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Е.С.

ПЕТРОВА

СЛОЖНОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ
В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
ВАРИАНТЫ ФОРМЫ, ЗНАЧЕНИЯ
И УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ

Учебное пособие
МОСКВА
«ГИС»
ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ ФАКУЛЬТЕТ СПбГУ
2002
ББК 81.2 Англ.
ПЗО
Рецензенты:
доктор филологических наук, профессор В.И. Шадрин
(Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет),
кандидат филологических наук, доцент ИН. Крылова
(Санкт-Петербургский государственный электротехнический университет).

Петрова EXL
П 30 Сложное предложение в английском языке. Варианты формы,
значения и употребления: Учебное пособие. - М.: ГИС; СПб.:
Филологический факультет СПбГУ, 2002. -136 с.

ISBN 5-8330-0181-1
ISBN 5-8465-0074-5

Учебное пособие по грамматике английского языка состоит из


двух частей. Первая часть содержит описание основных типов
сложносочиненного и сложноподчиненного предложения. Особое
внимание уделяется
средствам связи, а также
вариантности формы,
значения и речевого применения синтаксических моделей. Вторая часть
включает более 80 упражнений, отвечающих современным отечественным
и международным методикам преподавания и тестирования.
Пособие предназначено для лиц, овладевших основами английской
грамматики, студентов и аспирантов вузов, а также для всех, кто хочет
правильно читать и говорить по-английски.

ББК 81.2 Англ.

Художник Д Сонкин

здание осуществлено совместно с


ЗАО «Издательско-коммерческий домь ДЕТЕКТИВ»
©Е.С. Петрова, 2001 г.

ISBN 5-8465-0074-5 © Филологический фак-т СПбГУ, 2001 г.


ISBN 5-8330-0181-1 © Издательство «ГИС», 2
1. The Com} und Sentence.............................................................................................

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Contents
От автора.................................................................................................................... 4
Introduction......................................................................................................................... 5
PART ONE. Multiple Sentences: An Outline
1.1. Asyndetic Compound Sentences............................................................................

1.2. Syndetic Compound Sentences................................................


1.2.1. Compound Sentences with Copulative Coordination.....................
1.2.2. Compound Sentences with Adversative Coordination...................
1.2.3. Compound Sentence with Disjunctive Coordination......................
1.2.4. Compound Sentences with Causative-Consecutive Coordination
2. The Complex Sentence,
2.1. Subject Clauses.......
2.2. Predicative Clauses
2.3. Object Clauses........
2.4. Attributive Clauses
2.4.1. Attributive Appositive Clauses.......................................................
2.4.2. Attributive Relative Clauses...........................................................
2.4.2.1. Attributive Relative Limiting Clauses......................................
2.4.2.1.1. Attributive Relative Limiting Particularizing Clauses.......
2.4.2.1.2. Attributive Relative Limiting Classifying Clauses.............
2.4.2^. Attributive Relative Non-Limiting Clauses................................
2.4.2.2.1. Attributive Relative Non-Limiting Descriptive Clauses...
3.4.2.2.2. Attributive Relative Non-Limiting Continuative Clauses
2.5. Adverbial Clauses.....................................................................
2.5.1. Adverbial Clauses of Time.............................................................
2.5.2. Adverbial Clauses of Place.............................................................
2.5.3. Adverbial Clauses of Condition............................ .........................
2.5.4. Adverbial Clauses of Reason...........................................................
2.5.5. Adverbial Clauses of Purpose.........................................................
2.5.6. Adverbial Clauses of Result............................................................
2.5.7. Adverbial Clauses of Manner........................................................
2.5.8. Adverbial Clauses of Comparison...................................................
2.5.9. Adverbial Clauses of Proportion.....................................................
2.5.10. Adverbial Clauses of Concession.................................................
2.6. Parenthetical Clauses..............................................................
2.7. Vocative Clauses.......................................................................
3. The Compound-Complex Sentence
PART TWO. Practice Section......................................................................................85
Glossary of Linguistic Terms.......................................................................................... 132
Selected Bibliography.................................................................................................... 136
От автора

Углубленное изучение грамматики английского языка невозможно


без обращения к сложному предложению. Многие черты английского
синтаксиса и морфологии, как-то: инверсия, многозначность средств
связи, вариативность использования глагольных форм изъявительного и
сослагательного наклонения, не могут быть истолкованы без учета
структуры и значения синтаксических комплексов. Понимание смысла
текста и овладение основами перевода также требуют знания
особенностей сложносочиненного и сложноподчиненного предложений.
Настоящее пособие по английской грамматике состоит из двух
частей.
Первая часть содержит краткое описание основных семантико-
синтаксических типов многочастных предложений английского языка.
Здесь рассматриваются структурные модели сложносочиненных и
сложноподчиненных предложений, иллюстрируются стилистические и
смысловые различия между их вариантами, уточняются особенности их
функционирования в речи. Особое внимание уделяется грамматическим
вариантам: стилистическим, регистровым и национально-
территориальным.
В пособии содержатся сведения о терминологических различиях, о
принципах классификации, о пограничных моделях, возникающих при
реальном функционировании живого языка.
Вторая часть содержит упражнения повышенной трудности для
аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы. Упражнения отражают требования
современной методики преподавания грамматики английского языка.
Они ориентированы на требования университетских экзаменов и
международных тестов продвинутого уровня.
Учебное пособие предназначено для аспирантов, студентов-
филологов старших курсов и других категорий учащихся, свободно
читающих по-английски и завершивших начальный этап изучения
грамматики английского языка.
INTRODUCTION

Although the sentence is the fundamental unit of syntax, the term is


notoriously hard to define. It is traditionally understood as a grammatically
arranged group of words which is generally used to make an utterance
expressing a complete thought. In writing, a sentence begins with a capital
letter and ends with a full stop. In speaking, it is pronounced as a separate tone
group. However, the speaker or writer often needs to make a statement that is
too complex or elaborate to be expressed with the help of a simple sentence.
The unit of language that serves to make a more detailed statement of this kind
is the multiple sentence. Both simple and multiple sentences go to make a
larger whole, discourse, roughly defined as the structured result of speech
production: monologue or dialogue, written or spoken.
It would be inaccurate to assert that multiple sentences are built up by
merely putting two or more simple sentences together, since there are various
regularities that govern the making of a multiple sentence. Its immediate
constituents are not words, phrases or constructions, but structural units called
clauses. The multiple sentence, therefore, is a sentence consisting of two or
more clauses, whereas the simple sentence consists of one clause.
With reference to grammatical complexes, a clause is traditionally de
fined, albeit with a few reservations, as part of a multiple (compound, complex
or compound-complex) sentence that has a subject and a finite verb predicate
of its own. The following sentence, for instance, consists of three clauses:
• (1) Youth looks forward; (2) old age looks back; (3) middle age
looks worried.
It should be noted that British and American grammar books tend to
interpret the term clause far more loosely: it is generally applied to simple
sentences regarded in their structural aspect, and also to various grammatically
arranged constituents of which sentences (simple or multiple) are composed,
including noun and verb phrases and predicative constructions with the
verbals. In the present outline, however, the use of the term clause will be
confined to the immediate constituents of which multiple sentences are
composed.
The structure of a clause is similar to that of a simple sentence in that it
conforms to one of the basic sentence models. In other words, a clause can
have the structure of a declarative, interrogative, imperative or exclamatory
syntactic unit:
• What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure,
• What was she doing when I called?
• What a pretty child she was when I first saw her!
The verb in a clause can be put not only in the indicative mood, as in the
above examples, but also in the subjunctive and the imperative mood:
• The manager insisted that smoking be prohibited in the office.
• Do that again and you 41 be punished.
In dealing with structures of the latter type we can see that a clause with
the verb in the imperative mood has just one nuclear member rather than a
subject and a predicate. In anticipation of what follows, we should note that a
clause can conform to other one-member models as well, although this point is
often »!overlooked by practical grammars. In fact, both Russian and
English •syntactic structures admit of one-member clauses. Cf.:
Хорошо, когда у человека есть семья.
If you ’ve got money of your own, so much the better.
Furthermore, clauses can be elliptical:
• Wise men learn by other men 's mistakes; fools by their own.
Clauses in multiple sentences can be joined in two ways: asyndeti- cally,
i. e. without any linking elements, or syndetically, i. e. with the help of
coordinators {and, or, but) or subordinators {that, if which, whoever, etc.):
• The books you gave me are extremely valuable,
• The books that lay on the table belonged to Richard,
These two ways of joining clauses together will be given a more detailed
treatment in die sections that follow.
PART ONE
MULTIPLE SENTENCES: AN OUTLINE

1. THE COMPOUND SENTENCE


A compound sentence is a multiple sentence that consists of two or
more clauses coordinated with each other. Clauses combined by means of
coordination are regarded as independent: they are linked in such a way that
there is no hierarchy in the syntactic relationship; they have the same syn-
<1 ...

tactic status. For example:


• (1) Гт tired of love; (2) Гт still more tired of rhyme, (3) but money
gives me pleasure all the time.
In this compound sentence, the first two coordinate clauses are joined
asyndetically, whereas the second and the third clauses are joined syndeti-
cally, by means of the coordinating conjunction but. Graphically, this structure
can be represented in the following way:
J

but

Coordinate clauses are also termed conjoins.

Coordination, therefore, can be asyndetic or syndetic.


In syndetic compound sentences, the type of coordination (i. e. the
meaning relationship between the clauses) is expressed explicitly, by means of
coordinators:
• Everything has an end, and a pudding has two.
In asyndetic compound sentences, coordinators are absent; the meaning
relationship, therefore, remains implicit:
• It’s only a tentative suggestion, don 7 count on it.
However, a coordinator can frequently be supplied. Compare:
• The author James Peters can 7 be a Nobel Prize winner: I 've never
heard his name before.
• The author James Peters can 7 be a Nobel Prize winner, for I've never
heard his name before.
It has been suggested that the compound sentence should be regarded as a
mere juxtaposition of two or more simple sentences rather than a specific
sentence type. However, there are a few arguments against this approach. In
the first place, the joining of two clauses within one sentence is based on a
closer logical and semantic relationship. Secondly, some of the structural
patterns, as will be shown in the sections that follow, are restricted to
compound sentences and are hardly ever found in independent sentences.
Thirdly, in terms of communicative function, a compound sentence mostly
serves to express an utterance marked by a particular pragmatic meaning: that
of assertion, advice, threat, etc.
Besides compound sentences consisting of asyndetically or syndeti- cally
coordinated clauses, there are a number of constructions whose elements are
not normally analyzed as coordinate clauses, even though they are
grammatically independent of each other. Rather, they are seen as examples of
a more general category known as paratactic constructions, i. e. syntactic
constructions made up of several constituents of equal grammatical status.
Parataxis is distinguished from hypotaxis, the relation between two items of
which one is subordinated to the other.
Paratactic constructions include sentences with direct speech, e. g.: •
Shakespeare said, “Neither a borrower nor a lender be.”
Here also belong tag questions and commands:
• She's away at the moment, isn't she?
• A nswer the door, wo uld you ?
• Cut it out, can 7 you?
Asyndetic sentences composed of two one-member clauses of which the
first implies a condition or contingency represent a borderline case between
paratactic constructions and compound sentences. This model seems to be
non-productive, i. e. confined to idiomatic expressions built up according to a
definite pattern, although many of them are quite frequently used:
• Once bitten, twice shy.
• In for a penny, in for a pound.
• First come, first served.
• Nothing ventured, nothing gained.
We will now deal in more detail with the types of coordination in a
compound sentence.
1.1. ASYNDETIC COMPOUND SENTENCES
Two or more clauses can be made into one sentence without a coordi-
nator being used. The resulting structure is referred to as asyndetic compound
sentence:
• Don 7 worry, 141 take care of it,
• Philosophy class meets on Tuesday; Spanish class meets three times
a week.
• Please help me — Гт stuck in the lift!
Asyndetically joined coordinate clauses convey related ideas. They are
linked together so as to add or elaborate a point, to express contrast, reason or
consequence [see also 2.5.3, Usage Note (v)]. Grammatically, these relations
remain implicit: the speaker / writer has them in mind when producing an
utterance, and the listener / reader deduces them from the semantic content,
intonation contour and, sometimes, structural features of the coordinate
clauses.
In writing, asyndetically joined coordinate clauses are separated by a
semicolon (;), a colon (:) or a dash (-).
The semicolon is most frequently used in formal writing:
• Most British hospitals offer only Western methods of treatment;
hospitals in China provide both Western and traditional Chinese
medicine.
Using a comma instead of a semicolon is not recommended and is often
regarded as an error. However, a comma can be used in asyndetic sentences if
the clauses are very short, or the ideas expressed closely related,
e. g.:
• I came, I saw, I conquered,
• Life is not hard, it Just needs some positive thinking.
The colon is mainly used to set off a clause that explains, elaborates or
summarizes the statement expressed in the first clause:
• Minds are like parachutes: they function only when open,
• My life had changed radically: I had a regular income and an
apartment of my own.
The dash is especially common in informal writing; it can be used in
the same way as the colon:
• We had a lovely time in Bermuda — the kids really enjoyed them
selves.
USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING

If both asyndetic clauses are negative in meaning and the second clause
opens with still less, much less or even less, this second clause has inverted
word order, similar to interrogative sentence inversion, e. g.:
• She doesn 7 even like him; much less does she want to marry him,
• I didn 7 accuse anyone in your family; still less did I blame your
cousin.
Note that the negative meaning in the second clause is conveyed by the
comparative adverb less, with the negative particle missing.
Compound sentences with inversion in one of the clauses prove yet again
that a compound sentence is not a mere juxtaposition of two simple sentences,
because the syntactic features of the conjoins are to a large extent interrelated.
t (B) SET EXPRESSIONS
Asyndetic compound sentences are found in a number of proverbs and
idiomatic expressions, for example:
Absence sharpens love; presence strengthens it.
Bear wealth; poverty will bear itself
Two is company; three is none / a crowd.

Heads, I win; tails, you lose.


The King is dead, long live the King.
You name it, we / they have it (e. g, of a supply of goods).

1.2. SYNDETIC COMPOUND SENTENCES


In syndetic compound sentences the type of coordination is expressed
explicitly by means of coordinators, i. e. coordinating conjunctions (and, or,
but, for, etc.) and conjunctive adverbs (however, yet, therefore, etc.):
♦ The garage lock was broken, but nobody seemed to care.
Coordinating conjunctions are restricted to initial position in the clause,
whereas most conjunctive adverbs can be shifted to another position, e. g.:
• The book contains a wealth of valuable information; moreover, the
material is conveniently organized.
• The book contains a wealth of valuable information; the material,
moreover, is conveniently organized.
However, it is only with certain reservations that the latter type of sen-
tence can be regarded as syndetic compound sentence. In the present section,
therefore, we are going to deal only with those structures that actually open
with a coordinator.
Sometimes conjunctive adverbs are preceded by conjunctions: but nev-
ertheless, but still, and yet, and therefore, and neither, etc. In this case, the
type of coordination is determined by the conjunctive adverb:
• Your information is quite accurate, and therefore, your conclusions
are reliable.
Some of the coordinators can provide multiple coordination, occurring
as they do in the compound sentence more than once and thus linking more
than two clauses:
• The horses did not come back, nor did the members of the expedition,
nor did the local bearers.
Perhaps the pump was broken, or there was a blockage in one of
the pipes, or the drainage hole was clogged.
A friend of mine was shopping, and she came back to this multistorey
car-park, and it was kind of deserted, [informal]
Clauses linked by means of coordinating conjunctions can be separated
by a comma for the sake of clarity, as the examples above show.
Clauses linked by means of conjunctive adverbs are normally separated
by a semicolon, with a comma after the adverb. Adverbs of four letters or
fewer are not normally set off. Cf.:
The editor didn 7 approve of the arrangement of paragraphs; fur
thermore, she insisted on eliminating a number
of illustrations.
It ’5 pitch dark; besides, the road is nearly impassable. He was quite
well off; also (,) his whole family was rich. There was a traffic jam on
the road, yet they arrived on time.
Conjunctive adverbs are closely approached by set expressions known
as transitional p h r a s e s: as a result, in like manner, in fact, for example, for
instance, for this reason, on the contrary, etc. Some of them admit of
structural modification (in actual fact; for this reason alone; it is for this
reason that...)', others invariably occur in the same form (for instance). For
example:
• People are made mentally old by having to retire; in like manner, they
may be made physically old.
Semantically, they express the meaning relationship between the clauses,
just as coordinators do. Syntactically, however, they function as parenthetical
phrases within the second clause in asyndetic sentences, and therefore, they
will not be dealt with in this section.
In terms of their structure, i. e. with regard to the number of constituents
and their arrangement, coordinators can be divided into one- member, or
simple (and, or, but, for), and multi-member (either,., or, not only... but).
The latter group can be further subdivided into compound coordinators
(or else) and correlative coordinators (neither... nor). The constituents of
correlative coordinators are spaced apart, with the first element, known as the
endorsing item, found in the first clause, and the second element, the
conjunction proper, in the second clause:
• Not only is the teacher’s status very high in most cultures, but she is
often looked up to as a role model.
The following chart sums up our outline of the structural types of co
ordinators:
Coordinators in a compound sentence express four logical types of co
ordination: copulative, disjunctive, adversative, and causative consecutive.

1.2.1. Compound Sentences with Copulative Coordination


In compound sentences with copulative coordination, the clauses are
simply linked together to express two or more related facts. This is done with
the help of the conjunctions and, not only... but (also), and neither... nor [rare]:
• Joan had apple-pie for dessert and Mary had ice-cream.
• You can neither write elegantly, nor can you write clearly.
• Not only did the students demand new training facilities, but they also
insisted on a revision of tuition fees,
A similar meaning relationship is expressed by the conjunctive adverbs
also, besides, furthermore [formal], moreover [formal], likewise, nor, neither,
plus [informal], etc.:
• The project was completed on schedule; moreover, a considerable
amount of money has been saved.
• An address book with everybody 's address in it would be awfully big,
plus people move all the time, plus some people wouldn 7 want their
address in the book.
The conjunction and, which is probably the most frequently used coor
dinator, can imply a number of relations that could be expressed unambigu-
ously by other means:
There was a crooked man, and he walked a crooked mile, [simple
addition]
The clock struck five and the first visitor arrived, [chronological
sequence]
We heard a strange noise on the roof, and mother suggested calling
the police, [cause and consequence]
Liz is blonde and Helen is dark, [contrast]
Give me some money and I'll get us something to eat. [condition]
There is only one thing to do now — and that's to sell our shares.
[comment or explanation]
In spontaneous informal discourse, the speaker can make very long
copulative sentences with multiple coordination, adding more and more anrf-
conjoins so as to hang on to a particular topic. However, in formal contexts,
especially in writing, it is advisable to avoid overusing and by employing
other links that bring out the logical relationship between the clauses.
If two negative statements are linked with the help of and, we often find
either at the end of the second clause:
• Tony didn 't turn up for the Student Union meeting, and Keith didn 7
either.
Copulative sentences can be used in an informal style to express
advice, threat or warning. This is done by conjoining an imperative cl use and
a clause opening with and and containing a verb in the future tense:
• Go by train and you 'll get to Bath at 7 a.m.
• (You) do this again and I'll tell your parents.
USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING
(i) Clauses containing the endorsing item not only (they come first in a
compound sentence) have direct word order when this element is found in
mid-position, and inverted word order, similar to the interrogative sentence
word order, when not only is found in the initial position. The structure of the
second clause, containing the correlative but (...also), remains unchanged in
either case:
• Harry not only lost his pocket-book, but he was also robbed of his
Swiss watch. b

• Not only did Harry lose his pocket-book, but he was also robbed of
his Swiss watch.
The structure with inverted word order sounds more dramatic and is
chiefly found in a formal literary style. The correlative but...also can be
represented by both these elements or by either one used alone. Therefore, the
above example could read:
• Not only did Harry lose his pocket-book; he was also robbed of his
Swiss watch.
• Not only did Harry lose his pocket-book, but he was robbed of his
Swiss watch.
(ii) Clauses opening with neither, nor, and neither, and nor (they come
second in a compound sentence) always have inverted word order similar to
the interrogative sentence word order, e. g.:
• I don 7 blame you, and neither do I doubt your honesty.
• The Smiths could neither describe the stranger to the police, nor
could they recollect the exact time of the encounter.
The same structure occurs when and is followed by the substitute word
so.
• Harry was late and so were his friends.
• I take a cold shower every morning, and so does my brother.
(Hi) In a formal literary style, the second coordinate clause can have
inverted word order if the statement expressed in it makes a comparative
reference to the statement expressed in the first clause by using equally or just
as:
• Marion ’s reaction was a disgrace, and equally / just as scandalous
was her departure in the middle of the interview.
Inversion is optional in this kind of structure (... and her departure in the
middle of the interview was equally scandalous).
(B) SET EXPRESSIONS
Copulative sentences are found in a number of proverbs and idiomatic
expressions:
• Give him an inch, and he *11 take a mile.
Keep a thing seven years and you ’ll find a use for it.
The day is short and the work is long.
Ask no questions and you will be told no lies.

