.9)
v = (&t kx\ ; k ,

g ia
7
gka
ig a k
( = ;
w==- - c b J
c h

c h

s h

k ih -^ -z ), $ = kh, V g & t h p . (1.1.9),


, , ( ).
, k,
(/&) (da>/dk) ,
.

. ' ,
kh < 1, (1.1.9)
(5> z b * J g h k { \ g-A2ft2+ . . . .
(2 )= -^ (1 +

+ 1 ^ 2+ . . . ) ;

(1.1.10)

U ( z ) ^ ^ ( l + k * h z + ^k?z* + . . . ) ;
W (z) = igk 2a &~1(h + z + . . . ) .
, (kh)
, -;
/ gh; .

^ : W / U < 1. ,
z ,
: U = V g/ ha. ,
h.

, / .
1.1.3. .
, . ,
w C ] v | , v
. (
.) 12 13

F ,
(1.1.1)
,
XoY.

. , (1.1.4)
= +

z).

(1.1.11)

(1.1.1), ,
= pgV + V p0 ,
, ,
.
d v/ d t + (W )

v + gV +

9~lVpa =

F.

(1.1.12)


(1.1.1)

>

J Vvdz + w\z=t za>U-fc = 0.


(1.1.13)
h

(1.1.2), (1.1.3)
a /# + V-[(A + )v] = 0.

(1.1.14)

(1.1.12), (1.1.14)
.

, ,
, .
1.2.
1.2.1.
.
.

, .

: = sin , <- ,
(1.1.12), (1.1.14) (, v-, ) , = h
L () = /dt + / + / + = F ,
(1.2.1)

/ 0 g\
/v 0 0 \ .
/ / 0 \
=

0
\

0 ;
0 )

= | 0 g
\0 VJ

F = {V(gh Pa/). 0};

/ = 2 sin

I
V0
.

0 0 ;
/

1. -

(1.2.1)
: QT {, cz , 0 s=: t sg
^ }, 2 <3Q.
(1-2.1)
. s = (s\, s 2)
< s u s 2< ,

D (s) = A s x + Bs2,

(1.2.2)

QT -.
, X D
QT
s^ + s|=7^=0 [136]. , ,
, .
/v s X

gsi \
D = 1
0
vs X
gs 2 I .
Hsx
Hs 2 vs X '
E ; v = (, v). A,i = vs, %2,
= vs dz | s | , c =
V gH, . e. .
D
; S ,
, ON
2 0

(1.2.3)

\ 0 .0 ,/
5 , S ~ l s;
IISII, I I S"11
|
(1. 2. 4)
, s,
[136]. S
:
S || = M S S *)}1'2.
(1.2.5)
pi(SS*) , . . SS*; S* , S.
, (1.2.1) .
S,
, .

/ /2

a /V 2

/ 2

/ /2

/ ( / 2 )

/2

/2

/2)
0
/ 2 )

/2 /2 /( /2)
1415

a = s i / | s | ; , = s 2/ ] s | . ^ D
/ vs

S - I Z)S =
vs + | s |

Vo

vs | s |

, 55* : Xi,2 = 1, = H / g ,
5 _I5*_1 A1j2= 1, %
3= g / H , . . (1.2.4)
.
j
(1.2.1) :
L () /dt + / + / + = F ,
(1.2.6)
{ ,

0) = .

- {}
La(Qr) ,
Qt cL 2 ,
:
(, ,) = 'J * dQT, || ||2 = (, ).
Qt

(1.2.4)
, ,
[136].
-
[, ] , .
,
, .
,
.
1.2.2.
. .

, -
.
[39]. ty ( x , y , t )

R a Q, . . |)
R Q.

\^{L (u )-F }d Q = 0
Q

J { [% 4- ) + (>) - + Fij>} dR = 0,
R

(1.2.7)

.
, .

1. -

(1.2.1), (1.2.7)
R cz Q.
(1.2.1),
:
a > (u )-,A .u + ^ . p + ^ . Q + c u = F .
U2H ~ l + g H 2\
=

= 1

U V H ~1

(128)

UVH'
Q=S

v 2H ~ l + '2
\ g H2
V

U = , V = vH. L (1.2.1)
3? (1.2.8). ,
, , Q
U: = </; Q/dV. ,
L ,
A = S ~ 1AS;

B = S ~ lBS,

(1.2.9)

S = /d u . (1.2.8),
5 -1.

2
v

1 0

0 g H u2\

uv
1;
0

/ v
=

\0
/ 0

'
- = 4


Vo

uv
2 g H v 2
1

'
v
1

U
J (1 % + |>* -++ ) dR = 0
(1.2.10)
R

|R. '[39],
S
E n t -j- + 0,

(1.2.11)

, , .
, . .
U.
,
, , , S,
, (1.2.11),
.
16 17

.
(1,2.8)
[U ]n, + [ P ]* , + [ Q K = 0,
(1.2.12)

,
. (1.2.12)
(1.1.29)
S.
1.2.3. . .
' (1.2.1)
,
g H = 2/4.

(1.2.13)

(1.2.1)
\
v I;
/

+ \ + F,
/
0 /2 \
/v
0
= | 0 1; = | 0 v
V /2 0 /
V 0 /2

(1.2.14)
0 \
/2
v /


[14] "
(1.2.14) ,
. (1.2.14)
2ii - Qr =
= { Q X [0 , ]} - S t =
= {<?Q X [, ] }.
^ {{, ) + {, ) + (, VL)}dST= $ {(A)U, u) + 2 (F , u)}dQT,
Sf

Qt

(1.2.15)
>o = A x -f- By. QT
S t (1.2.15)
^ {nt (, ) -f- (? + v 2+ 22) + (2+ v 2+ 22) a} dSr
Sj 1
=

+ v2J<r c^ d^T-

Qt

.
1.2.4. . ,
(1.2.1), :
-

du/dt + A d u / d x = f,

= ( ) ; % (

(1.2.16)

i - g h . + p.Ji -

1. -

: XU
2=
= dz , c ^ g H .
: 5 _1 5 = ,

2, S - 1
%
2 A; %i = (l, c /tf ) /V 2; Xa = (U
/)/ 2. , (1.2.16)
+ SAS

f .

(1.2.17)

S -1

=
gH, ()
^ 1.2.16):

(1.2.18)
,V\ = + 2, V 2= u 2 . (1.2.18) , ( f = 0)
+, ~,
:
+ : dxjdt + >
~ : dx/dt = .

(1.2.19)

(1.2.16)
( 1. 2 . 20 )

V = ( m + 2 c, 2). (1.2.20)
:
V(jc, 0) = V0(),
0 (0, t) = 1 ^ 0 (t),

0<*< ;

TtfiX , 0 = ^ ( 4

0<^<.

( 1. 2 . 21)
(1.2.22)

. 0, Ti
+, .
( = 0)
(+) ,
(- ) ; ( = )
(~ ) ,
(+) . (1.2.20)
d V 1/dt + X1d V 1/dx = f
0 ^ ^ X
,
t 0, = X c f (. 1 .1).

18-19

= , <
+, +, . . . .
(1.2.20)
dV2/dt + X2dV 2/dx = f
0 ^ ^ X, 0 ^ t ^
= X,
~
(. 1.1 ). (1.2.20) (1.2.22) ,
,

, . .
. V\ = +
+ 2, V 2= 2.

.
.
,

:
VAO, t) = 0, t ) v 2 ( 0 , + ;

v 2(, t) = Yl (X, t) Vi (x, t) + ih (0 ,

{h2-26)

yo, Vi
, .
V 2 , V\ ,
(1.2.23) ,
yo, Yi .
,
,

{( - ) v! - ( + ) ? } * - 0 > ,

{( + ) ! - ( - ) v!}x=x > 0.
(1.2.24)


[14].

1. -


(1.2.14) QT = {2*(, /)[, ] },
2* , 2,
4,
Q 2*.
(1.2.14)
S t
, (1.2.11):
= ^

tixA -J- .

(1.2.25)

2*,
S t t = const,
[39]. , ,
= 0.
" = 0, = 1, = A, fa , %2, =
/2. /2 > 0
, > 0, , ^ 0.
,- 0 ,
QT, , ,
.
,
. '
,


^ ( , ) d S T > 0
s-r

(1.2.26)

[39]. (1.2.24)
. ,
(1.2.26), , , [9, 107, 117].
1.3.
1.3.1.
. V p a F, ,


d % / d f - g h w X = 0,
(1.3.1)

= V gh-
(1.3.1)

t = ; ( C t ) + 2 ( + cl);
= / g ! h ^ i { x ^ 1 ) - 2{-\-^],
20 21

(1.3.2)

<Di 2 ,
.
(. 1.2 ).

. ,
- , , ,
: (. 1.2 6),
, . )

/ '" N

. 1.2. ()
() .

.
h = const
' du/dt + / + gd,/dx = 0;
dt,/dt + h / + dt,/dx = 0.
,
= (). (1.3.3) ,
w = 2 [ V g - ( A - K ) V g /],

(1.3.4)


d + V(Q<%/ = ,
V (0 = [ / e i h + ) - 2 -y/gh],

(1.3.5)


l^[x -V (l)t],

'

(1.3.6)

() t = 0.
(1.3.3)
0, , (1.3.6) ,
0 ^ (1.3.4).

Fi, 2, * [. (1.2.18)

1. -

(1.2.19)] , ,
;
2 .

V
.
, , ,
(. 1.3).
w = d'Q/d.t;
, ,
. ,

. 1.3. ( ).

'
- . ^/
(1.3.6)
. _ .
dl__________ djVdx
~~ 1 + t {dV/dZ) (dZ/dx)
, ^ / ( %/1)

.d .3 .8 )

; L* = Vt*. ,

(< h),
:
v(0V iA ( 1 + ) :
_

()

(1-3.9)

1 - )-

.
== 3 {dt^/dx |

(1.3.10)

.

() af (/),
12223

(1.3.11)

= /,

(1.3.12)

<7, = (2/3) / ' ,


. ,
<7* = 1/( ) 0,1.
;
- L*,
,
. ~ L*
, > L*.

,
= 2,
.
. % = 100 , = ; 4
( ),
Z-* ~ 10 . ( / i ~ 1 ), ,

.
h = 200 , % = 5 , = 10 , L* = 10 ,
.

, L* ,
.
.
1.3.2.
.
%!>>/,*? (. 1.3)
,
, ^
(,
) .
,
, , , ,
[70]:
[] = [],
(1.3.13)

[] = 2 <pi
. ,
,
(1.1.29)
:
= { ( 1 + / ) [ 1 + ) ] } 1/2; '
= t {(g/h) [

(i+

1. -

:
-

t s V5a (i +

) :

(1-3.15)

/ g / h ( l ,
[. (1.3.9)],
,

.
,
. ,

, L*.
, ,
,
, (. . 1.2.2) .
1.3.3.
.
,
. ,
( ~ 1 /, ~
~ 1 Re ~ 109).
(1.1.1)

<'- 6 >

tsj v

( )
v = w = 0, z = h
'
(1.3.17)

- ) ni = 0*7 - ?/)

; ~
z=

(1.3.18)

;
.
, (1.3.18)
:
= %s Ti3 dtjdx 23 .

(1.3.19)


. 1.1.3 (., , [25]). ,
(1.1.12) (1.1.14), F,
%1/.
F, :
F = - ^ | V [ V = - T J r |V| V.
2425

(1.3.20)

ch
,
'; .


:

dt,

~~' ~= ~ ~ \ \
d'Qjdt + h / = 0.

(1.3.21)

,

Q = chK W ,
(1.3.22)'
. Q < 1
(1.1.35) (
[34])
.(*,*) = -------- l)----------------------------
l+

(1-3.23)

2h~

(x) . ,
(, ,
),
(
). , t


i* /

n I

2/2

2 h2

1(*. 0 1 ^
=7=

ch -y/gh
t
chx

, , Q 0 ...

(1.3.24)

Q ( )
(1.3.21) ,
(. [34]). ,
, ,
, t2/3.
,
,
.
_

1.4. .


,
.
- .

1. -

-
7.

( ),
.

.
, .
1.4.1.
-
. ,
. 1. 1.2 ,
.
[56, 61, 6 8 ].
,
- ,

(., , [25],
).

= Z, (X,

, t) [z + h (, )\.

(1.4.1)

(1.1.5),
:
< + 2) ( + 1)[1 + (VA)S] + 2+ ( + 1 )[2 +^ + + 1 ]+ = 0 .
(1.4.2)
0
(1.1.6).
(1.4.1) (1.1.6), :
_______ /

/1 \

>
l+ ( W
(1.4.1)
(, , t). , (1.4.3) ,

. ,
h , = const 0/ = .
(1.4.2) (1.4.3)

(1.4.4)
}1 = --- 1~77^"
+ 2 > 2=
1 2(n1 +I aL
2)2
4

* + ( + > ' 1
+'
+
2 6 27

<1 6 >

,
2/( 1 + 2), , 2 < 1.
,
. (
)
.
(1.4.5) (
)
e = h 2/X2,
(1.4.6)
. ,

: &= h 2/%2 a |V /i|
( ).

. , 2 ~ , ,
(1.4.5) ,
.
(1.4.1),
(3) [25]:
= 0 _ v<P0V/* [1 - (V/)2] (z + ) +
+ [-

A h + V h V (VCD0 Vh) + 1 (V/)2] (z + h f +

+ [ i Ah 0 + Vh 0 + A (V.O0Vh)]

+ - ^ (0) (z + h)4.
(1.4.7)

(1.4.7)
(1.1.7) (1.1.8), -
.

WD0
.
v = ^ - J VOdz.

(1.4.8)

- f t

, (1.4.7), 0
2:
V<D0~ v + - ^ v A h + H ( V h V ) v + (Vh)2v + ^ - H 2Av.

(1-4.9)

(. [25]),
:
. | i + V (tfv) = 0;
(1.4.10)
g -+ .(W )v + ffVg = D,

1. -

= ^ - V v + ( W ) V v - ( V v ) 2,

(1.4.11),

Q = | f V / i + (vV)(vV/i).
. 1.1.3

.
.
,

,
(1.1.1.) (1.1.4):
D ,

= + g ( - ) + I p [z2 + 2h ( -) - 2] R p(, z)Q. (1.4.12)


-
, . -,
. ,
D
( ) ,
. , ,
.
(1.4.10) (1.4.11)
d,/dt + h / = 0;
_ ___ h 2
3
'
(1.4.13)
__ ,
dt ~ * s dx ~

dt 2 '

n _ _ h 2 3
3 dtdx2

g h 2 <3_ _
h %
3
3
3 dt2 dx

___ h
3g

3
dt3

. .
'

(1.4.13)
[(^ k x ) ] , k
, D
(1.4.14).
~ / gh k ( l

(1.4.15)

0 ( /t4^4) .
,
s = h2/ ~ h 2k2.
= / g k th (kh)
,
2 8 29

. ,
,
(1.4.14), (
3 0 % ), ,
(1.4.13)
p.

Hg

dtz


D
. ,
n _

gft2
3

, k h > -\/3 ,
(1.4.13) .
D

.
.
, -
.
, (1.4.11) :
D = ! ~ i - [ v (VAv) - A V (W )].

(1.4.16)

(1.4.10) (1.4.16)
[120J. , ;, (1.4.11),
.
.
1.4.2.
.
.
(1.4.10)

4 r + ^ < ff > = ;
du/dt + / + g dt,/dx D;

(1.4.17)

" - - { * [ * - + & - ( (D = 0) (1.4.17)


(1.1.1),
(1.3.6). ;
. (1.3.6),
,
.
,
[61]. , ,
. 1.2.4, V& = 0

V = uzt2('\/gH -y/gh)

(1.4.18)

1. -

(1.4.17)
dV
*
(
,---3
1
\ dV.
-1 *- + ( j g h + T F + T l / TJ ^ = Z )(l/+, V_), (1.4.19)

V+ _.
D = 0, V_ = 0 V+
/ g h t ~ V +t\ ,
(1.4.18).
D 0 V+ V - . ,
D --, , V - (
D), (1.4.19) V-.
+

0) - V _ %

-,

(1.4.20)
.
( ),
(1.4.14)
. V+ ,
(1.4.16) (1.4.14):
^

+ y g h + ^ V t)


= \jght,
, , '
(1.4.21):
^

V+^

2 ~
_

= ^

t t,

(1.4.21)

(1.4.22)

2 / g /h ,
_
< -4-23>

(1.4.23) .
[ (1.4.23)],

(1.3.5) F() g
(1.4.22). ?
(1.4.23),
bt, b , .
(1.4.23)
, :

3031

. (1.4.24)

.
, :
(1.4.25)
,
,
.
,
,
.
?
:
(1.4.26)

(1.4.27)
Ur
(1.4.28)
U r = aX2/h3,
X ! ,

,
. , Ur
1
(1.4.27) . ;
;
.
, U r < 1 (1.4.27)
.
."
,
, ^_1/3(:_1/3),
X ~

.
,
; (1.4.23) (
[59]:
- Lg ~ 0,02,3/2.
(1.4.29)
, % ~ 10 h ~ 100 L g ~ 2 . ,
X ~ 1 .


- ;

1. -


,
[27, 32, 59]. Ur
1
,
. :


.
(
),
[27, 59], ,

.
,
- ,
.
-
.
? ,
ct, (1.4.17). [24]:
(1.4.30)
= &/( + >.
, (1.4.30) ,
(1.4.25),
. (1.4.17)
, ,
________

~ h V (h + )/
(1.4.31)
,
(
= h2/%2) .
. ' - (1.1.5) (1.1.8) ,

a/ h < 0,78, .
,
, ,
. (., , :[24])
, a /h < 0,78
(1.4.1-7).
, -,
."


,
.
/
. ,

.
. , ,
.
,
( ). ' ,
, , , 45
. . ,
(
[68] ).
,
. ,
,
:
,
60- (., , [129,
130]). ,

,
.
1958 . [85]. ,
, ,
,
.
, [46, 59] ,

,
.

,
.

2 .

2.1.

,
..

^ ,
,
. ,

/2 .
2.1.1.
.
.
,
:
du/dt + / + g / = 0;

+ [( + 0 ]= .


. . [73].
, t (. . 1.2.4):
* = 2 W g (h +

0-

(2.1.2)

(2.1.1)
- ^ - + ( 4 g h + + / ) - ^

= 0 .'

(2.1.3)

= 0,
< 0.
. 2.1,

* = / g h + -j- V +

F t-


( ), -

( ).
(2.1.3) , V
,

.
, . 3435

, =

0
F+;

F + = 2 b / g ( h + l R) - ^ g h \ .
(2.1.4)
,
V+ :
F + = 4 [Vfif (-So). /gfi],

(2.1.5)

0 . (2.1.4) (2.1.5),
:
= 4[1 + - / + -

(2.1.6)

0/ (
) (2.1.6) ;* = 20-

. .

. ; -'
%o/h (2.1.6) :
i

= 2+ i i .

(2..?)

. ,
( ).

. , ,

. , , ,

2.

,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,
:
- = _ ^ + 4-/+ < 0

(2.1.8)

( ,
, F_ = 0). (2.1.5)

g o < 3 h.
(2.1.9)
, > 3h, ,
(2.1.9) ,
, (
,
)..
2.1.2.
.
.
.

.
(. 1.3.2).
(. 2.2),
( ) (h + g0) = ch;
S ,u i 2
gh2
( ) (h + g0) {h + go)2 = .

( 2 . 1. 10)


.

(. 2.2),

(h + gr ) = ( ) (h -f- g0);

(2 . 1. 11)

- 4 (h + g*)2 = - 4 ( + go)2 + U ( - ) 0h + g0),


. (2.1.10) (2.1.11)

( , , ).
, [68],
. 2.3. (g0 < 3)
(2.1.6).

. 2.3.
3637

'

. , U / h = 10, t,R/ h
40, . .
~ 40.
2.1.3.
.
.

. , ,

,
.
+,
(
),

--

<
h
( ,
).

75

h+t,

2777777777/7777777777777777777
. 2.2.
.

. 2.3.
[68].

,
.

(2.1.6)

.
%a/ h h2/,
.
: ,
. , . .
: ,
[24],
, / h > 3 0 .. .50
(2.1.6).

(),
.
,
, ,
go/h. ,
-

2.
>/

. 2.4.
.

# = 2 0;
.

/ (2.1.6); -2 (2.1.7);
3 (2.1.12).
[241.

,



.

,


(2.1.7),
,


.


-
(. 1.4.1) [24].
:
*/0= 1,99 + 0 , 6 0 2 ^ + 0 , 0 3 9 ^ ,
(2.1.12)
j h ~ 0,8;
(2.1.7). (2.1.6),
(2.1.7) (2.1.12)
. 2.4 [24]. ,
.
,
(., , [24]) , ,
, ,
,
, .
,
,

.
(* )
,
( );
[24].
3839

2.2.
2.2.1.
. .

, h = , = const.


du/dt -|- dujdx + g d'Q/dx = 0;
( 2 . 2 . 1)

(2.2.1).

i=cot;

==~;

= /(<0)

(2 . 2 . 2 )

go .
(2.2.1)

(2.2.3)

- [31]
(2.2.4)

Br = 02/(ga2).

, ,
(,
.), . ,
(2.2.3),
,
. 2.4. ,
-[80],
;
.
,
-. ,

t, = at /gfeo,

= /? ;

?. = /<,;

u = u / ^ g Z 0,

(2.2.5)

(2.2.1)
d u j d t . + u , d u j d x %+ d l j d x t = 0;

( 2 . 2 . 6)

2.

to-1 ( )_1/2 ,
. ,
.
2.2.2.
. (2.2.1).
= + (2.2.1)
du/dt + / + g / = ga;

(2.2.7)

, (2.2.7)
. [56]
-7 = 2 / g H + gat,

(2.2.8)


'

*
dt

/3 .

\ dV,

[85]!, (2.2.9)
, . . V+, V -
, t. ,
J = (, t )/d(V+, - ) 0 (
).
(2 .2 . 10)

^
\
, (2.2.10), , ,
,
x( V + ,V -) :
d2t
dV+dV_

I_______ 3

2(V+ - V _ )

dt_____ 0

^aF_

d V + ) U-

(2 2 11)


l = ( V + + V J = u + gat;
( 2 . 2 . 12)

(T= | ( F + - F _ ) = 2 V ^ (2.2.11)

dt

, (2.2.12)
(2.2.14)

1

(2.2.15)

(2.2.13) :

2
- -

I k T ^ 0-

/ 1 \
(2-26)

, , t, .
(2.2.14) (2.2.15).
(, ) (2.2.10)
= ( ^ - - ^ ) -

(2'27)

, 2 = 2gH,
:
= 1 5 - ( 1 - ) '

<2-28>

,
(2.2.16),
.

, =
( = 0) , ,
(2.2.16) 0 ^ <
, .

(2.2.16)
. , ,
- .

(
) ' [85, 131] (
). ,
[108],
, :

, ,

,
.

.
, ' . ,

2.

. ,
,

. [31, 46].
2.2.3.
.
(2.2.16),
:
.
, (<7, ) = 1 (la) cos (IX),

(2.2.19)

/ / .
(-*- ), , ,
.

,
:
= 1 .- ^ - ;

2g

x = J!L.t
4ga

t= .
ga

(2.2.20)
\
/

, ')- - j V

t e V ia M [ ' * " ' + '

+ s i n (igat I -\/Aga\ 'x \ +

~ 4) +
(2.2.21)


:
( * , ( ) - { s i n [ ,(/ $ -^ ) - f ] +

+ si" K ^ + S v i g ) + f ] } ;

<2-2-22'


( ) (-
),
.
(2.2.21), ( )- ~ ] |~1/4 ~ -1/4
, .
h0,
L R(ho = olL r ),
I :
;/ = W(ga);

= 2g0/W a /g a L R/<o, ~

(2.2.23)

, , (2.2.19).
(, ,
), ,
. 42 43

= 0, . _ = A cos(lX), (2.2.14)
(2.2.17) :

\ ~ Al sin W ~
4
^ -^ -[

cos2 ( )1 ;
j

(2.2.24)

/20 8 -

x ( t ) ,
() ,
h = %R = 1/ (2g)
(2.2.23):

T f= (^ V 5 ) 2 V 5 -

<2-2-25>

0 = 2 / g h j o ) ho. , -
. ,
, ,
.
.
(2.2.15), (2.2.19) (2.2.23)
1 '
>
= cos (IX) = ------cos (IX).

(2.2.26)

U = */<*,
(2.2.2 7
^
. X = 0 /l,
(2.2.24) , ;

K = a\%f { 2ga2).

(2.2.28)

2.2.4.
. ,

t,R ^ 0 ( , ' ,
;*
2). ,
. ,
,
/ (, t ) /<3(V+, V - ) 0. J
(2.2.10) (2.2.14)
-

<2' 2 -2 9 >

/ 0,
, ; ,

2.
. 2.5. ,
.
I) = 1 0 ~ 1 (5,7); 2) = 1 ( 2 (34').

