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OptiXTM

SDH

SDH
2.0

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


OptiXTM 155/622/25200 SDH & OSN
SDH

No.
BOM No.

2005 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Internet Explorer - Microsoft Corporation.
Netscape Navigator Netscape Communications Corporation.
Windows 95 Windows 98 - Microsoft Corporation.
HUAWEI, , , C&C08, EAST8000, HONET, , ViewPoint, INtess, ETS,
, DMC, OptiXTM, TELLIN, InfoLink, Netkey, Quidway, SYNLOCK,
TM RadiumTM , TM, IP Inside TM, M900/M1800 TM
Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Notice
Every effort was made to ensure that the information in this document was complete and accurate at
the time of printing. However, information is subject to change.

,
.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Address:Huawei Customer Service Building, Kefa Road, Science-based


Park, Shenzhen, P. R. China
Zip code:518057
Tel:+86-755-6540808
Fax:+86-755-6633000
Website:http://www.huawei.com.cn
Email:Press@sz.huawei.com.cn

3
1 SDH

:
SDH
SDH ?
SDH .
SDH, .

1.1 SDH ----


SDH?

, SDH SDH.
SDH? SDH- - . DH (
) SDH - (),
, , ,
.. .
SDH?
, .
, .
, , ,
. , - ,
, .
.
.
- -

.
.

.
,
PDH
PDH , PDH
,
.
PDH :

4

1) ,
. PDH : ,
.
, .

565Mb/s 1.6Gb/s
x4 x4
139Mb/s 400Mb/s 274Mb/s
x4 x4
34Mb/s 100Mb/s x6
x4 x3
8Mb/s 32Mb/s 45Mb/s
x4 x5 x7
2Mb/s 6.3Mb/s 6.3Mb/s

x4 x4
1.5Mb/s

. . 1-1.
. 1-1

2) .
PDH
. - mBnB , mB - , nB -
. - .
, ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
.
. ,
.

5
2.

PDH 1.5M/ 2M/


( 6.3M/ ).

. PDH ,

. ,
. /
. .
, ,
. ,
, .
PDH ,
/ PDH. ,
2M/ / 140 .
:
1) /
. , / 2 140,
. (. 1-2):

140/ 140/
34/ 34/
8/ 8/




2/

. 1-2 / 2M/ 140M/

,
/ 2 140 .
, 2 140
2 140. 140M/ 64
2M/ .
/ 2 140.
, ,
.
2) /
, ,

6
, .
. ,
PDH.

3.

PDH ,
, (OAM). ,
,
. , PDH,
, , ,
, .

4.


. ,
(TMN).
- PDH
. Bell Telecommunication Research Institute
(SONET),
, . SONET CCITT
1988 - (SDH).
SDH .

:
, SDH
, .. 2
2.5/ . ?
SDH. SDH
,
.

1.2 SDH PDH

SDH PDH,
PDH. PDH, - ,
.

7
SDH. ,
-
(ISDN),
(B-ISDN). ?
PDH , SDH ,
.
.
,
.
, .
SDH . ,
PDH.

1.

1)

. SDH
, , ,
, , . SDH
,
.
SDH , ..
. - STM-1 155M/.
, 622/ (STM-4) 2.5/ (STM-16),
(STM-1)
. 4. , STM-
4=4xSTM-1 STM-16=4xSTM-4.

:
?
.
3 .

A B C
A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3

,
9 , 9 :.

8
D
A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3

2)
() , .
, .
- . ,
. -
1 0 50%
. ,
SDH SDH. ,
.

2.

SDH
SDH ,
, ,
. SDH, 155 / (STM-1)
, 2.5 / (STM-16).
SDH
- ,
.
,
PDH (, 2/)
SDH (STM-N). STM-N .
STM-N. ,
/ SDH
SDH. /
2/, 34/ 140/ SDH.

/ (),
, , .
/ .
-
(DXC), .
.

9
:
?
- .
- , ( 50
ITU-T) , . ,
.
.
SDH
DXC ( ),
() . -
.

A Active channel B
Active Active

Standby Standby

Standby channel

3. , .

, ()
SDH .
, .. .
,
PDH. , PCM30/32
TS0 TS16 OAM.
SDH 1/20
. ,
, .
SDH , PDH 65.8% .

4.

10
SDH . , SDH
PDH , SDH. SDH
PDH, , FDDI.
SDH? (STM-1)
PDH, ATM, FDDI, DQDB.
PDH SDH SDH
. SDH ?
STM-1 ( -
) ( - ).
SDH.

B :
SDH . (
- PDH) (
) ( STM-
N) SDH (). (
) ,
.
SDH (STM-N), SDH
.

1.3 SDH

- , - .
.
1. .
, .
. ,
, . ,
, .
SDH - , (
), SDH .
, PDH
, SDH , .. PDH . ,
SDH STM-1 63X2 / 3X34/ ( 48X2)
140/ ( 64X2) PDH . 140/
STM-1, 64X2. STM-1 ,
PDH 4 (140/), .
, STM-1 , 4.

11
2. .

( 2)
( STM-1) SDH /
. .
,
.
, . ,
SDH - ,
. (SDH/PDH). -

. .

3. .

SDH - , ,
. SDH
, .

. .
SDH - . SDH
.

:
?
1. SDH?
2. SDH ?
3. SDH PDH?
4. SDH?
SDH?

SDH
. - SDH.

12
2
SDH

:
STM-N ( STM-1 ).
STM-N.

2/, 34/ and 140/


STM-N.

2.1 SDH STM-N.

SDH ?

().
, -, / .
, /
. ITU-T STM-N
(. .2-1). 1 =8 .

9x270xN

1
RSOH
3
4 AU-PTR
5
MSOH
9
9 N 261xN

. 2-1 STM-N

13
B :
?
.
SDH. PDH, ATM
. , 1- 1
32 . 32 . 53 .
.

, STM-N - 9 Nx270 . N
N STM-N, 1, 4, 16, 64. N ,
N STM-1 . N STM-1
STM-N , N .
9.
, .
? ? , . ?
? SDH: (8 )
.
, . ,
.
(.. , )
STM-N? ITU-T 8000 STM.
, 125 . ,
8000 , 1 8000
.
, 8000 .
- SDH.
PDH?
STM-N . , STM-4 - 4 STM-
1, STM-16 - 4 STM-4 16 STM-1. SDH,
2 PDH 1, 4. C SDH
/ SDH.

:
STM-N ?
STM-N - 8000 , ..
8000 , - 8000*8 = 64 /.
, , ..
, .

14
, STM-N :
( RSOH MSOH),
.
.
1) STM-N ,
, STM-N. -
STM-N. - .
( )
- POH. , POH
, STM-N SDH.
POH . ,
(
).

:
?
. STM-1 63
2M/ . , ,
, . -
. 63 2M/ STM-1 ,
. ?
. -
, SDH.
STM-N
.

A :
.
- , ,
, ..
.

2) (SOH) ,
, (OAM),
. ,
STM-N . -
. SOH , POH
. SOH, POH .
(RSOH)
(MSOH). .

15
, . RSOH
MSOH - .
, RSOH MSOH? , .
, 2.5 / , RSOH
STM-16, MSOH
STM-1 STM-16.

:
RSOH, MSOH POH SDH
. 2.5G, RSOH STM-16, MSOH
STM-1 POH
(.. 2) STM-1.
,
.

STM-N 1-3 1
9N. 39N . 5-9
1-9N. 59N. PDH ,
- SDH.
3) ---- AU-PTR
9N 4- ,
9N . AU-PTR? , ( 2)
/ SDH.
, .. .
SDH. AU-PTR
STM-N,

( ). . ,
. ( )
( ).
, . ,
,
. ,
( /) ( ) .
AU-PTR - .

. - AU-PTR, - TU-
PTR ( ). TU-PTR AU-PTR, .
.

16
2.2 SDH

SDH : SDH
SDH
(2M/, 34M/ 140M/) SDH ----STM-N.
, ,
, .. 4xSTM-1=STM-4 4xSTM-4=STM-
16. (8000 ),
, STM-N - STM-N
.

, , SOH
. STM-N SOH
SOH .
.

PDH STM-N.
ITU-T ( ).
, PDH
STM-N . , ITU-T, . 2-2.

xN x1
STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 C-4 139264kbit/s
x3
TUG-3
x1 TU-3 VC-3
x3
x7 44736kbit/s
AU-3 VC-3 C-3
34368kbit/s
x7 x1
TUG-2 TU-2 VC-2 C-2 6312kbit/s
x3
TU-12 VC-12 C-12 2048kbit/s

x4
TU-11 VC-11 C-11 1544kbit/s

. 2-2 ,
. G.709

. 2-2,
: C - , VC - , TU - , TUG -
, AU - , and AUG - .
.
, 2, .. 2

17
STM-N. , 8 PDH
STM-N.
STM-N,
, .
SDH , PDH , 2
SDH AU-4.
. 2-3.

xN x1
STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 C-4 139264kbit/s

x3
TUG-3
x1 TU-3 VC-3 C-3 34368kbit/s
x7

TUG-2

x3
TU-12 VC-12 C-12 2048kbit/s

. 2-3 ,
2M/, 34M/ 140M/ PDH
STM-N.