1.2.2. Compound Sentences with Disjunctive Coordination


Compound sentences with disjunctive coordination express an alterna-
tive. This is achieved with the help of the following conjunctions: or, or else,
and either... or:
• We can meet this afternoon, or (else) we can discuss the matter at
dinner.
• Either the pump is broken or the drainage is clogged.
A similar meaning relationship is expressed by the conjunctive adverb
otherwise'.
• It *s perfectly legitimate; otherwise I wouldn *t have done it.
If the conjunction or introduces a reservation or rewording, it can
combine with the adverbs rather and at least.
• Polly has a talent for acting, or rather / or at least her parents think
so.
Disjunctive sentences can be used to give advice, a warning, or an order.
This is done by conjoining an imperative clause and a clause opening with or
or otherwise and containing a verb in the future tense:
• Hurry up, or you *11 be late again.
• Go away, otherwise Гll call the police.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING

(i) Interrogative disjunctive sentences with the conjunction or can have a


parallel structure. This rhetorical question pattern is used for effect, often with
an implication of approval:
• Do w have a house or do we (have a house)? (~ We have a very nice
house).
(ii) When both addition and alternative are possible, and/or can be used
in scientific and legal writing:
• The checks in this joint account must be signed by Norman Briggs
and/or they must be signed by Angela Briggs.

1.2.3. Compound Sentences with Adversative Coordination


In compound sentences with adversative coordination the statements
expressed by the clauses are contrasted in meaning. This is achieved with the
help of the conjunctions but, while, whereas, whilst [formal, old- fashioned],
and only [informal]:
• It was a high climb but it was worth it.
• Some people don 7 mind passive smoking, while / whereas others hate
it.
• I would’ve asked you to my party, only my dad told me not to.
A similar semantic relationship can be expressed by the following con-
junctive adverbs: however, nevertheless, nonetheless [formal], still, and yet:
• At first she refused to join us; however, she soon changed her mind.
A conjunction can combine with a conjunctive adverb, e. g.:
• His first novel was not a pronounced success, but yet it was not a
failure.
• The car crashed into a tree, and yet the driver escaped without a
scratch.
Although the conjunction except (that) is not traditionally classed with
adversative coordinators, the relationship between the clauses it connects is
similar to adversative coordination:
• I would pay you now, except that (= ‘but’, ‘only’) I don't have any
money on me at the moment.
USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING

(i) There is a marginal type of interrogative adversative sentence con-


taining a one-member clause. As in the case of one-member clauses in sen-
tences with asyndetic coordination, this use seems to be confined to a definite
model:
• Her tastes are somewhat extravagant, but what of that / it?
This indicates that the statement expressed in the first clause seems un-
important or irrelevant to the speaker. The same attitude can be expressed
using so what? in sentences with causative-consecutive coordination [see
below].
(ii) The relations of contrast appear to be symmetrical; however, the
order of clauses in adversative sentences could not be reversed, because the
implications of the whole sentence would be different. Compare:
• He has treated you badly; still, he is your brother.
• He is your brother; still, he has treated you badly.
(Hi) Adversative sentences with the conjunction but and the auxiliary
may in the first clause express an added meaning of concession, e. g.:
• Time may be a good healer but it’s a poor beautician (= 'Although
time is a good healer, it’s a poor beautician’/
(B) SET EXPRESSIONS

Adversative sentences are found in a number of proverbs and idiomatic


expressions:
• It never rains but it pours.
• You can lead a horse to water, but you cannot make him drink.
• The tongue is not steel, yet it cuts.

1.2.4. Compound Sentences with Causative-Consecutive


Coordination
Compound sentences with causative-consecutive coordination express
the idea of cause and consequence. This is done with the help of the con-
junction for:
• They parted sadly, for there was so much left to say.
A similar semantic relationship is expressed by the conjunctive adverbs
hence [formal], consequently, then, therefore, thus [formal], accord* ingly,
and so [informal]:
• Гт off on holiday, so I won 7 be seeing you for a while.
• It would be impossible for us to pay such prices; therefore, we must
content ourselves with other kinds of products.
• Nick has been getting more exercise; hence, he has lost weight.
The coordinator for is sometimes interchangeable with the subordina- tor
because, although the use of for in place of because is regarded as dated.
Generally speaking, for, which sounds less direct than because, gives a reason
for something that is taken for granted. The clause joined with for is normally
punctuated, e. g.:
• Marie did not answer his letters, for how else could she have shown her
contempt?
Besides, for presents the reason as subjective or inferential, with the
implication ‘my reason for saying so is that...’. Compare:
• Mother must have disapproved of our plan, for she was unusually
reticent.
• Mother disapproved of our plan because it sounded impractical.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING

(i) Hence occurs in one-member as well as two-member clauses:


• The sculptor grew up in the Sudan; hence her interest in Nubian art.
• The sculptor grew up in the Sudan; hence, she developed an interest
in Nubian art.
(ii) There is a marginal type of interrogative causative-consecutive sen-
tence containing a one-member clause confined to a definite pattern:
• My wife didn 7 go to university; so what?
This indicates that the statement expressed in the first clause seems un-
important or irrelevant to the speaker.
(B) SET EXPRESSIONS

Causative-consecutive sentences are found in a number of proverbs and


idiomatic expressions:
• God help the poor, for the rich can help themselves.
• God send you joy, for sorrow will come fast enough.
• Гт going to tell the truth, so help me God. [used when the speaker is
making a very serious promise, for example in a law court]
The following chart sums up our outline of compound sentences:

2. THE COMPLEX SENTENCE


A complex sentence, unlike a compound sentence, is a hierarchical
syntactic structure. It is a multiple sentence that consists of an independent
clause (also called a main or principal clause) and at least one dependent (or
subordinate) clause, grammatically subordinated to the former. The complex
sentence, therefore, depends for its existence on the asymmetrical relationship
of subordination. For example:
(1 •) All good things come to those (2) that wait.
This sentence, in which clause (1) is an independent, or main clause, and
clause (2) is grammatically dependent upon it, or subordinate, can be
graphically represented in the following way:
1 — independent clause

2 — subordinate clause
Dependent clauses can be joined to the main clause asyndetically, i. e.
without any linking elements (She says she loves me), or syndetically, i. e. by
1
means of subordinated. The class of subordinated includes subordinating
conjunctions (as if, because, although, whether, unless, since, etc.) and
connectives, such as who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever,
whatever, how, when, where and why.
Unlike conjunctions, connectives do not constitute a separate part of
speech; they include relative pronouns (whatever, which, who, etc.) and
relative adverbs (when, where, how, etc.).
Subordinating conjunctions have the sole function of joining clauses
together, whereas connectives not only join clauses together, but also have a
syntactic function of their own within the clauses they introduce. Compare:
• I didn 't know whether they had rented that house, [a conjunction]
• I didn 7 know who had rented that house, [a connective, serving as
subject to had rented]
In the first sentence, the conjunction whether serves as a formal link; it is
a dependent clause marker. In the second sentence, the connective who (a
relative pronoun) is also a dependent clause marker, but, in addition to this, it
serves as subject to the predicate in the dependent clause.
A subordinator can be preceded by a preposition:
• It is a good time for us to think about where we have come from.
In terms of their structure, that is, with regard to the number of elements
and their arrangement, all connectives are one-member items, whereas
conjunctions can be divided into one-member, or simple (if, because, until,
although, etc.), and multi-member (in that, as though, not so... as, etc.).
The second group can be further subdivided into compound and cor-
relative conjunctions.
Compound conjunctions invariably consist of two or more elements: in
case, insofar as, in order that, as soon as, in spite of the fact that. Some of
them could be described as optionally compound, since their final element
may be omitted: now (that), provided (that), seeing (that). However,
optionally compound conjunctions appear as such chiefly in an informal style;
in formal written English the second element is not normally dropped.
The components of correlative conjunctions are spaced apart, with one
component (the endorsing item) found in the main clause and the other, in the
subordinate clause: no sooner... than, barely... when, the... the. Correlative
subordinators ensure a stronger interdependence between the clauses,
sometimes making it difficult to decide which clause is grammatically
dominant in the sentence. It is for this reason than some linguists treat this
type of structure as ‘mutual subordination’.
Strictly speaking, the term ‘correlative subordinator’ is largely conven-
tional, because the endorsing item can be a notional part of speech (e. g., an
adverb) or even a morpheme (-er in comparatives). Furthermore, a few of
these subordinated are optionally correlative: if.,, (then), so... (that).
Within these groups, there are a number of subordinators of compara-
tively later origin, such as directly, immediately, provided (that), considering
(how, what, etc.), in view of the fact that, etc. They coincide in form with other
parts of speech or with phrases. Some of them are still undergoing the process
of grammaticalization, which is borne out by variation of their form: on the
ground that / on the grounds that; the last time (that) / last time; the way / in
the way. Nevertheless, most of the recent grammar books treat them as
conjunctions in their own right.
Compare the use of some grammatical items as free word combinations,
or phrases, and as subordinators:
• The second act was as long as the first one. [a free word combination]
• You can stay in my office as long as you don 7 ask any more ques-
tions. [a subordinating conjunction]
• Am I in the way? [a free word combination]
• The girls curtsied in the way the governess had taught them. [a
subordinating conjunction]
Subordinators can combine with intensifying or limiting adverbs: only if,
exactly the way, not nearly so... as, just what, etc.
• Anne cooks fish exactly the way her mother did.
Subordinators may occur in coordinate pairs; this use, however, is re-
stricted and largely fixed: if and only if; if and when; when and where.
Many subordinators are polysemantic. For instance, while can be used as
a coordinator or a subordinator; that can serve as either a subordinating
conjunction or as a connective; as can convey the meaning of time, reason,
concession, and manner. If a subordinator combines two grammatical mean-
ings in the same usage, it is described as syncretic. For example, now (that)
combines the meanings of time and reason, with the latter predominating.
If a sentence has two or more dependent clauses, they can be arranged in
various ways.
In the first place, dependent clauses can be homogeneous, i. e. per-
forming the same function, related to the same element in the main clause, and
coordinated with each other:
(1) A classic is something (2) that everybody wants to have read (3) and
nobody wants to read.
This sentence can be graphically represented in the following way:
1 — main clause

2& 3 — homogeneous subordinate


clauses (copulative coordination)
Secondly, a dependent clause may be
subordinated directly to the main clause (as
in the above examples), in which case it is a clause of the first degree of
subordination, of to another dependent clause, in which case it becomes a
clause of the second, third, etc. degree of subordination. Consider the
following example:
(2) If men knew (3) how women pass the time (4) when they are alone,
(1) they *d never marry.

This sentence has three degrees of subordination:

1 — main clause

2 — subordinate clause

(first degree of subordination)


3 — subordinate clause
(second degree of subordination)

4 — subordinate clause (third degree of subordination)

Clause (2) is a clause of the first degree of subordination, clause (3) is a


clause of the second degree of subordination, and clause (4) is a clause of the
third degree of subordination.
In other words, clause (2) serves as a superordinate clause to clause
(3) , which, in its turn, serves as superordinate to clause (4).
Subordinators introducing their respective clauses may be placed
alongside each other; in this case a superordinate clause is interrupted by a
dependent clause of the next degree of subordination:
(1) This is not to say (2„.) that (3) what Гт trying to point to here (...2)
has not been discussed before.
1
1 — main clause

2 — subordinate clause
(first degree f subordination)

3 — subordinate clause
(second degree of subordination)

Here clause (3) is a clause of the second degree of subordination, even


though it stands within subordinate clause (2), where it serves as subject.
Finally, a multiple sentence can include two or more independent
clauses, coordinated with each other in one of the ways described above, and
at least one dependent clause. A syntactic structure of this type is termed the
compound-complex sentence:
(1) The philosophy of myth is not something (3) that I intend to go into
in depth; (2) this book is intended for stimulating and enjoyable reading.

1 & 2 — independent clauses


(asyndetic
Dependent clauses are classified according to theircoordination)
syntactic function in
relation to the main clause. Therefore, taking a unified approach to analyzing
simple and complex sentences, we primarily 3 — subordinate clause subject,
distinguish
predicative, object, attributive, adverbial, parenthetical, and vocative
clauses. Although some British and American grammars also recognize other
types of clauses, such as those of preference, exception, precaution, etc., we
believe that these categories are based on lexical or communicative meaning
rather than syntactic function; therefore, they will be treated here as
functional subtypes of the relevant syntactic types of clauses.
Subject, predicative and object clauses are referred to as nominal
clauses because their counterparts in the simple sentence are characteristi-
cally expressed by nominal parts of speech. Nominal clauses are introduced
by a wide range of subordinators, both conjunctions and connectives.
1
2.1. SUBJECT CLAUSES
A subject clause is the type of dependent clause that serves as subject to
the predicate of the main clause:
• That she was still sitting there was a surprise to me.
9
• What can t be cured must be endured.
In this type of sentence, the main clause is structurally deficient, in that
it would make little or no sense if the subordinate clause were removed from
it. However, removing the subject of a simple sentence would frequently
produce a deficient structure as well. It is obvious that the underlined clauses
function as subjects in their respective sentences because they could be
replaced by the pronoun this or that to produce a complete simple sentence
{'That was a surprise to me’ and 'This must be endured"). Besides, they
answer the question asked about the subject ('What was a surprise to me?
'What must be endured?') in their respective sentences. Finally, they occupy
the syntactic position before the predicate, which is normally occupied by the
subject.
Alternatively, a subject clause can be found at the end of the sentence, in
which case the introductory it serves as a formal subject:
• It was a surprise to me that she was still sitting there.
• It was made clear to the audience what measures would be taken to
9
ensure the athletes security.
Subject clauses are introduced by various subordinates:
• Who(m) you invite is your business.
• How the hostages managed to survive was a mystery.
• Where we stay doesn 7 matter.
• Whether or not the translation has been notarized is immaterial.
• It is perfectly clear when the payment is due.
• It seems to me absurd that he calls himself Caesar.
In an informal style, the conjunction that can be omitted from subject
clauses correlating with the introductory it*.
• It's a pity you weren't there.
9
• It is obvious the driver couldn t control the car.
As can be seen from the above examples, a subject clause may precede or
follow the main clause. Because longer and heavier structures usually come
last in a sentence, the introductory it is often used to move a longer
subject clause to final position. Here is a list of adjectives often found in the
main clause as predicatives to the formal it and followed by a subject
clause:
amazing evident incredible outrageous
apparent extraordinary inevitable plain
appropriate fair interesting possible
awful fascinating (un)likely probable
bad fortunate lucky sad
clear funny natural shameful
disgraceful good necessary unbelievable
essential important obvious wrong

• It is simply extraordinary that so young an author has been short-


listed for the Booker Prize.
• It was appropriate that the guests wore evening dress.
These structures sound more natural than their equivalents without the
introductory it:
• (?) That so young an author has been short-listed for the Booker
Prize is simply extraordinary.
Subject clauses introduced by the conjunction that also occur after the
formal it followed by a verb in the passive voice, such as one of these:
allege estimate report say
assume hope think
believe know understand
consider presume
• It is thought that there are about 3,000 different languages in the
world.
• It was understood that the damage would be repaired.
• It is alleged that he has conspired with persons in the town in order
to kidnap a ten-year-old child.
• It is hoped that legal expenses can be reduced.
Similarly, a subject clause can be used to say that something happens,
that something is the case, or that something becomes known. This use is
found with the verbs happen, transpire, emerge:
• It just happened that one of the customers wasn’t satisfied with the
service.
The last two types of subject clauses do not admit of the fronting of the
subject clause: *That legal expenses can be reduced is hoped; *That one of
the customers wasn 7 satisfied with the service just transpired. Therefore, it
can be assumed that they are marginal structures within this category.
Subject clauses joined by means of the connective what can be used for
emphasis.
A sentence containing an emphatic w/zaZ-clause that cannot be shifted
to end position is sometimes called a cleft sentence. This type of subject
clause combines with a main clause that has a compound nominal predicate
with the link verb be and a verbal or a noun as subject-predicative:
• What I enjoy is a good laugh.
The pattern with what followed by the subject and the verb do is used to
focus on an action:
• What he did was pull down the old cottage.
Subject clauses with what as their own subject are used to focus on the
thing that the speaker is talking about:
• What impressed me most was the Metropolitan Opera.
Subject clauses consisting of the connective what followed by the sub-
ject and a verb of the 7z£e’ or '‘need' group are used to focus on the thing that
someone likes / dislikes or needs:
• What I need is a good rest.
The same kind of emphasis can be expressed by using a passive verb in
the subject clause of a cleft sentence:
• What is needed is a change in our recruitment policy.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING

(i) The conjunctions but that [formal], except that, excepting that [rare],
save that [formal], apart from the fact that are used to introduce clauses
elaborating, or making more specific, the meaning of the subject (and, for that
matter, the object) of the main clause, for example:
• Nothing would satisfy his parents but that he (should) get only the top
grades.
This structural type of subordinate clause is sometimes qualified as a
specifying clause or a clause of exception. Syntactically, it would
probably be more accurate to describe it as a marginal subtype of the subject
clause that could be termed the specifying subject clause.
(ii) In informal spoken English, a subject clause can be joined with Just
because when the speaker means that a particular situation does not
necessarily lead to a particular conclusion:
Just because you are older doesn 7 mean that you 're better than me.
(B) VERB FORMS

(i) The predicate of the subject clause stands in the subjunctive mood
(the present subjunctive or the analytical subjunctive with should} if the main
clause contains a ‘volitional’ predicative adjective or participle like advisable,
desirable, recommended, etc.:
• It's advisable that he should call to make an appointment in advance.
• It was desirable that she (should) not go out on her own.
• It is essential that the crew be here by tomorrow.
The present subjunctive is preferred in AmE.
(ii) Subject clauses (and, in fact, other nominal clauses) with a future
reference joined by means of “-ever "-compounds normally use the simple
present or may+infinitive:
• Whoever comes/may come here will be given a warm welcome.
(iii) If the main clause contains a predicative adjective or noun express-
ing an emotional attitude (amazing, fascinating, awful, wrong, pity, etc.), the
subject clause may optionally contain the analytical subjunctive with the
“emotional” should'.
• It's simply incredible that nobody should pay attention to the new
invention (or:... that nobody pays attention...)
• It's unthinkable that the Prime Minister should resign!
It's a pity that you should have missed the boat, [mostly BrE]
(iv)The infinitive in the main clause of a cleft sentence can be used with
or without the particle to:
• What you have to do is (to) find an eyewitness.
(v) If the predicative noun in the main clause of a cleft sentence is plural,
the link verb after the subject clause can be either singular or plural:
• What our club needs is/are more members.
(vi)If a progressive form appears in the w/ra/-clause of a cleft sentence,
the wg-form must be used as predicative:
• What she was doing was giving an English lesson to her students.
(C) SET EXPRESSIONS

Subject clauses are found in a number of proverbs and idiomatic ex-


pressions:
• What is done can 7 be undone, [a proverb]
• What’s done is done.
• What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander, [a proverb]
1
• It 's all the same to me (whether they win or lose) .
• It makes no difference to me (whatyou do).
• It goes without saying (that artists should be paid for their work).

