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..

10

10-11 : /
.. , .. , .. .
2- ., . . .: , 1999

10-
I.

1. . .

1.
1. ,
.
(512).
32223
-
CH3CHCH2CH3
2-
CH3

CH3
CH3CCH3

2,2-

CH
H 3
H

H C H
H C + H

H
H
1
.
M (CH 4 ) 16
=
= 0,552

3. D(4) = r
M r
29

2.

D(26) =

M r (C2 H 6 ) 30
= 1,034
=
M r
29

D(38) =

M r (C3 H8 ) 44
= 1,517
=
M r
29

2.
1. ,
.
:
-
3223
-
32223
+
2. H I
H + I
+ I.
3. ) Mr(C2H6O) = 46
2

(C) =

2A r (C)
2 12
=
= 0,522 52,2%
M r (C2 H 6 O)
46

() =

6A r (H)
6 1
=
= 0,13 13%
M r (C2 H 6 O) 46

() =

A r (O)
16
=
= 0,348 34,8%
M r (C2 H 6 O) 46

) DH2(C2H6O) =

M r (C2 H 2 O) 46
=
= 23
M r (H 2 )
2

3.
1. , ,
.
614:
322223
-
CH3CHCH2CH2CH3
2-
CH3
CH3CH2CHCH2CH3

3-

CH3
CH3CHCHCH3

2,3-

CH3 CH3

CH3
CH3CCH2CH3

2,2-

CH3
H Br

H + Br
2 H Br.
M r (C2 H 6 ) 30
3. ) DH2(C2H6) =
=
= 15
M r (H 2 )
2

2.

) DH2(C4H10) =
) DH2(C2H4) =

M r (C4 H10 ) 58
=
= 29
M r (H 2 )
2

M r (C2 H 4 ) 28
=
= 14
M r (H 2 )
2

4.
1. , , .

322
32
CH3

CH
CH3
3222
CH3CHCH2

CH3
+
H + Cl
2. H Cl
2 : + Cl.
3. ) Mr(CH4) = 16
A r (C)
12
(C) =
=
= 0,75 75%
M r (CH 4 ) 16

() =

4A r (H)
4 1
=
= 0,25 25%
M r (CH 4 ) 16

) V = n Vm =

m
4
Vm = 22,4 = 5,6 .
M
16

II. ().
()
1.
1.
1. ) CH3CHCHCH3
2,3-
CH3 CH3
) CH3CH2CHCH2CH2CH3

3-

CH2
CH3 CH3

CH3CCH3

2,2-

CH3

2. ) CH3CHCH2CHCH3
)

CH3
CH3
CH3CHCH2CH2CH2CH3
CH3

2,4-
2-

) 3223
3. CH3CHCHCH2CH3

-
2,3-

CH3 CH3
2.
1. ) CH3CHCH3

2-

CH3
) CH2CHCH2CH3

3-

CH3 CH3

CH3

) CH3CH2CCH2CH2CH3

3,3-

CH3
CH3

2. ) CH3CCH2CH2CH3
CH3
) CH3CHCH2CH3

2,2-
2-

CH3
) CH3CHCHCH2CHCH3
CH3 CH3
3. CH3CHCH3

CH3
2-

CH3
3.
1. ) CH3CHCH2CH2CH2CH3
CH3
) 3223
CH3

CH3CHCH2CHCH3

CH3
2. ) CH CHCH
3
3

2,3,5-

2-

-
2,4-
2-

CH3

CH3

) CH3CH2CCH2CH2CH3

3,3-

CH3
) CH3CH2CHCH2CH3

3-

CH3
3. CH3CHCH2CH2CH3

2-

CH3
4.
1. ) CH3CHCHCH2CHCH3

2,3,5-

CH3 CH3
) CH3CH2CHCH3
CH3

CH3

2-

CH3

) CH3CCH2CH2CH3

2,2-

CH3

2. )

CH3CHCHCH3

2,3-

CH3 CH3
) CH3CH2CHCH2CH2CH 23

3-

CH2

CH3

CH3

) CH3CCH3

2,2-

CH3
3. CH3CH2CH2CHCH3

2-

CH3
2. ,
1.
1. ) 32223
) CH3CH2CHCH3

CH3

CH3CHCHCH2CH3
CH3 CH3
CH3

CH3CCH2CH2CH3

2.

1)

CH3
4 2) 3Br Na, CH3Br C2H6
3)

4)

CO2

h
Pt
1) C + 2H2
CH4;
2) CH4 + Br2
CH3Br + HBr
t
3) CH3Br + CH3Br + 2Na CH3CH3 + 2NaBr
4) 2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O
32

3.CH4 + HNO3 CH3NO2 + H2O


16

61

32 x
32 61
;
=
= 122 (CH3NO2)
=
16 61
16
m(CH3NO2) = (CH3NO2) m = 0,9 122 = 109,8 ()
: m(CH3NO2) = 109,8 .
2.
1. ) CH3CH2CHCH2CH3
CH3 CH
3

CH3CCH2CH3
CH3
CH3CHCHCH2CH3

CH3 CH3

CH3

CH3CCH CH3
CH3 C3

2. ) 4

+ 22;

hv
) C2H6 + Cl2 CH3CH2Cl + HCl

) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
) C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O
x

AlCl3

CH3CHCH2CH3
CH3

11,2

3. Al4C3 + 12H2O 4Al(OH)3 + 3CH4


144

322,4

x
11,2
=
;
144 3 22,4

11,2 144
= 24 ()
3 22,4

: m(Al4C3) = 24 .
3.
1. ) CH3CHCHCH3

CH3CH2CCH3

CH3 CH3
) CH3CH2CHCH2CH3

2. 26

CH3

CH3
25Br Na, C2H5Br 410

1)

CH3

2)

3)

4)

CO2

h
1) C2H6 + Br2
CH3CH2Br + HBr
2) C2H5Br + C2H5Br + 2Na CH3CH2CH2CH3 + 2NaBr

3)

AlCl3

CH3CH2CH2CH3

CH3CHCH3

CH3
4) 2CH3CHCH3 + 13O2 8CO2 + 10H2O

CH3
5

3.CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

22,4 44,8
44,8
722,4

5
x
=
22,4 44,8

226 + 72 42 + 62
2

= 5 44,8 = 10 (2);

22,4

2 7 22,4
= 7 (2);
44,8

2
y
=
44,8 7 22, 4

V(2) = 10 + 7 = 17

V = V (O 2 ) = 17 = 80,95 ()
(O 2 )

0, 21

: V = 80,95 .
4.
1. ) CH3CHCH2CH3
CH3

CH3

CH3

) CH3CHCHCH3

CH3CCH3
CH3

2. ) CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O


8

CH3

CH3

CH3CCH2CH3
CH3

) C2H6 Ni C2H4 + H2
t

h
) CH4 + Cl2
CH3Cl + HCl;
) CH4 + 2 CO + 32
41

CH3Cl + Cl2

CH2Cl2 + HCl

30

3. CH3COONa + NaOH CH4 + Na2CO3


n(CH3COONa) =
n(NaOH) =

m(CH 3COONa ) 41
=
= 0,5
M (CH 3COONa ) 82

m( NaOH) 30
= 0,75
=
M ( NaOH) 40

.. NaOH , CH3COONa

41

CH3COONa + NaOH CH4 + Na2CO3


82

22,4

41 22,4
=
= 11,2
82

41
x
=
;
82 22,4

: V(CH4) = 11,2 .
3.
184

1. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O


22,4 44,8

V(CH4) = 0,92 200 = 184 ()


184
x
=
;
22,4 44,8
8

184 44,8
=368 (2)
22,4

2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O;


722,4

44,8

8
y
;
=
44,8 7 22, 4
2

V(C2H6) = 0,04 200 = 8 ()

8 7 22,4
= 28 (2)
44,8

38 + 52 32 + 42
22,4

522,4

V(C3H8) = 0,01 200 = 2


2
z
2 5 22,4
;
z=
= 10 (2)
=
22,4
22, 4 5 22, 4
2 N2 .
V(2) = 368 + 28 + 10 = 406 ()
: V(O2) = 406 .
1000

2. 2614 + 192 122 + 142


286

1922,4

1000
x
=
;
2 86 19 22,4

V =

1000 19 22,4
= 2474,42 (2)
2 86

V(O 2 ) 2474,42
=
= 11783
0,21
(O 2 )

: V = 11783 .
3. () = 100% 80% = 20%;
100

2 +

m(H) = 5 100 0,2 = 100

1
2 2;
2

x=

18
100 = 900
2

18

: m(H2O) = 900 .
90

4.26

2 + 32;

90
x
;
=
30 2 12

90 2 12
= 72
30

212

30

m() = () m = 0,8 72 = 57,6


: m(C) = 57,6 .
18,6 3
3
t
5.CH4
C + 2H2
22,4 3

44,8 3

V(CH4) = 20 0,93 = 18,6 3;


0,8 3

26

22,4 3

18,6
x
18,6 44,8
=
;=
= 37,2 3 (2)
22,4 44,8
22,4

2 + 32

67,2 3

V(C2H6) = 0,04 20 = 0,8 3


0,8
y
0,8 67,2
; =
= 2,4 3 (2)
=
22
,
4
22, 4 67, 2
N2 2 . V(2) = 37,2 + 2,4 = 39,6 (3)
: V(H2) = 39,6 3.
4,48

6.26 + HNO3 C2H5NO2 + H2O


22,4

4,48 x
=
;
22,4 75

75

4,48 75
= 15 ;
22,4

: (C2H5NO2) = 0,8.
7. (H) = 100% 83,3% = 16,7%;

(C2H5NO2) =
CxHy

83,3 16,7
:
x:y=
= 6,942 : 16,7 = 1 : 2,4 = 5 : 12
12
1

C5H12
10

12
= 0,8 80%
15

Mr = 36 2 = 72; 512

Mr(C5H12) = 72;
: 512.
8.CxHyClz;

51,89 9,73 38,38


:
:
= 4,32:9,73:1,08 = 4:9:1
12
1
35,5

x:y:z =

C4H9Cl
Mr = 3,19 29 = 92,5
Mr(C4H9Cl) = 92,5;
C4H9Cl
: C4H9Cl.
9. CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O
m(C) =

12
88 = 24 ;
44

m(H) =

2
45 = 5 ;
18

x:y =

24 5
: = 2: 5
12 1

C2H5
M r
58
=
=2
M r (C2 H5 ) 29

Mr = 29 2 = 58;

Mr(C2H5) = 24 + 5 = 29;

410
: 410.
10. () = 100% 15,79% = 84,21%;

CxHy

84,21 15,79
:
= 7,02:15,79 = 1:2,25 = 4:9
x:y =
12
1

C4H9
Mr = 3,93 29 = 114;

Mr(C4H9) = 57;

M r
58
=
=2
M r (C2 H5 ) 29

818
: 818.
11. 2614 + 192 122 + 142
(614) = 100% 8% = 92%;
m(C6H14) = 0,92 500 = 460
460

2614 + 192 122 + 142


286

1222,4

460

=
;
2 86 12 22,4

460 12 22,4
= 718,9 (2)
2 86

: V(CO2) = 718,9 .
12. V(CH4) = n Vm =

m
10
Vm = 22,4 = 14
M
16

V(C3H8) = V(CH4) = 14
m(C3H8) = n M =

V
14
M=
44 = 27,5
Vm
22,4

: m(C3H8) = 27,5 .
11

13. CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O


m(C) =

3,6 0,8
12
2
:
13,2=3,6 ; m(H) = 7,2=0,8 ; x:y =
=0,3:0,8=3:8
12 1
44
18

C3H8
Mr(C3H8) = 44; Mr = 22 2 = 44;
: 38.
850

38

14. 4 + 22 2 + 22
22,4 44,8

V(CH4) = 0,85 1000 = 850


850
x
=
;
22,4 44,8
60

850 44,8
= 1700 (2)
22,4

226 + 72 42 + 62
44,8

722,4

V(C2H6) = 0,06 1000 = 60


60
y
60 7 22,4
=
;
=
= 210 (2)
44,8
44,8 7 22, 4
30

2 + 2 22
44,8 22,4

30
z
30 22,4
; z=
= 15 (2)
=
44,8
44,8 22, 4
CO2, N2 .
V ( ) 1925
V(2)=1700+210+15=1925 ();
V= 2 =
=9167
0,21
( 2 )
: 9167 .
22,4 18
15. 5,6 18 ;
22,4 M; M =
= 72 /
5,6
CnH2n+2 = 72;
14n + 2 = 72;
n=5
C5H12
32223
-
2-
CH3CHCH2CH3

V(CO) = 0,03 1000 = 30 ;

CH3
CH3
CH3CCH3
CH3

12

2,2-

16. () = 100% 81,8% = 18,2%;

CxHy

81,8 18,2
x:y =
= 6,817:18,2 = 3:8;
:
12
1

Mr(C3H8) = 44;
: 38.

C3H8

Mr = 1,57 28 = 44;

17. CkH2k+2 + O2 kCO2 + (k+1)H2O;

n(CO2) = V = 22,4 = 1
Vm

22,4

k
1
= ; k = 1; 4
k +1 2

m 36
= 2 ;
n(H2O) = =
M 18
5

38

4 + 22 2 + 22
22,4

44,8

5
x
;
=
22,4 44,8

= 5 44,8 = 10 (2)
22,4

: 4, V(O2) = 10 .
43

18. 614 + HNO3 C6H13NO2 + H2O


86

131

43131
=
= 65,5
86

43
x
;
=
86 131

m(C6H13NO2) = (C6H13NO2) m = 0,8 65,5 = 52,4


: m(C6H13NO2) = 52,4 .
30

19. 4 + 22 2 + 22
22,4 44,8

V(O2 ) 60
30
x
; = 30 44,8 =60 (2); (2)=
=0,3 30%
=
=
V 200
22,4
22,4 44,8

20. Mr = 0,6 29 = 17,4


, 1 .
16 + 30(1 ) = 17,4; 14 = 12,6;
= 0,9 4
V(CH4) = 2,7 ; (26) = 0,1; V(C2H6) = 0,1 3 = 0,3
2,7

4 + 22 2 + 22
22,4 44,8

2,7

=
;
22,4 44,8
0,3

2,7 44,8
= 5,4 (2)
22,4

226 + 72 42 + 62
44,8

722,4

0,3
y ;
=
44,8 7 22, 4

= 0,3 7 22,4 = 1,05 (2)


44,8

13

V(2) = 5,4 + 1,05 = 6,45 ()


: V(O2) = 6,45 .
21. CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O
m(C)=

2, 7 0,5
12
2
:
9,9=2,7 ; m(H)= 4,5=0,5 ; x:y=
=0,225:0,5=9:20
44
18
12 1

C9H20
Mr(C9H20) = 128; Mr = 64 2 = 128;
: 920.
84

920

+ Br2

22.

