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................................................................................................................

16
1.
2.
3.
4.

................................................................ 18
................................................... 34
IBM PC- ....................................... 58
.................................................................................... 114

5.

............................................................................................ 194

.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

............................................................................... 250
................................................................. 342
......................................................................................... 466
- ........................................... 546
.............................................................. 608
PC.................................................................................... 660
................................................................................. 704
SCSI................ 748
: USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus.................... 808
BIOS -.................................................. 838
, ........................................ 862

................................................................................................... 884
.............................................................................................................. 896
........................................................................................... 897



........................................................................................................... 16
1. ........................................... is
1.1. ? ............................................................... 20
1.2.
1.3.

, , , .......................................................... 21
, ...................................................... 23

1.4.

............................................ 24
1.4.1. .................................................... 28
1.5. - ........................................ 29
1.6. , , ...... 30
1.7. .................................................................. 30

2. .......................... 34
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6.

.................................................................... 35
............................................................. 40
.............................................................. 42
................................................................. 45
, , , ........................................................ 52
............................................................................... 55

3. IBM PC- .......... 58


3.1. .............................................................................. 59
3.2. ........................................................................ 60
3.2.1. Conventional Memory.......................... 64
3.2.2. UMA.......................................................... 65
3.2.3.
EMS XMS ...................................................... 66

3.2.4. Shadow ROM Shadow RAM..................... 68


3.2.5. UMA...................... 69
3.2.6. ............................................................... 69

3.2.7. ................ 70
3.3. - ............................................................... 75
3.4. ..................................................................... 78
3.4.1. NMI SMI ................................. 78
3.4.2. ...................................................... 79

3.4.3. ............................... 83
3.5. DMA ......................................................... 84

3.6. IBM PC................................................. 87


3.6.1. PC/AT ........................................................... 88
3.6.2. (8253/8254).............................................. 89

3.6.3. (PC Speaker).................................. 90


3.6.4. CMOS Memory, RTC .................. 91
3.6.5.
BIOS (Int lAh Int 15h)......................................................... 94
3.7. ............... 96
3.7.1. ....................................................... 96
3.7.2. .................................... 98
3.7.3. ....................................... 99

3.8. ................................................. 102


3.9. ....................................................... 104
3.9.1. ................................ 104
3.9.2. ................................... 106
3.9.3. ........................ 110

4. ......................................................................
4.1. .............................................................................................. 115

4.2. : .................................. 121


4.2.1. .......................................................................... 122

4.2.2. (DRAM)................................................ 138


4.2.3. (SRAM) ........................................................ 141

4.2.4. ............................................................... 142


4.2.5. ...................................................... 147
4.2.6. BIOS..................................................................................... 150

4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7.

4.2.7. CMOS: .................................... 155


........................................................ 157
........................................................ 161
........................................................ 168
CMOS Setup ................................ 172
PC............................................................... 192

5. ................................................................................ 194
5.1. ........................................................ 194
5.1.1. ...................... 196
5.1.2. .......................... 197
5.1.3. .................... 199
5.2. 32- ............................. 201
5.2.1. ........................................................... 204
5.2.2. ............................................................ 206

5.2.3. ................................................... 208


5.2.4.
.................................................... 210
5.3. ........................................................................ 211
5.3.1. .................................................. 213

5.4. ................................................. 215


5.4.1. .................................. 216
5.4.2. ........................................................ 216
5.4.3. SMM..................................... 217
5.4.4.
............................................................ 219
5.4.5. ....................... 221
5.5. ................................. 223
5.5.1. ................................................. 223
5.5.2. ............................................... 225
5.5.3. ............................... 227
5.6. Intel................................................................... 230
5.6.1. 6 ..................................................................... 230

5.6.2. Pentium 4 ............................................................ 241


5.7. AMD ....................................................... 244
5.7.1. AMD 5 7 .......................... 244
5.7.2. Athlon Duron AMD............................... 246
5.7.3. Cyrix, VIA, IBM ........................... 247

6. ............................................................... 250
6.1. ...................................................... 252
6.1.1. .................... 252
6.1.2. .......................................... 254
6.1.3. ....................................... 256
6.1.4. ...................................... 260
6.2. ....................................................................... 261
6.2.1. DRAM........................................................... 262

6.2.2. ......................................................................... 265

9
6.2.3. : FPM, EDO BEDO DRAM................... 267
6.2.4. : SDRAM DDR SDRAM ........................... 271
6.2.5. Rambus DRAM .......................................................... 276

6.2.6. VC DRAM..................... 282


6.2.7.
.................................................. 284
6.2.8. ...................................... 287
6.2.9. .............................................. 292
6.3. DRAM ........................................ 304

6.3.1. DRAM .................................................. 307


6.3.2.
.......................................................... 309
6.3.3. ...................................... 311
6.4. .......................................................................... 313

6.4.1. ...................................... 314


6.4.2.
.......................................................... 316
6.5. ............................................................... 322
6.5.1.
ROM, PROM, EPROM.............................................................. 324
6.5.2. - EEPROM ....................................................... 328

6.5.3.
..................................................................... 339

7. ............................................. 342
7.1. ..................................... 343
7.1.1.
................................................................... 343

7.1.2. ...................................... 346


7.1.3. ........................................ 347
7.1.4. ....................... 349
7.2. ......................................... 353
7.2.1. : ,
..................................................... 357
7.2.2. .................................................................. 361
7.2.3. .............................................................. 364

7.2.4. ........................ 367


7.3. ................ 370
7.3.1. .............................................................. 371
7.3.2. ......................... 378

7.3.3. ....................................................... 382


7.3.4. ............................................ 386

10
7.4. ........................ 392
7.4.1. ................................................................. 392
7.4.2. .................................................... 395
7.4.3. CD, DVD, PD ........................................ 400
7.5. ............................................................ 425
7.5.1. ................................................ 425
7.5.2. FAT.......................... 429
7.6. ........................................... 431
7.6.1. BIOS....................................................................... 433
7.6.2. CD-ROM............................................. 443
7.7. , ............................ 446
7.7.1. ..................................... 446
7.7.2. .................................................. 448
7.7.3. ........................... 452
7.7.4. ,
....................................................... 459
7.7.5. ...................................... 462

7.7.6.
(RAID-)......................................................... 464

8. ............................................................................ 466
8.1. ....................................................... 468
8.1.1. ............................................................. 471
8.1.2. ................................................................. 478
8.1.3. ............................................................ 480
8.1.4. ............................................. 487
8.2. ............................................................................................ 498
8.2.1. ........................................................... 500
8.2.2. ............................................................. 502
8.2.3. .............................. 504
8.2.4. ......................................... 505
8.2.5. .......................................... 506
8.2.6. .................................................................. 507
8.2.7. .......................................................... 510
8.3. ...................................................................... 517

8.3.1. ..................................... 518


8.3.2. ............... 526
8.3.3. ..................................... 528
8.3.4. : MDA, HGC, CGA,
EGA, PGA, MCGA, VGA, IBM 8514, SVGA, XGA......................... 529

8.3.5. ..................... 531


8.3.6. PCI AGP ................................... 532

11

8.4. BIOS ....................................................................................... 536


8.4.1. BIOS ................................................................ 538
8.5. ............................................................. 539
8.6. ................................................................. 541

9. -
...................................................................... 546
9.1. ....................................................................................... 546
9.1.1. ........................................................ 548
9.1.2.
8042/8242 ............................................................... 550

9.1.3. - ............................................................................ 552

9.1.4.
............................................................................ 553
9.2. - , ..................................... 557
9.2.1.
MS Mouse PC Mouse.......................................................... 559
9.2.2. PS/2 ........................................................................... 560
9.2.3. Bus Mouse .................................................................. 561
9.3. ....................................................................... 562
9.3.1. ................................................ 563
9.3.2. ........................................ 564
9.3.3. .................................................................... 569
9.3.4. ............................................................. 570
9.3.5. ............................................................. 570
9.3.6. ............................................................................. 572
9.3.7. .................................................................. 574
9.3.8. .................................... 577
9.3.9. ........................................... 583
9.4. LPT................................................................ 584
9.4.1. LPT-....................................................... 585
9.4.2. ........................................ 589
9.4.3. IEEE 1284 .............................................................. 589

9.4.4.
9.4.5.
9.4.6.
9.4.7.
9.4.8.

LPT-.......................................... 597
.................................................... 597
LPT-......................................................... 598
LPT- ............................................ 599

........................................................... 601
9.5. , , ................................ 602
9.6. -.............................................. 605

12

10. .........................................
10.1. RS-232C -...................................................... 608
10.1.1. RS-232C ................................................................ 610

10.1.2. ................................................ 613


10.1.3.
............................................................ 615

10.1.4. - ...................................... 616


10.1.5. -........................................... 618
10.1.6. - ................................................. 620
10.1.7. - .................................................................... 623

10.1.8. - ........................ 623


10.2. ...................... 627
10.2.1. IrDA............................................ 627

10.2.2. Bluetooth ................................................... 632


10.3. -.................................................................... 638
10.3.1. .......................................................... 640

10.3.2. xDSL ................................. 642


10.3.3. ........................................... 644
10.4. ..................................................... 645
10.4.1. ................................................................ 646
10.5. ............................................ 654
10.5.1. IP- IP- ...................... 656

11. PC......................................................................
11.1. .................................... 663
11.1.1. ................................ 665
11.1.2. .......................... 668
11.1.3. ........................................................ 670
11.1.4. ................. 675
11.1.5. .................................................................. 676
11.2. PC............................................................................. 678
11.2.1. ................................................. 680
11.2.2. ............................ 681
11.2.3. '97 ................................................................. 684
11.2.4. .................................................. 688
11.2.5. ................................ 693
11.3. MIDI................................................................................ 698

12. ...........................................................704
12.1. ISA .......................................................................................... 706
12.2. PC/104.....................................................................................710

13

12.3. EISA ........................................................................................ 711

12.4. ISA EISA........................... 712


12.4.1. Plug and Play ISA ......................... 714
12.5. PCI.......................................................................................... 715

12.5.1. , PCI..................... 716


12.5.2. PCI.............................................................. 717
12.5.3. , .............................................. 720
12.5.4. ................................................. 721
12.5.5. ......................................................................... 721
12.5.6. DMA (PC/PCI)........................................................ 722
12.5.7. , PCI..................... 723
12.5.8. PCI ............................................................................ 727

12.5.9.
................... 730
12.5.10. ............................................... 731
12.5.11. PCI........................................................... 731
12.5.12. PCI BIOS............................................................................... 732

12.6. AGP ........................................................ 733


12.7. LPC ................................................................................. 740

12.8. PC........................................................................ 741


12.8.1. ............................................................................ 741
12.8.2. VLB ............................................................ 742
12.9. ...................................... 742
12.9.1. PCMCIA, PC Card CardBus............................... 743
12.9.2. CompactRash........................................................................ 746
12.9.3. SmartMedia Card ................................................................... 747

13.
SCSI........................................................ 748
13.1. (IDE) ........................................................................ 749

13.1.1. .................................................... 752


13.1.2. .............................................................. 758
13.1.3. ................................................................ 761

13.1.4. .................................................................... 763


13.1.5. ............................... 768
13.1.6. (-4)....................................... 771
13.1.7. ATAPI.................................................. 772
13.1.8. ..................................... 773
13.1.9. IDE...................................................... 779
13.1.10. ............................................... 779

14
13.2. SCSI........................................................................................ 781

13.2.1. SCSI............................................ 784

13.2.2. ............................................ 795


13.2.3. ................................................ 796
13.2.4. ............................................................. 796
13.2.5. SCSI....................................... 798

14. :
USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus.......................................
14.1. USB ......................................................................................... 809
14.1.1. USB........................................................ 810
14.1.2. ..................................................... 815
14.1.3. .............................................................................. 816
14.1.4. .......................................................... 817

14.1.5. ........................... 818

14.1.6. ................................................................ 819


14.1.7. ...................................................................................... 822
14.1.8. USB......................................................... 824
14.2. IEEE 1394 FireWire............................................................... 827

14.2.1. ..................................................... 828

14.2.2. IEEE 1394.............................................................. 830

14.2.3. 1394 ................................................ 833


14.2.4. 1394................................................... 834
14.3. Fibre Channel (FCAL)........................................................ 835
14.4. ACCESS.Bus

12................................................................................ 836

15. BIOS -......................... 838


15.1. BIOS System ROM BIOS............................................... 839

15.2. POST ................................................ 840


15.3. bootstrap ....................................................... 845
15.4. BIOS ................................... 848
15.5. 32- BIOS32....................................................... 851
15.6. ROM BIOS BDA.................................................... 851

15.7. ROM BIOS...................................................................... 851

15.8. PnP BIOS........................................................................................... 853


15.9. DMI BIOS .......................................................................................... 853
15.10. ACPI................................................................................ 855
15.11. -BIOS........................................................................................ 859

16. , ............ 862


16.1. .......................................................... 862
16.2. PC ............................................................................... 865

15
16.3. ....................................................................... 872

16.4. .................................... 873


16.5. ................................. 876
16.6. ................................. 879

......................................................................................... 884
......................................................................................................... 896
..................................................................................
897



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, (
). ,
. tower
(), .
, desktop,
-.

.
,
. ,
,
. 4,
,
, .
tower ,
- -.
, . tower
, .
, desktop, -01
.
CD-ROM,
.

38 2.

mini-tower
35 , 17-18 ( 5"), 40
5". - 3"
.
midi-tower 40
5".
big-tower 60 - 5".
(
). super big-tower , -.
, (case),
, ,
, . . ,
.
. ,

. slim line
, .
riser card,
. ,
, (. 2.2).
LPX.
,
baby-AT.
,
, . LPX
10 ( ),
.
NLX
, . ,
( LPX)

(. 2.3).
PCI, ISA USB, IDE,
.
AGP,
.

,

. -

2.1. 39

,
. ,
- , , .
,
, ( Packard Bell).
-, .
. desktop book-size,

. ,
, .

(Riser Card)

^
. 2.2. LPX

(Riser Card)'

. 2.3. NLX

40 2.

IBM
PS/2. ,
IBM PC,
(. 12),
.
PC, ,
- .
, .
! -.
( ) IBM
, .
, - PS/2
. , ,
PS/2 . ,
( ),
. - ,
( )
, ,
.
PS/2 ,
- .
Compaq, Intel Microsoft Device Bay
( ),
, .
, ,
, .
USB IEEE1394 (FireWire),
, .
, ,
. ( )
, ,
. Device Bay
, 3"
5", , .

2.2.
() PC
. .
IBM PC Portable

2.2. 41

, -
.
. (
), .
Laptop ,
-. . -, .
Note Book ,
. PC Card,
PCMCIA. ,
( , - ).
, ,
( ) ,
. , , (3,5") CDROM , , .
PC
Card, (. . 12.9). PC Card
, , -
( ), SCSI
. : - LPT-, USB.
( PS/2),
- ,
, .
-,
.
- ISA PCI, . - . -
. -

. - .
Palm-Top, , , .
, , PC ,

. PDA
(Personal Digital Assistant), , , . .
,
.

42 2.

2.3.
Industrial
PC. , , PC ( ) , , IBM PC. (
) .
,
(
).
, , , . .
, ,
. , ,
. ( ,
, ) ,
. ,
, .
,
,
PC ,
. , ,
,
.
,
- (, ),
, , , .
PC . PC ( )
,
,
.
, . ,
, - .
,
- (passive backplane).

.
.

.
, -
, .

2.3. 43

, ,
, .

. 386 Pentium II/III,
486.
,
, .
() PC, , , .
.
, , , 19 .
(. 2.4).

, , .
(), ,
-. - (bus),
.

100x160
233.4 340

233.4x160

366.7 340

. 2.4.

,
PC- Compact PCI
PXI (. . 12.5). Multibus Multibus II .
VME -
Motorola.

, (
). -

44 2.

ISA ( ). ISA, , - (mPC microPC).
, , , ,
-. ()
- ISA.
, PCI.
PCI, ISA, ,
.
PC,

.
mPC ( ) . , .

() .
,
, . ,
( ,
, ),
.
96
32 jo

S0301S
SO
JO

30)0
30

<


t o o
00


DO

00

0301
jj)

gg
'
iO'

. 2.5. /1: ;

/104 (. . 12.2). -

2.4. 45

, ISA.
ISA PC/104 . () /104
(. 2.5). ,
/104 () .
/104 ( ),
. ,
.
,
( ). ,
- , .
()
-. Pentium
PCI, PC/104-Plus.
PC/104-Plus . 2.5, .
: J1 ISA-8, J2
ISA-16; (2,54 ),
, 2,5 ( ).
(
J2 ). PCI 2 .

2.4.
, , . ( ,
) , ,
.
, , . , . ( ) ,
( ). ,
. 8.


USB. , , 9. , ,
, ,
MIDI- (. . 11.3).

46 2.

( ) .
() . (1,44 ) .
, (
), (-CD ),
CD-ROM DVD-ROM
( CD). , CD/DVD CD/ DVD.
, ZIP, JAZ .
( ), SCSI, USB, Fire Wire, a
LPT-. 7.
- ()
, . , - USB. ,
( ),
(PS/2 ).
. 9.2. -
.
,
( ) ,
.
, , ( A3
). (, 4) -
-
( ).
.
, .
LPT, USB . 9.3.

, , ,
. , , .
.
.
,
.

. .
,
(dpi dot per inch), (
).

2.4. 47

-; , . , 1200( ) 2400( ) dpi 24-42 .


19 200 dpi 48 ,
(
, ).
( )
; .
, .
; , , . -
.
LPT, SCSI USB.

, . LPT-
(. . 9.4.3), LPT-
.
, , OCR
(Optical Character Recognizer). , , .
.
, ,
.
, . , ,
-. , ,
, ; , , , .
Bluetooth.
-.
, -.
.
(multi media ).
,
.
( CD DVD),
(-), -

48 2.

(, , ). ( ) .
( )
,
.

(), ,

.
(),
.
. ,
(, ,
,
).
()
,
.
,
.
8.