2.2. PREDICATIVE CLAUSES


A predicative clause is the type of dependent clause that serves as
predicative, complementing as it does a link verb in the main clause. If the
predicative clause were eliminated from a sentence, the main clause would be
structurally deficient.
A predicative clause always follows the main clause, as it performs the
function of predicative and, therefore, invariably stands after a link verb,
chiefly be, feel, look, seem, taste, sound, become and remain, e. g.:
• The point is that my pass is no longer valid.
Predicative clauses are introduced by means of various subordinators,
some of which (lest, as, much as, as though and as if) are not normally found
in subject clauses:
• She sounded as if she were happy.
• The question was whether (or not) we should venture our money on
that project.
1 In this and other examples illustrating the use of grammar patterns in idiomatic
expressions, a few words or phrases have been added so as to provide appropriate
context and complete the sentence structure.
• My suggestion is that he (should) fax a message to Head Office
immediately.
• Roger has become what can be described as a respectable busi-
nessman.
• And that *s why we agreed
• The mountainous landscape was then much as it is today.
• I feel as though I had been cheated.
• His fear was lest his family (should) be evicted / that his family might
be evicted.
• The parcels remained as we had left them.
In an informal style, the subordinator like is often used instead of as if/
as though, particularly in AmE:
• It looked like it was going to rain.
This usage is not recommended by prescriptive grammars and avoided
by many careful writers. Nevertheless, the use of like as a subordinating
conjunction has clearly increased in the last few years.
In an informal style, especially in short sentences, a predicative clause
can be joined asyndetically when the main clause consists of an abstract noun
with the definite article and the verb be. In this case, it may be set off by a
comma:
• The fact is, he ignored all criticism.
• The truth is she was awfully embarrassed.
Moreover, the definite article is sometimes dropped in this kind of
structure, particularly in spoken English, e. g.:
• Fact is, she got married last year.
Complex sentences may contain both a subject clause and a predicative
clause:
• What I say E
In this pattern, the main clause is reduced to the link verb; the finite form
of the link verb opens two syntactic positions, those of the subject and
predicative. The main clause remains deficient: its subject and predicative are
represented by “syntactic vacancies” waiting to be filled by nominal clauses.
USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING
(i)The subject of a main clause followed by a predicative clause can be
expressed by the “impersonal” it\
• It was as if the whole world was against him.
(ii) If the subject of the main clause contains an expression of fear,
worry and the like, the predicative clause can be introduced by the conjunc-
tion lest. The verb in the predicative clause joined by lest normally employs
the auxiliary should. However, this pattern is regarded as formal and some-
what dated:
• Her only worry is lest her parents should find out.
Note that the corresponding Russian sentence is likely to employ a
negative structure as the equivalent of the /^/-clause: ...чтобы не узнали...;
как бы не узнали...
An alternative is the use of that plus the auxiliary should, may or might:
• My fear is that one day he should/might give up.
(Hi) There is a marginal type of predicative clause represented by the
expression as follows, which has a finite verb form but no subject:
• Their requirements are as follows.
J

This type of sentence can be graphically represented in the following way:


1— main
main clause
clause
2 — subject clause
what what 3—predicative
predicativeclause
clause
(B) VERB FORMS
(i) The predicate of the predicative clause stands in the subjunctive
mood (the present subjunctive or the analytical subjunctive with should) if the
subject of the main clause is a “volitional” noun like suggestion, proposal,
advice, requirement, etc.:
• His proposal way that the use of office phones for private calls
(should) be restricted.
The present subjunctive is preferred in AmE.
(ii) The use of verb forms in predicative clauses (and, in fact, in other
types of clauses) with as if / as though can vary according to the presumed
reality or unreality and the time reference of the state or action. In the case of
presumed unreality combined with the present time reference, the form were
sounds more formal than was. Cf.:
• Susan looks as if she is intelligent (= Perhaps she is intelligent; cf.
Russ. Похоже, Сьюзен умна).
• Susan looks as if she was intelligent [BrE or informal AmE] (But she
is not).
• Susan looks as if / as though she were intelligent [formal] (But she is
not).
• Susan looks as if she had won the contest (But she did not).
Note that formal AmE admits only of the past subjunctive were and the
past perfect form. >

SET EXPRESSIONS

Predicative clauses are found in a number of idiomatic expressions:


• This isn't a very good bike. It isn't what it’s cracked up to be (= not as
good as it is supposed to be), [informal]
• That's where the shoe pinches (- That’s the problem).
• That's what you think / (s)he thinks, [said when the speaker intends to
prevent the other person from doing something]
• Cindy looks as if butter wouldn 7 melt in her mouth. (= appears to be
cold and unfeeling).
• (Would you like something to drink? — Yes, a cold glass of water
would be) just what the doctor ordered, [a cliche]
• (Sorry to hear about your problems.) That's the way the cookie
crumbles, [slang, AmE]

2.3. OBJECT CLAUSES


An object clause is a dependent clause that serves aS object to a finite or
non-finite verb form in the main clause, e. g.:
• We knew that they were tired.
• Knowing that they were tired, we left early.
• There's no denying that things are looking up.
Object clauses can be joined asyndetically or syndetically, with the help
of the same subordinators that introduce subject and predicative clauses:
• I wonder whether he will leave or stay.
• Her parents were anxious lest she should marry the wrong man.

• I hate it when you criticize my eating habits.


• We resented the way they ignored our demands.
Where there is a choice between the conjunctions whether and if (e. g.,
after the verbs ask, doubt, wonder, etc.), whether is considered more formal.
Moreover, some grammars scorn the use of if after these verbs as incorrect,
although sentences like I doubt if they 41 want to participate are generally
regarded as quite acceptable.
If the object clause precedes the main clause (a pattern sometimes used
for emphasis), it is always joined syndetically:
• That he was really confused, I can 7 believe.
Although that is often dropped after common reporting verbs (say, think,
know, etc.), so that the object clause is joined asyndetically, it cannot be
dropped after verbs with a more specific meaning (shout, yell, explain, e-
mail, telegraph, etc.). Compare:
• She said (that) she had married Richard.
• She e-mailed that she had married Richard.
The conjunction that is also required in elliptical responses reduced to
object clauses:
• What did you assume from his attitude? — That he was confused.
When an object clause is separated from the main clause, that is usually
obligatory.
• Everyone could see, as he confessed afterwards, that he was con-
fused.
An object clause following the expression I daresay (also written / dare
say) in the main clause is always joined asyndetically:
• I daresay they tried hard.
Object clauses are often found after predicative adjectives, such as:
afraid confident glad sad
angry conscious pleased sorry
anxious convinced happy sure
aware / unaware delighted positive surprised
certain frightened proud upset
• James was unaware that the deadline had passed.
• He was very anxious that we (should) meet.
• Гт afraid we’ve run out of milk.
Predicative expressions with nouns can also be followed by object
clauses:
• I have no idea what she is doing.
• I took care that everything was ready far their arrival.
In the case of ditransitive verbs, either object can be expressed by a
lause:
• He would tell his story to whoever cared to listen, [indirect object]
• He told us what he was planning to do. [direct object]
An object clause can be preceded by a preposition:
• Don 7 you ever listen to what I say?
• They disagreed as to what they should do next.
Object clauses can correlate with the formal object it.
• I hate it when people are cruel to animals.
• Would you prefer it if I didn 7 help you ?
• We find it most annoying that our neighbours upstairs make so much
noise.
• They considered it desirable that he continue his education.
• See to it that the children don’t stay out in the rain.
• She takes it for granted that herfamily is quite well-off.
• Don 7 take it amiss if I point out your errors.
• I take it that you know your duties.
• I put it to you that you lack computer literacy.
• How can I put it across to you that this collection is not far sale?
9
• Please keep it to yourself that you disapprove of Linda s marriage.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING

(i) The one-member clause To think... followed by an object clause is


used to comment on something which one experienced in the past and which
seems surprising:
• To think that we all trusted him!
••’r '

(ii) After some verbs of mental activity, like believe, suppose, and think,
the negation, which belongs, in terms of meaning, to the Abject clause, is
usually transferred to the main clause:
• / don 7 think (that) you have ever seen this show.
(Hi) A main clause followed by an object clause can have inverted
word order in a formal literary style. The main clause in this type of pattern
opens with Little.,. (- ‘not at all’) and contains a verb of mental activity like
know, think, imagine, suspect, guess, or realize'.
• Little did he suspect that he was being followed.
• Little did she imagine what had become of her children.
• Little does he know that the police are about to arrest him.
A similar kind of sentence structure is found when the main clause opens
with Only too well..., Well may..., With good reason may... or With every
justification may...:
• Only too well did they know that their days were numbered.
• With every justification may you say that the journey was well worth
the money.
(iv) The conjunctions but that [formal], except (that), excepting that
[rare], save that [formal], apart from the fact that are used to introduce clauses
elaborating, or making more specific, the meaning of the object of the main
clause, for example:
• I knew nothing about her except that she was married to an Italian.
This structural type of subordinate clause is sometimes qualified as a
specifying clause or a clause of exception. Syntactically, it would probably be
more accurate to describe it as a marginal subtype of the object clause that
could be termed the specifying object clause.
(B) VERB FORMS
(i) The predicate of the object clause stands in the subjunctive mood (the
present subjunctive or the analytical subjunctive with should) if this clause is
subordinated to one of the following “volitional” verbs in the main clause:
advise decree plead rule
ask demand pray stipulate
beg direct propose suggest
command insist recommend urge
order request
• The judge recommended that the delinquent be released on parole.
• Her uncle suggested that she (should) go on a tour of France.
• The contract stipulates that the present brandname not be used for
imported products.
AmE prefers the present subjunctive. In BrE, using should* infinitive
tends to sound less bossy than the present subjunctive. In direct suggestions (I
suggest that you.,,) the present subjunctive is preferred:
• I suggest (that) you get a job in a bank.
In BrE, the simple present and past can also be used in object clauses
after the verbs listed above:
• Her brother suggests that she gets a job in a bank.
• Her brother suggested that she got a job in a bank.
In very formal contexts, the modals shall and must can also be found
after these verbs, e. g.:
• The college regulations require that each student shall attend at least
90 per cent of the lectures and tutorials.
(ii) Object clauses subordinated to the verb wish use various verb forms
depending on the meaning of the utterance and the time reference of the action
named in the object clause.
If the speaker expresses regret that reality is not different, and refers to
situations that are unreal, impossible or unlikely, simple past forms are used if
the time context coincides with the moment of speaking:
• I wish (that) tomorrow was Saturday (= It’s a pity that tomorrow isn’t
Saturday).
• Don 7 you wish (that) you could write poetry? (- Do you regret that
you can’t write poetry?)
• We all wished (that) the landlady didn ’t give us porridge every
morning.
The past subjunctive were is often used instead of was, especially in a
formal style or if the subject of the object clause is a personal pronoun. This is
the only form that is acceptable in formal AmE:
• I wish I were a beauty queen.
If the time reference of the object clause is prior to the moment of
speaking, forms of the past perfect are used:
Now she wishes she had gone to college (== ‘Now she regrets that
she did not go to college’)*
I wish that my name hadn’t been mentioned (= ‘I regret that my
name was mentioned’).
If the speaker expresses a request or a wish about the future (often
mingled with annoyance), we find the analytical subjunctive with the auxiliary
would in the object clause:
• / wish it would stop raining.
9
• / wish you wouldn t drive so fast (= ‘Please don’t drive so fast’).
(iii) The past subjunctive and the past indefinite forms are found in ob-
ject clauses following Pd rather (= ‘I would rather’), Pd sooner (= ‘I
would/had sooner’), and rather than (that) expressing preference:
• Pd sooner you stayed in than went out.
9
• Pd rather she didn t tell him.
• I would rather they went home now.
• Rather than that she missed her train, Pll give her a lift.
• I would speak to the headmaster myself rather than you said any-
thing.
(iv) After the verb fear in the main clause, the predicate in the object
clause stands in the present subjunctive or, alternatively, employs the modal
might'.
• The new countries fear that their independence (might) be lost.
• Scientists fear that an epidemic of cholera might break out in this
area.
If the verb fear in the main clause expresses regret, the future tense is
normally used in the object clause:
• We fear that we will not be able to attend.
On the whole, the structures with fear sound fairly formal.
(v) The simple present is normally used in object clauses following take
care, make / be sure, see (to it), and mind [esp. BrE] to denote a future action:
9
• Take care (that) you don t waken the baby.
9
• 17/ see (to it) that this report doesn t get photocopied.
• Make sure you come back soon.
(vi) The simple present or the simple future can be used with little no
difference in meaning in object clauses following the verb hope:
• I hope the hit-and-run driver is / will be identified by one of the
eyewitnesses.
(C) SET EXPRESSIONS

Object clauses are found in a number of idiomatic expressions:


9
• I hope Billy will get what s coming to him (= what he deserves).
• I don't know what makes him tick ( = what motivates him; what
makes him behave in the way he does), [informal]
• (Гт so busy that) I don 7 know whether / if Гт coming or going (= ...
that I am totally confused), [a clichd]
• (I know that Mary and Paula are twins, but) I cannot tell which is
which.
• Practice what you preach ( = ‘Do what you advise other people to
do’).
Bill has what it takes. He can swim for miles ( = ‘the courage to do
something’).
• Andrew knows which side his bread is buttered on{~ what is ad
vantageous for him).

2.4. ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSES


An attributive clause is a dependent clause that serves as attribute to a
noun or pronoun in the main clause (with one exception to be pointed out
below); die noun or pronoun thus qualified is termed the antecedent. For
example:
• Anyone who goes to a psychiatrist ought to have his head examined.
• I told them about my brother Michael, who is married and lives in
Sheffield.
On the basis of their semantic and syntactic relationship with the ante-
cedent, attributive clauses are divided into two major classes: appositive (or
appositional) and relative clauses.

2.4.1. Attributive Appositive Clauses


Attributive appositive clauses are also termed content clauses because
they disclose the semantic content, or the meaning of the antecedent:
r

• I agree with the old saying that fortune favours the brave.
• The impression that the experiment has been carefully designed is
erroneous.
Appositive clauses are used to tell the hearer what exactly the fact, idea,
suggestion, or impression is, rather than to say something about it. Compare:
• The news that John received a letter from Bill is a real surprise
(appositive).
• The news that John received from Bill is a real surprise (relative).
*

The syntactic relationship between the antecedent and the attributive


appositive clause is defined as apposition. As with apposition generally, the
apposed units could be linked with the verb to be: The impression is that the
experiment has been carefully designed; The old saying is that fortune fa-
vours the brave.
Note that attributive appositive clauses translate into Russian with the
help of such expressions as что; то, что; о том, что, etc.
Attributive appositive clauses are joined syndetically, by means of the
conjunction that; other subordinators (e. g. whether and why) are very rare.
An attributive appositive clause may interrupt or follow the main clause.
Semantically, it appears to be more important than the antecedent, e. g.:
• I agree that fortune favours the brave.
• (?) I agree with the old saying.
Because an attributive appositive clause is closely connected with its
antecedent, it is not set off by a comma in writing, nor is it pronounced as a
separate tone group in speaking.
The antecedent of an attributive appositive clause is most typically a
countable abstract noun, such as one of these:
admission belief fact principle rumour
advice claim feeling promise saying
agreement conclusion hope proposal statement
announce decision idea reply suggestion
ment answer demand impression report thought
argument dream message require threat
assertion explanation notion ment rule view
assumption opinion warning

• The Mayor expressed the opinion that the old warehouse should be
converted into a gym.
• There was little hope that the climbers would be found alive.
• This candidate does not meet the requirement that secondary school
(should) be completed.
Another group of frequently used antecedents to appositive clauses in-
cludes such uncountable abstract nouns as news, information and knowledge:
• Have you heard the news that the border has been closed?
The antecedents question and problem stand apart in that they are fol-
lowed by an attributive appositive clause introduced by a subordinator other
than that, which can be preceded by the preposition of:
• The question of whether we should demand a payment for our services
was not even discussed.
The use of a plural antecedent is rare:
• The colonel gave orders that he was not to be disturbed.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE
Practically speaking, the antecedent of an appositive clause is nearly
always singular and generally takes the definite article. The use of the in-
definite article is rare but not impossible:
• A message that the expedition should change its destination was
waiting for us at the next stopping-place.
♦ The audience was shocked by an ungrounded and clearly provocative
declaration that the recently adopted law was unconstitutional.
VERB FORMS

The predicate of the attributive appositive clause stands in the subjunc-


tive mood (the present subjunctive or the analytical subjunctive with should)
if the antecedent is a ‘volitional’ noun, like demand, requirement, request,
proposal^ etc.
• They yielded to our demand that the children not be punished.
r

• She made a suggestion that each worker should contribute a day’s


Р<*У-
• We submitted a request that more lights (should) be installed on our
street.
The present subjunctive is preferred in AmE.

2.4.2. Attributive Relative Clauses


Attributive relative clauses are so called because they are joined with the
help of relative pronouns or adverbs. Their function, broadly speaking, is to
qualify the antecedent:
• The dean saw all the students who had received poor grades.
• Г11 never forget the day when we first met.
• New York, which has a population of over eight million, is one of the
largest cities in the Western hemisphere.
Attributive relative clauses are chiefly introduced with the help of the
subordinators who, whom, whose, that, which, whose, when, where, and why.
They can also be joined asyndetically. The use of various types of
subordination will be dealt with in more detail in the sections that follow.
Occasionally, we find attributive relative clauses j oined by means of as
and (such...) as:
• The question as it is put by the author admits of no real answer.
• Such quotations as they managed to find were clearly inaccurate.
Very formal or old-fashioned English also makes use of such subordi-
nators as wherein, whereby, whereof, whereupon and whence:
• We have worked out a rotating arrangement whereby each employee
would move to a different site each month.
• He had a safe deposit box wherein he kept the most important pa-
pers,
• The factory was shut down, whereupon she returned to Brazil (=
‘...after which she returned to Brazil’)*
• She travelled as far as Mexico City, whence she returned to Brazil
(== ‘...from which she returned to Brazil’).
The above examples show that there is a considerable difference between
the subtypes of attributive relative clauses. In fact, they can be classified in
various ways, but for practical purposes it would be expedient to divide them
into two groups: limiting and non-limiting.

2.4.2.1. Attributive Relative Limiting Clauses


Attributive relative limiting clauses are also called defining, restrictive,
or essential. As can be deduced from this terminology, they limit, or restrict,
the semantics of the antecedent; they are essential to the meaning and
structure of the sentence and could not be eliminated:
• Each generation imagines itself to be more intelligent than the one that
went before it and wiser than the one that comes after it (But not *Each
generation imagines itself to be more intelligent than the one and wiser
ft

than the one).