(2.2.30)

= 1
= 0
(2.2.19) (2.2.20)
Br = 2*/teu*) = l.

(2.2.31)

,

' ,
[
(2.2.4)]. < 1,
,

' ().
> 1
, .
-
,
. ,
[80]
, <
< /2 = 1,57, . .
50 %.

.
(2.2.31) ,


, :

= go?T2!(An2),

= 2/.

(2.2.32)

. 2.5.
, > 10 ,
,
, , .
( ~ 6 ) .
2.2.5. .
.
. (2.2.2) 44 45

. 2.6. .

.
) = 0,5; ) = 1,0.

,
) = 0 ;

go ,
(2.2.24) (2.2.26)
sin y cos2 ;
= cos ;

(2.2.33)

? = .

(2.2.31).

[34]:
= cos (t -{- ), (2.2.34)
,

, , ,

(.
2.6). G

,
,
= 1
.
(?) (2.2.33),
(?):
t,R sin {i + ) y cos2i t + ).

(2.2.35)

(. 2.6).
. ,
, = 1 (
)
.

,
. ,
,
. '
(2.2.35) :
2

(2.2.36)

2.


.

(2.2.33):
[
? = 2 / 2 W

l + Br2 - 1

+ 2 a r c s i n ( ^ - W l + 2

-);
(2.2.37)

-2

^'.

1
^

(2.2.38)


[12,44].

2.2.6. .
.

-.

. 2.7.


.
X.

1) = 0,06;
3) = 0 ,7 7 .

2) = 0 ,2 5

, , ,

.
^ .
,

[31]:
= J q();
'
46 47

/(4 ).

(2.2.39)

. 2.7
(2.2.39) [31].
> 1 1/ (2.2.39)

+ --g

(2.2.40)


(. 2.8). (2/ < < 0)
*

= [ ( 1 + | > )+

2
12

(2.2.41)



,
1(>1
/})

. 2.8.
.

1) = 0 ,0 6 ; 2) = 0 ,2 5 ; 3) = 0 ,7 7 .
.
,
.
= 1/i . 2.9,

(
1 , 400 32 [12].
2.2.7. . ( )
.
= 1, (2.2.35)

2 ^2 / 0\ 1/5
m ax 2 - = - . -----~ 2,75 ( - ) ,
So
(83 /2 ) ? /

/ 0\ 1/5

2.2.42

-
. ,
.

2.

, ~ 1 , h0 ~ 1 ,
- |^ - ~ 1 1 .
0/^ ~ .1 ( , m a x -~ ^ -~ 4 ,3 .

[36].

" ,

per.
*

- ; 2 ;
.

3
f


. , ,
'slhjg < 1. ,
, ,
. (2.2.25)

^ o ~ l/V a ;
(2.2.43)
(. . 3.6)'.
:
,
.
> 1
,
. ,
.
.
/ = 0

[12],
(2.2.19),
,
= 0 ( )
.
,
;
. B r3 > 1
, -
. ,
(1.1.19),
[59],
:
**
^ (h/h0)~7li d x = Lt,
.
(2.2.44)

L*. . (1.3.10).

(2.2.44)

, = , (1 + - 0

(2.2.45)

. = . ( 1+ - - )

(2.2.46)

, hm> %, . .
.
,
.
2.3.

2.3.1.
.

,
.
.
,
(2.2.19):

( , )= J ()/ 0 ( | 2 . ) W > ,

(2.3.1)

. (co)= A *(co),
. -

2.

,
, .

[46],

-. = + ( / -

+ -

+ S

u{x, t) = / g l h (Z+ _);

(2.3.2)

\ d(oA () V l ' f f l l s g n o X

s = f = = = =

Vitga-VgA

X exp{/[(= S ^ ) f s g n ] } .

,
+
. ,
h0, :
=

s g n ^ - f sgn f 6 + (0 - dt.
2 - : | |

(2.3.3)

(2.3.1) . ,
.
(2.3.1) (2.2.14), (2.2.15); (2.2.17) = 0,

= ~2^ ^ \ ^
L

fitoV(ga) da \ '

(2.3.4)

t
(. );
ga >

{) = 2slg2 ^ () eia^ ) da.

--

,
= [46]:
?* = 2?

U () 1(} da | .
*

(2.3.5)

'

,
(2.3.5).

ZAt)=U(t/T),

(2.3.6)

go
. (2.3.5) :
(2.3.7)
0 / g h o T
Lr == ha/a

{w SS

Q*[[Q^

"4

sgnQ]]}"
(2.3.8)

,
, ,
,

. 2.10.
0.

1)

0=0;

2) = / 4 ;

3) = / 2 ;

4) 6 = .

.

.
2.3.2.
.
[45]
S+ (0 = 1+ %> [cos 9 - sin ]

(2-3-9)

0 .
-

4 + (j==_L J + (/)e-<*rfd/==M.e-(r/8-M)sen (2.3.10)


, , 0,
(. 2 .1 0 ), .

2.

(2.3.9) (2.3.8), :
= -/2 [ c o s ( - |( e ) ) ] 5/2>

(2.3.11)

. '
0,
0 (
, . . 2.10). (2.3.7) 0
(, 0 < 0 <
),
,
+ = ----cos2 (0/2)

v(2.3.12)

,
,
, - (2.3.8).
,

_ = / 2 j~cos

( 0)^j5/2^cos2 (0/2).

(2.3.13)

- , + _
( 0),
. ,

.

.
= 5;

[59].
, , ,
(0 = 0).
50 % ,
(. 8).
2.3.3.
. .
(2.3.4).
, . 2.2,
t = t/T;

= ax/ZR", I =

= ,

(2.3.14)

' .

=
52-53

rC,R/(ga2T2).

(-2.3.15)

(2.3.4)

1 () - - 2;

t = l ;
= d l yldk-,

' ly = Y
-

J QA(Q)el^ d Q ;

(2.3.16)

= A/(aT 2g%R).

= 0, (2.3.16)
;
= 1 (?); U = diyldi = ay (i).
(2.3.17)
,
, ,
,
\ (

).
-
[44]. , (2.3.10)
= (J + ),

(2.3.18)

, (2.3.16) ,
.

x = i y (t + ) - 2 (t + ).

(2.3.19)

, = 0 t,R =
= x l y (2.3.7).. ,
(2.3.18) (2.3.19)



*, ( ,
. 2.2
).
*, ,
.
(2.3.18)

di

diiu/dt

(2. 3. 20)

\ Brdtiyldi

, <5/ d t

Br- = [ m ax^ f ]

= [ ^ ? 1

(2-3-21)

2.
. 2.11.

.
, . ) = 0 ; ) = ) = 2 .


,
(2.3.21)
~ ^- 2, (2.3.22)
i

. . , t
dw/dt
= d 2t,y/ d t 2

g a 2. (2.3.22)

* = 1.

t
[44]
,
,
.
. 2.11.
- :
, ()
(. 2.11).
,
2.
|
^
( ).
,
.
. , %+{t)
, ( )
, (
) , ,
, .
:
'yfgh(x) ,
,
(2.3.22) .
,
. , :-+(0 ,
-2,
5455

(2.3.3) ~5/2.
() [ (2.3.4)]
( -1/2)
.

[29], '
, . , ,
,
,
, ,
.

. ,
, < *
.
2.3.4.
.

, .
^
,
, . ,

[35, 55].
,

[59]. ,
( ),

.
, ( ),
(2.3.2).
, -
, . ,
.
(2.3.2)
(2.3.23)


. .
-,
,
[5 9 ,6 1 ]:
(2.3.24)

2.

+ ,
2/
-(* )=

\ S+ ( O c t g ( ^ 0 ' - ^ + 4 V W ( i ^ ) ) ^ , (2.3.25)

+ .

(2.3.9). (2.3.24) [59]
1 + 4 t 2/ T 2

( sin 9 + j r c o s e ) .

(2.3.26)

. 2.12
0 = 0. , ;
,
,

Ct/So

. 2.12.
.

.

.
( )1
(2.3.24)
t - y oo (),
0,
,
.

,
.
(2.3.24),
.
56 57

2.3.5.
.
, ,

.
,
, t a, L
,

. 2.13.


[85].

{, 0 ) = 0 )(, 0), a rj ( , 0).


,
5

, 0 )

'

2 (d3+ a2)3/2
5

d 3

,
'

____ 1
2 (d* + a2)5/2 J

d 3
!

(2.3.27)

d ' = 1,5 V l + 0>9?o/Ao


, , (2.2.17)
(2.2.18): a 2= 2H = 2(t, ) %(, 0);

.

. 2.13, [85].
, ,
, ,
.

[131].

2.

2.4.
2.4.1.
.


( ,
) ,
, .

. ,

'
[129, 130].

[45, 46].

[35, 43].

^dt+ r r, ig L
.- = o '

dt
d
+ W

= 0-

' (2-4 )

,
.
,
1
^
2g dX0
= o2/{4ga)\
. _____________

1
Go 0
t = \ 0/(ga).

______

(2.4.2}

(2.4.1 ^
_^1 _ ^ 1 -----=

d0Q

(2.4.3)

ff0 d a 0

0 = 0 . ,
(, ) (0)
. = 0 % = 0,

( ,
, ).
( ) . 0 Bce
, , (0, ,)
(0, ,0) . ( 0 )
, ( )
( = = 0 ).
. , 58 59


.

. , . 2.3,
. ,
.
(2.4.1), ^
:
,

?(*, /) = ^ / o( y 'i ^ i L J - ) s i n ( 0 O ,

(2.4.4)

( )
1 1 * = 0 = 2 /

(2.4.5)

, >

. 2.14.
o t k i j c .

( ).

= 0

(. 2.14).
,
. .'
.

| \=0 <
(2.4.6)
(2.4.5)
= 2/(2) < 1>
(2.4.7)

(

[130]). , (2.4.1)

2.


(- ):
%/ t 2+ ga d'Qjdx + gax %/ 2 0,
(2.4.8)

d%/dt 2+ ga = 0,

(2.4.9)

(2.4.6)
m&xd%ldt2\x=Q< ga2,

(2.4.10)

(. 2.3).
(2.4.10) ,
.
,
,

. h ( x )

( ).
h ( x ) -
, -

.

h ( x ) [35, 43]-.
2.4.2.
, .

,

, 2.15.
,
.

(. 2.15). , ,

,(, *) = 0
+ _<*+**>.
(2.4.11)
go _
k c / / gh . (2.4.4),
:
(* , f) = * /0( / ^ i ^ M
60-61

) e *rf?

(2.4.12)

(
%/),


. ,
(
l R ):
= 2/// (4nLR/X0) + Jf (4nLR/ l Q) ,

(2.4.13)

J 1 0 = 2n /k
. ,
L r /% (
).
:
"

\ 2j t'\ f2 LRjX0,

L < 0
f lK
L r > 0,05,(0.

(2.4.14)

,
.
(2.4.13) (2.4.14) . 2.16.

. 2.16.
,
,
/ (2.4.13);
(2.4.14).

5 -

- .
(
),
X
:
U at,R/a = at,RL R/h,

(2.4.15)

gh 2 < 1 .

(2.4.16)

. ,
(LR ~ h).
. ,

2.

. L r / X ,
.

, .
(
),
, , (2.4.13) .
,

:

UZo = f ( L R/ K /).

(2.4.17)

0//->-0 (2.4.17)
(2.4.13).
0
,
. 2.1 (2.4.17) (2.1.6).
L r / %
to/ (2.4.17) .
(2.4.17) [92].

\
. 2.17.
,
.

(2.4.13),

[92],
[36].

0,08

0,16

0,24

0,32 Lr / \

. 2.17.
102 0 % , 0// < 0,1..

[36]." (
6 % ) (2.4.14).
. 2.17. ,
(2.4.14)
.
2.4.3.
.

P. X.
:[43]. , 62

63

(. 2.18),

'' W k = 2

/ V

' K

- ^

) +

( V

) -

(2.418)



. ,
-
(2.4.15) (2.4.16).

. 2.18.
.

2.4.4. .
,
, .
,

. ,
h ( x )
t,R U,
[ (2.4.13) (2.4.15)
a i ] ,
>2/(12) = 1-

(2.4.19)

^ (, ) ,

2, 20 % go/ h 0,05 [3],


,
.

'
2.4.5. .
. . [35],
( ) = 0(x / L R)$,
. , < 2

2

/?

L _ p 2~P

'

/,^ 2 (2 - > 1

(2.4.20)

- ( ) -. |3-> 0 g^ =
= 2g0, (
). = 1 ( ) (2.4.20)
(2.2.25).

2.

|3->-2 (
( > 2).
|3 ^ 2 (
) , , (2.4.6)
, , ,
. |3 < 2
,
, ,
(,
).
2.4.6.
.
.
;
,
, .

,
(. 2.15).
(2.4.13),

{(()=

)
-

[ (' +4 4 * ) -

('.ft)

(2.4.21,

/ 4 ( / ^ 2L r / ( g a ) ) - w ? ( 4 2W ( ) )

()

S ( t ) e ~ ^ d t .

(2.4.22)

00

(2.4.21) . Lr/% ;^> 1


[ A&2L R/ {ga)^> 1]
, (2.4.21)
:
J , (I) - 2

< .)

{ [ ( ' - ^ = ) + 1

] }

(2.4.23)

( ).


5/ = P V V A .

(2.4.24)

L r \^> %.
,
, L |/A 2
(2.4.2.1)

(0 =
64 65

2? (t) -

(2.4.25)


, (2.4.25):
(2.4.26)
1 -. ,
(2.3.9) 0 = 0 \ = 8. (2.4.14)
:

2+

PlL% fl\

L r < L ,
(2.4.27)

L*

. = 5 pi = 8
?*

. 2.19.
.

. 2.19. ,

=

g a 2T 2

rl r
h%? < .

(2.4.28)


, . (2.4.27)
(2.4.28)
t s / t o , . ,
L r > L*,
'm ax (/) = (4 J I/5 (S0/A )"I/5;
1 = (

2/5( ~ 2/5.

(2.4-29)
(2.4.30)

, to/ h ~ 10_3 ( = 4, * = 2) max(Sk/So) 1,4.


. 0/ ~ 10-1,-' ( /) 5,5.
, .
.

. , ,
. , ,
(2.3.9). LH< L *
- 0 = 2 1 2/2,

(2.4.31)

2. -

L R > L* [. (2.3.13)]
(2.4.32)

t,R/t,o . 2.19.
2.4.7.
.

.
( , ),
.
, . 2-20

10

20

30

40

bR

. 2.20.
26 1983 . .
(2.4.27);
[105]; (2.4.33).

26 1983 . [ L r 200 ), [105].



L r < 4 ,
4 < L r < 35 .
10 .
(2.4.27) ( 5, pi = 8). ,

.

,
[36, 108]. ,
L r / % ,
t,o /h , (2.4.17),
,
. ,
, ,
6667

()
,
.
,

. ,
,
,
,
.
, [108]:

j s _s = r3,05a-0.3(bl/A)U5a0.02f
h

1la 067(go/A)190,35,

0,2 < a < l,4


0,09 < a < 0,2. .

= 0,2

()

m ax (*/*) = 3,75 (/)

(2.4.35)

>
> 0 ,4 , [119], . .
[36].

> 0,2. ,
(2.4.28),

^ 2 ( / ).

(2.4.36)

(2.4.30)
10/9 ^ 2 (0/).

(2.4.37)

, 0/ ~ 0,1 (
) ~
~ 11 (2.4.34). [36]
[119]
(2.4.37).

.

[36].
,
, (). ,
, (2.4.27), : 40 % ,
.
.
, , ,
, .
, ,

2.

, . ~
,
.
2.5.

,

- .
, , ,

. ,
(
), .

.
2.5.1.
.
,
,
, .

.
,
.
(. 2.21)'
h( x , y) = h 0(x) a l y \ m,
(2.5.1)
.
[73]
.
'

dt

dt

.
11

+1

!dho
^ dx

(2.5.2)

j , ,
_
' U

;
. , (2.5.2)
/ ( - \ - \ )

- ^ . , ,
-" ,
.
:
. dho/dx =
, . 2.1,

=
68 69

- /

(2-5.3)

c= Vgho

Zm + 2
tn + 2 /
4m + 4 V =.
4m + 4 ^ TZ~r~r

(2.5.4)


. 2.1.

v +=

* t V g (* + go) V f i f o ] .

(2.5.5)

W g (h0 +&*) - -

(2.5.6)

, = 0,

,
:
/ = 4 [ 1 + / - V 1 + U h 0].

(2.5.7)

,
Z

, 2.21. .

(~ = 0 F_ = 0) ,
:
& A ) > ( 3 m 2 + 8m + 4)/m2

/ > 4 (1 + 1 /)2.

(2.5.8)
(2.5.9)

- + (2.5.8) (2.1.9).
, >
,

2.

,
,
. . . [73].

dho/dx = const.

V= u 2 ^ ] ^ L g H

+gat,

(2.5.10)


.
[18]:
1

$ g \ m + l

2ga- V + 1

1 >

d X ~ U)

'

2 \
2 + 2 )

~ ga ^

(2.5.2)

'

* * _ _ _ 2._1_ =
2

5 12)
4


,
.
(2.5.12)
=

s i n (^)>

(2.5.13)

Ji/m .
[18], . 2.2,
:

L *

(2.5.14)

- ^ (2.2.25)
. ( ) -. (2.5.14)
. 2.22. *
t,R L r .
,
, , , ,
. , (2.5.14)
( ^ ) , 0>
, , gs ^ 2.

70 71



U = &/
(2.5.15)

Br = ca2*/(ga2) = 1.

(2.5.16)

.
,
. ,

, ,
, ,
.

9
. 2.22.
.

/) =*; 2) 2: 3) m= 1.

J------------- !------------- i-------------- !


0
0,5
1,0 i g / l
- (2.5.13)
. ,
, , (2.5.13)
0 ->-. qt

() = exp {i (/2 - f /) sgn }.

(2.5.17)

, ,
(0 =

(2. 5. 18)

(2.5.17) :

?0(0 = - + (sin ^ - + - cos- ) .

(2.5.19)

, . 2.23.
, = 2/3
, = 2 :
. ,

. ,

.

2.

(. . 2.3).

t,m -

21
g

dly

. "+ 1
1

dX

(2.5.20)
=

-
u(t) = Uy [t + u/(ga)];
l
* W = P + /()] 1 7
P + /( )]>

(2.5.21)

? /?

. 2.23. .

. ( ) , t,y{t)

*
( Lr ^ 1/2+ 1/
J' A (CD) |I. i1/2+1/m x

V 0 - + i/m) \Vgh)

X exp { i [atf + ( ^ - + -J ) sgn ]}

da.

(2.5.22)

, m 2/3 (2.5.22)
8 /

L \ 2 d*t,n

lr Y


(2.5.18) . 2.24. , ,
,

r 5 .( W

.-

<2-5-24>


^ = 1l k o ( W > 2.

(2.5.25)

^ , ,
|g~|/g^ = 4.
,
: ,
,..

. 2.24.
( = 2/3)
.

,
.
2.5.2.
.
.

d % / d t * - g V [ h ( x , ) v g = 0,

(2.5.26)

(, 0 )
-- (, 0 ),' h = 0
(, ).
(0.
h 0 ,
. ,
h { x , y ) .
,
- (
) . , . .
h ( x ) . (2.5.26)
(*>

(*

){~\

(2.5.27)

\
2.

{!4f) + t2~ ghk^= *

(2.5.28)

(2.5.28)

0 ->- k,
.

[23, 40]. -

( h 0, 0 > < L,
(* > -{* , t X > L .
hi

-5.29)

ho (2.5.28) ,
i M * ) = c o s { - g ( 2 + 1) } ,

= 0,1,2...

(2.5.30)


| = ^ [ 2 + ^ ( 2 + 1 ) 2] -

(2-5.31)

,
: ,
- > 0 (
). ,
,
1 ; , ,
.
h () ( L), ,
, , - _
,
,
, .

(X, , t) = Z
=0

(*) % (*. X)

dk,

(2.5.32)

An(k ) ; -,
t~*~
------------------- 1 .

: < * , , = 2

. *> exp [i (.( - %)].


(2.5.33)

74 75

(
)
'
1 (* )= -

(2-5-34)

:
,
.
( ~1/2 ~1) .
\

N.

. 2.25. ,
[47].
, - ,
,
. . .

/ da>/dk
/ d2a>/dk2
; (2.5.34)
.

(
) ,

. , ,
(- ),
. , , ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
,
, [47], . 2.25.

2.

. ( )
,
. (
)
. ,
(
). ,
, ,
( ). ,
,
. ,

. 2.26.
.

;
.
/ ; 2 ;
3 .

. 2.27.



.

, ,
(
, -
).

. ,
,
.
,
,
.
' [47],


. , ,
,
(),
7677

.
-
, [71].
,
[19].
2.5.3.
.
, ,

.
,

,
(. 2.26); ,
- ,
= to/h.
,

. [113]:
4

36

i+ V i - a W

* ' <1;

( i + W 3 ) a.

S -> i.

(2

'. 2.27.
(-2 > 36)
, . 2.26 . -> 2,
> 2 (2.1.7).
-2 <; 36. , 2 = 36

(
).
,
.
2.6.

2.6.1.
.
-
(1.4.17), (2.2.2):

_ _ _ j-

dt

~ ----------]---------------^
,
1 \

2 2

= 3 ---------------- ----- ^

dt

( 2 . 6 . 1)

- + ~ [ ( - * + 1)] = 0. ,
dt

, (2.6.1)
,
. , , -

2.

(
)
(2.6.1).
,
, , ,

.
2.6.2.
. (2.6.1)
,
( ), (
).

;
[20, 21].
| , 0 0
, 0 = (,

).

* - ( ' 9 + ? - -< *
$

+ f "
/<90 = 0

"* = <>!' '

"

(2 -6 . 2 )

(0 = ).


(0 = 0).

(2.6.3)

t,y(t) 0,
.

<(, 0, t ) = (,&) ,
:
= 0,

/ - = 0 (0 = 0);
/OQ= 0 (0 = ),

(2.6.4)

k = to2/g". , - (2.6.4)
,

.

= /(2 ),
7879

(2 .6 .5 )

.
[68]
=

C0S (0+a+an) cos [kr sin (0 + + ) + ] +

+ e- kr cos (0+- ) cos [kr sin (0 + - ) - ]}.


(2 .6 .6 )

= 2s + 1 ( )
= 0 /2, = 2, m 2s ( )'
= 1 {2 1 )/4, {2 1 ).
(2.6.6)

Stl
bn = 2 ctg (/) ( 0 , s);
j=i

S
b0= ctg (/);
/-1

.
(2.6.7)

bs=--2{s 0 ).

. ,
( 2 .6 .6 ) :

I () = 2 bn {e~kxcos (+) cos [kx sin (a + an) + an\ +


+ e~kxcos

cos \kx sin (a a) a]}.

(2 . 6 . 8)

x, ,
.
2.6.3.
.
a = / 2 ( ). = 1,
s = 0 , 0 0 , , 0 ( 2 .6 .8 )
() 2A cos {kx),

(2.6.9)

= to .
( = 0 ):
= 2to , < /2. (2.6.8)
( = s)
( < s).

() = A cos (kx + as),
(2.6.10)
,
. (2.6.10) to =
/2 .
( ) ( 2 .6 .8 )
5

= 2 l X c o s a = 4 0 bncosan.

(2 . 6 . 11)

2.


'

s
-^ -= 4^ 6cosa,

(2 . 6 . 12)

.

(. 2.28) [68]
'
'
(2.6.13)
, ,
. .
.
,
.

6
. 2.28.

.

I---------J-------- J--------- 1______1______ t _

8 T./(2i)

.
, .'
L R ~ A,0/ t g L/X0,
,
( t g a )-1 -1,
(2.6.13). , (2.6.13)

(, ).

, (2.2.25),
, (
< 1):
____
< 2 /
(2.6.14)

0 > /0.
(2.6.15)
, ,0 > 0, ,

- L R/% - , < n h 0
,
,
L r /X q .
8081

2.6.4.
45
( 2 .6 .6 )
= /4, :
cos (jix + ^ + e~kx cos [k z J " )]'

(2.6.16)

, ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
.
,
.

, .
.

, - ,
(2.6.16)
[ ( 2 .6 .6 )]
, , , .
, ,
, (

. 2.4),
.
(2.6.16)
:

--------

[ e&z s i n

( ^ * 3+

e~kx c o s {^ z

j ;

(2.6.17)
<

w= -
dz

-^j=-1 ehzcos [ k x +

e~kx sin ( 'kz ^ J .