(. 11), ( ISA
PCI) ( ).
, -CD
. ( ),
, ()
(, ,
),
.
. (, ) ,
, , . .
.
. ,
MIDI-, MIDI-
( ,
). ,
, , CD/DVD, , . , , .
-

2.4. 49

(, ) , - Dolby
Digital -3.
.
(,
) USB Fire Wire,

.
, , , CD/DVD.
,
, . MIDI--
( !)
.
,
, ( ) CD/DVD.
.
,
.
- , .
, ,
, . , .
. PC
, (GAME-, . . 9.5). (,
) -
.

.
, ()
. ,
, USB.
, ,
.
,
, .
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
- . ,
, .

50 2.


, .
.
.
: (
, - ), ,
, .
(ISA, PCI, PC-Card) , , USB.
, (
).
(, ,
) - .
[5], 10
, .
,
() . ,
,
, .
(
,
, . .),
. .
. , (
CD-ROM) ,
, .
,
. , ,
. ,
,
(, , p-CAD,
).
, .
,
. , , (. . 6.5.3), ,
() . ( )
. ( LPT)
USB;

2.4. 51


, (, ,
1C).
. () ,
. ,

.
- CMOS (.
. 3.6.5) ,
- (, . .). ,
, ,
. ,
, ( ),

(
). ,
.
, , ,
: - LPT- ,

. , ,
. , ( )
500 (
).
, ,
( )
. (
) , , , . - ()
. , , ,
, .
, , (, USB).
( )
.
( ),
- ,
.
,

.

52 2.

2.5. , , ,
...
,
. , , (,
,
), , .
, , . .
(system board), (mother board),
, ,
, ROM BIOS
(. 4).
() (expansion card)
, . ,
PC - , (interface card).
- ,
(adapter). , (display adapter)
-. ,
,
,
1. 2.6 2.7
ISA, PCI, AGP VLB .

( ).
335 ,
, .
(full size)
. ,
.
(slot) , -
. (expansion slot) PC

.
ISA/EISA, PCI, AGP, MCA, VLB PC Card
(PCMCIA), 12.
(DIMM), (COAST), (Pentium II/III, Athlon),
PC.
PCI AGP, ISA/EISA VLB, (
) ( . 2.6

2.5. , , , ... 53

2.7 ).
(Shared Slot).
,
ISA, PCI. ,
,
.

. 2.6. ISA VLB

. 2.7. PCI AGP

54 2.

(socket) , .
DIP, PGA SOJ
PLCC J. ZIF-Socket (Zero Insertion Force
)
. ,
.
,
.
(jumper) ,
(. 2.8, ).

, . ,
,
.

ON1

2 3 4 5 6 7

OFF

. 2.8. : ; DIP-

DIP- (DIP switches) DIP (. 2.8, ), ,


. , . ,
, .
, , ,
, .

,
- . (),
( ),
jumperless cards , . ,
, (Plug and
Play ).
(chip) , .
. (chip set)
, -

2.6. 55

( ,
). , , .

2.6.
PC , .
D-muna (. 2.9)
, , , . . (female,
) DB-xxS, .
(male ) DB-xxP. D--
, -
. ,
PC, (. 2.1).

13

^OOOOOOOOOOOOOj

13

25

1
9

1
5

14

0
DB-25S

14

DB-25P

.oooooj
\oooo /

6
9

5 ^

11

IV

1
5|

DB-15S
(VGA)

DB-15S
(Game)

DB-9S

DB-9P

. 2.9. D- ( )
2.1. D-

DB-9P

DB-9S

Mono, CGA, EGA

>

56 2.
2.1 ()

DB-15S ()

Game-, MIDI

DB-15S ()

VGA/SVGA

DB-25P

DB-25S

LPT-nopT

IDC (Insulation-Displacement Connector , )


.
, , ,
.
,
.
-, (
). IDC (.
2.10, ) (. 2.10, ). :
,
.
, ,
. .

. ,
1, . 1
() .
IDC -
,
.

. 2.10. IDC: a ; ;

Centronics (. 2.11) SCSI.

1
. 2.11.

2.6. 57
18

uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu

Centronics


,
.

IBM

IBM PC-
, , . :

( DOS,
API Windows . .);

- (BIOS);

.
IBM PC ( ) ,
.
PC-
Microsoft Intel.
, Designed for Microsoft Windows.

3.1. 59

PC 99 System Design Guide, Microsoft Press 1998 .


1 1999 ,
Windows 98 Windows 2000 (
NT Workstation 5.0).
, PalmTop
Windows . PC'2001,
.
, .
,
.

3.1.
IBM PC-
. 3.1. (CPU), ;
(RAM); BIOS (ROM BIOS) ,
.
, (, ).

(PCI, ISA...), AGP. PC
-
(PIC 8259), (DMA
8237), (8254), (
8042), , (CMOS RTC).
; ,

-.
, ,
.
, : , AGP, , -
(, SCSI, USB...), (, LPT,
GAME...), , .
-
(. . 4.1), .
PC- :
, 8 Intel;
;
- ;

60 3. IBM PC-

,

;
, , ;
-;
(ISA,
EISA, MCA, VLB, PCI, PC Card, Card Bus), ;

- (BIOS),
,
, -.

()

. 3.1.

3.2.
PC
86. 8086/88,
PC, 1 (20 ). ,
. () Addr = Seg x 16 + Offset,
Seg Offset . ,
Addr - 00000 - FFFFFh
16- . , Seg = FFFFh

3.2. 61

Offset - FFFFh lOFFEFh, 20-


OFFEFh. ,
. 80286,
24 , (386DX, 486 ) 32 36 (
6). , DOS, 1
, .
, 80286 8086
: 20,
8086/88, ,
1 OFFEFh.
PC, (64 - 16)
, , ,

. (lOOOOOh - lOFFEFh),
High Memory Area (HMA),
.
8086/88 PC 20
GateA20, ,
20 .
, 16-
.
- 1
8042, PC,
AT. , .
, ,
,
, V86,
.
,
(, 92h). ,
,
. CMOS
Setup (. . 4.6),
, , ,
.
8086 , 386, . , 486, GateA20
.
32- ,
(. . 5.2), , 4 .
, -

62 3. IBM PC-

, .
.
POST
() , . (),
.
PC, ,
. 3.2 .
OOOOOh-QFFFFh Conventional (Base) Memory, 640
() , DOS . MDA
AFFFFh (704 ). 128 (
80000h-9FFFFh) Extended Conventional Memory.
AOOOOh-FFFFFh Upper Memory Area (UMA), 384 ,
. (, )
(BIOS ). ,
,
() , .
$ lOOOOOh Extended Memory ()
, (
) 286 .
lOOOOOh-lOFFEFh , ,
, 286+
Gate A20.
. Extended Memory
Extended Memory
Specification. Expanded
Memory Specification ^
( Extended Expanded ). , ,
, , 1 ,
. Extended
Memory xxxxx Kbyte , POST,
CMOS Setup.

MS-DOS.
( Windows 9x/NT/2000) ,
- EMS XMS, .
UMA , ,
.

3.2. 63

16
15

640

. 3.2. PC

-286 24-
FDFFFFh ( 15,9 ).
FEOOOOh-FFFFFFh BIOS (ROM BIOS Area),
ROM BIOS OEOOOOh-OFFFFFh,
386+ 32-
4 , 6 64 (36- ). 32 BIOS
FFFEOOOOh-FFFFFFFFh, 6 .
BIOS FEOOOOh-FFFFFFh, 16 ,
. 32-
BIOS 16 ,

CMOS Setup. ISA,
16- , Memory Hole
At 15-16M.
16 .
512-2048
, .
, ( ), PCI, 32 .

64 3. IBM PC-

6. ,
, .
, SMM (System
Management Mode), , SMRAM.
SMI. SMRAM (DRAM),
.
32 ( SMM)
4 . SMRAM , SMIBASE (
SOOOOh), SMIBASE .
FEOOh-FFFFh (3FEOOh-3FFFFh) (, ).
SMI , FPU .
SOOOh (38000h) - (SMI Handler).
0-7FFFh (30000h-37FFFh) - .
SMRAM . SMIACT#
SMI,
. SMRAM ,
( )
SMI#.

3.2.1. Conventional Memory


PC,
MS-DOS. (
640 ) BIOS, ,
.
:
OOOOOh-003FFh Interrupt Vectors (256
);
* 00400h-004FFh - BIOS Data Area - BIOS;
00500h-00xxxh - DOS Area - DOS;
OOxxxh-9FFFFh User RAM ,
( 638 ); PS/2 Mouse 9FCOOh-9FFFFh
BIOS Data Area, User RAM .

3.2. 65

3.2.2. UMA
, , . -
.
( 386 )
, UMB
(Upper Memory Block). DOS
EMM386,
.

(. 3.3).
* AOOOOh-BFFFFh Video RAM, 128 ( ).
COOOOh-DFFFFh - Adapter ROM, Adapter RAM, 128 -
, ROM BIOS () , .
EOOOOh-EFFFFh , 64 , System
BIOS.
FOOOOh-FFFFFh - System BIOS, 64 - BIOS.
FDOOOh-FDFFFh - ESCD (Extended System Configuration Data) -
,
Plug and Play. PnP BIOS, .

. 3.3. (UMA)

66 3. IBM PC-

UMA . :
MDA RAM - BOOOOh-BOFFFh; CGA
RAM - BSOOOh-BBFFFh; EGA ROM COOOOh-C3FFFh/C7FFFh; VGA ROM COOOOh-C7FFFh;
EGA, VGA RAM AOOOOh-BFFFFh, :
Graphics - AOOOOh-AFFFFh;
Color Text - BSOOOh-BFFFFh;
a Mono Text - BOOOOh-B7FFFh.
UMA ROM
BIOS,
(Boot ROM) .
CSOOOh CBFFFh/C9FFFh/C8FFFh ( ),
.
, ROM BIOS, 8
PC/XT 128 , 64 .
ROM -
1 (128 8), UMA .
( ) FOOOOh-FFFFFh (64 ), . , ROM BIOS .
UMB BIOS,
.

3.2.3.
EMS XMS
EMS (Expanded Memory Specification)
DOS- . LIM EMS Lotus, Intel, Microsoft
EMS.
, UMA.
4 16 , ,
DOOOOh (
UMA). EMS
, Int 67h.
, ,
, 16- .
( )
EMS (EMS handler), -

3.2. 67

.
, UMA.
,
,
, ,
.
. EMS 4.0, 386+,
UMA, .
EMS . 386 EMS, MS-DOS 5+ EMM386.EXE.
EMS ,
16 . EMS
, Lotus
.
, ,
(
).
XMS (extended Memory Specification)
DOS-,
Lotus, Intel, Microsoft AST
286 .
,
. HIMEM.SYS. (65 520 , lOOOOOh),
20. XMS :
;
;
, ,
;
( ) ;
.

(16- XMS handler),
. 64 . XMS
, , . -

68 3. IBM PC-

XMS Int 2Fh. . HIMEM.SYS


32 , ,
/NUMHANDLES=xx HIMEM.SYS.
XMS
UMB (
) .
, EMS XMS :
EMS (
) , XMS .
386+
HIMEM.SYS,
EMM386.EXE, XMS EMS-. ,
EMS XMS, .
NOEMS EMM386
EMS.

3.2.4. Shadow ROM


Shadow RAM
UMA
: BIOS (System ROM BIOS), BIOS
(Video ROM BIOS), (Adapter
ROM), (Boot ROM), (Video
Memory Buffer). , , 8- 16-
.
.
(Shadow Memory)
. -286,
. 386+
, (. . 5.2.2).
-.
(Shadow ROM)
, , .
(Shadow RAM) , .
, .
,
,
. ,
,
.
, (-

3.2. 69

). ,
, ISA,
.
CMOS Setup
16 ,
(Shadow ROM Shadow RAM).
(, EMM386).
BIOS ,
. BIOS
(Video BIOS Shadowing) Windows
.

3.2.5.
UMA
,

, ( ).

( ) ,

128 , , ,
, . , ,
.
, .

UMA (Unified Memory Architecture).
( ) .
, . UMA -
.

,
UMA. AGP
, UMA.

3.2.6.
(Virtual Memory) -
,
. 1,

.
,

70 3. IBM PC-

.
,
,
. ,
, .
,
( ),
,
(Swapping). ,
, 80286,
32-
(80386+).
,
(Swap File),
. ,
.

( ), .

3.2.7.


, , . ,
, - ;
.
, ,
: ,
; (
); .
.
640 384 :
;
( ) ;
( ) (Shadow)
ROM BIOS.
( Memory Relocation CMOS
Setup) . ,
.

3.2. 71

,
. , POST,
384 .
BIOS , 512 , .
.
384 512 , ,

.

MS-DOS, .
(conventional memory), . 640

500 , , . Windows
9, MS-DOS (,
, ,
) .
, , 32 , 590
, .
, .
, , CONFIG.SYS
AUTOEXEC.BAT, .
,
DOS- MS-DOS, :
XT 8086/88 MS-DOS 3.30;
AT 80286 MS-DOS 5.x;
AT 80386 MS-DOS 6.2x
(,
80386, MS-DOS 6.2x ,
MS-DOS 5.x ).
MS-DOS , MS-DOS (, PC DOS, DR DOS, COMPAQ DOS).
MS-DOS,
. ( )
386 .
MS-DOS 3.3 ( )
, . MS-DOS 4
, , -

72 3. IBM PC-

- ,
.
5, ()
286 , .
, CONFIG.SYS
:
DEVICE=[<path>]HIMEM.SYS ( )
DOS=HIGH ( )

, -
. ,
, ,
. . ,
. 32- (386
), ,
(UMA) EMM386.EXE.
UMA (AOOOO-FFFFFh) , , .
, ,
;
.
MS-DOS 5 ( Windows
9, MS-DOS 7) CONFIG.SYS
:
DEVICE=[<path>]HIMEM.SYS ( )
DEVICE=[<path>]EMM386.EXE ( )
DOS=HIGH, UMB ( )

( , ,
) . MS-DOS , UMA. ,
CONFIG.SYS, DEVICE-
DEVICEHIGH [/L:n[,m]]-, --
UMB. m (
). /L n, m .
,
/L:nl[.ml]:n2[.m2][;...]. ,
AUTOEXEC.BAT, LOADHIGH (LH) ,
UM.
L H [ / L : n [ , m ] ] <\>[<>]


MEM /F DOS/Windows.
, DOS/Windows
MEMMAKER.EXE, -

3.2. 73

CONFIG.SYS AUTOEXEC.BAT. . CONFIG.SYS


( DOS=HIGH,
DOS).
, Norton Commander
AUTOEXEC.BAT MEMMAKER (MEMMAKER

AUTOEXEC.BAT). MEMMAKER ,
EMS , , NOEMS
EMM386.
,
. UMA ,
UMA .
UMA, .
UMB , EMM386
, , ,
.
, ,


.
( SCSI, .) RAM ROM,
. (, , ) UMA,
.
, - , ,
. (
) , -
BIOS .
,
. ,
, , .
-
, POST ,

. :
MDA, EGA VGA, BIOS .
MDA (, ,
), .
, ISA,
.

74 3. IBM PC-

UMA ,
, .
. CMOS Setup . ,
,
CMOS Setup. , Shadow ROM
, a Shadow RAM
,
. 386
EMM386, .
MS-DOS, BIOS, ROM BIOS, ,
BIOS .
(Windows .) ROM BIOS
,
, .
Windows
EMS XMS . ,
,
( ). Windows 9x
, .
, , ,
( ). ,


. ( )
,
(
, ). (, -
)
- .
, ,
,
.

. ,
( , ,
-),
.

(Windows, Unix, OS/2...)



, .
MS-DOS AUTOEXEC.BAT CONFIG.SYS
MEMMAKER .

3.3. - 75


. , ( )
. Pentium
64 ; Pentium II
512 . , -
, , .
Windows 9x ,
, ,
.
, .
-
W2CACHE.COM, Windows ,
, , Windows
, . Windows
, .

3.3. -
8086 . -
: IN ( ), OUT
( ), INS ( )
OUTS ( ). ,
80286, REP,
.
, , (Programmed Input/Output
-).
(DMA), , DMA
. ,
-, 8, 16 32 .


. ,
/ . ISA IORD# IOWR#
, --
, -;.-|*
MEMRD# MEMWR#. PCI -. -

, .

76 3. IBM PC-


16- , 32-
.
.
, (
) . , ,

.
-. , , 16 ,
- .
PC 16
10 (-9),
0-3FFH. , ,
. , 378h, 778h, B78h
F78h, . ,
, ,
ISA . ISA, Legacy
Card ( ),
. 12-
ISA,
10- .
PCI 16 ,
.
- PC . 3.1.
10- . ,
,
, .
3.1. -
AT PS/2

PC/XT

000-OOF

000-OOF

DMA #1 8237

OIO-OIF
020-021
040-05F
060
060, 064
061
070-07F
080
080-08F
090-097

020-021
040-043
060
060-063

080-083

OAO-OBF
OCO-ODF

PS/2 DMA #1
#1 8259
(PC/XT: 8253, AT: 8254)
POST ( )
8255
AT 8042
NMI
CMOS NMI

DMA
PS/2 , NMI
#2 8259
DMA #2 8237 -5

3.3. - 77
AT PS/2
OFO-OFF
100-1EF
170-177
1FO-1F7
200-207
238-23F
278-27F
2CO-2DF
2-27
2E8-2EF
2F8-2FF
300-31 F

PC/XT

200-20F
210-217
278-27F
22-2
2CO-2DF

2F8-2FF
320-32F

338-33F
370-377
376-377
378-37F
380-38F
3AO-3AF
-
4-9
3BC-3BF
3CO-3CF
3CO-3DF
3DO-3DF
-7
3E8-3EF
3FO-3F7
3F6-3F7
3F8-3FF

378-37F
380-38F
-9
-
3BC-3BF
3CO-3CF
3CO-3DF
3DO-3DF

3FO-3F7
3F8-3FF

80287
PS/2
#2 (#2)
#1 (IDE#1)


COM4
LPT2 (LPT3 MDA)
MSM48321RS
EGA #2
COM4
COM4
COM2

XT
COM3
#2
#2
LPT1 (LPT2 MDA)
SDLC/BSC #2
BSC #1
(MDA)
PS/2
LPT1 MDA
EGA#1
VGA
CGA/EGA
COM3
COM3
#1
#1
1

(3F8h, 3FOh, 378h . .)


