Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 45

= 1,3 .

n = 170 ./.
T = 7000 .
- .

. .

. . .

. . .

1
2
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
4
4.1
4.2
5
5.1
5.2
6
6.1
6.2
7
7.1
8
9
9.1
9.2
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
11
11.1
11.2
12
12.1
12.2
13
14
15
16
17


.
.
.

.................................................................................................................3
.....................................4
....................................................7
..................................................................................................7
...........................................10
.....................................................................11
.......................................................................15
...........................................................................................................15
.........................................................................................................15
.............................................17
...................................................................17
.......................................................................17
...........................................................................................................18
..............................................................18
...........................................................19
...............................................22
........................................................22
...............................................24
....................................................................................26
1- .....................................................................................................................26
2- .....................................................................................................................26
...............................................................28
1- ....................................................................................28
1- ...................................................................................29
2- ....................................................................................30
2- ...................................................................................31
..........................................................32
1- .....................................................................................................................32
2- .....................................................................................................................33
..................................................................................36
1- ......................................................................................................36
2- ......................................................................................................38
...............................................................................................43
......................................................................................................44
...........................................................................45
...........................................................................................................46
...............................................................47

47

. .
.
4

,
.

.
,
,
-.

.

, ,
.

,
.
,
, ,
, .

.

.
,
,
.

. .

. . .

. . .

47

. 1.1[1] :
- : 1 = 0,975
:
2

= 1 .

(2.1)

. = 0,99 - .

= 0,98 - .

, :
2

= 0,975 0,99 0,98 = 0,918


:

. . .

. =
n., :

. = = 17,802 /
:

. . .

(2.2)

P. =

(2.3)

:
P. = = 1,416
.1[1](. )
90L6, n..=1000 /,
: P.=1,5 s=6,4% ( 19523-81).
=.=2. :
n. = n.. -

(2.4)

, :

. .

n. = 1000 - = 936 /,
:

. =

(2.5)

47

. = = 98,018 /.
O :
u. =

(2.6)

:
u. = = 5,506

. . .

. . .

:
u1 = 5,6
.
2.1. .

, ./
, /
1-
n1 = n. = 936
1 = . = 98,018
2-
n2 = = = 167,143
2 = = = 17,503
:
3

P1 = P. . ( 1) = 1,416 10 0,99 0,98 = 1373,803


P2 = P1 1 . = 1373,803 0,975 0,99 = 1326,064
:
T1 = = = 14015,824

. .

T2 = = = 75762,098

47

.1(. ) 90L6,
1000 /, P.=1,5
6,4% ( 19523-81). =.=2.
n. = 936 /,
2.2. .

1-

5,6

0,975

,
/

,
/

,
x

1-
2-

936
167,143

98,018
17,503

14015,824
75762,098

. .

. . .

. . .

2.3. ,
.

47

b1

=0 o
d1

d2

b2

. 3.1

. . .

. . .

3.1
,
(. .3, .
3.3[1]):
- :
: 45
:
: HB 230
- :
: 45
:
: HB 180
( (3.9)[1]), :
[ H ] =

(3.1)

3.2 . 3[1]
HB 350 :

H lim b = 2 HB + 70

(3.2)

. .

H lim b () = 2 230 + 70 = 530 ;


H lim b () = 2 180 + 70 = 430 ;
[SH] - [SH]=1,1; KHL - .
KHL = ,

(3.3)

47

NH0 - ; N H0(.) = 17000000;


NH0(.) = 10000000;
NH = 60 n c t

(3.4)

:
- n - , ./.; n(.) = n1 = 936,003 ./.; n() = n2 = 167,143
./.
- c = 1 - , ;

t = 7000 . - .
:
NH(.) = 60 936,003 1 7000 = 393121260
NH(.) = 60 167,143 1 7000 = 70200060

. . .

. . .

:
HL(.) = = 0,592
HL(.)<1.0 , HL(.) = 1
HL(.) = = 0,723
HL(.)<1.0 , HL(.) = 1
:

[ H1 ] = = 481,818 ;

[ H2 ] = = 390,909 .


.
:
[ H ] = [ H2 ] = 390,909 .

. .


3.5[1] : KHb = 1,15 .