CH2CH2CH2
Br 202

42

84
x
=
;
42 202

Br

84 202
= 404
42

m(C3H6Br2) = (C3H6Br2) m = 404 0,85 = 343,4


: m(C3H6Br2) = 343,4 .
23. () = 100% 85,71% = 14,29%;
CxHy
x:y =

85,71 14,29
:
= 7,14:14,29 = 1:2
12
1

CH2
Mr(CH2) = 14;

Mr = 1,931 29 = 56;

M r
56
=
=4
M r (CH 2 ) 14

48
: 48.
6

24. 4 + 22 2 + 22
22,4 44,8
6
x ;
=
22,4 44,8
8

= 6 44,8 = 12 (2)
22,4

48 + 62 42 + 42
22,4

622,4

8
y
;
=
22, 4 6 22, 4

= 8 6 22,4 = 48 (2)
22,4

V(2) = 12 + 48 = 60 ();

V = V (O 2 ) = 60 = 286 ()

: V = 286 .
21

.
Pt
CH3CH2CH 3
+ H2
25.
42

14

22,4

(O 2 )

0,21

21 22, 4
21
x
;
=
= 11,2
=
42 22, 4
42
V(38) = (38) V = 0,95 11,2 = 10,64 ()
: m(C3H8) = 10,64 .

4. II
1.
1. CH3CHCHCH3

2,3-

CH3 CH3

:
CH3 CH CH CH 2 CH3
2,3-
CH3 CH3
:
322223
-
CH3 CH CH 2 CH 2 CH3
2-
CH3
2. ) CH CH CH CH AlCl3 CH CHCH
3

) 38

CH3

52

32

2-
42

o (IV)

) 4 + Cl2 h CH3Cl + HCl

3Cl + Cl2 h CH2Cl2 + HCl


CH2Cl2 + Cl2
24

3. 4

16

24
=
;
16 12

CHCl3 + HCl

+ 22

12

24 12
= 18 ()
16

m() = () m = 0,96 18 = 17,28


: m(C) = 17,28 .
4. () = 100% 80% = 20%;
CxHy
x:y =

80 20
:
= 6,67:20 = 1:3
12 10

CH3
15

M r
30
=
=2
M r (CH3 ) 15

Mr = 15 2 = 30;

Mr(CH3) = 15;

26
: 26.
2.
1. CH3CHCH3
2-
CH3
:
323
CH3CHCH2CH3

2-

CH3
:
3223
-
+
2. 4 1) CH3Cl CH3Cl Na C2H6 3) C2H5Br
2)
1) CH4 + Cl2 h CH3Cl
+ HCl

0 C H + 2NaCl
2) 3Cl + CH3Cl + 2Na
2 6

3) 26 + Br2 h CH3CH2Br + HBr

10

3. 226 + 72 42 + 62
44,8

722,4

10

10 7 22,4
; =
= 35 (2)
=
44,8 7 22,4
44,8

V =

V (O 2 )
35
=
= 167
(O 2 ) 0,21

: V(O2) = 35 ; V = 167 .
4. () = 100% 25% = 75%;
CxHy
x:y =

0,75 0,25
:
= 0,0625:0,25 = 1:4
12
1

CH4
Mr(CH4) = 16; Mr = 32 0,5 = 16;
4
: 4.
3.
1. CH3CHCH2CHCH3
2,4-
CH3
:

16

CH3

CH3CHCH2CH2CH3

2-

CH3
CH3CHCH2CHCH2CH3
CH3
:
CH3

2,4-

CH3

2,2-

CH3CCH2CH2CH3
CH3
2. ) 4 + 22

2 + 22

(IV)

) 38 + Br2 h CH3CHCH3 + HBr


Br
2-

CH3CHCH3 + Br2

CH3CCH3 + HBr

Br

) 26

Br

Br
t

3. 24

2,2-

2 + 32

22 + 32

1
1
n(C2H2) = n(CH4) = 14 = 7
2
2

V(C2H2) = n(C2H2) Vm = 7 22,4 = 156,8


(22) =

120,96
= 0,7714 77,14%
156,8

: (22) = 77,14%.
4. () = 100% 20% = 80%;
x:y =

CxHy

80 20
:
= 6,667:20 = 1:3
12 1

CH3
Mr(CH3) = 15;

Mr = 1,035 29 = 30;

M r
30
=
=2
M r (CH3 ) 15

26 .
: 26.
17

4.
CH3

1.

2,2-

CH3CCH3

: CH3
CH3
CH3CCH2CH3

2,2-

CH3
:
32223
CH3CHCH2CH3

-
2-

CH3
Na, C2H5Cl
2.26 1) 25Cl
C4H10
2)
1) C2H6 + Cl2 h C2H5Cl + HCl

3)

CO2

2) C2H5Cl + C2H5Cl + 2Na C4H10 + 2NaCl

3) 2410 + 132 82 + 102

(IV)

284

50

3. 2CH3I + 2Na C2H6 + 2NaI


m(CH3 I) 284
m( Na ) 50
n(CH3I)=
=
=0,5 ; n(Na) =
=
= 2,17
M ( Na ) 23
M(CH3 I) 142
.. Na , CH3I.
284

2CH3I + 2Na C2H6 + 2NaI


2142

284
x
=
;
2 142 22,4

22,4

284 22,4
= 22,4 (26)
2 142

: V(C2H6) = 22,4 .
4. () = 100% 75% = 25%;

CxHy

0,75 0,25
= 0,0625:0,25 = 1:4
x:y =
:
12
1

CH4
Mr(CH4) = 16; Mr = 0,572 28 = 16;
: 4.
18

III. (, )
1. ,
1.
1. CH2 CHCH2CH3
-1
:
-1
CH2 CHCH3

CH2 CH2
2. ) CH3CHCH2CH CH2
4--1
CH3

) CH3CH2CH2C

CHCH3

3--2

CH2
CH3

) CH3CH2CH CHCH2CH3
-3
3. CH2 CHCH2CH2CH3
-1

3--1
CH2 CHCHCH3
CH3

-2
CH3CH CHCH2CH3
2.
1. CH2 CHCHCH3
3--1
CH3
) CH2 CHCH2CH3
CH2 CHCHCH2CH3

-1
3--1

CH3
) CH2 CHCH2CH2CH3
2. ) CH3CH CCH2CH3
CH3
) CH2 CHCH2CH3
) CH3CHCHCH2CH

-1
3--2

-1
5- 4--1
CH2

CH3 C2H5
3. ,
-1
CH2 CHCH3
3 6

19

CH2

CHCH2CH3
-1
48

3.
1. CH2 CHCH2CH3
-1

2--1
CH2 CCH3

CH3

-2
CH3CH CHCH3
2. ) CH3CH CHCHCH2CHCH3
C2H5
6--4--2
) CH2 CHCHCH3

CH3

3--1

CH3
) CH3CHCH CHCH3

4--2

CH3
CH
CH
CHCH2CH3 -2
3.
3
:
-2
CH3CH CHCH3
-2
CH3CH CHCH2CH2CH3
4.
1. CnH2n
24 ()
36
48
510
612
2. H2C CCH2CH3 2--1
CH3
H2C

CHCHCH2CH3

CH3C

CH3
CHCHCH2CH3

C2H5
CH3
3. :
) CH2 CHCH2CH2CH3

20

3--1
2--4--2

-1

) CH3CH CHCH2CH3
) CH2 CHCHCH3
CH3
:
) CH2 CHCH2CH2CH3
) CH2 CHCH3

-2
3--1

) CH3CH CHCH2CH3

) CH3CH CHCH3
2.
1.
Pt
1. CH2 CHCH2CH3 + H2 t CH3CH2CH2CH3
-

CH2

CHCH2CH3 + Br2

CH2CHCH2CH3

CH2

CHCH2CH3 + HBr

Br
Br
1,2-
CH3CHCH2CH3

2. ) C2H5OH
t
) CH 3CH2 + KOH

Br

2-
CH2 CH2 + H2O
CH 2 + KCl + H2O
CH 2

H 2SO4

Cl
5

3. 24 + 32 22 + 22
22,4 67,2

5
x
=
;
22,4 67,2

5 67,2
= 15 (2);
22,4

V=

V (O 2 )
15
=
=71,4
(O 2 ) 0,21

: V = 71,4 .
2. H2 SO 4
1. 1) 25
24 + 2;
2) 24 + HCl C2H5Cl
t
3) C2H4 + Cl2 C2H4Cl2;
4) C2H4 + H2 Pt C2H6
t
2. , C2H4Br2:
C2H4 + Br2 C2H4Br2
x

92

3. C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH


28

x
92
=
;
28 46

46

m
56
28 92
= 56 ; m(24) =
=
= 70
46
(C2 H5 OH) 0,8

: m(C2H4) = 70 .
21

3.
1. ) CH2 CHCH3 + HCl

CH3CHCH3
Cl

) CH3CH

CHCH3 + H2

Pt
t

2-

CH3CH2CH2CH3

) 24 + 32 22 + 22

(IV)

) CH2

CHCH2CH2CH3 + Br2

CH2CHCH2CH2CH3

Br
Br 1,2-
2.
.
3 CH2

3 CH2CHCH3 +2KOH+2 MnO2

CHCH3 +2 KMnO4 +42

OH

CH2

CHCH3 + Br2

CH2CHCH3
Br

20

Pt
3. 24 + 2
t
22,4
20

=
;
22,4 22,4

OH

Br

26

22,4

= 20 (26); (26) =

V
V

18
= 0,9 90%
20

: (26) = 90%.
1)4.
2)
3)
4)
1. C2H4
C2H6
C2H5Cl
C2H4
CO2
Pt
C2H6
1) C2H4 + H2
t
2) C2H6 + Cl2 h C2H5Cl + HCl
3) C2H5Cl + KOH C2H4 + KCl + H2O
4) C2H4 + 3O2 2CO2 + 2H2O
2. nC2H4 (CH2CH2)n

, .
nC3H6

CH2CH
CH3

22

, , .
3. CH2

1,12

22,4

160

CHCH3 + Br2

1,12

=
;
22,4 160

CH2CHCH3

Br
22,4 160
=
= 8 ;
1,12

Br

m- =

m(Br2 )
8
=
= 500
( Br2 ) 0,016

: m- = 500 .
3. .
1.
1. , , CnH2n2.

CH2 C CH2
CH2 CHCH CH2 -1,3
-1,2
CH2 C CHCH3
2. C2H4 a) C2H5OH ) C4H6 )
) C2H4 + H2O H2SO4 C2H5OH
t
) 2C2H5OH
CH2 CHCH CH2 + 2H2O + H2
ZnO/Al2O3
t
(CH2CH CHCH2) n
)nCH2 CHCH CH2
3. .
( ), .
2.
1. .
CH2 CHCH CH2 + Br2
CH2CH
Br
3CH2

CHCH2 + CH2
Br

CHCH

CH2CH

CHCHCH2
Br

Br

CH2 + 2KMnO4 + 4H2O

CHCH2 + CH2

CHCHCH2

OH
OH
OH OH
- , -1,3
, .
2. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
CH2 CCH CH2
CH3

23

) CH CH CH CH CH
3
2
2
2
3
Pt
) CH3CHCH2CH3
t

AlCl3

CH2

CH3CHCH2CH3

CCH

CH3
CH2 + 22

CH3
CH3
3. , .
3.
1. CnH2n C5H10 CH2 CHCH2CH2CH3

CnH2n2
C5H8
CH2 CHCH CHCH2

, , , ..
.
a)

2. C4H10

Pt

) C4H10 t

C4H8

C4H6

CH2CH

CHCH2

Cl

C4H8 + H2

Cl

Pt

) C4H8 t C4H6 + H2
) CH2 CHCH CH2 + Cl2

CH2CH

CHCH2

Cl
Cl
3. , 30%.
4.
1. 58 :
-1,2
CH2 C CHCH2CH3
3--1,2
CH2 C CCH3
CH3
CHCH CHCH3
CCH CH2

-1,3
2--1,3

CH3
CHCH2CH

-1,4

CH2
CH2
CH2

2. ) CH2

24

CHCH

CH2

Pt
CH2 + 2H2 t

CH3CH2CH2CH3

) CH2

CHCH

CH2 + 2 Br2

CH2CHCHCH2
Br

Br

Br

Br

1,2,3,4-

3. )
)
) , , , ..
.
4. ()
1.
a)
)
)
1. CaC2
C2H2
A
C2H5Cl
) CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2
) C2H2 + H2 Pt C2H4
t

) C2H4 + HCl C2H5Cl


2. 2--1,3 :
-1
CH CCH2CH2CH3
-2
CH3C CCH2CH3
3--1
CH
CCHCH3
CH3

3. CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2


(CaC2) = 100% 20% = 80%;
m(CaC2) = 0,8 65 = 52
52

CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2


64

52
x
;
=
64 22,4

22,4

52 22,4
=
= 18,2 ()
64

: V(C2H2) = 18,2 .
2.
1. ) 2C2H2 + 5O2 4CO2 + 2H2O

(IV)

) C2H2 + H2O

[Hg2+]

CH3C

) H C CH3 + 2 H 2 = CH CH3

2. ) 4--2

CH3C

CCHCH3
CH3

25

) -2 CH3C

CCH3

CH3

) 3,3--1

CH3

) 2,5--3

CH3
CH3CHC CCHCH3

61,6

3. C2H2 + H2O [Hg ]


22,4

CH3
O

2+

CCCH3

CH3

CH3C
44

H
61,6 44
=
= 121 ()
22,4

61,6

;
=
22,4 44

CH3C

72,6
= 0,6 60%
121

H
: (3) = 60%.
3.
a)

1. CH4
CH
X
t 2 2
) 2CH4
C2H2 + 3H2
) C2H2 + H2 C2H4

C2H4Br2

) C2H4 + Br2 C2H4Br2


2. CH CH

CH CCH3
CH CCH2CH3
:
CH3C CCH3

CH CCH2CH2CH3
3. 2CH4 t C2H2 + 3H2;
V(CH4) = 0,95 2600 = 2470 3
2470 3

2CH4

44,8 3

C2H2 + 3H2
22,4 3

2470

;
=
44,8 22,4

2470 22,4
= 1235 3
44,8

: V(C2H2) = 1235 3.
4.
1.
C2H2 + Br2 CH CH
Br

26

Br

1,2-


C2H2 + H2 Pt

CH2 CH2

C2H2 + HCl CH2

CH

Cl
2. 46 :
CH CCH2CH3 -1
-2
CH3C CCH3
CH2 HCCH CH2 -1,3
CH2 C CHCH3 -1,2

86,5

3. 2 22 CHBr2CHBr2
64

346

m(CaC2 ) 16
86,5
64 86,5
; =
= 16 ; (2)=
=
=0,8 80%
=
64 346
346
m
20

: (2) = 80%.
5.

