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-

( )

( II)
4 9-
(2009-2010 )

. , 2009

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

: .. , .

: 4 9- (2009-2010
). - .: , 2009, 24.
10 2010 .
. ,

. * ().
,
.

:

18.11.09
6090 1/16. . . . . . 1,5
.-. . 1,33. 1500. 10-.
-
-
( )

141700, . ., . , ., 9
, / (495) 408-51-45
./ (498) 744-63-51 -
. (498) 744-65-83

E.mail: zftsh@mail.mipt.ru
: www.school.mipt.ru
, 2009

2009, . .

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

. 1 , , . 2
, , . 3
. , ,
,
.
2 , , III 10 .
. ,
a , b , c , , , ,
, :
: c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2ab cos .
:

a
b
c
.
=
=
sin sin sin

, ,

a
b
c
=
=
= 2R ,
sin sin sin
R , .
1. ,
O
AM AN , M N (. 1).
OM AM
ON AN . AOM AON AO , OM ON , ,
AOM = AON .

AM = AN
MAO = NAO . ,
. 1

2009, . .

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

, :
1 . ;
2 . ,
, .
1, . (
, .)
1. AC ABC
D , DA = a , DC = b (. 2). , ABD DBC , BD
M N . MN .
a > b . x = MN ,

P
A

z+x

.Mx .F
.Q . N.
D E

. 2

C
. 3

y = ND, z = BM . DE = y , QD = x + y ,
AQ = AP = a (x + y ) , CE = CF = b y , BP = z BF = z + x .
: AB = z + a x y , BC = z + x + b y .
AB = BC , z + a x y = z + x + b y .
x = (a b) / 2 . , MN = (a b) / 2 . a < b ,
1
MN = (b a) / 2 . , MN = a b .
2
2. , , .. a + b = 2 R + 2r .
M , N K ABC (. 3), AC = b , BC = a , r
, R . ,
: AB = 2 R . ,

2009, . .

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

OM AC , BC AC , , OM BC , ON BC ,

AC BC , , ON AC . MONC , r , AM = b r
BN = a r .
AK = AM BK = BN ,
AB = AK + KB = a + b 2r , .. AB = 2 R ,
a + b = 2 R + 2r .
, , .
1. ,
, ,
.
M
N
A
O , AN

(. 4). AN
n
2
AB . A B O
. OA AN , OA = OB ,
B
OAB = OBA = 90 . . 4
180 , AOB = 2 .
, BAN
AnB , . ( MAB .)
3. C
,
M , CS = a

CP = b (. 5). , CK = ab . (
).
CA CB. SAC SA AC . 5
ABC. PBC PB
BC BAC.

2009, . .

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

ASC

BKC BPC

AKC.

a
x
=

AC BC

b
x
=
, ab = x 2 , x = ab . (...)
BC AC
,
.

. 6

. 7

2. M MA MB ,
C (. 6). MA 2 = MB MC , ..
M ,
M
M .
AC . MAC ABC , AC . MAC MBA MAC
MBA , M . ,

MA / MB = MC / MA ,

MA 2 = MB MC .

4. r . M MA MB ,
(. 7). M ,
MB = 2 MA .
x : x = MO , MB = x + r ,
MC = x r MA = MB / 2 = ( x + r ) / 2 . (x + r ) 2 / 4 = ( x + r )( x r ) , ,

2009, . .

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

( x + r ) , ( x + r ) / 4 = ( x r ) . x = 5r / 3 .

. 8

:
1o. , , . :
, ( ) .
2o.
. : .
3o. , , (. . 8).
4o. AB CD M ,
AM MB = CM MD, ..
(. . 8).
5o. R a
,
, a = 2 R sin .
5.
AB = BC = = CD = a . AB CD K , BKC = 120 (. 9).
.
. 9
CK = x , BK = y , AK = a y ,
0
DK = a x . 4 : CK DK = AK BK , ..
x( a x ) = y ( a y ) .

( x y )(a x y ) = 0 . a x + y (
BKC ), x = y . , BKC

2009, . .

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

1 = 2 = 30 . ,
R = BD / 2 sin(1) . BD BCD
: BD =

a 2 + a 2 2a 2 cos 30 = a 2 3 .

, R = BD / 2 sin 30 o = a 2 3 .
.
3. AD ABC ,

AD 2 = AB AC BD CD, .. AB = c,

AC = b, BD = x,

DC = x, AD 2 = bc xy (. 9).

)
. 10

ABC (. 10)
AD
B1. AD = l DB1 = z. ABC AB1C
, AD A,
).

ABD AB1C (
l
c
AD AB
, ..
=
,
=
b l+z
AC AB1

l 2 = bc lz. BD DC = AD DB1 ,
.. xy = lz , l 2 = bc xy.
, 1 :

BD AB
x c
, .. = .
=
DC AC
y b


. , -

2009, . .