: ba = = 0,2,
(. .36[1]).

3.7 . 3[1]:
aw = Ka (u1 + 1)

(3.5)

47

aw = 49.5 (5,6 + 1) = 146,897 .


a = 49,5, u1 = 5,6; T2 = 75762,098
- .
2185-66 : aw = 140 .
:
mn = (0.01...0.02) aw , : mn = 1,4...2,8 , :
9563-60* (. . 36[1]) mn = 2 .
:

Z = z1 + z2 = = = 140

:
z1 = = = 21,212

(3.6)

: z1 = 21

. . .

z2 = Z - z1 = 140 - 21 = 119

(3.7)

= 0 .

. . .

d a1

d1

b1

d f1

d f2

d2

d a2

b2

. 3.2

:
d=

(3.8)

d1 = = = 42 ;
d2 = = = 238 .

. .

aw = = = 140 .

:
da = d + 2 mn
da1 = d1 + 2 mn = 42 + 2 2 = 46 ;
da2 = d2 + 2 mn = 238 + 2 2 = 242 .

(3.9)

47

: b2 = ba aw = 0,2 140 = 28 ;
: b1 = b2 + 5 = 28 + 5 = 33 ;

(3.10)
(3.11)

bd = = = 0,786

(3.12)

:
V = = = 2,058 /c;

(3.13)

. .

. . .

. . .

8- .
:
KH = KHb KHa KHv.

(3.14)

KHb=1,029 3.5[1], K Ha=1


3.4[1], KHv=1,05 3.6[1], :
KH = 1,029 1 1,05 = 1,08

3.2
3.6[1]:

H =

(3.15)

H = =
= 362,427 . [H]
8.3 8.4[1]:
:
Ft1 = Ft2 = = = 667,42 ,

(3.16)

:
Fr1 = Fr2 = Ft1 = 667,42 = 242,921 ;

(3.17)

:
o
Fa1 = Fa2 = F t1 tg() = 667,42 tg(0 ) = 0 .

(3.18)

= 2. ,
, 3.21[1]:

max = H = 362,427 = 512,549,

(3.19)

47

[H] = 3,1 t2 = 3.1 310 = 961 .

(3.20)

max < [H]


.

3.3
3.22[1]:

(3.21)

KF = KF KFv (. . 42[1]). 3.7[1]


KF = 1,078, 3.8[1]
KFv=1,25. KF = 1,078 1,25 = 1,348. Y , Z v (. .3,
3.25[1]):

. . .

F = [F]

: Zv1 = = = 21

(3.22)

: Zv2 = = = 119

(3.23)

: YF1 = 4,052; YF2 = 3,59

. . .

3.24[1]:
[F] = .

(3.24)

KFL - .
KFL = ,

(3.25)

NFO - ; NFO = 4000000;


NF = 60 n c t

(3.26)

. .

- n - , ./.; n(.) = n1 = 936,003 ./.; n() = n2 = 167,143


./.
- c = 1 - , ;
t = 7000 . - .
:
NF(.) = 60 936,003 1 7000 = 393121260

47

NF(.) = 60 167,143 1 7000 = 70200060


:
FL(.) = = 0,466
FL(.)<1.0 , FL(.) = 1
FL(.) = = 0,62
FL(.)<1.0 , FL(.) = 1
:

. . .

. . .

F lim b = 414 ;
o
F lim b = 324 .

[SF] 3.24[1]:
[SF] = [SF]' [SF]".

(3.27)

[SF]' = 1,75 ;
[SF]' = 1 ;
[SF(.)] = 1,75 1 = 1,75

[SF]' = 1,75 ;
[SF]" = 1 .
[SF(.)] = 1,75 1 = 1,75
:
: [F1] = = 236,571 ;
:

[F2] = = 185,143 ;

(3.28)

: = = 58,384
:

= = 51,572

,
.
:

F2 = = = 57,676
. .

F2 = 57,676 < [f] = 185,143 .


.

47

[]F
236,571
185,143

3.2. , .

aw
140
,
0

m
2
:
:
d1
42
b1
33
d2
238
b2
28
:
:
z1
da1
21
46
z2
119
da2
242
:

df1

37

df2
233

H, H/2
390,909
362,427
F1
236,571
55,235
, H/2
F2
185,143
57,676
-

. .