. ,

( - , , ).
, ,
,
, .
( )
. Oh-OFFh
. ( )
-

78 3. IBM PC-

. (ISA, PCI) BIOS


.

-. 32- (
V86)
-,
( 64),

. ( Permission Bitmap)
(TSS).
,
.
- ( ...
). ,

, -.
, -
.

3.4.
, . ()
, .
, , , .
,

. , i8259A, PC- . 86 . 5.2.3.

3.4.1. NMI SMI


PC- AT .
NMI , ISA
() PCI (SERR#). NMI
1 7 070h, 2, 3 06lh
(. . 3.6.1). NMI 6, 7
06lh.

3.4. 79

PC XT NMI
. NMI 7
OAOh; 4, 5 06lh; 6, 7 062h.
SMI , .
, .
, , SMM,
SMIACT#,
SMRAM. S
RSM,
SMI. SMI ( )
(HALT) -.
- , , (
) -
, .
SMI# RDY#,
-. SMI
, - - (
) , . ,
BIOS ,
( ).

3.4.2.
PC-
.
, - 8259 (. [1,
7]).
.
AT .
8259#1 , 1, 3-7;
. 2
8259#2, 8-15. 8-15 1 3 ,
. XT 8259 8 .
(, , CMOS-, ), .
, ,
ISA/EISA. IRQx
, . 3.2.

80 3. IBM PC-

PCI.
. ,
,
.

.
3.2. ( )
()
NMI
02h
, ( XT )
IRQO*
08h
( 0 8253/8254)
IRQ1*
09h

IRQ2
OAh
XT , AT (
IRQ8*
70h
CMOS RTC
IRQ9
71h

IRQ10
72h

IRQ11
73h

IRQ12
74h
PS/2-Mouse ()
IRQ13*
75h

IRQ14
76h
-
IRQ15
77h

IRQ3
OBh
COM2, COM4
IRQ4
OCh
1, COM3
IRQ5
ODh
XT - HDC, AT - LPT2, Sound ()
IRQ6
OEh
FDC -
IRQ7
OFh
LPT1
* , 1, 8 13 .

IRQ8-IRQ15)

PCI (. . 12.5.5) 4
, INTR , , , D.
, ()
. IRQx . IRQx, PCI,
ISA. ,
CMOS Setup, .
ISA Legacy
IRQx ISA ( ), a
PCI/PnP PCI
ISA ( ).
. 3.4.
, ,
.
: -, , ,

( ). -, , -

3.4. 81

, .
ISA PCI,
CMOS Setup.

PCI#2

IRQ3
IRQ4
IRQ5*
IRQ6f
IRQ10*
IRQ11 :
IRQ12
IRQ14
IRQ15

"
s

^
^

&
1

CMOS RTC

INTR
|
*

PIC 8259A#1

PCI#4 PCI#3
PCI

/ INTA#
x INTB#
V INTC# *
INTD#
IRQ2/9

-JOJCn-li.OJM-'O

# ^ INTA# 'B#
V INTB# \ "C# \
INTC# ' D# ^
INTD# '

ISA
5

INTA# x INI
INTB# V INI
INTC# INI
INTD# ' INI

8
9to csj?j it10 oo$
13 0 14 015

( CPU)'


^
i

. 3.4.

.
(level sensitive) , ( ISA ) DRQx.
( EOI
) DRQx,
.
(edge sensitive) ,

( ISA ) DRQx.
, .
IRQx , ,
.
,
(spurious interrupt), (IRQ7
IRQ 15 ). ,
.

82 3. IBM PC-

ISA
IBM PC
( ). : -,
,
, .
Spurious Interrupt was detected on
controller..., NetWare,
. ,
( , , MS-DOS),
(PC Check, Checklt) . ,
(. ),
.
(Level) (Edge)
, ISA
.
, ,
8259.
8259.
, POST,
.
, .
Pentium, Pentium Pro Pentium II
APIC (Advanced Programmable Interruption Controller).
APIC,
,
APIC.
8259.
(
) .
EOI
(End Of Interruption), :
1- 20h 020h;
2- 20h OAOh;
OAh ; BIOS
2- .

.

3.4. 83

3.4.3.
, , , , . () ,
(, , ),
.
,
. ,
,
;
.
, , ,
,
.
;
() ();
.

( ) ,
.
,
. 1 ,
( ) 2,
. :
1
, .
,
.
, ISA . 8259
, ISA . , ,
. CMOS Setup,
.
PCI, ,
,
,
. ,
PCI,
.
, , .

84 3. IBM PC-

PCI ,
INTR . PCI
, , . 3.4, . ,
.
PCI, , ,

. AGP
PCI.
.
( ).
(
, , )
. , . .
, ,
.

3.5. DMA
,
.
(INSB, INSW),
REP .
(Programmed Input-Output), , ,
. , OUTSB OUTSW. IN OUT
(AL, )
, ( )
, .
DMA (Direct Memory Access)
, .
DMA,
.
,
,
, .
DMA, ,
DMA .
DMA ,
,
( , PCI, ISA
). DMA -

3.5. DMA 85

-,
.
DMA :
DRQx DACKx#. DMA
, ,
, .
PC/AT 7 DMA: 8- ( 0-3) 16 (5-7), . 4 ( ).
PC/XT 8- , 0
. DMA 18237,
PC/XT AT.
. 3.3.
3.3.
DMA*

MRFR

FDD

HDD

FDD

HDD

081

082

2
128 ,
2000h
7 17-23
08F
08
089

XT

AT
,
,


:

SDLC
1
64
lOOOh
8 16-23
087
083

000
002
004
006

001
003
005
007
2
6
. SDLC- .
HDD- AT DMA .
0 XT (MRFR).
4 PS/2 .

087

16- DMA 5-7


ISA (bus mastering), DMA (. . 12.1). ,
DMA, :
Scatter Write ; Gather
Read ;
() 16- .
ISA SCSI
, .
16 ,
. (,
Novell NetWare)
16 .

86 3. IBM PC-

DMA ,
, , .
DMA ISA 8

( IDLE). 1,125 .
IOCHRDY .
IDLE ,
DMA 1 / 8- 2 / 16 ( 1 ). - -,
REP INS/OUTS,
.
DMA ,
.
DMA , - AT, ( 0018, 001).
8- 16- , .
8 , 10 .
EISA DMA 8-, 16- 32- ,
32
. 1 4 .
Compatible ISA.
25 % : 875 ,
750 . ISA- .
50 % (750/500 ), EISA- ISA.
, EISA
( EISA, , EISA
).
8/16- ISA, DMA EISA Compatible.
(Burst Timing) 87,5 % ,
. EISA-
32- 32-
33 /.
EISA DMA : Buffered Chaining ( ),
Scatter Write ( ), Gather Read ( ).
PCI- DMA Type F, 3 (360 ).
4- . F

3.6. IBM PC 87


() . PCI DMA ,
, ,
, DMA .
DMA
( ), ,
ISA PCI. 8- , , 8- ( ).
, ,
ISA/EISA ( , LPT-
Fast Centonics, ).
DMA,
ISA. , ,
DMA .
, ISA, DMA PCI.

PCI ,
, - . SB 16
DMA.
DMA: PC/PCI DDMA. PC/PCI (. . 12.5.6)
Intel ISA
, - .
DDMA (Distributed ) DMA. ,
DMA ISA .
DDMA
PCI.
PCI ISA,
( )
CMOS Setup. (, ,
) DMA ,
, , , .

3.6.
IBM PC
PC -.. ,
, . .

88 3. IBM PC-

, -, , , .
ROM BIOS ,
-.
, 8253,
,
. AT 8254.
AT, . XT
8255, ,
, .
,
- .
AT
.

, XT
, AT 8042.

&

- CMOS RTC , AT.

,
,
. .

3.6.1. PC/AT
61h :
, XT;
NMI ( XT
,
).
4 (R), 4
(R/W).
AT (06lh):
7 R SERR# PCI;
R IOCHK ISA ( #);

5 R 20 2 8254;
4 R RFD ;
3 R/W EIC ISA;
2 R/W ERP SERR# PCI;
1 R/W SPK ;
R/W - T2G - GATE 2 8254.

.. IBM PC 89

PC/XT -
18255, 60-63 :
* - ;

;
NMI;
^ .

3.6.2. (8253/8254)
PC -,
:
, 40:006 BIOS Data Area;
; .
- XT 18253, AT
18254, 80286
.
, 8253/8254. 8253
8254 -,
,
( ) . 16 , 8- .
(LSB), (MSB) (LSB/MSB),
, .
.
- . 3.4.
, 2
GATE, (
, . ). 0 1 .
1,19318 .
3.4. -
, R/W_____________________________________
".40 RW

0 ( IRQO 54,936
18,206 ).
, LSB/MSB, Binary, ~0 ___________(
65536)____________________
': R\V
1 (DRQO XT, AT).
___________ 010, LSB, Binary, ~12h (18)_______________
1-! RVV
2 .
GATE 0 8255 (061). ___________ O i l , LSB/MSB, Binary,
____

J>

90 3. IBM PC-
3.4 ()
, R/W
043 W

7, 6 0, 1,2.
5, 4 :
00 ,
01 LSB ,
10 MSB ,
11 LSB/MSB , .
3-1 :
000 ,
001 (, 8254
8253),
, x l l
,
100 ,
101 . 0 0=Bin
( ), 1=BCD (- )

3.6.3. (PC Speaker)


PC Speaker
.
. 3.5. ,
. () ,
. , /
- 1 61h,
.
8086/88
, ,
. ( )
.
GATE2 (
0 61h). GATE2
.
1,9318

061 0

061 1
. 3.5.

, - , 1 61h.
GATE ( 0 61h

3.6. IBM PC 91

), OUT2 . ( )
. , 80286,
,
,
, , 286- . ,
.
,
.
61h
-. Windows ./95
,
. ( )
(. 11).
,
POST, ,
.

3.6.4.
CMOS Memory/ RTC
AT
, . -, .
CMOS Memory and Real Time Clock, CMOS RTC
PC.
Setup,
BIOS. CMOS RTC
,
.
.
, , 32,768 . :
- (, , , , , ); & ,
, ; ,
(
, 1024 ).
CMOS RTC
8, ,
. OBh.
CMOS RTC - OTOh
( ) 071h (). , 7 70h -

92 3. IBM PC-

NMI (. . 3.4.1), CMOS


0-7Fh.
, -
. ,
0-9, .
7 OAh.

.
BIOS Int lAh (. ),
,
,
. .
CMOS RTC . 3.5.
,
( 2000 , Y2K).
09 ( ),
19. ( 386- 486- )
(32h 37h), ( RTC)
1999 2000 .
2000- (
2099 , , ).
BIOS XXI
, CMOS Setup, .
BIOS ( )
CMOS Setup
. .
3.5. CMOS RTC
_______________________________________
00h-09h, 32h
(37 PS/2)

RTC BCD-:

00 - ;
01 ;
02 - ;
03 ;
04 ;
05 ;
06 ;
07 ;
08 - ;
09 (2 ); 32h -1 (2 ); _____________37h -1 (2
) PS/2___________________
OAh
RTC Status Register (-):
7 : 0 .
[6:4] , 32,768 010.
_____________ [3:0]~0110 1024 _____________

3.6. IBM PC 93

OBh

RTC Status Register (-):

7 : 0~ .
6 : .
5 : 0=.
4 : 0.
3 (. OAh): 0.
2 - BCD/BIN : 0-BCD.
1 12/24- : 1-24-.
0 / : ________________0-
_____________________

RTC Status Register :


7 IRQF .
6 PF .
5 AF .
4 UF .
[3:0]
ODh RTC Status Register D:
7 : 1-, 0= . [6:0]
__________
OEh
POST Diagnostic Status Byte:
7 l=Power Lost CMOS.
6 1-Checksum Bad CMOS.
5 1-Bad config .
4 1-RAM Size Error ,
, CMOS.
3 1-HDD Error .
2 l=Time Valid -
(, 30 , 25 ). _____________ [1:0]
___________________________
OFh
Shutdown Code POST :
00- ;
01- ;
02- ;
03- ; 04=POST
, ;
05-JMP FAR [0:0467h] ;
06- ;
07= ;
08- ;
09= Extended Memory (lNT15h);
OA-JMP FAR [0:0467h] ;
_____________- 80386___________________________________
lOh
:
[7:4]
[3:0] ______________0. 1360 , 2=1,2 ,
3=720 , 4=1,44 _______
'. th________________________________________________
Tib
:
[7:4] 0;
[3:0] 1: 0=, 1-= 1-14, = 19h
____________( lAh)_________________________

^>

94 3. IBM PC-
3.5 ()

13h
14h

[7:6] - : 00=1, 01=2.


[5:4] :
00 - EGA VGA,
01 - CGA, 40 ,
10 - CGA, 80 ,
11 - MDA, 80 .
[3:2] .
1 1= . _____________ 0 - 1-
________________________________
15h-16h______ , (Low/High) Q280h=640K__________________
17h-18h______ , (Low/High)___________________
19h, lAh______ , D ( PS/2 )_____________
lBh-2Dh___________________________________________
2Eh-2Fh
CMOS 10h no 20h (High/Low)
30h-31h______ , (Low/High)_______________
32h-33h
PS/2 CRC- CMOS 10h no 31h (High/Low)
33h
POST:
7 128 1 :
1=, .
6 Setup : ________________1=
Setup; 0____
34h-3Fh
(
___________ )_____________________________________
38h-3Fh______ PS/2 , 78h-7Fh___________
40h-7Fh
,
___________ __________________________

CMOS RTC ( ).
, CMOS ,
CMOS (, - )
.
, ,
, .
PC XT CMOS , ( ,
. .) DIP (. . 3.6.1),
POST. -
, (
01.01.1980 00:00).
, -
146818.

3.6.5.
BIOS (Int lAh Int 15h)
BIOS Int lAh
, ,

.. IBM PC 95

CMOS RTC.
.
=0 ( 40:006Eh
BIOS Data Area, 0 8253/8254 55 . POST ).
, , DX . AL=0, 24
. AL
, 40:0070h (
).
=1 ( , DX ) () 40:0070h.
CF=1.
=2 RTC. BCD-
( ), (CL), (DH) / (DL=1 , DL=0 ). CF=0. BIOS CF .
=3 RTC,
2.
=4 RTC. BCD- (
), (CL), (DH) (DL). CF=0. BIOS CF .
=5 RTC,
4.
= RTC.
BCD- ( ), (CL) (DH).
, CF=1. Int
4Ah.
=7 .
BIOS Int 15h CMOS RTC , ( , DX ).
. ,
70 .
.
AH=86h . . 7 BDA 0040:.
, CF=1 ( CF=0,
AL , 8259#2).

96 3. IBM PC-

AX=8300h , ( 7 ES:BX)
. CF=0;
( ) CF=1 AL=0.
, .
, ,
830 lh (-, ; -,
,
, , ).
AX=8301h .

3.7.

PC
,
ISA/EISA, PCI, PC Card, MCA, VLB.

-, ,
. ,
, ISA ,
( ) .
PCI , PCI , . 86,
( ) -.
, ,
- (memory
mapped I/O). , 4
64 ,
PC- .

3.7.1.
:
- ;
* -;
DMA;
.
-

3.7. 97

.
,
, .

, , , .
-
.
1. .
2. ( ).
3. .
,
. , ,
, OUT.
,
, 150 /.
, , , (. . 9.4.3),
. -
-
, .
(Programmed Input/Output),
, -,
REP INS/OUTS.
, , ( ). (
) 80286. ,
()
.
(IDE), AT ,
DMA.
, ,
, ,
. 5 ,
Mode (. . 13.1.6), 3,3 ( Mode 0) 22,2 / (
Mode 4). , 1 2
, .
,
.

.
(DMA)
- -

98 3. IBM PC-

DMA, . , ,
. DMA 2 4 , .
(bus mastering)
,
(
).
, DMA.

DMA, , , (IDE). DMA
Ultra DMA/66
UltraDMA/100. 66 100
/.

3.7.2.
, .
, . -
(, ),
. .
,
.
-
. ,
,
.

.
, .

.
,
.
, .
(
) .
(polling)
, .
, , ,
.
,
. , ,

3.7. 99

, . , ,
PRINT. LPT-nop-
( ), .

.

3.7.3.
, ( ) . .
8 , , . .
(, ) .
s , .
, .
,
.
- , , ,
.
() . - :
. -, , , . .
, ,
-
(, ).
,
., () , J'H . -~ , .
, ( ,
) () .
. , -: . , IDE/ATA ':: 1
. : * ,
* - _-:< -

100 3. IBM PC-

pa. , () ( )
( ).

,
,
.
,
( )
. ,
.
,
( ).

, (10, 100 1000 / Ethernet).
( ), . () Ethernet 1,5 (
TokenRing FDDI ). Ethernet 10
ISA/EISA ,
.
(, 509 , 509).
.

, . 100-
(Fast Ethernet) PCI
64- ( ,
). ,
(ping-pong buffer):
, . ,
, , ()
. ,
( )
.
- ; .
( -
)

(. . 12.5.3). Gigabit Ethernet ,
.

FIFO (First In First Out, ).

3.7. 101

, , (, 16 ).
, , . ,
.
(underflow),
(overflow).
.
(, )
FIFO,
( ) . ,
( - ).
FIFO
. ,
.
, (
) .
,
, , / . , ,
FIFO- ( ), . , ( ,
) (. . 7.2.3). FIFO
-, LPT- . FIFO-, ,
19,2 /.
FIFO, ,, (
).
, ; . ,
, .
(, )
.
, -, . ,
, ,
. , ,
. ,
.
SCSI (. . 13.2.1).

102 3. IBM PC-

3.8.