(2.6.18)

, ,
= /4, ,
,
I 1= 1o w l = *

(2.6.19)

= /4 ,

[. (2.4.6)]. (2.6.16)

I (x) =

[c o s (k x + ^ -) + ~

e-* * ] -

(2.6.20)

2.

dt

Kr

<02 d

(2 .6 . 21 )

, , ( )
:
( 2 . 6 . 22 )

dh/dx = 1, (2.6.22)
, .
2.6.5.
.
.
-
,
. . [20].
. -
,
, /xjx-,
,
(2.6.12). ,

(2.6.23)

.
,
, .
. 2.5.
[68]:
= A exp [ kxctga kz + i (at ky/sin a)];

(2.6.24)

co = /gk/sin a,

(, , t) = t,R exp [ kx ctg a + / (/ % /sin a)].

(2.6.25)


.
- [19].
[21 ].
'
.
8283

2.7.

(1.3.20) :
Jr +

[(/ +

= 0;
(2.7.1)

Ch

<3

U~dicJr S 'd x ===~ + " 1" 1 (2.7.1) (2.2.2),


:
# + [ ( - * - + ) ] = 0;
dt

dt

dt,

Ch

die

\ \

(2.7.2)

2 +

,
,
Ch/a2. ,
, . ,
.
(2.7.1)
. = h +
[12]

gaH \

- In \( 1 - ~
2 )
a (x ut) H ------g
bhu
)

const.

(2.7.3)

Ha ~ ,
. ()
(. 2.29).
,
. ,

(1.3.20). , [12], < 0 (
) , (1.3.20) .
, 0
, . . (1.3.20) :
1/,

> Zq,

l/z0, < z 0,

(2.7.4)

2 .
,
(. 2.29)

\u\<^agz0/Ch.

(2.7.5)

2.


, [ 12] .
,
(2.7.1) .

. 2.29.
[12].
, .

.
(2.7.1) :

du/dt + g dt,/dx == ;
# + < > 0 '

(2 6 )

6 ",
, < .

. 2.30.

.

Vwtga).

*0

0,5

1,0

1,5

bg/

(2.7.6) (h = )

= R e { f e / [ ( l - ) V l S r ] *''}

(2 7)

,
. 2.4, :
/ = . 2 V 2 LR/l exp ( LR/(ga)).
84 85

(2.7.8)

,
, ,
.
(^ ) :
- - ^ - V ^ T 6

= V i^ /S .

(2-7-9)
(2.7.10)

, ~ 10_3 -1, % ~ 1 , ~ 10-3 g MaKc ~


- 10g0.
(2.7.8) g*/go :
Lr/X ga/ ( 2 ) ; . 2.30. ,

.,







.
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,

.

[17, 63,
107 .];
[9].

, ,
.

, 6 ,
-, ,
, .
.
,
, ,

___
.
.
3.1.

3.1.1. . QT= { (, ) X [0. }

L () = 0;
86

(, , 0) = 0,

(3.1.1)

-
U'.
- 2 = { X k ^}
= (, ) , k = , 1, . . .
. . . , /At, = = . Q

.
(3.1.1)
.
w * ( x ) , ,
= {xm = m , Ay; , , 1, 2 , ...} ,

w () = w ( + , );

w () = w (, + ).

(3.1.2)

( P f ) = v i ( x + l,A x , + ^ ) ,

i 2 = 0, 1 , . . . ;

.
(3.1.1)

G1w ft+1 = G2w \

(3.1.3)

Gv, v = 1, 2

i
GV= Z A ^ P ,

'= 7*7*

i = {iv j 2)

(.4)

; = (, t, A, At),

, G\
. GT1= E , (3.1.3)
, .
Go = G r 1G2, (3.1.3)
,
:
w ft+ 1 = G0 (AOwft,

k = 0, 1, . . . , [/At],

(3.1.5)

, G
L, u(x, t)

u (, t -j- At) = G0u (x, t) + (At)
(3.1.6)
A^^-0.
w k u
u
w (,
).

3.

, - . ,
0 (, ^ ) (, t),
M(t), [0, t], ,
^,
[| u (, t At) - G0u (x, t) If< AtM (A + At&) ' (3.1.7)
( 2 ,^
Qr, W2

).
(, t);
.

.
,
:
[ |G X ! < C ||w l ,
> 0 , k, At.
R(t )
w ,

(3.1.8)
(3.1.1):

I Gw ~ R(k At) w J> 0

u(t) Ru.
(3.1.9)

-k At 1, At -> 0.

: ,
,
.

, , .
(3.1.5)

G (s) Fwk\

G~

Aje16*,
(3.1.10)
i
F ; j = (jb j2); 0 = (0i, 62); s = (sh s2)\
0! = Si Ax; 02 = s2Ay, A j ^ Aj^. G(s),
( ),
G
w .
(3.1.10) , G0 = F~lGF, . . G0 G
(3.1.8)

||Gfe||< C ,

k = l , 2,..., kA t^ T ,

, , k, At.
88 89

(3.1.11)

G ^
IIG =={ (G*G)}1/2,
(3.1.12)
p(G*G) , . .
G*G.
IIG 11= max 1

| = .

* < lie* (s)ii ^ i i G W f ,

(3.1.13)

, ,
. , (3.1.11),
G

| 1 + "0 (At).
(3.1.14)

. ,
(3.1.13). .
, :
G*G = GG*; (G*G ),
(G = G*) (G = G*) .

. . [63]. (3.1.1)
;
.
Go(x)
(G ). , Go 2,
I M G (s |< l6| ,

= 1, 2, . . . ,

| 8 | < 2 ,

(3.1.15)

> 0 s. Go 2-
2 1 (
2 2), Z-2 [107].
p(G ) = 1
Go , .

[75].

' (,.
0 (A)
. ,
, .

+ 2 , /, = 0
i

(3.1.16)

>4/ ==<-1) [. . (11*) 0 ]


, :

3.

/j = -1 ( }) w;
Aj AW [. . ( 2;) < 0 ]
: // ~ -1 ( { ) w. / , / =
= A'p + <2) ,
,
[1, 90].

= /,
.
dx/dt =
= , ^ const
(:
).

, G0 , (3.1.11)
:

\\Gk(x, s ) ||< C ,

k = l , 2, . . .

(3.1.17)

.2. .

(3.1.18)

/dt + / + / = 0,

(3.1.19)

, F, G, . .
.
(3.1.19)
;
.

:


.

[87, 95, 107 .].

, ,
,
9091

j
i
j
,
!
I

, ,
.

w ft+1 = w ft_I ( + ) w*,


(3.1.21)
8,
,
w .
, ,
,
.
, (3.1.21)
, (3.1.19),
: w* _= pft { (s tm + s 2nAj, =
, Sj, s2 . (3.1.10)
pft+1, pfe
G.
G- ',
X.

3- 2'+ ~ 1 = 0 ,
(3.1,22)
.
, , w
( ), 3 4%2c2 (sin 2 0! + sin 202),
0t = siA,
02 = s 2A. A i = 1,

, .

c A if /A < l/V 2 .

(3.1.23)

w
= 3 4 %22(sin 2 0i cos 2 02/2 - f sin 2 0 2 cos 2 0i/2)
.
, , = 1,
w .
,
max {, (4), MB)} < 1 , .

(3.1.24)

(), () .
, -,
,
,
.
, , ,
,
[126].

3.

(3.1.22), 3
c2x 2 (sin 2 01 + sin 2 0). :
= 1 ,|2) | = 1
^ / < /2 .

'

(3.1,25)

- : At/ ^ 2.
, .
,
/ 2 .

. , -
, -
Wm = ( 6+) Wml

Wm+1= y [\Vm + (. ~) Wm] (3.1.26)



w i +1 = ( - { /16 + ^ 226 +6 ~ ) w L

(3.1.260

x -|X i|^ 1, Jw
, | ^ i | = 1 6 |0 |4, . .
.
[133] ,

w * + ^ ! ( L ^ + V , * ) w fe

(3.1.27)

w*+> = Ly (At/2) Lx (At) Lg (At/2) w \

(3.1.28)

Ly(At/2)
, . - {(), ( )} ^
^ 1, (3.1.28), [ ( )|^ 1,
x |V ( 5 - ) |^ 2 .
.
(3.1.26)
0(At2,A2) . (3.1.28)
.
At < Atx, (3.1.28)
w &+i = Ly

Lx (At) Ly (- -)* w ft,

At = Atx ,
Atx/2Aty [58].
,
,
.
,
,
9293


. (At2, 4),
[107],

wk+l = wk- l - % ( A&~x + B&~y)vrk,

(3.1.29)

@~z = 8 (2 7 1) (1 2), = (, ).
(3.1.22),'
= 3 %2c 2 [sin 201 (8 c o s 0 ])2 + s i n 202 (8 c o s 02)2]

^ / ^ 0,53.
(3.1.30)

, -, .
,
(3.1.30).

, , ,

[107].
,

-.
, ,
.
0 ( Af1, 4)
,
(At2, 4) (At, 4),
,
.
3.1.3.
.
2 (3.1.3) , Q,
w -> w fc,

Q= qkN ,
q(r ) ,
w . At
. Q.
, k ^ | ^ i | ' -1,

. , = 0 ( 2 ), = 0 (1 0 )
' At .

, rN .
Q = 0 (N 3), q = 0(N 2), . e.
' ,
.

3.

Gi
(3.1.3)
q, N.
.

Gi

G^, G(2) , -

G[l)w
O(N) . w ft+1
;
O(N),
.
(3.1.19)

w ft+1 = w * - (aw fe+1 + (1 a) w fe),

= -^ - (6* + ),
(3.1.31)

1. a = 1
, a = 1/2
.
(3.1.31) = 1/2 ,
. ,

At -j- At2j2 +
u ft+1 = uk +
+ 0( ^ ) u *+1 = * +
u^.

(3.1.19), :
uft+1 =

_ Jd_ [{AUx + B u ^k+1+ { +

+ 0

+ 6) ( + ^ 8) w *+1 =

( -

\ ) { -

- 8) w*.

(3.1.32)
,
,
9495

,
:
(i? + -J- 6, ) w* = ( - ^ ) w ft;
(3.1.33)

( + ~ B 6ff) w 6+1 = ( J 6* ) w*.


G = [ ( + -i- ) ( + -|- / )]" ' [ ( ~ ')

' 5 ) ]

A ^ A s in O j; 2 f = B s i n 0 2; Qj = SjA, / = 1, 2. G*G = E,
.
(3.1.32)
[22 ]
( + f 6) w* = ( - % - 8) ( - f 6,)
(3.1.34)

[132]. w*
.
5^wft+1/2
' (3.1.33),
w* (w ft+1 + w ft)/2 0( 2)
[83].
w* = (w* + w ft)/2 , (3.1.32)
.
. (At2}
, ,
[( 1 )/, ( + 1 )Af| [49 ].
,
, .
, ,
.


- .

- ,
.
6.2.3.

.

, ,
, . .

3.

.

, - (3.1.26)
. .
, :

S~M S = A
(3.1.35)

R~lBR =
S, ,
, :
,
, (
s = v r
V2

"

'

/ / /

( - * '

/ /-

(3.1.36)

,
:

0 (

{ + \\)

= \

' '

4 -( -i i)

+ 0

:
= SA aS ' 1= 5 ( + A J ) 5 ' 1= S A j S -1 + SA JS~l = + + ~.
(3.1.38)

( + | |) /2 =

( | |)/2 = 2 = = + ,

= = , :
/
+ = |

^2/2
0

\ 2/(2)
/
-=

/ 2
0

\ - 3/(2)
9697

0
All

2/ ( 2) \

01;

2/2

0
AJ,

/(2 )\

/2

,
/

: = + -\-~,
B+ RAb, R ~\ ~ = RAbR~1. Xbi = {v + I v |)/2 , %2 =
= = + ; XIi = ( I | )/ 2 , = , = , :
/ Xbi/2
5 +=

\ 0
/
5

=1

2/2

2/(2) I;

!{2)

2/2 )

/2

%/(2)

/(2)
/2


(3.1.34) 6+, -
(3.1.38), :
[ + -|-( + - - 1- A~ 6 +)]w* = q>ft.

(3.1.39)

( + \ +6-) ( + \ -6+) w* = q>*.


w*
w** = q>fe;

( + - |- - 6 +) w* = w *\ (3.1.40)

-
. (3.1.34)
6+.


F (U ), G (U ) (3.1.18) . , G*
,
(3.1.19).
, -
F, G , . .
F = ;

G = BU,

(3.1.41)

A = dFldU, = G/dU [132].


, ,
(1.2.9). , F, G
2 = g H , c2 = c^ = const,
U , ,

F = F + + F";

G = G + - f G"

(3 .1.42)

3.

'( ^ 2 const), ,
aFVd.U, dG ^ dU . , .
(1.2.9),_ (3.1.41): = 5 -1, B = SBS~l; F * = S A *S~ lU, G =
= 5 B S _IU,

) \
F* = - i- ( H c)l
V
j;

G* = -^r(v ) I (v c ) H j .
(3.1.43)

(3.1.18)

'

w ft+I = w fe_ - ^ - ( (5;cF ft+1 + ^ F ft + a 2/G fe+1 + <5i,Gfe).

(3.1.44)


, ,,.

F fe+1 = F fe + A (w ft+l w fe) + (2);
G *+1 Gk -\-B (wft+1 - w &) -I- (2)

( -45)

Awft = w * 1'1 w ft, :


Awft+I+ ~ -f- &x (iA w ft) + y (BAw*)] = -M (d xFk + dyGk).
:
( + - X *) [ + ^ & ) Aw* - ~ { + dyGk)
(3.1.46)

( + ^~) Aw* = <pft;

+ ~ ) Aw* = Aw* (3.1,47)

, Aw*
WA+ 1 = Aw* + w ft.
(3.1.43).
[141].
(3.1.44),
(3.1.45), Ft , G*
(3.1.43)
, .
,,
8^
9899

F, D = = E + 2T i

2.

DZ F = 4 - ( 4 - 2-1 + 4 - T~2) F = F , + (A2);


(3.1.48)

^ F = -1 ( -

+ 2 - \

T2) F = F* + (A2).

(3.1.43) (

F
), :
4 - ( 6*"F+ + S+ F -) = ^

6,F - - ^2( S + 6J ) [

V | = F* + (),

6+ 6 : 6+ 6 = 2+
2 $ * U =

U +

( 2)

-1

~ - ( O T + + >+F~) = j - [ , - -lr (2- J - 2)] F +


+ ( +")2^

j = F^ + 0 (A 2),
4

(+6~)2 = 2 + 6 4~1+ 2;
A- 4(6 +6 - )2U = Uxxxx + (2).

,

K(2)U ^ , (2) /2,

^,
= 3/4 .
,
,
:
Aw* + \ {[ - (F?+I + F?) + Ff] + ,, \- (G?+I + G?) + 0 |] } = 0;
(3.1.49)

4 -^ 2
F ,=

G ,=

gH 2

V v

3.

, , ,
(,
,
,

uk+l ^ uk _ ^ . w \ ^ +i _ _ ^ U6xUk.

xuk+\

,

8 4" (2 - /) + 4 - (1

= ,

= 1 + 2 2 sin 20 , co = >cC/sin0 , :
1 2 = " +

1(

+ -/2 + q2', = ~2(4 2 4); q='A(aa~z(a 1).


. 3.1, 3.2 | -i | , ||
k U = 1,5 xU = 2,5. %U > Gr
U/l

. 3.1. |-(0) | , |,2(0) I V.U = 1,5


,

1) = 1 ; 2) = 2 ; 3) = 5 ; 4) = 1 0 ;

5) = 2 0 .

( > ), \%2\ > 1 , U <.


. [124];

.
100101

. w = ( U, V, ), ik ^
- . (3.1.49):
( + - j 4 f l je) ( + -J-Ba 1, ) w k+1==f ,
/0

-0 2\

= |
;
4
0 0/ ,

/0

' (3=1.50)

0\

5 = 1 0 0 2 .
4 0 1 0 /

'

'
( + ^

6* )w * = ffe;

( ^ + - j B d 1,)w * + 1 = w * .

(3.1.51)

* ,
U*, ,
*, 1/*.-

. 3.2, |- 0 ) |, j2() | = 2,5


.

1)

=1;

2)

= 2 ; 3) = 5 ;

4) = 1 0 ; 5) = 2 0 .

fe+1
Vk+l,
ft+1, Uk+1. 6

.
,'

.
.

,
/, /

3.

0 ( 4).
-
[115].
3.1.4.

.
.

^
-

+ = 0 , < < , , t ^ 0 ,
(3.1.52)
(, 0) = isx
(, t ) = eis<-x~ct\ . . uq =
eisx t ct.
\u(x,t)\ 1, ^ 0, set.

(3.1.52).

+1 = *- 1 y.c6wk
(3.1.53)
* = 1, 0==sA

+1 _1 + 2ip sin 0 = 0,
= ,
k

CiPl

c%p2,

i, c2 , a pi, p2
. [
G (3.1.53)
* = *-1]
2 + 2ip sin 0 1 = 0.

Pi52 = ip sin 0 (1 2 sin 20)1/2 = cos to sin 0 , =


__

sin 0

-i- arctg {l_ p2s.n2Qy/2 ,

. e. pi ei(a, p2 == eia,
(3.1.53)
icak . / <\k
I'afel imQ
,k, =
[cxe
+ ( 1) c2e \e .
- ;
2
,
. ^ = 1(0-*>
At
^

- a = - a rc t g ( V i ^ ; sein !e ) .

(3.1.54)

(3.1.29)

WU
m X= '---- g- [8 (+1 Wm-l) (wm+2 ~ 4-)]

(3.1.55)

w ^=yikeime
Hft+1

-J- 2iAp\xh= 0,

= sin 0(4 c o s 0 )/3 , At


% -= -a r c lg (V |^

v ).

(3.1.56)


G. ,
w ^ = eis(m.A~ckAt)t w k+i e - i s c _ e_
.
IG0 1==1;

. G0= e~iscAt = eiA]

])0 = cs At = A r g (G0) = arctg

G
|
' ' ' .
G= | G|

= | G|

= arctg . .

(3.1.57)

, |G | ''
, /' .
.1 (3.1.26) (
- w*)
G3 = 1 2 (1 4- cos 0) ip sin 0,
| G3 1

1 p < 1
|>8= - arctg ^-j

P 0 wy

(3.1.58)

. (3.1.31,

= 1)
w%+1 =

(3.1.59)

(3.1.31, = 1 / 2 )
4 = + t G41^ 1> -4 = a rctg( s in 0);

1 i (p/2) sin 0
1 + i (p/2) sin 0

j ,
,
i
1 G5 I 1. ~

a r c tg '

i
1-

P sin 0
(p2/ 4) sin2 0

(3.1.60)
Y

(3.1.61)
, ' . > 0 -

3.


[ _ 1)*+1 + 4 - ( 2 - 1 + m-2)ft+1]
(3.1.62)
= 0
, |3 = 1
.

(3.1.63)
G7 = [ l + . - f ( l - e - <0> (3 - * - ) ] *,

| < ? , |< 1

(3.1.64)

( 03):
0 = csA^ = i|5o,
i = 1, 2, . . . , 7. '-
. . 3.3, 3.4 ,

. 3.3.
'
.

0,5

1 ; 2-;
3 .

82/ '

= (" /
2/0 .

0 , 0 = , . .
"2. ,
.

. 0
, . ., ,
.
|G r|,
. 3.5, 3.6 , . 3.6
%- = | G;(Cr) | / | G;|cr=i.
0 ,
104 105

,
,
.

. 3.4. ]>
.
/ ;
(), ) = 1 ; ) = 5 .

2;

. 3.5. |G ( 0 ) |
.
/ ; 2 - - , = 0 ,9 5 ;
3 ,
= 0 ,5 ;
4 ,
= 0 ,7 5 .

. 3.6. | G (0) |
= 1
( 1 ;
2 ;
3 ());
()

( 1 ;
2 ).
/ ) 0 = /2 (L = 4); )0 = /20 (L = 40).

, ,
, (,
, At

.

3.

. 3.7
= 0,05, = 25.

. At = 0,1, = 50 3i%.

/*

1) A i = 0 , 0 5 i ,

=25;

2) * = 0 ,1 ,

=50.


(3.1.52) u^ = exp {0,01533}
. 3.8 , .
"
.
3.2.
3.2.1.
.

.
.

.
;
.
,

.

" ,
-.

,
;
.

: () 106 107

. 3.8. .
, = 0 ,5 , = 2 8 0 < ; / : 2 ;
3 ; 4 ; , /) = 1 ,0 ;
II) 2,0. 1 ; 2 , ;
3 (2); 4
(); 5 .

3.


G (s). G0,
-*-.
.
Ai = p(G)
(3.1.13),

.
G (s)
, Go
G (s).
,
[17], .

.


, :
Wm = {A|1,

IK 1i f E 1'|2 <
m

(3.2.1.)

jj, ; "('(1), (2))



[17], ,
[97, 106] .
(3.1.14)
Go, {G 0 (A)}
. {G 0(A)}
, 0, > 0
< 0 ,
|| G0 (A) w Aw || < s || w ||
. ,
G0 (A)
, |0 | > 1 . , (3.1.11)
-> 0 T/At^-oo. ,
,
Go ()

| |< 1 .
(3.2.2)
[17].
, ,
: | | ^ + (0>
.

- .
108 109


,
,
Go (),
.
[106],

, /-
(3.2.1),

(3.2.1)
11.1> 1.
(3.2.3)

.
3.2.2.
.

, .
, [97, 106].

- .

.
(3.2.1).

*
( n - G 0H m = 0, \:<=12
,(3.2.4)
| | |> 1. ,
|,0 , , , w = \1 ^
.
(3.2.4)


X Cfif, = 0, - 1 ,
-1 + 1 ,
(3.2.5)
| / 1<
/ = const, /
*=

d et|fx G0 () | = 0.

(3.2.6)

| | > 1
, ,
, G0 .
, (3.2.6)
| | = 1 .
(3.2.5).
*
.

3.

(3.2.5)
, :

L () 0.
(, \,\^ 1, \ 1
,
det | L (|) | = 0 .

(3.2.5) ,
, 12.
{2 }
{2 } ,
d e t|L ( 1) | = 0 .
, jj. = 1
Go
Go
| j i | ^ 1, [ 1,
1
Go.


det | L (ji) | 0,

\ \> 1 ,

111.

(3.2.7)


0.
'

,
(1.2.18):

Wm+1 = Wm_1 KAdxWm,


( 0

= 1, 2, . . . ;

w = :( g ) ;
Wm = <pm;

k = 2, 3, . . . ;

= + 2.

(3.2.8)

q = u 2c\

po+l Yo<7o+I.


<7-,

(3.2.9) ^

6+<7*+1 = 0;

(3.2.10)

<7o+1 = q\-

(3.2.11)


^- w,
| , ^-:
( 2 1)1) = ( ^ + 1 ^ . 1),
110 111

(3.2.12)


1
I

= clPl + 22 >

(3.2.13)
(2 1) = ( 2 I).
[97]:
| , | > 1 | Pi | < 1, | | > 1- = , . . | | | = 1,

/ 2 ( 0 , ),
. (3.2.9), (3.2.10)

Ci YoC2 = 0 ,

c2(pi 1) = 0

(3.2.14)
(3.2.7) , .
(3.2.11),
c2 (n Pi) = 0.

| ( p i | > 0 | ( > 1, [ jx| = 1


(| = pi = 1 , 0 = ),
(3.2.7) (3.2.8), (3.2.9), (3.2.11)
.
, (3.2.8)
;
(3.1.31),
,
qk+i qk+i [
(3.2.11)].

-,
(3.1.27) (3.1.28). (3.1.26),
,
,
, qk+l ( ^ ).
[94]
(3.2.15)
qo 1 = qo + c fix "dt*^ q*o

(3.2.16)

, () (2).

, .
[96] ,
,
, .

3. .

. ,
0 ( 2) . -
(3.2.16), . . ,
[81],.
,
,

[86, 144].
.

3.2.3.
.

.
(.3.1.19)
207- =

{ 0 X [, ] } , Q 0 =

{ ^

, <

-_ + |^ = = 0 ,

+ (0,

<

};

, y,t<=Q0T>

(, , 0) = 0, , ^&>
,
0 = 0- (0, , t),

(3.2.17)
< <

/ > 0.(3.2.1

= 0
u(0,y,t). ,
, +;
~,
= 0 . ,

,
, 0 . (3.2.18)
, gH =
= 2/ 2 [. (1.2.14)] .
So'1ASo = A, S 0
,
; (3.1.36),
SoScT1 , .
u = S 0u (3.2.17)
So-1


0
; 1.2.4,
,1 = > 0 , Ai ^
. _
/ 2 ,
( v, / 2 ).

-
(3.2.19) ,
, J? S q 1BS q
, $ .


. metsnA;

cfif;

= /2,

(3.2.20)

| / | < 1

(3.2.1) [78]. ,
,

| | < 1 \ \^ 1, 1. | |[ = 1, | | = 1

fx(p).