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

, .
,
(. 10),
, (. 11).
O1 O2 , )
. 11
)
AO1 l , AO2 l ,
.
6. R1 R2 ( R1 > R2 )
A . B , , , C
(. 12). AB , BC = a .
O1 O2 , D
AB D B
N
M
. O1 N AB O2 M AB ,
A
AN = AB / 2 AM = AD / 2 (.. , O2 O1 C
, ).
AO2 M
AO1 N

. 12

AN : AM = AO1 : AO2 , , AB : AD = R1 : R2 .

AD
BC 2 = AB BD = AB ( AB AD ) = AB 2 1
, ..
AB

C
R
a 2 = AB 2 1 2 .
R1

R1
.
, AB = a
R1 R2

O2

K
O1

7. R1
R2 A
(. 13).

2009, . .

. 13

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

B C .
, ABC .
O1 O2 B C .
, O1 B BC O2 C BC . , O1 B O2 C

BO1O2 + CO2 O1 = 180 .

ABC =

1
BO1 A
2

1
CO2 A , ABC + ACB = 90 . ,
2
BAC = 90 , , ABC , BC .
BC . O2 K O1B , KO2 = BC , O1 K = R1 R2 ,
O1O2 = R1 + R2 .
ACB =

KO2 = O1O22 O1 K 2 = 2 R1 R2 .
, , ABC

R1 R2 .
2.

, .
ABCD
(. 14). A C ,
, , A + C = 180 . , B + D = 180.
, ,
. 14
180 .
: 180 , . .
ABCD B + D = 180 .
A , B C . , D , .

2009, . .

10

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

, D (. 15). CD ,
D1 . ABCD1 , ,

B + D1 = 180 .
D = D1.

B + D = 180 ,

)
. 15

D ADD1 , , . ,
, D .
, D (. 15). , D .
1.
, .
, ABCD , : A = C . , A + C = 180 , , A = C = 90 .
B = D = 90 , ABCD .
.
2. , .
, (. 16),
, 180 (
): 1 + 2 = 180 .
,
180 : 2 + 3 = 180 . , 1 = 3 . ,
, , , , .

2009, . .

11

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

8. ABCD 3
(. 17). AD , CD = 4. AB BC . .

B
x
A

C
4

3 O 3

. 16

. 17

. 18

x, ADC . , , B = 180 . AC . ACD , .


ACD

cos = 2 / 3 ,

AC = AD sin = AD 1 cos 2 = 2 5. ABC


AC 2 = AB 2 + BC 2 2 AB BC cos(180 ) ,

, , cos 180o = cos , 20 = 2x 2 +

+ 2 x cos . cos = 2 / 3
x = 6.
9. 1 3,
2 (. 18). , 2

.
. BK AD CF AD , AK = FD = ( AD BC ) / 2 = 1. ABK AB AK , , ABK = 30 BAK = 60 .
. ABD . R
R = a / 2 sin A .

2009, . .

12

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

a = BD = AB 2 + AD 2 2 AB AD cos 60 = 7.
R = a / 2sin A = 7 / 3.

, .
ABCD (. 19).
M ,
N , P, Q. : AM = AN , BP = NB, MD = QD,
PC = CQ .

,
:
AM + MD + BP + PC = AN + NB + CQ + QD ,

AD + BC = AB + CD . ,
, .
, :
,
.
ABCD AD + BC =
= AB + CD . , , , , ,
, . AD = a , AB = b , BC = c , CD = d .
a + c = b + d , c b = d a . d > a .
CD DM = a (. 20).
P
B
C

N
A

Q
M

. 19

. 20

. 21

c > b , BN = b . ABN , ADM , MCN .


, , B , C , D , AN , AM , MN . -

2009, . .

13

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

,
AMN , . AB BC (
OB ), CD AD ( OD ) BC CD ( OC ), , O ABCD .
d = a , c = b (. 21), B D
( AC AC ),
ABCD BD .
C BD O , (
) AO A , , , O
,
...
10. a b (a > b ) . 1) 2)
.
B
C
a+b
ABCD
2
BC = b , AD = a (. 22). , AB = CD; , , AB + CD = AD + BC.
A
M
N a-b D
:
2
AB = CD = (a + b) / 2. BM CN
a
AD . ,
, ,
. 22
ABM DCN AM = ND .
MBCN , MN = BC = b,
AM = ( AD BC ) / 2 = (a b) / 2.
ABM

cos A =

AM a b
=

AB a + b
2

BM =

a +b a b
AB 2 AM 2 =
+
= ab .
2 2

2009, . .

14

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

, ,

ab / 2 .