. . .

. . .

3.1. .
HB1

[]H

HB2
H/2

45

230
780
481,818

45

180
540
390,909

47


.
[ ] = 20
8.16[1]:
d

(4.1)

d = 15,282 .
() : d1 = 20 .
2- () : d2 = 25 .
3- () : d3 = 30 .
4- () : d4 = 25 .

4.2 .
d = 26,82 .
1- () : d1 = 40 .
2- () : d2 = 48 .
3- () : d3 = 40 .
() : d4 = 30 .
.

. .

. . .

. . .

4.1 .

47

4.1. , .

15,282

1-

20
26,82

40

3-

4-

25

30

25

48

40

30

4.2. , .

.
.

1- 2-

2- 3-

3- 4-

120
60

60
60

60
120

. .

. . .

. . .

2-

47

5.1
1- .
:
n = 0,5 mn = 0,5 2 = 1

(5.1)

:
d = (1,5...1,8) d
d = (1,5...1,8) 48 = 72...86,4 . d = 72 .

(5.2)

:
L = (0,8...1,5) d
L = (0,8...1,5) 48 = 38,4...72 . : L58 .

(5.3)

:
= (2,5...4) mn

(5.4)

= (2,5...4) 2 = 5...8 ,
: mn = 2 - .
8 , : = 8 .

. . .

. . .

5.2

. .

:
= (0,2...0,3) b2
C = (0,2...0,3) 28 = 5,6...8,4 , b2 = 28 - .
: = 8 .

(5.5)

: s = 0,8 C = 0,8 8 = 6,4 6 .

(5.6)

:
D = Da2 - 2 (2 mn + o)
D = 242 - 2 (2 2 + 8) = 218

(5.7)

:
DC . = 0,5 (Do + d.) = 0,5 (218 + 72) = 145 146 .

(5.8)

:
D. = = = 36,5 36 .

(5.9)

:
n = 0,5 mn = 0,5 2 = 1

(5.10)

47

6.1

.
: , .

,
.

l
L

. 6.1

. . .

:
d(. .) = 24 ;
d(1- ) = 20 ;
:

. . .

T = 14,016
:
T = k T = 1,3 14,016 = 18,221
(6.1)
k = 1,3 - , ;
11.3[1].
:
n = 936 ./.
40-24.1-20.1 20884-93
( . 25[3]).
:

= 0,05 D = 0,05 125 = 6,2 ;

(6.2)

. .

D=125 -
:
D1 = 0,75 D = 0,75 125 = 93,75 ;
(6.3)

(6.4)

47

= = 0,213

[] = 0,45,

.
, ,
. :
F = 0 H.

,
,
. ,
.
,
.
l

D
d

. . .

6.2

. 6.2

. . .

:
d(. ) = 30 ;
d( .) = 30 ;
:
T = 75,762
:
T = k T = 1,3 75,762 = 98,491
(6.5)
k = 1,3 - , ;
11.3[1].
:

. .

n = 167,143 ./.
125-30-1-30-1-3 14084-93
( . 23[3]) 16 "" 6.
, , :
F = r r,

(6.6)

47

: r = 1320 / - ; r = 0,3 -
. :

. .

. . .

. . .

F = 1320 0,3 = 396 .

47

6.1. .


d(. .) = 24 ;

1-
d(1- ) = 20 ;


d(. ) = 30 ;


d( .) = 30 ;

. .

. . .

. . .


4024.1-20.1 20884-93
( . 25[3]).

125-30-1-30-13 14084-93 ( .
23[3]) ""
- 6.

47

7.1

d+t 2
d- t 1 h

t2
t1


14x9. , 23360-78 (. . 8,9[1]).

- 45 .
8.22[1].

(7.1)

= = 25,054 []
T2 = 75762,098 - ; d = 48 - ; h = 9 -
; b = 14 - ; l = 50 - ; t 1 = 5,5 -
.
[] = 75 .
8.24[1].

. . .

. . .

. 7.1

(7.2)

= = 6,263 []
[ ] = 0,6 [] = 0,6 75 = 45
.

. .

