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УДК 811.111’36(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1923.2
С322

:
. . , проф., д-р филол. наук
. . , проф., д-р филол. наук

:
. . , проф., д-р филол. наук

С322 Сергеева Ю. М. English Articles in Use. Артикли:


объяснение, употребление, тренинг. – М.: МПГУ, 2012.
– 204 с.

Настоящее пособие представляет собой свод основных правил


употребления артиклей с различными типами имен существительных
в зависимости от выполняемой ими синтаксической функции в
предложении. Функционально-прагматический подход позволяет
объяснить, почему тот или иной артикль требуется в конкретной
коммуникативной ситуации.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов и преподавателей
лингвистических вузов, а также для широкого круга читателей,
изучающих английский язык.

ISBN 978-5-7042-2360-3

© МПГУ, 2012
© Издательство «Прометей», 2012

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Содержание

n2 ="2%!= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Chapter 1. The article and the category of
determination. Types of attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.1. The article as a nominal determiner . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2. Descriptive and limiting attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.1. Types of attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.2. Attributes expressed by adjectives . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.3. Attributes expressed by the pronoun other . . . 11
1.2.4. Attributes expressed by numerals . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.5. Attributes expressed by nouns in the
common case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.2.6. Attributes expressed by nouns in the
possessive case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.7. Attributes expressed by participles . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2.8. Attributes expressed by the infinitive . . . . . . . . 15
1.2.9. Attributes expressed by the gerund. . . . . . . . . 15
1.2.10. Attributes expressed by prepositional
nominal phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2.11. Attributes expressed by subordinate clauses . . 18
1.3. The place of the article in a nominal phrase . . . 19
Chapter 2. The indefinite article. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.1. Forms of the indefinite article. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2. The indefinite article with common countable
nouns.The functions of the indefinite article . . . 23
2.2.1. The classifying function of the indefinite article. 23
2.2.2. The generic function of the indefinite article . . 24
2.2.3. The numerical function of the indefinite article . 25
2.3. The indefinite article with material nouns. . . . . . 26
2.4. The indefinite article with abstract nouns . . . . . 26
2.5. The indefinite article with unique objects . . . . . . 28
2.6. The indefinite article with some semantic
groups of nouns . . . ............... . . . . . 28
2.6.1. The indefinite article with nouns denoting seasons. 28
2.6.2. The indefinite article with nouns denoting
parts of the day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.6.3. The indefinite article with names of meals . . . . 29
2.6.4. The indefinite article with names of diseases . . 30
2.6.5. The indefinite article with nouns bed, school,
hospital, church, prison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.7. The indefinite article with proper names . . . . . . 31

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Chapter 3. The definite article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


3.1. The definite article with common nouns . . . . . . 33
3.1.1. The specifying function of the definite article . . 33
3.1.1.1. The limiting attribute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.1.1.2. The contextual situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.1.1.3. The definite article with unique objects . . . . . . 35
3.1.2. The generic function of the definite article . . . . 36
3.1.2.1. The definite article with countable nouns . . . . . 36
3.1.2.2. The definite article with collective nouns . . . . . 37
3.1.2.3. The definite article with substantivized adjectives . 38
3.2. The definite article with material nouns . . . . . . . 39
3.3. The definite article with abstract nouns . . . . . . . 40
3.4. The definite article with some semantic
groups of nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.4.1. The definite article with nouns denoting seasons . 40
3.4.2. The definite article with nouns denoting
parts of the day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.4.3. The definite article with names of meals . . . . . 42
3.4.4. The definite article with names of diseases . . . 42
3.4.5. The definite article with nouns bed, school,
college, university, hospital, church, prison,
jail, table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4.6. The definite article with the noun sea . . . . . . . 43
3.5. The definite article with proper names . . . . . . . 43
3.5.1. The definite article with geographical names . . 43
3.5.2. The definite article with miscellaneous
proper names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.6. The situational use of the definite article
with proper names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Chapter 4. The meaningful absence of the article . . . . . . . . . 51
4.1. The zero article in the function of absolute
generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.2. The zero article with material nouns . . . . . . . . . 51
4.3. The zero article with collective nouns . . . . . . . . 52
4.4. The zero article with abstract nouns . . . . . . . . . 52
4.5. The meaningful absence of the article
with some semantic groups of nouns . . . . . . . . 54
4.5.1. The zero article with nouns denoting seasons . . 54
4.5.2. The zero article with nouns denoting
parts of the day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.5.3. The zero article with nouns denoting
names of meals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.5.4. The zero article with names of diseases . . . . . 56
4.5.5. The zero article with names of sciences
and school subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.5.6. The zero article with names of sports
and games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

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4.5.7. The zero article with nouns school, college,


hospital, etc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.5.8. The zero article with nouns town, space, society . 58
4.6. The zero article with proper names. . . . . . . . . . 59
4.6.1. The zero article with geographical names . . . . 59
4.6.2. The zero article with miscellaneous
proper names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.6.3. The zero article with names of persons . . . . . . 62
4.7. Contextually bound absence of the article . . . . . 63
Chapter 5. Articles with nouns in various syntactic functions . . 64
5.1. Syntactic structure and actual division
of a sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.2. Articles with nouns in the function of the subject . . 65
5.3. Articles with nouns in the predicative function . . 67
5.4. Articles with nouns in the function of an object . 70
5.5. Articles with nouns in apposition . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.6. Articles with nouns used as adverbial modifiers . 73
5.6.1. Articles with nouns used as an adverbial
modifier of place . . . . . . . . . . ....... . . . . . 73
5.6.2. Articles with nouns used as an adverbial
modifier of time . . . . . . . . . . . ....... . . . . . 75
5.6.3. Articles with nouns used as an adverbial
modifier of manner . . . . . . . . ....... . . . . . 76
5.6.4. Articles with nouns used as an adverbial
modifier of comparison . . . . . ....... . . . . . 77
5.7. Articles with nouns used as direct address . . . . 77
5.8. Articles with nouns used as parenthesis . . . . . . 78
Exercises to chapter 1. Limiting and descriptive attributes . . 79

Exercises to chapters 2, 3, 4. The indefinite article.


The definite article. The zero article. . . . . . . . . . .112

Exercises to chapter 5. Articles with nouns in various


syntactic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177

Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203

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