2.2.1 140M/ STM-N

1) 140M/ PDH ( -
) 4, ,
140M/ PDH . ,
, ,
, 2M/-C12, 34M/-C3 and
140M/-C4. - . 140 4
- . 140 4.
4 , 4.
4 - , 8000 .
, 140 SDH 4 .
- 140 4. . 2-4.

18
1 260

139.264 / 149.76 /

9
8000 /

. 2-4 C4

C4 260 , 9 ( STM-N
PDH 9 ). E4 (..
4) : 8000 . x 9 x 260 x 8 = 149.760M/.
,
.
. 4:
139.264M/ +_15ppm . G.703 (139.261...139.266)M/. 4
,
4 -149.760M/, , 4.
2) ( VC4-POH )
C4 , 140.
VC4 2-5.

1 261
1
P
C4 150.336/
O VC4
149.76/
H
9

. 2-5 VC4

VC4 , 140M/ PDH .


4
. POH .
( VC) - SDH.
VC ( , VC12 2M/ VC3 34M/ ) - .
.
, ,
SDH, ( ).

19
/ -
.
, VC ,
/ .
/ /.
C4 VC4, 9
VC4. VC4 9 261 . STM-N
- 9 261N . STM-1 - 9 261
. , VC4
STM-1. PDH
VC .
3) , - STM-N.
- . ,
,
. (125 , STM-N).
? SDH -
AU-PTR VC4. , VC4 -
AU-4, . 2-6:

1 270
1

AU-PTR

. 2-6 AU-4

AU-4 STM-1 --- 9 270


, SOH.
AU-4 ------- VC4 ( AU-PTR ).
, VC
,
. AU-PTR - VC
STM-N , .. VC . , VC
STM, ..
VC4 AU-4. ,
, ..
VC ( ) AU-4.
VC4 .

20
, ( ), AU-PTR
STM . AU-PTR .
, AU-PTR .
VC4 AU STM-N.
AU STM AUG ----
.
4) - SOH AU-4 STM-1
. NxSTM-1 STM-N
. 140 STM-N
2.

2.2.2 34M/ STM-N

, 34M/
3 .
3 VC3 9 85 .
VC3 TU-
PTR ( ) VC3. , AU-PTR 9
. - TU-3 ( ,
34)
. (VC
) (VC )
. 3
VC3 2.
? TU-PTR
VC . AU-PTR,
VC4 STM. ,
. TU AU-4 . ,
VC TU, -
TU-PTR.
- TU-3 . 2-7.

1 86
H1 1
H2
H3 TU-3

2-7 TU-3 TU-PTR

21
1) TU-3 . ,
. 2-8.

1
86
H1 1
H2
H3 TUG3
R
9

. 2-8 TU-3

R - - .
TUG3 ---- .
2) TUG3 4
. 2-9.

1 258
1

R R C4

9
1 260

. 2-9 C4

TUG3 - 9 86 ,
, TUG3 ,
9 258 . 4 - 9
260 .
3xTUG3 4.
- 4 STM-N.
140Mb/s STM-N:
C4 -VC4- AU-4 - AUG - STM-N.

22
, ?
. AU-PTR
VC4 . VC4 VC3 ( ,
?), TU-PTR
VC3. VC4 AU-PTR, TUG3
VC4 . VC3
TU-PTR TU-3. 34 .

2.2.3 2M/ STM-N


2 STM-N.
PDH SDH.

1) 2M/ 12
. 2M/ PDH C12
, .. C12
. 12 - 8000
/., 12 2000 /.
2.



-



- -
-
- 12: 12: 94-2=
12: 94-2=
12: 94-2= 94-2= 31W+
32W+
32W+ 3 1
2 2W+ Y+
1
Y 1 1
Y+ 1G
Y +1G M+1N

? .
, 1 2.048/,
32- (256 ) 1 12. ? 12 - 8000
/. 30/32 [E1] . , 1
2.048 /, , 12 .
, 1 2.046M/ 12 ,
, - (2.046x10^6 /)/(8000-/)=255.75 .

23
, 1 . ,
, - (2.046x10^6
/)/(2000-/)=1023 . 256-
, 255- . 1
12. 1? 12 -
94-2 .
. 12 . 2-10.
(8 ). :
W= IIIIIIII Y = RRRRRRRR G= C1C2OOOORR
M = C1C2RRRRS1 N= S2 I I I I I I I
I - R- O-
C1- S1-,
C1=0 S1= I ; C1=1 S1= R*
C2- S2-
C2 =0 S2 = I; C2= 1 S2= R*
R* ( ) . -
, . 125x4=500.
. 2-10 C-12

. 2-11. : 12
4(9x4-2)=136 = 127W+5Y+2G+1 +1N=(1023I+S1+S2)+3C1+49R+8O=1088 .
1 2
S1 S2 . C1C1C1=000
, S1 - , C1C1C1=111 , S1 -
R. 2 S2.
C-
12-max C-12-min.
C-12-max=(1023+1+1) 2000=2.050M/
C-12-min=(1023+0+ 0) 2000=2.046M/
E1 2.050M/-2.046M/,
12, .
12 - 2.175M/.

:
2, 12
. STM-1,
STM-1, STM-1.
STM-1. 2 ,
- . ,
2 , 2 .

2) 2
SDH 12 -
( ) VC12.

24
2, LP-POH ( )
() .
, : V5, J2, N2 K4.
VC , 2
VC12.
.
2 12? 12 4 30/32.
LP-POH 4 30/32.
3) VC12 TU-PTR
VC12.
TU12 , 9 4 . TU-PTR VC12
.
4) TU12 TUG-2 . TUG2
9 12 .
5) TUG2 TUG3
. , ,
7 TUG2 9 84 .
, . 2-11.

1 84
1

R R

9
TUG3

. 2-11 TUG3

6) TUG3 STM-N
.

:
140 STM-N ,
STM-N N140M/, . . STM-1
140M/. STM-1 64 2M/, 140
STM-1.
, 34M/ STM-1, STM-1
34, .. 48M/.
2M/ STM-1, STM-1
3x7x3=63 2M/

25
, , 140
2 STM-N, . ,
34 STM-N, .

2 STM-N, 3 TU12
TUG2, 7 TUG2 TUG3, 3 TUG3 VC4 VC4 STM-1, . .
2M/ 3-7-3. -
, 63 VC12 VC4 .
TU12 21.
- TU12 VC4:
VC12 (TU12) -= TUG3 +( TUG2- 1) 3 +(
TU12 - 1) 21. VC4 TU12,
TUG3 TUG2, TU12 1.
, SDH
. -
TU12 VC4?
: TUG3 - 1-3. TUG2 -
1-7. TU12 - 1-3. VC12 (TU12)
VC12 (TU12) 63 VC12 (TU12) VC4
, . 2-12.

TU12 1
1 1
VC4 TUG3 TUG2 TU12 2

TU12 3

2 TU12 1

TUG2 TU12 2

TU12 3

TU12 1
7
TUG2 TU12 2

2 TU12 3
TUG3

3
TUG3

. 2-12 TUG3, TUG2 TU12 VC4

26
PDH STM-N,
. ,
SDH.

2.3 ,

STM-N,
: , .
, VC
TU (TU-PTR) VC AU
(AU-PTR). VC.
.
, ,
,
.
, TU VC AU STM-N
. VC
TU-PTR AU-PTR,
.
- .

:
PDH 140M/, 34M/ 2M/
?


. , 2 12 , 12
1.

.
PDH
, SDH: 2M/-C12-VC12-
TU12-34M/-C3-VC3-TU-3-140M/-C4-VC4-AU-4. PDH
, .. 2
VC12.

:
?
1. STM-N .

27
2. PDH STM-N
, ---- C, VC, TU, TUG, AU AUG.
3. 2M/ 140M/ .
4. .

SDH .
PDH (2M, 34M 140M)
STM-N.

1. 2 VC4 TUG3,
TUG2 TU12, -, 2 .
2. STM-1 2M , 34M
, 140M .

28
1 260 1 261 10 270 1 9 10 270 1 270N
1 - 1 J1 1 1 1
RSOH
B3
C2 1 9
PTR STM-1
139.264 149.760 G1 150.336 AU-4 150.912 155.52 155.52N
C-4 VC-4 AU-PTR STM-N
/ / F2 / 9270-98 / 9270 / 9270N /
9260 9261
H4
F3 MSOH
K3
9 9 N1 0 9 9 9
0 125 0 125 125 0 125 125
148.608/ 3 0

49.536
1 84 1 85 1 86 1 / 86
1 1 J1 H1 1
1 H1 .
-
B3 48.96 H2
H2 N .
C2 / H3
34.368 48.384 G1 VC-3 TU-3 49.152
H3
R
.
TUG-3
/ C-3 / F2 985 986-6 /
R 986
984 H4 R
F3 R
K3 R
9 9 N1 9 9 R
0 125 125 0 125
0 0 125
7

6.912/
K4
N2 1 12
1 4 1 4
J2 1
1 1
1
V5 V5 V5V5V5
1 2 4 2.240
2.048 2.175 VC-12 TU-12
/
/ C-12 / 4(94-1) 4(94) TUG-2
9
4(94-2) 4(912)
V1
V1 V4
9 9
1 125 V3
9 0 125 V2
V1V1V1
0 125
0 125
3

: SDH,

29
3

1) :

.