,
( ),
-, DMA
1.
- ,
. ,
. , , , -
. ,
,
, .

(, PnP ISA, . . 12.4.1). .
,
.
, :
. .
.
.
ISA
, . ISA
( PnP BIOS,
ISA PnP) -
( )
(. . 3.4.3). () ISA , ,
. ,
,
. PCI
, , -, (
). ISA/PCI
( )
(legacy) ISA ISA PCI,
(
).
DMA , ,
( ).

, , -
.

3.8. 103

DRQx, DACKx#. , , .
, . . ( , ) , ,
. CMOS Setup
, ,
, . ,
, ( CMOS Setup) : , , ,
.
(; CMOS-
+5 ).
, ,
, BIOS.
PnP (Plug-and-Play, ),
,
.
PnP Plug-and-Pray, ... ,
.
PC
ISA PCI. PCI
,
PnP (. . 12.5). ISA
,

. -

.
, (,
), -
, .
(
)
. ,
, .
, .

(NVRAM, EEPROM), , .
,
. : Software Configured () Jumperless ( ).
ISA PnP ISA (. . 12.4.1),

104 3. IBM PC-

.
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
(. . 13.1.2)
. , , , ,
: PC/AT
, . ,

. , .
PCI,
.
, .
,
- ,
( ).

( DMA PCI ). ,
, , ( )
CMOS Setup.

3.9.
, IBM PC- ,
,
.


, .
Reset.
. ,
, (
, ).
, ( )
. ( ),
-

3.9. 105

.

(POST).
. . ,
.
,
(, ).
, , .
, , ,
, (-
, ,
, ). (
,
) .
,
, ( )

.
, .
,
, . BIOS
.
, BIOS,
.
CMOS Setup,
. POST
.
POST .
POST . 15.2.
, , POST
(update
microcode, . . 5.4.2). ,
.
, , ,
, , .
, ,
ROM BIOS. BIOS (
, POST , . . 5.5.2)
, .
BIOS,
( BIOS
Web-).
POST ROM
BIOS ( COOOOh) ROM BIOS

106 3. IBM PC-

, ( 8000F4000h). ,
, BIOS.
POST (,
, , )
,
CMOS Setup.
,
CMOS Setup,
( ) .

3.9.2.
POST (bootstrap loader), BIOS Int
19h (. . 15.3).
() , ,
. , ,
. POST ,
.

. ,
, LS-120, CD-ROM, . , , CMOS
Setup. :, :
. (
),
:. ,
,
. ,
.
, Non-system
disk or disk error ( ),
, ,
Ctrl+Alt+Del.
POST, ,
Int 19h .
() (warm). POST
(cold) , Reset, POST
, ,
.
(
)
, MBR (Master Boot Record)
(. . 7.5.1). -

3.9. 107

, ,
, , .
()
.
(boot manager) ( ).
:
MBR , ,
,
.
, ( ).
, -
.
,
.
. 15.3.
. , ,
.
, , ,
Missing Operation System ( ).
,
Basic, .

Basic, . ,
, , ,
,
( )
. ,
, (
), , ,
.
, , , .
,
(
).
, ,
, .
, ,
.
( ,
), , .
, 7.
,
, CMOS Setup. :, :,

108 3. IBM PC-

. (:, :),
CD-ROM, LSI20,
RPL (Remote Program Loader),
. ( ,
), .

(:), , . ,
FDISK, ,
( ),
.
. 15.3.
,

. ,
,
,
.
,
( ) .
(
, ).

. ,
, , ,

. :, :
. ,

, CMOS Setup .
. ,
, , ,
BIOS.

.
( , ),
( ),
. ,
,
.

.
,
( ) (prompt)
.

3.9. 109

( MS-DOS) : . ,


,
. TSR,
DOS (Terminate and State Resident ,
). , , ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
.
(. . 3.2).
- : (
), DOS BIOS.
,
, .

.
, -
.
, .
(Windows, UNIX, Linux)
(), (. . 5.1.1).
,
, .
,
(), .
,

, , ( )
.
: , - ,
. ,
() .

.

(shutdown) , ,
( ).
. (Ctrl+Alt+Del)
( MS-DOS), , . ,
Int 19h -

110 3. IBM PC-

. , Ctrl+Alt+Del
. NetWare
. (
Reset) ,
:
, ()
, .
,
.
(MS-DOS) (Ctrl+Alt+Del)
PCI ISA ,
, .
,
,
, .

. (
), ,
. , . .
( ),
. , ,
,
. .

3.9.3.


(
). ( ),
(,
). ,
power management,
(Advanced Power Management).
(sleep) ,
, (wake up) ,
.
() (BIOS ),
.
-:
, ,

, .
,

3.9. 111

2 .
,
.
,
( ),
. -
(
), ,
(wake on LAN) . , , ,
, .
,
. , - (CD-R CD-RW),
( ),
( CD-ROM). ,
( CMOS Setup
), ,
, , , , .
()
.
: , , ;
CD DVD, .
,
, , , .
:
, , .
(
):
On () ,
;
Stand by ,
( ) ;
ss Syspend (,
), (resume) - ;
Off , , .
( )
, , sleep () deep sleep ( ).
( Level), : 0 , 255 .
, ,
.

112 3. IBM PC-

, , () , ,
, .
, ,
( )
, , .
, . Hibernate
( ),
. , ,
, .

,
-. ,
,
.
-
, .
, Stand by,
, ,
. ,
( , ).
(
, ). -
, .
: () , ,
,
(,
).
Microsoft Intel, OnNow PC ( PC ) Instantly Available
PC. 99 2001,
ACPI. Advanced Configuration and
Power Interface , ,
,
( ) ( ).

. ,
( ),
, ,
.
, , .
-

3.9. 113

-. (sleep state)
(soft off). ,
( USB)
. , ,

(), . . ,
. ACPI
.

, . , ()
, CMOS Setup .
CMOS Setup
(Power Management), , Windows
9//2000.
BIOS, ACPI ( ).
(standby) ;
ACPI . BIOS POST
.
(,

). BIOS
POST ,
,
.
, ,
BIOS, , , ,
( CMOS Setup).

, , (System board
Motherboard) ,
.
.
(), 8086-80386 .
s : (ROM Flash BIOS), (DRAM),
(SRAM).

-:
, , DMA, , CMOS RTC,
.
.
.
PowerGood
Reset.
( ).
VRM (Voltage Regulation Module).
, +5
,
.

:

;
. .

4.1. 115

( CMOS Setup) , , ,
( ).
.
, , - LPT, 2-6 USB, .
,
SCSI, Fire Wire (1394). - , ,
.
, (,
). , (, SCSI,
),
.
.
,
. - , ,
,
.
, .
,
,
.
PC, 8088/86,
( ,
, )
.
(Chipset) ,
, .
,
- ,
.
(,
, ) ,
-,
30 %.

4.1.
,
. 80286/386

(E)ISA, -

116 4.

.
, . 486-
(E)ISA ,
. VLB,
486, .
PCI,
. (mezanine bus),
,
. , PCI
132 /. PCI
, . ( -)
, ISA , PCI
ISA, .
(north) (south).
,
-. -
( 2- 6-).
(6 Pentium 4 Intel 7
AMD)
-,
,
PCI.
AGP, :
^!), PCI ( ISA, PCI) AGP.
AGP 2 533, 4 1066 /,
PCI (,
AGP , ). UltraDMA (ATA/ 66
/100) IDE PCI
.
PCI :
64 (
), 66 ,
.
PCI, 133
/.
.
,
.
, : , AGP.
PCI, .
266 / , .
,
( -

4.1. 117

, ). AGP,
.
, AGP ,
PCI.
( ) .
, , . ,
:
Pentium 7, Super 7 ( 5);
50-100 ; 6 8, 1 2, 370; 66,
100, 133 ;
EV-6 ; 200, 266 ; D
Pentium 4 -423; 100 .
:
a DRAM (FPM, EDO, BEDO) 50-80 ;
SDRAM (PC66, 100, 133) 66-133 ;
D DDK SDRAM (PC1600, 2100) 100, 133 (
200 );
RDRAM (PC600, 700, 800) 300, 356 400 .
. :

( , );
( ).
, , , i750 RDRAM,
(
SIMM-72 Pentium).
& (,
DRAM+SDRAM) .
,
.
DRAM (
).
(,
).

118 4.

AGP:
2, 4;
(SBA);
(Fast Writes);
.
(ACPI )
, SMM.
Intel :
(Memory Controller Hub) ( , AGP);
GMCH (Graphics Memory Controller Hub)
;
* (Memory Translation Hub) RDRAM SDRAM,
i820,
RDRAM ( PC 100, PC 133,

);
MRH-R (Memory Repeater Hub) RDRAM
(
).
5, 7 Super 7
, , . , .
PCI (33 66 ),
PCI ( PCI),
, (. . 12.5).
, PCI .
PCI, ISA ( ),
(2 ), USB, -, CMOS
- BIOS. (8254),
( 8259 APIC), DMA
ISA . ,
() AC-Link
, . ISA ,
-, X-BUS (
ISA), LPC. ,
, (. . 12.7),
. - BIOS
(Firmware hub),
( LPC). -
LPC. -

4.1. 119

(EEPROM) .
,
SMBus, CNR (. . 4.2.4) .
(PC SMBus , ). ( , Ethernet).
, PCI. (IDE, USB, '97) PCI -
, .
( ) :
PCI ( ):
;
(33 66 );
D ( );
:
D

UltraDMA - /33, /66, /100;


,
;
USB;
* AC-Link;
ISA;
DMA PCI (PC-PCI, DDMA);
:
D ;
D ;
D .
, , , CMOS RTC
,
4 .
:
PS/2 Mouse;
(, , , ,
FIFO DMA);
(
16550 FIFO DMA);
IrDA;
(2,88
,
).

120 4.

, , . -.
Pentium (60100 ), PCI ( 33 )
1:2 1:3. , 66 100
, PCI , .
AGP ,
: AGP, PCI , , .
66 (, , Celeron).
,
, ,
AGP, PCI. , LPC BIOS
(FWH) PCI (33 ), PCI

. ,
- ,
( ) .
.
. 4.1 ,
.

. ( ) 6 Pentium (
) .
Athlon
,
.
, i840 i850
RDRAM. SDRAM DDK RDRAM
.
PCI 64 ,
( i840 64).
7:66-100 , 528-800 / 6:
66-100-133 , 528-800-1064 / Athlon, Duron:
200 , 1600 / Pentium 4:4x100 , 3200
/

/ 1 6 (RDRAM)
SDRAM: 66-100-133 , 528-800-1064 / DDR
SDRAM: 100-133 , 1600-2100 / RDRAM:
600-700-800 , 1200-1400-1600 /

AGP 1-2-4 (66 )


264-528-1064 /

PCI

PCI-32: 33-66 , 133-266 /


PCI-64: 33-66 , 266-528 /

. 4.1.

4.2. : 121
, ,
. ,
,
(, DRAM
). ,
BIOS . -
, ,
, ,
.
, .
, , ,
. , , S1S630 128-
'97 , a
Intel 810E 64- '97 ,
(
CPU, ). ( )
[8].
, , iXBT.com.
POST , () BIOS,
, CMOS
ESCD . , ,
. CMOS Setup,
, Windows 9x.
Windows 95
Triton
, IDE, ,
Setup. Setup
CMOS . -BIOS,
PCI IDE
.

4.2. :

.
, (upgrade ), ,
-, BIOS.
, .

122 4.

4.2.1.
, XT, AT-286 -386,
:
,
.
.
( )
CMOS Setup. BIOS

POST. XT
DIP- .
486, ( Intel487, CPU+FPU).
486,
.
.
ZIF- (Zero Insertion Force,
), .
- Intel, . 7, AMD
.

( )
.
( ) (). , . Intel (AMD, Cyrix IBM) .
AMD Athlon.
6 (Pentium Pro ),
( ).
,
-. ,
(
, ).

.


- , ,
.
Intel, AMD, Cyrix .

4.2. : 123

486 1, 2,3 6 (. 4.2).


1 169 17x17, 2,3 6 19x19,
PGA-168 169.

486, : 1 PGA168 169 2 19x19.
Pentium
OverDrive. 3 2 3 . 6 3,3 . 486
(WT); ,
WB-, ( )
.
PGA-168, PGA-169 PGA-237 , ,
, .
586-75, AMD-X5133: 133 Pentium-75,
3,3 ( 3,45 ), , ,
.
AB C D E

r u n j

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6 7
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4 5
3 4
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19
18
17

115
14
13
12

110
9
8
7

65
4
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A B C D E F G H J LN P Q R S T U

. 4.2. 486: 1; 2, 3

Pentium -
4, 5 7. 64- 32- ,
, ,
.
,
.
, -

124 4.


6,
().
( ).
(),
( 64 )
. 66 ,
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, 6
, ,
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AGP,
. IDE
UltraDMA-33/, , USB ( LPT)
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-370. .
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21x21 5 .
-
; Intel.
5 (. 4.3) Pentium
100 , (1,5)
3,3 .
37x37 . -

Pentium.
7 (37x37) Pentium
. BF[1:0], AMD, BF2.

( VRT, - 55
Pentium) 7
Vcc2 VCC3. : (VCc2) (VCC3).
. 7, Pentium
MMX, ,
Intel Pentium -233,
. Super 7
100 .
AMD 7 , 5,
, 6-2 K6-IH. ( K6-III) , .
7 ,
( Cyrix).
( ,
. .).

4.2. : 125

37
36
35
34

33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20

ig

0
0 0

0
0
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0 0


^^

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13

12
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9
8
7
6
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36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
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. 4.3. 5 7

Intel . > 6 ,
. 6
-* , Intel
( VIA Cyrix III -370).
8 (. 4.4) Pentium Pro. 8
LbLio Pentium Pro 150-200 ,
-, ( 0,5 2 ). -
Pentium Pro 200 ( 1995 .), ( 2-4- ), -

126 4.

8 1998 Pentium II OverDrive: 333 ,


.
Celeron (PPGA) 8
Pentium Pro ( PowerLeap).
, Pentium Pro
.
00

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. 4.4. 8

Pentium II, 1 (.
4.5). (,
)
. , 1
( SC242) , .
Celeron, ,
370, , , Celeron
PGA. Celeron
(128 ), .
, .
, Celeron
66 . -

4.2. : 127

Pentium II, Pentium III (512


) 1 66, 100 ,
133 . 2
(330 242), ( 6" 5").
Xeon Pentium II Pentium III,
(, , Pentium Pro).
Celeron , 66
. Pentium III Coppermine
-370 100
133 , 1 , 370. ,
, Pentium 4 ( ),
Celeron 100 ( 800 ).

<
. 4.5. 1 (SC242)

-370 (. 4.6) .
Celeron, -370 Pentium III Coppermine.
Celeron Pentium III ( ), .
, - , ,
.
RESET* Celeron ( , SSE) 4, Pentium III 4. ( -, ). .
2 Celeron GND.
Pentium III Celeron SSE ; , . , , . ,
( !) .
()
.
Pentium III Celeron SSE RTTCTRL
SLEWCTRL (S35 27)
GND 300 , , , .

128 4.
<--:
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
.16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0 0 0


3
7
3
6
3
5
3
4
3
3
3
2

31
30
29

2
8
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20

19
18
17

1
6

15
14
13
12

1
1

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9

. 4.6. -370

, .
,
. 6
- , . - ( ), PPGA FC-PGA (Celeron Pentium III) 1. (. ),
Celeron Pentium III. ,
4 4 (
RESET*), 2 GND ( -

4.2. : 129

,
). , Pentium III
1,6-1,65 , Celeron II 1,5 , Celeron
2 .
, . , . :
( VID[3:0]),
( BSEL[1:0]), Celeron
. ( ) .
Pentium III Celeron
Socket-370-FC-PGA ( ).
:>-<<<<<2<<
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
OQ

28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
.16
15
14
13
12
11
10
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

|
0

0
0 0 0

0 0

37

. 4.7. -462 ( )

36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17

115
14
13
12

110
8
7

65
4
3
2

130 4,


.
Athlon AMD , ( !)
1 (SC242). Duron,
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4.7). , EV-6,
8 .
Pentium 4 -423 (. 4.8), . ,
Pentium 4 .
1,5 70 .
39

38
37
36
35
34 0
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
0 0 0
23
22
21
20

19
18
17
.16
15
14
13








*)


^

RESET*

0 0

0 0

0 0 0

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0 0 0
0

:>$>-<.2*
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. 4.8. -423



d2ZD.Q:h-D>

<

39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17

15
14
13
12

110
9
8
7

65
4
3
2
1

4.2. : 131

.
4.1. 7 (Super 7), 1,
2, , 370, 423 , ,
.
4.1.

()
()

5
5
5 3,3

1
2
3

168/169
238
237

17x17 PGA
19x19 PGA
19x19 PGA

273

21x21 PGA

486SX/SX2, DX/DX21
486SX/SX2, DX/DX2, Pentium ODP2
486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4, Pentium
ODP, DX40DP, Am486, Am5x86-P75
(AMD-X5-133), Cx486, Cx5x86
Pentium P5 60/66, Pentium 60/66ODP

320

37x37 SPGA

3,3

Pentium P54 75/100, Pentium 75/100ODP

6
235
7 (Super 321
7)

19x19 PGA
37x37 SPGA

3,3
2,0-3,3/3,3

486DX4, DX4 Pentium ODP


Pentium P54, P55 (MMX), P55C, P55CT,
AMD K5, K6, K6-II, K6-III Cx6x86,
6x86MX, 6x86MII, VIA Cyrix Mil

387

2,1-3,5/3,3

34x47
SPGA

P6 Pentium Pro, Pentium II OverDrive

3703
423
1 SC242

370
423
242

1,3-2,05
1,6
1,3-2,8/3,3

Celeron, Pentium III, VIA Cyrix III


Pentium 4
Pentium II/III, Celeron

330
242

462

(1,3-2,8)/
(1,3-3,3)
(1,3-2,05)/
(2,5 3,3)
-

Xeon (Pentium II/III)

37x37 SPGA
39x39 SPGA

2x121

2x165

2x121
-

Athlon
Athlon, Duron

DX4 3,3 . ' ODP OverDrive Processor. : 2, 4, 4, 27 S35


(. ).