• I can 7 stand people who are cruel to animals (But not (?) I can 7
stand people).
Because limiting clauses are closely connected with the main clause,
they are not set off by a comma in writing, nor are they pronounced as a
separate tone group in speaking.
Limiting clauses are the only type of attributive clauses that can be
joined both syndetically and asyndetically. Asyndetic subordination is quite
common in spoken and written English:
• That was the only proposal I could come up with.
• Was the man you spoke to just now our new editor?
Asyndetic limiting clauses are called contact clauses.
Limiting clauses qualifying a personal antecedent are joined by means of
the subordinators (relative pronouns) who, whom, whose, and that. That and
who are equally appropriate if the antecedent is a vague or generalized noun
or pronoun:
• He is the sort of man that/who never goes back on his promises.
• We need someone that / who can handle the matter with discretion.
If, however, the antecedent is more definite or particularized, who is a
far more likely choice:
• The uncle who came to see us yesterday is my mother’s younger
brother.
The use of the object form whom to introduce a limiting clause is con-
sidered formal in BrE, although it is recommended in AmE:
• The workers whom we employ get paid by the hour [formal].
Possible alternatives are: The workers that we employ...; The workers
who we employ... [informal, BrE]; The workers we employ...
In a formal style, the preposition is placed before the connective: • The
man to whom I spoke was a retired minister.
In an informal style, it is more usual to move the preposition to the end
of the limiting clause:
• The man who / whom I spoke to was a retired minister.
Whom then is often replaced by that, but it is still more common to omit
the connective altogether: The man (that) I spoke to...
Limiting clauses qualifying a non-personal antecedent are joined by
means of the subordinators that, which, whose / of which, when, where, why,
and (such)... as, e. g.:
• She retired to the town where she had spent her youth.
• He didn 7 work hard enough, and such work as he had done was
very poor.
• That's the reason why/that I didn 7 marry him.
• This is a requirement that / which I refuse to comply with.
f

The choice between that and which often seems to be a matter of indi-
vidual taste; however, there are a few cases where that is clearly preferred to
which:
1) when the antecedent is an indefinite pronoun:
• The governor promised to do all that lay in his power to help the
flood victims;
2) when the antecedent is qualified by an ordinal numeral:
• The first church that was built in the new capital city was to become
a burial place for members of the ruling dynasty;
*

3) when the antecedent is qualified by a superlative adjective:


• “Hamlet" is perhaps the most profound tragedy that has ever been
written in the English language;
when the limitin clause has a compound nominal predicate:
• ‘Doom ’ is a computer game that has become popular all over the
world.
On the other hand, that cannot be used after a preposition, whether the
antecedent is personal or non-personal. C£:
• This is the woman about whom I was telling you. (But: This is the
woman that/who(m) I was telling you about.)
• Would this be the magazine for which you asked me? (But: Would
this be the magazine that / which you asked me for?)
Relative adverbs can be replaced by prepositional groups:
• The year when (= in which) he was born marked the turn of the
century.
•The day when (= on which) they arrived was uncommonly hot.
•The hotel where (= in/at which) they were staying was by far the
most expensive in town.
• The reason why (= for which) he refused is unclear.
USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE
The use of the connective whose to refer to non-personai antecedents is
considered acceptable, although careful speakers and writers tend to avoid it:
• The house whose roof was blown off by the wind has now been
repaired.
The alternative use of the prepositional group of which is formal and may
sound awkward: The house the roof of which was blown off,.. / The house of
which the roof was blown off...
(B) SET EXPRESSIONS
Attributive relative limiting clauses are found in a number of proverbs
and idiomatic expressions:
• He laughs best who laughs longest, [a proverb]
• All that glitters is not gold, [a proverb]
• How can you bite the hand that feeds you? (= ‘do harm to someone
who does good things for you’) [a cliche]
• (Ifyou fire your best office worker,) you 11 be killing the goose that
laid the golden eggs, [a proverb]
• (It's an excellent racing car,) the best money can buy.
Limiting clauses can be further subdivided into particularizing and
classifying, depending on whether they correlate with the definite or indefi-
nite article before the antecendent.

2.4.2.1.1. Attributive Relative Limiting Particularizing Clauses


Attribute relative limiting particularizing clauses restrict the meaning of
the antecedent by establishing a reference to a particular person or thing (or a
particular group of persons or things). Their antecedent is characteristically
accompanied by the particularizing definite article or the demonstrative
pronoun that / those:
• The students who did not come to class yesterday explained their
absence to the instructor.
• We enjoyed the city where we spent our vacation.
• The girl I told you about is my next door neighbour.
• We invited only those people whom we had met at the summer camp.
Occasionally, the antecedent is modified by the pronoun such, and the
attributive relative limiting particularizing clause is joined by the subordina-
tor as:
Such sites as I've had access to don 7 trace the etymology of the word
‘chad* (= ‘The sites that I’ve had access to...’).

2.4.2Л.2. Attributive Relative Limiting Classifying Clauses

Attributive relative limiting classifying clauses restrict the meaning of


the antecedent by establishing a reference to a certain class or category of
persons or things. Their antecedent is characteristically accompanied by the
classifying indefinite article (the zero article with non-count nouns or norms
in the plural) or an indefinite determiner (such as some, any, no):
• She lectured on a topic I know very little about.
• Can you recommend any up-to-date video courses that could be used
with advanced students?
• A passenger who is not in possession of a valid ticket may be fined.
• It*s time you knew your duties.
Classifying clauses typically qualify pronouns; the meaning of pronouns
is rather vague and often needs to be limited in context, e. g.:
• George caught sight of someone he knew,
• Is there anything I could do to help out?

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING
•l

(i) The expression It is time... can be used in simple sentences (where it


is followed by an infinitive or a for + to-infinitive construction) and in com-
plex sentences (where it is followed by an attributive relative limiting clause
with a predicate in the past indefinite). There is a slight difference in meaning
between these two patterns: It is time + for N + infinitive merely states that
the correct time has arrived; It is time + limiting clause implies that it is a
little late.
(ii) In old-fashioned English, the pronoun he used in the general sense (=
‘a person’) can also serve as antecedent for a classifying clause. This use is
mostly found in proverbs and sayings, e. g.:
• He who can, does; he who cannot, teaches.
• He laughs best who laughs last.
A similar usage is found with the pronoun they (= people).
• And what should they know of England who only England know?
(B) VERB FORMS
Note that It is time + I / he / she / it is not normally followed by the past
subjunctive were} the verb stands in the past indefinite form:
• It ’s time he was independent.
• It 's high time that she was on the move.
• It ’s just about time I was introduced to your family.
AmE also uses the present subjunctive after it is time:
• It is time the justice system view the rights of victims.

2.4.2.2. Attributive Relative Non-Limiting Clauses

Attributive relative non-limiting clauses are also called non-defining,


non-restrictive or non-essential. As can be deduced from this terminology,
they do not restrict the meaning of the antecedent; rather, they provide some
additional information about a person or thing denoted by the antecedent.
They are not essential to the structure of the sentence and could be left out:
• I am reading a book about Helen Keller, who was the most re-
markable woman in the history of the United States.
• Tom was late, which surprised me.
• In my class there are only advanced students, most of whom are
from Eastern Europe.
Non-limiting clauses are loosely connected with the main clause; they
are set off by commas (or sometimes by parentheses) in writing and pro-
nounced as a separate tone group in speaking.
Non-limiting clauses are always joined syndetically, by means of rela-
tive pronouns and adverbs. Note that the subordinator that is not used in
present-day English to introduce non-limiting clauses.
A non-limiting clause can be preceded by a preposition:
• Mr. Lee, with whom I played golf yesterday, is a prominent archi-
tect.
Attributive relative non-limiting clauses can be further subdivided into
descriptive and continuative, depending on the structural type of the ante-
cedent.
45 '1
2.4.2.2.1. Attributive Relative Non-Limiting Descriptive Clauses
Attributive relative non-limiting descriptive clauses provide a descrip-
tion of the antecedent. A typical antecedent is a proper noun, a ‘unique’ noun,
or a noun (group) made definite by the context or situation, e. g.:
• She introduced me to her husband, who struck me as a very shrewd
man,
• The Mississippi River, which flows south from Minnesota to the Gulf
of Mexico, is the major commercial river in the United States.
The use of the indefinite or zero article with the antecedent of a de-
scriptive clause is also possible:
• Rice, which is grown in many countries, is a staple food throughout
much of the world.
• Glaciers, which are huge masses of ice, form in the polar regions
and in high mountains.
The subordinator can be preceded by a quantifier or a superlative:
• I bought a dozen eggs, two of which were bad.
• I bought a dozen eggs, the smallest of which / of which the smallest
was bad.
The importance of punctuating descriptive clauses can be illustrated by
the following examples:
• (a) The hikers who knew about the avalanche took another road.
• (b) The hikers, who knew about the avalanche, took another road.
Sentence (a), which contains a limiting particularizing clause, implies
that only some of the hikers took another road, but there were presumably
others who did not.
Sentence (b), which contains a non-limiting descriptive clause, implies
that all the hikers knew about the avalanche and therefore took another road.
Likewise:
• My son who lives in San Diego teaches art (a limiting particularizing
clause; the speaker has two or more sons).
• My son, who lives in San Diego, teaches art (a non-limiting de-
scriptive clause; the speaker has only one son).
2.4.2.2.2. Attributive Relative Non-Limiting Continuative Clauses

Attributive relative non-limiting continuative clauses differ from de-


scriptive clauses (and, for that matter, from all other types of attributive
clauses) in that their antecedent is not just a noun or pronoun, but the whole
main clause. They are added as an afterthought and continue, as it were, the
idea expressed in the main clause, e. g.:
• Julia refused, which was unwise (= ‘and that was unwise’).
• Norman responded right away, which I appreciated (= ‘and I ap-
preciated that’).
Continuative clauses are joined syndetically, by means of the subordi-
nator which. The subordinator can be preceded by a preposition:
• Norman responded right away, for which I couldn’t thank him
enough.
It should be noted that the Russian equivalent of the continuative clause,
joined by means of the relative pronoun что, is treated by traditional Russian
grammars as an object rather than attributive clause.
An alternative is a copulative Russian sentence with и это.
Sometimes a continuative clause opens with a combination of a prepo-
sition, the pronoun which, and a norm like case or event, which is a very
general word for a situation:
• The drug might have a slight soporific effect, in which case (- ‘and
then’) the dose should be reconsidered,
• I was reprimanded by the boss, at which point I gave her notice.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING

Although continuative clauses joined by means of the subordinator


which are widely used in formal writing, some grammars (particularly
American) label them as ‘dangling* or ‘unrelated’ and insist that their use is
highly informal. This opinion could be accepted only to the extent that a
continuative clause is undesirable when the reference is unclear, especially
when which follows a non-personal noun: (?) Michael filed an official com-
plaint, which came as a shock.
The following chart summarizes our outline of attributive clauses:

2.5. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES


An adverbial clause is a dependent clause that serves as adverbial
modifier, directly subordinated to the predicate or another member of the
main clause:
• Andrea couldn 7 type any more letters as her eyes were tired.
• As Doris ran up the steps, she twisted her ankle.
• Pretty as she was, nobody liked her.
Because adverbial clauses, like adverbial modifiers in a simple sentence,
are classified according to their meaning, their grouping can be more or less
detailed. Besides, one could expect a considerable amount of polysemy,
overlapping and syncretic (i. e. combined) usage.
Adverbial clauses can be joined syndetically, i. e. by means of subor-
dinating conjunctions, or asyndetically (in which case a sentence could al-
ways be paraphrased so as to include a conjunction).
An adverbial clause can precede, interrupt or follow the main clause.
The general rule is to punctuate adverbial clauses placed in initial or medial
position, e. g.:
• A n Englishman, even if he is alone, forms an orderly queue of one.
Traditionally, practical grammars distinguish adverbial clauses of time,
place, condition, reason, purpose, result, manner, comparison,
proportion, and concession.
2.5.1. Adverbial Clauses of Time
Adverbial clauses of time (or temporal clauses) are used to say when
something happened by referring to another event:
• Every time / Whenever I see her, I stop to talk to her.
• 111 phone you once I reach London.
• While/As I was walking home, it began to rain.
• We 11 begin directly /immediately he’s ready, [chiefly BrE]
• It's a long time since I had a good meal.
• No sooner had he closed his eyes thin he fell asleep.
• It won 1 be long before he settles down.
• The las.t time I went to New York, I visited the Metropolitan Mu
seum.
• I can 1 pay my bills until my paycheck comes.
A temporal clause can be used after an adverbial modifier of time, so as
to provide a more specific time reference, in which case it could be described
as a specifying temporal clause:
• They returned at dawn, before the others woke up.
Adverbial clauses of time are introduced by the following one-member
and multi-member subordinators:
when before by the time (that) the first / last / next time (that)
whenever since directly during the time (that)
after until immediately no sooner... than
as till once hardly /scarcely /barely...
as soon as while every / each time when
the moment/minute, etc. (that)
as long as so long as
Intensifying or limiting adverbs can precede some of these conjunctions:
just as, only when, ever since, etc.
When a clause of time precedes the main clause, it is normally punctu-
ated.
Sentences with hardly / scarcely / barely... when, barely... before [AmE] and
no sooner... than have a very strong interdependence between the clauses.
Although the second clause contains the conjunction proper {when, before,
than}, it conveys new information and serves as topic rather than comment.
These sentences can be paraphrased using another temporal
subordinates (e. g. when, Just as or as soon as), which would invariably
occur in the first clause:
• Scarcely had the car drawn to a halt when armed police surrounded
it.
• Just as the car drew to a halt, armed police surrounded it.
Both these sentences show that the first event was followed immediately
by the second.
Besides, the time reference of the second clause is determined by the
moment of speaking (which is generally more typical of independent clauses)
and not by correlation with another tense form in the same context (which is
generally more typical of dependent clauses). These considerations allow us
to conclude, although with some reservations, that the second clause in this
type of sentence is grammatically more independent than the first and should
therefore be regarded as the main clause. The first clause then would be
regarded as a subordinate clause joined by means of a correlative conjunction.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING
(i) If a clause of time preceding the main clause opens with only after,
only when or not until, the main clause has inverted word order:
• Only after the money has been received do we dispatch goods.
• Not until the test was over were the candidates allowed to leave the
room.
If this type of clause were shifted to end position, the word order would
be direct:
• We dispatch goods only after the money has been received.
• The candidates were not allowed to leave the room until the test was
over.
(ii) Clauses opening with barely, hardly, scarcely and no sooner have
inverted word order. If these items occur in medial position, the word order is
direct. Compare:
• He had no sooner drunk the coffee than he began to feel dizzy.
• No sooner had he drunk the coffee than he began to feel dizzy.
• The lecture had hardly begun when the lights went out.
• Hardly had the lecture begun when the lights went out.
(iii)Note a specific interrogative clause structure with the “emotional”
should, used for effect:
• / was just sending her an e-mail message when who(m) should I see in
the doorway but her mother?
This type of sentence may or may not have a question point.
(iv) There is a marginal time clause structure joined asyndetically. It has
inverted word order and is restricted to the use of the verb come in the present
subjunctive, which precedes a noun or a noun group:
• Come late June, the summer people would start arriving.
• You 7/ have done enough revision come the exams.
VERB FORMS

(i) When a clause of time is joined by means of the subordinator since,


the main clause employs the present or past perfect tense of the verb. Since is
found with non-perfect tenses only when it introduces adverbial clauses of
reason [see below]. Compare:
• Thousands of gallons of water have been wasted since they left the
taps open, [an adverbial clause of time]
• Thousands of gallons of water are wasted since / because some
people just leave the taps open, [an adverbial clause of reason]
Non-perfect tenses, however, are found in the following sentence pattern
with since*. 4

• It *s three years ago today since I began keeping a diary.


(ii) Sentences with hardly/scarcely/barely... when and no sooner... than
typically use the past perfect tense in the main clause and the simple past in
the temporal clause. Other tense uses are possible but rare, e. g.:
• Scarcely were they seated (or: They were scarcely seated) when the
show began.
• No sooner does he earn any money than he spends it.
S

(iii) As a rule, future tenses are not found in clauses of time; present
tenses with a future reference are used instead. However, when meaning ‘and
then’ can be followed by the present or future:
• I will be on holiday till the end of September, when I return / will
return to London.
(iv) Occasionally, the present or past perfect is used in time clauses to
stress the completion of the act:
• I will go to bed after I finish / have finished my review.
• When you have stayed here long enough, you will know all the lo-
cal customs.
(v) Notice the variant use of tenses in the main clause when the temporal
clause is introduced with before'.
• I left before he arrived.
• I had left before he arrived.
The latter variant is preferred in a formal style.
(vi) After whenever (and, in fact, after other '-ever'-compounds in
various types of subordinate clauses) we sometimes find the modal auxiliary
may / might, which can imply a remote possibility:
• Minor breakdowns, whenever they may occur, will be fixed promptly.
(vii) Notice also the tense patterns in the following structures:
• We hadn 7 covered half the distance when the engine stalled.
• Whenever I see her, she ’s always chewing something.
• I had been working for two hours when a splinter pierced my thumb.
• It \ ages since I sailed/have sailed a yacht.
• I’ve known the Browns since I’ve lived in this town.
(C) SET EXPRESSIONS
Adverbial clauses of time are found in a number of proverbs and idio-
matic expressions:
• Make hay while the sun shines / is shining, [a proverb]
• Look before you leap, [a proverb]
• When the cat’s away the mice will play, [a proverb]
• III be there when I’m good and ready (== ‘when I am completely
ready’), [informal]
• Before you could say Jack Robinson the birds flew away (= ‘almost
immediately’), [a cliche; often found in children’s stories]
• When the time is ripe, III bring up the subject again (- ‘at exactly the
right time’).
• III be there before you know it (= ‘almost immediately’).
• Doni count your chickens before they hatch / are hatched. [a proverb]
2.5.2. A dverbial Clauses of Place
Adverbial clauses of place are used to say where something happened by
referring to the scene or direction of another event or process.
Adverbial clauses of place are introduced by the subordinators where,
wherever, anywhere, and everywhere, e. g.:
L

• You can 7 camp where / anywhere / wherever you like these days.
• Put your stuff where it belongs.
Sometimes an adverbial clause of place is preceded by a preposition: • I
can see them clearly from where Гт sitting.
A clause of place normally follows the main clause. However, it can
come before the main clause if the speaker wants to give it greater emphasis:
• Where buildings were destroyed by the earthquake, rescue parties
are now at work.
• Everywhere she goes, she is mistaken for a fashion model.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE
In old-fashioned English, the subordinators anywhere and everywhere
can be followed by that:
• And everywhere that Mary went the lamb was sure to go.
(B) VERB FORMS
Simple present is normally used to denote a future action after the sub-
ordinators anywhere, everywhere and wherever:
• He is sure to feel at ease wherever he finds himself
(C) SET EXPRESSIONS
Adverbial clauses of place are found in a number of proverbs and
idiomatic expressions:
1
• Where there s a will there 's a way. [a proverb]
• Where there *s smoke there's fire, [a proverb]
• Where I come from, people are very friendly.
• Let’s give credit where credit is due (= ‘Let’s give credit to the per-
son who deserves it’), [a cliche]
• Faults are thick where love is thin, [a proverb]
2.5.3. Adverbial Clauses of Condition
Complex sentences with adverbial clauses of condition (called condi-
tional sentences or conditionals) are used to refer to an event, described by the
main clause, that depends for its occurrence on another event (condition),
described in the subordinate clause. Conditions may be thought of as real or
unreal:
• If I take a holiday now, I won 7 be able to go skiing in March.
• You can 7 travel abroad unless you have a passport.
• So / As long as you clear your desk by this evening, you can have
tomorrow off.
• Suppose / Supposing (that) I wrote a novel, who would venture to
publish it?
• What if there’s no one at home; where can we go?
• Say you were to run out of money; then what would you do?
• If it hadn ’t been for the flood, we would have had a good harvest.
• If this is your idea of a good holiday, then you can count me out.
• I’ll try to be there on time, but in case I’m not, the class will be
dismissed, [chiefly AmE]
Adverbial clauses of condition are introduced by the following one-
member and multi-member subordinators:
if so / as long as on (the) condition (that)
if..then assuming (that) unless in the event that
given that suppose /supposing (that) provided/
what if in case (that) [AmE] providing (that)
say once on the understanding that
An adverbial clause of condition can be
joined asyndetically:
• Should some informality occur during your visit, contact the British
Embassy.
The conjunction if combines with limiting adverbs: if only, only if, even
if.
Some of the subordinators listed above are polysemantic: once can mean
not only ‘if (ever)’, but also ‘as soon as’ in adverbial clauses of time; so long
as / as long as can occur in adverbial clauses of condition, time, or reason; if
and in case also occur in clauses of purpose.
If... not and unless are sometimes interchangeable:
• If you don’t / Unless you change your mind, I won 7 be able to help
you.
However, unless is stronger than if..not and is sometimes preferable, e.
g.:
• Unless the board of directors improve their offer, there will be a
strike.
Moreover, unless cannot replace if...not in certain Type 1 sentences (see
below):
• 1’ll be surprised if he doesn ~t win.
The reason is that unless always means ‘except on the condition that...’.
On the other hand, if...not cannot replace unless when the latter is used to
introduce an afterthought. This kind of unless-c\&\xse> follows the main
clause and is usually separated by a comma or a dash:
• I couldn 7 have made it to class on time — unless, of course, I had
caught an earlier train fCf. Russ. ...разве что успела бы на более
ранний поезд).
This means that the speaker did not get to class on time; s/he could only
have done so by catching an earlier train.
If we use if... not in place of unless in the above sentence, we will get:
9
• I couldn 7 have made it to class on time if I hadn t caught an earlier
train.
The sentence now conveys the opposite meaning: the speaker actually
made it to class on time because s/he managed to catch an earlier train.
I
In dealing with conditional sentences and their varied structure, two
criteria should be taken into account: the time reference and presumed reality
or unreality of the situation described. These factors combine to determine the
types of conditionals. Therefore, we distinguish three basic models of
conditional sentences.
Type 1: the situation thought of as real; present, past or future time
reference.
Type 2: the situation thought of as unreal or hypothetical; present or
future time reference.
Type 3: the situation thought of as unreal; past time reference.
Within these types there is considerable variation of form and meaning.
We will now consider them in greater detail.
Type 1 conditionals fall into several subtypes.
Type la. Real condition referring to the present (or, broadly speaking, to
no particular time).
• If an animal species becomes endangered, it is normally protected by
law.
• If you have lived in the same house all your life, you get used to it.
Type lb. Real condition referring to the past:
• If he was asked to parties, he always brought his wife along.
Type lc. Real condition referring to the future:
• If I need legal advice, 141 consult my lawyer.
Tense usage in Type lc is normally as follows: we find the future tense
in the main clause and the present tense in the conditional clause.
However, the modal verbs will and would can be used in Type lc con-
ditional clauses to emphasize willingness or unwillingness:
— in polite requests, when the speaker is asking others to do things:
9
• If you will / would wait a moment, 1 ll fetch the money.
— in direct references to willingness or unwillingness:
• If you will /would (- if you are willing to) pay us compensation, we
will agree not to take the matter any further.
• If you won 7 (~ ifyou are unwilling to) stop smoking, you can only
expect to have a bad cough.
Type Id. Real condition with mixed time reference:
• If he visited Italy last summer, he is sure to know at least a few words
of Italian.
• If he really visited Italy last summer, he will probably tell you about
it sooner or later.
Tense usage in Types la, lb, and Id is determined by real time reference. i
Type 2 conditionals characteristically employ the auxiliary would (or
occasionally should with the first person subject in BrE) in combination with
the indefinite infinitive in the main clause, and the simple past form or the
past subjunctive in the conditional clause, e. g.:
• If I had a bike, I would /should go for a ride round the lake.
• If you didn’t drive carefully, you would endanger the lives of other
people.
• If I knew Japanese, I ’d talk to those people over there.
If the verb be occurs in a Type 2 conditional clause, it can be used in the
form of the simple past (was) or the past subjunctive (were) in BrE, the latter
variant being more formal:
• If I was / were better qualified, I would apply for the job,
A similar structure with the “impersonal” it and a negative verb (If it
was /were not for,,.) is used to suggest that one particular event or situation
changes everything:
• If it wasn’t / weren’t for his striking appearance, he wouldn't be in
demand in Hollywood (= But for his striking appearance...; Without
his striking appearance...).
Formal AmE admits only of the past subjunctive were in these Type 2
conditionals. b