47

7.1. .


14x9

. .

. . .

. . .

1-

47

:
= 0.025 aw + 1 = 0.025 140 + 1 = 4,5
(8.1)
8.0 , = 8.0 .


. .

(8.2)

() :
b = 1.5 = 1.5 8 = 12 .

(8.3)

() :
b1 = 1.5 1 = 1.5 8 = 12 .

(8.4)

:
: p = 2.35 = 2.35 8 = 18,8 ,
, p = 19 .
: p1 = 1.5 = 1.5 8 = 12 .
p2 = (2,25...2,75) = 2.65 8 = 21,2 .,
, p2 = 22 .

. . .

. . .

1 = 0.02 aw + 1 = 0.02 140 + 1 = 3,8


1 8.0 , 1 = 8.0 .

(8.5)
(8.6)
(8.7)

: m = (0,85...1) = 0.9 8 = 7,2 .


, m = 8 .

(8.8)

: m1 = (0,85...1) 1 = 0.9 8 = 7,2 .


, m1 = 8 .

(8.9)

( 4):
d1 = (0,03...0,036) aw ( ) + 12
d1 = (0,03...0,036) 140 + 12 = 16,2...17,04 .
d1 = 20 .
:
:
d2 = (0,7...0,75) d1 = (0,7...0,75) 20 = 14...15 .
d2 = 16 .
:
d3 = (0,5...0,6) d1 = (0,5...0,6) 20 = 10...12 .
d3 = 12 .

(8.10)

(8.11)

(8.12)

, d2(. . 10.18[1]):
e (1...1,2) d2 = (1...1.2) 16 = 16...19,2 = 17 ;
q 0,5 d2 + d4 = 0,5 16 + 5 = 13 ;
d4 = 5 .

(8.13)
(8.14)

47

. .

. . .

. . .

h d2 ,
.
h.

47

9.1 1-
, :
Fx3 = -Fr1 = -242,921 H
Fy3 = Ft1 = 667,42 H

. . .

2- ( 4
), :
Rx2 =
(9.1)
Rx2 = = 121,46 H
Ry2 =
(9.2)
Ry2 = = -333,71 H
X Y, :
Rx4 =
Rx4 = = 121,46 H
Ry4 =
Ry4 = = -333,71 H

. . .

3 = 0

:
R2 = = = 355,127 H;
R4 = = = 355,127 H;

(9.3)
(9.4)

(9.5)
(9.6)

" " , F .
, , ,
.

. .

9.2 2-
, :
Fx2 = Ft2 = 242,921 H
Fy2 = -Fr2 = -667,42 H

2 = 180

2- ( 3
), :
Rx1 =
(9.7)
Rx1 = = -121,46 H
Ry1 =
(9.8)
Ry1 = = 333,71 H

47

X Y, :
Rx3 =
Rx3 = = -121,46 H
Ry3 =
Ry3 = = 333,71 H
:
R1 = = = 355,127 H;
R3 = = = 355,127 H;

(9.9)
(9.10)

(9.11)
(9.12)

2- ( 3
), :
R1. =
(9.13)
R1. = = 396 H
, :
R3. =
R3. = = -792 H

(9.14)

. .

. . .

. . .

(.
" "):
F. = 396 .

47

10

10.1 1-
1-

Mx = 0
My = 0
M = = = 0 H

2-

(10.1)

Mx = 0
My = 0
M = = = 0 H

. . .

. . .

3-

(10.2)

Mx =
Mx = = -20022,6 H
My =
My = = 7287,63 H

(10.3)

M = = = 21307,606 H

(10.5)

4-

(10.4)

Mx = 0
My = 0
(10.6)

. .

M = = = 0 H

47

10.2 1-

Y
X
Z

Ry2

Fy3
Rx2

Ry4

3
60

. . .

120

Fx3

Rx4

4
60

Mx, Hx

-20022,6

. . .

7287,63

My, Hx

21307,606

M =

. .

M(max) = , Hx

47

10.3 2-
1-

Mx = 0
My = 0
M. = 0
M = = = 0 H
2-

Mx =
Mx = = 20022,6 H
My =
My = = -7287,63 H
M. =
M. = = 23760 H
M = = = 45067,606 H

. . .