+ - - -) ( + - - ) +' = 0 -

.) 0 -

6 )
(3,2.21)

Wm, ( )/V 2 ,
. . < 0.
0.

+ = . + wtn1

(3.2.22)

wo,+n = 2wt n - wt n
wtn = 2wi n+1 - wtn+2>

(3.2.23)
(3.2.24)

,
. (3.2.20) :
( 1)2 = 0,
=1;
= 2 [iftp ~12, =
(j,fe+1 = 2 (10 |.6_ 122,

= _.

(3.2.220
(3.2.230
(3.2.240

(3.2.21)
[ 1 + j ( -1)] [ l + y bxi sin ] =
= l -j- ( ~ 0 ] [ l bxi sin 0 j .

(3.2.25)

3.

(3.2.22) | | = 1 ,
, = (). =
= 1 + , = 1 + , | | > 1
| | = 1.
, , L = 2, . . 0 = , (3.2.25) :
~ | | 6. , | | > 1
, 12,
. (3.2.23) .
, , 0 = , ^ =
,= 1 + , = .
(3.2.25)' /, | | , . . | , |> 1 == 1 /(\\).
, (3.2.24) | | > 1
| | < 1, . . 12.
(3.2.24) .
,
(3.2.23), .
- '
,

.

(3.1.31, = 1) (3.2.19)
( l - f Y a6* ) (*

a <C 0,

(3.2.22) (3.2.24).

w^in = nk
n [ l / + - j a ( p P-I ) ] ( l + x W s i n 0 ) = = l ,

(3.2.26)

(3.2.27)

(3.2.22)
|j, (1 + %bi sin 0) 1
(3.2.28)
1

'
| jj,|. = (1 + b2s in 2 0 ) - 1/2. < 0 < |[ |,< 1
. 0 = 0 0 = = 1 + 8,
= 1 + , > 0, > 0 (3.2.27) = |-|, . .
.
(3.2.23)
(3.2.24).
,
(3.1.49)
.



.

.
114 115

(3.1.49).
.
w J + T A A w * = <Pft
.
Aa = . S - A ^ = (
S - 1A> = Aa,S -1

w = ( r ) :

^ =

_ J :

) (3,2,29)

J ) , (3.230)

S -W ; + A AS - 1d*w* = S - y .
.
t ~ ( c - lU)t - R , - (c~lU)x} = (2 - - 0*
(3.2.31)


( U/c), U*
, (3.1.51),
. ,
(3.2.32)
Yo= (?2
0 (U/c)l. ,
, Z*m<n, = 1 ,2 , . . . , 1
,
U*. , ,
( )
= % ^ 5.
(3.2.32).

(3.1.51) ,
(3.2.32), 6+ 6+go,
U*
w* (/*, *).
, ,
, (3.2.3) (3.2.23),

[144]. ,
,

o + I= f +1; |?+1 25*+*
(3.2.33)

.
( ,= 2 /% (
) ,
Off
(, t) = go sin (/) cos [2 (L x)/A,]/cos ;

(x, t) = g0 V g /h cos (/) sin [2 (L x)/K]/cos

3.


(3.1.50)
. >
*
*. L / % = 1/2, ^ = 0 ,0 5 ( = /20) = 15
. 3.9.
;

/?

tho

. 3.9. A t = 0,05, = 15.

3.2.4.
.. (3.2.7)

, .

. , ,
,
.
,

[97, 144]. , [ (3.2.16)]
, .
(3.2.11)
^ .
(3.2.15) .
(3.1.31, = 1)
(3.2.10) (3.2.16).

, (3.2.24),
, .
( , ) 0Q

-
, dQ.
.

Q

, Q. ,
,
Q*. ,
, Q*
*. ,,
,
,
, .
,

[15, 116,.
138].
4.1
, , ,
.

. 4.2
'
.
4.1.
4.1.1.
. \, 2, 3
E z.

/

V = %l (xu 2, 3), i = l , 2, 3.
(4.1.1)
(4.1.1) , . .
I = <(\ I 2, %6)/( 2, 3) .
, ,
ZK ,
\ k {i, j, k
= 1, 2, 3; i^j=k), ^-;.

117

4.


= const, = const
1^-, '
,. ,
;
.
(4.1.1)

(4.1.2)
/ = / -1 = ( % )/{\?, 2, 3).
i, j, , Xi, 2, 3. = \ + ) + zk =
= ,12, 3).
(4.1.3)
= drldV,
^'-,
. ( 2, 3)

. 4.1.
. *

|*-
(. 4.1).
, : e i(e 2 X 3) =5^0.
.
( ,.3)
( 1, 2, 3),
(4.1.4)

., , ,
.
: ( / * ) , ,
(4.1.4). :
= [- (/ X e*]~' = ^
118 119

I Vo I , 2)>
3. ,
} X efe
X
(4.1.5)
(/ X )
F0
t, /, & 1, 2 , 3.
< :

_
X
X
^ Q-,
(' *)
1F0
(
'
| 1^ | ,
eJ', *.
(4.1.1) *,
:
^ik ~ QXlk +
+ K Zlb ~
=
( = = , 2 = 3). (4.1.4) ,
(4.1.1) .
= ? .

(4.1.7)

= ^- * = Vg* .

() ,> ( ) . U , Ui
.
1 3, :

u = Ulet\ = /.

(4.1.8)

Ul = u e V Ul = nei.

(4.1.9)

(4.1.4)
U, Ui :
.
(4.1.8) ,-,

= Uk (6); ue! = - /fe(ee*).
;* = g**, = gik, (4.1.9)
:Ui = gikUk-, 1= ^ .
(4.1.10)
gik ( gik), i, k \, 2, 3
, G =
3
(-.
ds
, (4.1.1).

4.

' - dr,
'

- f d%\
(4.1.8)

ds2 \dt f dr dr = t,idll efedft = e d%t

dlk (4.1.11)

ds2= glkdll df-, ds* = gik dltdlk,

'

:.

(4.1.12)

d\i , d%1
dr, a gik, g l!k -
G.
' "
-
+ |; ": s2 =
=
" = dr'
dr dr':
.

____
0 8 - | | . | . * ' |

tidll-4 b%k
d s6 s

gikdmik

d sd s

(4.1.13)

gik
. g'-,
dl2 = dl3 = 0, (4.1.12)

dst= ^ g n dl1

(4.1.14)
-

ds2= V 2 2 dl2\ ds3= '\/ga3 dg.


;*.
(4.1.13), (4.1.14)

^-

cos q>ik 1
Su

(4.1.15)

, V ff/i

, a gik
.
gik = 0 , i .
-
.
: = ainen. , (4.1.4) : gik = aik. -/
, :
7 = glk4l

* =

= / = gkgineken = gikginbkri = gikgik.


- 120121

(4.1,16)


gll &12
IIf t / =

^13

g 21 g2 2 g23
g3l gZ2 gss
y l l g-12

I g u 1 il =

t-21

g-13

(4 .1.18)

g22 g.23
g 2 g33

Aik i-
llgi/ll; Ai, k /-,
j, i, /, k =
== 1, 2, 3. gikAik = g, gikA,k = 0.
(4.1.17), g: gikAjk = gbij. , gik =
= Aikg~\ :
g im = g _1 (gjngkp g/pgkn),

(4.1.19)

( t ,/, k f, (,,)
1, 2, 3.
. .
(4.1.17) , gg = llg^g^ll = 11/|[= , . .
i = g - '.

.(4.1.20)

gik = e teft == | *,


_2 ,__ 2 __ 2
(4.1.21)
g = J ; g= J = /
(4.1.3), (4.1.7)

/ = | 0| = ;(;-X eft), / = | Wo\ = (> *) (4.1.5),


(4.1.6)

= g~1/2(X *); * = g112(1X efe).

(4.1.22)

, (4.1.19),
-
/ , / ,
( *)7 = dXj/dl1; (); = ^/,.
(4.1.22) :

1{

(4.1.23)

4.

(, /, k), ( , , ) .
a mi, bmi
/ , /;
(4.1.21)

'

' , I = II/, | = IIdxjdg 11= / -1;


/ = || d

x jd g f =

|| d l'/d X j 1=

.

. : < = 1',
= 1 , 2, 3.
s :
g l k -

dr

dr

d%i ^

c ir k

\1
dx\

dxi

\
dx 1 ^

. 2 2 . %
-t- d l i d l k , ^ - d l t d l k -

/&

\1d t
d x 2 < 3x2

. gik = 0
guUt, . .
gii =

^ l g il\

,
_ r

d x 3

(4.1.10):

d t

dr

< *

Ui = gaUi, U1

g ug22g3i\

f d xi\2 . / 2\2

5 1 .-

(4.1.27)

.,. .

. ^ = = ) 2 + 2 2 ( ^ 2 + 3)2; .
dr

u;

( dx%

\ 2

, ,

' '
,

( 4 -2 9 )

i / ga I |,

-
| !'-, .
^ , ; = Vg! =
= dr/dt = ?. (4. 1.4) = 1, = ?\ = 1.
hi
.
______
,
= = /2+ 2,
= = arctg (y/x), l 3 == /z; cos , sin qp, z = z\ r = ip cos +
+ jp sin -f- kz.
= dr/dp. =
= i cos + j sin , e 2 = <3/ = p ( i sin + j cos ), e 3 = drjdz k.
, : ' 1 ei | = | 3 1 = 1,
t 2 1= , , (2 X 3) = , 1 = p_1 (2 X 3) =
.; g u = 1,
22 = 2. = 1, . . 1 = 3 = 1, 2 = .
4.2.
. 4.1.2.1.
122 123

; . x(V )
; (4.1.3)
(6') = _!L_ = i L

I ,-
(4.1.14): |dr/dg*| = v W

(4.1.30)

dll

( 4 ' ' 3 1 >


^-
, ;, *:
. ( eW

\ ^1 > ^x -%M ) J L
1 ! - 4d t- J 1-

(4.1.32)
V
'

(4.1.5) : n^^ = e!'| |_1 = e l/ V g ^



( ^ )) =

(U V F " ' =

-F=f=W g li

(4.1.33)

; (4.1.19)
g ii = g - l (g..gkk g2fe) (4.1.24)
(4 3 4 )
4.1.2.2.
.
. (4.1.8 )
Ul: = [/.
V

<,/<' = *,
(4.1.35)


II . (4.1.35), :

du/dl1'= (d&ldl1.+ 1
1 ) .

' (4.1.36)

.U1= dUl/dV + TlkjUk

(4.1.37)



U .

u Ui (4.8).

div u = V = .Ul = dU{/ d + .

(4.1.38)

4.

, (4.1.35) :
| = .?

(4-1.39)

I
, //;
, = & 4 ; ?, = , 1(.
(4.i.40)
(4.1.17).
/* = gik | :

^ J d l i -{-4 dtjjdt = d g J d ll = giJ l + gkJ ^ Y L

+ 1
(4.1.41)

(4.1.18) ,

. (4.1.19), (4.1.40),
(4.1.41), :
Og _ dg dglk _
dgjk _

d$l dgjk dgl


dt
= SSik ( + r fc ,,) = g (*, + },) = 2gTlr
,

4.1.2.3.
. (4.1.38)
(4.1.42)
div = -=

/g |

( V ? U1) ,

(4.1.43)

U = . (4.1.10)
:
d i v u = - U - | - (gikUk /g).

(4.1.44)

div u
.
U*{ ,

Ut = UijHi = 1Hi.
, g = gng 22gs3 = (HiH2Hs)2,
div u = - I w
124125

+W -

+ W (* & )]

, , (4.1.29)

,
( V g e % - = 0.

(4.1.45)


()
[140].
/- , / = 1, -2 , 3:
*1 (/ ('),) = +
= 4 \-1 ^( / - ' i t ,)) = - ' I,( 1 , - %1
, )V
11
-i

, , , j 1:
{1\ \ 13)
!
( I 1, \*1 I 3)
(I1, S2, dV/dXj))

( 2, )

( 2, 3)

' ( x lt 2, )

,1

BXiXi
2
=*|
3
dXi

2
3

3
*

0X 2

I',
2

---- J ^ d X i X i

*3

__

2
TZ1
j 2 \

t 2

*3

s3

bXs

2
2
I
2

*3 *3
1 %

---I*.*! (jCl)|i *2*1 (-^2)^1 ~ i*3*i (3)


(*2);V 2

= [(* lV dxi

()| ' ] ^ +

_<L f i l l X 4-

J-

d K d x , J ~ r d l 2 \ d x J

- (*i) + .-I =

_i_ A _ f ilL X
^

d t3 KdX lJ-

dl1

(4.1.45')

d V d x,

(4.1.45)

d ivu = J J L u = V u,

dt

V = e

3V

(4.1.46)

4.1.2.4. . ( \ 5 3)
Ui^dCD/dZ,1.
V (4.1.46), (4.1.8) :
> = /|.
(4.1.45)

( /~

(4.1.47)

4.

?
Vcp: Ui = H7ldOjd&1
V<P
01 ^I
+
.
61
.
62
2

1 -

, a i1 1 1 2 |2 2 ^ 3 <?|3 .>


(4.1.29)

7 =

. 1 i . .

1^

4.1.2.5. .
2 = d iv(grad Q ) (4.1.43), (4.1.47)

v2 = v t ^ F 1 * ' ( < $ ) ]

(4'9>


.
. V -(A V ), =
= (*)
(4.1.50)
: gu = l/g.. = ~2
2 = ----- -------- 2 - Y W i

2 1{ \ |
dll )
, ,
-2{\
^

\ (
dp V

,
J

1
2

<

(4.1.50')

)
(

dz

dq>

4.1.2.6. .
.
^-

^/ = ^ - VO.

(4.1.51)

(4.1.32), (4.1.47)
=

i= 1,2,3.

. efe- ^ - =

(4.1.52)

| -

^! = <') VO

(4.1.53)

(4.1.30), (4.1.4), (4.1.47)

126 127

,fe

d t

(4.1.54)

4.1.2.7.

dQb ) | -
d Q ^ = \e ,X e k \dVdf.

(/ X *) (/ X ) = (/) (**) (^*)2

dQ(,) = [(, X *) (; X )]1/2 d'^dt =

1/2 dgdf.

(4.1.55)

, (4.1.18), ,

^'-.
, | |/
, . : | V01= /g J = e i (2 X
X 3).
dV = Jd l4 \4f.
(4.1.56)
(4.1.55) (4.1.56)


.
,
V
,-
:
^ div u dV ^ n u dQ,.

(4.1.57)


.
. . , == ,
, : divu =
jj V O W = jj nOrfQ.
v

u = , divu = 2, - f -, - = <5|i/dn
(4.1.57)
'S (2!! + .- Vn|))rfF =
v

,
,
.
4.1.3.
.
.
\ = , 2 =
g1 = i, g2 = rj

x = x{%, ]), y = y{l, r\)

(4.1.58)

4.

/ =?= $] %, 0 = # = / < ; ,
I = / _1.
,
, %3= =
= Z '\ d r / d g 3 = . ,
, ]-:
! = | = Xji +

2 = )=.:1 + /1-

(4.1.59)

, giu = ,-*,
:

= \ + 1> 22= 1 + *
^12 = 1 =

= -' = 1 ;

(4>60)

^13 == ^31 = ^23 = ^32 = -

(4.1.18)., (4.1.21) :

8 = ^ 1^22 - S i 2= j2>

(4.1.61)

(4.1.7), (4.1.22)
:
1= V | = -= (iyn } );

+ i*|)>

2 = Vrj =

8 ,

e3 = k.
(4.1.62)

[ (4.1.19)]
gik = :
g n = g ~ 1g22,

g a = 8 ll = g~1g iil gZ2= g~lgi i;


gl3==)?31==;:g23==g32 = 0>

g33 = i;
(4.1.63)

(4.1.62) (4.1.24) (4.1.25)


:
.
= J
=
/ ^x^,
\ =
/ j, / |. (4.1.64)
(4.1.12) 2

ds2= gn {dl)2+ 2gl2dU4 + gz2(d.r\f.
(4.1.65)
.
= (, v) (4.1.43), (4.1.62) .
( V i = -j=- {( vxr,)g + { + ojtg),,}.

V =

(4.1.66)

[ (4.1.46)]

V = ^=- {^% x^v% tun +


128 129

(4.1.67)

(4.1.48), (1.4.62)

= -^

[*

' ) + ^

2)] -

![( |,,) - /t),] 1 + [ ( - . ; + (*%),1 j).

(4.1.68)

*---[(])|
1

(4.1.69)

= - = [(:,)| (^|)].
(4.1.49) :

+ ^ f [ V i ( s 2,^

+ g ^ - ) ] }

<4X70>

(4.1.63)

{ [ ^ (felI>s ~ ' >] . + b f e (~ f o 5+ 1,>] J (4.1.71)

(4.1.52), (4.1.63)

= =

- !

W-I.72)

(4.1.73)

3ri

(4 174)

(4.1.54)
d<D(S) __ 1
dr
[Vgn %

~ _

4.1.4.
.

r = t,

(4.1.75)

i = 1, 2, 3, .
, / (4.1.1),
, . .

xi = xi (%i, %), t = x
(4.1.76)

/ = / -1.
: /<3| = *().

4.

- u (xi,t)
:
dt .,,,. +

V, , I3

dxi

du

(4.1.77)

i 1, 12, I3


, { (4.1.48).
= (, v, w )- . (4.1.77)
du

du

dt "

~W + (u ' V) U =

du

du

' u i ,

dn

du

dt

{ \
) .

du

(4.1.78)

Ux{ = U f + ,, . + u 0 0*..

(4.1.79)


(4.1.24), :
du

( US

Zg +

Zg

2,

2 , I/

U| U ue
_

-i

% \

Zg 2 Zq

(, , )

- 1

~~

(4.1.80)

(I, - 0)

- i

d (, , ) .
d (I, -n, 0)

du

(, , )

d z ~ J

d (g, -n, 0)

/ 1
I**1-0 1 *.

uXl (4.1.78), :

dt

4 -

+ ( %)

-1

( \ { ' ) (

(ri, 0)

1 d | L^

,,

< *

z)

*> (), 0) +

- L

d ( , z)

(, )

d(r)

(, z)
(V )

d ( 6, )

(W _ z \ (*> ) 1)
^
z*> (i, ri) J;

(4.1.82)

130 131

du

du dll

dt

dll

dt

(4.1.83)

dV/dt = U 1' :

u = u l = i t + t&x + rty +
V = U2= % + )* + + );
,

(4.1.84)

7 = /3 = 0<+ 0 + 0 + ;0.

. /? (4.1.82),
(4.1.83) , (4.1.24): (, z)/d(x\, 0) = ,
(, )/(, 0 ) = 21 . ., :

'U \
V 1=
.W )

21 3 l \ / w
,2 22 32 JJ

(4.1.85)

\ 1323 a33J \ w zxJ


11 21

3 1 \/* \
12 22 32 I \ ]
13 23

(4.1.86)

3 3 /\2 /

, zq= 1, = =
z% = z^ = 0. (4.1.78)
(4.1.80), (4.1.81)
du
dt ~

. ,

= / ^( U | u ^ j ) ;

Uy =

. , .
^ ;

(^:^

u^Xg).

(4.1.87)
(4.1.88)

^ = ^

+ J~i { [ ( u - x %)y^ ( v - y x)xn] - ~ +

+ [ ( ) y%+ (v ) %] --} .

(4.1.89)

V r\i

(4.1.83)

+ \ + oily
(4.1.89)

U = J [( ) y^ (v ) x j ;
V = / -1 [ ( ) (v ) \

.
s< = /

>
" )>

r\t = J~l (x4yl %).

4.

4.2.
4.2.1.

. (1.2.1),
2(t) 2 ( 0 :
d . u + A u + B-F n ^ i f ,

(4.2.1)

<3Qi &2
rt-U = : ;

, ) - = ^ ( 0 . .

(4.2.2)

, .
Q:
1 = 1{, , t)', = ] ( , , t), x = t,
(4.2.3)
I = (^,)/(, ), 0 1< . . ,
J = 1~1.
(4.1.89), (4.1.66)

. .

+ +

, 7 dv . ', ^

+ 1 ' ( ^ 7 ) = ' !
.

W + u W + y - d t + J

' ' '

- ~ ) ==(2

== J *[(^ ^t) \ (
)
V = J~l [ (u'--xx)yl (v y1)xl].

..

H x + U H l + VH n + HJ~l ( ^%

+ vnx^) = 0.

[(4.2.6) |

,
,

! + [

y^ -|-+ \%\

^\"1\ == 0

(4.2.7)

C^Og ~I- ( :===

~f~ ^
i

(4.2.6), / ,
:
i k J H + - k J H U + i k J H V = 0132 133

(4-2-8)

% t, \ 1(, ), ] = {, )
(4.1.43)
div { ) = (JHU'1 \

v = (w, v), (4.2.8).



v: Ui = v -, (4.1.44):
/ + [J~lH {g22Ul - g M \ i + V~lH (gnU2- 12 = 0. (4.2.80

1~1 su

= s2;


:
{) = / +
/ \
/ U
u = J v 1; = | 0

\H j

\H Si

/ -1 1/5 = 1;

J~lx%= r2

(4.2.9)

(4.2.4), (4.2.6)

/1 + /\ = ((,
0
gsi\
/ V
0
U gs2 ; 5 = 1 0
V
Hs2 U
\ , 2 V

(4.2.10)
g r ,\
gr2 J.

.
go = const, r]o = const
* Q*,
(4.2.3). dQJ,
<?Qb
{, ) = const
v = (, v) : Vg-v = 0, . .
+

= 0;

) +

= 0

(4.2.11)

go {, ) = const, % (;, ) = const.



U, V (4.1.85), % = = 0.
<92*,
dQj V (, , t) = const, : + Vg*'v = 0, . .

h + ulx + vlg = 0; % + ur\x + = 0

(4.2.12)

g(jc, , t ) = const, )(, , t ) = const.



U, V (4.1.84), 0, % 0. ,

U 0 g = const;
/
V = 0 ) = const, +

(4.2.13


(4.2.5) U, V.
(4.2.2)
, ,
3.2.

4.


u L_ =

Lo*

(4.2.14)

.
4.2.2.
.
.
(4.2.1):
>
'
Q *-f F* + G,, = ,
(4.2.15)

( 2+ \ 2\
(
\
Q = |^ o J ; F = I
Huv
I; 0 = 1 2 + ^ ;

= .
(4.2.3) :
<?Q

dQ

~7

%{

dt

d F , %1
%1 d x i ~ '

/ = 1 , 2; Fi = F; F2 = G. / - ' ,

Q) 4

( r 'Q f ) +

' ^

(/ -, 0

' -

'

: ' % >

(4.1.45') = v = 0.
, (4.2.15)

(4.2.16)
e W ) + ^ r [ / ( Q f - + F , | 7)] = ./ .

dr '

' <?|l L V ' d t

/ Q = Q*;

/(Q g ,+ T g ,+ Gf,) = F V

(Qr)( + + G%) = G*

(4.2.16)
)

I.

d p * + J L G* :/ .
d
dr]

(4.2.160

(4.1.90)
j HuV

/JHuU + g H 2yn
J H v U - \ g H 2x^

T = l
V
134 135

JHU

G *= I

JHvV + g H %
JHV

(4.2.13),
(4.2.14).

. (4.2.1) v = ( u , v ) =
= |, i = l , 2 , :

<|'

j = 1, 2; U1 = U; U2= V. , VE; = ^ - 1 + Sn -2,


(4.1.37), :
+ W ( + Tlk/Uk) + g g l>^ = < .
JH
, (4.2.16),
U1, = JHU,
q = JHV:
+ { \ + (pV)n + g HJ ( g % + g % ) = / ( e 1 - Ul Ti p b );
qx +

+ (QV\ + g H J ( g % + g22Q = JH ( e2 - U'V 2


klUky,
(4.2.17)
JHX + P | + <7n = 0-


. ,
. 6.2.5.
, t / = v - v
,
:

+ (- - - + g -- = < ,.
\ \

1 ikJ ' s I 1

, , ,
(4.2.8) , ,
(4.2.13).
4.2.3.
L : .
L (4.2.10) SS
(4.2.16). , ,
F*, G* Q*:
A = dF*ldQ*, 5G73Q*. , L
,
= 5 -15;

B = S ~ lBS,

(4.2.18)

S = dQ*/du. (4.2.17),
S-1. (4.2.18)

4.

,
(4.2.9):
uU + gHsi
us 2
U + vs 2 vU + g H s 2
0
s2

U + usi
-^ L - - 1
< ~ ~~1

VS'i

Si

( 0
S = /l
0 0
dG* .

|
<3Q* I

\
v
1

- uV + g H r ,
V + x
2
vrt
V + vr 2 vV + g H r 2
0
2
\

( ~
0
S~' =
J 1
'

uH~\

- 1 - -1
0

, .
= [/;
^, = 7 ;'

^ 2)3 = t / c s ;
AB2)3 = F ' c r ,

9 1^

c =='\/gE; s = (s?. + s l)1/2; = (2 + rl)m . S,



:
Y
S= |

ax

a /V 2

a /V 2

/ /2

| , (4.2.