Type 1 and Type 2 conditional sentences referring to the future have


different implications. Consider the following examples:
• If I lose my job, Г11 go on the dole (The speaker implies that his/her
position is insecure and this outcome is quite likely).
• If I lost my job, Vd go on the dole (The speaker implies that his/her
position is secure and this outcome is unlikely).
By using a Type 2 conditional, the speaker can make a polite request (in
the form of a question) or give tentative, unobtrusive advice rather than refer
to an unreal situation:
• Would it be all right if I brought a friend tonight?
• If you took a taxi, you ’d be in time for the opening ceremony.
Type 2 admits of a wide range of structural variation.
Type 2a. The use of the modal verb would in a Type 2a conditional
clause enhances the expression of politeness or allows making a reference to
another person’s willingness / unwillingness:
• If you would stop talking for a while, I would be able to finish this
lesson.
• We should be grateful if you would be so kind as to inform us about
your decision as soon as possible. .;1

• If Ann would save her money, she would be able to go home for
Christmas.
Type 2b. In order t suggest that something is not particularly prob
able, we can use should in the conditional clause:
If you should (happen to) finish early, we could visit my parents
this afternoon.
In a formal style, a conditional clause of this kind can be joined asyn-
detically, with should placed before the subject:
• Should the suppliers fail to comply with the provisions of the contract,
we would have to take the matter to court.
This kind of conditional clause often combines with an imperative main
clause in business English, although without the implication of a remote
possibility; it is regarded as a more polite and less straightforward form, e. g.:
• Should you be interested in our offer, please contact us at the address
below.
• Should you not wish our agent to call, please let us know.
Type 2c. Another way of referring to an unreal or unlikely future event
is to use the modal expression was to/were to in the conditional clause:
• What would you say if he was to propose to your sister? Were to rather
than way to is used in a formal style in BrE. Only were to is regarded as
acceptable in AmE.
In very formal contexts, the asyndetic joining of Were... to- clauses
combined with inversion is also possible:
• Were there to be any delay, the railway company would be held re-
sponsible.
• Were the government to cut VA T, prices wouldfall.
On the other hand, were can be used without the to-infmitive when it is
the link verb of a compound nominal predicate or the auxiliary of a passive
verb:
• Were I in charge, I ’d do it differently.
• Were he asked the same question again, he would answer differently.
Type 3 conditionals characteristically employ the auxiliary would (or
occasionally should with the first person subject in BrE) in combination with
the perfect infinitive in the main clause, and the past perfect form in the
conditional clause. These sentences express the speaker’s belief that the
hypothetical condition was not fulfilled.
Type 3 conditionals can be used (especially in BrE) to talk about present
and future situations which are no longer possible because of the way things
turned out:
• If my grandfather had been alive, he would have been eighty years
old next April,
The same situation could be described with the help of the Type 2 pat-
tern: If my grandfather was /were..., he would be...
Likewise, Type 3b can sometimes be used to refer to mixed types of
situations, with a past-time condition and a present-time consequence:
• If I hadn't escaped from the burning house, I wouldn 7 have been
here now.
The same situation could be described with the help of a mixed type
pattern:Iflhadn’t..., Iwouldntbe... (seebelow).
Conditional clauses in Type 3 can be joined asyndetically in a more
formal style; in this case, they have inverted word order. Compare:
• If the members of the board had acted sooner, they would have
prevented the strike.
• Had the members of the board acted sooner, they would have pre-
vented the strike.
Modal auxiliaries are sometimes found in the main and/or the condi-
tional clause:
• If she had known the facts, she could / might have told us what to do.
• If she could have got the facts, she could have told us what to do.
[informal]
• If he were to have asked me/Should he have asked me, I would have
been only too willing to help, [formal]
Mixed type conditionals combine a main clause of one type and a
subordinate clause of another.
If the condition refers to the past and the consequence to the present, a
Type 2 main clause combines with a Type 3 conditional clause:
• If I had bought that dress yesterday, I would wear it to a party next
Saturday.
If the condition refers to the present or is regarded as general, not re-
stricted to a particular time period, while the consequence refers to the past, a
Type 3 main clause combines with a Type 2 conditional clause:
• If he was / were a gentleman, he wouldn 7 have cheated at cards last
night.
• If you were more considerate, you would have written back to her
long ago.
Besides, a Type 2 condition, viewed as hypothetical, can combine with a
type 1 consequence, viewed as real:
• Should there be an opening for an attorney, they will most probably
employ a female lawyer.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING
(i) Conditional clauses usually contain аиу-words, such as any, ever,
yet, etc. instead of some- words like some, always, already, etc.:
• If you ever have any problems at all, just let me know.
The use of scwe-words creates what is known as “positive bias” and is
characteristically used in offers:
• Just help yourself ifyou want something to eat.
(ii) Only if placed at the beginning of the conditional sentence causes
inversion in the main clause. Cf.:
• You will pass the test only if you study hard.
• Only if you study hard will you pass the exam.
(iii) As stated above, asyndetically joined conditional clauses have in-
verted word order. They open with the auxiliaries should, were... to, or had:
• Were this information to be divulged, some of the public figures
might lose face.
• The department would not have shut down had the management
adopted a more feasible plan.
Note that asyndetically joined conditional clauses cannot begin with the
contracted forms Weren 7, Shouldn 7 and Hadn 7; the corresponding full
forms should be used:
• Had it not been for the uncommonly cold weather, the wounded
animals would have survived (but not *Hadn 7 it been for the
uncommonly cold winter...).
(iv) Conditional sentences are also used to compare two similar state-
ments. The main clause in this pattern often employs the adverb so or then,
and may have inverted word order:
• If she had her reasons for going on her own, then so had I.
• If fear and love are indivisible, so too are fear and hate.
(v) If is sometimes dropped at the beginning of a sentence, especially
when tiie speaker is making a stipulation or a threat. This sentence pattern is
restricted to the informal style of speaking:
• You want to get in, you pay like everyone else.
• You touch me again, I'll throw you out.
• (You) call the police, she 's dead.
This is probably a borderline case between a compound sentence and a
complex conditional sentence.
(vi)A Type 1 conditional clause can combine with an imperative main
clause:
• If you happen to see Mark, tell him to call me at once.
Also, the main clause can contain modal auxiliaries other than will:
• If it’s fine tomorrow, we can (could / may / might, etc.) go on a
picnic.
(vii) Sometimes the (^clause in a Type 2 sentence expressing doubt or
uncertainty is made negative; in other words, an additional not can be used in
formal expressions involving doubt. This type of sentence emphasizes the
uncertainty and does not add a negative meaning:
• I wouldn 7 be surprised if they didn’t get married soon (= ‘I think
they will get married soon’).
• I wouldn 7 be surprised if it didn’t rain (= ‘I think it will rain’/
The intonation falls on married and ram, respectively; there is no stress
on didn 7. I-

(viii) In speech and writing we also find simple sentences similar in


structure to fragments of conditional sentences. The “missing” clause of the
relevant type, whether independent or conditional, could be reconstructed
from the context:
• If only it was / were Saturday! (...we wouldn’t have to go to school).
• I wouldn't have called him a liar to his /йсе (...if I were you; ...if I
had been there/
(ix) It is important to discriminate between the use of was to /were, to as
part of the conditional construction referring to the future and the modal .11»
expression be + to- infinitive (indicating obligation due to a previous ar-
rangement) in the past tense. Cf.:

• If they were to [= Should they] contact the office manager, the


question of remuneration would be settled promptly,
• If they were to [= So long as they arranged to] contact the office
manager, they should have done so straight away.
(x) An ^clause is sometimes added to a sentence for greater emphasis, so
as to make a strong assertion about a quality or measurement:
• He is a fool if ever there was one (= ‘He is an utter fool’).
• She ’s forty if she’s a day! (= ‘She’s no less than forty!’)
• If the parcel weighs an ounce, it weighs a hundred pounds (= ‘The
parcel weighs no less than a hundred pounds’).
• If I’ve told you once, I’ve told you a hundred times!
(xi) Very informal spoken English sometimes uses parallel structures in
the main clause and in the conditional clause:
• How would we feel if this would happen to our own kids? [chiefly
AmE]
• If I’d have known, I ’d have told you.
These structures are not normally written, and are frequently considered
incorrect; however, they occur quite often in educated people’s speech.
(B) VERB FORMS

(i) Type 1 conditional clauses occasionally employ the future tense:


— when the speaker announces a decision or makes a stipulation:
• Okay, we ’ll buy the tickets if you ’ll buy supper after the show.
— when, contrary to the standard model, the situation described in the
main clause is likely to occur prior to the situation described in the condi-
tional clause:
• I’ll give you $100 if it’ll help you to launch the new project.
In this example, the help like a consequence rather than condi-
tion: it1 follows the gift of money.
(ii) Verb forms in Type 2 and Type 3 conditionals remain unchanged in
reported speech, e. g.:
• He remarked that if he was / were better qualified he would apply for
that job.
(C) SET EXPRESSIONS
Conditional clauses are found in a number of proverbs and idiomatic
expressions:
• If the shoe fits, wear it, {a proverb]
• If wishes were horses, beggars would ride, [a proverb]
• (I'll get you a decent job) if it’s the last thing I’ll ever do (= ‘I
promise that I will get you a decent job’).
• If (the) worst comes to (the) worst, we 11 hire help.
• A few alternatives could be proposed if need be.

2.5.4. Adverbial Clauses of Reason ft

Adverbial clauses of reason (or cause) are used to give a reason for the
event or situation named in the main clause or to say why the statement ex-
pressed in the main clause is true.
Adverbial clauses of reason are introduced by the following one-
member and multi-member subordinates:
as now that seeing (that)
because in that inasmuch as [formal]
since for the reason that considering (that)
so long as due / о wing to the fact that insofar as [formal]
as long as in view of the fact that on the ground(s) that

• Because / As/Since there was so little support, the manifestation was


not successful.
• A glider is different from an airplane in that it has no engine.
• So long as you are here, please stay for dinner.
• Now that the semester is finished, Гт going to rest a few days and
then take a trip.
• Seeing (that) the hall is already full, the meeting should now begin.
• Our protest was successful, insofar as the Minister agreed to re-
consider the matter.
• Inasmuch as the two government leaders could not reach an
agreement, the possibilities for peace are still remote.
• The bank refused to negotiate a loan on the ground(s) that the papers
were not valid.
• Considering there’s more than enough to eat, he's welcome to join us
far supper.
• The way the parcel looked, we mistook it for a Christmas present.
An adverbial clause of reason can precede or follow the main clause. As
a general rule, whichever the speaker wants to emphasize (cause or effect)
goes first.
Clauses introduced with as and since usually express reasons known to
the hearer. Because most often introduces new information which is not
known to the hearer. Also, when we are responding to the question Why...?
only because can be used:
• Why did he marry her? — He didn 7 marry her because she had
money; he married her because he loved her. [Note that there are no
commas]
Now that is used for a changed situation in the present; it means ‘be-
cause now’ and, therefore, combines the meanings of time and reason, with
the latter predominating.
Clauses introduced by seeing (that) are sometimes qualified as adverbial
clauses of circumstance. However, it seems appropriate to class them with
reason clauses, because the meaning of the conjunction seeing (that) is
defined by dictionaries as ‘insofar as’ or ‘because’.

USAGE NOTES
STRUCTURE AND MEANING
(i) Adverbial clauses of reason introduced by as can optionally have
inverted word order, with a predicative of the subordinate clause moved to the
front:
• Tired as she was, I didn 7 like to disturb her.
• As she was tired, I didn 7 like to disturb her.
(ii) In a formal literary style, an inverted construction joined by as can
be formed by fronting the participle of the notional verb and using the re-
quired tense form of the verb do after the subject of the subordinate clause:
♦ Bathing as he did three times a day, he could not get his hair to stay
down (= ‘As he bathed three times a day...’).
(iii)Note the sentence pattern with an adverbial clause of reason fol-
lowing the expression the more so:
• The existence of a single standard of English throughout the world is a
truly remarkable phenomenon, the more so because / since the extent
of uniformity has increased in the present century.
2.5.5. Adverbial Clauses of Purpose
Adverbial clauses of purpose are used to indicate the purpose of an ac-
tion.
Purpose clauses are introduced by the following conjunctions:
so that in order that lest [formal] that [old-fashioned]
so [informal] in case if for fear (that) [formal]
An adverbial clause of purpose normally follows the main clause and is
not punctuated:
• We sent them monthly reports in order that they may have full in-
formation about our progress.
• The police detained the suspect lest he (should) escape.
• I have arrived ahead of time so that I may / can / will get a good view
of the procession.
• Motorists should drive more slowly so that there is less pollution.
• Could you please slow down here so I can read the sign?
• I’ve bought a chicken in case your mother stays to lunch.
• If everyone is to hear you, you must speak up.
• We ought to redouble our efforts if the pollution of coastal waters is
to be controlled.
The subordinators lest and for fear (that) express a negative purpose:
they show that the doer of the action does not wish a particular thing to
happen. Therefore, the subordinate clauses they introduce are affirmative in
form:
• She never corrects her classmates for fear that they will think her
superior.
• He was extra polite lest a disgruntled client (should) make a com
plaint again.
Sometimes, in case expresses a negative purpose, too:
• You can take my umbrella with you in case you get wet.
In case is generally used to introduce a possible future action that
someone is taking precautions against (cf. Russ. ‘На тот случай, если’). It is
for this reason that in case-clauses are sometimes described as adverbial
clauses of precaution.
On the other hand, in case is also classed with conjunctions of reason on
the basis of a possible transformation: Гт putting the meat in the microwave
now in case my husband comes home early (= because my husband may come
home early). This shows that the conjunction in case has a syncretic nature.
Although in case is occasionally used to introduce clauses of condition
(especially in AmE), it is not interchangeable with if. Cf.:
• Г11 fix a meal if my son gets hungry (= ‘I won’t fix a meal unless my
son gets hungry’), [an adverbial clause of condition]
Г11 fix a meal in case my son gets hungry (= ‘I’ll fix a meal any
way, just in case’), [an adverbial clause of purpo
Note that if can convey the meaning of purpose only
when it Combines with the modal be + to-infinitive in the subordinate clause
and correlates
with a modal verb or a modal expression in the main clause:
• If violent disorders of this kind are to be prevented, the police should
be informed of any gatherings well in advance.
• We ought to redouble our efforts if the pollution of coastal waters is
to be controlled and eventually eliminated.
Lest, meaning ‘in order that...not’, is followed by should + infinitive or
by the present subjunctive:
• The boy hid lest the burglars should see him. [chiefly BrE]
• The notice should be put up on the front door lest it be ignored.
[chiefly AmE]
For fear that is usually followed by might, but the same idea can be
expressed more easily with in case plus simple past in past time contexts:
• I bought the car at once for fear (that) the owner might change his
mind.
• I bought the car at once in case the owner changed his mind.

USAGE NOTES
VERB FORMS
(i) As purpose clauses refer to hypothetical or future events, they often
employ a modal, a future verb or a subjunctive mood form. When the verb in
the main clause is in the present or future, or else in the imperative mood, the
purpose clause employs may, can or will. The simple present is also possible:
• Let us spend a few minutes in silence so that we remember the dead
heroes.
Besides, purpose clauses frequently employ the simple present if the
predicate of the main clause includes a modal verb:
• He should drive carefully so. (that) he doesn 7 get fined.
(ii) When the verb in the main clause is in the past tense, the purpose
clause employs might, could, should or would'.
• Before coming to class 1 put my name on the cover so that nobody
would grab my course book.