3-

. . .

(10.8)
(10.9)
(10.10)
(10.11)

Mx = 0
My = 0
M. =
M. = = 47520 H
M = = = 47520 H
4-

(10.7)

(10.12)
(10.13)

(10.14)
(10.15)

. .

Mx = 0
My = 0
M. =
M. = = 0 H
M = = = 0 H

47

10.4 2-

Y
X
Z

Ry1

Ry3

Rx1

Fx2

Rx3

Fy2

2
60

3
60

4
120

. . .

20022,6

Mx, Hx

. . .

My, Hx
-7287,63
47520
23760
M, Hx

45067,606

47520

M =

. .

M(max) = , Hx

47

11

11.1 1-
( 8338-75) 105
:

. 11.1
:
Pr1 = 355,127 H;
Pr2 = 355,127 H.
" " , F .
, ,
.

2.
, : Fa = 0 .
:
= ( V Pr2 + Y Pa) ,

(11.1)

- Pr2 = 355,127 H - ; Pa = Fa = 0 H - ; V = 1
( ); = 1,4 (.
. 9.19[1]); = 1 (. . 9.20[1]).

. . .

. . .

d = 25 - ( );
D = 47 - ;
C = 11,2 - ;
Co = 5,6 - .

0; ( . 9.18[1]) e = 0,19.
0 e; . 9.18[1]: X = 1; Y = 0.
: P = (1 1 355,127 + 0 0) 1,4 1 = 497,178 H.
, . . ( 9.1[1]):

. .

L = = = 11431,898 . .

(11.2)

, .:
Lh = 203559,437 ,

(11.3)

47

10000 . ( ), n 1 = 936
/ - .

11.2 2-
( 8338-75) 108
:

. . .

. . .

d = 40 - ( );
D = 68 - ;
C = 16,8 - ;
Co = 9,3 - .

. 11.2
:
Pr1 = R1 + R1(.) = 355,127 + 396 = 751,127 H;
(11.4)
Pr2 = R2 + R2(.) = 355,127 + 792 = 1147,127 H.
(11.5)
R1(.) R2(.) - . .
" ".

2.
, : Fa = 0 .
:
= ( V Pr2 + Y Pa) ,

(11.6)

- Pr2 = 1147,127 H - ; Pa = Fa = 0 H - ; V = 1
( ); = 1,4 (.
. 9.19[1]); = 1 (. . 9.20[1]).
0; ( . 9.18[1]) e = 0,19.
0 e; . 9.18[1]: X = 1; Y = 0.
: P = (1 1 1147,127 + 0 0) 1,4 1 = 1605,978 H.
, . . ( 9.1[1]):

. .

L = = = 1144,746 . .

(11.7)

, .:
Lh = 114148,462 ,

(11.8)

47

. .

. . .

. . .

10000 . ( ), n 2 =
167,143 / - .

47

11.1. .

1-

1-

d,

D,

25

47

40

68

(
8338-75)
105

(
8338-75)
108

d,

D,

25

47

40

68

. .

. . .

. . .

2-

(
8338-75)
105

(
8338-75)
108

2-

47

12

12.1 1-

1-

D = 20 .
.
.
:
S = , :

(12.1)

- :

v = m = = 0,5 = 5,13 ,

(12.2)

. . .

. . .

T. = 14015,824 H.
: 45. :
- b = 780 ;
-
-1 = 0,43 b = 0,43 780 = 335,4 ;
-
-1 = 0,58 -1 = 0,58 335,4 = 194,532 .

W =

(12.3)

W = = 1365,996

b=8 - ; t1=4 - ;

- t = 0.1 - . . 166[1];

- = 0.97 - , , . . 162[1].
- k = 1,7 - 8.5[1];
- = 0,83 - 8.8[1];
:

. .