.
,
.
- AU-PTR TU-PTR.
SDH.

3.1
,
SDH.
.

,
. ,
STM-N. , 2.5G
STM-16,
16 STM-1.
VC4 STM-1,
63 VC12 VC4.
2 / 2,5/.
?
.

3.1.1

STM-N 1 9 1 9
. : 4 .
STM-1. STM-1 SOH
1-3 1-9 RSOH 5-9 1-9
MSOH , . 3-1.

30
9

A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 X* X*
B1 E1 F1 X X RSOH
D1 D2 D3
A d m in is tra tiv e U n it P o in te r(s )
9
B 2B 2 B 2 K 1 K2
D4 D5 D6
D7 D8 D9 MSOH
D10 D11 D12
S1 M 1E 2 X X

- ( )
X - , ( )

*-

. 3-1 STM-N

. 3-1
STM-1. ?
, .. RSOH
STM-N, MSOH - STM-1
STM-N.

A1 A2

. ,
SDH / .
?
---- AU-PTR TU-PTR.
STM-1
STM-N,
STM-1.
,
, , .

31
A1 A2 . STM-
1 STM-N

.
A1 A2? A1 A2
: A1: 11110110 (f6H) A2: 00101000(28H).
. 3N f6H ,
3N 26H ( A1 A2 STM-1),
, STM-N .
A1 A2
(625), .. ,
- out-of-frame OOF.
OOF 3, --
- LOF. AIS
, . LOF
1 ,
.

2) :
STM-N ,
. A1 A2
,
. , STM-N
(1 9N , A1 A2)
. .
: J0

, .
.
J0 (.. )
. J0
, .
(DCC): D1-D12
SDH OAM (OAM-operation,
administration and maintenance , ),
.
D1-D12
. SDH ,
PDH, ,
-.
OAM? , OAM, ,
, D1-D12
STM-N, .. OAM
D1-D12 STM-N SDH . , D1-D12
.
(ECC), D1-D12
, (OAM)
SDH (SMN).
D1, D2 D3 (DCC - DCCR)
364/=192/, OAM
. D4-D12 (DCC DCCM)

32
964/=576/ OAM
.
DCC 768/,
SDH.

: E1 E2

64/ , ..
.
E1 RSOH . E2
MSOH .
, :
Multiplexer Multiplexer
Terminal Regenerator Regenerator Terminal

A B C D

. 3-2

E1 ,
A, B, C D . ?
/
SDH, RSOH MSOH. E1 E2
.
RSOH .
E1 .
E2 ,
A D. B C
MSOH E2.

: F1

64/
/ . (
)
.

(BIP-8) byte: B1


.
? BIP-8.
, 4 : A1=00110011,
A2=11001100, A3=10101010 A4=00001111. BIP-8
4 8 ( ), (
, 1 8 ) . 3-3.

33
A1 00110011
A2 11001100
BIP-8 A3 10101010
A4 00001111

B 01011010

. 3-3 BIP-8

"1" . 1
over (B), , 0.
B "1"
A1A2A3A4 .
BIP-8. , "1"
. B BIP-8 A1A2A3A4.
1 :
BIP-8 (1#STM-N)
B1 (2#STM-N)
.
(1#STM-N)
B1 (2#STM-N)
. ,
1. "1"
1#STM-N .

3) :

, STM-N
, . 3-3. B1 8
STM-N . BIP-8 8 ,
.

N24 (BIP-N24): B2

B2 B1 , ,
. B1
STM-N. B1 STM-N. B2
STM-1 STM-N.
N*3 B2 STM-N B2
STM-1. BIP-24 (
) STM-1, RSOH (RSOH
B1 STM-N) B2
. BIP-24
STM-1 RSOH
B2
. "1" ,
STM-1 STM-N
. 24 .

(APS): K1, K2 (b1-b5)

34

(APS), MSP,

.
APS .

(MS-RDI): K2 (b6-b8)

, ()
(), ,
(MS-AIS). ,
, MS-RDI ,
. b6-b8 K2 - 110, ,
MS-RDI, .
b6-b8 K2 - 111, , MS-AIS,
. , MS-RDI
, 110 b6-b8 K2 STM-N
. , MS-RDI .
MS-RDI R-LOS, R-LOF MS-AIS.

: S1b5-b8

, , ITU-T,
.
,
.
S1 (b5-b8), .

(MSREI): M1

. M1
, , BIP-N24 (B2) ,
.

, :

.
, ,
.

, :

4) :
SDH
STM
.

STM-N.
OAM STM-N.
N STM-1 STM-N
. ?
AU-PTR .
. N STM-1

35
STM-N .
STM-1 , N-1
, B2. .
. 3-4 STM-4

36

A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A 1 A 1 A 1 A 1 A 1 A 1 A 2 A2 A2 A2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A2 A2 J0 Z*0 Z
* 0 Z* 0 * * * * * * * *
CL x x x x x
B1 E1 R
F1 x x x x x x x x x x x
D1 D2 D3

A dm inistrative U nit P ointer(s)


9
B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 K2

D4 D5 D6

D7 D8 D9
M
D 10 D11 D 12

S1 M1 E2

: -,

* -

Z 0-

. 3-4 SOH STM-4

STM-N B1, N3 B2 ( B2
BIP-24, STM-1 3 B2, 38=24). STM-N
D1-D12, E1 E2, 1, 1 K2. ?
. 3-5 STM-16

144
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0 * * * * *
A1 A1 A1 CL

Z0
CL CL
B1 E1
F1 RSOH
D1 D2 D3

Administrative Unit Pointer(s)


9 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 K2

D4 D5 D6

D7 D8 D9
MSOH
D10 D11 D12

S1 E2

M1 ...

: - ,

*

Z0 -


3-5 SOH STM-16

36
3.1.2
OAM ,
.
, :
(SOH),
(POH).
( ),
: (
). ,
VC4, ..
STM-N 140 /. OAM
VC12, .. 2 /.

 :

34 /, POH
VC3 ,
. VC4.
34 / STM-N ,
VC3 .

1. : HOPOH

9 , VC4,
. 3-6.

1 261
J1 1
B3
C2
G1
VC4 F2
H4
F3
K3
N1 9

. 3-6

J1

AU-PTR VC4 AU-4, ..


VC4. , VC4
AU-4, . J1 VC4, AU-
PTR .

J1 J0. J1
.
( ). ,
J1 . Huawei
HuaWei SBS. ,
.

B3 BIP-8

37
B3 ,
VC4 STM-N, .. 140 /.
B3 B1 B2, ,
VC4 BIP-8.

,
HP-BBE ( ).
VC4 HP-REI (
), .
B1 B2,
STM-N .

5) :
1 ,
, 1, RS-
BBE ( ). :
.
2 ,
, 2,
MS-BBE ( ).
MS-REI (
). ( MS-REI 1).

6) :

, , ,
(error overflow alarm).

C2:

2
VC, , ,
. , 2=00 , .
, TUG3 VC4 1 (
HP-UNEQ). 2=02 , VC4
TUG. , 2/
VC4 TUG, . 2=15 ,
VC4 FDDI ( -
). 2/
Huawei , 2 TUG .

7) :
J1 2
. HP-TIM
( ) HP-SLM (
). TU-AIS.

G1

G1 ,
.
, , .
? G1 , .. ,

38
,
V4, .
1-4 G1 VC4, (.. HP-REI)
3 ( BIP-8).
AIS,
J1 C2 , 5 G1
HP-RDI ( ).
VC4, ,
. 6 8
.

F2, F3:

H4: TU .

.
, TU12
, VC4.
4 VC4 PDH 2 /.
, 2 / C12 ,
. E1,
(1, 2, 3, 4) . H4,
TU12 (VC12 C2) , .
00H 03. H4,
, , TU-LOM (
). H4
TU12, , TU-PTR ( TU-PTR
). VC12, VC12
C12. C12 2
/.

K3:

.
.

N1:

.
2. : LOPOH
LO-POH VC12.
V12, .. PDH 2
/ STM-N.
POH VC12? . 3-7 VC12,
VC12. POH
VC12. LO-POH , V5, J2, N2 K4.

39
1 4
1 V 5 J2 N2 K4

VC12 VC12 VC12 VC12

9
500us VC12 m ultifram e

. 3-7 .

V5:

V5 (). TU-PTR
VC12 TU12, .. TU-PTR V5
TU12.
V5 ,
VC12. , G1, B3 C2,
. . 3-8 V5.




BIP-
2
3 4 8


:
. (
: : FERF).
( 1
FEBE) .
BIP-2: ,
0
1 - 1, :
- - 000

, BIP-2 - VC12
0 001


010

,
1 011
VC12

. ,
100
2
-

, 101
0


110
,
O.181
. 111- VS-AIS

40
. 3-8 VC12 POH (V5).