2.5.6. Adverbial Clauses of Result


Adverbial clauses of result describe the result entailed by an action or
event named in the main clause.
Result clauses are introduced by the following subordinators: (so)... that,
(such)... that, so that, and with the result that.
Result clauses always follow the main clause:
• We arrived ahead of time, so that we got the best seats.
• The visitors arrived early, with the result that they had to wait.
• The house was painted purple, so that it became a blot on the
landscape.
• The managing director made so many mistakes that the firm col-
lapsed.
• It was such an amusing performance (that) we laughed our heads off.
• Mountaineering is now very popular, so much so that there’s been talk
of restricting access to Mount Snowdon.
So and such are modifiers (endorsing items) in the main clause which
correlate with that in the result clause. However, that can be dropped in an
informal style, so that the adverbial clause of result is joined asyndetically:
• I was so exhausted I nearly collapsed.
Asyndetically joined adverbial clauses of result are increasingly used in
spoken English.
Result clauses joined with so that and with the result that are normally
punctuated.
Adverbial clauses introduced by so... (that) and such... (that) are also
called adverbial clauses of degree.
Such can stand alone at the beginning or end of the main clause, mean
ing ‘so great’:
• The scope of his knowledge was such that he could lecture on any
literary trend without using any notes.
• Such was the scope of his knowledge that he could lecture on any
literary trend without using any notes.
Such can also mean ‘of a particular kind’:
• The arrangement of entries is such that even a beginner can use this
reference grammar.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING
(i) When the main clause accompanied by an adverbial clause of result
has a compound predicate, the word order can be inverted for greater em-
phasis. Compare:
• The storm was so terrible that the roofs were ripped off.
• So terrible was the storm that the roofs were ripped off.
(ii) The main clause has inverted word order if it opens with one of the
following expressions:
so great to such extremes to such length in / into such straits
to such an extent to such a degree to such a point in / to such a plight
• To such straits was he reduced by his own extravagance that he took
to begging.
• So great was her amazement that she could not utter a word.
(Hi) Apart from the basic patterns described above, we might as well
point out a few marginal cases. Notice, for instance, an interrogative pattern
with adverbial clauses of result lacking an explicitly expressed endorsing item
in the main clause:
• What have I done, that you should scold me?
• Who are professors that they should attempt to deal with a thing as
high and as fine as poetry?
These sentences have a special question structure and are often used as
rhetorical questions. The subordinate clauses, which combine the meanings of
result and reason, employ the “emotional” should.
(iv)Moving still farther away from the core pattern of the result clause,
we find another syncretic variant of the type:
• The elderly woman didn 7 notice me approach, so intent was she on
watering her plants.
Structurally, the second clause (so intent.,.) resembles a main clause that is
normally accompanied by a result clause. Indeed, the situation described in
the first clause results from that described in the second. However, an
asyndetic subordinate clause cannot stand in initial position (with the
exception of conditional clauses, where inverted word order clearly reveals
their function). On the basis of purely semantic criteria some grammarians
regard the second clause as an adverbial clause of reason. Whatever approach
might be accepted, this structure would be regarded as marginal.
(B) VERB FORMS

Result clauses introduced with so that may look similar to clauses of


purpose. However, their verb forms are different. A result is a real fact;
therefore, the predicate of a result clause stands in the indicative mood
(chiefly the simple present or past). A purpose is an unreal fact, or an intended
result; therefore, the predicate of a purpose clause often includes a modal verb
(usually should / would), or a verb in the future tense. Otherwise, unreality is
shown by the verb form in the main clause. Compare:
• I fastened the donkey so that it wouldn’t escape, [an adverbial clause
of purpose]
• I fastened the donkey, so that it didn’t escape, [an adverbial clause of
result]
(C) SET EXPRESSIONS

Result clauses are found in a number of idiomatic expressions:


• I was so ashamed I didn’t know where / which way to look (= ‘I was
terribly ashamed’).
• She 's so busy she doesn’t know if/ whether she’s coming or going (=
‘She’s totally confused’).
2.5.7. Adverbial Clauses of Manner
Adverbial clauses of manner are used to say how something is done by
referring to another action, real or imaginary.
Adverbial clauses of manner are introduced by the following one-
member and multi-member subordinators:
as in a way much as (in) the way (that)
as if how [informal] as though like [informal]
An adverbial clause of manner normally
follows the main clause:
• Type this again as I showed you a minute ago.
• He acted as though he were insane.
• I say that with a smile as if Гт the happiest guy in the world.
• Th is steak is cooked just how I like it.
• She speaks the local dialect much as her parents did.
As a rule, adverbial clauses of manner are not punctuated. The insertion
of a comma before as may change the function of the second clause and
create a difference in meaning. Cf.:
• She solved the problem as one might have expected, [an adverbial
clause of manner]
• She solved the problem, as one might have expected, [a parenthetical
clause]
Although adverbial clauses of manner introduced by like are often used
in informal speech (Surely you don 7 intend to dress like your grandmother
does?), it is generally regarded that like is unacceptable before a clause and
can only be used before a noun, particularly in writing.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING
(i) Adverbial clauses of manner joined by as can optionally have in-
verted word order, particularly when the subject is expressed by a long noun
phrase:
• The present owner collects tapestries, as did several generations of his
ancestors.
(ii) The meaning of manner as expressed by adverbial clauses often
implies comparison. However, clauses of manner differ structurally from
clauses of comparison in that they do not correlate with an endorsing item in
the main clause. Clauses of comparison, conversely, always require an
endorsing item (see below). Besides, clauses of manner can be used to
elaborate the meaning of an adverbial modifier of manner, in which case they
could be regarded as specifying adverbial clauses of manner, e. g.:
• Type this again carefully, as I showed you a minute ago.
(B) VERB FORMS

Notice the verb form variants in adverbial clauses of manner after as if


and as though'.
• George writes as if he is left-handed (= ‘One can infer from his
handwriting that he is left-handed’).
• George writes as if he was / were left-handed (- ‘But he is not left
handed’).
Only the past subjunctive were is regarded as acceptable in formal AmE.
(C) SET EXPRESSIONS
Adverbial clauses of manner are found in a number of proverbs and
idiomatic expressions:
• When in Rome, do as the Romans do. [a proverb]
• As you sow, you shall mow. [a proverb]
• (You need more work) like you need a hole in your head. [a cliche;
ironic]

2.5.8. Adverbial Clauses of Comparison


Adverbial clauses of comparison are used to compare two things or facts
so as to say how they are similar or different.
Adverbial clauses of comparison are always introduced by means of
correlative subordinators, with an endorsing item in the main clause. The
endorsing item can be an adverb (as, more, less) or a morpheme (-er).
The following correlative structures are most often found in comparative
clauses:
as... as not so... as
more... than not as... as nothing like as... as as... as if
less... than (much /nearly /almost / just about) the
-er... than same as
ft ft ft
An adverbial clause of comparison generally follows the main clause. •
You ’ve made just about as many mistakes as I have.
• The task was ten times more difficult than I expected.
• It's much / far /a lot/a little colder today than it was yesterday.
• Her condition is pretty much the same as it was last week.
• The blizzard here was nothing like as heavy as it was up North.
• The facade is as tall as it is wide.
Endorsing items in the main clause often combine with intensifying or
limiting adverbs: half, much, far, etc. For instance, expressions with as...as
can be modified by (not) nearly, almost, just, every bit, exactly, not quite:
• Their house is every bit as tidy as it was before the fire.
Note the variant use of comparative clause patterns in speaking about
measurements:
• It took three times as long as I had expected.
• It took three times longer than I had expected.

USAGE NOTES
(A) MEANING AND STRUCTURE
(i) There is a marginal variant of comparative clause that precedes the
main clause. It is the pattern which is introduced by as or just as and corre-
lates with the endorsing item so:
• Just as one gesture can have many different meanings, so many
different gestures can have the same meaning.
(ii) A structural type of dependent clause that consists of the conjunction as, a
plural noun without an article and the verb go closely approaches adverbial
clauses of comparison, although it is not traditionally classed
among the latter:
• As cats go, this one is quite well-behaved.
• Our house is quite inexpensive as houses go nowadays.
• He *s not bad as carpenters go.
The meaning of the verb go in this kind of structure is defined as ‘be
thought of, ‘be rated’. The subordinate clause means ‘compared to other Ns’,
with the implication that the person or thing mentioned in the main clause is
at least as good as most members of the same class.
(ill) Adverbial clauses of comparison can optionally have inverted word
order when, for stylistic reasons, a longer word group is shifted to end
position, e. g.:
• Lawyers and politicians are far more constrained by situational
factors than are poets, novelists and dramatists.
(iv) In a formal style, we often find comparative clauses with a finite
verb form but no subject, e. g.:
• She spent more money than was sensible.
• Their marriage was as stormy as had been expected.
(v) Comparative clauses joined by means of than and correlating with
not... any more... and no more... can be used for emphasis, e. g.:
• I could no more tell Mother about my failure than I could have
danced on a grave (= ‘I couldn’t possibly tell Mother about my
failure’).
• His smile wasn 7 warm or friendly, any more than his eyes were.
(в) VERB FORMS
The simple present is often used to refer to the future in adverbial
clauses of comparison:
• We 7/ be driving as fast as you do / will.
(C) SET EXPRESSIONS
Adverbial clauses of comparison are found in a number of proverbs and
idiomatic expressions:
• Ann is exhausted again. She ’s always biting off more than she can
chew (= ‘She’s always taking (on) more than she can deal with’).
• This detective has caught more criminals than you ’ve had hot din-
ners (used to praise a person for his/her great experience).
• There is more here / to it / in it than meets the eye. [a cliche]
• The devil is not so black as he is painted, [a proverb]

2.5.9. Adverbial Clauses of Proportion


Adverbial clauses of proportion are used to show how one action or
situation changes or varies in terms of intensity, rate, quality or quantity in
relation to another changing action or situation.
Proportion clauses are introduced by the correlative subordinators the...
the and as... so. The sentence pattern with the... the contains two comparative
adjectives or adverbs; the pattern with as... so contains at least one
comparative form, e. g.:
• The louder he talked of his honour, the faster we counted our silver
spoons.
• As you go nearer the edge, so the risk increases.
• The longer we live, and the more we think, the higher value we learn
to put on the friendship and tenderness of parents and of friends.
Adverbial clauses of proportion are sometimes regarded as a subtype of
adverbial clauses of comparison. Yet they differ from the latter in that,
broadly speaking, they express mutual dependence rather than mere com-
parison. Mutual dependence is largely a symmetrical relationship; indeed,
linguists tend to disagree as to which clause is grammatically dominant,
because the interdependence of meanings conveyed by the clauses is very
strong. In sentences with the.,, the, this mutual dependence is intensified by a
double correlation, ensured not only by the correlative conjunction, but also
by the related comparative adjectives or adverbs.
Proportion clauses have a syncretic nature. Many of them combine
temporal and conditional meanings:
• The harder he worked, the less they praised him (= ‘When / If he
worked harder, they praised him less’).
Some other sentences with the... the, particularly those with a future time
reference, closely approach conditionals, which is borne out by the tense
usage and possible transformation:
• The earlier we leave, the sooner we will arrive (= ‘If we leave early,
we will arrive soon’).
We believe, therefore, that it would be correct to regard the first clause
as dependent and the second one as independent.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING
(i) The order of the clauses cannot be reversed without disrupting the
meaning of the sentence. However, the end position of the subordinate clause
is possible when the subordinator the... the is used in a slightly different
structural pattern, with direct word order in the main clause:
• They praised him (the) less the harder he worked (= ‘They praised
him less when / if he worked harder’).
• The expression of grammatical meaning is more redundant the
greater the common knowledge between speakers.
(ii) The conjunction the... the can link two one-member clauses or else a
one-member and a two-member clause:
• The sooner, the better.
• The sooner we leave, the better.
• The higher the price, the fewer people will be able to afford the
commodity.
(В) VERB FORMS
(i) As has been shown above, in sentences of proportion with a future
time reference we normally find the simple present in the first clause and the
simple future in the second.
(ii) In sentences with the... the, continuous tenses are hardly ever used.
(C) SET EXPRESSIONS
Adverbial clauses of proportion are found in some idiomatic expres-
sions:
• The more, the merrier. I

• The burner you go, the behinder you get.

2.5.10. Adverbial Clauses of Concession )

Complex sentences with adverbial clauses of concession express the


admission that although something is true or accepted, another part of the
problem, another view or situation (often unexpected) exists.
Adverbial clauses of concession are introduced by the following one-
member and multi-member subordinators:
although as whatever not that
though even much as despite the fact that in
though whereas spite of the fact that
while whichever granted that however (+
wherever whether ...or adj. or adv.) considering
as... as [chiefly AmE] whenever /whoever that / how
even if
• Even if you disagree with them, they are worth listening to.
• Beautiful though the necklace was, we didn 7 buy it,
• Whoever was responsible, it was not the poor pedestrian.
• Wherever you met her, it was not in my house.
• Гт going to go swimming tomorrow, whether or not it is cold.
• Whereas he should have gone to the police at once, he didn 7 do so.
• He is quite agile, considering that he is very old / considering how
old he is.
• They will close the premises, irrespective of who is running them.
In a formal style, adverbial clauses of concession can be joined asyn-
detically, with inversion and the present subjunctive of the verb be'.
• These exceptions, be they many or few, cannot be overlooked by a
careful scholar.
However functions as subordinator when it means ‘no matter how’, or
when it comes before an adjective r adverb to mean ‘no matter to what
extent / degree’:
• You can 7 know everything, however brilliant you are.
• However far it is, I intend to drive there tonight.
Note that the conjunction as introducing an adverbial clause of conces-
sion can only be placed in mid-position, after the fronted predicative. Though
can be used in the same way, although it is not limited to midposition and
inverted structures. Compare:
• Handsome as he was, nobody liked him (But not *As he was hand-
some, nobody liked him).
• Handsome though he was / Though he was handsome, nobody liked
him.
This kind of structure should not be confused with a complex sentence
containing an adverbial clause of reason, where as retains its causal meaning
whether the word order is inverted or not. Compare:
• Tired as she was /As she was tired, I didn 7 like to disturb her. [an
adverbial clause of reason]
• Tired as she was, she went on typing (But not *As she was tired). [an
adverbial clause of concession]
The conjunction as.., as introducing adverbial clauses of concession is
often disregarded by English grammars; however, it is increasingly used in
present-day American English, e. g.:
• As careful as he was, he got caught.
• As cold as it was, we went out.
Concessive meaning can be conveyed by where- and wAen-clauses,
structurally resembling adverbial clauses of place and time, respectively. This
is particularly evident if the subordinate clause is preceded by even:
• Our teacher always has a word of praise for everyone, even where
the essay is not quite up to the mark.
• Why should we make allowances for his lack of expertise when the
work of others is expected to be of the highest standard?
If only combines with because to impart an added meaning of concession
to adverbial clauses of reason:
• Fitzgerald's early stories should not be disregarded, if only because
they reflect the author’s personal experiences.
Much as can be used only with verbs expressing one’s inclinations, such
as like, dislike, admire, approve, disapprove, sympathise, enjoy, respect, etc.
• Much as I respect him, I never turn to him for advice.
Generally speaking, each type of subordinate clause can acquire an
added meaning of concession, particularly when it is joined with the help of
an ever-compound, e. g. whoever, whenever, whatever, etc.

USAGE NOTES
(A) STRUCTURE AND MEANING
(i) The structure of concessive clauses is highly varied. For example, the
sentence Although he is a good athlete and tries hard, he will never succeed
could be re-worded in the following ways, so that it means practically the
same:
• Good as he is, he will never succeed.
• Try as he may / might / does / will, he will never succeed.
• However hard-working he is, he will never succeed.
• However hard he tries, he will never succeed.
• However he tries, he will never succeed, [informal]
(B) VERB FORMS
(i) Adverbial clauses of concession very rarely employ future tenses.
The predicate of a concessive clause with a future time reference normally
stands in the simple present:
• However long it takes, I will do it myself.
(ii) The modal auxiliary may sometimes occurs in adverbial clauses of
concession without changing their meaning:
• Ingenious though these techniques may be, they can hardly be re-
garded as practical.
(Hi) In a formal style, the present subjunctive of the verb be is some-
times found in syndetically joined concessive clauses:
• Whatever be the reason for it, they conceal the facts.
(C) SET EXPRESSIONS

Adverbial clauses of concession are found in a number of idiomatic


expressions:
• Come what may, the mail will get delivered.
• Гll be there tomorrow, come hell or high water, [informal]
• Be that as it may, all this is part of modern commercial life. [formal]

2.6. PARENTHETICAL CLAUSES


Parenthetical clauses are also known as comment clauses because they
are frequently used in order to express a comment on the information
contained in the main clause. They do not constitute a clearly delineated class.
In fact, multiple sentences with parenthetical clauses can be regarded as a
transitional category between compound and complex sentences. Their form
and meaning are varied; it is chiefly their function that serves as organizing
principle. They can be joined asyndetically or syndetically, by means of both
coordinators and subordinators.
• Water, as we all know, is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.
• John Smith (for that was the officer’s name) refused to talk to the
' journalists.
• Mr. Robinson is in conference at the moment, I’m afraid.
• When all is said and done, this isn 7 such a bad area to live in.
Syndetically joined parenthetical clauses mostly employ the subordi-
nators listed below.
as: as far as 1 know, as far as I can judge, as far as sb / sth is con-
cerned, as regards sb / sth, as is well known, as you probably know, as it
were, as you see, as I said, as luck would have it;
if: if you like, ifI / one may put it so, ifyou will excuse my saying so, if
that ’s the right word;
what: what is more, what is more likely, what is worse;
when: when / after all is said and done, when you come to think of it\
that: that is, that is to say;
which: which is worst of all.
The most frequently used coordinators are and and for. They are chiefly
found in free word combinations rather than in set expressions.
On the whole, the category of parenthetical clauses shows that the bor-
derline between a compound sentence and a complex sentence, or between the
subtypes of paratactic and hypotactic structures can be fuzzy.
A parenthetical clause is loosely connected with the main clause; it is
therefore punctuated in writing by means of commas, dashes or parentheses
and pronounced as a separate tone group in speaking. An exception is a
nested, or an embedded clause (see below).
Some of the parenthetical clauses lack a subject although they contain a
finite verb form. A similar structure has been observed in predicative clauses
and in adverbial clauses of comparison:
• As regards the sea otter, it is an endangered species.
The verb in an asyndetic parenthetical clause is normally affirmative.
Negative forms occur rather infrequently:
9
She hasn 7 ft

got much chance of passing the exam, I don t think.


You can 7 give me a lift to London, I don 7 suppose(?) [informal]
This negative structure can be declarative or interrogative (pronounced
with a rising tone).
Parenthetical clauses can precede, interrupt or follow the main clause.
Asyndetic parenthetical clauses mostly occur in medial or final position. It is
generally believed that if we tried moving them to initial position, it would
turn into an independent clause, and the rest of the sentence would become an
object clause. Cf.:
a) Who are they, I wonder? It is still valid, I think, [parenthetical]
b) I wonder who they are. I think it is still valid, [independent]
This traditional approach, however, has been questioned by some lin-
guists, who give convincing examples of asyndetic parenthetical clauses
placed initially, e. g.:
• You know, my position is slightly awkward.
• I saw him only yesterday. I mean, he looked as fit as a fiddle.
Asyndetically joined parenthetical clauses often consist of a first-
person. subject and a predicate expressed by a verb of speaking or mental
activity: acknowledge, believe, mean, swear, admit, guarantee, presume,
think, assure, guess, promise, wonder, e. g.:
• Dr. Livingstone, I presume?
• You will get a new mountain bike, I promise.
A number of asyndetic patterns are regularly found with the second
person subject: you see, you know, mind you, you bet [informal]. Such par-
enthetical clauses as you see, you know, I mean have been long condemned by
grammarians as signs of unclear or lazy speech. However, when used
sparingly, these structures may serve definite communicative purposes.
A few marginal types of asyndetic parenthetical clauses can be pointed
out. They differ from the standard model in that they are not normally set off
by commas. The speaker may use them so as to elicit, or refer to, other
people’s comments on the information contained in the main clause.
Firstly, a peculiar sentence structure with a parenthetical clause (also
referred to, in structural terms, as embedded or nested clause) can be found in
special questions:
• What did he say he was doing in my room?
Some of these questions are rhetorical, expressing indignation:
• Who do you think you are?
• What do you think you are doing?
The main clause has an indirect question structure, while the paren-
thetical clause, placed medially after the question word, has an interrogative
(i. e., direct question) structure and makes the whole sentence interrogative.
Secondly, a double interrogative structure can be found in general
questions:
• Has she been here before() do you think?
Both the main and the parenthetical clause have a direct question struc-
ture, with the parenthetical clause in end position.
Thirdly, a parenthetical clause containing a reference to another person’s
comment or opinion can interrupt a superordinate clause:
• She showed me a chair that she claimed (believed/ thought /asserted,
etc.) had been made by Chippendale himself.
A parenthetical clause can serve as superordinate to another clause:
• The boy is a bit slow on the uptake, if you know what I mean.
Many of the parenthetical clauses are referred to as discourse markers,
because most of them are used to show how discourse is constructed. They
can show the connection between what the speaker is saying and what has
already been said (e. g. as we have pointed out elsewhere) or what is going to
be said (e. g. as the following chapters must show). They can help to make
clear the structure of what is being said and to focus the listener’s / reader’s
attention on a particular subject or a change of subject (e. g. as far as the
national economy is concerned). They can indicate the speaker’s, or another
person’s, attitude to the information contained in the discourse (which is
worse; more s the pity). The list of their functions could be a long one.
Many parenthetical clauses (chiefly those joined asyndetically or by
means of subordinated) are stereotyped structures; they occur in speech and
writing with more or less regularity. At the same time, each group seems to
allow the speaker/writer more or less freedom to coin new expressions. Par-
enthetical clauses joined by means of coordinators do not seem to be re-
stricted to a particular lexico-grammatical pattern. They are often put in
parentheses or set off by dashes rather than commas.
It is very difficult to set the boundaries of this category. Its unique
character is determined by its structural and semantic diversity. In the present
section the multiple sentence with a parenthetical clause is viewed as a
marginal subtype of the complex sentence, if only because a parenthetical
clause (particularly when it is joined asyndetically) can be “movable”, like
some other subordinate clauses loosely connected with the main clause,
whereas the order of coordinate clauses in a compound sentence can rarely be
reversed without destroying the meaning or the structure of the sentence.
Besides, parenthetical clauses are often found in mid-position, which can
hardly be the case with conjoins in a compound sentence.
Parenthetical clauses closely approach a functional type of clause known
as speech act clauses. These are loosely connected with the main clause and
therefore punctuated. In terms of structure, they mostly coincide with
adverbial clauses, but refer to the act of making an utterance contained
in the main clause, rather than to the fact expressed in the main clause. In
other words, they add a remark which gives the speaker’s reason for stating an
opinion or asking a question:
• Before we go to my place, are you afraid of dogs? (= ‘So long as
we’re going to my place, I’ve got to ask you whether you are afraid
of dogs’).
• They escaped in a hurry, because the landlady says they left their
latchkey behind (= ‘My reason for asserting that they had escaped in
a hurry is that the landlady says they left their latchkey behind’).