, , () , . :
();
, ;

;

;

132 4.

BIOS;
,
(
, ).
, ,
, . BIOS ( )
. , .
,
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, .
BIOS ( 5-
Intel 4- AMD) POST CPUID (. . 5.5.2),
(), , . BIOS
(, Intel Pentium III), POST (
CMOS Setup). BIOS,
(
) BIOS. AMD
CPU ID, POST .
Intel , Pentium 4.
POST
,
,
(TSC) . ,
, (Pentium ).
- POST
.
, POST
(download microcode), BIOS , , .

BIOS, .



, (FSB Frequency) . , CMOS

4.2. : 133

Setup (Soft Menu). 1-7 , , , .


6-7- ,
,
. Pentium I I/I II
FSB (66, 100 133 ). :
,
() . 0 , 1 .
, .
, .

, ().
,
,
() .
,
. . - (
, ); ,
.
.

,
.


.
1, 2, 3 6 486-
CLKMUL : DX4 3 2, a
DX2 2 1. Intel CLKMUL R17 1 S18
2,3 6); AMD 486DX2 486DX4-100 - 13 (14).
586 R17
3 4. WB- 13 (14) WB/WT#, ( WT).
VOLDET#, -S4
(5), (3,3 ) (
). 1 -7,
9, 11..., 2,3 6 - 8, , 12... ( 9, 10, . 16...).
5, 7 Super 7 , BFO (Y33), 9\
(-i) BF2 (W35),

134 4.

(. 4.2). , .
. 7 , ,
. 2,0
2,1 , 1-2 0,1 , 3-4 0,2 , 5-6
0,4 , 7-8 0,8 . ,
. ( )

, . (VCC2)
07, 09, ...
(VCC3) (3,3 ), 19, 21, 23...
5 (07, 09, All... A19, 21, 23...)
3,3 .
4.2. 5 7
BF[2:0]

Pentium 75-133 Pentium (

) 166-233

111

1,5

110
101
100

2,0
3,0
2,5
-

010
001
000

AMD 5
0

AMD , -2,
AMD 5
1 2 K6-III

3,5

1,5

2,0
3,0
2,5
-

2,0
-

1,5
1,5

1,75
-

3,5
2,0 6,0
3,0
2,5
5,5
4,0
5,0
4,5

6 ( ) 20#,
IGNNE#, LJNT1/NMI LJNTO/INTR,
(. 4.3).
Pentium Pro ( k=2-4), Pentium II
233-300 ( 2-4,5), Pentium II/III Xeon.
(
, ). Pentium II
350-450 , Celeron Pentium III
.
25:22 MSR- PowerOnCon-figuration
Register (. ).
4.3.

LINT[1]

LINT[0]

20#

IGNNEtf

PowerOnConfig
[25:22]

1,5

L
L

1110

1100

2
2

4.2. : 135

LINT[1]

LINT[0]

A20M#

IGNNE#

PowerOnConfig [25:22]

2,5

0111

3
3,5
4
4,5
5
5,5
6
6,5
7
7.5
8


8
370
1
2

L
L
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
H
H
AG41

L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
L
AG43

L
L
H
H
H
H
L
L
L
L
H
H
All

H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
H
A9

0001
0101
0010
0110
0000
0100
1011
1111
1001
1101
1010
1000

L37
B16
B28

M36
A17
A27

AE33
A5
A14

AG37
A8
A17

8
, VID[3:0] ( AS7, AS5,
AS3 AS1) . 4.4. ,
.
4, 8, 16...
1 VID[4:0] 121, 119,
119, 120 120 (. 4.5).
13, 17, 25..., (3,3 )
, 117, 121 ( Celeron Pentium III
). , FSB
BSELO ( 100/#) BSEL1 21 14,
. 4.6. 100/#.
370 VID[3:0] AJ37,
AL37, 36 AL35, . 4.5, , VID4=0.
BIO, B14, 18... BSELO BSEL1 AJ33 AJ31
.
2 VID_CORE[4:0]
150, 149, 147, 148 151 VID_L2[4:0]
154, 155, 153, 154, 152 (. . 4.5).
2, 5, 11..., -
106, 109, 112... SELFSBO
SELPSB1 9 7.

136 4.

423 VID[4:0] 1, A3,


4, 2 1, (. 4.7).
.
, 39, 10...
4.4. 8
VID[3:0]
0000
0001
0010

0100
0101

0111

,
3,5
3,4
3,3
3,2
3,1
3,0
2,9
2,8

VID[3:0]

1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110

2,7
2,6
2,5
2,4
2,3
2,2
2,1
CPU

1111

4.5. 1, 2 370
VID[4:0]

VID[4:0]

01111
01110
01101
01100
01011
01010
01001
01000
00111
00110
00101
00100
00011
00010
00001
00000

1,30
1,35
1,40
1,45
1,50
1,55
1,60
1,65
1,70
1,75
1,80
1,85
1,90
1,95
2,00
2,05

11111

11101
11100


2,1
2,2
2,3
2,4
2,5
2,6
2,7
2,8
2,9
3,0
3,1
3,2
3,3
3,4
3,5

11010
11001
11000
10111
10110
10101
10100
10011
10010
10001
10000

Pentium II 1,8-2,8 , Pentium III 1,8-2,05 ,


3,3 . (Pentium II Pentium III) 1,8-2,1 ,
1,8-2,8 .

4.6.
BSEL1 (SELFSB1)

BSELO (SELFSBO)

___________

_______
1________ 1

,
_66_____
100______
_____

4.2. : 137
4.7. 423
VID[4:0]

VCC_MAX

VID[4:0]

VCC_MAX

11111
11110

1,475

1,100
1,125
1,150
1,175
1,200
1,225
1,250
1,275
1,300
1,325
1,350
1,375
1,400
1,425
1,450

1,500
1,525
1,550
1,575
1,600
1,625
1,650
1,675
1,700
1,725
1,750
1,775
1,800
1,825
1,850

11101
11100
11011
11010
11001
11000
10111
10110
10101
10100
10011
10010
10001
10000

01101
01100
01011
01010
01001
01000
00111
00110
00101
00100
00011
00010
00001
00000

Athlon Duron FID[3:0]. ( ), ,


, .
SIP,
. VID[3:0]. ,
, .
VID[3:0] 115, 114, 113 112 (.
4.8), FID[3:0] - 116, 117, 118 119 (. 4.9).
24, 26, 28..., 2, 4, ...
462 VID[4:0] J7, L7, L5, L3 L1,
(. 4.10); FID[3:0] .
Yl, W3 W1 (. 4.9).
4, 8, 12.
4.8.
VTO(3:0]

VCC_CORE,

VID[3:0]

VCC_CORE,

MOO

2,05

1000

1,65

we:
e:o

2,00
1,95
1,90

i;::
:

1 85

1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

1,60
1,55
1,50
1,45
1,40
1,35
1,30

KH

i::-i
!:::

1,80

1,75
1,70

138 4.
4.9. Athlon Duron
FID[3:0]

FID[3:0]
0000
0001
0010

0100
0101

11

11,5
12
12,5*
5
5,5
6

1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110

7
7,5
8
8,5
9
9,5
10

* , 12,5, SIP.
4.10. A (Athlon 4)
0111
VID[4:0]

6,5
VCC_CORE

1111

10,5
VCC_CORE

00000
00001
00010
00011
00100
00101
00110
00111
01000
01001
01010
01011
01100
01101

1,850
1,825
1,800
1,775
1,750
1,725
1,700
1,675
1,650
1,625
1,600
1,575
1,550
1,525
1,500
1,475

10000
10001
10010
10011
10100
10101
10110
10111
11000
11001

1,450
1,425
1,400
1,375
1,350
1,325
1,300
1,275
1,250
1,225
1,200
1,175
1,150
1,125
1,100
NoCPU

VID[4:0]

11011
11100
11101

11111

4.2.2. (DRAM)
PC
. PC
. (XT, AT-286)
ISA .
, , .
, SIMM, SIPP, DIMM,
,
. -286 -386
,
,

4.2. : 139

. , -286,
,
,
.
(DRAM) , 6. SIMM ( 30-
72-) DRAM, DIMM-168 (DRAM SDRAM),
DIMM-184 (DDR SDRAM) RIMM (RDRAM).
DIP ZIP, SIPP . ,
(, 4 16)
,
. , ,
,
(SIMM, DIMM, RIMM) BIOS.
( ).
, , ().
:
* Pentium 8 DIMM, RIMM
SIMM-72;
386DX 486 4 SIMM-72 SIMM-30;
-286 386SX 2 SIMM-30.
DRAM (Bank Interleaving), .
,
.
SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM
, ,
. (133 )
-
.

( ,
). 16
, CMOS Setup ROM
BIOS 16 . BIOS
-son)
CMOS Setup CMOS.
. ( ) FPM,
EDO. BEDO (-80, -70,
. -50, -40 ), , -

140 4.

-8, -7, -6, -5, -4.


(AS Latency),
.
( )

. ( ,
, , ) , .
, , , .
: (
) ,
, .
,
, ,
. . .

.

( )
( CMOS Setup) ,
. POST
( )

,
BIOS. ,
EEPROM (. . 6.2.9),
EEPROM ,
BIOS .
CMOS Setup
( ,
), .
,
. ,
(
)
. (POST, Checkit .)
.
,

4.2. : 141

( CMOS Setup).
:
None Parity , , ;
Parity , ;
CRC-,
;
EOS ,
;
PG
, .
, ,
,
. . ,
. 6.

.
( )
( ). (Standby)
+3,3 ( -,
).

DIMM , , (
). DIMM
,
( ) .
SIMM
.
45

.
,
- .

4.2.3. (SRAM)
- - ..^ 386, 486 Pentium,
*? . 486
fVr.tium (Level 2), . AMD K6-3 " . 6, Pentium 4

142 4.

AMD K7 () .
- :
* Async SRAM, A-SRAM SRAM, ;
Sync Burst SRAM, SB SRAM, ;
SRAM - .
()
DIP-
( ) COAST (
).
Tag
SRAM ( ).
. 6.4.2,
:
,
( );
;
;
CMOS Setup, ,
, .
PC,
( ) .

4.2.4.
,
.
-, , AMR CNR. PC-
, . ,
, ,
-
.
-, .
PCI , 486 . 3-4
PCI (E)ISA, MCA.

4.2. : 143

, 1, 5-8. ( )
3,3 , 5 ; 33 (PCI 2.0) 33/66 (PCI 2.1);
32 64- (32- 64- ,
!). . . 12.5.
AGP ( )
, PCI. (
) AGP 1.0
3.3 2; AGP 2.0 1,5
4. AGP
, 4 1,5 . ( 2/4, SB A, Fast Write, . . 12.6)
CMOS Setup. AGP Pro
( ). (AGP8X)
.
PCI AGP
()
.
(),
.
ISA-8 ISA-16 , (. . 12.1).
ISA ,
( ) .
ISA .
PC Card, PCMCIA ,
,
( ).
Card Bus , PCI.
.
EISA ( , ) 32 (. . 12.3),

. PCI. , . EISA ISA ( ).
PS/2,
. .
,
.
. -.

144 4.

VLB 32- (64-) (


), ISA/EISA,
486. ,
.
.

.
PCI , , CMOS Setup

, .
AGP , ,
AGP.
s ISA PCI CMOS Setup ( , , . . 3.4).
ISA ( 8 ) 8- 16- .
ISA,
.
VLB ,
,
33,3 .
.
, . 4.9.
, ,
- . : AGP+PCI, AGP+PCI+ISA, PCI+ISA, ISA+VLB, EISA+PCI,
EISA+VLB. , , AGP (), PCI
( 64-).
. Media BUS, PCI
ISA, , , ASUSTek.
PCI AGP, ISA/EISA VLB,
.
(Shared Slot).
,
ISA, PCI. ,
ISA PCI ,
.
, - Riser Card.
( ),

4.2. : 145

(, ISA+PCI, ISA+VLB). Riser Card


ISA, ISA-16,
Slim
Baby-AT. - ,
.
AMR

ss
AGP 1,5 ] AGP

3 CD

iP
*
m

Pro (3,3 )

il

PCI-64 (5 )
PCI (3,3 )
CNR
ISA-16

5
i )

ISA-8
iUEISA
ISA+VLB
-16 -16
+ MEM

50

100

IIs

-32 + MEM
150 200

i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i

. 4.9.



AMR CNR, Intel, ACR.
AMR (Audio Modem Riser) , '97 (AC-Link), USB . AMR PCI,
,
(, RJ-11). AMR
PCI,
PCI, . AMR
() , '97 (. . 11.2.3), . AMR
(), AMR

250

146 4.

.
(Soft Modem) , AMR, (, ) , , , , . AMR
'97,
.
(3
Microsoft PnP) (1 ).
US , USB.
CNR (Communication Modem Riser) AMR,
. CNR
(60), AMR, ,
.
PCI ( CNR
). CNR
, ISA ( PCI). CNR
AC-Link USB , , ,
Ethernet 10/100
. , CNR EEPROM ,

SMBus. EEPROM 256 CNR: , , , USB SMBus.
AMR
( ):
8- , Intel
;
17- (Media Independent Interface , ) Ethernet
10/100 /.
ACR (Advanced Communications Riser) - , AMR,
PCI. CNR (Intel)
.
AMR CNR 12 , +5 , +3,3 ,

+5 +3,3 . AMR CNR
-,
. (OEM) . ,
, , ,

4.2. : 147

, .
BIOS,
. ,
ISA PCI CNR
AMR ( ) . AMR
CNR

.
. ,
ADIMM S1S630, AGP (
),
128- ,
, ,

( ),
VGA-. Intel , GPA, .

4.2.5.

, ,
-. , .

-, CMOS-,
, (
). , XT (4,77 ) AT
(8 ), , -
,
Turbo. Turbo ,
, . ,
. , , Turbo,
. Turbo
8088/286/386 . 486
(, ).
Turbo, , , ,
(.
5.4.4).

148 4.

Host Bus Clock, FSB Clock, (


).
().
50, 55, 60, 66, 75, 83, 100, 112, 125, 133, 200 266 .
75
, ,
. 486 16, 25, 33 40
.
CPU Clock, Core Speed, ,
. , .
;
, .
5.
,
. ,

.
Memory Bus Clock SDRAM, DDK SDRAM
RDRAM .
, AGP.
AGP Clock AGP, 66,6 .
PCI Bus Clock PCI. PCI
, ,
SCSI- , PCI. . PCI 2.0
25-33,3 . PCI 2.1
66,6 . ,

33,3 486 66,6, 100 133
. 41,5 37,5
PCI ,
75 83 .
ISA Bus Clock ISA, 8 .
BIOS Setup
. ,
, ,
, PCI, AGP
VLB, .

4.2. : 149

VLB Bus Clock VLB, PCI Bus


Clock. VLB , , 33,3 .
. (. . 4.1)
, , 1:2, 1:3, 2:3.
,
(over-clocking)
. , : , , PCI, AGP
.
,
.
(, Intel), .
( CMOS Setup) , ,
().
( )
.
,
(, iXBT.com). , ,

, , AGP .
,
( ). . ,
( ) ( ), .
,
.
, .

, . ,
,
. , ,
. ,
, , ,
, ().
, ,
. , ,
( 0,18 ),
,
(, 0,25 ). , ,
. ,
, , ( -

150 4.

).
,
( ) ,
. , ,
, .

.

,
.
, .
, .
,
. ,
.
,
CMOS Setup. ,
, . ,
.

Checklt, PCCheck, .

- , , Windows 95 NT,
.
,
.

( Pentium II , , ).
,
BIOS
.
PCI,
.
, .
, , (
), .
- 10 % ,
. , - ,
.

4.2.6. BIOS
- BIOS
,
. BIOS, , -

4.2. : 151

, . ,
BIOS , ,
(, ,
). BIOS (ROM BIOS) - (Flash BIOS).
BIOS
. -
, , , . , BIOS
, , (
BIOS) :
28Fxxx - 12 ;
29 - 5 ;
29LVxxx - 3 ( );
28 EEPROM, -;
27 EPROM, ( );
29010 ROM SST, -;
29011 - 5 Winbond;
29010 - 5 Atmel.
- BIOS
. 15.11.

BIOS
BIOS ,
.
(,
, ,
).
BIOS (,
).
BIOS .
, .
(
).
NVRAM ( ESCD),
CMOS Setup.
- .

152 4.

-BIOS
,
PC, In-System Write (ISW).
,
.
BIOS , ,
(Boot Recovery),
.
BIOS .
, -. ,
, , ,
(On-Board Programming) .
, ,
-
. , -,
.
BIOS .
- BIOS (, AMI, Award) BIOS
. , BIOS , . BIOS
(
) , , POST . , , (
), , . . ,
BIOS,
( !) .
- , () ( ) BIOS. ( ) BIOS (Award, AMI, Phoenix).
( ) BIOS
, ,
, . BIOS ,
BIOS .
BIOS ,
(Boot Block Recovery).
. , - ROM BIOS. -

4.2. : 153

. .
( Boot Block
POST,
).

( ), , , ROM BIOS.
BIOS,
, ,
BIOS. Setup BIOS. ,
(, )
.
, BIOS .
-, , .
-BIOS,
- , BIOS, .
BIOS, ,
DEBUG ( , ). () , ( , )
.
BIOS,
.
% ,
- (ISW).
, BIOS EPROM (
, , .
-, EPROM 27 ).
-.


( Boot Recovery)
ISW.
CMOS Setup (Shadow
ROM) BIOS (Power
Management Disable).

(HIMEM.SYS, EMM386. ,

154 4.

QEMM386.SYS . .). ,
CONFIG.SYS (
). MS-DOS 6.x
F5 . Windows 95 ,
F8 ,
Safe mode command prompt only.
,
BIOS .
-. (unknown),
.

, Reset .