BIP-2 ,
LP-BBE (
)
LP-REI ( ).
b3 V5. ,
LP-REI. 8 V5 VC12
. LP-RDI ( )
TU-AIS .
: RDI
.
, ,
, .
LP-RFI ( ). b4
V5. , ,
VC12.
5 7 . , ,
VC12 , .. VC12 . b5-b7 000, ,
VC12 LP-UNEQ ( ).
0 ( 1 - AIS). b5-b7 V5
, LP-SLM (
).

J2 VC12

J2 J0 J1.
, .
.

N2

K4

8) :
?
STM-N ,
, ,
. STM-
N , STM-N.

3.2

,
VC STM-N, VC C, PDH
, .. STM-N.
? ,
, ..
( ), VC, VC
TU ( V AU).
, VC, ,

41
VC. VC4, AU-PTR
J1, TU-PTR V5.
TU AU , VC
TU AU.
VC SDH, .
(AU-PTR TU-PTR), VC
( VC4) VC (: VC12) AU-4 TU12
. .

AU-PTR

3.2.1

AU-PTR, 4, 1-9 STM-1,


J1 VC4 AU-4. ,
VC4, . 3-9.

1 RSO H

4 H1YYH2FFH3H3H3 0-----1------------------86
HH3H3H3 -- 86
MSO H
9 435--436------ --------521 125
1 521
522--5 23--------------608
RSO H
608
696--697---------------782
4 H1YYH2FFH3H3H3 0--------1----------------86
MSO H

9 250
1 9 us
270
. 3-9
AU-4 STM

, AU-PTR 9 : H1YYH2FFH3H3H3.
Y=1001SS11 ( S ), F=11111111.
H1 H2. .
? . ,
, - . ( VC4)
( ). 125 .
1) VC4 , AU-4, .. AU-4 ,
VC4, , VC4 , 125 (
). VC4 , .
( AU-4) .
H3 ( ) .
. , , ,
, (VC4 3 ).
. 3, FF
. ,
.
2) VC4 , AU-4, .. VC4
AU-4, VC4
. AU-4 ( ),
. ,
, 3 AU-PTR H3.
( ,
). , VC4

42
(3 ). , .
. , H3
. VC4 , AU-
4, AU-4
(3 H3). , (3
H3), AU-PTR,
AU-4.
3) , VC4 AU-4, ..
VC4. AU-PTR
. VC4 ( ,
) AU-4, , . 3-10.
, H3 , .. ,
AU04 2619/3=783 , AU-PTR ,
J1 AU-4. , AU-PTR 0
782, , . 8
, AU-LOP ( AU)
AIS - TU-AIS.
, ,
( ) ( ) .
4) VC4 AU-4 , .. ,
, AU-PTR 522, . 3-9.
: AU-PTR J1 VC4. ,
, 3
.
, 10 12.
0 1023 (210). AU-PTR 0-782,
. 16 H1H2 ?
. 3-10.

10-
AU-4
(NDF) AU/T 0-782
U .
, H3
VC4.
AU-4 .
. TU- 1)
3=10
VC4 AU-4. NDF 0110.

, 2) VC4 , AU-
4, I ,
.
NNNN=0110. VC
,
1.
, 3) VC4 ,
NNNN AU-4, D ,
.
1001
NDF. VC4
, VC
.
NDF 1.
4) NDF 1001,
,
, . ,
VC,

43
1, NDF
. 0110
5)
,

, .

NDF 6)
,
,
0110. ,








.
. 3-10 H1 H2 AU-4

7-16 1 2. 10
I, D.
I- D-
. , I- , D-
.
, ..
, ,
(
).
NDF AU-4.
, ..
. NDF 8 ,
AU-LOP.
,
, .. ,
. ,
VC4 .
5 I- 5 D- , AU-PTR
.
, I- D-, .. VC4
, .

TU-PTR

3.2.2

V5
TU12 , VC12. TU
, VC12 TU12. TU-PTR
, V1, V2, V3 V4 TU12, . 3-11.

V5 0

0 1 2 3 05 06 07 08 5 6 7 8

4 5 6 7 09 10 11 12 9 0 1 2

8 1 13 16 1 3 6

44


2 5 17 20 2 5 7 0


6 9 21 C- 24 6 C- 9 1 4
C 12 12 C-
0
-12 3 25 28 0 3 5
12 8
94-2 94-2=
94-2= =32W+ 32W+ 94-2=
1 1 31W+
32W+ Y +1G Y+ 1G 1Y+
2 1
Y M+1N

4 7 29 32 4 7 9 2

8 01 33 36 8 1 3 6

02 03 04 1 37 38 39 2 2 3 4 3 7 8 9 4
500 TU-12 4(9x4)
. 3-11 TU-12

TU12 , V1, V2, V3 V4


, V2 TU12,
, , V2,
. 0 139.
V5 VC12 , TU12.
V3 TU12 .
. V4 .
V1 V2. 16 V1 V2 16
H1 H2 AU-PTR.

9) :
/ V3

, TU-PTR
. , 0 139.
NDF 8 ,
TU-LOP ( ) AIS.
VC12 TU12, V5 70, ..
TU-PTR 70.
TU-PTR ,
AU-PTR.

10) :
?
1. AU-PTR TU-PTR VC4 VC12?
2. , .

45
.


SDH.
RSOH, MSOH, HP-POH LP-POH .

.


1. MS-AIS MS-RDI?
2. R-LOF?
3. , AU-PTR 800 1023?
4. ?

4 SDH

:
NE ( - ) SDH.

46
,
SDH .
.
.
,
.

4.1 SDH

SDH ,
. SDH
: / , , ..
SDH.

1. TM

, ..
. , . 4-1.

W
TM STM-N

140 / 2/
34/ : M<N
STM-M

. 4-1 TM

-
STM-N
STM-Nl. , / STM-N,
/
. STM-N ,
. , STM-1
( ) STM-16, .
STM-1 . 2
63 VC12 STM-1.

47
Huawei TM ( )
. : .

2. ADM /

/ SDH
.
SDH. . 4-2.

STM-N w e
ADM STM-N

2/ 34/c STM-M
:M<N
140/

4-2 ADM

ADM .
( -
). (W)
(E). ADM -
W E
, W E.
STM-N E/W ,
3# STM-1 E STM-16 15# STM-1 W
STM-16.
ADM SDH. , ..
. , ADM TM.

3. REG

48
. -
REG,
, - REG,
, - ,
, ,
.
. REG - , w e
4-3:

w e
STM-N REG STM-N

4-3 REG

w e
- , , ,
, - e w .
, REG ADM, ADM
REG, / (
/ ).
RSOH STM-N
, w e e w.
ADM TM RSOH, /
(2M/, 34M/, 140M/) STM-N, MSOH.
ADM TM ,
ADM REG.

4. DXC

49
- STM-N.
( SDH),
, . 4-4:

:n

m DXC n
:m

4-4 DXC

DXC m STM-N
n STM-N. , m
n . DXC - .
DXC (,
VC12) ( STM-16) .
DXCm/n DXC, m
DXC, n ,
. m ,
DXC, n,
DXC. m n 4-1:
4-1 m n

0 1 4 5 6
n

2
- 6 M 4M 140M 622M/
M 2.5G/
4/ / / 155M/
/
/

ADM DXC , Huawei-made


2.5G 6 X 6 DXC5/1.

4.2
SDH

, SDH ,
, SDH.
ITU-T - ,
SDH. ,

50
.
(.. ).

. ,
, .
.
, TM .
.
, ,

w TTF

STM A B C D E F
SPI RST MST MSP MSA

HOI
1 4 0 / G .7 0 3 M L G
PPI LPA HPT HPC
F

LOI HOA
2 /c G .7 0 3 K J I H H G F
PPI LPA LPT LPC HPA HPT
3 4 /

: 2 /c
Q
SEMF MCF
F
OHA O H A P N
D 4 D 1 2 D 1 D 3

SE TS S E TP I

. 4-5:

4-5 SDH

,
:
SPI:
RST:
MST:
MSP:
MSA:
PPI: PDH
LPA:
LPT:
LPC:
HPA:

51
HPT:
TTF:
HOI:
LOI:
HOA:
HPC:
OHA:
SEMF:
MCF:
SETS:
SETPI:
4-5 - , TM. STM-N
A PDH
140M/ A-B-C-D-E-F-G-L-M; STM-N PDH 2M/
34M/ ( 2M/ ) A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K.
. -
, PDH 140M/, 2M/ 34M/
STM-N .
.

 SPI: SDH

SPI - , -
, - ,
(STM-N) .
1) B
- , ,
SETS ( )
. SETS
, .
STM-N A (
, BER 10-3), SPI
R-LOS (receiving loss of signal - )
SEMF (Synchronous Equipment Management Functional block) R-LOS.
2) B A
- ,
(STM-N).

 RST:

52
RST - RSOH, .. RST
RSOH ( ) SDH
() RSOH ( ).
1) B C -
R-LOS RST
B. RST R-LOS, 1 (AIS)
C. B, RST
A1 A2 . -
, .
(625 ),
Out Of Frame ( - ), RST
Receiving signal Out Of Frame - - ROOF.
, ROOF
. ROOF 3 , Loss Of
Frame RST RLOF , 1 C.
RST B,
STM-N, .
RSOH. RST B1. ,
RS-BBE. RST E1 F1 OHA
( - Overhead Access)
. D1-D3 SEMF, OAM
..
2) C B -
RST RSOH, B1
RSOH. A, B C 4-6:

4-6 A, B C

270 N
1

9
S T M -N S T M -N
9 N

 MST:

MST - ,
() MSOH MSOH .