1. V(C2H4) = n Vm =
m(C3H6) = n M =

7
m(C 2 H 4 )
Vm =
22,4 = 5,6
28
M (C 2 H 4 )

5, 6
V
M(C3H6) =
42 = 10,5
Vm
22, 4

: m(C3H6) = 10,5 .
2. 24 + Br2 C2H4Br2;

m(Br2) = 200 0,016 = 3,2

3,2

2H4 + Br2 2H4Br2


22,4 160

x
3,2
=
;
22,4 160

(24) =

22,4 3,2
= 0,448 (24)
160

0,448
= 0,56 56%; (26) = 100% 56% = 44%
0,8

: (24) = 56%; (26) = 44%.


10,5

5,6

3. CnH2n + HBr CnH2n+1Br


14n

22,4

10,5
5,6
=
;
14n 22,4

n = 3;

C3H6

: 36.
27

4. 24 + 32 22 + 22
22,4 67,2

6
x
;
=
22,4 67,2
4

= 6 67,2 = 18 (2)
22,4

236 + 92 62 + 62
44,8

922,4

;
=
44,8 9 22, 4

= 4 9 22,4 = 18 (2)
44,8

V(2) = 18+ 18 = 36 ;
: V = 171,4 .
5. 612 + 2 Pt 614;
t
m(C2H12) = 0,4 40 = 16,8 ;
16,8
Pt
612 + 2 t 614
84
22,4
16,8

=
;
84
22,4
23,2

510 + 2
70

22,4

=
Pt
t

V = V ( 2 ) = 36 = 171,4
( 2 )

0 21

Pt
510 + 2
512
t
m(C5H10) = 40 16,8 = 23,2

16,8 22,4
= 4,48
84

512

23, 2 22, 4
23, 2

=
;
=
= 7,42
70
22, 4
70
V(2) = 4,48 + 7,42 = 11,9 ()
: V(H2) = 11,9 .
6. CnH2n + O2 CO2 + H2O;
m(C) = 12 0,05 = 0,6

m(H) = 2 1 0,05 = 0,1 ;

CxHy;

x:y =

0,6 0,1
= 1:2
:
12 1

CH2
Mr(CH2) = 14;

Mr = 28 2,5 = 70;

510
: 510.
7. 36 + Br2 C3H6Br2;

M r
70
=
=5
M r (CH 2 ) 14

m(Br2) = 250 0,032 = 8

C3H6 + Br2 C3H6Br2


22,4 160

1,12
22,4 8
x
8
;=
= 1,12 (36); (C3H6) =
= 0,56 56%
=
160
2
22,4 160

28

(38) = 100% 56% = 44%


: (36) = 56%; (38) = 44%.
560

8. 24 + 2

H2SO4

25

22,4

560
x
=
;
22,4 46

46

560 46
=
= 1150 (25)
22,4

m(25) = m = 0,92 1150 = 1058


: m(C2H5OH) = 1058 .
9. 25 H2SO4 24 + 2
m- = V = 0,8 500 = 400 (); m(C2H5OH) = 0,96 400 = 384

384

C2H5OH

H2SO4

46

384
x
=
;
46
22,4

C2H4 + H2O

22,4

384 22,4
=
= 187
46

V(24) = (24) V = 0,8 187 = 149,6


: V(C2H4) = 149,6 .
CH2
10. CnH2n;
Mr(CH2) = 14; Mr = 2 28 = 56;
M r
4 12
56
=85,71%
=
= 4 ; 48 ; ()=
12 4 + 8
M r (CH 2 ) 14

: 48.
11. 24 + Br2 2H4Br2;
V(C2H4) = 0,328 10 = 3,28 ;
3,28

C3H6 + Br2 C3H6Br2


V(C3H6) = 0,672 10 = 6,72

24 + Br2 C2H4Br2
22,4

160

3,28
x
=
;
22,4 160
6,72

3,28 160
= 23,4
22,4

36 + Br2 C3H6Br2
22,4

160

6, 72

160 6,72
=
;
=
= 48 ;
22,4
22, 4 160
: m(Br2) = 71,4
92

12. 25
46

H2SO4

m(Br2)=23,4+48=71,4 ()

24 + 2
22,4

42
92
; = 92 22,4 =44,8 ; ( )= V
=0,9375 93,75%
=
=
2 4
46
V 44,8
46 22,4

29

: (24) = 93,75%.
13. C2H4 + H2 C2H6; C3H6 + H2 C3H8; C4H8 + H2 C4H10
V(C2H4) = 0,203 1000 = 203 ; V(C3H6) = 0,434 1000 = 434
V(C4H8) = 0,363 1000 = 363
203

24 + 2 26
22,4 22,4

203

=
;
22,4 22,4
434

= 203 (2)

36 + 2 38
22,4 22,4

434

=
;
22, 4 22, 4

= 434 (2)

363 z

48 +2 410
22,4 22,4

363
z
=
; z = 363 (2); V(2) = 203 + 434 + 363=1000
22, 4 22, 4
: V(H2) = 1000 .
14. CnH2n;
CH2
M r
42
Mr(CH2) = 14; Mr = 21 2 = 42;
=
=3
M r (CH 2 ) 14

36 ;
: 36.

() = 14,3%

9,4

15. 24 + Br2
CH2CH2
22,4

Br

188

x
9,4
=
;
22,4 188

(24) =

Br

22,4 9,4
= 1,12 (24)
188

1,12
= 0,448 44,8%;
2,5

(26) = 100% 44,8% = 55,2%

: (24) = 44,8%; (26) = 55,2%.


16. Mr = 1,593 44 = 70;
CnH2n;
14n = 70;
C5H10 ;
: 510.
17. CnH2n + O2 CO2 + H2O
30

5 12
() =
= 85,7%
70

n=5

m(C) =
x:y =

12
2
35,2 = 9,6 ; m(H) = 14,4 = 1,6 ; CxHy
44
18

9, 6 1, 6
:
= 1:2;
12 1

Mr(CH2) = 14;

CH2

Mr = 1,93 29 = 56;

M r
56
=
=4
M r (CH 2 ) 14

48
: 48.
7

16

18. CnH2n + Br2 CnH2nBr2


14n

160

7
16
=
;
14n 160

n = 5;

C5H10

: 510.
19. V(CH 4 ) = n Vm =
7

m
2
Vm = 22, 4 = 2,8 ; V(HBr)=V(CH4)=2,8
M
16

2,8

CnH2n + HBr CnH2n+1Br


14n

22,4

7
2,8
=
;
14n 22,4

n=4

C4H8
C2 = 23
C3 = 3
C3 = 2

-1
-2
2--1

3
: 48.
45,5

14,56

20. CnH2n + H2 CnH2n+2


14n

22,4

45,5 14,56
=
;
14n
22,4

n=5

C5H10
CH3CH CHCH2CH3
: 510.

-2

120

21. 48 + Br2 C4H8Br2


22,4

160

22,4 120
x
120
16,8
=
; =
=16,8 (48); (48)=
=0,336 33,6%
22,4 160
160
50

31

(410) = 100% 33,6% = 66,4%


: (48) = 33,6%; (410) = 66,4%.
5,4

4,48

22. CnH2n2 + 2HCl CnH2nCl2


142

44,8

5, 4
4, 48
=
;
14n 2 44,8
: 46.

23.2C2H5OH

ZnO/Al2O3

92

x
120
=
;
92 22,4

14n = 56;

n = 4;

C4H6

120

CH2 + 2H2O + H2

CHCH

CH2

22,4

92 120
= 493 ;
22,4

m =

(C4 H 6 )

493
= 657
0, 75

m 657
=
= 821
0,8
: V(C2H5OH) = 821 .

V(C2H5H) =

ZnO/Al2O3

CH2 CHCH CH2 + 2H2O + H2


24. 2C2H5OH
t
m- = V = 0,8 3000 = 2400
m(C2H5OH) = (C2H5OH) m- = 0,96 2400 = 2304
2304

2C2H5OH

ZnO/Al2O3

2 46

2304 x
=
;
2 46 54

CH2

CHCH

CH2 + 2H2O + H2

54

2304 54
= 1352
2 46

m(46) = (46) m = 0,75 1352 = 1014


: m(C4H6) = 1014 .
18,4

ZnO/Al2O3
25. 225
46 + 22 + 2
t
2 46
22,4
18,4

18,4 22,4
=
;
=
= 4,48
2 46 22,4
2 46
m (4 6 )
4
(46) =
=
= 0,893 89,3%
m (4 6 ) 4,48

: (46) = 89,3%.
26. CnH2n2 + O2 CO2 + H2O;
m(H) =
32

2
2,12 = 0,233; CxHy;
18

12
6,48 = 1,767
44
1,767 0,233
x:y =
=0,147:0,233=5:8
:
12
1

m(C) =

C5H8
Mr(C5H8) = 68; Mr = 34 2 = 68;
: 58.
16

58

27. 246 + 112 82 + 62


1122,4

44,8

16

16 11 22,4
V (O 2 )
88
=
; =
= 88 (2); V=
=
=419
44,8 11 22,4
4,8
(O 2 ) 0,21

: V = 419 .
28. 2 + 22 ()2 + 22
(2) = 100% 24% = 76%;
m(CaC2) = 0,76 150 = 114

114

CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2


64

22,4

114
x
=
;
64 22,4

114 22,4
=
= 39,9
64

: V(C2H2) = 39,9 .
208

29. 2C2H2 + 5O2 4CO2 + 2H2O


226

532

m(O 2 ) 640
208
x
208 5 32
=
;=
= 640 (2); m =
= 2783
=
2 26 5 32
2 26
(O2 ) 0,23

: m(O2) = 640 ; m = 2783 .

280

30. CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2


64

x
280
=
;
64 22,4

22,4

64 280
=
= 800
22,4

m = 1000 800 = 200 ;


: = 20%.

200
= 0,2 20%
1000

12,5

31. CaC2 C2H2 C2H3Cl


64

62,5

m
12,8
x 12,5
64 12,5
=20
; =
= 12,8 ; m(2)=
=
=
64 62,5
62,5
1 2 0,8 0,8
(2) = 100% 20% = 80%;
: m = 25 .
32. (22) = 100% 20% = 80%;

m =

m(CaC 2 ) 20
=
= 25
(CaC 2 ) 0,8

V(C2H2) = 25 0,8 = 20 ()
33

20

22 + 2Br2 C2H2Br4
22,4

320

20
x
=
;
22,4 320

20 320
= 285,7
22,4

: m(Br2) = 285,7 .
104
[Hg2+]
33. 22 + 2

CH3C

26

44

104
x
=
;
26 44

104 44
=
= 176
26

m(CH3CHO) = m (3) = 176 0,85 = 149,6


: m(CH3CHO) = 149,6 .
12

34. 24 + 2 26
22,4 22,4

(24) = 100% 40% = 60%;

V(C2H4) = 0,6 20 = 12

12 22,4
=
= 12 (2)
22,4

12
x
=
;
22,4 22,4

22 + 22 26
22,4

44,8

V(C2H2) = 0,4 20= 8 ;

=
;
22, 4 44,8

8 44,8
= 16
22,4

V(2) = 16 + 12 = 28
: V(H2) = 28 .
920

35. 24 22 + 32
44,8

22,4

V(CH4) = 0,92 1000 = 920


920
x
=
;
44,8 22,4

920 22,4
= 460 (22)
44,8

V = (22) V = 0,09 460 = 41,4


: V(C2H2) = 41,4 .
6

15

36. 22 + 2Cl2 CHCl2CHCl2


n(C2H2) =

6
= 0,268 ;
22,4

n(Cl2) =

15
= 0,67
22,4

.. Cl2 , 22.
n(C2H2) = n(C2H2Cl4) = 0,268
m(C2H2Cl4) = n M = 0,268 168 = 45 ()
34

: m(C2H2Cl4) = 45 .
37. CnH2n2 + O2 CO2 + H2O
m(C) =
x:y =

2
8,96
12 = 4,8 ; m(H) = 3,6 = 0,4 ;
18
22,4

4,8 0,4
= 1:1;
:
12 1

Mr(CH) = 13;