(Boot Recovery).
, BIOS
.
BIOS. ( ) .
*
, () Boot recovery
BIOS,
.
* Boot-
PC
. Boot-
BIOS,
Boot- .
* ESCD.

, .
,
.
-BIOS , ( )
, (CMOS Setup) ,
, , Windows 95.
, , .
4.1.
BIOS
. , , () ,
POST, .
,

4.2. : 155

CMOS Setup (BIOS Defaults, Power-On Defaults, . . 4.6).


, BIOS.

4.2.7. CMOS:
CMOS, - (. . 3.6.4), . CMOS
BIOS ,
CMOS Setup.
( ).
.
CMOS Battery State Low CMOS Checksum Error
POST, ( )
.
- (
). Setup -
.
CMOS ,
.
: , ,
- .
POST
Reset .
.
(, CMOS ,
).
.
, .
286 386 . CMOS,
, ,
.
, .
,
( 3-4,5 ).
(Ext. Bat.),
(. 4.10), .
PC,
. .

:
, -
(, 2732).
. , .

156 4.

'

'

. 4.10. CMOS:
; ; CMOS

CMOS.
, , ,
CMOS Setup ( ).

, . 4.10, .
BIOS Award
, , ?award, AWARD_SW, KDD, J262,
j256, J322, Syxz, HLT. CMOS Setup,
( Award AMI) (
, , , ).

(, CMOS, NVRAM). ,
,
, .

CMOS . ,
,
, (. 7),
. ,
( LBA Large
). Setup CMOS
- , CMOS
. , , 1-.

CMOS. , , QAPlus.

, .
CMOS-
. ( )
.
CMOS-,
.
CMOS ( )
, CMOS.
BIOS Award AMI 17h 17,

4.3. 157

BIOS Phoenix FFh.


(DEBUG), DOS ( Windows),
:
-0 70 17 ( CMOS, Phoenix BIOS - 70
FF);
-0 71 17 ( );
Q ().
CMOS
,
PowerGood ,
,
(. 16). .
Reset
, PowerGood. CMOS ,
. CMOS ,
. Reset

PowerGood.
CMOS , . () ,
+5 (
4,9 ). ,
, . 4.4, 5 PowerGood .

, PowerGood .
( ) ,
.

4.3.
PC
, .
, . , ,
IBM PS/2, Acer, Compaq, Digital, Packard Bell . , -.
. ,
AT. XT , XT AT ,
.

158 4.

Full AT (305x350 ) Baby AT (220x330 )


Desktop, Baby AT, Mini-, Midi- Big Tower
,
. . 4.11.

( 305 220 ),
.

BIOS
AGP

II

DIMM

DMM

DIMM

. 4.11. Baby AT

, . (
) . ,
.
, .
( ) .
,
( , ).
Mini Tower (
) , .
, ,

4.3. 159

. ,
-
.
.
.

, .

().
,

.

. ,
. , ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
.
,
.
-
, ()
.
. .
, .
, , (
,
).
-, IDE SCSI
.
, ,
. .
, ,
.
.

.
PC ,
.
. 4.12.
305x244 , Mini-ATX - 284x208 Micro-ATX - 244x244 .
( 305, 284 244 ), i
.

160 4.

3UES
SS:

BCD I'
]

^=
^

BIOS
_
F

JL

ISA 1

"|1

.
( ) . .
,

,
. ( ) , .
IDE
,
, Mode 4 UltraDMA IDE.
.
3,3/3,6 , VRM .
-
,
.
,
.
+5V Standby
,
(, -,
).
20- .

.
.
AM

a-

AGP
Coket CPU

DIMM
DIMM
DIMM

4.4.

, -
(, ,
) .

, .
- ,
, -.
, ,
, .
(Slim Case) LPX (Low
Profile). LPX ,
- Riser Card,
. ,
,
.
NLX (
) . , ,
Riser Card , .
(IDE, , )
, Riser Card.
, ,
, Riser Card .
: Riser ,
: 340 ( 170
). Riser Card

. NLX
.

4.4.
, ( ,
, ).
, , , -.
6- ,
, PC/XT, PS8 PS9.
, ,
,
. ,
: ( )
(. 4.13). 180
, , .

162 4.

20- ,
, .

+ 5v 6 (
+ 5v 5 t
+ 5v 4
-5v 3
GND 2
GND 1c
GND 6
GND 5 t
-12v 4c
+ 12v 3 i
+ 5v 2 e
P.G. 1

0
D
D
C

a
i

'a

[Q
D

. 4.13.

GND
, .
:
RESET, TURBO, POWER ( );

* ;
, TURBO (Green),
, ;
;
, US ,
PS/2.

, , , . ( ) . .

. ,

. , ,
.


.
. ,
, ,
, (
).

4.4. 163

, , see
,
, .
, sa
. ,
.
. ,
. 4.14.
forva
RESET

TURBO

I1I2I3I4I

11 11 1111
Z
^ 2 4 ?
(^

Z
*
ft
CD

/)

1112131

UJZ
(

HDD

|1|2

11 11
mCD
i-

GREEN

11

11

11

oz

^z

JZ

UJZ

a:
CD

Q
I

V
UJ

CD

1
HOC

. 4.14.

, , . .
,
.
Keylock -
.
Reset (. 4.15). .
GND. .
, , . -
, -rrwver
.
. -
Reset Keylock, , .
Turbo ( ),
. , ,
, ( ) Turbo.

164 4.

RESET

. 4.15. Reset,

, ( ).
, .
1. , ,
. ,

. .
2. ,
POST.
3. ,
. ,
Reset . ,
Reset
POST, .
4.
.
5. : POST
.
6. IDE SCSI,
, .

.
(. 4.16)
Turbo. DOS (

4.4. 165

DOS- Windows) Ctrl+Alt++ () Ctrl+Alt+( Turbo).


, .
Turbo ,
.
,
.

TURBO

. 4.16.

(Green Functions) . , ( ) ,
. Power Management CMOS Setup.
Green, .
, -JOL
, ,

.
, Turbo. (*, ),
. -
-
,
,
.

166 4.

, Turbo
,
. , .
( ),
HI (High)
Turbo LO (Low) . ,
GND
+5 .
,
.
, , Reset .
PowerGood , ,
. 4.17.
PowerGood (,
Hewelett-Packard).
.
, 4.18.
RESET
PS8
6>5>4>-

' '

POWER GOOD
+5V

2-

+12 V
-12V
GND

1>-

GND

3 -^

. 4.17. Reset PowerGood +


11100.0x6

. 4.18. PowerGood

4.4. 167

(, , , ,
-) ,
. / , ,
-, -.

,
(
).
180 .
, -
, . : ,
, ,
.
( , ). ,
,
.

(): 10 -, 16 GAME-, 26 LPT, 4 (5) PS/2 Mouse. - .
( - )
PS/2 Mouse LPT-, 10- - (. . 10.1).
DIN MiniDIN (. . 9.1)
.
( ), -
+5 .
+5 ,
. ( )
- ,
.
+5 ,
( ).
PS/2 ,
. ( ) MiniDIN, *
4- 5- ,
& . ( IRQ12) CMOS Setup.
PS/2 Mouse , , *
(. . 9.2), GND * -5 ,

.

168 4.

IrDA 5 , (. . 10.2.1)
, ,
( mini-DIN), . IrDA
CMOS Setup ( , COM2).

, .
34- . ( 180 )
.
IDE (ATA) 40- ,
UltraDMA/66 80 . ( 180 )

Reset. IDE,
BIOS Setup, BIOS
IDE Auto
.
IDE Autodetect
CMOS Setup
. IDE . 7.
SCSI, ,
, , . ,
, . 13.2.5.
USB 4- , ( USB 3,5").

4.5.
, ? -, ( ). ,
, , . .
PC- . .
( , , , , ,
. .) ,
, -

4.5. 169

, .
, , ,
( ).

, ,
PC.
DOS PCCheck, Checklt QAPlus,
,
, .

,
. ( )
.

,
,
( . 16).
PowerGood
( 2,4 ),
. ,
, .
, .

( )
(
). , .
, .
, .
IDE. Reset.

. , ,
POST. :
;
, ;
- (CPU, ROM BIOS, );
ROM BIOS , (Boot Recovery), ;

,
( ).

170 4.

t ( ) ,
( ).

(, , ).
,
, . 15.2.
, .
( ,
) BIOS
, BIOS Setup.
CMOS Setup. Setup, . , NVRAM, , ,
-,
,
BIOS , ^
.
POST ,
,
. .
. 15.2. :
;
( ) ;
( );
(
Keylock);
.
IDE
, (
) Master/Slave
( . . 7.7.2).
(FDD Failure Seek Error)

.
POST -

4.5. 171

, ( ) . . . 7.2.
POST BIOS
.
( CD-ROM, LSI20),
, CMOS Setup ( Swap Floppy).
CMOS Setup Boot Sequence : :
, Boot Sequence : :
. ,
(Security)
.
,
, FDC (
,
). (
),
, ,
POST .
, , , , CMOS Setup.
47 , IDE Autodetect. ,
1-46,
(. 7). ,
, , .
1-46,
, .
LBA
Large. ,
( . 7).
, - .
Checklt DOS
( ), HIMEM.SYS EMM386.EXE
. CONFIG.SYS ( ) ,
F5 F8 Starting MS-DOS (1
6.x).
HIMEM.SYS , ,
- ,
.

172 4.

, ,
() ,
, .
, , ,
,
PC.

4.6.
CMOS Setup
AT
, .
-286, PS/2
, .
, Setup,
. CMOS Memory (. 3), - RTC (Real Time Clock). (, ) (NVRAM).

ESCD Plug and
Play (PnP),
.
,
,
,
PnP (Plug and Pray ... ). EISA
EISA-
ECU (EISA Configuration Utility).
Setup, ROM BIOS.
CMOS Setup , . ,
,
( ).
(
) .
(Setup.COM .),
CMOS -286,
CMOS -
.
Setup POST
Del. Ctrl+Alt+Esc, Esc
Ctrl+Esc. ( F12 ,
).
BIOS Setup Ctrl+Alt+Esc
. ( F1 F2) Setup
, POST , -

4.6. CMOS Setup 173

Setup. Ins
POST BIOS , .
.
Setup,
BIOS,
. F1 Alt+H
, .
. ,
,
, .
. .
, , .
, , (
). PC

(DRAM ) (64, 25, 1), FPM,
EDO, BEDO SDRAM.
,
. Setup
. 4.11.
4.11. Setup

Soft Menu
Standard CMOS Setup
Advanced CMOS Setup
Chipset Setup


CMOS

(
)


tower Management
PO/PnP Setup ^ig and Play

()
,
,

Optimal ( )

UD Configuration tr BIOS

*eripherial Setup
Change Password
C Health Status

Defaults


Configuration with % Defaults %fr-Safe (
) >
Del

to CMOS and Exit


> and Exit

%ot Wrte to CMOS and Exit ( ) Saving

174 4.

Auto Configuration with BIOS Defaults , . , , . , .


Auto Configuration with Power-on Defaults
: Turbo ,
, . .
, , (, ,
. .). Setup , ,
Del ( Ins) ,
() .
BIOS .
Setup ( ) POST.
, ,
Setup .
. , Printscreen Setup
( LPT-
Init#, ).
,
,
( ,
).
( ) Setup CMOS (
3, 4 ).
. CMOS
NVRAM, () (
). ,
NVRAM ( ESCD).
,
( ).
. Setup ,
NVRAM. ,
BIOS (NVRAM - -BIOS).
- BIOS
. NVRAM
Windows 95 .
,
Setup.

4.6. CMOS Setup 175

Soft Menu (. 4.12)


,
. Default
,
( ).
(
).
4.12. , Soft Menu Setup

System Processor Type


CPU Operating Frequency
CPU FSB Clock

CPU Multiplier Factor

233(66), 266(66)...
800(133)...User Define
66-200 MHz
xl;5; X2...X8

SEL100/66* Signal SELFSB Default, Low


Signal
Pa dock/CPU FSB Clock

1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 3/4

AGP dock/CPU FSB Clock

1/1, 2/3

AGP Transfer Mode


CPU Core Voltage

Default, Ix, 2x, 4x


Default, V.W
3,30V

JrvOrder Que Depth


1 2 Cache Latency

.Ml2CacteECC

Enable, Disable

1-15

()
( FSB).
User Define


FSB

:
(Default)
(. , 4.2.1)
PCI ( 33
66 ) FSB.
PCI ,

AGP ( 66 )
FSB.
AGP ,

AGP


( 3,3 )

,

-
( ,
)

Standard CMOS Setup,


( ),
, CMOS. Setup, (. 4.13).
.
( ) , )
640 512 , Extended Expanded. BIOS
, , -

176 4.

(Conventional Memory Base Memory)


(Extended Memory).
BIOS
POST Standard Setup ,
, CMOS.
CMOS ,
.
POST
( ). .
4.13. , Standard CMOS Setup
Setup

- CMOS,

,

Daylight Saving

Hard disk
-

Enable/Disable

1-47, Not Installed


Auto

: Not Installed
(
), SCSI. 146 , 47
,
IDE Autodetection.

46. Auto

.
Cyln, Head, WPcom,
LZone, Sect, Size
(. 7)
. IDE

. IDE

- Cylinder (Cyl)

1-65535

- Heads (Hd)

1-16

Write Precomp
(Wpcomp, WP)

-1-65535

,
(
MFM RLL). -1
65535 . IDE
____

4.6. CMOS Setup 177

Landing Zone
(Lzone, LZ)


( MFM RLL,
).
0
.

-Sectors (Sec, SPT)

1-63

.
MFM 17, RLL 26,
IDE

Size (Capacity)


S1ze-(HdsxCy1xSectx5l2)A024

(. 7)

Enable/Disable

Normal/LBA/ Large

Bock Mode,

Hvd disk D type

1-47, Not Installed, Auto

( )

Master 1-47, Not Installed, Auto


,
Slave, Secondary
IDE,
Master Secondary
PCI.
Slave
360 (5"), 720, 144, 288
drive A
:
None (Not Installed)
(
net Mode, PIO Mode.
)_______________
360
(5"),
720,
144,
288
To : (
%JOpydriveB
None (Not Installed)
)
display

MDA (Mono) CGA40


CGA80, VGA/PGA/
EGA Absent

Installed/Not installed
aoard
Present/Absent
Keyboard
: Oet Message Display
Enable/Disable
r

on Error


.

( BIOS)
.

POST
. Not Installed
(,
) ___
Setup Hit
Del if you want to run Setup
POST

( F1).
________________

178 4.

Setup
BIOS:
, (:, :,
CD-ROM); (Swap Floppy); , ; -, .
( ) , -.
IDE-, .
(Security)
Setup, .
*
Boot-
CMOS .
Power Management Green Options
( ,
).
Setup MCA, EISA, PCI , .
Hard Disk Utility IDE
Auto
Detect Hard Disk (IDE Autodetection).
47,
. 528 LBA Large Disk. , . , 1-46, ,
, ,
. ( ),
.

CMOS Setup ST506 (MFM, RLL). IDE-


( 4 ,
,
).

(LOW LEVEL FORMAT) Auto Interleave ( ) Media


Analyse ( ).

4.6. CMOS Setup 179

(Advanced Setup)
BIOS ,
, , , .
, , . 4.14.
4.14. Advanced Setup

___________ _________________________________
Aoove 1MB
Enable/Disable
1 .
Test
POST
1 , . DOS 6.x,
HIMEM.SYS _________________________ ,
POST ___________
Quick Boot
Enable/Disable
( 1
QkKfc Power On
, HDD
Setf Test _____________________ 40- ) ____________
Enable/Disable

Gt Sound .
,
,
,

( Turbo)
_________________
F1 , POST.
:1orFl
Yes/N (, , ) ,
.
, _____
____
NumLock
SrttemBootUp
(
4m Lock
On/Off
CONFIG.SYS DOS 6+ NUMLOCK-ON(OFF)) ________
eppy Drive Swap Enable/Disable

: :. :
( )
:
, :
:. ,
Standard Setup,
_________________________ ____________


(40 80
).
(

)________________________
J-

180 4.

4.14 ()

SystemBoot
Sequence


:, :, D:, :, F:,
CDROM, LS120


. BIOS
: ,


( :, :).



,
( -

). ,
,
Floppy
Drive Seek at Boot

Password Checking
None/Setup/Always
. :
Option Security Option , Setup, .
.
, AMI BIOS AMI,
AWARD BIOS - BIOSTAR AWARD SW

Typematic Rate
Programming
Typematic Rate Delay
(msec)

Enable/Disable


250-1000

.

Typematic Rate
(Chars/Sec)

6-30 /

Mouse Support
System Boot Up CPU
speed

Fast/Slow

High/Low
,
. (High) TURBO,
.
: Qrl-f Alt++ , Ctrl+AltH
( BIOS)

Enable/Disable
Enable/Disable PS/2 Mouse
IRQ12/Mouse IRQ12 PS/2 Mouse
Function
Turbo.
Turbo Switch
Enable/Disable

Function

, (Disable)

4.6. CMOS Setup 181

Boot Sector Virus


Protection Aus
Warning

Enable/Disable

External Cache

Enable/Disable


Boot Sector Master
Boot Record
,

: ,
.
Windows 95 ,
OS/2 Boot Manager

.



(L2) .

.

( )
. BIOS

,

Internal Cache
Memory CPU Internal
Cache Internal Cache

Enable/Disable

(LI)
( 486+ 386 ).

beemal Cache
wte Policy
baemal Cache

WriteBack (WB)/
WriteThrough(WT)/
Disabled

: WT
, WB .
.
WB
,
.

()

Eternal Cache
rte Policy leernal Cache

WriteBack (WB)/
WriteThrough(WT)/
Disabled

Parity
try Check

Enable/Disable

: WT
, WB .
,

,
.

,
(
),
( ,
). PARITY ERROR
AT OABC0123 SYSTEM HALTED,
,

( )

182 4.
4.14 ()

Memory

Memory Remapping
Memory Relocation

Enable/Disable



384
AOOOO-FFFFF 1 .

,
(Shadow ROM,
RAM) (
).