0 h!(ca! 2) - / ( / 2)

a = Si/s, = Sz/s. :
,U
S -U S = = | 0
\ 0

0
U + cs

0
0

- | = .

(4.2.21)

U cs,

R,
, , a = r\/r, =
= / (4.2.20);
V
. / T 'B / f - J .

136 137

0
V+cr

= .

(4.2.22)

= 5 5-1, = R A BR~ X (4.2.10)

-l
<3/<? + S A aS 1du/dl + R A BR 1du/dr] = q>.
(4.2.23)

(4.2.10) ,
[1, 65, 132].
4.2.4.
.
Q = {0 ^
^ ^ L, h ( x ) ^ ^ 12()}
. ,
,
[7].

1

/,)//;

= t,

(4.2.24)

l = k 1\ / = 1() ,
Q 2* = {0 ^ | ^ L, 0 ^ | ^ 1}.
: g* = 1, gy= 0 , \ (ll]c + 1) =
10, = '

U = u,

V = t0u + r lv.

(4.2.25)

, (4.2.15)
/H uV + gH 40 \
HvV + j f g H Y

HV

1
J


= 0

: = 0; L;

V= 0

] = 0; 1.

(4.2.27)

4.2.5.
. 3: {,
= 6= Q,
^ z ^ (, , t); t ^ 0}
^

dt

V=

dxt

4-

r i = Kv xiy = 1, 2,

(4.2.28)

dz F 3

/ 2 + tfN
uv

[ = I

-h(x, ) <

uv
2 = ( v* + g H ^

3=

It + % + vty = w,

z = l,

(4.2.29) ^

4.


v = 0;
w 0 z = h ;
vv2 = t/p z = l,

(4.2.30)
(4.2.31)

S
Q.3
(V, = 1(5 (, , t),
, < = S
(4.2.32)

v |f=0 = v;

?1= = -

(4.2.33^

(4.2.28) (4.2.29) (4.2.33)


v
v, W,
3
(4.2.28) (4.2.33) ',
i = l, 2, 3; 0 ^
1, 3.
2* Q3
.

(, , z, i),

I* =

= /;

I= 1 , 2 , 3

(4.2.34)

(V = I, 12 , 3 = 6) / = {%, ], ) / ( , , z),
1 < . . (4.2.28) / - 1 = / , :

(/v ) +

( /V

\[ V

dt )

+ - - ( / ;
%1 \

1 dxj J

- v I
d X j)) = * + J(f
4- -^
dll \
dt Y
J] I- ,1A
%-1
\
(4.1.45)
dll \ d x } J

V.

dXj

d|

dXj J

/= = 1, 2, 3. ,
( ,- t).
d j / d t = d j / d x + d j / d ^ ^ d ^ / d t )[
. + (j
=

dl* \ dt J
dt

-flg* dt

= - /-1 ( 1 *!- - )
V
dt* dt J
(4.2.34")

, (4.2.28)

138 139

+
i = = U 2, 3 ;
31
; = / ( + & + 2| + p 3ij).

(4.2.35)
(4.2.36)


(4.1.84)
U 1= + + vVy +

(v, w)

(4.2.37)

(U 1 U, U2 V, U3= W) ) ?
/ uV + 2\ '
/ u U
+ % \
5 = . / | v V + c2
1 = / ( vU + ;
V U - h * /)
V V -
/ u W + c 2Qx \

(4.2.38)

5 = / l v w + c2ey .
V W -% )
(4.2.35):
(
^

d v ,

v dv .
\

dz V dz ) '

(4.2.39)

(4.1.50)

& = ~( 7J v i ( ^ u + vg*) + vn (Kg12+ v l X ) + ve (.Kg 13 + * M > +


+ i r ( 7 tv 5
+

2 + V|A ) + vn ( ^ 22 + VT + ve

tvi C ^ 13 +

+ VTl A ) ] } +

+ v , ( * + v tiA ) + ve (iC ^ + v0*)] },

g ik = V l ln k, i, 6 = 1, 2, 3, V = {d/dx, djdy). G ik =
=
+ (v d%lldz) d ^ / d z , :
d l1 \

(4.2.40)

(4.2.35)
Q3
^/',
J = (, y , z ) / ( 5 (|,], 0), (4.1.26)

-1 1
(4.2.41)
/
:
=

1-1

\
Zr) 0

= /

-1 \ &

. .

1 (4.1.86) [
xt = xi(\, ], 0, ),

4.

t]

\ ^ t
'* Z Zq
~

r l

z\

h
~ . xt
*

\
\
z \ Z4

z x Zs

%=

*8 x% xe
= / - 1 \ -
%
\

h = J

-i


(4.2.28) (4.2.29) (4.2.30).

dH/dt + V H ( v ) = 0,
(4.2.42)
t
":
(v) = H ~1 ^ \ dz. (4.2.34)

A F JH + yT JHU + - ^ J H V + - ^ J H W = 0,

(4.2.43)

U, V
<v>:
U = % + {u )lx + ( v ) l y-,
V = y\t -\-{u)r\x + {v)r\y\

(4.2.44)

i f = e, + <a>e* + <0>e,.
(4.2.35), (4.2.43) S*
U = V = W = 0,

= Si,

(4.2.45)


dv

<* jdz

=t/p;.

l l ( } , I, t),

(4.2.46)

51
(4.2.33).
4.2.6. .
(4.2.34)
.
,
, 5
, ) .
- S,
)-6
140 141

, . . 0 .
[8]
= 1(, );
1= ] (, ); Q (z + h)/(, + h);
x = t.
(4.2.47)
/ = /*, /* = \ ^ ,
(4.2.35),
(4.2.43)
/=
V ~ + mij,;
W = Qt + uBx + vQg + wQz;
(4.2.48)
V = {) l x + (v) ly,

V = <o) % + () .

(4.2.35)

-5*| 1./ / * _ 450 ^

= .

-s

. (4.2.34)

7-1 ____
1

_
*

~ ~

/-1

/~*

d0

<0

1
*.


!
2-1= .
(4.2.49)

as*
| = t]z = 0, 0 = -1 (4.2.40)

& =-- lJK te"ve + % + g 13v0)] +


+

[JK {g2\ + g 22v4 + g^vg)] +

+ I'* (s34 +A , +A.)].+-2Jr/v


(4.2.35), ,
- * + -^
| < 8 = = * + / >,
Ju\
/ u U + 2|* \

(4-2 -50)

/); QI==/( o/+ c%J;

' V +
Ql = J | VV + c \ I;

/ uW7 + 20*'
Ql = J \ v W + c %

4.

i, k = 1 ,2 , 3.

+ ^ 7 + ^ = 0,
U = :{u )lx +

{v )ly,

(4.2.51)

V = { u ) Tbr + ^ T V

^/,-
J (4.2.41), g ik
gik (4.1.19) ,
.
4.2.7.
.

s*; s {, , , ^ , . .
s* . s
, [,
, ,
, ,
[57].
W + Vsv +

= (V

s+ ^

v -g- + ,

(4.2.52)

w = w Wo.
Wo , . .
s*.

(4.2.52), / ~ /
w0s + v ds/dz 0,
z = (, , t);
v ds/dz = 0,
z = h( x, ).
5 = 5 X [,]
CjS + ds/dn |Sr =

(Sr ),

(4.2.54)

Ci = const, !>! s* S t .
: s | ;= 0 = s.
Q3
(4.2.47)
I = 1(, );

\ = }(, )-,

0 = (z + h)/H;

x= t

I = d ( l , r \ , Q ) / d ( x , y , z ) , 0 1 < , I = - 1/*, /* =
= *% %- (4.2.5) / -1 = / , :

+ ~
%1 (w
v is)
142 143

JKsg lk -%
^) +

439
-
Jv

+ ' J*>

(4-2-55)
'

i, k=* 1 , 2 , 3,

V = ([, d/dy),

Ul = U = l x + Vl y;

U2= V = ur)x + vr)y;

U3= W = Qt + uQx + vQy + wQz.


(4.2.53) (4.2.54)
:
S'a = 0,
0 = 0;
(4.2.57)
WqS + H vs9 = 0,
0=1.
S, i 1, 2, . . 1, ^-
(4.1.52)
Cls -^= = (gils%+

+ g*%) = , (Si),

(4.2.58)

rfi 1

.
Q ( x , y )

(4-2-59)

i = 1, 2, dQ
c,s + dsjdn 1= '.

(4.2.60)


= 1{, )\

= \(, );

xt

(4.2.61)

I = (1,\)/(, ) = J - 1, 0 I <.
Q Q*, (4.2.59)

+ [ ' * ( * " 1 + ^ ) ] } + <.

U ti^,x -|- v%y /

()

vx^t

V = \ + vt\y J~l ( /| +
g " = (vi)2= r 2g22,

g 22= m

g l2= g 2l = v i : Vtj = . r

22=

1 +

2= r 2g n -,
2gi 2',

= 1 +

g \2= X%H + yly V

<.4.2.62)

4.
N

(4.2.60). , (4.1.72) (4.1.73) I - *

cxs -f ^j (g 22Sg gi 2Sri) = '(),

(4.2.63)

)-

I
C)S

( gias8 + gus,,) = (S),

(4.2.64)


(4.2.63) (4.2.64)
Q*, .

-
Q ( x , y ) 2
- , 2*.
= { <, ,}
= { , ^
= 1 , 2, . . . ,
..., ; = 1, 2,
N.
,

.
.
. .
5.1 ,
.
,
, .
,
5.2, ,
, .

,
, , .
5.1.
5.1.1.

. (, )
| ( , ), \ { , ) ,
,
,
, <3
(*.
,
,
, .

*.

145

5.


]
*
.
*
;
;

. 5.1.
Q 2*.


(. 5.1).
*

. , ,
.
,

. 5.2. Q
Q*.


<* (. 5.2).
,
, .

,
,
, ] .
,
.
146 147


& ^

=:

Oj

^ 1< ^ ^

V\xx ' == 0

(5.1.1)

*11 = '-

,
, . . 1, ri

. 5.3. ,
. . .
.

,
*.
,
.

(. 3.1.3)

5.

(, ]), / (g, rj) *


(5.1.1)

. 5.4. ,
.

, (5Q*. .

= (1,[)\ = (1,,
...
(5.1.2)
,
. 4.1.3 (5.1.1),
= (, ):
'
_
L () = g22 2 g 12r|T] +

= ,

(5.1.3)

g 22= 2 + \ = | |2; g l2= 5 + ^ = ; g n = x \ + y \ = \ , |2.


(5.1.3) Q*
rm, <3Q*,
(5.1.2) ;
. 5.3, 5.4 ,
(5.1.3).
.
148 149


, Q(p, )
( ,
).
(5.1.1) = (,])
- z + + _!_
2

2 52

(, )

aw r+2^

r+^wr=0


a = Sg + (P_ % )V P ^ ^ p + P ^ V -

Y = ^ + ( p - \ ) 2.

5.1.2.
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
(5.1.3) ;

. , . .
,
, , (5.1.1) :
V 4 = ( I );

V2T1= Q (g, -),

(5.1.4)

, Q -' [15, 138, 139]. ,


(5.1.4).
, . .
,
(5.1.2) , , ,
. 3.1.3 :
x u g 22J

I-

~ gV -tjV iT== (5.1.5)

/ = x%yv \.
(5.1.2), :
22J ~2 2z/|4g i2/~ 2 + !~2+ ^ + 2 = 0.

(5.1.6)

(5.1.6) :

= g 22r |5 -

2g l25 +

g nrm = ( + Qr^).

(5.1.7)

, Q ,
. -

5.

.
, ,
(I, 11) = Z at sign ( | i,) exp ( u I)

Z b, sign (g lj) exp ( d,R,);

(5.1.8)

Q (i, tj) = Z sign, (rj ]) exp ( ct | ] , | )

bj sign (ri /) exp ( - djRj)


37, 139], a, b, c, d const; R, = [ (g g,)2 + ( 1|, )] */2.
P ,- > 0
g = const gf-, '
bj~> 0 ( g ]/);
. , bi
.
(I 10 ( )
<- . Q .
(5.1.7)
, .
, |

. ,
[135].
(5.1.6)
(
P = J~ 2g 22p(Z, 11);

Q = J~ 2gn<l (I, )-

(5.1.9)

(5.1.7), * :
gsz ( + ) 2gl2rln + g u ( r ^ + ) = 0.

(5.1.10)


gi 2= x f y + ^ = 0

(5.1.11)

(5.1.10) q, :
22{ ^ - + ^) = - 2
(/)-

(5 -12)

, ] === 1, rj
g = const
.
d x / d y = ,//;
g = const
. (5.1.12) =
= \/% ' (5 .11), :
P = (xlx u + y lyll)/gu ,
150 151

4=1,

11 =

(5.1.13)

, , pm, n
, Q* , ,

Pm, = Pm, 1 " (Pm,N

Pm, l) jy_j

1, 2, . . ., N . (5.1.14)

,q
= 1, I = ,
] = const
,

==

'\\)/22> ? = 1)

g !,

(5.1.15)

qmi
,

\, + (., ~ \,)

| >== 1> 2, . . ., .

(5.1.16}

,
, q. (4.1.14) V& n
'
s 6
= ( | + /|)1/2 = | r g| = / ^ . :

8 =

(1+ y $ l$ N l h i
= S ||/S | = (In S6)g.

(5.1.17)

,
= const.
q

= const.
(5.1.17) (5.1.13)
s ll + Psl = 0>

(5.1.18)

, const
: s ~ ( |) .

,

. 2*: ] = 1, ] = N.

(. 5.5). ,
, ,,

.
,
, (5.1.10)
g u = 0,
I I2 ( +

PTi>+ 1 rl I2 ( + *) =

0.

(5.1.19)

5.

^,
g i 2 = | = 0, :
| ^|/1 r | I2

r i r rm/l |2

1 ' ||/[ )12

r,nr ii/l | I2'

(5.1.20)
(5.1.13), (5.1.15)

g = const, ) = const .

. 5.5.
,
.


.

, , q
. ) = const ^,

, ,,
- |
. = const
), ^,
. pv, qv v-
(5.1.14), (5.1.16),
(5.1.10) - pv+1, qv+l
(5.1.20),
[135, 139].
5.1.3.
, .
,
(5.1.7) (5.1.10) 2* - - j
dQ*

L () = 22

2g12r| t)

^11

(5-21) |

r U * = (*** *)>
=
= ^ ( P r j + Qrr,) (5.1.7) = (2) =
= g 22p r i g u q u (5.1.10).
(5.1.21)
(, ) = 1, 2, . . . , ) = 1 , 2,
N,
152 153

Q*. , |
(5.1.21); | = 1.
(3.1.20):

',

, -^

, % , + 1, . .,

(2), :

- 1

:= (* * ,


.
(5.1.22)

(5.1.23)
r l+,ln ==l+f + ( l - x ) r l t
= g 22 ; b = g n ; = g 22+ ; d = g u + ; =
=
= 1 , 2. G> = <J>W ( ),
(^ ^ , () = P(I) = y / 2Q; = (2> (
)
<>= <2) = - j g 22p,
P(t>= (3(2) = g nq;
^ . ^ . 2 , v = 0, 1, . . .
.

. 0 < < 1
, 1 < ^ 2 .


, ,
, (5.1.22). [137]

(5.1.24)
, ( 2 2 ), ^

| | ,

U i -l) .ms

| ,

(5.1.25)

5.

( ), [g22) , ^ I I, , {gu)m,n < | ,

'

Tm,rt=l + ( l + 2p ; u 1/2

(5,2)

( ).
||rv+I
_ r v|]/||r v r v11| v ->cx),
,
[49].
f 5.1.4. .

, .
Q ,
,
,
. = (, )
, ,
. ,
, ,
.



.

(. 5.1.2),
, q , '
0.
,
0 /2 . (5.1.10) q,
] = const:
(* -

+ J p ) = , 2 l2 \ ( \ 1 ) 6 +

, ()//,)) = 0.
g l2 : ^f12 =
1= | | |
X I | cos 0 = | r s | | r | ctg 0 sin 0 = | r 5 X I ctg 0 = / ctg 0.
^/^
(5.1.27)
= 2 (sin 6)/ sin 0 [(Xj /5 ctg 0) ?| + (/5 + %ctg 0) y ^ l g n (5.1.28)
= const q

./
01),
= 2 (sin 0)T1/sin 0 - [( ctg 0) + ( + ctg 0) y m ]/gn .
(5.1.29)
154 155

0 = /2 (5.1.13),
(5.1.15). , q
0 0,
.
5.1.5.
.
Q( x ,y , t) ,
.
.

, ,
(, , t ) = const , . .
(4.2.13)
U

[( ) (v ) ^] = 0

V = / -1 [ ( ) /| + (v ) ^] 0

%= const;
] = const.

(. . 8.1.4)
vo = (o, fo)
dr/dx = v 0(x, , t)

(5.1.30)

+11
(k + 1)^, (5.1.22).

,
.

[104, 138].


, .
,
.

.
,
[139].
0 ^ ^ /
= ()
gm, = 1, 2, . . . , \ = 1. c o ( x ( i ) ) = ( )> 0>

. ,
, . . =
,
-
'(!)

((|) = ,

(5.1.31)

5.

= const.

I
(5.1.32)

(5.1.31).

(.),
.


(5.1.33)
(,rj) ,
a q . ,
, q = P,
: 3? = =
(5.1.32). ,
[82], . [77] ,
.
,
.
h { x , y ) , ,

= [h0-{-a(h h0)] \

h 0= m i n h ( x , ),

>0.

(5.1.34)

- (5.1.33)'
.
,
, .

5.1.6.
.
}(*, , z)
(5.1.6),

V P ' = P (,
,
(5.1,35)
^ = ( ~8V 1 i r ) : 1==> 12 = ,; 3 = 0;
\ = \

2== Qr

P 3 S.

(5.1.35)
* ( |, rj, 0)
xi = xt(%, ), 0)
, , .
r = ( x , y , z )
( g + ^ + e ) r s + ( n J + 4 + S ) ^ + M + 4 + e! ) r . . +
+ 2 (*?]* + j/*lff + Sz^z) |) + 2 (*0* -\- %Qy + S20z)_r|6 +
+ 2 ( + %0 + ^) )0 + r^P + *r[Q + r eS =.Q . (5.1.36)

(3.1.24): %1/ J~lami, ami
(, ) -

\
z v 0

- 2' =

(3.1.29) ' a miamk = J 2g ik


(5.1.36) ^
:
t2

, 2

-2

Sx + Sjf + S, /

11

CLm ami = g ;

0l + 0* + 0z = J~ 2am3a m
3= ^ 33;

, 2

- 2

n* + 1 + TJ, = /

am am = g

22

V3g V3ri = / ~ 2a m,am2 = g 12; (5.1.37)

^ ^3 == J Q-mflms == g j

V3T) V30 = /

Cltnfimz == g

(5.1.31)
* < r > 4 * ' ,
+ 2"

+ ^
^

+ 2 ^

+ * " w + V ! -5f t r + '


}

= - ^ - '-

t5-1-38

- (3.1.20) g lk = J~2Atk, Aik


(i, k) - \\g\\ (3.1.19).
: g U = J ~2[ (g 22g 33 - (g23) 2] , g 12= J -2(gl 3g 23 g l 2gss) T. .,
(5.1.7).
(5.1.38) * (

5.

2* )
* .

. ,
Pi(%, ], 0) .
, (5.1.9),
[128, 135]
^
P = g nP, Q g 22q, S = g33^

( + |) + g 22( +
+ g 33( + s r e) +
+ 2 ( |2|) + g 13r 5e + g23r T)6) = 0.

(5.1.39)

g ik = 0, i k


.
( x , y , t )
,
.
*
I = 1 (X, , )\

\ = ( , , z)\

(5.1.40)

, /* =
= ^/, ^% [109].
[8].

%= 1(, )\

= ](,.),

0= z

Q= (z + h)/H

(5.1.41)

/ = /*.
5.1.7.
.
,
,

, .
.'
5.1.7.1.
, .
,
. )^
=
( x , y , z ) ,
.
, - '
,
: = {0 ^ : ^ 1, yi ^
( ) } [7]:

1= ;
158 159

] =

( Yi)/(Y2 Yi)-

(5.1.42)

J = y 2 71 = , ,
, Q Q* = {0 ^
^ 1}.

Q =
1, Y i ( * .z ) ^ < 2( , ) ; h ( x , y ) ^ z s ^ l ;(x,y,t)}.

1 = ;

] = [ Vi)/(y2 Yi);

= (z + )/( + h)

(5.1.43)

Q Q* = {
rj, 0 ^ 1}.
, ,
. (5.1.42)
q (5.1.16).
)-
) const.
5.1.7.2.

.
.

+ Brn = i
.
, ,, : g 12 = 0
, J = f (^ ,r \)
[139].
,
,

.
,
, .
,
,
.

1 = 2/12-{-;

1^=! = r; |g=1 = rx; \1= = ,


,
t, ' , / > 0.

, , ,
.


| = 7
] = | = Af [114].

5.

5.1.7.3.
.

, , ,
.

.
.
.

. ,
Q* = {0 ^
sc; , 0 ^ |
N}
r(0, r ) ) = r i , (, ] ) =
g-

(&) = 1 ) 1 + 2 ) 2,

<

; = 1 g/Af; 2 = %/.
, 2 < < ,

>(& ),
=1
,
==

m ( h / M ) =

d mi,

8mi

, i = 1, 2, . . . , .
, , , - , [%, gm+i]
2k 1
[gm, |m+i]
{ k 1)- . k = 1 , k = 2 ;
2k 1, <2*-2>,
,

,
.
-
[91]

q
>.
,

(I, Ti)

(- J -)

{ l m, ]) +

'I v (tJ -)

{1,') -

>
, . .
/ .
(5.1,44)

^ ( ^ ) ' ( - ^ ) r (>
')>
= 1 1
(?/1) &, if / / =
/> * "==1 , 2 , . . . , , / = 1 , - 2 , . . . , .
,

160 161

, ,
.
= q = 2

(5. -]) = <1 - / 1 ) ( 0 , ) + ( ! / ) , 7|) + (1 - ,/ ! ) (1 , 0) +

JV)-(i - 4 - ) (
'

) r(0,0)-

- ( > - 1 ) - <0

">


2* = q = 3, '.
, = 2 (1 - ) (1/2 - ,
2 = 4/ (1 t/M);
= 2l / (|/ - 1/2),

= 2 (1 - /N) (1/2 - /N);


"2 = 4t|/jV (1 r|/W);
-3 = 2/N (/ N - 1/2).


.
- ( p , q ) ( + 1> <7+
-f- q + 3. , (5.1.44)
1, rj;
1%, 1, (5.1.44)

/ 5 / = / 6 + / - / 6/.

(5.1.45)

5.2.
5.2.1.
.

4
gik = g ik = 0,
i^ k .
(5.2.1)
/ = /& = ( g ng22 g 2
l2)I/2= ^ / g ng 22. (4.1.71),
= | = ],

V 2 |= w i " v ^ ^ ; v2T1=7 r i Vgii/^

(5-2,2)

, (5.1.5), (5.1.6),
= (, )
Q*:
.

"

<

>

, ( |, -) = V g ^ /V g n [139].
/ g a = ds/d %
1
| -, .( |, rj)

5,

.
gii = 22 = const,
, ,
g n = g 22 = 1,'. . ,
, ) .
9? (5.2.3), ,

(4.1.50)

<5-2-4
Ht = y' J g iu i 1, 2.
g i2= ^ + y^yn
J = '\ / g u g 22= k g n = l ~ 1g 22 ,
A'Xj: ==

Xg.

(5.2.5)


. X 1, . . - .
, .
(5.2.3) Q*
.(1, ))
dfi*. (5.2.5) ,
. ,
, ]) Q *,'
<* . , , = 0
(,); (5.2.5)
z/^(g, ]),
t/(go, "),
(5.2.3) .

V (t,ii) [139]. \ ,
, x ( t,ii) ( ,rj),
) \ #(g, rji) /(,]); (5.2.5)
%,
x v,
(5.2.3).
, x%xv + 0,
.

(5.2.3)
, dQ*\
(,]) ,
.
,
X, ,
. , , - ;
162 163

5,

, / |, 1
, (5.1.45)

_ 1 >

1\

'

N_ 1>

IV

(5.2.6)
1 , 2 , . . . , ,

1, 2, .

. [138].

(5.2.3) [62]
= (, |)
I
=

' ( :1 + 9 8 + '

+ ! ' ] 1<^ .