CxHy

CH

Mr = 13 2 = 26;

M r
26
=
=2
M r (CH 2 ) 13

22
: 22.
38. V(C2H2) = n Vm =
m(C3H4) = n M =

m(C 2 H 2 )
39
Vm =
22,4 = 33,6
M (C 2 H 2 )
26

V
33,6
M (C 3H 4 ) =
40 = 60
Vm
22,4

: m(C3H4) = 60 .
32

39. CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2


64

22,4

(2) = 100% 20% = 80%;


32
x
=
;
64 22,4
11,2

m(CaC2) = 0,8 40 = 32

32 22,4
=
= 11,2
64

22 + 2Br2 C2H2Br4
22,4

320

11,2
x
=
;
22,4 320

11,2 320
= 160 (Br2)
22,4

m(Br2 )
160
=
= 5000 = 5
(Br2 ) 0, 032
: m- = 5 .
40. 2 + 22 ()2 + 22
m(CaC2) = 0,85 120 = 102
(2) = 100% 15% = 85%;

m- =

102

2 + 22 ()2 + 22
64

22,4

102
x
=
;
64 22,4
35,7

102 22,4
=
= 35,7
64

222 + 52 42 + 22
44,8

522,4

35

35, 7
y
35,7 5 22,4
;
=
= 89,25 (2)
=
44,8
44,8 5 22, 4
: V(O2) = 89,25
5,6

41. 222 + 52 = 42 + 22 + 2610


44,8

5,6
x
=
;
44,8 2610

5,6 2610
= 326,25
44,8

: Q = 326,25 .
42. 2 + 22 ()2 + 22
(2) = 100% 16% = 84%;
m(CaC2) = 2000 0,84 = 1680

1680

CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2


64

22,4

1680 22,4
=
= 588
64

1680
x
=
;
64
22,4
588

22 + 52 42 + 22 + 2610
44,8

588
x
=
;
44,8 2610

588 2610
= 34256 = 34,256
44,8

: 34,256 .
43. CnH2n2;
14n 2 22,4 ;
n = 2;

13 11,2 ;

22 ;

: 22.
44. r(CnH2n2) = 14n 2 = 20 2;

n=3

312
() =
= 0,9 90%
40

C3H4 ;

: 34.
45. r(CnH2n2) = 14n 2 = 1,863 29;
C4H6 ;

14n = 56;

6 1
() =
= 0,111 11,1%
54

: 46.
6. III
1.
1. CH2 CHCHCH3

3--1

CH3

) CH2
36

14n = 28

2 1
() =
= 0,077 7,7%
26

CHCH2CH3

-1

n=4

) CH2
)

CHCH2CH2CH3 -1
CH2

H2C
H2C

CH2

CH2

1)

2)

4)

3)

C2H2
C2H4
C2H5Br
C4H10
2. CaC2
1) CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2
Pt
2) C2H2 + H2 t C2H4
3) C2H4 + HBr C2H5Br
4) 2C2H5Br + 2Na t C4H10 + 2NaBr
3. CH3CH2CH2 CH3

-1,3
CH2 CHCH CH2
4 . 2 , .
10

4. 4 + 22 2 + 22
22,4 44,8

10
x
=
;
22,4 44,8
20

10 44,8
= 20 (2)
22,4

24 + 32 22 + 22
22,4

67,2

20
y
20 67,2
=
; y=
= 60 (2); V(2) = 20 + 60 = 80 ()
22,4
22, 4 67, 2
: V(O2) = 80 .
2.
1. CH CCH2CH2CH3
-1
) CH3C CCH2CH3
-2
) CH CCH2CH3
-1
) CH CCHCH3
3--1

2. ) CH2

CH3
CHCH3 + HBr

CH3CHCH3
Br 2-

) 2C2H2 + 5O2 4CO2 + 2H2O


Pt
) CH3CH2CH2CH3 t
) 24 + HCl CH2CH3

Cl

CH2

CHCH

CH2 +22

37


3. 33
CH CH

2 , ,
.
7

4. CH2

CH2 + Br2
CH2BrCH2Br
m(C 2 H 4 )
7
V(C2H4) = n Vm =
Vm =
22,4 = 5,6
M (C 2 H 4 )
28
5,6
= 0,1867 18,67%; (26)=100%18,67%=81,33%
(24) =
30
: (24) = 18,67%; (26) = 81,33%.
3.
1. CH2 CHCH CHCH3 -1,3
) CH2 CHCH CH2
-1,3
) CH2 CHC CH2
2--1,3

CH3
CHCH2CH

) CH2
1)

2)

CH2

-1,4
4)

3)

2. CH4
CH
C2H6
C2H5Cl
C2H4
t 2 2
1) 2CH4
C2H2 + 3H2
Pt
C2H6
2) C2H2 + 2H2
h t
3) C2H6 + Cl2
C2H5Cl + HCl
4) C2H5Cl+ KOH C2H4 + KCl + H2O
3. CH2 CHCH2CH3
-1
CH3CH2CH2CH3

4 , , .
100

4. C2H5OH
46

100
x
=
;
46 22,4

H2SO4

C2H4 + H2O
22,4

22,4 100
=
= 48,7
46

V(24) = (24) V(C2H4) = 48,7 0,88 = 42,85


: V(C2H4) = 42,85 .
4.
1. CH2 CCH3
2--1
) CH2
38

CH3
CHCH2CH3

-1

) CH2

CCH2CH3

) H2 C

CH3
CH2

H2 C

CH2

2--1

2. ) 24 + 32 22 + 22
) 22 + Br2 CH CH
CH

Br
+
CH Br2

Br
CHBr2CHBr2

Br
Br
Pt
) CH2 CHCH2CH3 + H2
t

) CH2

CHCH3 + Cl2

CH3CH2CH2CH3

CH2ClCHClCH3
1,2-

3. CH2 CHCH3

323
3 ,
, .
4. CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2
m(CaC2) = 0,9 80 = 72
(CaC2) = 100% 10% = 90%;
72

2 + 22 ()2 + 22
64

22,4

72
x
=
;
64 22,4

72 22,4
=
= 25,2
64

: V(C2H2) = 25,2 .

IV. ()
1. ,

1.

1.

+ 3 H2

Pt
t

Br

+ Br2

FeBr 3

+ HBr

39

+ HNO3

NO2

H2SO4

+ H2O

2. 912 :
H3C

CH3
1,3,5-

CH3
CH3
1,2,3-

CH3
CH3

CH2CH2CH3

CH2CH3

3. 3CH

CH3 1--2-
C
CH t

n(C2H2) = 3n(C6H6) = 3 ;
m(C2H2) = n M = 3 26 = 78 ()
m
78
=
= 260 ()
m(22) =
(C6 H 6 ) 0,3
: m(C2H2) = 260 .
2.
1. 4 ) ) ) C6H5Cl
) 24 t 22 + 32
()

) 3C2H2

C
t

+ Cl2

2.

CH3

40

()
FeCl3

Cl
+ HCl

3 , - , 65 ,
.
3. CxHy
x:y =

92,31 7,69
:
= 7,69:7,69 = 1:1;
12
1

Mr(CH) = 13;

Mr = 39 2 = 78;

M r
78
=
=6
M r (CH) 13

26
: 66.
3.
1.
, , , .
CH4 + HNO3 t CH3NO2 + H2O
P
NO2
t
+ H2O
+ HNO3
H2SO4

CH4 + H2SO4 CH3SO2OH + H2O


SO2OH
+ H2O

+ H2SO4

2. 810 :
CH3
1,2-

CH3
CH3

1,3-
CH3

CH3
H3C

1,4-

C2H5

78

3. 66 + HNO3
78

t
H2SO4

C6H5NO2 + H2O
123

41

78
x
;
=
78 123

= 123 (65NO2)

(C6H5NO2) =

m
m

105
= 0,8537 85,37%
123

: (C6H5NO2) = 85,37%.
4.
CH3
1.
H2SO4
)
+ 3HNO3

CH3
O2N

) 266 + 152 122 + 62


Pt
t

NO2

+ 3H2
CH3

CH3

Pt
2.
t

CH2CH3

NO2
+ 32

+ 32

Pt
t

CH2CH3

+ 32

25

3. 3CH

67,2

CH

C
t
78

m
25
x
25 78
16
=
; =
=29 ; (66)=
=
=0,552 55,2%
67,2 78
67,2
m 29

: (66) = 55,2%.
2. ,

Na, CH3Br
1. 4 1) CH3Br
C2H6 3) C2H4 4) C2H2 5) C6H6
2)
h
CH3Br + HBr
1) CH4 + Br2
2) 2CH3Br + 2Na t CH3CH3 + 2NaBr
3) C2H6 Pt C2H4 + H2;
4) C2H4 Pt C2H2 + H2
t
t

5) 3C2H2 C
C6H6
t
2. CnH2n2 . ,
.
42

58
CH CCH2CH2CH3
CH3C CCH2CH3
CH3

-1
-2

3--1
CH CCHCH3
CH2
CHCH2CH CH2 -1,4
3. : ,
, , ..
.
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
C2H4 + 3O2 2CO2 + 2H2O
2C6H6 + 15O2 12CO2 + 6H2O
2.
C H NO
6 5

1.

CH4

1)

C2H2

2)

3)

C6H6

5)

C6H12

4)

1) 24

C6H5Br
22 + 32;

3)66 + HNO3

2) 322 t 66
NO2
+ H2O

H2SO4

t
Br

4) C6H6 + Br2

FeBr 3

+ HBr

5) C6H6 + 3H2 Pt
t
2. CnH2n+2 .
.
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

2-
CH3CHCH2CH3
CH3

CH3

CH3CCH3

2,2-

CH3
3. :
34

43


34 + 22 38
48
48 + 2 410

3.1)
2)
1. C2H5Cl
C2H4
C2H2 3) C6H6
1) C2H4 + HCl C2H5Cl
2) C2H2 + H2 Pt C2H4
t
3) 3C2H2 C C6H6
Cl
t
FeCl3

4) C6H6 + Cl2

4)

C6H5Cl

+ HCl

2. CnH2n .
, ,
.
CH2
-1
CHCH2CH3
-2
CH3CH CHCH3
2-
CH2
CCH3
H2 C

CH3
CH2

H2 C

CH2

H3C
H
H

CH3
H
CH3

--2

--2
C C
H3C
H
3. :

24 + Br2 CH2BrCH2Br
1,2-

-1,3
CH2
CHCH

CH2 + 2Br2

CH2CHCHCH2
Br

Br

Br

Br

1,2,3,4-

CH

CCH3 + 2Br2 Br2CHCBr2CH3

1,1,2,2-

4.
1. C 1) CH4

44

2)

CH3Cl

Na, C2H5Cl
3)

C3H8

4)

C3H7Br

1) C + 2H2 t CH4
2) CH4 + Cl2 h CH3Cl t
3) CH3Cl + 2Na + C2H5Cl
CH3CH2CH3 + 2NaCl
4) C3H8 + Br2 h C3H7Br + HBr
2. CnH2n2 , , ,
.
-1,3
CH2
CHCH CHCH3
CH2
CHCH2CH CH2 -1,4
2--1,3
CH2
CHC CH2
CH3
-1
CH CCH2CH2CH3
H3C
CH CH2
C C
--1,3
H
H
H
CH CH2
C C
--1,3
H3C
H
h
3. ) 2H6 + Cl2
C2H5Cl + HCl;
)C2H4 + HCl C2H5Cl
C2H4 + HCl C2H5Cl
)C2H2 + H2Pt C2H4;

3.
1.
1. :
( )
( , )
2.
4, 26 (33), 38 (323),
N2 ( N N ), 2 ( O C O ), 410
(3223).
t
612 + 614
3. 1226
t
t
1226
48 + 818;
1226
512 + 714
2.
1. . , : , , ,
.
2. : (2), (CH4),
(N3), (C2H4); , , .

45

3. 4 t + 22
t
24 + 2;
24 t 22 + 32
26
Pt
3.
1. , .
2. : (
),

), .

3. 716 K t 38 + 48
K
716 t 36 + 410;
716 t 26 + 510
4.
1. ,

.
.
2. 3 2 2 2 2 3

;
3 2 2 3
|
CH3
3. 24 t 22 + 32;
38 Pt
2 = 3 + 2
t

13,2

CnH2n6 + O2 nCO2 +
14n6

n 3
H2O
2

n44

3,9
13,2
=
14n 6 44n

171,6n = 184,8n 79,2


13,2n = 79,2
n=6
C6H6
: 66.
2. 2 + 22 ()2 + 22
(2) = 100% 12% = 88%
m(CaC2) = 0,88 300 = 264 ()
46

614

t
Pt

4.

1.
3,9

2
+42

264

2 + 2 ()2 + 22
64

3C2H2

264
=4,125
64
1
4,125
n(C6H6) = n(C2H2) =
= 1,375
3
3

n(C2H2) = n(CaC2) =

m(C6H6) = n M(C6H6) = 1,375 78 = 107,25 ()


66 + 32
n(H2) = 3n(C6H6) = 4,125
V(H2) = n Vm = 4,125 22,4 = 92,4 ()
: m(C6H6) = 107,25 ; V(H2) = 92,4 .
3.
46

CH3

CH3
O2N

NO2
+ 3H2O

+ 3HNO3
NO2

92

227

46

=
92 227
46 227
=
= 113,5 ()
92
92
(75(NO2)3) =
= 0,81 81%
113,5

: = 81%.
4.
138

CH3

CH2Br
+ Br2 h

92

+ HBr
171

47

138

=
92 171
138 171
=
= 256,5 ()
92

m = m = 0,85 256,5 = 218 ()


: m(C7H7Br) = 218 .
5.
10,6

CH3

+ 212 162 + 102


CH3

2106

2122,4

10,6

=
2 106 21 22,4
10,6 21 22,4
= 23,52 (2)
2 106
V(O 2 ) 23,52
V =
=
= 112 ()
0,21
(O 2 )

: V = 112 .
6.
6,72

322
67,2

66
78

6,72

=
67,2 78

6,72 78
= 7,8
67,2

m(66) = V = 0,88 5 = 4,4


(66) =

4,4
= 0,564 56,4%
7,8

: (66) = 56,4%.
7.