53
1) C D-
MST APS ( ) K1 K2
SEMF, SEMF
(.. ). Point C
b6-b8 K2 111, , ,
C, , 1 (AIS). MST
MS-AIS ( ).

B :
MS-AIS , C - 1. R-LOS, R-
LOF, RST R-LOS R-LOF, C 1.
b6-b8 K2 , , 111. MS-AIS
, ,
MS-AIS, .. STM-N RSOH,
1.

b6-b8 K2 C - 110,
, : MS-RDI (
), MS-AIS
B2 .
MST B2
. ,
MS-BBE,
MS-REI . M1 ,
.
MS-AIS B2 (
MST , B2 MS-EXC),
1 D.
MST S1 (b5-
b8), SEMF. MST
D4-D12 SEMF OAM , E2
OHA
.

2) D C -

54
MST MSOH: E2 OHA, D4-D12 SEMF K1, K2 MSP. MSOH
B2, S1 M1. MST MS-AIS MS-
EXC (B2) , b6-b8 K2 110 .
D 4-7:

270N

9N

4.8 AUG

4-7 D

B :
,
?

RST
( RST ),
MST ( MST,

-- MST RST SPI SPI RST MST .....


.....
RS ( )
MS ( )

RST ).

RSOH STM-N,
RSOH MSOH STM-N.

 MSP: (
)

55
MSP STM-N
.
( ), STM-N
. ITU-T ,
50 .
R-LOS, R-LOF, MS-AIS MS-
EXC (B2). ,
() . TM . 4-8:

TM TM


M M M M
MST MST
S S
A S S A

P MST MST P

4-8 TM

1) D E -
MSP MS-AIS, MST
SEMF, .
2) E D -
E D.
E D.

:
1+1, 1:1 1:n.
4-8 :
1+1 ,
.
,
( )

. (

56
). ,
.
1:1 , (
) , . ,
.
. ,
,
, .
, .
( ).
, .
,
.
1:n , n .
,
.

 MSA:

MSA - AU-PTR /
STM-N , .. / AUG VC4.
1) E F - . MSA -
AUG n AU-4 n AU-PTR , n AU-4.
AU-PTR 8 AU-PTR
NDF 8 , AU-4 MSA
AU-LOP (VC4) F - l 1. MSA
H1, H2 H3 1 3 ,
1 E. MSA VC4

1 261
1

VC4

F 1 AU-AIS AU-4.
2) F E - . F AU-4 MSA -
AU-PTR. N AU-4 AUG
. F 4-9.

57
4-9 F

 TTF:

,
. SPI,
RST, MST MSA TTF. -
/ (SPI) STM-N
, RSOH (RST) MSOH (MST), (MSP),
AUG AU-PTR n VC4.
. TTF - n VC4 TTF -
STM-N .

 HPC:

HPC .
VC4. ,
HPC ( HPC F). HPC -
DXC ADM, -
VC4, . SDH
,
: HPC LPC.
, 4-6
2N VC4 * 2N VC4, 2N VC4 2N VC4
.

 HPT:

, HPC : HOI
, 140 PDH ; HOA
, 2 PDH LOI.
, HPT.
HPT .
HPT - ,
(VC4).
1) F G -

58
POH B3. ,
HP-BBE .
, b1-b4 G1
. ,
HP-REI .

B :
b1-b4 G1 - 0-15, B3 8
, .. 0-8 b1-b4 G1 0-8
, 7 (9-15) .

HPT . J1 C2. (, ,
, ), HP-TIM HP-
SLM, 1. HP-RDI

b5 G1. , 2 = 00000000 5
, VC4 , 1
G. HP-UNEQ
VC4 HPT.

H4 . HPT
HPA HOA (
2 ) .
2) G F -
HPT POH B3. SEMF J1 C2 HPT,
POH.
G C4.
C4 140, , , 2
C12-VC12-TU12-TUG2-TUG3-C4. .
PDH 140 4.
G 4-10:

1 260
1

C4

4-10 G

59
 LPA:

LPA - PDH C
C PDH .

 PPI:
PDH

PPI -
PDH. -
.
1) L M -
PDH ,
HDB3 (2M/, 34M/), CMI (140M/).
2) M L -
PDH NRZ
SETS
. SETS
.
PPI ,
T-ALOS (2M/) EXLOS (34M/, 140M/),
.

 HOI:

, :
HPT, LPA PPI. : PDH 140M/ -C4-VC4.
2 4
4.

 HPA:

G C4, TUG3
. TUG3 UG2

60
, TUG2 TU12. TU12 VC12+TU-
PTR. 3.
HPA - MSA ,
TU-PTR , C4 VC12 (
2).
1) G H -
C4 63 TU12. TU-PTR
VC12 TU12. , H, 63 VC12.
HPA V1,V2,V3. 1, HPA
TU-AIS VC12 1
H. HPA TU-PIR NDF 8
, HPA TU-LOP
VC12 1 H.
HPA TU12 VC12
H4, HPT. H4
.
, TU-LOM. H4
, TU-LOM . H4 -
00H-03H.
2) H G -
HPA VC12 () TU-PTR, ..
VC12 TU12. 63 TU12 :
TUG2-TUG3-C4.

 HOA:

- VC (VC12 VC3) C4
, 4 VC
(VC12, VC3).
H 4-11.

1 4
1

VC12

4-11 H

61
 LPC:

HPC, LPC ,
VC (VC12, VC3) t
. ,
HPC LPC. , DXC4/1 VC4
VC3 VC12. .. , DXC4/1 HPC
LPC. LPC ( LPC -
H).

 LPT:

LPT - POH . VC12


POH : V5, J2, N2 K4.
1) H J -
LPT LO-POH, BIP-2 b1-b2 V5.
VC12,
LP-BBE .
b3 V5.
LP-REI (low order path remote error indication -
) .
J2 b5-b7 V5 (,
) LP-TIM (low order path trace identifier mismatch -
) LP-SLM (low order path signal label mismatch -
) .
I LPT 1 LP-
RDI (low order path remote defect indication -
) b8
V5 (). ,
VC12 . 5
, b5-b7 V5 000,
LP-UNEQ (low order path unequipped -
) .
I C12 signal.
4-12.

62
1 4
1

C12

4-12 I

 LPA:

, ..
PDH (2M/, 34M/) C12 ( C3) .
/ : 2M/ C12 ( 34M/ C3).
J 2M/ PDH.

 PPI:
PDH

PPI ,
.

 LOI:


VC 12 PDH 2M/ ( 34M/ VC3) PDH
2M/ VC12 ( VC3 34M/) ,
- ; LOI
.
,
, REG, TM, ADM DXC,
.

63
 SEMF:

-
. :
,
, OAM DCC,
.
OAM DCC (D1-D12) SEMF. SEMF
RST MST MCF D1-D12 RST
MST MCF .

 MCF:

MCF
SEMF, . SEMF (
F, Q) MCF, OAM
DCC RST MST N a P,
OAM .
N MCF D1-D3 (DCCR), P D4-
D12 (DCCM). F Q .

.

T :
F Q
, ?
F ,
Q .

 SETS:

, ,
, . SETS ,
SDH SDH .
SETS :

64
1) STM-N SPI;
2) PDH PPI;
3) SETPI (
), . . 2M 2M/;
4)
, .
SETS,

SPI PPI. SETS 2M/ 2M
SETPI,
SDH .

 SETPI:

SETS.
SETS . .

 OHA:

OHA - E1, E2 F1
RST MST .
, ,
,
. ,

. , ,
. , .
,
SDH .
 SPI - R-LOS
 RST - R-LOF- A1,A2; ROOF - A1,A2; RS-BBE - B1;
 MST - MS-AIS - K2[b6-b8];MS-RDI - K2[b6-b8); MS-REI - M1; MS-BBE - B2; S-EXC
- B2;
 MSA - AU-AIS - H1, H2, H3; AU-LOP - H1, H2
HPT - HP-RDI - G1[b5]; HP-REI - G1[b1b4]; HP-TIM - J1; HP-SLM (C2);
HP-UNEQ (C2); HP-BBE (B3)
 HPA - TU-AIS - V1, V2, V3; TU-LOP - V1, V2; TU-LOM (H4)

65
 LPT - LP-RDI - V5[b8]; LP-REI - V5[b3]; LP-TIM (J2); LP-SLM (V5[b5b7]); LP-UNEQ -
V5[b5b7]; LP-BBE - V5[b1b2];

- ,
:
ITU-T :
 R-LOS - loss of receiving signal - ,
, , ,
BER 10-3.
 ROOF - out of receiving frame - , A1 A2
625 .
 R-LOF - loss of receiving frame - , ROOF 3
.
 RS-BBE: , B1
(STM-N).
 MS-AIS - multiplex section alarm indication signal -
K2[6 - 8]=111, 3 .
 MS-RDI - multiplex section remote defect indication-
- K2[6 - 8] = 110,
MS-AIS, MS-EXC .
 MS-REI - multiplex section remote error indication- -
B2 .
 MS-BBE- multiplex section background block error - -
B2 .
 MS-EXC - multiplex section excessive error -
- B2 .
 AU-AIS - administrative unit alarm indication signal -
- 1, H2, H3 - 1 .
 AU-LOP - loss of administrative unit pointer - -
8 NDF.
 HP-RDI - high order path remote defect indication -
- HP-TIM, HP-SLM HP-
RDI G1.
 HP-REI - high order path remote error indication - -
,
3 () .
 HP-BBE - high order path background block error - -
, B3 .
 HP-TIM - high order path trace identifier mismatch-
- , J1, ,
.