( ,
),
1
____
___

Memory Hole[at...]

Disabled
512-640 15-16

Shadow Memory
Cacheable

Enable/Disable

Video ROM Shadow


, 32

Enable/Disable

Adaptor ROM
Shadow C800,16K

Enable/Disable

. 512640
(conventional) , 15-16
15
. Disabled
()

(
ROM).
___ ___

ROM BIOS .
,

BIOS.
384

.
Video ROM .

,

ROM BIOS
. BIOS
, ,
System BIOS

ROM BIOS .
,
BIOS
( BOOT ROM
,
).
384

4.6. CMOS Setup 183


Adaptor ROM Shadow Enable/Disable


CC0016K
Adaptor ROM Shadow Enable/Disable
D00016K

To (
, SCSI)
( )

00, 16K


(,
, C400...DCOO).
(
)

Shadow/Cache/Disable

Enable/Disable
System ROM Shadow ROM BIOS.
FOOD, 64K

DOS Windows ,

System BIOS Shadow 384

,
400h
BIOS
(
Numeric Processor Test Enable/Disable )
Auto
Enable/Disable

CPU Selection
Weitek
Wertek Coprocessor
( )

fast Gate A20 Option Gate Enable/Disable


A20 Option
Normal/Fast

eyboard Reset Control


Enable/Disable

Decode

Disk Type 47
UM Area

0&? Compatible Mode

Enable/Disable

0:300

Enable/Disable


20,
. (
8042)
, (Fast)

,


.

286
(,
)

,
. -286

.
386+
ISA,


47 (User Defined).


IBM OS/2

184 4.

, ( ), . : , (Wait States), ,
.
.
,
, .

(Automatic Configuration).
, ,
. ., ,
. (
).
, , . 4.15. 6.
4.15.

DRAM Type

Page Mode (FPM, Std) EDO


BEDO SDRAM

DRAM Speed

45, 50, 60, 70, 80

Interleave Mode

Enable/Disable

Memory Read Wait State


DRAM Wait States
Memory Write Wait State
DRAM CAS Timing Delay

RAS Precharge Time

RAS Active Time

RAS to CAS Delay Time

CAS Width in Read Cycle

Hidden Refresh

Enable/Disable

Slow Refresh

Enable/Disable


(
)

( ,
)



CAS RAS.

RAS
( )
RAS
CAS RAS
( ) CAS
.
.

.
,
,

()
.

4.6. CMOS Setup 185

Concurrent Refresh

Enable/Disable

Burst Refresh

Enable/Disable

DRAM Burst at 4 Refresh Enable/Disable

Staggered Refresh

Stow Memory
Divider

Enable/Disable

1, 4, 16, 64 Refresh


(

).
,

(
).
,
,
, ____

. ,
,
_________


.
,

.
,
.

Decoupled Refresh Option Enable/Disable



ISA .
,
ISA

Value

Mrcsh Divider
Refresh RAS Active Time

Refresh Method
CiS Before RAS
xx DRAM type

RAS Only (ROR), CAS


before RAS (CBR)

Enable/Disable

64K, 256K, 1M

. e Numer of Banks 0,1,2

! Reg I/O Base 208h, 218h, 258h...2E8h


nay Base

Enable/Disable
COOOOh,
C4000h...EOOOh
0 to 2 Mb 2
to 4 Mb...

( ,
)
RAS
. ,
.


()
DRAM
CBR
( )
,
( -286)

( -286)__________

EMS ( -286)

( -) EMS
EMS

186 4.

,
6.
. 4.16.
4.16. -

SRAM Type

Async SRAM Sync Burst


SRAM PBSRAM

Cache Read Option SRAM x-y-y-y


Read wait state Cache Read
Hit Burst
x-y-y-y
Cache Write Option

Cache Wait State


Tag RAM Includes Dirty Alt Enable/Disable
Bit in Tag RAM
Non-Cacheable Block- 1 Enable/Disable
Non-Cacheable Block-2
Non-Cacheable Block- 1 Disabled
Size Non-Cacheable Block2 Size

(
) SRAM


- ( SRAM
)



( )
.
,
(, )

Non-Cacheable Block- 1
Base Non-Cacheable
Block-2 Base

Cacheable RAM Address


Range

.

.
,

_____

Video BIOS Area


Cacheable

Enable/Disable

BIOS .

_______________

ISA .
,
PCI (
VLB). ISA
( 8-) . .
4.17.

4.6. CMOS Setup 187


4.17. ISA

AT BUS Clock Selection


AT Bus Clock Source
ISA Bus Speed

CLK/x, CLKIN/x

CLK2/X
ISA,
. 8
( PC/AT)
16- ,
12 . 66
(PCI CLK-33 )
4 ISA
8,33 . BIOS
. PCI-ISA,
,
,
PCI, ISA

Synchronous/Asynchronous
.
CPU Clock,
ATCLK_____

ISA. (
)

(
).
(.
)

Bus Mode
Cyde Wait State

: Memory, wO Watt
State

16-
- ISA

i-Oft Memory, ; Wait


State

8-
- ISA

:64* I/O Recovery -r


(SYSCLK)

( )
IORD#, IOWR# 16-
( ).

1-* I/O Recovery iwe


(SYSCLK)

IORD#, IOWR# 8

VO Recovery Time

: AT Cyde

8/16- -.
/ , 5/3.
REP INS, REP
OUTS ( PIP MODE)
ISA
,

ISA.
Enable/Disable
PCI

4>

188 4.
4.17 ()

DMA Wait States

DMA

DMA Clock Source

Extended I/O Decode

Enable/Disable

Extended DMA Registers

Enable/Disable

DMA

- (16 10,
PC)
DMA PC/AT
16 .
4 (
32- )

PCI
PCI ISA, ISA-.
Legacy Card ISA, . , ,
DMA (. 4.18).
4.18. PCI/PnP Setup

Plug and Play Aware OS, Yes/No


PnP OS Installed

BIOS

(. . 15.8)

PCI Burst Mode PCI


Bursting

Enable/Disable

PCI

PCI Streaming
PCI Concurrency

Enable/Disable
Enable/Disable

PCI

( ) PCI

PCI VGA Palette Snoop

PCI Latency Timer


(in PQ Clocks)
PCI IDE Bus Master

Offboard PCI IDE Card

Enable/Disable

. ,


_______________
32, 64, 96,128,160,
PCI ( PCI). 64
192, 224, 248
Bus Master
Enable/Disable
IDE,
PCI (
)______
( )
Disabled, Auto,
IDE, PCI,
Slotl, SlotZ, Slot3, Slot4
.
IDE
, IRQ14
IRQ15 PCI

4.6. CMOS Setup 189

Offboard PCI IDE Primary Disabled, INTA, INTB,


()
(Secondary) IRQ
INTC, INTO
IDE PCI
PQ/PnP ISA/EISA
IRQ3, IRQ4, IRQ5, IRQ7, ,
PCI ( PCI)
IRQ9, IRQ10, IRQ11,
ISA/EISA
IRQ12, IRQ14, IRQ15
PCI
Slot x Using INT#
Auto, IRQy
(Auto) (IRQy)
IRQx,
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th

INTA, INTB, INTC INTD PCI


Available IRQ

PCI IRQ Actived By

Level/Edge PCI

(

)
16K, 32K 64 ,
Reserved Memory Size Disabled
(legacy) ISA
, 4000, 8000, , ,
Reserved Memory
DOOOO, D4000, D8000, DCOOO (legacy) ISA
Address

DMA Channels

Disabled, DMA Oil, DMA Ch3, DMA,


DMA Ch5, DMA Ch6, DMA Ch7 (legacy) ISA


IDE, Setup (. 4.19).


.
4.19. IDE

Disabled, Type (
DMA Transfer Mode EISA), Standard (
PCI)
MUbpte Sector Mode Enable/Disable
Stock Mode Block
Mode
Enable/Disable
Auto 0-4

DMA IDE
(
CD-ROM)
(
)

()

IDE (PIO Mode).
,
(
).

,
.
_______
___

rf>

190 4.
4.19 ()

IDE Ultra DMA

IDE 32-bit Transfer

1-5

Enable/Disable

Ultra DMA
32-
IDE ( 32-
IDE
16-
). ,

__________

,
, , . .
Peripheral Setup (. 4.20).
4.20.

Onboard FDC

Enable/Disable

FDD (
FDC HOC IDE
,
)

Onboard Serial Portl

3F8h, 3E8h, Disabled

-,
__

Onboard Serial Port2

28h, 2E8h, Disabled


378h, 278h, Disabled

To
LPT-,

LPT- (. 9)

Onboard Parallel Port


Parallel Port Mode

Parallel Port DMA

Standard (Normal, Std, SPP,


Compatible), BiDirectional,
EPP, ECP ECP+EPP, 1284
Compliance Fast Centronics
Disabled,

DMA Ch (channel) 0,
DMA Ch 1, DMA Ch 3

DMA
DMA,

Power Management (Green Function)


. ( )
(, ) ( ).
.
BIOS
.
,
.
:
Full On Mode ;
Doze Mode 80 % (
);

4.6. CMOS Setup 191

Standby Mode 92 % ( );
Suspend Mode 99 % ( ,
, ).

. . 4.21.
4.21. (Power Management)

Power Management

Enable/Disable, Max. Saving ,


Mode, Min. Saving Mode,
,
User Defined Mode

Control By
Enable/Disable
Green PC Monitor Power Disabled, Off, Standby,
Suspend
State
Power Down Mode
Monitor Power State

Disabled, Off, Standby,


Suspend

InstantON Support

Enable/Disable

tfdeo Off Method

Blank Screen V/H


Sync+Blank

Doze Mode Control

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

Standby Mode Control


Suspend Mode Control

inactivity Mode Control

Disabled, Standby, Suspend


Disk Power Down
Mode
Srcen Timer * Man Board Disabled (1-15
Timer
Standby Timer
Suspend Timer
Standby to Suspend meout
#

)
Disabled (1-15
)
Disabled (1-15
)
Disabled (1-15
)
Disabled (1-15
)



,
,
(Disabled)
,
PoweDown, (Disabled)

:

( DPMI)
. Doze Mode

. Standby Mode
. Syspend Mode

. Inactivity Mode
, HDD



80 %

92 %

99 %.


Standby,
Suspend,

192 4.
4.21 ()

Full-On to Standby
Timeout (Min)

Disabled (1-15
)

HDD Standby Timer Hard


Disk Timeout (Min)

Disabled (1-15
)

Slow Clock Ratio

1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32,


1:64 1:128

Display Activity

Monitor Ignore

Power Down & Resume


Events: IRQ3...IRQ 15

Monitor/Ignore On/Off

Monitor Event In Full On Enable/Disable


Mode: LPT port Activity
COM port Activity ISA
Master Activity VESA Slave
Acivity IDE Activity Floppy
Activity VGA Activity
Keyboard Activity Mouse
Activity

Wake Up Events

,

Standby

.

,
.
(Slave)
Master

Power Down (
,
.
5)
Standby
(
)
,


,
.

(
,
)

()

4.7. PC
PC, , .
,
, , (Mini Tower, Midi Tower, Big Tower,
Desktop, Slim Line) ATX (NLX).
(Chip Set), .
BIOS , , PnP, ACPI ( ).
, Flash BIOS.

4.7. PC 193

,
, BIOS.

, (VRM),
.
* .
; (SIMM, DIMM, RIMM) DRAM
(FPM, EDO, BEDO), SDRAM, DDR SDRAM, RDRAM; ,
,
(Interleaving) ,
,
( Memory).
AGP.
( 7): , (Sync Burst SRAM), ( SRAM),
.

- (ISA, EISA, PCI).


IDE- (
Mode 3, 4, Ultra DMA 33/66/100).
.
SCSI (Wide, Fast SCSI-2).
- FIFO-, , - MIDI.
LPT-, (SPP, , ),
FIFO- .
* PS/2 Mouse.
USB, .

.
(
).
,
-, , ,
. . ,
. , ,
. , .
.

. , .
Web- BIOS
, . , BIOS, .


, .
, , , , .

5.1.
, ,

. ,
. ,
, ,
.
, (
,
). (
); ,
; ( )
-; ,
. 86
12 . -

5.1. 195

86 , ,
, ,
1-3 . ( ,
), ,
() ( )
. ()
IP (Instruction Pointer),
- .

, .
,
( ).
,
.

,
. (
) . () ,
()
. () , -,
. .
( )
,
( ).
.
,
, ( ) .
.exceptions) , .
.
, , , .
.
.
-~
. -
-
- (.
. 5.2.3). -
, ,
() i.
( ),
, ,
. -**
, ,
.

196 5.
,
, . , , BIOS (. . 15.4) . , ,
. , ,
:
. , , , 15
. , .

(CPU Central Processing Unit), .


, .
, - .
, ; , ; -, ,
.
,
,

.
-
, . ,
, .
,
, .
PC . 3.4, . 5.2.3.

5.1.1. .
.
, (, ),
(-
- ).
, (
) ( , - ) .
: -

5.1. 197

( ),
.

, .
, ()
, .
(
),
. 86,
(386) ,
( ),
.
, .
, ,
.
( -),
,
. ,
,
, ,
, -
. ,
86 2-3- .

5.1.2.
( ),
.
,
.

-, , -
. .

. ,
.
, .

- , .
,
, \ ).
,
.

198 5.

, ,
.
. ,
, .
,
. , (
) . ,
- [2].
,
. 64 ,
1 .
PC 640 ,
. (conventional
memory),
400-550 (
).
, .
80286,
32- (80386 ). -,
64-
4 . -,
(paging). (
) (
)
( ).
,

. ,
,
(). .
, -
: , ,
. (
) ( , ,
, ),
, .
( ). , , , ,

, .

5.1. 199

5.1.3.

IBM- ,
80x86 Intel. IBM PC
8088 16- . ,
32- (386, 486, Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III, Celeron, Pentium 4
Intel, K5, 7 (Athlon Duron) AMD, MI, Mill Cyrix/ VIA)
, SSE 3DNow!,
,
. + ,
, . 286
80286, 386 80386, ..., 5 Pentium, P6
6- , Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III Celeron. , P5+ Pentium, Pentium MMX,
Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Celeron, Pentium III Pentium 4.
Pentium Pentium 4 Athlon,
. ,
,
. [2, 9]. ,
32-
,
.
486 [3],
[11.
,
Web-.
,
- .
IA-32 (Intel Architecture 32 bit) 32-
86 5-7 .
. IA-32
, , , ( ).
5-7 Pentium (MMX)
, Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III, Celeron , , Pentium 4 7

, ,
. .
(pipelining) , . eftepy . , -
-

200 5.

.

(penalty cycles)
. ,
, ,
Pentium 6 .
Pentium .
(superpipelined) ,
, ,
. Pentium 4 20 .
,
Intel 486 . (superscalar)
(Pentium ) ,
. Pentium (
), 6 .
(register renaming)
(
).
,

. , , , , ,
.
(data forwarding) .
, , ,
.
(branch prediction)
( ), .
( ) , , , . . ,
, , , ,
, .
, , .
, (speculative
execution),
, .
, ,
(
, ).

5.2. 32- 201

(out-of-order execution), RISC-, 86.


,
() - , ,
, .

( 16- ),
.

,
. -, . .
6, 10-
, Pentium 4 Intel
. -, ,
(
). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6
12, 5, 4, 2, 1 0,5 .
, , . 8- , , ,
,
, . , -.we
, ,
.

5.2. 32
32- Intel 80386. t
16- 8086/88 80286 , ?
. 80386
64 . 32- 4 -.
. -
64 ,
(Paging).
- -,
. 8086,
80286.
-4 , :
faal Address Mode ( - Real Mode), 8086. -

202 5.

1 ( , 80286,
64 ).
Protected Virtual Address Mode
( Protected Mode).
4 , 64 .
, ; , , ,
.
Virtual 8086 Mode 8086. , 8086. .
. ,
- .
Big Real Mode, Unreal Mode, 32- , 4- . ,
, FS GS

.
, Pentium 486,
System Management Mode (SMM),
, . .
8-, 16- 32- ,
, , , .
(- ). FPU, IA-32 86
.

.
.

,
(, ,
) . . -
FPU (Floating Point Unit ) NPX (Numeric
Processor extension ).
: 16-, 32-, 64- ; 32-, 64-, 80 (FP-) 18-
- (BCD) . -

5.2. 32- 203

IEEE 754 854. . FPU 80 . FPU


; 486SX,
.
, 2/--
.
Pentium.

SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data).
64- :
(Packed byte) ;
(Packed word) ;
(Packed doubleword) ;
(Quadword) 64- .
64-
7, 80- FPU. (8, 4, 2 1), .
(saturating
arithmetic).
(wraparound mode) ,
-?
, .
.
( ) .
, , .
FPU FPU
.
.
Pentium III 4 SSE
Screaming SIMD Extensions), 1
128- , ...7. -~
32-
. ( ) .

. -
32- . -
FPU/MMX ,
- .
-,
,
, ,

204 5.

) .
SSE
, .
Pentium 4 SSE2,
128- .
3DNow!, AMD 6-2,
.
.
64- . SDNow!
,
, .

( FPU,
).
SDNow! FP- , (8 , 4 , 2 ) 64 . Athlon SDNow!
. (DSP),
FP-; ,
. SSE.
FPU,
. - ,
,
, . ,
, , . ,
.

5.2.1.
86 , :
;
;
;
& ;
;
;
;

5.2. 32- 205

;
- ( )
.
IA-32, , . 5.1.
86
16- 8086/8088 80286.
(Extended ).
16
. .
, (16 32) ,
, . ,
(16 32) ,
( 8 ).
16 .

. , 16- ,
32-
. ,


.

31
16 15

BL AL
CL
DHDX DL EDX
ESI
SI
EDI
DI

ESP
1;
SP

15


IP
31

1615___
FLAGS
EIP
EFLAGS

. 5.1. 32-

,
, -<
). ^.
rtf-Tbwo- MSR (Model-Specific Registers) ?
, -

206 5.

, ,
. ,
, .
.
, ;
.