393,6

66 + HNO3 C6H5NO2 + H2O


78

393,3
=
78
123

48

123

78 393,6
= 249,6
123

m (66) =

(6 5 NO2 )
: m(C6H5NO2) = 312 .
8.
31,2
32
h
66 + 3Cl2
C6H6Cl6

249, 6
= 312 ()
0,8

31,2
= 0,4
78
32
n(Cl2) =
= 1,429
22,4

n(C6H6) =

.. Cl2 , .
h
66 + 3Cl2
C6H6Cl6
n(C6H6Cl6) = n(C6H6) = 0,4
m(C6H6Cl6) = n M(C6H6Cl6) = 0,4 291 = 116,4
: m(C6H6Cl6) = 116,4 .
9.
490

CH3

CH3

Pt
t

+ 3H 2
67,2

98

490

=
98
67,2

490 67,2
= 336
98

V(2) = V (2) = 0,75 336 = 252 ()


: V(H2) = 252 .
10. C7H16

CH3

Pt
t

+ 4H2

84

612 + 2 614
n(H2) = n(C6H12) =
n(C7H16) =

m(C6H12 ) 84
=
= 1
M (C6H12 ) 84

1
n(H2) = 0,25
4

49

m(C7H16) = n M(C7H16) = 0,25 100 = 25 ()


n(C7H8) =

1
n(H2) = 0,25
4

m(C7H8) = n M(C7H8) = 0,25 92 = 23 ()


: m(C7H16) = 25 ; m(C7H8) = 23 .

V.
1.
1.
1. CH3CH2CHCH3
-2
OH
CH3
CH3CH2CCH3

2.

OH
CH3

2--2

CH3CH2CCH2CH3

3--3

OH
CH3CHCH2CH3

-2

OH
322
-1
3. :
2C2H5OH + 2Na 2C2H5ONa + H2
:
H SO4

2H5OH + HBr 2
(II):

C2H5Br + H2O

1. CH3CCH2CH3

3--3

O
C2H5OH + CuO t H3C
+ Cu + H2O
H
2.
OH

CH2
CH3

50

HOCH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
2.
CH3
CH3CCH3

-1

2--2

OH
CH3CHCH2CH2CH3

-2

OH
3222
-1
3. ) 2CH3OH + 2Na 2CH3ONa + H2
O

)CH3OH + H3C
) 23

H2SO4

) CH3OH + HBr

O
H2SO4

H3C

OCH 3

+ H2O

33 + 2

H2SO4

CH3Br + H2O

O
t HC
) 3 + CuO
+ Cu + H2O
H
3.
1. CH3CH2CHCH3
3--1
CH2CH2OH
CH3CH2CHCHCH3

2.

3--2

CH3 CH3 OH
CH3CCH2CH3

2--2

OH

OH
CH3CCHCHCH3

2,3,4--2

CH3 CH3 CH3


CH3CHCH3

-2

OH
3. ) CH4 + Cl2 h CH3Cl + HCl

51

CH3Cl + KOH CH3OH + KCl


CO + 2H2

t
ZnO

CH3OH

CH3CHCH3 + HCl H2SO4

CH 3CHCH3 + H2O
Cl

OH

) CH3OH + C2H5OH
4.
1.
OH

H2SO4

CH3OC2H5 + H2O

2,3--2

CH3CHCCH3
CH3 CH3

3--2

CH3CHCHOH

CH3 CH3
2. CH3CH2CHCH2OH

2--1

CH3

OH
CH3CCH2CH2CH3

2--2

CH3
CH3
CH3CCH2OH
CH3

3. 22

1)

24

2,2--1

2)

25

3)

25Cl

4)

C2H5OH
5)

Pt
1) C2H2 + H2 t C2H4

2) C2H4 + H2O

H2SO4

C2H5OC2H5

C2H5OH

H SO

3) C2H5OH + HCl 2 4 C2H5Cl + H2O


4) C2H5Cl + KOH C2H5OH + KCl
5) 2C2H5OH
52

H2SO4

C2H5OC2H5 + H2O

2.
1.
1. 25

CH2CH2
OH

OH
OH


.
2. ) .
) , Cu2+.
3. :
OH
ONa
+ H2O

+ NaOH


Cl

:
OH

OH
+ 3Cl2

+ 3HCl
Cl

:
OH

NO2

Cl
OH

+ 3NO2

+ 3H2 O
O2 N

NO2

2, 4, 6-
2.
1. , , .. -, - .
2. 3 3 , , .
2CH2CHCH2 + 3H2
2CH2CHCH2 + 6Na
OH OH OH
3. CH2CHCHCH3
OH

ONa ONa ONa


-1,2,3

OH OH

53

CH2CHCH2CH2
OH

OH

OH

CH OH
2

CH
3
CH2CHCH
2 OH
CH2C CH 2
OH
OH

OH

-1,2,4

2--1,3

2--1,2,3

OH

3.
1. :
2CH2CHCH2 + H2
2CH2CHCH2 + 2Na
ONa OH OH

OH OH

OH

CH2CHCH2 + 2Na
OH

OH

ONa ONa OH

OH

2CH2CHCH2 + 6Na
OH OH OH
:
CH2CHCH2 + 3HNO3
OH

OH

CH2CHCH 2 + H 2

2CH2CHCH2 + 3H2
ONa ONa ONa
CH2CHCH 2 + 3H2 O
ONO ONO ONO
2
2
2

OH

2. -M , , .
OH
ONa
+ NaOH

+ H2O

CH3OH + NaOH
OH

3.

O2N

NO2

2,4,6-

NO2
.

54

4.
1. ) , .. , : , , , .
) ,
, : ,
;
, , .
2C2H5OH + 2Na 2C2H5ONa + H2
OH
ONa
2
+ 2Na
2
+ H2

CH3CH2OH + NaOH
C2H5OH + NaOH C6H5ONa + H2O
2. Cu(OH)2 - ,
.
3. CH2CHCH3
-1,2
OH OH
CH2CH2CH2

OH

OH

30

-1,3
3.

4,6

1. 2C2H5OH + 2Na 2C2H5ONa + H2


n(Na) =

4,6
= 0,2 ;
23

n(C2H5OH) =

30
= 0,65
46

.. 25 , Na.
4,6

2C2H5OH + 2Na 2C2H5ONa + H2


46

4,6

=
;
46 22,4

22,4

4,6 22,4
=
= 22,4
46

: V(H2) = 2,24 .

8,4

2. 2322 + 2Na 2CH3CH2CH2ONa + H2


260

22,4

55


8,4
2 60 8,4
m(C3H 7OH)
45
=
; =
= 45 ; (37) =
=
=
2 60 22,4
22,4
m
200

= 0,225 22,5%
: (37) = 22,5%.
35

9,2

3. 2C3H7OH + 2Na 2C3H7ONa + H2


n(Na) =

9,2
= 0,4 ;
23

n(C3H7OH) =

35
= 0,583
60

.. 37 , Na.
9,2

2C3H7OH + 2Na 2C3H7ONa + H2


223

9,2

=
;
2 23 2 82

282

9,2 2 82
=
= 32,8
2 23

: m(C3H7ONa) = 32,8 .
4. CxHyOz;

x:y:z =

52,18 13,04 34,78


= 4,348:13,04:2,17 = 2:6:1
:
:
16
1
12

26;
Mr(C2H6O) = 212 + 61 + 116 = 46
: Mr(C2H6O) = 46.
0,5

H SO

5. CH3OH + KBr 2 4
CH3Br + KOH
n(CH3Br) = n(CH3OH) = 0,5
m(CH3Br) = n M(CH3Br) = 0,5 95 = 47,5 ()
(H3Br) =

m
m

38
= 0,8 80%
47,5

: (H3Br) = 80%.
6. 38 2 1 :
-2
CH3CHCH3
OH
CH3CH2CH2OH
CH3OCH2CH3
15

-1

7. 2C3H7OH + 2K 2C3H7OK + H2
n(C3H7OH) =

15
= 0,25 ;
60

n(K) =

6
= 0,154
39

.. 37 , .
6

2C3H7OH + 2K 2C3H7OK + H2
239

56

298

;
=
2 39 2 98

6 2 98
= 15,08 ()
2 39

: m(C3H7OK) = 15,08 .
18,8

8. 65 + 3NO3

OH

O2N

NO2

363

94

+ 3H2O

NO2
18,8 3 63
=
= 37,8 ()
94

18,8

=
;
94
3 63

: m(HNO3) = 37,8 .

OH
28,2

Br

Br

9. 65 + 3Br2

+ 3HBr

94

Br

331

79, 44
28,2
28,2 331
; =
=99,3 (); (6H2OHBr3)=
=0,80 80%
=
94 331
94
99,3
: (6H2OHBr3) = 80%.
9,4

1,6

10. 2C6H5OH + 2Na 2C6H5ONa + H2


n(C6H5OH) =

9,4
= 0,1 ;
94

n(Na) =

1,6
= 0,07
23

.. 65 , Na.
2C6H5OH + 2Na 2C6H5ONa + H2; n(C6H5ONa)=n(Na)=0,07
m(C6H5ONa) = n M(C6H5ONa) = 0,07 116 = 8,12
: m(C6H5ONa) = 8,12
4,7

11. C6H5OH + KOH C6H5OK + H2O


4,7
= 0,05 ; m(KOH) = 0,14 120 = 16,8
94
16,8
n(KOH) =
= 0,3
56

n(C6H5OH) =

.. , 65.
C6H5OH + KOH C6H5OK + H2O
n(C6H5OK) = n(C6H5OH) = 0,05
m(C6H5OK) = n M(C6H5OK) = 0,05 132 = 6,6
57

: m(C6H5OK) = 6,6 .
1)

3)

2)

12. 4
22
66
t
C2H2 + 3H2
1) 2CH4
2) 3C2H2

65Cl

4)

C6H5OH

Cl

FeCl3

3) C6H6 + Cl2

+ HCl
OH

Cl

4)

+ NaOH

672

+ NaCl

6CH4 C6H5OH
622,4

94

672

94 672
;=
=470 ; m=(65) m=0,4 470 =188
=
6 22,4 94
6 22,4

: m(C6H5OH) = 188 .
8

2,3

13. CH2CH2 + 2Na

CH2CH2 + H2

OH OH
ONa ONa
8
2,3
n(C2H4(OH)2) = = 0,129 ; n(Na) =
= 0,1
62

23

.. 24()2 , , :
2CH2CH2 + 2Na
2CH2CH2 + H2
OH

n(H2) =

OH

ONa OH

1
n(Na) = 0,05 ;
2

: V(H2) = 1,12 .
14.
OH

V(H2) = n Vm = 0,05 22,4 = 1,12

66,2

OH

Br

Br

+ 3HBr

+ 3Br2
94

Br

331

66,2
;
=
94 331

94 66,2
= 18,8 ;
331

: (65) = 9,4%.
58

(65)=

18,8
=0,094 9,4%
200

15. CH2CHCH2 + 3HNO3


OH

363

OH OH

22,7

CH2CHCH2 + 3H2O

ONO2 ONO2ONO2
227

22,7
22,7 3 63
;
=
= 18,9 (HNO3)
=
3 63 227
227
m(HNO3 ) 18,9
m 23,625
m- =
=
= 23,625 ; V- = =
= 16,3 ()
0,8

1,45
(HNO3 )

: V(HNO3) = 16,3 .
250

90

16. CH2CH2 + H2O

CH2CH2

O
OH OH
90
250
= 5,7 4
n(H2O) =
= 5
n(C2H4O) =
18
44
2 , .
n(C2H4(OH)2) = n(H2O) = 5 ; m(C2H4(OH)2) = n M=5 62=310
: m(C2H4(OH)2) = 310 .
20

20

17. C6H5OH + KOH C6H5OK + H2O


n(C6H5OH) =

20
= 0,213 ;
94

n(KOH) =

20
= 0,357
56

.. , 65.
n(C6H5OK) = n(C6H5OH) = 0,213
m(C6H5O) = n M(C6H5OK) = 0,213 132 = 28,1
: m(C6H5OK) = 28,1 .
1

18. 2CH2CHCH2 + 2Na


OH OH OH
n(C3H5(OH)3) = 1

n(Na) =

36
= 1,304 ;
23

2CH2CHCH2 + H2
ONa OH OH

n1(H2) =

V1(H2) = n Vm = 0,5 22,4 = 11,2 ;


0,304

2CH2CHCH2 + 2Na

1
n(C3H5(OH)3) = 0,5
2

n1(Na) = 1

CH2CHCH2 + H2

ONa ONa OH
1
n2(Na) = 1,304 1 = 0,304 ; n2(H2) = n2(Na) = 0,152
2
V2(H2) = 0,152 22,4 = 3,4 ;
V(2) = 11,2 + 3,4 = 14,6 ()
ONa OH OH

59

: V(H2) = 14,6 .

VI.
1.
1. H3CH2C

1.

O
H
3--2-
H3CH2CHCHC
H
CH3 C2H5
O
[Hg 2+]
2. )
CH CH + H2O
H3C
O
H
t
+ Cu + H2O
C2H5OH + CuO
H3C
H
O

) HC
45

3.