3.
2 8 .
,
, , .
, . ( , , ),

, .
( ),
, , , , , , , ,
.
, , , ( ):
1: .
2: , ,
.
3: .
4: (
).
5:
.
6: ,
.

2009, . .

15

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

, . . , ,
, (, )
. . , , . ,
.
.
12. m . , m .
. , , ABC ,
A = AC + BC = m (. 23).
AC
CD , BC ,
AD = m , BCD
,
BDC = 45 . ABD ,
AD
. 23
.
. 1. l AD = m
DAK , ( 2).
2. D DM DA
( 5).
3. MDC ( 3),
B AK .
4. B AD ( 5), C . ABC .

2009, . .

16

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

, BAC = , BC AD BDC = 45 , AC + BC = AC + CD = m . , ADB, , ABC


.
. , ,
, AD .
, ().
, 4 : , , , , , ,
. , .
. , ( ), .
:
) ,

a A , a A ;

) , A B ,
AB ;
) ,
l , , l ;
) ,
AB C , AB C ( C )
) AB , AB ,
A B .
.

2009, . .

17

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

13. ,

A l B .

. l B (. 24), O
BD
l .
,
A B , ,
, ..
CE
AB . ,
BD CE , -

. 24

.
( 4 5).
. CE AB , AC = CB , COB = COA ( ), , OA = AB . B
OB l , , l B .
. ,
BD CE , , .. A
l .
.
, .
: (
), , .
.
14. ,

,
.
.
,

. 25

2009, . .

18

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

. .
, , AB M (. 25)
MQ AC . MNPQ
( 5 6).
MNPQ , : BC .
A N AF . F
FS AC , F ,
AC , G GR AC ( 5 6). , FSRG . ,
FS = FG . ANP AFS

FS : NP = AF : AN

, AMN AGF

(1)

FG : MN = AF : AN
(2)
NP = MN , (1) (2) , FS = FG ,
.. FRSG . .
.
, (, , ) ,
. .

A
P
M

A1
. 26

. 27

15. A B ,
. , .
. A1 , A (. 26), P

2009, . .

19

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

. AP = A1 P , AP + BP = A1 P + BP.

AP + PB , A1 P + PB . , ,
, P A1 B.
: ,
,
; . .
. , A B
, (. 27).

AP + PB > AM + BM , P M .

1(2). , ? AC = a
CB (. 29). ?

A.

L.

C
. 29

.M

x
.

52

. 30

2(2). ABC , K , L M , C 52o (. 30). KLM ?


3(3). a R , ? .
4(2). , MA MC ( 31). , AB = 2, AC = 3 BC = 4.
MA MB ?
5(2). , . 32?

2009, . .

20

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

.A

M
x

. 31

. 32

6(2). M . M
: A B,
C D ( 33). , AC DB
?
7(3). ? ABCD , AB
DC M N (. 34). ,

45o
B.

.C

.B

25

C
. 33
o

. 34
o

M N 45 25 . MAN ?
8(3). ?
) , ABC ,
AB, AB 1/3 AB.
AB, ABC 24?

2009, . .

21

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

) KLMN KN LM
O. KOL MON ?
9(3). R AB KM . , AK 2 + BM 2 = 4 R 2 ?
10(6). a, b, c. ( ):
) x1 = a 2 + b 2 ,

x2 = ab , x3 =

ac
.
b

) y1 = a 2 b 2

(a > b) ,

y2 =

a3
,
b2

y3 = 4 a 4 + b 4 - )?

1(4). ABCDE ,

AB = 1, BC = 2, CD = 3, DE = 4. AE , , ( , .
. 1 ).
2(5). C , AB, 60o
MN , MC = 3, CN = 8. .
3(5). ABC AB = 4, BC = 6, BD = 3 2.
BD , AB BC A1 C1 .
: ) AC ;
) BA1 BC1 (. 3 ).
4(5). 5 ABCD, AD = 8.
: ) ;
) .

2009, . .

22

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

5(6). ABCD. AB K . DK P, DP = 4 KP = 5.
) AD;
) A;
) .
6(5). O1 O2
A. , A,
MN K . 4 1. , O1 KO2 .
7(5) M : A, B,
C D ( MC > MD ) . , MC = 6

1
sin ( AMC ) sin ( BMC ) = . C
2
AB ( 3 . 5 ).

8 . : , AB CD + AD BC = AC BD.
: ABCD ; BC M ;

( AM + MD ) : ( MC + MB ) .
9(4). O. M ,
, ,
.
10(5). , .
, ( ).
11(6). A B .
A B , .

2009, . .

23

2009-2010 . . 4, 9 . . ( II).

12 . ABCD O,
AD BC

( AD > BC ) .

BOC

. , O,
AD K ( AK AD ).
OK , AD = a DK = b.

2009, . .

24