2.7. VOCATIVE CLAUSES


Vocative clauses are used to make a direct appeal to someone whose
identity is not known to the speaker. They occur quite infrequently (chiefly in
commands) and are normally joined with the help of the subordinator
whoever:
• Whoever is inside, open up!
• Come here, whoever you are.

3. THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE


Now that we have dealt with various types of subordinate clauses, it is
worthwhile to take a closer look at the compound-complex sentence, i. e. the
type of multiple sentence that contains two or more independent (coordinate)
clauses and at least one dependent (subordinate) clause. This kind of structure
demonstrates the whole range of syntactic relations within a multiple
sentence.
A practical approach to analyzing a compound-complex sentence could
be illustrated by the following example:
• (1) Of course, he read the reviews, (2) but he read summarily, without
paying much attention, (3) till he came to the remarks (4) the critics
made about him.
This is a compound-complex sentence. The independent clauses are: (1)
“Of course, he read the reviews...” and (2) “...but he read summarily, without
paying much attention... ”. They are linked by means of adversative
coordination expressed by the conjunction but. The second independent
clause has two subordinate clauses; they are (3) “...till he came to the re-
marks... ” (an adverbial clause of time, of the first degree of subordination,
joined with the help of the conjunction till) and (4) “...the critics made
about him” (an attributive relative limiting particularizing clause, of the second degree of subordination, joined asyndetically).

Only occasionally is one dependent clause subordinated to two inde-


pendent coordinate clauses, as in the following example:
• (1) The horses were so tired (2) and the riders so exhausted (3) that
there was no point in going any farther.
In this compound-complex sentence, the independent clauses are (1)
“the horses were so tired” and (2) “the riders (were) so exhausted”, They are
linked by means of copulative coordination, expressed by the conjunction
and. The adverbial clause of result (3) “that there was no point in going any
farther ” is subordinated to both independent clauses.
The parsing can be graphically represented in the following way:
1 & 2 — independent clauses
(copulative coordination)

3 — adv. clause of result

Still more peculiar (and, for that matter,


far less common) is the structure with two
independent clauses and two dependent clauses where each of the latter is
subordinated to each of the former:
• (1) No one can tell me, (2) nobody knows, (3) where the wind comes
from, (4) where the wind goes.
1 & 2 — independent clauses
(asyndetic coordination)
— homogeneous object clauses

Generally speaking, the structure of compound-complex sentences can


be extremely ramified, particularly in a formal literary style.
Although the number of clauses in a multiple sentence can be large
enough, this is not to say that the greater the number of clauses, the more
difficult it is to define the types of syntactic relationships. Sometimes a mul-
tiple sentence with just two clauses presents a problem. In the first place, it is
not always possible to determine unambiguously whether the structure that we
are dealing with is a compound or a complex sentence. In the present outline,
for example, this was the case with ybr-clauses and with the asyndetic
structure viewed as a marginal subtype of conditional clause.
Moreover, the borderline between simple and multiple sentences can
also be vague, particularly in the case of one-member coordinate and subor-
dinate units (e. g. The more the merrier). Notably, the status of one-member
interrogative and declarative structures (e. g. so what?; what of it?; hence the
nickname) is open to discussion. If we choose to regard them as clauses in
their own right, we ought to stress that they constitute a marginal and non-
productive subtype, chiefly confined to set expressions or stereotyped
structures. Generally speaking, most of the multiple sentence patterns are
represented by central models, highly typical of a given category, and mar-
ginal or transitional models, which can be attributed to a given subtype only
with a few reservations.
Besides, in speaking of independent and dependent clauses, we ought to
be aware of the fact that both terms are largely conventional. On the one hand,
all sentences with correlative coordinators and those with inversion in one of
the clauses reveal signs of interdependence. On the other hand, complex
sentences with punctuated subordinate clauses reveal signs of a weakened
syntactic dependence.
Last but not least, the borderlines between the semantic types of both
coordination and subordination often appear blurred owing to the highly
syncretic nature of some of the links.
Therefore, the sentence as a unit of language forms a grammatical con-
tinuum, with distinct categories held together by a large number of transi-
tional cases.
PART TWO
PRACTICE SECTION
Exercise 1. Point out simple and multiple sentences.
1. Their crops destroyed by floods, the fanners needed loans. 2. Every-
thing you say can be used against you. 3. That job completed, I signed another
contract. 4. The linguist’s work is not to ridicule poor speakers and praise
good ones; not to rank various languages according to their supposed
superiority in expressing literary or scientific concepts; not to defend the
Mother Tongue from real or imagined assaults. 5. An active verb denotes
action, and a passive verb, passivity. 6. In titles, the first and the last words as
well as all other words except articles and short prepositions and connectives
are customarily capitalized. 7. I’ll do anything I can to help out. 8. What I like
about this room is that it’s got big windows. 9. The government hopes to
reduce inflation by strict control of the economy. 10. What was the name of
the Greek hero who killed the Minotaur? 11. A team of psychologists asked a
hundred local townspeople to keep a record of all their conversations for a
week, and jot down whether they lied at any time. 12. A boy named Frank
Carmichael, aged 10, walking home the lake, saw a large travelling bag
protruding from the high weeds. 13. This would lead, other things being
equal, to a price increase of no less than five per cent. 14. It’s a very crowded
life, there’s always something to be done.

Exercise 2. Combine each pair of sentences intp a compound sentence


using the coordinator NOT ONLY... BUT... (ALSO). Practice using both direct
and inverted word order,
1.
Franklin organized the first lending library. He formed the first volunteer
fire department.
2. Laura ignored Pete after their quarrel. She avoided his friends.
3. The new manufacturing company mailed thousands of leaflets. It sent
free samples of its product.
4. Claire worries about homeless children. She frets about abandoned or
abused dogs.
5. They cancelled all previous arrangements. They closed down the office.
6. We longed for change. We worked hard to bring it about.
7. The new production line is environment-friendly. It is more profitable
than the old one.
8. She replied promptly. She gave us the benefit of her expert advice.
9. My cousin has written a number of books on modem art. He has accu-
mulated one of the finest collections in this town.
10. The soup looked suspicious. It gave off a pungent smell.

Exercise 3. Paraphrase these sentences without changing their


meaning; begin with the imperative form of the verb. Practice using both
copulative and disjunctive coordination.
Example:
• If you don’t reduce your fat intake, you’ll soon put on weight.
=> Reduce your fat intake and you won’t put on weight.
=> Reduce your food intake, or / or else / otherwise you’ll soon put on weight.
1. If you give your wife a bunch of flowers, she’ll forgive you. 2. If you
practice the violin regularly, you’ 11 have a good chance of winning the
contest. 3. If you don’t put on some make-up you’ll look pale. 4. If you don’t
tell me the whole truth, I won’t be able to help you. 5. If you set your alarm
clock, you won’t oversleep. 6. If you are not careful, you will injure yourself.
7. If you lend me some money, I’ll manage to hire help. 8. If you don’t keep
quiet, you’ll get into trouble. 9. If you plant the flowers now, they’ll bloom in
May. 10. If you don’t insert another coin, you’ll be disconnected. 11. If you
give your son a little encouragement, he’ll soon become a top player. 12. If
you look down, you’ll feel dizzy.

Exercise 4. Analyse these compound sentences, paying attention to the


way the clauses are linked.
1. It’s going to rain — we’d better go indoors. 2. You have to work hard
to remain ahead of your competitors in business, otherwise you can easily lose
your leading position. 3. The universities and colleges have been asked to
reduce their spending to the least possible; therefore, they are employing no
new teachers. 4. Either he paid out that hundred pounds some time after
dinner last night, or else it has been stolen. 5. All happy families resemble one
another; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.
6. Are we allowed to take the magazines home or do we have to read them in
the library? 7. I’d gladly do it, only I won’t be here tomorrow. 8. She didn’t
buy the novel, she received it from the author as a gift. 9. He didn’t want to
get involved; indeed, he only agreed on one condition. 10. Jonathan Swift
never went up in a lift, nor did the author of Robinson Crusoe do so.
11. Before the invention of writing there were no written records and hence
there was no history. 12. The sentences in Exercise 3 are relatively easy, while
those in Exercise 4 seem to be more difficult. 13. He is a statesman and an
essayist, plus he is a charming person. 14. Why is the clear sky of the daytime
blue, whereas the sunlight itself is yellow?

Exercise 5. Analyse the following sentences with multiple coordination.


State the types of coordination.
1. Stephen treated her generously, gave her an ample allowance, but he
would under no circumstances permit credit, nor would he pay her allowance
in advance. 2. Returning home late one night, I tried to wake up my wife by
ringing the door-bell, but she was fast asleep, so I got a ladder from the shed
in the garden, put it against the wall, and began climbing towards the bedroom
window. 3. I'd like to come with you but that’s not a promise, don't reckon on
it. 4. The Art of Biography is different from Geography: Geography is about
maps, but Biography is about chaps. 5.1 was prepared to forgive one
thoughtless remark, but she kept heaping insult on insult, so I asked her to
leave my house. 6. I wasn’t serious about the girl, I was only flirting with her;
we both enjoyed it. 7. Home is heaven and orgies are vile, but you need an
orgy, once in a while. 8. Ignorance is like a delicate exotic fruit; touch it, and
the bloom is gone. 9.1 always eat peas with honey, I’ve done it all my life,
they do taste kind of funny, but it keeps them on the knife. 10. Mrs Darling
loved to have everything just so, and Mr Darling had a passion for being
exactly like his neighbours; so, of course, they had a nurse. 11. Life is a jest,
and all things show it; I thought so once, but now I know it. 12. There are no
clearly defined seasons in South Alabama; summer drifts into autumn, and
autumn is sometimes never followed by winter.

Exercise 6. Combine each pair of sentences into a syndetic com* pound


sentence without reversing their order. Don 7 overuse AND and BUT. More
than one variant may be possible.
1. The review was long drawn out. The editor decided against publishing
it. 2. Mr. Evans was bom in Wales. Mr. McLeod comes from Scotland.
3. He doesn't know much about public relations. He is eager to learn. 4. The
audience must have found the lecture dull. There were quite a few people
yawning. 5. Don’t put your prices too high. You’ll frighten the customers off.
6. David is allergic to animals. His wife insists on keeping a Siamese cat. 7.
Caroline is an excellent housewife. She is an efficient secretary to her
husband. 8. We could use this money to redecorate the house. We could save
it for a Mediterranean cruise. 9.1 only had a couple of sandwiches. My fellow
travellers ordered an enormous lunch. 10. Ted stayed for tea without
4. being asked. He was the last to take his leave. 11. Stop making that dreadful din. I’ll cut off electricity. 12. The woman seemed to be in despair. There were tears
running down her cheeks. 13. I couldn’t park near the entrance. I didn't find a car park anywhere around. 14. It was near midnight. The debate continued. 15. A group of stars
contained in the Great Bear has the shape of a ladle. It is popularly known as the Big Dipper. 16. I’ll fetch you in the car. We’ll take a taxi. 17. I always asked my roommate not
to bang the door. He would do it just to spite me. 18. My research advisor pointed out a few misprints. She detected a serious error in the last paragraph. 19. Mark has become
very shortsighted. He requires new lenses. 20. Behave yourself. You’ll be asked to leave the classroom.

Exercise 7. Paraphrase these compound sentences so that one of the


clauses has inverted word order. Use the clues suggested.
1. We consider this act illegal, and several MPs are of the same opinion
(AND SO). 2.1 didn’t feel like looking around the house; I didn’t want to
haggle with the owner (MUCH LESS). 3. He never takes advantage of other
people’s ignorance; he never makes jokes at the expense of others (AND
NEITHER). 4. The museum was reconstructed; a few valuable items were
added to the collection (NOT ONLY). 5. Her voluntary work was admirable
and the way she managed the household was also praiseworthy (AND JUST
AS). 6. They never boast about their title; they do not show off their wealth
either (STILL LESS). 7.1 never criticize my colleagues’ ideas and I don’t in-
terfere in their projects (NOR). 8. This translation deviates from the original;
besides, it is twice as long (NOT ONLY). 9. I’ve laid aside $100, and my
brother has laid aside just as much (AND so). 10. The company’s property
was found to be in a sad state; its accounts were equally deplorable after the
bookkeeper’s escape (AND EQUALLY).

Exercise 8. Supply the beginnings so as to make up compound sen-


tences.
and our neighbours didn’t either.
still less did I suspect him of forging my signature, but they
also restored some of the frescoes.
or else you will be asked to leave the classroom, nevertheless,
they elected her chairperson, and neither is her sister.
hence he was nicknamed Brutus.
and equally objectionable was his concluding remark.
9. ______ , only it was a size too small for me.
10. _____, and just as readily did they agree to our proposal that the abstracts
be published in two languages.
11. _____, otherwise the department store wouldn’t have agreed to exchange
them.
12. _____, or at least the ads say so.
13. _____, and nor could any of my friends.
14. , for some of the well-known sources were not quoted in his article.

Exercise 9. Translate into English using compound sentences. Use


inversion where necessary.
1. Роман Булгакова «Мастер и Маргарита» необычайно популярен,
ведь он переведен на все европейские языки. 2. Грегори не вернул мне
деньги; он даже не попытался связаться со мной по телефону. 3. Я не
доверяю этим статистическим данным, и уж тем более не могу ре-
комендовать этот источник нашим клиентам. 4. Пусть он и ком-
петентный юрист, но с ним трудно иметь дело. 5. Я не знаю этих людей,
да и не хочу с ними встречаться. 6. Этот учебник не только содержит
много ценной информации, он вдобавок и очень увлекателен.
7. Я не знаю ваших секретов, да и не хочу знать. 8. Старик не мог на-
звать свой адрес, как не мог сказать полицейским, кто он такой. 9. Я
предпочитаю классическую литературу, тогда как моя сестра читает
только детективы. 10. Анна промолчала. Она не могла солгать отцу,
равно как и не могла сказать правду. 11. Пусть этот пылесос достаточно
мощный, но он слишком велик для нашей квартиры. 12. Я не добивалась
продвижения и уж тем более не хотела становиться руководителем
проекта. 13. Мало того, что она хороша собой, — она еще и талантлива.

Exercise 10. Combine each pair of sentences so as to use a complex


sentence with a subject clause. Begin with the introductory ГГ. Use the
“emotional ” SHOULD where appropriate.
Example:
• How interesting! They named their baby after a famous rock star.
=> It is interesting that they (should) have named their baby after a famous rock star.
1. How splendid! Your daughter has opened her own art gallery!
2. That’s outrageous! He proposed to Maria rather than Christine. 3. Emer-
gency supplies must be delivered to the flood area quickly. This is vital.
5. You have to support your own family and also your sister’s. It’s crazy!
6. It’s typical of Jason. He expects others to agree with him. 6. Read the
instructions carefully before setting the alarm. This is essential. 7. Incredible!
They have been living next door for six months now! 8. I left behind my
address book. What a pity! 9. How odd! They always arrive together.
10.Study all the clauses of the contract before you sign it. This is important.

Exercise 11. Combine these pairs of sentences reducing the first to a


contrasted element and expanding the second with a subject WHAT-clause.
Example:
• Alec did not forget her name. He forgot her face.
=> What Alec forgot was her name, not her face.

1. Victoria does not seek leisure time. She seeks involvement.


2. Eugene does not play the flute. He plays the accordion.
3. We do not fear death. We fear the unknown.
4. Paul does not want a maybe. He wants byes.
5. Margaret did not dream of achievement. She dreamed of glory.
6. Hilda does not need shorter hours. She needs a vacation.
7. My husband does not read crime stories. He reads non-fiction.
8. You did not see a ghost. You saw a drifting frog.
9. Arnie did not lose his credit card. He lost his air ticket.
10. Virginia does not like ice cream. She likes fruit.

Exercise 12. Paraphrase these sentences so as to use object clauses


after the verbs given in parentheses. Pay attention to variant forms of the
predicates.
Example:
• His doctor wanted him to change to an outdoor job (ADVISE).
=> His doctor advised that he (should) change to an outdoor job.

1. The researcher wanted his assistants to install the equipment as soon


as possible (URGE). 2. The merchant marine inspectors wanted new safety
regulations to be introduced (RECOMMEND). 3. Taxpayers wanted the
minister to give more detailed information about public spendings
(DEMAND). 4. Parents want more summer camps to be set up
(ADVOCATE). 5. The director wanted the actors to be word perfect after two
rehearsals (INSIST). 6. The magistrate wanted the driver to be released on
parole (DIRECT). 7. The military police wanted the reporters to stay away
from the hijackers (ORDER).
8. The party leader wants his team to work out a new policy (PROPOSE).
9. The judge wanted the defendant to withdraw his remark (RULE).
10.1 wanted him to write a letter to the local newspaper (SUGGEST).

Exercise 13. Paraphrase these sentences so as to use object clauses.


Use the clues suggested.
1. I regret that my son isn’t a tennis pro (WISH). 2. Please hurry up!
(WISH). 3. It would be nice to know more about his family (WISH). 4.
Please keep it a secret for the time being (RATHER). 5. It’s a pity that he
married so young (WISH). 6. Would you mind not smoking at table?
(RATHER). 7. My parents would prefer us to live in the country (RATHER).
8. Please stop making faces! (WISH). 9. I’d like you to change seats with me
(SOONER). 10. I’m sorry that everybody didn’t arrive on time (WISH). 11.
Please put it together again (WISH). 12.1 don’t want you to wear black
tonight (SOONER).

Exercise 14. Paraphrase these sentences so as to use nominal clauses.


Use the clues suggested. Pay attention to variant forms of the predicates in
some of the sentences.
1. The person or persons who planned this crime went about it very cu-
riously (WHOEVER). 2. You may have left your gloves on the bus (IT...
THAT). 3.1 will accept any post that I am offered (WHATEVER). 4. The
men solemnly promised never to forget that tragic day (THAT). 5. Her
courageous actions in the face of mortal danger were amazing (IT...
HOW). 6. Gloria is trying to persuade her father to advertise for an assistant
(THAT... SHOULD). 7. I really hate bribery (WHAT). 8. Her looks suggest
that she watches her diet (AS IF). 9. His letter disturbed the whole household
(WHAT). 10. The reason for their sudden departure is still a mystery to me
(IT... WHY). 11. I hate people criticizing my habits behind my back (IT...
WHEN). 12. He sounds like someone who has access to state secrets. (AS
THOUGH).

Exercise 15. Complete each of these sentences with a WHAT-clause.