HC

+ 2Cu(OH)2

HO

+ H2 Pt
t

HC

OH

+ Cu2O + 2H2O

CH3OH

H
30
32
45
45 32
=
; =
= 48 (); m(3)= m=48 0,95=45,6
30 32
30

: m(CH3OH) = 45,6 .
2.
CH3
O
1.
3,3-
CH3CCH2C
H O
CH3
CH3CH2CHCHC
2,3-
H
CH3 CH3
a)
)
)
2. 4
22
3
25
) 24 t 22 + 32
O
2+
[Hg ]
)
2H2 + H2O
H3C
O
H
Pt
)
+ H2
C
H
OH
H3C
2
5
t
H
O
9,2

3. C2H5OH + CuO
+ Cu + H2O
H3C
46
44
H

7, 2
9,2

9,2 44
=
; =
= 8,8 ; (3) =
= 0,818 81,8%
46 44
46
8,8

60

: (3) = 81,8%.
3. O
1. H3C

O
H
2,3-
H3CHCHC
H
O
CH3 CH3
2.
[Ni]
H3CH2C
) CH3CH2CH2OH
+ H2
t

O
H
[Ni]
) HC
+ H2
3OH
t CH

H
O
O
) H3C + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
+ 2Ag + 4NH3 + H2O
H3C
OH
H

3. 2H2 + H2O

2+

[Hg

11

H3C

26
44
H
m
6,5

11
11 26
=
; =
= 6,5 ; m(22) =
=
= 7,22
26 44
44
( 3) 0,9

: m(C2H2) = 7,22 .
4.
CH3
O
1. CH CC
2,2-
3

H
O
CH3

CH3CH2CH2CH2C
H
)
a)
)
2. CH3Cl
CH3OH
HCHO
CH3OH
) CH3Cl + KOH CH3OH + KCl
O
)CH3OH + CuO t HC
+ Cu + H2O
O
H
Ni
) HC
+ H2
t CH3OH
H
O
2+
11,2

[Hg ]
3. 2H2 + H2O
H3C
22,4
44
H
11,2

11,2 44
=
;
=
= 22 ;
m= m=0,9 22=19,8
22,4 44
22,4
: m(CH3CHO) = 19,8 .

61

2.
1.
1. 5102 4 .
O

CH3CH2CH2CH2C
OH
O
2-
CH3CH2CHC
OH
O
CH3
3-
CH3CHCH2C
OH
CH3
CH3
O
CH3CC
2,2-
OH
CH3
O

2. 22

1)

H3C

2)

3)

4)

3 3Na
CH3COOH
H
O
2+
[Hg ]
1) 2H2 + H O
H3C
2
H
O
O
t
+ Cu2O + 2H2O
CH3C
+ 2Cu(OH)2
2) CH3C
OH
H
O
O
CH3C
3) CH3C
+ NaOH
+ H2O
ONa
OH
O
O
4) CH3C
+ HCl
+ NaCl
CH3C
ONa
OH
3.
, .. ,
.
O
2.
CH
CHC
3
1. 2-
OH
O
CH3
H2CHCHC
2,3,4-
OH
Cl
Cl Cl
2. ) Mg + 2CH3COOH (CH3COO)2Mg + H2

62

) Cl2 + CH3COOH

CH2COOH + HCl
Cl

) NaOH + CH3COOH CH3COONa + H2O


) K2CO3 + 2CH3COOH 2CH3COOK + H2O + CO2


3. , .. 3 ,
.
3.
) 32

322


3(2)3
32222

O

H3

CH3HCH2COOH

CHC

) CH3
OH
2-
O

CH

3
3-

3(2)3

H3CH2CH2C

OH

2. C2H6

H3C

OH
hv
) 26 + Cl2 CH3CH2Cl + HCl

) CH3CH2Cl + KOH CH3CH2OH + KCl

(II)

) CH3CH2OH + CuO t CH3C


O

+ Cu + H2O

+ Cu2O + 2H2O
CH3C
+ 2Cu(OH)2
OH
H (II)
3.
,
:

) CH3C

HC
OH

+ 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH

CO2 + 2H2O + 4 NH3 + 2Ag


.
:
63

2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 2CH3COONa + H2O + CO2


.
4.
1. 482 2 :
O
O
CH3CHC
H3CH2CH2C

OH
OH
CH3 2-
2. :
Zn + 2HCOOH (HCOO)2Zn + H2

: Ca(OH)2 + 2HCOOH (HCOO)2Ca + 2H2O


: Na2CO3 + 2HCOOH 2HCOONa + H2O + CO2


: MgO + 2HCOOH (HCOO)2Mg + H2O


3. :
) CCl3COOH, .. 3
H
Cl
O
O
HCC
CC
Cl
O H
O H
Cl
Cl

) CF3COOH, .. ,
Cl
F

O
O
ClCC
CC
F
OH
H
O
Cl
F
3.
1. CxHyOz
x:y:z =

54,55 9,09 36,36


:
:
= 4,546:9,09:2,27 = 2:4:1
12
1
16
O

C2H4O

H3C

Mr(C2H4O)=2 12 + 4 1 + 1 16=44 /

: 24, Mr = 44 /.
x

30

2. CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O


60

40

m(NaOH) = 0,25 120 = 30 ;


64

30
=
;
60 40

60 30
= 45 ()
40

: m(CH3COOH) = 45 .
96,6

3. C17H35COOK + Hl C17H35COOH + KCl


322

284

96,6 284
=
= 85,2 ()
322

96,6

=
;
322 284

m(1735) = m = 0,75 85,2 = 63,9 ()


: m(1735) = 63,9 .
4. m- = V = 3000 1,06 = 3180 ; m(HCHO) = 3180 0,2 = 636
n(HCHO) =

m 636
= 21,2
=
M
30

: n(HCHO) = 21,2 .
13,8

28

9,24

5. C2H5OH + CuO

+ Cu + H2O
H3C
H
13,8
28
= 0,3 ;
n(CuO) = = 0,35
n(C2H5OH) =
46
80

.. CuO , 25.
n(CH3CHO) = n(C2H5OH) = 0,3
m(3) = n M(CH3CHO) = 0,3 44 = 13,2
(3) =

m
m

9,24
= 0,7 70%
13,2

: (3) = 70%.
22

6. CH3C
44

+ 2Cu(OH)2
H

CH3C

m(CH3CHO) = 0,4 55 = 22 ()
22

=
;
44 144

+ Cu2O + 2H2O
OH 144

22 144
= 72 ()
44

: m(Cu2O) = 72 .
t
CaO + CO2;
CaO + 3C
CaC2 + CO
7. CaCO3
t
CaC2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2
O
O
+
O
[Hg 2 ]
2H2 + H2O
H3C
H3C
+ [O]
H3C
H
H
OH
8

8. 2CH3COOH + Mg Mg(CH3COO)2 + H2
24

=
;
24 22,4

22,4

8 22,4
=
= 7,467
24

: V(H2) = 7,467 .
65

9.HCOOH + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH CO2 + 2H2O + 4NH3 + 2Ag


n(CO2) = n(HCOOH) =

1
n(Ag) = 0,05
2

m(HCOOH) = n M(HCOOH) = 0,05 46 = 2,3


V(CO2) = n Vm = 0,05 22,4 = 1,12
: m(HCOOH) = 2,3 ; V(CO2) = 1,12 .
10. CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O
1000 0,5 (NaOH);
18,24 (NaOH)
x=

18,24 0,5
= 0,00912 ;
1000

n(CH3COOH)=n(NaOH)=0,00912

m(CH3COOH) = n M(CH3COOH) = 0,00912 60 = 0,5472 ()


(3) =

m(CH 3COOH) 0,5472


=
= 0,048 4,8%
m
11,4

: (3) = 4,8%.
11. m- = 1000 1,11 = 1110 ()
m(HCHO) = (HO) m- = 0,4 1110 = 444
V(HCHO) = n Vm =

m
444
Vm =
22,4 = 331,5 ()
M
30

: V(HCHO) = 331,5 .
12. m- = V = 1,007 200 = 201,4
m(CH3COOH) = (CH3COOH) m- = 201,4 0,06 = 12,084
m(CH 3COOH)
12,084
=
= 15,105
0,8
. (CH3COOH)
m . 15,105
=
= 14,12
V- . =
.
1,07

m- . =

: V = 14,12 .
4. , ,

1.
1)
3)
4)
2)
1. CH4
CH3Cl
CH3OH
HCHO
HCOOH
h

1) CH4 + Cl2
CH3Cl + HCl
2) CH3Cl + KOH CH3OH + KCl
O
3) CH OH + CuO t HC
+ Cu + H2O
3
H
O
O
t
+ Cu2O + 2H2O
HC
+ 2Cu(OH)2
4) HC
OH
H

66

2. CH CH C
3
2

OH
CH3CH2COO + H+
CH3CH2COOH
CH3CH2COOH + Cl2 P CH3CHCOOH

+ HCl

Cl

CH3CH2COONa + NaOH C2H6 + Na2CO3


218

H3C
3. C2H5Br C2H5OH
109

46

60

OH

218 46
=
= 92 (25)
109
218
218 60
=
= 120 (3)
;
y=
109
109 60
218
n(C2H5OH) = n(CH3COOH) = n(C2H5Br) =
= 2
105
218

;
=
109 46

: m(C2H5OH) = 92 ; m(CH3COOH) = 120 ; n = 2 .


2.
2)
3)
4)
1)
1. C2H2
C2H4
C2H5OH
CH3CHO
CH3COOH
1) C2H2 + H2 Pt
C2H4
2) C2H4 + H2Ot H2SO4
C2H5OH
O
3) C2H5OH + CuO
+ Cu + H2O
H3C
O
H O
4) CH C
+ Cu2O + 2H2O
CH3C
+ 2Cu(OH)2
3
O
OH
H
2. CH CHC
2-
3
H
CH3
O
O
+ Cu2O + 2H2O
CH3CHC
+ 2Cu(OH)2
CH3CHC
OH
H
CH3
22 CH3
CH3CHCH3
CH3CHCH3
3. 3H8
n(C3H8) =

Cl
m(C3H8 ) 22
=
= 0,5
M (C3H8 ) 44

OH

n(CH3CHClCH3) = n(CH3CH(OH)CH3) = 0,5


m(CH3CHClCH3) = n M(CH3CHClCH3) = 78,5 0,5 = 39,25
m(CH3CH(OH)CH3) = n M(CH3CH(OH)CH3) = 0,5 60 = 30

67

: m(CH3CHClCH3)=39,25 ; m(CH3CH(OH)CH3)=30 ; n=0,5 .


O
3.
2)
3)
4)
1)
H3C
1. CH4
C2H2
C2H5OH
CH3COOH
1) 2CH4 t C2H2 + 3H2 H
O
+
[Hg 2 ]
+

H
H3C
2) 2 2 H2O
O
H
Ni
3) CH3C
+ H2
t C2H5OH
H
4) 5C2H5OH + 4KmnO4 + 6H2SO4 = 5CH3COOH + 2K2SO4 + 4MnSO4+
O
+ 11H2O
2. CH3CH2CH2CH2C

O
H
H 3CH2 CH2CH2C

+ H2
HO

CH3CH2CH2CH2C

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH

+ 2Cu(OH)2
HO

CH 3CH2CH 2 CH 2C
156

Ni

+ Cu 2O + 2 H2O
OH

3. C6H6 C6H5Cl C6H5OH


78

n(C6H6) =

m(C6 H 6 ) 156
=
= 2 ; n(C6H5Cl) = n(C6H5OH) = 2
M (C6 H 6 ) 78

m(C6H5Cl) = n M(C6H5Cl) = 2 112,5 = 225


m(C6H5OH) = n M(C6H5OH) = 2 94 = 188
: m(C6H5Cl) = 225 ; m(C6H5OH) = 188 ; n = 2 .
4.
2)
3)
4)
1. CH4 1) HCHO
CH3OH
HCOOH
H2CO3
O
1) H4 + O2 t HC
+ H2O
Pt
O
H
Ni
2) HC
+ H2
CH3OH
t
H
3) 5CH3OH+4KMnO4+6H2SO4=5HCOOH+2K2SO4+4MnSO4+11H2O
4) HCOOH + [Ag(NH3)2]OH = CO2 + 2Ag + 4NH3 + 2H2O
CH2CH2
2.
-1,2
OH OH
CH2CH2 + 2Na

CH2CH2 + H2

OH

ONa ONa

68

OH

H
CH 2OH
CH 2OH

CH2O

OCH 2

+ Cu(OH)2

Cu
CH2O

OCH 2

+ 2 H2O

202

3. CH3Cl CH3OH HCOOH


50,5

m(CH 3Cl) 202


=
=4 ; n(CH3OH)=n(HCOOH)=4
M (CH3Cl) 50,5

n(CH3Cl)=

m(CH3OH) = n M(CH3OH) = 4 32 = 128


m(HCOOH) = n M(HCOOH) = 4 46 = 184
: m(CH3OH) = 128 ; m(HCOOH) = 184 ; n = 4 .
5. , , ,
( )
1.
1.

Cu(OH)2

Na2CO3

22

65


23+Na2CO3
2CH3COONa+CO2+H2O
3

2. ) Na2O + 2HCOOH 2HCOONa + H2O


n(Na2O) =

50
= 0,806 ;
62

n(HCOOH) =

200
= 4,35
46

.. , Na2O.
n(HCOONa) = 2n(Na2O) = 1,612
m(HCOONa) = n M(HCOONa) = 1,612 68 = 109,6
: m(HCOONa) = 109,6 .
) NaOH + HCOOH HCOONa + H2O
n(NaOH) =

m( NaOH) 50
=
= 1,25 ;
M ( NaOH) 40

n(HCOOH) = 4,35

.. , NaOH.
n(HCOONa) = n(NaOH) = 1,25 ; m(HCOONa)=1,25 68 = 85 ()
: m(HCOONa) = 85 .
69

2.
1.

1
1.Cu(OH)2 -

HC

O
H
HC

2. Br2

+ 2Cu(OH)2
O
+ Cu2O + 2H2O
OH

OH

OH
Br

Br
+ 3HBr

+ 3Br2
Br

5,6

2. 2C3H7OH + 2Na 2C3H7ONa + H2


260

22,4

= 2 60 5,6 = 30 ()
22,4

5,6
;
=
2 60 22,4

(37) =

m(C3H 7OH)
30
= 0,15 15%
=
m
200

: (37) = 15%.
3.
1.