66
 HP-SLM - high order path signal label mismatch -
- , 2, ,
.
 HP-UNEQ - high order path unequipped - , C2=00H
, .
 TU-AIS - tributary unit alarm indication signal -
, V1, V2, V3 1.
 TU-LOP - tributary unit loss of pointer - -
NDF.
 TU-LOM (HP-LOM) - tributary unit loss of multi-frame -
, 2-10 H4
H4.
 LP-RDI - low order path remote defect indication -
- TU-AIS LP-SLM, LP-TIM
LP-RDI V5.
 LP-REI - low order path remote error indication -
, V5[1-2]. ,
V5.
 LP-TIM - low order path trace identifier mismatch -
, J2.
 LP-SLM - low order path signal label mismatch -
, V5[5-7].
 LP-UNEQ - low order path unequipped - - V5[5 - 7]=000
5 .

.
4-13 - TU-AIS,
. 4-13, TU-AIS
.

4-13 TU-AIS

R -L O S R -L O F

M S -E X C M S - A IS

A U -L O P A U -A IS H P -U N E Q H P -T IM H P -S L M

T U -A IS

4 .1 5
67
B :
, TU-AIS
- .

STM-1
A B

2 , .
2 48# VC12 , 49# VC12 .
49# VC12 , TU-AIS
. 49# VC12 2,
( ).

4-14 -
SDH,
, .

68
A B C D E F G H
SP I RS T M ST M SA HPT HPA

LO S
"1"
LO F
B1 RS-BBE
"1 "
K2 M S-AIS

B2
B2 M S-E xc

B2 M S-BBE

M11 M S-RE I
M
AU-A IS
K2 M S-RD I

K2 M S-RD I
M 1 M S-RE I

AU-A IS "1"

AU -LO P

H P-UN EQ
1
H P-T IM J1

H P-SLM C2

H P-BIP B3

H P-RE I G1

H P-RD I G1

H P-RD I G1 TU -AIS

H P-RE I G1

TU -AIS "1"

HP-LO M /TU-LO P

4-14
SDH

, .
, .

 TM

4-15 TM

TM - PDH,

STM-N
w
TTF HPC

G.703 G.703 2/
140/ HOI HOA LPC LOI 34/


TTF

69:M<N
STM-M
STM-M (M<N) STM-N.
HPC LPC, .

 ADM /

STM-N STM-N
w e
TTF HPC TTF

G.703 G.703 2/
140/ HOI HOA LPC LOI 34/

TTF

:M<N
STM-M

4-16 ADM

ADM - /
(PDH, STM-M) STM-N e w
STM-N w e.

 REG

STM-N STM-N
SPI RST RST SPI

4-17 REG

REG - , STM-N
e/w w/e. :
.

 DXC

DXC - ADM ,
(STM-N)

70
( ,
ADM) 4-18.

ST M - N
G .703

n LPC
m PDH signal
+HPC

4-18 DXC

. ,
.

? :
?
SDH
1) ,
.
2) ,
SDH.
3) - 2 3. ?

SDH
SDH. -
.

1) MS-AIS.
2) , HP-RDI.
3) TTF.
4) DXC4/1?

71
5 SDH

11) :
SDH.
.
,
.

.
SDH.
PDH SDH.

5.1
SDH SDH,
, (NE)
. ( ),
/ .
, , .
. 5-1.

.
SDH,
( ).


,
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
.
,
. (
).

72
(a) TM ADM ADM TM

(b) TM DXC/ADM TM

TM TM TM

(c) DXC/ADM ADM ADM TM

TM

TM

ADM
(d)
ADM ADM

ADM

(e)
DXC/ADM DXC/ADM

DXC/ADM DXC/ADM

. 5-1



, -
.

, ,
,
.
, .. ,
.
( ), .



.
, ,
, , . , ,
, .

73

,
. ,
.

5.2


, , . ,
, ,
. 5-2.

B D

. 5-2

, ,
BC, CBA.
, .
, CDA,
.
.

,
.
5-1.

5-1

-
-
-
-

-
-

74
-
-

-
-

5.2.1
. 5-3.
STM-N
A B C D
TM ADM ADM TM


Y X X X X X X Y

. 5-3


, .. STM-N
.
. 5-3, , , D, D. -
- (VC , ,
48 VC12 3- VC4), - ,
. ,
, Y, , 49- VC12 7- VC4.
.

.
, . ,
.
,
, ..
. .
, . 5-3. ,
, D. , D .
A-B STM-N
( STM-N), STM-N.

75
,
.
5-3, , , D.
A D . ,
,
. M ,
(M-1)STM-N, M-1 .
(
, .. )
( 1+1 1:1). ,
/
. 1+1, 1:1 1:n
, , MSP.
, 1:n 14. ?
b5-b8 K1. 0001
1110 [1-14] , .

5.2.2 -
1

, ,
, .
,
. ,
.
, (,
)
( 50 ) ,
. ,

.
,
. ,
, -
.

, .
, ,
, .

12)
:
.
.
,

. (

76
),
.
, ,
, , ,
. ,
, .
.

,
.

,
.
:
- ,
;
- ( /)
( /),
;
- ,
.

. , , ..
( PDH) STM-N.

, ,
TU-AIS. , STM-16 TU-
AIS 48- TU-12 4- VC4, .


.
APS, K1 K2 (b1-b5).
, STM-N
.
LOS, LOF, MS-AIS
MS-EXC.

13)
:
STM-N 1 2,
STM-N
( ) STM-N ( ), ,
, .

1+1,
, .

77
1:1,
, .

3

, (S1), (1).
.

. ,
S1
1. , .

, . 5-4 ().
,
S1 P1. ,
S1 P1, ,
S1 P1. ,
S1.
S1 D (
), P1 B ( ).

S1, .
.

CA AC

P1
S1

A
D STM-N B
C
S1
P1

CA AC

. 5-4 (a)

,
, S1
P1 , . 5-4 (b).

78
Switchover CA AC

P1
S1

A
D STM-N B
C
S1
P1

CA AC

. 5-4 (b)

, .

S1 P1. S1
D.
, P1 . ,
S1,
,
.

S1 P1. P1 D.
S1
.
S1. S1
, w R-LOS,
AIS 1.
TU-AIS S1. , ,

P1. , ,
.
.
, ,
S1.
(10 Huawei)
TU-AIS,
, .. .
, ,
, , , ,
1+1.
( Huawei 15ms)
, .
.
STM-N,
. ? ,
D . ,
D , (
, , D ). D

79
D C, ,
( D
). , D, ,
( ),
(
). , D
STM-N, , ..
. , STM-N , ,
, STM-N.

, .. .
, Huawei,
155 622.

14)
:
,
S1 P1 ,
.

15) ?
:
, ,
S1. P1 ?
, P1
.
, , .5-3,
?
. , .


( ),
, ,
1+1.
.
, .
,

.
. 5-5.

80
SBS2500

Node A

SBS2500 Node D Node B SBS2500

Node C

SBS2500

. 5-5 2500

, ,
APS, K1 K2
STM-N. APS,
, .
SDH 25 .

, . 5-6.
CA AC
S1
P1

A
D B STM-N
C
P1
S1

CA AC
(a)

CA AC
S1
P1

A
D B
C
P1
S1

CA AC Switchover
(b)

81
5-6

,
, S1 P1 (
), 1:1, 1+1.
. 5-6 () .
S1.
1 .
,
,
. 5-6 (b). S1,
1.
() 1,

.
P1.
S1,
S1, .
C, D ,
, ,
.

.


, . 1:1.
, P1 (),
,
2*STM-N ( )
1*STM-N .


, ,
. ,
,
.

16)
:
, S1 P1
, .
,
S1, P1.
STM-N ( )
.
Huawei: , -
.

,

82
.
.

,
. ,
, /
, . ,
STM-16, 16 ,
, / 2.5G
STM-1, .

, .
. 5-7
CA AC
S1
P1
S2
P2
A
D B STM-N
C
P2
S2
P1
S1

CA AC
(a)

CA AC
S1
P1
S2
P2
A
D B STM-N
C
P2
S2
P1
S1
Switchov
Switchover
Switchover
CA AC
Switchover
(b)

. 5-7

, S1, P1, S2, P2.


S1 S2
, 1 2 , .
, P1 P2 S1 S2,
. ,
S1, P1, S2 P2. S1 S2 (
, ),
S1 P1, S2 P2. . 5-7() , S1
P2 , S2 P1 (
).
, ,
ADM. ? ADM
83
( ,
/ ),

.
ADM.
,
S1.
,
S2 ( ).
1 2.
, , . 5-7 ().