S = 17,147.
16162-85 50891-96 "
. " ,
,
.
:
F. = 125 = 125 = 467,971 ,

47

T1 = 14,016 - .
l = 160 ,
:
M. = F. l / 2 = 467,971 160 / 2 = 37437,68 .
(12.4)
:
S = , :

(12.5)

- :
(12.6)

W =

(12.7)
3

W = = 580,598 ,
b=8 - ; t1=4 - ;
- :

m = 0 ,

(12.8)

Fa = 0 - ,

- = 0,2 - . . 164[1];

- = 0.97 - , , . . 162[1];
- k = 1,8 - 8.5[1];
- = 0,92 - 8.8[1];
:
S = 2,579.
:
S = = = 2,55

(12.9)

[S] = 2,5.
.
.
= 2.
11.2[2]:

. .

. . .

. . .

v = 64,481 ,

.max = K . = [.] , :

(12.10)

[.] = 545,6 ,

(12.11)

= 1364 ; [S]=2.5 - .

47

.max = 2 130,181 [.]


.

. . .

12.2 2-
T. = 75762,098 H.
: 45. :
- b = 780 ;
-
-1 = 0,43 b = 0,43 780 = 335,4 ;
-
-1 = 0,58 -1 = 0,58 335,4 = 194,532 .
2-

D = 48 .
. b = 14 ,
t1 = 5,5 .
:
S =

(12.12)

. . .

- :

v = 4,79 ,

(12.13)

W =

(12.14)

W = = 9408,581 ,
b=14 - ; t1=5,5 - ;
- :

m = 0 ,

(12.15)

. .

: Fa = 0 - ,
- = 0,2 - . . 164[1];
- = 0.97 - , , . . 162[1];
- k = 1,8 - 8.5[1];
- = 0,85 - 8.8[1];
:

47

S = 32,073.
:
S = :

(12.16)

- :

v = m =
v = m = = 1,869 ,

(12.17)

. . .

. . .

W =

(12.18)
3

W = 20265,925 ,
b=14 - ; t1=5,5 - ;
- t = 0.1 - . . 166[1];

- = 0.97 - , , . . 162[1].
- k = 1,7 - 8.5[1];
- = 0,73 - 8.8[1];
:
S = 41,62.
:
S = = = 25,405

(12.19)

[S] = 2,5.
.
.
= 2.
11.2[2]:

.max = K . = [.] , :

(12.20)

176 , = 440 ; [S]=2.5 -


.
. .

.max = 2 = 11,563 [.]


.

47

3-

D = 40 .
(. . 8.7[1]).
:
S =

(12.21)

- :

(12.22)

W = 6283,185

(12.23)

- :

m = 0 ,

(12.24)

: Fa = 0 - ,
- = 0,2 - . . 164[1];
- = 0.97 - , , . . 162[1];
- = 3,102 - 8.7[1];
:

. . .

. . .

v = 7,563 ,

S = 13,868.
:
S = :

(12.25)

- :

v = m =
v = m = = 3,014 ,

(12.26)

. .

W = 12566,371

(12.27)

- t = 0.1 - . . 166[1];
- = 0.97 - , , . . 162[1].
- = 2,202 - 8.7[1];
:

47

S = 27,232.
:
S = = = 12,358

(12.28)

[S] = 2,5.
.
.
= 2.
11.2[2]:
(12.29)

176 , = 440 ; [S]=2.5 -


.
:

.max = 2 = 18,38 [.]

. . .

.max = K . = [.] , :

. .

. . .

47

13


, ,
10-20 . V
3
0,25 1 :
3

10.8[1] . H
= 362,427 v = 2,058 /
-6
2
28 10 / . 10.10[1] 25 ( 20799-75*).
-24 2115075 (. . 9.14[1]).
.

. .

. . .

. . .

V = 0,25 1,416 = 0,354 .

47

14

. .

. . .

. . .

- , 144-75
.
- .
k6.
, 8.11[1].

47


.
, .
.
,
80-100 , .
,
.
;
, .
, ,
.
, .
( )
.
.
, .
,
.

. .

. . .

. . .

15

47

,
:
, , .
,
, ,
, , .
,
, ,
, .
, ,
, , .
,
.

.

.
, .

.
,
.

. .

. . .

. . .

16

47

17

. .

. . .

. . .

1. .., .., .., .., ..


' ': .
.:, 1988 ., 416.
2. .., .. ' ', .:
'', 2003 ., 496 c.
3. .. ' ': , .
2- . . - : ' ', 2004 ., 454 c.: ., . - ..

47