Cu(OH)2
Br2

1
2


Br

OH

OH

Br
+ 3HBr

+ 3Br2

Br

2. C6H5OH + NaOH C6H5ONa + H2O


n(C6H5OH) = 9,4 = 0,1 ;
94

70

m(NaOH) = 0,12 50 = 6

n(NaOH) =

6
= 0,15
40

.. NaOH , 65.
n(C6H5ONa) = n(C6H5OH) = 0,1
m(C6H5ONa) = n M(C6H5ONa) = 0,1 116 = 11,6
: m(C6H5ONa) = 11,6 .
4.
1.

Cu(OH)2

1
2

- -
O

+ 2Cu(OH)2
HC
H

O
+ Cu2O + 2H2O
OH

HC

64

2. C2H5OH + CuO

+ Cu + H2O
H
m(C2H5OH) = V = 80 0,8 = 64
64

64 44
=
;
=
= 61,22
46 44
46
m(3) = m = 0,9 61,22 = 55,1 ()
: m(3) = 55,1 .
H3C

46

44

6. V, VI
1.
1. )
) 3--2
) 4- 3-
2. ) 2CH3OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 4H2O

) HC

(IV)
O

O
H

+ Ag2O

HC

+ 2Ag
OH

) 2CH3COOH + Zn (CH3COO)2Zn + H2
1)

2)

3. C2H4
C2H2
C6H6
Pt
1) 24 t C2H2 + H2

3)

C6H5Cl

4)

C6H5OH

71

2)

3C2H2

3) C6H6 + Cl2

Cl
FeCl3

+ HCl
OH

4) C6H5Cl + NaOH
92

4. C2H5OH + HBr

+ NaCl

H2SO4

46

92

;
=
46 109

C2H5Br + H2O

109

92 109
= 218
46

m(25Br) = m = 0,85 218 = 185,3


: m(C2H5Br) = 185,3 .
2.
1. )
)
) 2,3-
OH
ONa
2. ) 2
+ 2Na
2
+ H2
O
) CH3C

+ H2

Ni

C2H5OH

t
H

) 2HCOOH + Na2CO3 2HCOONa + H2O + CO2


3.
1)
2)
3)
4)
1. CH4
CH3Cl
CH3OH
HCHO
C3OH
h
1) CH4 + Cl2
CH3Cl + HCl
2) CH3Cl + KOH CH3OH + KCl
O
3) CH3OH + CuO t HC
+ Cu + H2O
O
H
Ni
4) HC
+ H2
CH3OH
t
H
120

P
CH2COOH + HCl
4. CH3COOH + Cl2
60

Cl

94,5

m
120 94,5
170
120

; =
=189 ; (CH2ClCOOH)= =
=0,8995
=
60
m 189
60 94,5

89,95%
72

: (CH2ClCOOH) = 89,95%.
3.
1. )
) 2,2-
) 2,4,6-
CH3Cl + H2O
2. ) CH3OH + HCl H2SO4

O
t CH C
+ Cu2O + 2H2O
+ 2Cu(OH)2
3
OH
H

)
CH3C

) 2CH3COOH + Ba(OH)2 (CH3COO)2Ba + 2H2O


3. C2H6 1) C2H5Cl 2) C2H5OH 3) CH3COOH 4)
1) C2H6 + Cl2 h C2H5Cl
2) C2H5Cl + KOH C2H5OH + KCl
O
3) C2H5OH Ni CH3C
+ 2H2
O t
OH
4) CH3C
+ KOH CH3COOK + H2O
OH
O
90

4. CH3C

44

Ni

+ H2

CH3COOK

C2H5OH
46

90 46
=
= 94,09
44
m
82
(25) =
=
= 0,8715 87,15%
m 94,09
90

=
;
44 46

: (25) = 87,15%.
4.
1. )
) 2,3-
) 2--2
2.) 2CH2CHCH2 + 6Na
OH

) HC

2CH2CHCH2 + 3H2
ONa ONa ONa

OH OH
+ H2

Ni

CH3OH
t
H
) 2HCOOH + Ca(OH)2 (HCOO)2Ca + 2H2O

3. CH4 1) C2H2 2) CH3CHO


1) 2CH4 t C2H2 + 3H2

3)

CH3COOH

4)

CH2ClCOOH
73

O
[Hg 2 + ]
CH3C
2) C2H2 + H2O
O
H
3) CH3C + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH CH3COOH + 2Ag + 4NH3 + H2O
O
H
P
+ HCl
4) CH3COOH + Cl2
CH2C
OH
Cl
4,7
2,4
4. C6H5OH + NaOH C6H5ONa + H2O

n(C6H5OH) =

4,7
= 0,05 ;
94

n(NaOH) =

2,4
= 0,06
40

.. NaOH , 65.
n(C6H5ONa) = n(C6H5OH) = 0,05
m(C6H5ONa) = n M(C6H5ONa) = 0,05 116 = 5,8
: m(C6H5ONa) = 5,8 .

VII. .
1.
1. CH3CH2C

1.
H2SO4

+ CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
OH
O
H2SO4
CH3CH2C
+ H2O
OCH2CH2CH2CH3
O

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2C
O
OH

H2SO4
) CH3CH2CH2C
+ CH3CH2OH
OH
O
CH3CH2CH2C
+ H2O
OCH2CH3

O
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2C
O

OH
2. C2H6
CH3C
OC2H5
) C2H6 + Cl2 h C2H5Cl
) C2H5Cl + NaOH C2H5OH + NaCl
O
t CH C
) C2H5OH + CuO
+ Cu + H2O
3
H

74

) CH C
3
) CH3C

+ 2Cu(OH)2
H
O

CH3C
H2SO4

+ Cu2O + 2H2O
OH
O

CH3C
+ H2O
OC2H5
OH
2.
O
H2SO4
1. ) HC
+ CH3CH2CH2OH
H O
HC
+ H2O
OCH2CH2CH3

O
CH3CH2CH2C
O

OH
H2SO4
) CH3CH2CH2CH2C
+ CH3OH
OH O
CH3CH2CH2CH2C
+ H2O
OCH3
O

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2C
OH

O

120
2. C3H7COOH + C2H5OH
+ H2O
C3H7C
46
116
OC2H5
m 47,59
120
46 120
=
; x=
=47,59 ; V(C2H5OH)= =
=59,48 ()
46 116
116

0,8
: V(C2H5OH) = 59,48 .
O
3. O
H2SO4
1.
CH3C
+ H2O
CH3C
+ CH3OH
OH
OCH3

O
CH3CH2C

O
OH
H2SO4
+ CH3CH2 CH2CH2OH
) HC
OH O
HC
+ H2O
O
OCH2CH2CH2CH3
CH CH CH CH C
3
2
2
2

OH
+ C2H5OH

75

2. CH4

1)

2)

CH3OH

3)

4)

HCOOH

5)

1) CH4 + Cl2 h CH3Cl

O
HC

OC2H5

2) CH3Cl + KOH CH3OH + KCl


O

t
3) CH3OH + CuO
+ Cu + H2O
HC
O
O
H
t
4) HC
+ Cu2O + 2H2O
HC
+ 2Cu(OH)2
OH
H
O
O
H2SO4
5) HC
+ 2
HC
+ C2H5OH
OC2H5
OH
4.
H SO
1. ) CH3CH2CH2COOH + CH3OH 2 4
O
CH3CH2CH2C
+ H2O
OCH3
O
CH3CH2CH2CH2C

OH
O
)
H2SO4
+ CH3CH2CH2OH
CH3C
OH O
CH3C
+ H2O
OCH2CH2CH3
O
CH3CH2CH2CH2C

OH
O
27
16
CH
C
2. CH3COOH + CH3OH 3
+ H2O
OCH3 16
27
n(CH3COOH) =
= 0,45 ; n(CH3OH) = = 0,5
60

32

.. 3 , 3
n(CH3COOCH3) = n(CH3COOH) = 0,45
m(CH3COOCH3) = n M(CH3COOCH3) = 0,45 74 = 33,3 ()
: m(CH3COOCH3) = 33,3 .
2. .
1. O
H2SO4
1. ) HC
+ CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH
OH

76

O
+ H2O

HC

) CH C
3

OCH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
O

+ H2O

H2SO4

OCH3

CH 3C

OH

+ CH3OH

O
CH3CH2C

O OH

) CH2 OH

CH2 O C C17H35
O

CH OH + 3C17H35COOH

CH O C C17H35 + 3 H2O
O
CH2 OH
CH2 O C C17H35
2. , . : , .
O
221

CH2 O C C17H33
O

CH2 OH

CH O C C17H33 + 3 NaOH
O
CH2 O C C17H33

3C17H33COONa + CH OH
CH2 OH

884

221
=
;
884 92

92

221 92
=
= 23 ()
884

: m(C3H5(OH)3) = 23 .
O
2.
1. ) HC
+ H2O
OCH
CH
CH
2
2
3
O

H2SO4

+ CH3CH2CH2OH
O
OH
CH3CH2CH2C
OH

O
H2SO4
) CH3CH2CH2C
+ CH3OH
OH
O
HC

CH3CH2CH2C

OCH3

+ H2O

77

CH 2 O C C15H31
O

CH2 OH

CH O C C15H 31 + 3NaOH
O
CH 2 O C C15H31

CH OH + 3C H COONa
15 31
CH2 OH

2. ,
. , ..
.
90

3. CH3COOH + CH3OH CH3COOCH3 + H2O


60

90

;
=
60 74

74

90 74
=
= 111 ;
60

(3) =

: (33) = 90%.
O
3.
H2SO4
1. ) CH3CH2C
+ C2H5OH
OH O
CH3CH2C
+ H2O
OC2H5
O
CH3CH2CH2CH2C
OH

O
)
H SO
CH3CH 2CH2CH2C
O
CH3CH2 CH2CH2C

CH2 OH

OH

+ H2O

OCH 3
+ CH3OH

100
= 0,9 90%
111

CH2 O C C17H33
O

CH OH + 3C17H33COOH

CH O C C17H33 + 3 H2O
O
CH2 O C C17H33
CH2 OH
2. . , . , ..
, , .
O
3.
58

y
2H2
CH3CH2CH2C
116

58

;
=
116 74

78

OC2H5

Ni

CH3CH2CH2 CH O H + C2H5OH
2
74

58 74
=
= 37 (3222)
116

46

58

58 46
=
= 23 (25)
;
y=
116
116 46
: m(C4H9OH) = 37 ; m(C2H5OH) = 23 .
O
O
4.
H2SO4
1. ) CH C
+
H2O
CH3C
+ C5H11OH
3
O
OC5H11
OH
H2SO4
) HC
+ CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
OH O
+ H2O
HC
O
OC4H9

C4H9C
O OH
)

CH 2 O C C17H29
O

CH2 OH

CH O C C17H 29 + 3 KOH
O
CH 2 O C C17H29

CH OH + 3C H COOK
17 29
CH2 OH

2. ,
.
O
O
1,8
1,61
H2SO4
3. CH C
+ H2O
CH3C
+ C2H5OH
3
OC2H5
OH
n(CH3COOH) =

1,8
= 0,03 ;
60

n(C2H5OH) =

1,61
= 0,035
46

.. 25 , 3
n(CH3COOC2H5) = n(CH3COOH) = 0,03
m(CH3COOC2H5) = n M(CH3COOC2H5) = 0,03 88 = 2,64
m = m = 0,75 2,64 = 1,98
: 1,98 .

VIII.
1. ,
1.
1. ) ;
) ; ) .
C12H22O11+H2OC6H12O6+C6H12O6
2.
, O
.
H2CHCHCHCHC
OH

OH OH OH OH

+ 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH

79

O
H2CHCHCHCHC
285

OH

OH

OH OH OH OH

+ 2Ag + 4 NH3 + H2O

3. C6H12O6 2CH3

CH(OH)COOH

290

180

(6126) = 100% 5% = 95%; m(C6H12O6) = 0,95 300 = 285


285

=
;
180 2 90

285 2 90
= 285
180

: m(CH3CH(OH)COOH) = 285 .
2.
1. , , ,
.
2. . ,
.
O
H2CHCHCHCHC
OH

+ 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH

O
OH OH OH OH
H2CHCHCHCHC
+ 2Ag + 4 NH3 + H2O
OH
OH OH OH OH OH

324

3. (C6H10O5)n
162n

nH2O

nC6H12O6

n180

m = 0,2 1620 = 324 ;

324
x
=
;
162n n 180

324 180
= 360 ()
162

: m(C6H12O6) = 360 .
3.
1. ,
, .
2. , . , , ,
[Ag(NH3)2]OH
.
+
H
C12H22O2 + H2O
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
6 H12O6 + 2[A g(NH ) ]OH
32

6 H12O7 + 2Ag + 4 NH + H O
3
2

3. C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2


(C6H12O6) = 100% 4% = 96%; m(C6H12O6) = 0,96 250 = 240
80

240

6126 225 + 22
180

44,8

240

=
;
180 44,8

240 44,8
=
= 59,73 ()
180

: V(CO2) = 59,73 .
4.
1.