, S1
P1, S2 P2 ,
. 5-7 (b) ( ).
S1.
1, ,
D ( ),
, 1 .
1 S1 (
).
, S1.
,
2, .
2 D ,
. , 2
S2
. S2 . ,

.

. :
by .
2* STM-N ( ) 4*STM-
N ( ). STM-N ( ) 2*STM-N
( ) ,
. ?
STM-N. ,
,
.
. , A-D
D, D -
D .
, ,
, STM-N ()
2STM-N ( ). .
, ,
NSTM-N 2NSTM-N.

, PP, APS,
1 2.
, .

84
:
, ( , ,
); , PP.

.

, .
( ADM),
.
?
(
).

17)
:
(
REG, REG
), , 1 2.
16.


, :
.
, ,
,
ADM, .
. 5-7 (), S1 P2, S2
P1 ,
, S1/P2 S2/P1.
(, 1# - 8# STM STM-16)
,
( 9# - 16#) . ,

. , P2 S1/P2
S2 S2/P2, S2 P2
/ .
/
.
, .
.

. 5-8.
,
S1 S1/P2 ( STM-16,
8 1# - 8# STM-1 [VC4]
STM-N), P2 ( STM-16,
9# - 16#STM-1 [VC4]). , S1/P2,

85
B .
S1 P2 S1/P2.
S2
S2/P1, - P1.
.
S2/P1, . 5-8-1.

C A A C
S1/P2
S2/P1

A
D B
C
S2/P1
S1/P2

C A A C

. 5-8-1
.

- ,
S1/P2.
(
, ). S1 S1/P2
P1 S2/P1 (, STM-
16 1#-8# STM-1 [VC4] S1/P2 9#-16 STM-1 [VC4]
S2/P1).
1 S2/P1 . ,
D S2/P1 .
( ), , ,
P1 S2/P1 S1 S1/P2,
. . 5-8-2.

CA AC
S1/P2
S2/P1

A
D B
C STM-N
S2/P1
S1/P2

Switchover
CA AC

. 5-8-2

86

S2 P2 S1/P2.
P2.
S1/P2 D .
, .. P2 S1/P2 S2
S2/P1, .

.

, ..
M/2*(STM-N) M*STM-N ( ),
.

, 622 2500,
.

18) ?
:

155 /?
,
STM-1 , .

,
STM-1.

155 /.

,
:
, .
.

 ( )
STM-N,

/2*STM-N ( ).


.
APS ,
.
, .

87
,
AIS.
SDH. ,
.

APS.
, , ,
.

5.3
.
,
. 2500.

1 T

T ,
. 5-9.
STM-16
TM ADM ADM ADM TM
A

ADM STM-4

TM

. 5-9

STM-16,
STM-4.
STM-4 STM-16 . TU
.
/ .

. 5-10.

. . STM-4,
,
. STM-4, ,
. ,
C D. -,
. -,
D .

88
C
ADM
STM-4
ADM ADM TM
STM-16 A B D

ADM ADM

. 5-10

. 5-11.
STM-16
.
.
.

,
.

ADM
ADM
B A
ADM ADM
STM-16 STM-1/4
ADM STM-16
ADM

ADM
ADM

. 5-11 .

. 5-12.
, .
. DXC
ADM ( II III
). ,
,
, ,
.
, , (
).

89
STM-1
STM-1
ADM ADM
STM-16
155
ADM
STM-1

STM-16 ADM
2500 DXC/ADM STM-4
ADM
A ADM
STM-16

ADM 622
STM-4

ADM STM-4

ADM

. 5-12

,
,
, . 5-13.

STM-16
ADM

STM-4
DXC/ADM
ADM STM-16 ADM

STM-16 622 STM-4


ADM DXC/ADM ADM
STM-4
ADM

. 5-13

6
. 5-14

STM-1 STM-4. -
/
.

90
, /


.

A
STM-16 STM-16 STM-16

ADM DXC/ADM ADM

STM-1

STM-1 ADM ADM ADM


ADM STM-4 ADM
STM 4/1

ADM ADM
STM-4 ADM

. 5 14

5.4 SDH
PDH, SHD ,
SDH.

.
, .
,
, ,
(), , .
SDH , . 5-
15.
.
DXC
4/4, STM-4/STM-
16
, , ,
. DXC4/4 PDH 140
/, PDH 140 565 /
DXC4/4.
.
DXC4/4 DXC 4/1, STM-
1/STM-4, ,
. DXC4/1
2, 34 140 /, PDH

91
,
.
(
, ),
(
STM-1/STM-4, ADM, ,
).
.
, ,
.
DXC4/1,
. , DXC4/1 PDH SDH,
, .
.
, .
( ),
, .
ADM (OLC).
STM-1/STM-4. :
, STM-1, PDH
2, 34 140 /, ,
, ISDN 2B+D 30B+D
MAN.

SDH 50% .
. :
( ) (FTTC),
(FTTB) (FTTH).
SDH/CATV ,
, ,
, ,
.

92
STM-4 or
STM-16
DXC4/4 DXC4/4


1-
DXC4/4 DXC4/4

STM-1
STM-4 ADM

DXC DXC
4/4 4/4
2-
DXC
4/1

STM-1
ADM
or STM-4
DXC DXC DXC
4/1 ADM ADM 4/1 ADM ADM 4/1

ADM
Ring Star
Ring
ADM ADM TM

OLC OLC OLC OLC OLC OLC



OLC OLC

. 5-15 SDH

5.5 PDH SDH


PDH SDH ,
. , SDH
, .
, SDH
, .
, SDH .
SDH ,
SDH. .
SDH.
, ,
. , ,
SDH ,

.

19) ?
:
?

1.
2.

93
3. .
4. SDH
5. PDH SDH
2, .
?


SDH,
.
,

.


1. ,
_______.
2. ,
______, ______
_____.

3.
( 2,5G), ,
______ 2 /.

94
6

:

.

, ,
, ,
. , . ,
.

6.1.
SDH .
,
,
SDH. ,
, ,
: 850 , 1310 1550 .
850 .
, 1310 1550
.

. ,
.
, -
(, 10-3). ,
,
.
, .
,
. 1310
, ,
1550 ,
.
ITU-T ,
G.652, G.653 G.655. G.652 1310
(dispersion shift) (
1310 ).
1310 1550 . ,
G.653
, ,
1550 .
1550
1310 1550 .
, 1550 .
, G.654
1550 , 1310 .

95
1550 .
,
.

6.2.

.
,
, , , (, ),
.
.
,
: ,
, .
. (. 6)
6-1





1310 1310 1310 1550
1550
G.652 G.65 G.652 G.652
2 G.652 G.653
2 ~15 ~40 ~60
,
STM-1 I-1 S- L-1.1 L-1.2 L-1.3
1.1 S-1.2
STM-4 I-4 S- L-4.1 L-4.2 L-4.3
4.1 S-4.2
STM-16 I-16 S- L-16.1 L-16.2 L-
16.1 S-16.2 16.3

, , I
, S , L
.
STM, , 1 STM-1, 16 STM-16.
, , 1 1310
G.652, 2 1550 G652 G.654, 3
1550 G.653.

6.3.
SDH .6-1

96
CTX Cable equipment CRX

Receive
Transmit
S R

Plug Plug

. 6-1.

. 6-1 S (CTX)
(TX), R (CRX)
(RX).
: S,
R, S R.

, ,
, ( )
110-10.

, SDH, PDH,

,

. SDH NRZ-,
, SNM-N.
ITU-T NRZ-.
,
1+6+7 27-1=127
(). : ,
, ,
,
. ,
.
0
1
( SPI). ,
, , ,
, ,
,
, ,
. , .
- ( ), ,
. -, -
- ( ),
.

97
S
1. 20 .

,

20 .
. 6-2.

Maximum 20dB bandwidth is 1~ 2


-20dB

1 2

20) . 6-2.

2. (SMSR)
P1
P2 .

SMSR=10lg(P1/P2)

SMSR 30 .

1. .


S .

2. (1)


1
0.

E X =10lg(EX1)
ITU-T 1-
( L-16.2) 8.2 .

R .

1. .

98

, 110-10 BER R.
,
, , ,
2-4 .
3 ,
.

2. .
,
110-10 BER R. ,
, BER - /.
,
, , BER,
. 6-3.

BER

110 -10

B Receiving optical power


A

. 6-3. BER

6-3
, .
- ,
.

? :
?
1. .
2
3. ,



SDH

99

1. SDH .

2. I-1?.

21) :
.

/.
SDH .
/ SDH

, ,
. , ,
, ( -)
,
,
. ,
/
/. ,
,
,
(, ),
/ .

7.1
:
/.
,
,
.
. , ,
(
). ,
. .
/ ,
, (..
).

.
,
, . ,
,

100
. /
. ,
,
.

,
/, ,
/. ,
.

.
.
,
, ,
.

/, ,
.
/

,
. ,
,
.
(..
).
, ,
,
.
, /
, ,
(..
).
.

, , ,
,
.
.
GPS (Global Positioning
System), .

/,
GPS.

7.2. .
,
/, ( )
.

.

101
, ,
, ,
, GPS.
,
.


, ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, ,

. ,
,
.
, .

.

, ,
, , ,
.
,
.

7.3. SDH

, SDH
. ,
.
,
, , ,
( , ).

,
,
, .
SDH PDH ,
SDH PDH
.
, SDH PDH
. SDH,
,

, , .
, SDH,
, SDH ,
. ,
, PRC,

102
, ,
, , .
, ,
.

7.4. SDH
7.4.1. SDH


. , PRC
.
,
.
.
 / SDH
(), :
, ,
, SDH (..
SDH). ITU-T
( ).
:
PRC G.811
G.812
( )
G.812
( )
SDH G.813
( ).

,
,
.
, ,
, ,
( , , ).

.
,
:
1) , .
. 7-2.

NE1

NE2 NE3
. 7-2

103
NE2 NE1, NE3 NE2, NE1
NE3, ,

.
2) .
.
3)
, .
4) /
,
.
5) ,
.

7.4.2. SDH

SETPI
SPI
STM-N
PPI
PDH . ,
SDH/PDH
.

SETS.

SETPI SDH.

7.4.3. SDH

SDH ,
.
, SDH
.

, (LPR),
GPS, (
). SDH
? -, SDH
.
, ..
.
? SDH
,
. SDH ,
, , SDH,
.
, SETPI,
/ . SETS

104
SDH
, SDH.
SDH ,
SETPI, SDH
( PPI) PDH ,
SDH.

22) :
, SDH PDH
- , .

SDH
? ,
,
SETPI. SETPI PDH,
( ).
, SDH
: SPI
STM-N ,
/ . ,
.
. 7-3.

STM-N
A B C D
w w e w e w
TM ADM ADM ADM

Master station External clock


. 7-3. .

7-3 ,
,
. STM-
N, STM-N. ,
W STM-N (
SPI) .
, W
, STM-N
. D
STM-N. ,
/ ,
SDH.
, , , D ,
, .
, ,
.

105
23) :
A C D,
C D,
D.

,
, ,
STM-N.
,
(
, SDH -
).
,
,
.
, , SDH
, .
, , ,
. ,
.

24) :

SDH , .
,
. SDH
,
, .

?
. 7-4

External clock source


e
w
NE1 w
NE6
e e

NE2
w STM-N w
NE5
e e

NE3 w w
e
NE4

. 7-4. .

106
NE1 .
SDH.
NE1
.
, ,
STM-N ,
(ADM ). ,
,
,
. , NE5 ,
NE3 .

NE1
External clock

STM-M
NE2 STM-N NE4 NE5

NE3 Note

. 7-5. .
. 7-5 NE5 ,
( )
SDH. NE5 .
NE4.
NE1, NE2 NE3 NE4
/ , NE4 (
STM-M), NE5. ? NE4
SPI
STM-N, ,
( ) .
7.5 S1
SDH
1. S1

SDH, ITU-T
S1 .
S1
S1. S1.
SDH ,
.

. , ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
,
. ,
, , ,

107

.
, , , . ,
,
.
S1 ITU-T .
S1 16
.
7-1 ,
ITU-T. ,

. 7-1

S
1
(b5- S1
b8)
0 0
000 00 (
)
0 0
001 01
0 0 G.811
010 02
0 0
011 03
0 0 ,
100 04 G.812
0 0
101 05
0 0
110 06
0 0
111 07
1 0 ,
000 08 G.812
1 0
001 09
1 0
010 0A
1 0
011 x0B (SETS)
1 0
100 x0C
1 0
101 x0D
1 0
110 x0E
1 0
111 x0F

108
SDH
:
.
, ,
,
, ,
.
,
,
,
(.. S1) .
,
.

, ,
.
, . 7-6 BITS
NE1 NE4.
BITS ,
G.812.
BITS NE1.

BITS

E W E W
NE1 NE6
W E
NE2 BITS NE5
E W
NE3 NE4
W E W E

. 7-6.
,
G.812.

. 7-2.
7-2.
.




NE ,
1 ,
,

NE ,
2 ,

NE ,
3 ,
109

NE ,
4 ,

NE
5 ,
,

NE
6 ,
,

, NE1 NE4
( BITS), S1 BITS.
, NE2 NE3
.
, NE4
NE3, , NE4
NE3 , .. S1
0xFF. , NE3 ,
, NE3
.
,
S1 NE4, .. NE3 S1 0x0B,
(SETS). NE4
,
( G.812
, .. S1 0X08),
. NE4
, . NE4
: , , BITS.
, ,
BITS .
, NE4 , BITS, NE4
.
, NE4
, NE3.
,
, NE3
. .
7-7.
BITS

E W E W
NE1 NE6
W E
NE2 BITS NE5
W
NE3 NE4
E W E

110
. 7-7 , NE2
NE3

,
BITS NE1, , ,
, . 7-8.
E W E W
NE1 NE6
W E
NE2 BITS NE5
E W
NE3 NE4
W E W E

. 7-8. ,
BITS N1

BITS NE1 NE4 ,



. , ,
,
. , ,
BITS, NE4.
, ,
NE4, . 7-9,
G.812
.
.
E W E W
NE1 NE6
W E
NE2 NE5
E Built-in clock W
NE3 NE4
W E W E

. 7-9. ,
BITS

,
.

:
?
1. /

2. .
3. , SDH,

/.
4. , /.

111
4 . ?


SDH,

.

1.
_______________________.
2. , SDH ________,
________, ________, ________, ________, ________, ________, _________.

:
,
.

.


.

.
, SDH,
, .

8.1

, ,
.

112
8.1.1

, ,
( 10-3).
.

1 , .

,
: ,
, -, ,
- , .

2. , .

,
,
.
.

8.1.2


64 / 27500 ,
.
, .

(1, 2 3
), ,
. :

,
.

25) B Tips:
1, 2 3
. , .

 (ES) (ESR).
,
. ES ,
, ESR.
 , (SES)
(SESR).
,
30%
(SDP). SDP , BER
10-2 ,
4 1 ( ).
SES
(SESR).
113
SES ,
, SESR
.
 (BBE) (BBER)
, ,
SES .

(BER).

, BBER ,
,
.

8.1.3. , .

ITU-T
27500 ,
, ,
, (27500)
, .
420, 280 50
.
. 8-1 420 .
155520 622080 2488320
(/)
ESR 3.69610-
3

SESR 4.6210-5 4.6210- 4.6210-
5 5
-6 -
BBER 2.3110 2.3110 2.3110-
6 6

. 8-2 280 .
15552 62208 248832
0 0 0
(/)
ESR 2.464
10-3
SES 3.08 3.08 3.081
R 10-5 10-5 0-5
BBE 3.08 1.54 1.541
R 10-6 10-6 0-6

114
. 8-3. 50 .
15552 62208 248832
0 0 0
(/)
ESR 4.41
-4
0
SES 5.51 5.51 5.510-
-6 -6 6
R 0 0
BBE 5.51 2.71 2.710-
R 0-7 0 -7 7

8.1.4.

.
/
. ,
,
. , ,
, , BER
10-14.


, .. .
.

8.2.


10 , 10-3,
.
, 10-3.

10 , 10-3,
.
, 10-3.


.
,
:

115
Table 8-4

()

420 99.977 2.310-4 120
%

280 99.985 1.510-4 78


%

50 99.99 110-4 52
%

8.3.
.
()
(. ) .
10 .
.
10 .
.

8.3.1

,
, , (
, ),
SDH:
1) VC,
. ,
, , ,
.
2) .
PDH
, . ,
,
( ) ,
.
SDH
.
.
.
, SDH
.

116
8.3.2.

SDH :

:
PDH () STM-N ( ).
PDH ,
. SDH PDH
PDH SDH. , SDH
PDH, ..

PDH.
(STM-N)
, 1 .
,
, ,
.

26) :
?
,
- / , ,
.. ,
, , ,
, . ,
1 .
 .
,
PDH STM-N.
,
.

SDH
, , PDH, ,
PDH. ,
, STM-N
SDH.
 .
SDH PDH
.
.


PDH ,
STM-N PDH SDH .

:
G.783,
.

117
.
.


STM-N.
.

STM-N STM-N.
.

8.3.3.


,
SDH.
. ,
( ), (
),
( , ,
..).

 PDH.

SDH
( ), ,
, SDH/PDH ,
,
.
27)
28) ? :
?
1. ?
2. .
3.
4.

.


, ,
.


1. ?

118


ADM /

AIS

APS

AU

AU-AIS

AU-LOP

AUG

AU-PTR

BBER

BIP-N N

CMI

DCC

DXC -

ECC

ESR

FEBE

HDB3

HP-RDI

HP-REI

HPA

HPC

HPT

ISDN

ITU-T -

R-LOF

LOP

R-LOS

LPA

LPC

LPT

MS-AIS

119
MS-RDI

MSA

MSOH

MSP

MST

OAM ,

OHA

ROOF

PDH

POH

PPI PDH

REG

RDI

RSOH

RST

SCC

SDH -

SEMF

SESR

SES

SETS

SETPI

SOH

SPI SDH

STG

TIM

TM

TMN

TU-LOM TU-

TUG

TU-PTR

UAT

UNEQ

VC

120