(6.2.7)

,
gu, g 22 I / gW gn

. (5.2.7)
< D = \ [ g d t d 4]

2 ? = [ {x \ + y $ { ^ + y\)\W

(5.2.8)

(5.2.3) ,
.
(5.2.8)
(5.2.8) [62]

(5.2.10)
co = |x | %[,

(5.2.11)
(5.2.11)
dQ* , ,
- 164 165

i
'
\

( 5.1.3). [15]
.
.
, , . 5.6.
5.2.2.
.
,
,
.
,
.. : gik =
= g ik = 0, i k; g n == g 22 J = V g ,
= 1 (5.2.5)
*
= yv

==

2 g ik =

= '>
=
1*>

(5.2.12)
+ 1) = 0, i k,
(5.2.13)

(5.2.12) , ,
.
z
= |.+1> (5.2.12)
^
z, .- . , * z ()
. (5.2.13)
= t,(z), .
| '(5 )|
z = z ( t ) , | z ' () | = -\/gn = -/g 22,

go
*
z 0 .

, , *
,
.
, ,
* - .
,
.
, , .
,
,
,
- : , ,
. , , ,
,
,

5.

(
) .

.
Q (, )
(, ))
[ 101].


, ,

. ,
/, .
* = {0 ^ |, ] ^ 1}
( ), : rj =
= ]//. (5.2.12)
z ( t ) *
1 | = ^,

= ( , ) ,
(5.2.3) = /2 = const

(5.2.14)

/2 + = 0-

(5-25>

I
(5.2.14), ,

1 = (,

#ri(, f\)dl.

(5.2.16)

i
(5.2.15)
. 5.2.1.
%> '
*,
[16].

*
(5.2.14)
. (5.2.15)

h = P ( + brlx)]

1 =

\1( +

),

(5.2.17)

, , , d , ,
62 > 0 ( ), (, ,
.
,
;
( , ) *(,]), '
166 167

Q*. , b2' = 1 (5.2.17)


[138].
Q
. (5.2.17)
, :
() = { ~^2 + 26

+ ( + )

+ ( + ) - ^ } 1 = 0.

(5.2.18)

.
, : ( |) = 0.
, :
(5.2.17)
,
(5.2.17) b
ab
2= 1.
.
-
(5.2.17) , , \
, , 2,
,
( ) = 0.
(5.1.2).
5| 2|1 + )1= ,

(5.2.19)

= (, )\ <= {J2( + ); J2( + )}\


= \ + \ - 2^^
= + % b (6/ + ^/g);
= \ + | 26/

(5.2.17) ( [ = 1 ) ,
%
|, ,
= {% ^:

x n = ayi + bxi,

(5.2.20)

2= 1, , Q* = 0.
(5.2.20) , * = . , (5.2.20)
, : J = y. , (5.2.19) [110]:
^11 " x rm == J ( ),
+ = * + 8).

_ 1 \
^
1)


(5.2.21) , ,
( 5.1.3).

5.

5.2.3.
. . 5.1.5. ,
Q
,
.
, g 12
= V-Vt) ,
.

Q ;
/ .
. 0 = / 3
*
. ,
/ 1== J J ( V | . V r \ f P d x d y .
^

(5.2^22)

v (4.1.56), (4.1.63) Q

(5-2-23)

g n = % -\-%.

(
la g

\ 2 . _ -

\
) 12

/ __
,
_ _ \ __
l .%
a g %
-*'


) & 12~~

(5.2 24)

, :
] + (2] + &%| + [1) + 2 Vsr, + d31}y m = 0;

^ ^

\) + [2]1 + d ^ x ^ + ^ + ca'Vin + ^ =

(1)

01. = )
= = ^ %

,)
2
b I = \

(1)

&2 = = 2 (2% -(- % ) \

(1)

\ = \\

,(i) .

\ xi,

2
,
% =

(1)

2 (xt~x^ -(- 2 y ^ y ^ f

= 1-

(5.2.25)
, , = { , ) , 2,
, . 5.1.3.

.
, , ,
,
168 169

.
-
.
,
, ,
[82, 116]. ,

2.
, . . 2
V, Vr],
/ 2= S S [ ( V i) 2 + (Vri)2]dQ .
Q

(5.2.26)


g u + g 22
(5.1.63)
. (5.2.26),
,
,
'
2| = ,

<5 )

V 1== .

,
,
.


/ 3 = JJ<B/ dQ,

(5.2.27)


. , .
: = (ft-1 )
, , (5.1.34)
= [/0 + (/ / ]-1;

h 0= m i n h ( x , ),

c o n s t> 1.

(5.2.28)

(4.1.56), (4.1.63) 2*

dldr\,

k = 2, 3;

*
<72 = / + ;

(5.2.29)
= J2.


(5.2.24) q2, q%

5.

q\, , :
(axji
(

+ Y^nn)
{&
-j- Y^iyi}) 4~ (\\

2$\ -j- ! =
2$\ -|- ^ ) =

0;

/ 2 31 )

0,

.
= %% -)- ^,

= z/j -j- i/i],


P = gi2J~4,

= 22/~ 3;

= | -)- ),

V = g u f ~ 3-

, (5.2.31)
B L { x ) - A L { y ) = 0;
- A L { x ) + CL{y) = 0,
{ ) (5.1.3),
(2 - ) L () L {) = 0.
, 2 0, / 2
(5.1.3), , ,
(5.2.26) . ,,
,
.
(5.2.31) , (5.2.25):
( ? \

( b f\

( b f\

I (2) ) + { ,2

+ { (2

( ? \
)

+ { ,2)) +

( (2) \
( <2)\
+ ^ (2> J #in + ^ (2) J >

.(5.2.32

(2) = ;
22) = 2;

2) = ;

b{2] = ~ 2 ;

2)= ;

] = ';

<2>= ;
c f == 2;
c f } = Cy.


(5.2.30) qz / 2. :

- } + 7 ) . } - ) <-2->

2{(!?') 45+ (If )Jts'1+ ( 4) ,+


+ ( 1) + ( $ ) "+ ( i ) > } = ~ ( )
170 171

(6'2'34>

(3)
dj

.(3)2
(3)2
\ i ^'

0,2 = = % \ ~ |~ \%)

$} = |Z/i;

==

^,>

b f = y\,

2 ==

2x\xv

c f = x\.


,
h , k 1, 2, 3 , (5.2.23), (5.2.29)
R = U l + I 2+ iiI3.

(5.2.35)

X, , ,
. ,
. 0 ( , /) = , 0 ( |,
Arj) = 1 :
<7i ^ i 2 = 0 (A4);
4 =

q 2= J 1(gn + g22) (1);


/ 2= = ( 4 0
_1),

0 .
1 = 1^ - * , [ = [1 0 -4,

(5.2.36)

%i 0 ( 1 ) , ui = 0 ( 1),
(5.2.35) .

= %ctk + (>+ 2{xcoa*3);
== &1+ b f +

2 obf-,

= Xc{k + c(/ f + 2(icDc(fe3);


,
(5.2.35):

[ =

(5.2.37)

2 = J2e>y,

( a l ) * 6 6 + ( ^ ) * 6 4 + ( ^ ) Jcn4 + ( cj ) y +


.
1 ( ) - ( ) + ( ^ ) + ( ) ' " = ' '
(5-2-39)
< ( ),
:
2 (rv+1 - r v) = - (L (r v) - (pv),
(5.2.40)
v = , I, 2, . . . , .
|r v+1 rv| ^ s
.

r e

,
, . ,
3,

Q*, Q ( x , y ) .

Q*.
, Q
; [58].


, .

.
, ,
,"
.

- .
,

, .
,
.
,
,
,
, .

,
, .


.
,
,

172

At
.

.
6.1.
6.1.1.

.
Q(x, )

Uf I" 0(tlx 1 ^/)

(6* 1*0

= const > 0. ( |, ) ) , =
= */(> "), = Q *(|, ]), :

+ + 2= 0,

(6.1.2)

ci = c(si + s2), c2 = c (ri + r 2); (s b s2) = V i , ( , 2) = ].


.
(6.1.1)
% < 1 /(2 ),

(6.1.3)

= A t / , = = . ,
, ^ 1, (6.1.3) .
(6.1.2)
x < l f o + C2).

(6.1.4)

,
. , , Q ( , ) :
^ ^ . 1 , 0

I / (aq), a, I, q const, q > 2 .



S=

= {

(6.1.6)

/ = / 2 Q * =
= {0 ^
^ l / ( a q ) , 0 < < 1 } . (6.1.4)
x < l/(c iT ),
(6.1.6)

R* = 1 + + .

R* \l = l j m = 1 +
+ [1 (1 2\)]/[1 (1 2/q )], , q ^ 2, . .
, -
. , , ,
*
)-; ,
.

,
.

6.

6.1.2. .
(1.2.8) = {0 ^ ^ L, h ( x ) ^ y ^ k ( x ) \ t ^ 0}
,

1 = ,

] = (# /,)//,

= t,

(6.1.7)

l h h 0, J

I.
* = {0 ^ | ^ L, 0 ^ ^ 1
t > 0} (4.2.26)
/ 'Hu 2+ ~ g H 2'^
+ 4drj- /

Huvj
\

Hu

Hu V + - ~ s H %
HuV+~gH4~l

HV
(6 . 1. 8)

Q = (# , Hv, )\ V = l 0u + l~lv; 10= 1(11 + 1).


<* !
, . = 0 ,
. g-
2* = 0, ^- V 0.
^, = * [0 . ]

=
)
tk;_ m = 1 , 2, . . . , M; n=* 1, 2, . . . , N;
fe = 0, 1, . . . ,
Al L ( M l ) - 1, At] = L ( N I ) - 1,
A t T/ k ( 6 . 1 .8 )
- w = (, v ) , v = (, v)
,
(3.1.28):
w ft+1 = 2 ^ (At/2)

(At)

(At/2) w fe.

(6 .1.9)

w .

.
65 ,

:
= (- u 2m- 1) . .,
Xi == At/A%, 2 At/Ax\.
t ^/2 w* = 3?](A t / 2) -
Z* = ? - ^ b ^ ( H V t - ,
(HuT = (Hu)k - ^ { \ ( u kV kH*) + g H 4 0b]-,
(6.1.10)

(Hv)* = ( H v f - - f - [6 (vkVkH*) + g H 4 ~ \ t ] +
+ -T
174 175

w** = i?s(A O w * -
(, )** (#)**:

()** = ()* - - 1 [6t (IHu2)* + g t f *6' ( / ] +

j )

+ * (/ + | *)*;
(&)**= 0( - - / _1 | (/(Tmj " 0'**):
w fe+1 = S v (At/2)'W**
(6.1.10) w ft w** w* \yft+1. ,
(6.1.9) (6.1.8)
(At, 2, ^2).
(6.1.10) to,
,

:
t* = ? - ^ h d nV k;
(6 . 1. 12)

r = V k - & - g ( P 0+ l - * ) 6 ,

m ax (/ +

2)1/2 / gh At/An\ ^

4.

(6.1.13)

(6.1.11)
uAtJ ^ 1,
^ # <2.

|
!

(6.1.14)

, (6.1.3), (6.1.14)
: | | ^ 1 ,
,
:
| ||= 1.
:
, , .
(6.1.9) 0 ( A t 2, |2, |2),

- ,
(3.1.23) .
, 9? (//2)
(At 12) =
(At) + (At2)
(6.1.9)

w * +2 =

(At/2) 2^ ( ^ (At)

(At)

(At/2) w

(6.1.15)

6.

2
. v


,
' -
' -

. 6.1.
15 ,1955 .

; ; - ; ;
, 1 ; 2 .

~ -;

15 1955 .
.

15
1955 . , , [7]. : |
176 177

= 4470 , ) 6510
750 ; At = 120 .

2,0- -3 3 ,2 -106.
.

. 6.1;
. 6.2 22 24 .

. 6.3. ()
.

6.1.3.
- .
= (%, ]), = {%,)
- , 5.

,
, . . 6.3
-
( 3.1), .
(6.1.16)
=
sin 0tA + s 2sin 02; |3 = j sin OiA + f t sin 02A; S i= i;t;= / Vti
S2 == Y\x== J ^% ^"l = === $ ^T)>. ^"2== J ^|*
( G : | ^ | = 1 ] ^ 2,
= ( 2 + 2) 1/2, , ,

2/________
(6.1.17)

- \ g l l 2gi2 +

(3.1.22) .

6.

*,
,
( 5.1)
6.2.
6.2.1.
.
(4.2:40)
:
(6 .2 . 1)

L( u) ,

uft+1 = u ft + u^A^ + ^/2/2


n k+\ __
_[_ Aftj* u ^ .
(6.2.1), :
u*+1 = u* -

[(* + 5 u / +1 + (5 + u / ] + A/q>* + (A/3)


(6.2.3)

(6.2.3)

(Au%t + 5, Bn # ) + (/4).
(6.2.4) ,
, (3.1.34),
(<3):
(6.2.5)

178 179


, [141],
(3.1.47) , (4.2.18').
,

,
(6.2.5).
(6.2.4) .
,
(6.2.4). , :

R ~ lBR = =

U-+ cs

V + cr

U cs.

V .

(6.2.6)

5=

<//2

P /V 2

/ ( / 2)

/ /2

/ 2

- / ( / 2)

/ /2

/ /2

/ /2

/ /2 ^

/ ( /2 )

(6.2.7)

- / ( /2 )

= s x/s; = s 2/s; s = (s2 - f s2) 1/2 = J 1( x \ + /2) 1/2.


S -1
, 5
. R
R S l, S
-1
St , ( + )1/2 =
( |+ /|) 1/2. (6.2.6) = 5 5 ~
-1 (6.2.4)
B = R A BR

( 5 5 - 1+ 4 -

^ - ) ( / 1 + - ^ R A BR ~ l - |j - ) 6+1 =

(6.2.8)

(6.2.9)

, (6.2.9)
S ~ \ R -1 (^)

6.

[121]. S = S~'R, -.
:

:

.
^
U*, U.
(6:2.5)
.


, -
- .
6.2.2.
.
(6.2.5)
3.2.
:
,
dn yd t + Adu*/dl=-q>k.
(6.2,11)
S -1 (6.2.7). 5 -1 = 5 _1

,
~
S~V f +
V|= S~V . (6 . 2 . 12)
5 _I = <3w/<?u,

=s-V,

(6.2.13)

, Q*, g = 1,

| i= i, , 1 ,.
||= 2
Q*
= 1. U > 0, . .
, ,
U < 0, . . , . ,
<92 ,
' ,
.
180 181

, =

Q*

* + ! = Yi (t)\
.

U\ + -jr C = y 2(t).

(6.2.14)

U, i = 1, 2, 3; ;
'

\ l 3J

'

*-(::

4 k/At,

|
S V -j- L 2A u i = 1.
, 5-1 =
1 :
2. (6.2.2)
(6.2.14) [86].
(6v2.5), =
= U cs,
. (6.2.12)

! = 5 ^ + 1, '

(6.2.15)

S 1= S L 2A, 1= S y :.
() = 1 ,,
(6.2.12):
^ = (* + ) =

(6-26>

R u R 2 11
(

1 =1 / / 2
\

//2

0 _ \

( 1\

c / ( V 2) I; : = | 4 ; =
0
/
\0 /

+ ukj At
2 + vk/At


(6.2.16)
^
R\Mm!At -j- R2Aiii y j
,
\ = U, 2 = U + cs,
.
u*M= S n UM-i + r n ,

Su=AtRTlR2A;

11 = A / t f f V 1.

(6.2.17)

6.

(6.2.5) *

J
j

V k+l = 0,

(6.2.18)

( ) = t]i )
( t] = i v ) . ,

(6.2.17).
6.2.3.
.
(6.2.5)
. - !
- I
.
,

.
,
, (4.1.71) (6.2.5)
\ +

- ^ -

4 -

( /- ^ f ig ) ] }

u * =

F*;

(6 2 19)

{ + - [ - vJ-% O r *i A )]} u*+1 = u*,

F* = - At { v / - 1[fi5 ( /- ^ 126n) 4- 64 ( /-^ i265) +


+

( / 'g^Sg) + - 64 ( / 'g n S ^ jj u &,

Sg,
; v
; v = \ E \ v = (vb v2, 0).
(6.2.19) :
mUm+ i + bmU^ + CmUm_i = - ^ Fm,

vpm,

bm =

P/n = 2^ni ( J 2 2 ) m + l/2 j

m = 2, 3, . . . , M 1;
ctm

cm,

cm

Am

(6.2.20)

vpm_ i ,

pm_i = 2/ (/ 2 2 ) m - l l 2 -

(6.2.20)
(6.2.15), (6.2.17) '
&* = f
(6.2.21)
\s&
s = LR,
L, R .
(6.2.20),
182 183

*, * .
2; + 2 *
2= f2,
.

+ ^ - i uI*-2 = V

22
333

Eq 2

Eqz
Eq 4

c^b^ct^

i ~

^
7

cm

- iP m - i

, qm :
P

2=

h ,

Pm =

-_ i
q2= b2 (hi

cmqm_ u = 3, 4,

_!
qm = am, m = 3, 4, . . M 2.
bm

1;

(6.2.22)

(6.2.21) :
Lw = f,

i?u* = w.

(6.2.23)


2 -

w2
w3

f2

w4

Ci P i

cm

- iP m - i

F3
f4

. Wju_ i

w 2 = P2' lf2;

tn = 3, 4, . . . , - 2;

w rn = (F * WM-1 = -\ (^M-l

(6.2.23)

Eq2
Eqz,
Eqi

W2

U3

W3

<

w4

*M-l

*
U - 1

= WJI*-P = - + v

= - 1, - 2 , . . . , 2.
(6.2.26)

6.

- u k+l (6.2.5)
(6.2.18) .
6.2.4.
.

, . , (6.2.6):
S ~ 1A S = A a;

= + ;

R ~ 1BR = A b.
= + ,

(6.2.27)

, 7 , ,
.
| U\ = \ us\ + us2| ^ cs, | V\ =
\ur\ + wr21^ , , ,
i ( V + |)

II

<

0
0
( +

At =

0
0

\(U-\U\)

U + cs 0 ; ==
0
0j

v\)

V + cr 0 ;
0
0

0
0
0 -cs
(6.2.2

J(V-\V\)

0
0

0
V

0
. , , :
,

,
!

= S A a S "1= S ( A t + ' ) S -1 = S A lS -1 + S A a S ~1= + +


'
,
(6.2.29)
= R A BR~' = R ( A t + ) R ~ l = R A BR~' + R A b R ~1= + + .
+~ ==_SAaAaS ~1= 0, = 0 ,
+~ = 0.
(6.2.5),
* ( D*)
, +. ,
(6.2.5)
( + f +6 - ) ( + - 6 + ) * = ,

(6.2.30)


( + | . +6 -) * * = ;

( + |- - + ) * =

(6.2.5).
184 185

(6.2.31)

(3.1.46)

F, G,
(3.1.43).
,
,
. 3.1,


,
D
.
6.2.5.
.
,
[124] .
(4.2.17) :
+ g HJ 1 (22|

l2?T]) =

- b g H J '(^ &12?)= ''


-f 1 +

(6.2.32)

= -

, =
( ) :
,

_ _ ( ^ \

( ) , + 1 ' , \

,
,
IHU'r ijU* = / ( f /M i + 2UVT \2+ V 2Tl22).
2- ^
.
. (4.1.35):
/ |; = ^.. = dr/dV (dxj/dl1) i, .
\l = ( d lk/d x l) e k, :
dV)] ( dl k/dXj) = -, . .
,*
lii

1
d ^ d t 1 .

: = ^ + y u l y = J~ l (x^z/4 [ / ^ ) , 2 =
==

\^ == J

{^

^\) . .

,
, w = (, q, ) . :

6.

, I const. v =
= (, ) u = J(Ur\y
V^y), v = J ( V \ ) .
:
JHq> * =

1{ I (

) - (gnP 2+ 2 g l2p q+ g 22q2)112( ) } .

f ^

gH J~ lg 22= , g H J - lgi 2= , g H j ~ lg u =
(6.2.32):
( B + f . ^ a , ) ( + ^ . B a , ) w +' =
) + ,

= (

(6.2.34)

0
y
0 -

(3.1.50)
. s ~ 6|,

> , ,
, (3.1.33):
( + % |) w* = ( - -J ) w fe +

4 ;
(6.2.35)

( + } w*+> = ( - 1 5) W* + * - f - .
(6.2.35)
(6.2.34). Ai == 6 ~ ^, 2 =
= 56 ~ . (6.2.35), :
w +i

_]_ w ft -j_

(wft+1 w fe) = 2w* +

(if* i|3fe).

w* ,
:
w6+1 w
\ (wk+1+ wfe) + \ 2(wfe+1+ wfe) = 4 (|5+ 1*) + R,
At

R=

[Aj fo* -

- A[A2(wft+ - w*)] = (At2).

-

w* *,
. 5*, *
. , %k+l
186 187

w*+1,
qk+l, ,
fe+i, pk+l .
)
Wk\--------I
\
\
- \

*
\
1 \
1 \

/\
/ \

/
/
I3

i
\/1

V 1

\ /
V

\ 1
V

1\
1 \
1 \

\\

VI
V

*5"

.....
/\
/ \
1 \

1 \
\

1/

\
\

1
\ 1
v

V/

aj

\
\

\1//

-------1_____ I_____I_____I_____I_____1_____1_____I_____1__^__1

0,2

0,4

-0,60,8

1,0

. 6.4.
( ); , ().

. 6.4 ,
( ) = 102
,
.

;
I [, 0 = ?(/ (kr) cos (/),

1,2

1,4

6.

-S-

* *' >*+**

V .1

\ \

*
\

t ^

* * \ * > * * V

\ i j t ** * ** < * 4

11 ^ )

.......... : i

f * # t v * ............................................... .

* 4*** **' ***' *'

1!

* ! i
/* + * * i
- * v ' J i |
t
x ^ *
, I *! / v **
'
*
*
,/

* ******"**"(
1 |1*
i
*
'A H t" * " *
I

i [ I h f * * * * * /

/////****:
H [ I i ******

* 1 * i * *..,

' * * ' !

1 (1 *

' *

"

** *
* 1 -

* * ! ! *
V . * * 1 j ^ j j
I . ; ! *

* ^ I

j- ' 4

****t * +* * **

+ * *

. 6.5.

'Z * ? "

/ , k== 1,21979 / ; R
.
(6.2.35)


^i = l; A2i3 = (l + 2)
= g H J ~2( g u sin262 + ^ 22 sin20! 2g l2sin 0! sin 02) =
= g H J ~2[(x4 sin 0! X| sin 02)2 + ( sin 0t 6 sin 02)2] ^ 0,
. e. 2, ^ 1 .
,
= ,
,
*. , At
.

, .

(. 5.6) .
~ 100
~ 1 . t =
= 2 ~ 10.
-
. . ,
, = 0 (
1 ,
;
).
. 6.5
. ,
. 7
.



L () = ,
, , t 2;
(, , 0) = ,
, <=Q;
= |>,

(*)

, z/<=Sr ,

L (1.2.1);
.
,
,
.

, , ,
, . (*)

V p = v*ft| v*ft| = Cftv | v | .

I
!

(**)

,-

. [30] (
)
; -,
.
u'w' 100 !
Cioo = u ' w ' / u m , - ;
[102]. ;
** ,
, v =
v> = 0
. .
, ,
[5].

190

,

, , ,
,
.
, ,

,

. ,
70- ,
. , ,
,
,
.
,


.
,

, .
7.1.
7.1.1.
. q ==(, v, w)
: q =
= q + q', = - \ - ' ,
:
f? + (q V8) q + (2 ffl X q) = - j V3p + g + vMV^q + V3n 3; (7.1.1)
V3^ = 0 ,

(7.1.2)

vM ; 3 == p(P(*), ^),
()) :
(*) = ( ' 2> V , ti'w');

(</) = ( mV, v' 2, v' w');

P(z) = ( u'w', v'w', w'2).


2 = /, oZ, I = 2< sin , ,
(7.1.1):
^

| L + / X v = - V ( + p j p ) + vMV2v + V3n ,

v = (, v);

_
djdt = d/dt + v V;

= (Pw , ()).

(7.1.3)
(7.1.4)

7.

,

(7.1.3) .
.
7.1.2. .
(7.1.1)
(7.1.5)
:
= ( - . - S V , - 7 5 7 ) = ( ) , ,
P w = ( - S v , -~ 7 , -

) = ( ~ ,

v jf) ;

, , v-g).

'

(7.1.5)

^ ()

&

( W

Vm) - ^ - , ( * ) +

VM)

. , (

VM) - ^ )

:
- ^ + ^ | l + / k X v = - V ( ^ + pa/p) + ( V 3 - ^ ) v .

(7.1.6)





.
, (),
{) .
(102 103 ) () = () = = ( 102 1032/ ) .

v, .