1. What is more impo rtant than what you say.
2. It is still unclear what
3. No one could explain to me what ___.
4. He managed to sell his car for exactly what __.
What______ is why they declined such a tempting offer.
6. What had the effect of a bombshell.
7. Was his mother surprised at what
8. Sorry I didn’t hear what______
9. What______was a rough sketch rather than a drawing.
10. Can you imagine what______?
11. This is just what______.
12. What______came as a shock.

Exercise 16. Substitute WHAT-clauses for the word groups in italics.


Example:
• The thing you want me to do is extremely dangerous.
=> What you want me to do is extremely dangerous.

1. His words didn’t sound convincing. 2. That’s just the thing that I
feared! 3. My legal advisor outlined something that seemed to be the best
course of action. 4. The thing I hate is being ordered about. 5. The teacher
wanted to make sure that we remembered the material she had explained two
weeks before. 6. Would this be the thing you were telling me about? 7. Rita is
something that is known as a Nosey Parker — she’s always poking her nose
into other people’s business. 8. You ought to explain the idea that you have in
mind. 9. The old man is at a loss to explain his recent actions, though he
seems to remember quite clearly the events that happened years ago. 10.
Mind the things that you say in her presence', she’s very touchy about her
appearance.

Exercise 17. Complete nominal clauses with appropriate verb forms.


More than one variant may be possible.
1. It’s only natural that we______ friends for у ears.
2. I insist that the forms______right now.
3. It’s a nuisance that I______always _______the washing-up.
4. I propose that the charter of our student union__________at the Annual
General Meeting.
5. It looks as if the weather .
We are disappointed that the first prize___to such a mediocre actor.
It’s of vital importance that the polluted area___immediately.
It’s wrong that such an experienced worker __ by his employers.
I find it preposterous that some people___in public.
Sylvia looks as if she___from Bermuda.
I’m sorry that you ut this incident.
12.1 insist that I_______my money back after such inadequate therapy.
Exercise 18. Point out nominal clauses, define their types and comment
on the way they are introduced.
1. What soberness conceals, drunkenness reveals. 2. Kate allowed it to
be understood that she was indisposed. 3. How you manage on your income is
a puzzle to me. 4. The mother was anxious that the baby should become ill. 5.
Last Monday was when they moved in. 6. Where we could find an apartment
was our problem. 7. We didn’t know whether the visitors would leave or stay.
8. It is important that you see your doctor at once. 9.1 wish he would cut out
that stupid behaviour. 10. Whoever wanted to take pictures of the exhibits had
to pay a fee. 11. My first impression was that I had seen the man before. 12.
Why did she take it into her head that I was to blame?
13. It’s terrible, the way people are herded together in rush hour trains.
14. The •кpoint is, the electricity bills are long overdue. 15. That their house
is for sale is a well-known fact. 16. I’d rather you told •I» the boys to
leave my dog alone. 17. Whatever will be, will be. 18. But that’s just what I
said!
19. It is interesting how these small animals find their food under the snow,
digging it out with their paws. 20.1 flatter myself that my IQ is well above
average. 21. Climbing trees is what these animals do best. 22. Give the mes-
sage to whoever is in the office. 23. One of the differences between an op-
timist and a pessimist is that a pessimist is better informed. 24. See if you can
reason the members into agreeing with each other. 25. It remains to be seen
whether a better opportunity will present itself in the near future.

Exercise 19. Analyse the following multiple sentences with nominal


clauses.
1. Walking home last night, I reflected on who the men were and why
they had behaved so strangely. 2. Do you think she could ever have forgiven
him for what he did to her? 3. Children aren’t happy with nothing to ignore,
and that’s what parents were created for. 4. A well-known car manufacturer
often said that one secret of his success in business was that he always
remained one step ahead of public demand. 5.1 don’t mind what sex the baby
is, but I have to admit we’re hoping for a girl. 6. This is where you come in:
we want you to conduct what might be called a public opinion poll. 7. Its
central location is why we chose this hotel. 8. It was really amazing what the
human mind could do under pressure. 9. I’m sure she doesn’t expect you to
take the plane. 10. She sat down, hoping that she wasn’t going to cry. 11. His
parents pleaded that he should be given one more chance; however, the
principal remained adamant. 12. Make sure the circuit is dead and then
disconnect the switch.
Exercise 20. Analyse these sentences paying special attention to the way
nominal clauses are arranged.
1. He said he owed it to his wife that he had been able to finish that
book. 2.1 realised that what he had to tell me was very hard to say. 3. I must
confess that what you say is quite a revelation to me. 4. It is an axiom for
students of the language that some words lose their meaning altogether
whereas others take on additional shades of meaning. 5. What I like about
Clive is that he is no longer alive. 6. What astonished me most was that he
knew no nursery rhymes or fairy stories. 7. It is important that trainees should
see just how the instructor evaluates their progress. 8. What followed showed
that Mrs. Strickland was a woman of character. 9. I know this is what you
came to find out. 10. The truth is, one tries to believe that dreams are
nonsense, and up to a certain extent one may succeed in believing.
11. Whether he will gain fame during his lifetime or whether he will remain
in obscurity, only time can show. 12. It was natural that good grammar
schools should want him as a pupil, that he should later travel to foreign
universities and enter the profession of his own choice. 13. I’m afraid that
whoever runs across you will be shocked at your appearance.

Exercise 21. Paraphrase these sentences with object clauses so as to use


inversion in the main clause. Begin as shown.
Example:
• He had no idea what a shock was in store for him. Little____________
=> Little did he know what a shock was in store for him.

1. She may say with good reason that the deal was unfair. Well
2. They didn’t realize that it was their last encounter. Little__
3. You have every reason to believe that your son has succeeded in busi-
ness. With good____.
4.
5.

6.
I well remember what happened on the day of their arrival. Well_____.
He did not suspect that the landlady had ransacked every comer of his room.
Little
We never thought that he was an artist of great renown. Little______.
You are justified in saying that the company is faced with financial
difficulties. With every_______ .
They couldn’t imagine that their holiday would be a disaster. Little .
You may be right in asserting that your suppliers are unreliable. Well
10. He did not know that they had paid him in forged money. Little______
Exercise 22. Paraphrase these sentences so as to use nominal clauses.
Begin and end the new sentences as shown.
1. His chances of qualifying as a lawyer are small. It is not________a law
yer.
2. You should own up to the embezzlement, rd rather________embezzle
ment.
3. I’m really sorry that my arguments sounded groundless. I wish
groundless.
4. She enjoys buying smart clothes. What____ for smart clothes.
5. He wants the committee to prepare two copies of the draft agreement.
His suggestion____ in duplicate.
6. The things that lay on the table were my brother Bill’s property. What
___to my brother Bill.
7. Either of the two companies that takes over the factory will have to pay a
large sum in taxes. Whichever _____ to pay a large sum in taxes.
8. Dividing the prize money between the two winners was only fair. It was
winners.
9. He had practically no hope that he would ever get the stolen painting
back. Little to him.
10. Filing a complaint against the tour leader was all they did. What____
against the tour leader.
11. If you discover any facts, they should be reported to the lice immedi
ately. Whatever______once.
12. I advise him to arrange to see his doctor. My advice___with his doc
tor.

Exercise 23. Translate into English using nominal clauses. Remember


to use AS IF, WISH, RATHER, inverted word order, and the “emotional” SHOULD
wherever appropriate.
1. У тебя такой вид, словно ты только что получил повышение в
должности. 2. Что обещано, то нужно выполнять. 3. У меня такое чув-
ство, что меня обманули. 4. Мог ли он предположить, что его коллекция
похищена! 5. Преподавание русского языка иностранным студентам —
это то, что меня больше всего интересует. 6. Мы и не знали, что Максим
выиграл первый приз. 7. Жаль, что домовладелец не оставил завещания.
8. Совершенно естественно, что наши велосипедисты победили в гонке.
9. Мне все равно (для меня не имеет значения), актер он или режиссер;
он очень талантлив. 10. Отвратительно, что она бьет своего ребенка! 11.
То, что выставлено в этом зале, изготовлено учащимися художественной
школы. 12. Профсоюз настаивал на замене устаревшего оборудования.
13. Администрация считает нежелательным, чтобы служащие курили на
работе. 14. Проследите, чтобы протокол был отпечатан в двух
экземплярах. 15. Убедитесь, что все участники конференции получили
приглашения на пленарное заседание.
16. Боюсь, как бы меня не уволили. 17. Не люблю, когда о людях судят
по уровню их доходов. 18. Я готов сделать все, что бы ты ни попросила.
19. Ненавижу, когда люди проявляют жестокость к животным.
20. Я бы предпочла, чтобы вы сами объяснили эту ситуацию. 21. Они и
не подозревали, что их сын бросил университет. 22. Жаль, что дневники
поэта утрачены. 23. Отдай эту записку любому, кто обо мне спросит. 24.
То, что произошло впоследствии, доказало, что мои предсказания
оправдались. 25. Позаботьтесь, чтобы дети были тепло одеты. 26. Жаль,
что я не ознакомился с этим отчетом заранее. 27. Жаль, что вы поверили
этим слухам. 28. Я бы предпочла, чтобы лектор говорил помедленнее.
29. Просто ужасно, что эти люди не имеют крыши над головой.

Exercise 24. Combine each pair of sentences into a complex sentence


with an attributive appositive clause.
Example:
• I insisted that taxes should be raised. They disputed my view.
They disputed my view that taxes should be raised.

1. Some people say that benefits will be curtailed. We tried to dispel this
notion. 2. Art should express noble feelings. This idea is shared by many. 3.
He believes that the earth is flat. Nothing can shake his belief.
4. Her family isn’t wealthy. She just created this erroneous impression.
5. The attack is to be resumed. Headquarters issued an order. 6. Some offi-
cials are corrupt. The newspaper emphasized this fact. 7. Television is
harmful to children. The principal expressed this firm conviction. 8. Her
husband has been promoted to colonel. Have you heard this news? 9. They
think that the case should be settled without litigation. They expressed this
thought. 10. She wanted her estate to be divided evenly. She left instructions
to her lawyer. 11. The poet has returned to this country. We have information
about it. 12. He thinks that a compromise can be reached. He expressed this
opinion. 13. We received an urgent message. It said that we were to return at
once. 14.1 suspected that he was guilty. These events confirmed my strong
suspicion.
Exercise 25. Combine each pair of sentences into a complex sentence
with an attributive appositive clause, using THE FACT as antecedent
Example:
• So many people have seen the new play. This just shows how popular it is.
=> The fact that so many people have seen the new play just shows how popular it
is.

1. His academic achievement has improved. This is undeniable.


2. Every room was redecorated. The visitors were impressed. 3. Construction
of the new street market went ahead. The residents of this area were opposed
to it. 4. So many trains had been cancelled. That caused a great deal of
contusion. 5. Jack did very well at college. This doesn’t mean a thing. 6.
Mary’s proposal is quite sensible. You should recognize this.
7. The course proved too difficult. Some of the students were discouraged.
8. The new secretary was the center of attraction. The staff members were
resentful. 9. She has excellent computer skills. This enabled her to find a well-
paid job. 10. Robert is losing his hair. He doesn’t worry.

Exercise 26. Complete each of these sentences by using an attributive


relative limiting particularizing clause with the antecedent given in italics.
1. That was the worst thing, 2. The excuse was unacceptable. 3. The
woman was his cousin. 4. The sum of money is negligible. 5. That’s the third
reminder. 6. I refuse to support the plan. 7. The sort of fiction cannot be
described as good literature. 8. Is that all the work? 9. Would you like to see
the pictures? 10. The engraving was purchased at Sotheby’s only last year.
11. The test didn’t seem to be very difficult. 12. This is the fastest car.

Exercise 27. Complete each of these sentences by using an attribu five


relative limiting classifying clause with the antecedent given in italics.
1. Women generally disapprove of men. 2. Students should be expelled
from university. 3. Nothing is ever a success. 4. I wonder if I could talk to
someone. 5.1 refuse to support ideas. 6. Mattie has an admiration for those.
7. I’d like to achieve something. 8.1 wouldn’t marry a man. 9.1 never wear
clothes. 10. Laws should be repealed. 11. Anyone should be sent to prison.
12. No one ought to keep pets. 13. I’ve never seen a cat.
Exercise 28. Complete these sentences using contact clauses (par-
ticularizing and classifying).
Example:
• ______ the music the band_______.
=> We just couldn't stand the music the band was playing the whole time.

1._______ ________________________the check the customer .


2. ______the prescription the doctor_______?
3. ______the man my sister_______.
4. The test the students______.
5. ______anyone he _______.
6. The map the tourists_______.
7. ______anything else you_______?
8. The company I______.
9. ______the money the local council_______.
10. ______the clothes she_______.
11. ______the two CDs he_______.
12.______ _________________________the poem this quotation ?
13. The perfume you______.
14. ______the draft project the committee_______.

Exercise 29. Combine these pairs of sentences using WHICH,


WHO/WHOSE/WHOM or WHERE to introduce attributive relative non-limiting
descriptive clauses. Punctuate appropriately.
1. You should consult the Shorter Oxford Dictionary. It contains a
wealth of information on the etymology of English words. 2. The Bolshoi
Company’s latest production of Don Quixote is a great success with the
public. It has received highly favourable reviews. 3. The allegoric statue of
Victory was commissioned by the city council. It is to be unveiled next week.
4. The Changing of the Guard always attracts crowds of tourists. It takes place
in front of Buckingham Palace. 5. Single parent families are likely to repeal
the new law. Their incomes are often below average. 6. That man aroused the
suspicion of security officers. Nobody had seen him here before. 7. In 1876,
Henry James settled in London. He lived for more than twenty years there. 8.
Queen Victoria came to the throne in 1837. Her long reign was a period of
unprecedented prosperity in Britain. 9. Mikhail Lermontov was believed to
trace his descent from Thomas Learmont. The latter was also known as
Thomas the Rhymer. 10.1 gave the letter to George. He promised to post it for
me.

Exercise 30. Combine these pairs of sentences using WHICH to intro-


duce attributive relative non-limiting continuative clauses. Punctuate ap-
propriately.
1. He refused to continue his education. That was a great disappointment
to his mother. 2. I sent her a check. This was all I could do in the
circumstances. 3. My car needs servicing. This means that I’ll have to take it
to the garage tomorrow. 4. He had two novels published early in his career.
After that he took a serious interest in archaeology. 5. Some people in the
audience admired the singer’s talent. This was hardly the impression I got. 6.
He wanted to translate that poem into English. This appeared to be too great a
challenge even for such a gifted translator as he is. 7. She’s had a bad
accident. This explains why she avoids travelling by car. 8. The police fined
him twenty dollars. At this, he became furious. 9. A cargo ship picked up their
raft only a week later. By that time they had run out of food and fresh water.
10. The exhibition has hardly received any publicity. This is a pity because
some of the items are unique.

Exercise 31. Point out attributive clauses, define their types and
comment on the way they are introduced.
1. He had booked a passage on the Saxonia, which sailed at three- thirty.
2. You sound pretty sure of yourself for a man who has lost a fortune.
3. That which was bitter to endure may be sweet to remember. 4. My two
aunts, neither of whom I have seen for years, are coming to stay for Christ-
mas. 5. The announcement that our project had been given top priority was
received with cheers. 6. He decided to annex another wing to his house, which
annoyed his neighbours. 7. The newspaper reporters are all raving about the
young singer’s performance, which has given the whole city such pleasure. 8.
Her premise that the results of the election were already decided proved to be
true. 9. The arguments he put forward just didn’t hold water.
10. We take care to correct such errors as we can trace. 11. Some people who
claimed to have seen a UFO were mental patients. 12. The rumour that Ted
had lost his job spread quickly. 13. Most English vowel sounds which are not
given weight in speech become reduced to a rather formless central vowel. 14.
The impression she gave her boss was quite favourable. 15. She created the
impression that she was an efficient advertising manager. 16. We entertained
the hope that the passengers and crew would survive.

17. All we can do is hope for the best. 18. It's about time he found himself a
full-time job. 19. I’d prefer a hospital whose nursing staff is more efficient.
20. The garden, which is south-facing, extends to the river. 21. The question
“How many types of clauses could there be?” boils down to the question
“What sorts of structures do we describe as clauses?” 22. I’ve pictured myself
translating literary material, which has not been the case at all.

Exercise 32. Insert subordinators. Where possible, give alternatives,


including omissions. Punctuate appropriately and define the types of nominal
and attributive clauses.
Our neighbours include Sir Peter and Lady Crosby ___________ live at
Crosby Hall_______stands in grounds_______are open to the public in sum-
mer. Last Saturday we went to the Crosbys party_______I met Harry Lewis
_____I decided I didn’t like very much. Fred_________works for that firm of
architects I was telling you about the other day was there too.
At the same party I was introduced to Molly I’d heard a lot
about but had never met before. I told her that________I’d heard was nearly
all good_______was true. Molly is one of the very few teachers__________I
know can control their classes without ever raising their voices________is an
ability______children appreciate highly. The blond fellow________you saw
her talking to was Ben_______I must have mentioned before in connection
with our athletic club.
Incidentally, our athletic club_______present premises are being taken
over by the local council is looking for someone like the Crosbys__________
might have some ground to spare for a running track.
At the stroke of midnight Bobby Crosby_______can always be relied on
at parties to do something bizzare rode a bicycle down the main staircase, a
feat______drew loud applause. It was one of those rare occasions__________
Bobby’s exuberance didn’t result in any damage________must have pleased
his parents. The time_________ I shall never forget was________Bobby hung
from a chandelier chain______parted company with the ceiling, precipitating
Bobby onto a table__________broke beneath him. All_______happened this
time was______he tore his trousers_______was hardly_______you would call
a calamity.

Exercise 33. Fill in each numbered blank with ONE suitable word.
Point out attributive clauses.
Many advertisers have the belief (1)______headlines on a diagonal will
capture attention. Actually, this is (2)________so. (3)_______childhood, we
have been taught to read on horizontal lines; (4)_______, tilting a line slows
down the reader (5)______the eye orients (6)______to a new position. Any-
thing (7)________slows down reading is detrimental (8)______an advertise-
ment in (9)______it allows more distractions. Also, (10) that breaks
the normal pace of the eye in reading — and diagonal lines definitely dp that
— is unpleasant for (11)____________ eye and it becomes a greater task
(12)______keep receptive attention (13)_______the reader clear through the
message.

Exercise 34. Analyse the following multiple sentences with attribu-


tiveclauses.
1. My parents believe in the old proverb that a man is known by the
company he keeps. 2. She liked the fact that his hair, which had always been
crinkly, was beginning to turn grey. 3. People who are different from the rest
of society are often held up to ridicule by others who are afraid of them. 4.
Arthur’s car, which is only six months old, broke down on the way to Leeds,
where he was going to visit his grandmother. 5. It is impossible to move about
any great city today without noticing the number of people who seem to have
nothing to do that is particularly urgent. 6. Unfortunately Brewster, who looks
after old Dr. Denman, was away for the night, so there was no one who knew
what to do. 7. The prisoner, who behaved in rather an arrogant manner,
refused to accept the judge’s decision that he was guilty;
8. The driver who exceeded the speed limit was asked to produce his li*
cense, at which he became very angry. 9. Angus, who had no ear for music,
was forced by his parents to practice the piano daily, while his younger
brother, whose talents were varied, seemed to be neglected. 10. General N.,
who agreed to contribute an article to a major newspaper, arrived at an un-
expected and disturbing conclusion that armed conflicts were inevitable.
11. Little that was noteworthy escaped her attentions and she was quick to
establish personal relations with any young writer who showed promise.
12. A genial look came over his face, which his enthusiasm had reddened and
the heat of the day caused to perspire, and the eyes that had held me with a
dominating brilliance softened and smiled. 13. Most of the mountains we have
in life are ones we build ourselves. 14. Nowhere is the power of words more
obvious and more familiar than in advertising, where the success of a product
may depend on the feelings that certain words produce in the prospective
buyer. 15. How do we defend ourselves against the charge that we are old
fogeys who cannot adjust to the new directions an everliving and changing
language must inevitably take?

Exercise 35. Complete these sentences using various types of attributive


clauses.
1. a) They made no excuse, which_____. b) They accepted the excuse
which______. c) They accepted the excuse that_______.