2.
, , .
O
O
+ 2Ag + 4 NH3 + H2O
HC
HC
+ 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
H
OH
1000

Ni

3. 2()()4 + t
2
180

1000

;
=
180 182

2()()42
182

1000 182
=
= 1011
180

m = m = 0,8 1011 = 808,8 ()


: m = 808,8 .
2. ,
O
1. a)
)
)
1. (C6H10O5)n
C6H12O6
C2H5OH
CH3C
H SO
) (C6H10O5)n + nH2O 2 4 nC6H12O6
OC2H5
) C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
O
O
H2SO4
) C2H5OH + CH3C
+ H2O
CH3C
OH
OC2H5
2. ,
, , .
57

3. (C6H10O5)n

+ nH2O

nC6H12O6 2nC2H5OH + 2n CO2

162n

2n 46

m((C6H10O5)n) = 0,57 100 = 57


81

57
x
;
=
162n 2n 46

57 2 46
= 32,37
162

: m(C2H5OH) = 32,37 .
2.
H SO
1. ) (C6H10O5)n + nH2O 2 4 nC6H12O6

) (C6H10O5)n + 6nO2 6nCO2 + 5nH2O

(IV)

ONO2

) (C6H10O5)n + 3nHNO3 C6H7O2ONO2 + 3n H2O


ONO2 n

2.
, .
3. (C6H10O5)n + nH2O nC6H12O6
= 100% 5% = 95%;
m = 200 0,95 = 190
190

(C6H10O5)n + nH2O nC6H12O6


162 n

n180

190
x
180 180
; =
= 211,11
=
162n n 180
162

m(6126) = m = 0,95 211,11 = 200,56


: m(C6H12O6) = 200,56 .
3. a)
)
)
1.
X
Y
CH3COOH
) (C6H10O5)n + nH2O H2SO4

nC6H12O6

) C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

) 25 + 2[O] CH3COOH + H2O


2. -D- -D-.
-D-,
-D-.
63

3. (C6H10O5)n
162n

+ nH2O

nC6H12O6

n180

m = 0,25 252 = 63 ;
82

63
x
=
;
162n n 180

63 180
= 70 ()
162

m(6126) = m = 0,9 70 = 63 ()
: m = 63 .
4. t
(CH3OH, CH3COOH, CH3CCH3)
1.
+ Ca(OH)2

C2H5OH
CH3OH
(C6H10O5)n + nH2O 2nC2H5OH + 2nCO2
(C6H10O5)n t CH3OH + CH3COOH + CH3CCH3
2. , .
O
130

3. (C6H10O5)n + nH2O nC6H12O6
n180

162n

m = 0,5 260 = 130 ()

130
x
130 180
40
=
; =
=144,44 ; (6126)=
=0,277 27,7%
162 180
162
144,44

: (6126) = 27,7%.
3. , , ,
( )
1.
1.

1
2
1. Cu(OH)2


2. Cu(OH)2

-
O

HC

3.
[Ag(NH3)2]OH

HC

O
+ Cu2O + H2O
OH

O
HC

+ 2Cu(OH)2
H

+ 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
H
O
HCOOH + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
+ 2Ag +
HC
CO2 + H2O + 2Ag + 4 NH3
OH
+ 4 NH3 + H2O

83

30

9,2

2. 2CH3CH2CH2OH + 2Na 2CH3CH2CH2ONa + H2


n(C3H7OH) =

30
= 0,5 ;
60

n(Na) =

9,2
= 0,4
23

.. 37 , .
n(C3H7ONa) = n(Na) = 0,4
m(C3H7ONa) = n m(C3H7ONa) = 0,4 82 = 32,8
: m(C3H7ONa) = 32,8 .
2.
1.

1. CuO

C2H5OH + CuO t
O
CH3C

2.
[Ag(NH3)2]OH

+ Cu + H2O
H



C6H12O6 + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
C6H12O7 + 2Ag + 4 NH3 + H2O

3. Cu(OH)2

- -

2. . VI, 3, 4.
3.
1.

1. I2
2. Cu(OH)2

84

1
2

3.
[Ag(NH3)2]OH

HCOOH + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
CO2 + H2O + 2Ag + 4 NH3

29,6

+ CH3OH CH3COOCH3 + H2O


OH 29, 6
n 0, 4
= 0,4 ;
n =
=
= 0,5
n(CH3COOCH3) =
74

0,8
n(CH3COOH) = n(CH3OH) = n(33) = 0,5
m(CH3COOH) = n M(CH3COOH) = 0,5 60 = 30
m(CH3OH) = 0,5 32 = 16
: m(CH3COOH) = 30 ; m(CH3OH) = 16 .
4.
1.
2. CH3C

1
2
3
1. Cu(OH)2 - -

2. Cu(OH)2
-
-

C6H12O6+2Cu(OH)2
CH3CHO+2Cu(OH)2
CH3COOH+Cu2O+2H2O
C6H12O7+Cu2O+2H2O

11,2

2. C6H12O6 2C2H5OH 2C2H4


180

11,2
;
=
180 44,8

44,8

= 180 11,2 = 45 ();


44,8

m=

m
(C 2 H 4 )

45
=90
0,5

: m(C6H12O6) = 90 .
4.

37,4

1. CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O


46

x
37,4
;
=
46
88

88

46 37,4
=
= 19,55
88

85

m(25) =

(CH3COOC2 H5 )
: m(C2H5) = 23 .
23

19,55
= 23 ()
0,85

2. HCOOH + CH3OH HCOOCH3 + H2O


46

60

m
24
23
x
23 60
;=
= 30 ; (3) =
=
= 0,8 80%
=
46 60
46
m 30

: (3) = 80%.
3. CxHyOz;

x:y:z =

54,4 9,2 36,4


= 4,53:9,2:2,275 = 2:4:1
:
:
1
1
12

C2H4O
Mr(C2H4O) = 2 1 = 44; Mr = 44 2 = 88;
482
O
CH3CH2C

CH3C

OCH2CH3

HC

HC
OCH2CH2CH3
: 482.
4,8

OCH3

M r
88
=
=2
M r (C 2 H 4 O) 44

OCHCH3
CH3

7,2

4. CH3OH + CH3COOH CH3COOCH3 + H2O


n(CH3OH) =

4,8
= 0,15 ;
32

n(CH3COOH) =

7, 2
= 0,12
60

.. 3 , 3.
n(CH3COOCH3) = n(CH3COOH) = 0,12
m(CH3COOCH3) = n M(CH3COOCH3) = 0,12 74 = 8,88
(33) =

m
m

7,4
= 0,833 83,3%
8,88

: (33) = 83,3%.
32

56

5. CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O


n(CH3COOH) =

32
56
= 0,533 ; n(C2H5OH) = = 1,217
60
46

.. 25 , 3.
n(CH3COOC2H5) = n(CH3COOH) = 0,533
m(CH3COOC2H5) = n M(CH3COOC2H5) = 0,533 88 = 46,9
86

m(325) = m = 0,8 46,9 = 37,5


: m(CH3COOC2H5) = 37,5 .
O

36,8
6.
CH2 O C C17H35
CH
2 OH
O
CH O C C17H35 + 3 NaOH
CH OH + 3C17H35COONa
O
CH2 O C C17H35
CH2 OH
890

92

890 36,8
=
= 356
92

36,8
;
=
890
92

m() =

(3 H5 (OH)3 )
: m = 445 .
7.
O

356
= 445
0,8
O

5000

CH2 O C C17H33
O

CH2 O C C17H35
O

CH O C C17H33 + 3 H2
O
67,2
CH2 O C C17H33

CH O C C17H35
O
CH2 O C C17H35

884

5000

=
;
884
67,2

5000 67,2
= 380
884

= 100% 8% = 92%;

V =

380
= 413,1
0,92

: V(H2) = 413,1 .
8. C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + CO2
(C6H12O6) = 100% 5% = 95%; m(C6H12O6) = 0,95 36 = 34,2
34,2

C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2


180

34,2

=
;
180 44,8

44,8

34,2 44,8
=
= 8,51
180

: V(CO2) = 8,51 .
230

9. C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2


2 46

230

=
;
2 46 44,8

44,8

230 44,8
=
= 112 ()
46

: V(CO2) = 112 .
87

10. C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2


16

2CH3OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 4H2O


16
= 0,5 ;
n(CO2) = n(CH3OH) = 0,5
32
1
n(C6H12O6) = n(CO2) = 0,25
2

n(CH3OH) =

m(C6H12O6) = n M(C6H12O6) = 0,25 180 = 45


: m(C6H12O6) = 45 .
11. C12H22O11 + H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
27

C6H12O6 2CH3CH(OH)COOH;
n(C6H12O6) =

n(CH3CH(OH)COOH)=

27
=0,3
90

1
n(CH3CH(OH)COOH) = 0,15
2

n(C12H22O11) = n(C6H12O6) = 0,15


m(C12H22O11) = n M(C12H22O11) = 0,15 342 = 51,3
m(C12 H 22 O1 )
51,3
m =
=
= 102,6
(CH3CH(OH)COOH) 0,5
: m(C12H22O11) = 102,6 .
12. m = 15 285 = 4275 ;
m = 0,24 4275 = 1026
1026

(C6H10O5)n + nH2O nC6H12O6


162n

1026
x
;
=
162n n 180

n180

1026 180
=
= 1140
162

m = m = 0,9 1140 = 1026


: 1026 .
13. m = 0,55 200 = 110
110

(C6H10O5)n nC6H12O6 2nC2H5OH


162n

2n 46

110
x
110 2 46
=
;
=
= 64,47
162
162n 2 46n
m = 0,6 0,6 64,47 = 22,49
: m(C2H5OH) = 22,49 .
5. VII, VIII
O

1.
H2SO4
1. CH3COOH + C4H9OH

88

CH3C

+ H2O
OC4H9

H2SO4

HCOOH + C3H7OH

+ H2O O
OC3H7
CH2 O C C17H33
CH2 OH
O
H2SO4
CH O C C17H33 + 3 H2O
CH OH + 3C17H33COOH
O
CH2 O C C17H33
CH2 OH
2. ,
.
HC

CH2 O C C17H35
O

CH2 OH

CH O C C17H35 + 3 H2O
O
CH2 O C C17H35
O

CH OH + 3C17H35COOH
CH2 OH

CH2 O C C17H35
O

CH2 OH

CH O C C17H35 + 3 NaOH
O
CH2 O C C17H35

CH OH + 3C17H35COONa
CH2 OH

3.
) C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
) -

C6H12O6

2C H3CHC

OH
OH

) C6H12O6 C3H7COOH + 2H2 + 2CO2


)
2C6H12O6 C4H9OH + CH3CCH3 + 4H2 + 5CO2
) -
O
59,2

4. CH3COOH + CH3OH CH3COOCH3 + H2O


59, 2
n(CH3COOCH3) =
= 0,8
74
n(CH3COOCH 3 ) 0,8
=
= 1
n(33) =
(CH3COOCH 3 ) 0,8
n(CH3COOH) = n(CH3OH) = 1
m(CH3COOH) = n M(CH3COOH) = 1 60 = 60 ()
m(CH3OH) = n M(CH3OH) = 1 32 = 32 ()
89

: m(CH3COOH) = 60 ; m(CH3OH) = 32 .
O
2.
1. C2H2
CH3C
OC2H5 O
2+
) C2H2 + H2O [Hg ] CH C
3
O
H
Ni
) CH3C
+ H2
C2H5OH
t
H
O
O
t CH C
+ Cu2O + 2H2O
) CH3C
+ 2Cu(OH)2
3
OH
H
O
O
H2SO4
) CH3C
+ C2H5OH
+ H2O
CH3C
OH
OC2H5
2. , ,
, , : C17H35COO + H+ C17H35COOH
3. -D-, .
:
H2SO4
) (C6H10O5)n + nH2O
nC6H12O6

) CH3OH,
CH3COOH CH3CCH3 .
)
O
(C6H10O5)n + 6nO2 6nCO2 + 5nH2O
) .
ONO2

OH

C6H7O2ONO2 + 3 nH2O
ONO2 n

C6H7O2OH + 3 nHNO3
OH

OH
C6H7O2OH
OH
81

+3n CH3COOH
n

O
OCCH3
O
C6H7O2OCCH3 + 3 nH2O
O
OCCH3
n

4. (C6H10O5)n + nH2O nC6H12O6


162n

n180

81
x
81 180
; =
=90 ; m=(6126) m=90 0,75=67,5
=
162n n 180
162

90

: m(C6H12O6) = 67,5 .
O
3.
1. ) CH3CH2CH2C
+ NaOH C4H9OH + C3H7COONa
OC4H9


O
O
+ NaOH
+ C3H7OH
HC
) HC
OC3H7
ONa -1
O

) CH2 O C C17H35
CH2 OH
O
CH O C C17H35 + 3 NaOH
C17H35COONa + CH OH
O

CH2 OH
CH2 O C C17H35

2. Mg2+ Ca2+, .
2C17H35COONa + Ca2+ (C17H35COO)2Ca + 2Na+
3. , -D-.
:
) (C6H10O5)n + I2
) (C6H10O5)n + nH2O H2SO4 nC6H12O6
23

46

4. HCOOH + C2H5OH HCOOC2H5 + H2O


n(HCOOH) =

23
= 0,5 ;
46

n(C2H5OH) =

46
= 1
46

.. , .
n(HCOOC2H5) = n(HCOOH) = 0,5
m(HCOOC2H5) = n M(HCOOC2H5) = 0,5 74 = 37
m = m = 0,8 37 = 29,6 ()
: n(HCOOC2H5) = 29,6 .
4.
1. 482 :
O
O
CH3C

OC2H5

O
HC
OCHCH3
CH3

HC
OCH2CH2CH3

O
CH3CH2C

OCH3

91

2. )
CH2 OH

CH2 O C C15H31
O

CH OH + 3C15H31COOH

CH O C C15H31 + 3 H2O
O
CH2 O C C15H31

CH2 OH

) CH2 OH

C17H 33COOH

CH2 O C C17H33
O

CH OH +

C3H7COOH

CH2 OH

C17H35COOH

CH O C C 3 H7 + 3H O
2
O
CH2 O C C17H3

3.

H2CHCHCHCHC
OH

+ 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH

O
OH OH OH OH
CH2CHCHCHCHC
+ 2Ag + 4NH3 + H2O
OH
OH OH OH OH OH
O

CH2CHCHCHCHC
OH

+ H2

Ni

OH OH OH OH
CH2CHCHCHCHCH2

OH OH OH OH OH OH

O

C

H

4. C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2


(C6H12O6) = 100% 2% = 98%4 m(C6H12O6) = 0,98 40 = 39,2
39,2

C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2


180

39,2

=
4
180 2 46

2 46

39,2 2 46
= 20,04
180

: m(C6H12O6) = 20,04 .

92