_ b ==
= | q ' | 2/2 , .


,
, v

/
1
v = / V&; &= csb2j \ ,
(7.1.7)
Vb = , const.
[54]'

192 193

dv

Q,

(7.1.2), (7.1.6) (7.1.8)


,
I. *
7.1.3.
. ,
v I ( )
v = I21dv/dz |,

(7.1.9)

(7.1.8).
z -j- h + Zn,
z ^ h
l = n{ z + h + z h).
(7.1.10)
~ 0 , 4 , Zh
, .
,
const,
(7.1.9) (7.1.10)
T _ i * t al | i .

zh

(7.1.11)

|
1= 1W z |'/2|z=_ft+zft
.
(7.1.8),
,
.

v*
, .

.


[84]:
z+h+zh
V = 1T
0 ;

S (l-aoR y'-T .
zh
Ri a

Ric g (pc0)_1 (ps p) - j / ( d I v l/dz)2;


ps ; . Ric = const

v = ^ ( l - a 0Ric)~ 1ln Z + k -- Zh .

(7.1.12)


(7.1.9).

7.

.

(7.1.10)
[122]
l = % Z hZ'b

(7.1.13)

Z h z - \ - h + , Z = z + g + zg, z&
.

i = - ^ Z ftZcZ0, '
Z 0= l - p ^ - 2ZftZe,

(7.1.14)

0 < p t<4.

Z0 (7.1.13)
:
h), lz -> ( z - > )
/ .
Pi = 1, 2 [10].
(7.1.9) v v2 / .

,
(7.1.8).
1 = / ,

, [54]
I | (/)-1,

"= / //.

,
,
.

.
i+ * W

1 = \ ( + / / \ / dz,

= const, [112, 143 .],



l== -------- ZhZ^
,

1 + %ZhZtH ~ llQl

(7.1.15)

" (7.1.13), (7.1.15) ,


,


.

. 194 195



I ,
.
\| = [112]
#

1 +

[' +

= lr[w

V*

<7 6 >


, ,
, . . (7.1.8)
(7.1.16) ; L
:
~1= ? + ? ,

(7.1.17)

\, 2, Si ,
. ,
(7.1.16) .
, , ,
l(z). , -, ,
z h Z,
(7.1.16) .
,
= v |v z | 2, :
63/2

( .

i/2V 6 | v a |2= 4 r ( l

(7.1.18)

{BiEi ] v2 f - bE2H \ - 2Z l 2z f ) I2 = b.

|v * |2 = ceb 2v ~2= csbl~2,
1

\\

/ \\

(7.1.8),
,

ry rj

1 mi
<7' U 9 )

(7.1.13),
ci = [ (\\ 1 ) / 2] >2.
= 0,08, \ = 16,6, \ = 1,8, '2 = 1 ,3 3 , S/ = 0,2 [112]
; = 1,07*.

*
,
, .,. , '
.

7v

(7.1.14).
. ,
' (7.1.16)
, ,
(7.1.14), (7.1.15).


(7.1.7) (7.1.8).

/ ,
[4];
-
/, /,
(7.1.16) [112];
[5];
[125].
,
. ,

.

.

^-
.

;[37], [50],
[38]
[52,74].
,
,
, .
, ^- (7.1.16) -.
, q '', q'v' , .
,
,

, .
7.1.4.

. Q3 = {a;, j e Q ( z ) ,
h
z s^;
t ^ 0}
, Qs.
,
, (4.2.47)
1=
196197

),

= \(, ),

0 = (2 + h)/H,

= i.

(7 .1.20)

(4.2.50) 3 = {, *, 0 < [0 ^ 1,
(7.1.2), (7.1.6)
q* - I*.Ql == X . ( JKgik- + " 2- / v dEs V
dlk J
50
dt 4 ' a I1
il
t, k = l , 2, 3;
/ uU + c%x \
/
q I = / I v U + c% I; Q2 = / l

0}

^ - Z k X q",
50

(7.1.21)
uV + c24)x '
vV - \ - c \ y

/uW + c % \
Q

l - ^ r + ^ J :

U=

v = ( );

== ttT]x f~

j-

W = Bi + uBx + vBg + wet .


(4.2.51)
w j + - k ji 7 + w j i ! - 0 <7-L22>
U, V
<v>.
(7.1.21) (7.1.22) , v,
q*
S*
q = 0, ' 5

=

(7.1.23)

0=1

(7-1.24)

S! Q3
.
\ 1/ g ik
dxi/dlj 1 gik.
(4.1.26), (4.1.19), :
/

J ,

s x

., Qt
0 (7.1.20).

r V

r i;

/ ." V

>

7.2.

7.2.1.
.
(7.1.21) Q3 5. (7.1.20) -

7.

{ ( 1, ) , /(,'])} :
. Q 3
2* *;
Q 3 (,
5 . Q* ,
, , (5.1.7) (. 7.1) ,
,
; (7.1.21) (7.1.24)

. 7.1.
.

. -
v, [8 ].
(7.1.21)
/. V
dt *

-^/
= ' 2
/ v - ^ + ,
di 1 1

1 / * + ^ // = 0

/=1,2;
>

i = 1 2 3-

(7.2.1)
v
(7.2.2)

'-*.( )> '-(**)



- .
(7.2.1) 0S (s = 1, 2, . . .
. . . , s; 0 i = O, 0 S= 1 )
,
k ( = )/Ari, k = t k / A t ,
= 1, 2, . . . , , 1, 2, . . . , N, k = 0, 1,
).
;
(v*+I - v )/Af '

P + i/2 = R a+ 1 -+ 1;
(7 .2 .3)
: 0 .

198 199


,
. ,

T*+VP = v f l+eV*+y(A0,tf*),


(7.2.3) *+3/2.
0, .
(, 0)
.

, (6.2.32),
(7.2.1) ( = 0 )
:
Pt + J

(g 22^

g\r) = h

vp00;

Qt"4" J c (^) ~ Si2^|) = h v^ee;

(7.2.4)

((p) | + ( q\ ) = 0,

+ /

p = (p, q ) = JH(U, V). -

'
. -

(Sft+1 - ? ) +

1(6g (p)k+l +

dn(q)k+l) = 0.

, s

= {Vv v 2f exp { (m

+ nAr\l 2+ s 0/3)};

Zrn, pk exp {/ {m AUl + tl Ar\l2)},


h, l2, k
; , , s = 1, 2, . . . , & = 0, 1, . . . , ,
(p)m, i = (Hi, !2) ( ( { + ]/2)}.
, (eilz6) = 0
h = 2n/Le, Le h/ s, s .
. = ( 2, )

*+1 = Giik,

(7.2.5)


/
G= J

\ Bi sin

sin

B ie-^^G ^
B i e - is4c2G2 ].
1R

7.

. 7.2.
1. -
. 15 1955 .
1 -, ; 2 ,
; 3 , ; 4 ,
.

2t
v ( l COS y ),
AQ2h 2

1 + 2 *

= \\
= */;

= ;

= l 2\\

a^A g;

y = l 30;

Gi = g 22 sin a g 12 sin P;
(?2 = g n sin P g i 2 sin a;

/? = 4 -1B8e - ,eV G 8;
G3 = Gj sin a G2 sin p.

( - ) {( - ) (1 - - / ? ) + } = ,
(7.2.6)

! = =

1
1 + -


2 - (1 + R) + = 0.

(7.2.7)

(7.2.8)

, 0 At
. ,
, (7.2.8)
(1 + A - R Y - 4 A < 0 ,
(J2 == ^

(7.2.9)

1. (7.2.9)
< ( 1 + )2

< j N g \ \

2gl 2+

(7.2.10)

7.2.2.
.
-
, . 200 201

. 7.3. 15 1955 .
. () 21 48 .

. 7.4. 15 1955 . .
() 23 36 .

7.

. 7.5.
.
, , 22
1981 .
/ , , ;
2 , ; 3 ,
; 4 , ; 5 ,
; 6 , .

1 = { ) ,
/
, = 1,2197/,
, R
,


;


4 %
.


(. 8.3.3).

15 1955 .



,
.

15 .

v,

(. 6.1.2).
v (0 ) ,

<v>
. 2299 : 11
1 9 X 1 1 .
,
. 2
4 ,
1,2 7,5 . At = 2
18 24 15 1955 .
. 7.2
- . . 7.3, 7.4
202203

. 7.6. ( ) .- 22 1981 .
90 .

. 7.7. 22
1981 . 12 55 .

7.


21 48 ,
' , 23 36
. ,
, .

I / .
J

9 4 . Jt

-6X- ^
V '"

6vJ

/ V

I ,

/
, /
V .
^
..

/ .V .

*^\\7\

t VtfT

. 7.8. 22
1981 . 12 55 .
.

0 = ^ 0 ^ 1 0: 2 0,02, 6 0,5,
9 0,92, 11 1,0 ().

.


.
, . 7.3, 7.4
, ,

204205

. , ,
, -. 30

-.
2 ,
, -

. 7.9. .
4 /.

.

(
) 4-10~38-10-3,
Ch
.
-
.
-
. -

7.

. 7.10.
. 4 /.
, ,
. . .

, ,
, .
.

0 24 22 1981 .
206207

. 7.11. .
4 /.
.

106 -
15 /.

.
.
.
-

7.

1 ; 2 .

30
.
. 7.5
, , .

, ,
,
208209

. 7.13;
.
4 /.

.
.

-
(. 7.6).
,
.
,

7.

. . 7.7, 7.8

12 55 , ,
.


50 2. 25 .
, 2772 (18 X 14
11 ) At = 30 ,
1 , I
(7.1.14),
(7.1.9). .

, , .
,
. 7.9.
,
-. -
,
.
1 .

. . 7.10
4 / ,
.
().
4 5 0,5 1 /,
, .
(. 7.11),
.

1 , , ,


, .

. ,
1 / (. 7.12).
v '

. 7.13,-

!
j
j
;
\
'

7.3.
7.3.1.
.
,
.
210 211

,
.
,
.
s*
- [57]
^ . + v . Vs + |j = = / C sV2S + ^ v s | | + ^ .

(7.3.1)

s (, , z, t ) s*, . .
s* ( [s] = M - L ~ 3); v = (, v)\ w
= w w 0] w 0 ;
v s
; if ,
. , . .
(, v ,) s
(7.3.1) .
(7.3.1)
Q ={Q (x, y,z),
t ^ 0},
: 2 = Q it/Q ; Q [ ( x , y , z )
, Q (, y , z ); .

K s ,

w0s + vs d s / d n = 0; z = l ( x , y , t ) \
vs ds/dn 0; z h ( x , y ) ,

(7.3.2)

n . Q Q

-J- Ks ds/ = (, , z, t).

(7.3.3)

Q; = = 0
, = , ~ 0
, .
S = S | (=.

6-. s
( 0, , 2) tQ
= s d (x 0) ( ) 6 (z z 0) (t 10).

(7.3.4)


(7.3.1)
Q
ds
n
ds
(7.3.5)
Ks dti , = 0; vss -r
dn- as, = 0; swn |ff = 0,
wn w = (, v, w) ,


\sdt=^sdt.

(7 .3 .6)

7.

t^

. Q2= {, <= ,
0}
-f(s) + - ^ (us) +

(vs) = K sv 2(s),

(7.3.7)

z
s (x , y, z, t)'dz sH,

(s)=
~h


, (7.3.1) ds/dA\da = 0
.

ds

, -

. -

dr + u - d i + v w

r r -i^ 2 ,-rr\

==KsH v {sH)-


ds/dt + ds/dx + v ds/dy KsV2s,

(7.3.8)

s = s, v = (u, v ) = v. , ,
, :/
( y s ) = <v><s>//1, V (s L V?)
(5 .7 ).
(4.2.60)
.
7.3.2.
.
' Ks
,
. ,
[57], U '

,

4/3, . . K s _ K s. ( si> 13)- ,
0 ( 2 104 ) = 0 ( _3 2/ 3)
Ks = 0 (1 102 2/ ) .


K jvs^o (iiH i),
1, 4
. 4 / (
),
, /,
,
212213

. lz

vs = Cle1/3/ f ,
Ci .
'
lx/lz = (103).


.

,
. ,
.
,
,

.

vs mi^z;

vs ~ e[l3z i/3.

(7.3.9)

, a s = v / v s 0 ( 1 ) ,
v,
(7.1.9)
(7.1.14):

I = ~jf ZhZiZ0,
Z/, = 2 + A +

Z i = 2 + + Z,
0<Pi<4.

(7.3.10)
Z 0= l

vs = css 1/ 3z 4/3
(7.1.7)
5 = ~1/3. ,
vs = l ^ / b

(7.1.8) (7.3.10).
7.3.3.
.
Q
1 = 1(, )',

\ = \ (, ),

0 = ( + )/;

= ti

(7.3.11)

.
. Q Q*,
.
( |, ), 0) Q* '.
(7.3.1) (7.3.3) :
ds/dt + U ds/dl + V ds/dr\ + W ds/dQ = Db4s + D qs + op,

(7.3.12)

7.

V U2= ) + vr\y\

U = Ul = ulx + v l y;
W = U3 Qf
D 6 ,4 '

1- v i ft-dlk)
|r V ,

DQ= r lH ~ 2 ( j v s 4 ~ ) ,
50 ^ 5 )
i, k = 1 , 2 , 3;
(7.3.14)

~lK s ~ (
dll V

(7.3.13)

-f- 02;

(/x , / ), / = .///,,

= %^\

(7.3.12) (4.2.55).
(7.3.12)
(4.2.29), s.
(4.1.52)

Q* = {?i
TIi ^ ^ TW> < 0 < 1 }
s + ^ r ( s S ,f ;+ e S!i
+

+ 38l ) = .
+ ^ - ) =

= '> - 3 -'5>
" -

<7 1 6 >




dQ* Q*.

(7.3.3) :
<

+
* + : # ( ,! | +

t= S .= = 6;

<?% +**.%) = *

= .;

(7.3.17)
4

4 ^,

(7.3.18)

g ik = V3| J' V3sfe;

V3 = {/, /, /),

Q = 0, j = l, 2.

(7.3.12) (7.3.18) .
(4.1.24)

'\

li)

V- / - ' ( - * + V
I
| z 5 26

6 = /
214215

iz
%

0; q =

(7 .3 .19)

1 2
I*. 6,1

% -*!

^0,


U = J ~ lz e (uy 4 v x r) = J~\(uy 4 vx r);

(7 3 2 0 )

V - = / ~ ze ( uy%+ v x = J~ l ( uy%+ v x $

W = -1 [ - QHt + u{hx - QHX) + (hy - QHy) + a]. (7.3.21)


g ik,
, ^
(4.1.19).
(7.3.7), (7.3.8)
QT = {, , t ^ 0}
1 = 1 {, );) = 1 (, )\

= 't,

(7.3.22)

Q ( x , y ) .
* = {|i ^ | ^ %, ill ^ " ^ "}
(7.3.7)
+
dt -

;dl

d* V.

+ ^

(7.3.23)

s = s = <>_1-;
U % -fV

p i = J (uy^

VXT])>

= + = / - ' ( + v x ty,

J %
,/6; g lk == V |*-V |*, , A = l , 2.
(7.3.8) :
~

I
,

KS

|{

5 oi
+ 5?=

( 1, 2), , (4.1.63), :
ds I
d t~

1{

~U 1Ks(S22S\ ~

11 dsdl I V

12S Ti)] +

ds -.
<Jt)
[/

( g21s | +

g u S T))] +

' ;

(7.3.25)

+ - ^ = = -( ' 22^ -125,)= (' ),


j ^ = ( gi 2Si + g nSr) = ^(l ),

I = const;
= const.

(7.3.26)
(7.3.27)

(7.3.257.3.27) ,
5 |
s | f=0 = s.

7.

7.3.4.
.
-
, ,
. 7.2.1.
(7.3.12)
s t = Rs + F)
(7.3.28)

-n-s /Sg

,
R ; s ft+1

(l/Af R ) s k+l = s kIM + Fk.
(7,3.29)
<2 = {(, ), 0)


(3.1.48):
^

= ^ [ ( / + |/|) ;- ^ /1) 5; ;

V s ^ - ^ l i V + \v \ ) D n + { V - \ y \)D t\S,

^ = - ^ - [ + | 1 ) + ( - | | ) + ] 5)

.
D = 1^ - 2Tl

,
2;

= ( - 1 ) 1( - ) .

:
" d f ^ "d f" =

" 5" [ Y /n + I /2 S m + l

(Y m + 1 /2

- 1/2 ) S m f" Y m - l / 2 S m - l L , p >

4& (Pm+l, re, p^n^m +l, p ~ Pm1, re, p^nSm 1, p) >

8ns =

s+i s_i, . . (^, 0 , 2)


,
. At

1
A t^

min

------------------- 5- ^ ------------ :----------

m ,n^Q*A 2 ( g i l + g22}/

Ks + { l U \+ l V { ) A

.
216217

(7.3.30)


(7.3.12)
.
r iK s ^ ( j g i k - ^ - r ) = A ik,
\ 1

d l k

1~2- =

i, k = 1, 2, 3 ( )
. - ^ ( / - ^ ) = ,

S* - s* = to [( - A y + ( 22 - A 2) s fe + ( 33 - A 3) s ft + psk + **];
(7.3.31)
s * s* At f(A22 - 2) ( s - - s*)] = Atp2;
s k+l - s* = At [(A33 - A3) (sk+l - s k)] = Atp3,

P A]2 + A]3 + 21+ 23 + 31 + 32.


s*, s** sk, sk+l:
s* = s*+1 At (p2 + );

<7A32)

r
AW = An A i = 1, 2, 3
(7.3.31), :
(S *+1 _

s kyAt =

A (l)s * +

A (2)s ** _|_ A (3)s k + i +

psk +

(7.3.32)
(5fe+l _
((1) _j_ (2) _|_ (3)) sft+l _|_ pgk _|_

/ = At [A<D (p2 + p3) + AV>p8].

p3 = A(8) (sfe+1 - s ft); p2 = <2>(s** - s ft) = (A(2) - M W ) (sft+1 - s k),


TO

f = - At (A<l>A<2>+ ()<3) + <2>(3>- AtA(1)A <2W 3)) (sk+l - s k).


,
f = (At2).

(7.3.33)

(7.3.31).
s^
'= { (o^m + a2ti + a3p)}
(1 + )* = (1 2 + ^ ) 6'.
(1 +

2) =

(1 + ) +1 =

* +

** +

A j p fe;

.
(7 ' ^

4>

7.

- - - A k = ak + ibk\

ak = 2At (1 cos ak);

bk = AtUh sin ak\ = E hjk;


Xjk = At sin a;- sin ak) j, k ~ \ , 2 , 3; Ag = ].= A0 = 1.
,
:
pk +1 Qpk.

(7.3.35)
2

: 1 ~ \ 2 +

+ 2~ A \A 2A3 = Pi + ip2,

9 = 1 + 2 + A = ql + iq2,

p 1+ ^ 1>= r 1;

| G | 2 ^ 1
< ( s in

sin - - ) 2 + ( s in

p2 + ^2==r2.

sin - - ) 2 + ( s in - - sin

.
(7.3.12) (7.3.18) (
ds/dn \gQ, = Q) ,
3Q*
.

$ * + !._ s*+i/2)/ = *1^ " 2 +

(<2>+

+ 21) s* +

V;

(7.3.36)

(s*+i sft+i/2)/A/=5A<2>Cs*+1 s*); '

At= U ^ ,

A W ^A u -A t.

,
:
(Sfc+i _ s k)/At = ((1) + <2>) s*+1 + ( + 21) s k +

- {At2).


:
(s+i/2 sk)(At = A(1)s fe+1/2 + A 12sfe + ;
(s*+J s*+1/2)/Af = A(2)s+ i + -A2is .

(7.3.37)

; ,
(At).
218219

7.3.5.
. .

.
~
,

s = s0e-e ('>*, 2 = 2 + 2.
(7.3.38)
r = R
d s /d n = 0.

*

) {

=1

- (

M R )

dp } ,

)
(7.3.39)
Jo ; * . J ' () = 0.
' 0 ()

. 7.14. .
; ,
; i( ^ = ^: / j f = 0; 2) ^=0,05/?^/ 3)
: / ) Ks */ 2 103;

2) Ks Ai/jR2= 1 0 2; 3) Ks Ai / 2= 0,025; 4) $ */.2= 0,05.

, 23 X 23 .
3,4539.
. 7.14 . ,
.
,
; , -.
.

7.

(7.3.36) At

// 0,25 15 (. 7.14 6).
At
*.



st vszz>
vsz \z=o,z=h 0; s |f=0 = S0cos (nz/h),

(7.3.40)


s (z, t) = sae~K2vtlh? cos {/h).

(7.3.41)

s (7.3.41)
A z / h ~ 0,1 -V A t / A z ^ ~ 10 1 % ; .
,
: v = /%
(7.3.38).
.
(7.3.36)


.
220221

~ 105 / .
, 5 5 X 5 1 . 5.6.

. 6.2.5. -

. 7.16.
.


,
, .
10,01 2/ .
(. 6.5) ( ./ 3)
I 6 I . 7.15, 7.16.
,

.
5 -: 4 .

.

105 .

2
^ , ,
: , . ,
,

,
? .

.

8.1.
8.1.1.
.


.
,
.

[68, 89].
= h ,
,

.

,
.
,
,
.


, . . .

222


.
. ,
,
[99, 127]. ,
, v
.
, ,
[88, 123,
134, 145]. ,
.

.
,
, ,
[26, 47, 72].
[79]
.

,
.
[41, 42, 47, 53, 69]. ,
,
, . -
[13, 98, 118, 119].
-
[93]; .



.
8.2
;
,
, i . 8.3
,

.
4
8.1.2.
.

,
,
.
,

,
.
,

8.

: ,
.
. , , -
,
1:

du/dt + / + g d'Q/dx = D -f- f ;

(8 . 1. 1)

/ , '
; .
, 2:
t = <at,
= /((0);

x = a x/tn,

I = /0;
D = D/(%Q).

= x + ;

(8. 1.2)

(8.1.1)

(8.1.3)

, :
= %o/(a 2g ) ( ,
2,
)',
f = //(2^0). 2,
,
.

/? V

e r/ x

(8.1.4)

L R ;
,
. , ,
- ,
(8.1.4).
, ,
.
,
. (8.1.4)
.
224225

(8.1.2)
;
s = h 2/X 2.
(
, ), D ,
.
- (8.1.4).

, .
, 20
( ).
,
,
(., , [119]).

,
. 8 D 0.

f = af/(a%).

(8.1.5)


, 1, 2 7. ,
f = 6
6,
;
( 8 . 1. 6 )

= 6/<.

(. 2.7).
' ( W -
= 0 (8.1.4), 6 0

L r .
, , .


f = Chu [ |.

(8, 1.8)

(8.1.2) (8.1.8), :
(8.1.9)


Ch/a, ,
, .

8.


, ,
Ch/a, . 8.2.1.

.

f= ~ k - H r )

<80>

V .
(8.1-.2) 2 = z /g 0, :
?= i ( * ! r ) :

* = ' / ) '

(8.1.11)

,,
'

= - V = t- .
(/)

(8.1.12)

.
- 0,01 1,
(g0/^ o )2 .

, . ,

.

8.3.
8.2.

8.2.1.
.
Q =
= {0 =: ^ F ( t) , t ^ 0}.
l = xJF(t), : t

(8.2.1)

(., , [41, 51] ) Q


Q * = { 0 ^ | - ^ 1 , t S z O j . (8.1.3) D = 0
(8.1.8) , (
)
+ -F-1 ( l F t) | + ( F y 1g5 = ' 1 | | -f- F ~2R e j1^ ;
(8 . 2 . 2 )
Zt + F - ' K H u ^ - i F & i ] - 0,
F ,
; ( /\ Re* == .2^ -1, /(
226227

,
. (8.2.2)
- :
-

1*- = (6);

(8.2.3)

1|- = &>(*);

4 = 1 = Ft {t)..

(8.2.4)

(8.2.2) (8.2.4)
Qa = {%,, tk}, 1, 2, ...., 2\ k = 0, 1..............k,

= ( 2 I ) - 1, k t = T/k. '
,
(* +

v + i

u km y

A t

) - i

( 2 )

* - v ;

Fk+l = Fk + M u ^ h ;
* '- v+ - , ) / " + - ^ [ 0

< + ) -

<8-2-5)

Z?o<pm = +i - i; v ; , ,
.

()*v - "SFW <f

f - 1)]-

(8.2.6)

m = 2 1
2 . + 1 , ,
.

U2M+1 2U2M-1 2-3(8.2.7)




U 1= - M /7 +1)-

(8.2.8)

;
(8.2.5) .
'
, (2.3.27):
= 1 -------- -------- 1- ------ ------ 1
L

== 2/16 -f- ;

2 (d2 +

0 2

)3 / 2

d 1,5 (1 + 0,9)1/2;

2 (d2 + a2)512 J

= ,

= 0.

(8.2.9)


(8.2.9)
[85],
2.3.
( = 0, R e j1= 0),

8.

. , = 0,1
= 2-10~2
1 % (. 8.1).
,
, .

. 8.1. uR
x R .
1 [85] . = 2 ,5 -1 0 3 ;
2 4 = 1 0 ~ 2, 5 -10~3, 3,3-10"~3

6= 0, 1.

()
, .
,
,
.
.

(8.2.2) = , = const [2].
, ( = 4 ,
5 ),
.
,
(. 2 .1 5 )/ L R 1,5
( = 1 , 9 )
1 300 2/ (. 8.2).
228229

, ,
. ,
= 3,3 {L r = 0,5 ) 0,005
18 %, = 0,025
45 %. ,
, .

.
,
,

. 8.2. Zr
ur , \(1 ), 10(2), 100(3), 300(4) /.

. L r 1,5 , X 5 , ? = 4 .

* == ChU, .

Ch gn 2/ H 1/3

(8.2.10)

( ) ,
.
, ,
.
Zh = 0 ( 10_3 10~2) [48]

, '

Ch 2^1 + . j

- h ^ z ^ l ,

= 0,4.

(8.2.11)

,
. Ch

8.

, Ro = u o / ( ( x > o Z h ) , . -

/ ( / = 0); I I (^ = 4 0 );
I I I (/ = 170 cj. 1
( ^ = 0); 2
2 = 10; 3, 4
Zj^ 10 2 [33].

/, = 2 ,6 -10~3.
,
(8.2.11): 1(//,) = 8.
Zh, ,
(8.2.2) .

,
. ,
4
5 ,
1,1. zn, 10 2 ,
. 8.3. 2
10 %,
18 %. , ,
,
* Ro
.
, . 8.3, ,

'0
. 8.4.
(?R/go)

(
).

I/

0.005

------

, 4

.
(Ch = 1),
, . 1.3.3,
.
. 8.4

. ,
< 1, . .
,
, > 1.

.
( = 0),
. . 8.5.
,
(/^ > 0,01).

(8 . 2 . 12)

(2.4.27).

, ,

8.

,
, 10
.
. 8.6.
Sje/Se

. 8.5.
, . ( = 0).
1) /=0,001; 2) o/fto0,005; 3) /=0,2; 4) o/fto=0,5.

.=5 , =20 .

//(0?/?)

. 8.6.
( ).
=0,005,

=0,025. 0 = 4 , ?1 = 5 .



,
,
. 8.3
232233


.
8.2.2.
.

.
, ,
.
.

^
.
, ,
,,
.
,
,, 2 ,

.
*.
* .
, , . ,
. '

. ,
,
.


,
. .
.
(,, t) :
U* + * + Qtf = = (<Pi, > 0)*,
Hus

( * + . *'

4 = 1 '

X '

\
f

g
1

>

tivH
v*H + .gH 2

Q=
^

vH

u , v ; H v = H { u , v ) = V ;
H
; t,(x, , ^ ;

8.

<Pi = 1 + gHhx] 2 = 2 + gH hy; [,



.
,
dQi H 3Q2, -
(8.2.14)
, dQj.

v |, =0 = v;
\^0=
(8.2.15)
.

, Q:
I = I (X, , t);

] = 1 (, , t)\

= t.

(8.2.16)

1= (%, ])/(, ). 0 = ^ / < ,



;
= (1, , );

= (I , ], );

t=

(8.2.17)

/ = / *. (8.2.16)
2 *(, ]).
(8.2.13)
(8.2.18)

/ jHaV
JH vV-b~gH %

Q==
\

JHV

4>i = 1 + g H r ld (h, )/ {I, rj) + K v l rjM;


2 = 2 g H r ' d i h , x)!d{l, Ti) + ^rvir)V,

V = / -1'[ [

^(v . ) *^nl
)

+ ( %) ^ ,

V|
234235

(8.2.19)

.
= const ( i 1, 2, I 1 =
g2 == rj)
(5Q*.
dQ*, (?2
,
1(, y , t ) const Vg- V = 0
% + vVy = 0.

( 8 . 2 . 20 )

,
<2, ,
, 1(,, t ) = const, :
+

+ v l ly = 0.

(8.2.21)

( 8 . 2 . 22 )

(8.2.20)
U, V , = = 0.
(8.2.21) U, V
= \

/ = .

(8.2.23)


, |, ]
, ,
(8.2.17). (8.2.22)
-
.

(8.2.24)

+ gJ '<(S, )/ (I,' rj) = 1( 1 + KS/%v)\


~ g r'd

(s,

x)fd

(6, ti) =

(8.2.25)

H ~ l (<p2 + Irfl).

(8.2.24), (8.2.25) Q*
(8.2.14).
(8.2.24), (8.2.25)
= { , )}, 1 , 2,
; 1, 2,
Nf
2*.
,
2

(* , , , ) . (, )

8.

5.1,

:
~ 212|) + '] =

(8.2.26)

g 22= I r J 2; g'12= , g u = | , |2.


<3
<3Q*.
(8.2.24), (8.2.25) -
.; v, -

. 8.7.
t = 0 ( )
t = /2 ()

.

, . tk+\ =
= (k + 1 )t
V t i = . y . - A t g [ r x]km, n { d , [ r l ,

= > , + ' '( +1 + ),. m = 1, 2, . . . , M,


{ [ \ Im +'l/s, + 1/2 =

{W

) + 1/2, !+1/2 ~

11=

I, 2, . . ., N\
(8.2.27)

^ + 1 / 2 , +1/2

m 1, 2, . . . , Af 1, = 1, 2, . . . , JV 1,
* = ( , ),
. -

v-.
'



() = /0(1 r 2/Rl), 2= 2-\- 2,
[79], .
236237

:
du/dt + / 2/ + g / = g dhldr\
dv/dt + dv/dr + uvjr = 0;

(8.2.28)

= / + ; v
. , (8.2.28) 5/

. 8.8. .
( ) () .

,
r

dqj

(8.2.29)

V = Qrj2,
Q
,
[79].
(v = 0) (8.2.29)

(8.2.30)

.
t,o/hQ 0,l ho/Ro = 7,14--3;-
1/70;
400 ( 2 0 X 20), Af = /300, T 2nR0/
.
. 8.7 t = 0
t = /2 ; . 8.8, 8.9

8.

.
.

. 8.9.
t = /4. .

8.3.

, 7, ,
,^
, ,
, . ,

( 8.2],

.
,

, .
8.3.1.
.
= {0 ^
^ ^ F(t), h ^ 2 ^ ,
0}
:
,
+ + wuz + gt,x [(v +

Vm )

uz)]z+

Ux -fWj5 = 0;
= w !z=_ft=?=0;
(v + vM) uz

Kuxx,

(8.3.1)
(8.3.2)

= T/p;

(8.3.3)
(8.3.4)

Xt + U | z x = w
S lx=0 === So (0:>
|t . o =
(x,

u
238239

u Z)\

\x=F

Pf

14 = 0 =

(*)

(8.3.5)
(8.3.6)


,

v.
(8.3.1) ,
8.2, .
:
l = x/F(ty,

0 = (z + h)/H,

(8.3.7)

Q Q* = {0 ^
^ I, 0 ^ 1 ,
0}. (8.3.7)
, , [6, 102].
,
ut + F ~ l ( l F t) + rSme + g F ~ \ %=
= ~2[(v + vM) 6] + ~2
lt + F ~ l | 5 d e j -

(8-3.8)

= 0.

(8.3.9)



I
9
0-J (Hu)t dB \ \ H u \ d Q .
'(8.3.10)

,
:
t = a>o4;

F = F^/<x;

= 0/;
// 2\

= V0/(.(o0^ j ;

v = v0y;
1
2

Re*

h = * l Rh\

. = *;

= Zr<4 I (^2);

= j i a / 0'>

e0;

e0 = v M/ v 0,

(.0 . 1 1}

, :
+ F~ l { l F t) %- f

wuq

+ ( F)~l

= 1,~2 [ ^ + 8)]0 + 1^ 2|5;ud^j - | ^

SJ = 0;

S l|=o= So
w l|=i = Ff',
|9=o = 0;
(v + e0) 0 |e=1 = xEa/(pco0v0);
=

4 - o = a( 1.6)-

=
(8.3.12)
(8.3.13)
(8.3.14)
(8.3.15)

8.

8.3.2.
. (8.3.12) (8.3.15)

tk' , - m = 1, 2,
2; s = 1, 2, . . . , s;
It -- 0, 1, . . . , /<},

Qa = {,

no g, t, .A = ( 2 M l ) - 1, At
0 . ,
-.

0s = [Cs l)/(s l)]2,


(8.3.16)

- 1 . * ...............< +

(8 17)

s = (s + 3)/2, .. ., s.

0^+1-s,

(8.3.17)
, .

s
, = 3, 5, ,
. . . , 2 1; s = 1, 2, . . . , s
(8.3.12) (8.3.15)
k :
, \ .

' k + l,a + l_
m,s.

u m, s

At
I T - 2

'

- 1

\bH Os
va

B r-1

^ + 1 / 2

4 -e

8 0

f k + 1/2

lm

'

2 AFft+3/2

(F b+ 3I2 _

( + 1

Us)

^ + 1. o + l

1>

+ ! ; - 0' <
(8.3.19)

^ +3/2);

(8-3-20)

D 0(Hk+''4k+')m -

F W / 2 )

2 At AFk+ m
D o ff m

(^s+1

/TA-bJ/2

S |J 3/2= - M
2-+3/2 _

T T T JL ( - e - > L
/7+3/2 =

) ?fe+l/2 _

~ 2r. AFa+1/2
r.fe+1/2 0(Ism
m

s + l

+1/2 = 0,
0 's

(8.3.21)
( ^

s 4 -

A s _ i ) ,


; 7 , (8.3.13).
240241



ft-J- 1, Ct"J1

Tk+ha+l ==J

V"+}R +^ . (

*)]

,
max | (+1 )/
< .
, s


, = (, ).
,
( 8.2).

A /< F ( /) /V iA A .

(8.3.22)

,
v A t / A ,
, ,
.

8.2 . ,
[85] . 8.1
(8.3.18) (8.3.21)
; (8.3.14)

(v + 0) 0 |0== = 0.
(8.3.23)

.

,
, 1 %
.
8.3.3.
.

, 7,
(7.1.9)
v l21/ |,
I
(7.1.13) (7.1.14).

, : I = ,~l; vQ= |0/; ' _> Re* 1 =
= Kd 2/(Z%%)
v = H ~ 1l 2\du/dQ\;
/ = (0 + 0)(1 0 -h
0^ = 2^ ; 0 = Zh/^R-

(8.3.24)
(8.3.25)

8.

<39 ,

v 0=1

-.

v (8.3.24), (8.3.25)
(8.3.24) (8.3.26)

(8-3-26)
= Qh = 0 0.

()1 (X 1 - 26) ( + 1)

XX

(%+ 1 29) ( 1)

(8.3.27)

%= (1 + 40 + -r^0j 1/2
. 8.10
0
(8.3.17).
s = 11.

/ *
. 8.10.
0 (
). ( )
(8.3.27) () . 3 .


. ho = 20
0,
(. 2.15).
^
(g = 0)

V
242243

h0/ g (0 , t),

0 < 1 <

t>To

(8,3.28)

(8.3.25)
0 = Zh/H = 0,005.
,
( = ^0//)
0.
. 8.1.
8.1

J6

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

1
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
20
4

63,5
5
5
2,31
1,10
5
0,76
5
0,57
5
5 .-- 0,46
4,60
5
2,30
5
1,52
5
1,10
5
0,46
5
0,23
5
5
63,5
5
4,60
5
3,10
5
2,31
1,52
5
1,10
5
5
2,31
2,5
9,10

LR,

10
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
250
500
750
1000
2500
5000
. 10
250
375
500
750
1000
500
125

1,82
2,15
2,49
2,66
2,54
2,36
7,56
8,56
10,04
10,20
7,24'
4,40
13,36
15,20
17,44
17,44
16,32
15,84
46,20
7,96


, /

1,82
2,0
2,21
2,13
2,06
1,93
7,50

0
0,86
1,23
1,52
1,66
1,74
2,34

8,00
7,60

4,50
4,93

13,36

14,91
13,40
12,35
11,42

6,14
6,47
8,54

7,76

2,09


.
. 8.11,
.
5,6 .

,
.
. 8.11
( 0,23).
. . 8.12
2,3.
10 %.

Zh,

(. 8.2.1). . 8.13 2 4 (zft = 0)

8.

Zh, 2 20 .
, -

. 8.12. = 2,3.
. 8 . 8.1.

.
35 %, z* = 2
40 %, Zh 20 5 5 %. . 8.13
Zh. , 244245

.
. 8.14 2, 3, 5

, 10 . ,

.
I
. 1 3 . 8.14

, 8.13.
L r = 1 ; =
5 , = 4 .
/ ;
2 5 ;
5 ' -.
I
(7.1.13) 2 4, 61
(7.1.14) 5.
z^: 2 0; 3 2 ,
4 20 ; 5, 6 2 .

.

j
j
!

, (7.1.14)
(7.1.13) Pi 1,2, . .
32 %, 3 %.
I
, / .
' . ,
, .
,
, .
. 8.15

/

8.

. ( )
.
.
,
.
-

. 8.14.
LR ,= . 1 , X = 5 ,
&>-=. 4 .
1 5 : 1)
2 , I
(7.1.14); 2 5 (7.1.13): 2)
0; 3)
;
4)z^=0,01H ; 5)z^= 20cm ; 6) S-, z ^ = 2 ; 7) -,
I (7.1.15) ^ = 2 .

(. 8.16). ,
. 8.16
(0,30,6).
. 8.17
= 0,2.

.
. ,
. ,

Ch = 0,005 ( 2 3 . 8.17)
.
246247

8.

,

, 10
$, ,2

. 8.16.
(& / )
()

6-. -
.

0 '

0,2

Qfi

0,

0,8 Lfi/ \ 0

. ,
. 8.1

4
3
2

10

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9 LR/ l 0

. 8.17.
8 = 0 ,2 .
/ ; 2 2 ^ 0,01#;
3 ^ 6,005; 4, 5 . . .
- = 0 ,0 2 =0,035; 6 . .
. . ; 7 . . ; S . .
. . 0 [33[.

. 8.188.20. , ,
,
1

' JCo (0,2 0,3)(8.3.29)

8.3.4. .
, ,
I
248 249


, , .'
.
/? /?

ttKsKcmp/tWfl ?/?)
. '

ifir

. 8.19.
(. 8.1).


(7.1.8),
(7.1.7) (7.1.14) -

8.

.
= |2/ 2)
bt + F ~ l ( IF t)

(, 0)

+ = (H ~2v

(&0 =

+ bH ~ \ ( v + 0) 60]

- '2 1) + F ~ \ ()2,

(8.3.30)

v = I'tfb.

(8.3.31)

Q'3Kctnptt/fwa ?/?)
W

30

20

- \

II /

.1

)J

0,2

0;i?

. 8.20.
()
(. 8.1).


V&0 !0 =

0.

v ^ e le=-i =

(8.3.32)

(8.3.30) (8.3.32)
| 0 .

b2/ v = [2ba+1b - - {b2)a] / v a.

(8.3.33)

(8.3.30)

(
250251

<

8--4>


Cs = A s -f- Bs

H crs(j,

A s = (V- 1/2 + eo )/^ s-l


= [F ~lV

(At

-J- Cefi 2b si Vs);


= ('V+I/2 + eo)/A/>

- 6 [Fi+312- Fk+m)lM) D 0bkm, + 0 W


s

\xH~2va \uV[h aF~ 2vaDoUm, [ (2)/ v bkJ At\ H 2as\x~l.


s

(8.3.34) (8.3.32)
. ,

m ax | (ba+l ba)/ba | < 0,01.
4

, s

bt =
, / 1;
(8.3.35)
b If= = 0.
(8.3.35)

= (1 )/(1 + ); = 's/!{luz)\ $ = ' s j c s, \ u z \.


- (8.3.36)
.
, -,
- (7.1.7), (7.1.8) (. 8.3.3)
10 . 8.1, ( = 1,1, L R = 1 , 0 =
= 4 ). . 8.21
( ,
, , )
( 23 ) .
-'
. ,
, , ,
, .
, ,

.
( ' . 8.21).
6- 9,7 ,
9,9 ( 6 3 . 8.14).
-
.

.

8.

, ( L R 1000 , 0 = 4 ,
/0 = 1,03) ,
.

12 , 1 %.

0....
0
0
0
1
(

20
0,2
2
200
1

4 *.
1

(P,z)-M2/2
0,6
2
/2
6 2/2
600v 2/
1

. 8.21.

.
^ = 1 , ,=5 , 0= 4 , 2 ^ = 2 ;
^ ,
. . ^ , 3> , ^ .

,
, ,
.
6-
,

.
8.3.5.
.

252253

du/dt + g ^/ = v 2u/dz2;

(8.3.37)
-

h = ;
v = v 0h 2= v0a2x2.
-
(
(, U z) = U () W (0) ;
Q z/h = /,
(8.3.38)
,
, :
Ch V m/vp 8
Ch / t o / v o

(8.3.39)

U( x ) ,{)

(8.3.40)

(8.3.41)
," vo->-0 >-1, (8.3.40)
, 2.4.
(8.3.40)
. ,
:

| j .
(8.3.42) (2.2.25) ,
( L r / / ). ,
, . .
, (8.3.42)
(8.3.43)
Z-/? = g-1 | / [ 162. s i n ( / 2 )].
,

-
. '

8.

8.4,

.
,
, ,
,
.
, 24
, 48 ,
8 10 (., , [59, 66] ).
,
,
.
,

. ()

,
.
:
,
,
,
. ,
' -^
[11, 60, 67].
- ,
. . . .

. ,
70
( 115 ) 90
.;
,
2 (
).
, 2 ,
.
1 ,
. ,

(. 2.4).
-

.
.
2542S5



. ,
,
, ,
:
N / T = \0~lR,K,

(8.4.1)

N ,

\

.
,
( 30 ).
(8.4.1)
, .
8.2
100


.
.

. -
.
.
.
.
.
.
. -
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. -
.

.
.
. -
.
.
.
.
.

2,5
8,0
9,5
16,5
8,0
18,0
20,5
8,5
11,0
2,5
9,0
17,5
9,0
11,0
17,0
18,0
11,0
12,0
4,5
2,5
7,0
7,0
13,0


.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. --
.
.
.
. '
.
.

5,0
7,0
3,5
3,0
1,0
1,0
2,0
1,0
1,5
1,0
1,0
1,5
1,0
13,5
10,5
8,5
8,0
8,0
17,0
1,0
10,5
7,5
1,0
0,5

8.

. 8.2
,
(8.4.1) 100 .

,
.
8.3

. -
.
.

. -
.
.
. (. )
. -- (. )
. (. )
. -
.
.
.
.

9,5
8,5
11,5
11,0
18,0
10,0
8,5
8,0
17,0
, 7,5
4,5
7,0
1,0
1,0
0,5

,
/

7
4
10
10
19
4,6
2,2
2,6
3,5
1,9
4,5
2,6
0,6
0,6
1,1

0,5
0,2
0,8
0,7
2,0
0,2
0,06
0,1
0,1
0,05
0,47
0,1
0,04
0,04
0,33

2,
(. 8.3),
,
, ,
.
, < 1,
.
. -, > 1,
5 1952 .


, ,
.
(
, ,
. .); .


.
:
, ,
.
;
, ,

,
.
;
. ,

.
,
- .


,
.

.
, ,

;
,
, .
:

, -
,
.

257

Summary

The book is concerned with analysis of long-wave processes and numerical solution to initial boundary-value problems of the dynamics
and pollution in the coastal zone.
The subject of analytical research within the framework of the
shallow water equations is the wave run-up to shore. Physical as
pect of the processes of coastal zone flooding are discussed in de
tail, namely: characteristics of the run-up, conditions of breaking
and influence of nonlinear, dissipative'and dispersive effects. The
results are classified according to the type of disturbances arid ele
ments of the coastal geometry; they belong in the development of
analytical researches, extension of physical concepts, formulation of
procedures for extremal run-up calculations and wave-breaking cri
terion, and the finding of a test solution for approbation of the nu
merical algorithmes.
The numerical realization of the initial boundary-value problems
uses the transfer to the boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinates. In
this connection the domain given is mapped onto a canonical one in
which the transformed equations are integrated by the difference
method. The advantage of this approach is simple form ulationof the
boundary conditions for a more exact description of the boundary
compared with the usual piecewise linear boundary approximation.
The review of the difference methods for the hyperbolic initialvalue problems, detailed disscussion of the curvilinear coordinate
theory and the methods of curvilinear grids generation precedes pre
sentation of the concordant-coordinate method. This allows one
to estimate the place of the apparatus used in the general panorama
of the difference algorithms is computational fluid dynamics.
The calculations tested on the analytical solutions have used dif
ferent forms of the transformed equations and various schemes; in
that range one may prefer the form for contravariant components
of the flux, effectively realizable by the semi-implicit metho'd which
is absolutily stable in the subsonic case. The'results presented cover
a wide range of applications suchas calculations of the current field
and sea-level elevation in two dimensional and three dimensional
complicates domains, calculations of the transport and diffusion of
contaminants, and dynamics calculation in the region with a moving
boundary.

258

1. . .

. . , 1966,
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2. . ., . .

. . , , 1984,

. 20, 3,
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3. . ., . ., . ., . .

. .:

. JL, , 1983,
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4.
' . ., . ., . .

. . .

. . .
.

. , , 1983,
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5. . . H a i

. .:

, 1985. 160
.
6. . ., . .

. . , , 1985,
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7. . ., .- .

.
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8.
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.
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207
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5,
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17. . ., . . , .: ,
1973, 400
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18. . ., ' . .

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6,
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1986, 1,
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'
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22. . .

. . 2,

. .: , 1972. 227
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23. . ., . ., . ., . .

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280
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24. . .

. .1

. , ,
1985,
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25. . ., . . -

. .:

. ,
, 1985,
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26. . ., . !

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,
, 1978,
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27. 3 . ., JA . ., . ., JI. .

. .: ,
1980.
319 ,
28. . .

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>

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33. . .

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.
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35. . .

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36. . ., . .

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37. . ., . ., . .
.

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38. . ., . :, . .


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1974,
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260261

39. . . .

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40. JI ., JI.

. .

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1981. . 1. 480
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41. . ., . .

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42. . ., . ., . ., . .

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43. P. X.

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44. P. X., . ., . .

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19, 20
:
111, 113, 114
- 111, 112

114

110, 180
114, 115

112, 115, 183

22

26, 29, 31, 37, 48, 77, 224

24, 25, 83, 85, 190, 225, 226, 228, 238, 243
23, 36, 39, 43, 45, 50, 52, 59, 222, 224, 227, 228
34, 36, 56, 77

38, 58, 62, 63, 64, 69, 72, 78


18, 21, 29, 34, 40, 68, 70

24, 83, 190, 205, 225, 229, 230, 248

255

47, 80

118

16, 20, 88

14, 88

14, 89

160
156, 169
163, 165
150, 152, 153, 158
148, 153, 178, 198, 236

42, 44, 58, 60, 62, 70, 79, 84, 225, 253

166
165
166

266

8, 138, 140
8, 117, 138

39, 44, 52, 53, 59, 61, 63, 66, 71, 82, 224, 257
31, 37

55

40, 227
33, 40, 42, 46, 48, 58, 60, 70

16, 18, 88, 112, 135, 184


138, 158, 173, 174

141, 158, 196

12

43

71
12, 23, 24

98, 179

89, 92
95, 280, 282

101
'94, 98, 103, 106, 186
93, 103
175
92, 103, 175
-92, 96, 103, 175

100, 172, 185

95

178
95, 178, 182
95, 186

89, 97, 104, 184

99, 104, 184

184

92, 174

90, 98, 102, 183


94, 103
-91, 174, 175, 177, 236

198, 216, 248


218

4, 33, 106, 115, 187, 200,' 219, 227, 236, 242,


251, 252

15, 16, 125, 134, 138

17

18, 110


30, 77
11, 147
29

142, 210
149

167

133, 135
135

14

14, 15

108
108, 109, 112
90, 91, 93, 175
. 89, 108
& 165, 166

42
194, 246
194
194, 195, 241, 242, 245, 246
193, 241, 251, 252

67

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4.1. .................. ........... 117
4.1.1. . 4.1.2.

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4.2.

. . . . . . 132
4.2.1.

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4.2.4.

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5.

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5.1.1.

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5.2.

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7.

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7.1.

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270 271

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197
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.
8.

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222

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8.2.

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. 8.2.2.

.
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