5.2.2.
86 . (Memory Space)
,
(24 ).
( ).
(Paging) 4 ,
. 5- , 4 . .
.
.

. .
: ,
. 32-
,
(. 5.2).
, , Seg ( ) ,
(Offset).
Seg: Off set. 14
(CS, DS, ES, SS, FS GS),
. , ,
.
base, index, displacement scale.
16 (214), ,
, 4 ,
64 .
(
).
32-
.
.

16 ( 8086). -

5.2. 32- 207

, , , .
32



'32

[3-0]#, 31-2,

15

i _

32

=/->
2 1 0 /14

()

. 5.2. 32-

32- .
. (
) .
4 (
2 4 ).
36 .
.
( ) . 32/36 4/64 ,
1 , .

, ESP
( ) SS ( ).
,
. - PUSH
(), POP ().

208 5.

PUSH POP , ,
, .
:
, ;
, ;
.
,
SS:ESP ( , , ). , , .
(
), , ,

5.2.3.


.
(E)FLAGS CS:(E)IP ,
.
, , (

).
(),
(0-255) .
,
(). ()
IRET,
CS:(E)IP . ,
, IRET
. .
() ;
.
* NMI; (01).
INT ( APIC);
.
* - ; .
,

5.2. 32- 209

, , IF.
BIOS
.
( ) IF. IRET,
( ) , ,
. ,

, IRET
, .
,
IF. , ,
.
,
. .
IF
,
.
.

INT IF.
IF. , NMI (Non-Maskable Interrupt), ,
, SMI# (System Management
Interrupt).
() . -
, -.-
. -
.
(0-255) >
IDT (Interrupt Descriptor Table).
( ) , . S
IDT 8- ,
32 256
.
( ) Intel -^
0-31 , PC -:
BIOS DOS,

210 5.
. ;
.
,
INTR INTA#
. ,
Pentium,
APIC (Advanced Programmable Interruption Controller).
LINT[1:0] -
(PICD[1:0] PICCLK),
APIC .
LINTO, LINT1.
, .
() ( SMI)
APIC.

. APIC
,
APIC, (Interrupt Routing),
, .
8259,
APIC
. APIC
APICEN , .

5.2.4.

CRO (Protect
Enable). IDT GDT.
,
80286, CRO.
, .
Big Real Mode,
( 4 ) .
, 80286 80386
64 ,
. DOS ,
.

5.3. 211

5.3.
32- : (LI Cache L2 Cache),
(TLB)
. ( , ) 486,
Pentium 6. 80386 (Intel) TLB, -, , .


. . , ,

, (cache thrashing).
.
6
CPUID(2). , (. ).
-

. .
(Snoop Cycle Inquire Cycle), (
) . ,
,
. ,
. .
, ()
, ,
. 6

, .
,
.
, Pentium, MESI,
(Modified), E (Exclusive), S (Shared) /
(Invalid). 5/,
. :
- , ; -

212 5.
(
) ;
^- ,
( ); -, ;
5- ,
;
,
;
/- , ;
.
,
.
, .
, (, )
. ,

(, ) ,
.
.
.
UC (Uncacheable).
,
, .
.
-, .
.
WC (Write Combining).
, . , , ( CPUID,
, ...). ,
, (
).
WT (Write-through). ,
, .
, - .
. , , , -

5.3. 213

, ,
.
WB (Write-back). , -.
, . . ,
,
.
WP (Write protected). , ,
.
().
.
( )
,
MTRR PAT (. ),
.

5.3.1.
,
,
.
,
.
,
. 6+ MTRR,
.
.
, :
, WT WB.
, - . ,

-. -
( )
FLUSH* (, , RESET).
. , ,
. ,
().

214 5.

SSE 3DNow! ,
.
, ,
, .
.

(, ).
( )
, AHOLD.
,
,
EADS#. ,
( ).

CRO: CD (Cache Disable) NW (No Write Through).
CR3 .
486 5
KEN# WB/WT#. ( )

KEN# .
( , ).
WB- WB/WT#,
WT. PCD
PWT () (
). , (,
), PCD PWT CR3,
. , CD WT
CRO.
6 MTRR (Memory Type Range Registers), , .
96
.
, ,
-, .
MTRR ,
. , POST BIOS,
. . 5.1.

5.4. 215
5.1. , MTRR

MTRR1
WB
UC (UnCacheable)
WC (Write
Combining)

(Weak
Ordering)

WT (Write-Through) 4

(Speculative
Processor
Ordering)

WP (Write-Protected) 5

WB (Write-Back)

UC- (UnCacheable)
7

2, 3, 8-255 , 6 . 7
PAT.
2 , .
1

MTRR - (MSR).
1-
( 6 8 )
.
MTRR
. , , BIOS .
Pentium III
,
( ) . PAT (Page Attribute Table).
(TLB)
. .
.
.
, .

5.4.

, , SMM,

216

iS.

^ .
,
.

5.4.1.
(hardware reset)
RESET#. RESET#
.

,
.
, (WB/WT) ,
, ( , APIC)
.
CMOS Setup.

.
-, (TLB)
(). , FFFFFFFOh. ( ,
). , , ,
RESET# BIOS
FFFFFFFO-FFFFFFFFh, PC 8086/88 ROM BIOS
(FFFFFh), a AT-286
16- (FFFFFFh).
6
OFFFFOh, , , , ( Pentium 4
).
Pentium+ INIT, , -,
FPU MSR.
( 80286)
. ,
API .

5.4.2.
Intel ,
(. .
5.5.2). (errata)
. 6
, , ,
. (Microcode Update)

5.4. 217

,
( 111# ).
Intel

( ). ,
.
, , .
,
. (
), .
:
BIOS ;
BIOS . BIOS
,
BIOS (. . 4.2.6), .
BIOS DMI.
[2].
BIOS ,
, DOS/ Windows 9x
AUTOEXEC.BAT .
2048
. 48- (
) (2000 ). .
,
. ,
(, , , ),
. ,
. 1 ( )
( +48) MSR 79h.
- .
,
.
, , ( ).
, ,
.

5.4.3. SMM
32- (
486 386SL) , V86
SMM (System Management Mode).

218 5.

. ,
, .
SMM SMI#
(System Management Interrupt), P5+ SMM
API . SMI#
.
SMI# ( ),
SMM,
. SMM
SMRAM (
!), ,
( )

SMM.
SMI, SMRAM.
,
, .
SMM (
) ,
SMI.
RSM,
, SMRAM,
.
SMM :
, ( ) , SMI#.
- SMM, BIOS
. SMM :
SMM;
SMM ;
SMRAM;
;
SMM.
SMRAM
32 ( SMM) 4 .
SMI,
, .
,
() ,
( ). ,
, ( ) .
-

5.4. 219

CR4 ,
.
SMM , SMRAM, , . SMRAM ,
(
)
! SMI#.

5.4.4.

,
(FSB Clock).
, .
BCLK.

, <
). . 5.3. -
PLL (Phase Lock Loop)
( , )
. FBUS ( )
FCORE ( ) ,
, :
F

Bus/k2 F

CORE

BUS x kl/k2

FCORE

. 5.3. ( , ;
)


. ,
,
. -
FBUS
. -

220 5.

. ,
, ,
.
,
.
( ),
RESET*. ,
,
.
( ),
, , . ( )
.
,
.
, ,
RESET.

,
. . 5.4. (
), .
(Normal State) ,
.
HALT
INIT#, BINIT#, INTR, SMI#, RESET#

1. Normal State

STPCLK# ,
2


(BCLK)

(BCLK) . 5.4.

STPCLK# Stop
Grant, ,
10 .
,
, -. -

5.4. 221

STPCLK#.
STPCtK* SMM (Advanced Power Management).
() , $.
. (
, ) ,
. , STPCLK* -t&ctopa
( ),
.
, , ( ).
Auto HALT PowerDown
HALT.
.
Sleep ( ), SLP#, ( ).
.
SLP#, STPCLK# RESET*. SLP# -:
Stop Grant
APIC. 1 .
Deep Sleep
BCLK.
.
Pentium
, 1-4. Pentium II/III Celeron
5 6 ( 6 ).

5.4.5.

( )
.
(SMP Symmetric Multi-Processing)
(FRC Functional Redundancy Checking).

,
( , , ). -
86 SMP
Athlon AMD. FRC , Intel
Pentium, ;
AMD.


Pentium ( ) (

222 5.

).
SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processing).
SMP ,
. SMP , Novell NetWare,
Microsoft Windows NT UNIX. ,
, ,
.
, .
,


( Pentium ).
, ,
.

.
. Pentium ( )
,
.

RESET. (Primary)
(BSP Bootstrap Processor), (DP Dual Processor). RESET
(BSP), .

APIC, .
6 SMP.
6, Pentium,
( ) ( ) . 8 (Pentium Pro) 2 (Pentium II
) , 1 (Pentium II) . Pentium II OverDrive 8 .
Intel
( ,
, Pentium Pro). (BSP),
, .
SMP-,
BSP.
APIC,
15 .
.

5.5. 223

Celeron
. Mendocino
BR1#, SMP, , , .
PGA 1 (
), 75
AN15 . ,
Celeron

75. SEPP
75 BR1# .
Celeron , ,
. Celeron
Coppermine SMP ( Pentium III
Coppermine).


FRC (Functional
Redundancy Checking) ( Master/Checker)
. (Master)
. (Checker)
, , () , ,
. , .

5.5.

, IBM PC-
86 Intel, .

. ( )
, .
, , .

5.5.1.
, PC,
Intel Architecture (IA-32),
. ,
, ,
.
-

224 5.

. ,
,
() :
, ;
;
* ;
- .
, , 8088,
80386, Pentium 4,
. ,
, , .
. , PC
,
.
.
, ,
, -.

(, , ) ,
. ,
.
, , Cyrix.

.
-
BIOS 8088, 80286 80386
(JMP SHORT) .
( ),
,
. BIOS, .
,
( 486 , 80386). . JMP,
, , ,
.
*-
.
,
.
.
,
, ,

5.5. 225

. -
, , ,
, .
. CPU ID
.
, ,
. , ,
PUSH SP 8086/88 , 80286
,
.
,

. ,
. MSR , ,
.

5.5.2.
86 . IA-32
(E)DX (3 386, 4
486, 5 Pentium, 6 6...), , .
Pentium, CPU ID,
,
BIOS , , , 32-
, .
, , ,
(
), .
CPUID
486. ,
(
). CPUID
, , ,
(
).
, , ()
, , -, .
Pentium II (
) PIROM (Processor Information ROM),
,
- ( ), 64-
. ,

226 5.

Scratch EEPROM, ( )
. PIROM Scratch
EEPROM ( )
SMBus (System Management Bus)
, .

, , .
Pentium III CPUID,
64- . , Intel,
( )
, .
, ,
.
-
BBL_CR_ CTL (MSR 119h) ( 21).
1 , MSR,
CPU ID . ,
MSR ,
.
( !) .
BIOS,
Windows , MSR
, ( )
.
CPU ID, 21 (ID) EFLAGS.
CPUID(O) (Intel, AMD, Cyrix...) . CPUID(l)
, , , .
( ).
,
, , Pentium II Pentium II
.
, ,
CPUIDC2). , , , ,
CPUIDC3). AMD, 5 1. Intel,
Pentium 4, CPUID, (
48 ).
,
,
.

5.5. 227

,
SMBus.

. (
) ( CR4).
.
CPUID , CR4.

5.5.3.
,
, - . . 5.2, Intel, AMD,
Cyrix, VIA Centaur ( Cyrix
IBM VIA).
5.2. 5-7-

L2
1.1,

- (PR)

()

(,
/
)
Intel
Pentium '. '. - 60,66
60,66
-)
Pentium 2- 50, 60, 66
)
Pentium !
MX
Pentium
Pro
Pentium II
OverDrive

66

16 (8/8)

75, 90, 100, 16 (8/8)


120, 133,
150, 166, 180,
200
166, 200, 233 32 (16/16)

5,

7 3,3; 2,9/3,3

2,8/3,3

50, 60, 66

150, 166, 180, 16 (8/8)


200

256 , 512

3,3

66

333

32 (16/16)

512

2,5

Pentium II

66, 100

233, 266,
300, 350,
400, 450

32 (16/16)

512

2,8; 2,0

Pentium II

100

400, 450

32 (16/16)

512 ,

+ 1 , 2

2,0

Celeron

66

266, 300

32 (16/16)

1,

>

2,0 -370

228 5.
5.2 ()

, (PR)

L1, L2 -
(()
/-)

, 333,
366, 400,
433, 466,
500, 533

32 (16/16) 128

1 (
433 ),
-370

2,0

Celeron
66, 100
(Copper-mine)

533, 566766, 800,


850, 900

32 (16/16) 128

+, SSE

-370

1,5

Pentium III 100, 133

450, 500,
32(16/16) 512
533, 550, 600

+, SSE

2,0-2,05

Pentium III 100, 133


(Copper-mine)

500, 533,
550, 600,
650, 667,
700, 733,
750, 800,
850, 866,
900, 933,
1000,
600-866

32 (16/16) 256

+, SSE

1,
-370
( 1 )

1,65-1,80

32 (16/16) 256

+, SSE

2,0

Pentium III 100 Xeon


()

500, 550

32 (16/16) 512 ,
2

+, SSE 1 , 2

2,0

Pentium 4

1400, 1500,
1700

-78

+, SSE2

423

1,6

5, 7

3,3
2,5-2,9/3,3

2,9/3,3 3,2/3,3
2,2/3,3

2,2/3,3

Celeron

66

Pentium III 100, 133


Xeon ()

4x100

256

AMD
AMD K5

50, 60, 66

AMD K6

66 MMX

PR75, 90,
24 (16/8) 100, 120, 133,
166
PR166, 200, 64 (32/32) 233, 266,
300, 333

AMD K6-2 66, 100

300, 333,
350, 380,
400, 450,
475, 500,
533, 550

64 (32/32) -

+, 3DNow!

AMDK6-III100
AMD
2x100
Athlon 1 2

400, 450
550, 600,
650, 700,
750, 850,
900, 950,
1000

64 (32/32) 256
+, SDNow!
128 (64/64) 512 +, SDNow! 8

1,6-1,7/ 2,53,3

5.5. 229
L1, L2 -

- (PR) (()

/-)
,

AMD
Athlon,
4

2x100,
2x133

AMD Duron 200

800, 900,
950, 1000,
1100, 1200,
1300, 1000,
, 1200,
1330
600, 650,
700, 800,
850, 900

128
(64/64)

256

+, 3DNow!

128
(64/64)

64

+, SDNow!


Cyrix 6x86 50, 55, 60, PR120, 133, 16
150, 166, 200
(Ml): 6x86L 66, 75

5,7 3,3-3,52
7 2,8/3,3

60, 66,
75,83

PR166, 200, 16
233, 266

Cyrix 6x86
MII-xxxGP

66, 75, 100 PR300, 333, 16


350

133

VIA

16

256

+, SDNowl

-370

256

+, SDNow!

-370

+
+

5
7

VIA Cyrix
III Goshua)

133

433, 466,
500,
533...700
Centaur

64

Winchip C6
Winchip 2

60, 66,75
60, 66, 75,
100

64 (32/32) 64 (32/32) -

180-240
200-300

1,7-1,75

Cyrix

Cyrix 6x86
MX

VIA Cyrix
MII+

2,9/3,3

3,3-3,5
3,3-3,5

* 12 .

, 486,
,
,
8- 16- .
586,
, 486. , ,
PC 486
, .
Intel 6- ,
. 1 (SC242)
Pentium II, Celeron (
433 ) Pentium III. -370 Celeron -Celeron 600,
Pentium III 256 VIA Cyrix III,

230 5.

(. . 4.2.1).
-370 1. 2
SSE, . 8, Pentium Pro,
Pentium II Overdrive (Xeon-333). - 8
Celeron (
).

5.6. Intel
Intel
86. IBM PC
,
( [1, 2, 3]).
Pentium Intel
86.
32- , 64- ,
64-.
4 . Pentium MMX (P55C)
Pentium. MMX- Pentium
MMX ,
. Pentium 233 ,
Pentium MMX - 266 .
Pentium
486. 486
, Pentium .

(WT), .
2 SMP FRC. Pentium
4, 5 7 .

5.6.1. 6
Intel Pentium Pro,
Pentium II/III, Celeron.
6. ,
,
(out of
order), .
,
. ,
. 5.7.1. -

5.6. Intel 231

,
.
6
DIB (Dual Independent Bus), , , .
,
, .

,
, .
,
90 %.
(),
, FSB (Front-Side Bus) 6.
.
90-
10 %
, 60 %
. ,
(533 / 66,67 1064 / 133
) ,
.
.
. 6
, , . , Pentium II/III .
Pentium Pro, Pentium ,
Pentium .

: SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions)
Pentium III. , ( )
AMD 3DNow!
6-2 7.
6 , Pentium Pro (1995 ., 0,6 , 150 ) Pentium III (2000 ., 0,18 , 1
). 1 , Pentium III-1,13
- .
Pentium 60 (1993 .),
233 (1997 .), , ,
.
Pentium Pro (1995 ., 0,5 , 0,35 )
150, 166, 180 200
256 512 (1024 ). -

232 5.

8+8 .
. 60 66 .
EGC.
(SMP)
.
(
). 8. 1998
Pentium II OverDrive
(. ) 333 ( 66,6 ),
512 ( 64 ),
, (KF-5, 60
300 ).
.
2,5 , VRM,
, VCcp 2,0 .
, 3- 4-'
. Pentium Pro
. , (599 ),
.
8 ( )
, , 350 ,
Pentium II 100 8.
Pentium Pentium Pro .
Pentium Pro (16+16 ),
0 2 .
,
(Single Edge Contact Cartridge SECC).
14 x 6,2 x 1,6 (CPU Core),
, ,
( ).
-
, .
. -,
.
Pentium II (
Klamath), 1997 , 7,5
0,35 , 2,8 .
233, 266 300
66,6 .
512 .
1, 8
Pentium Pro. 1

5.6. Intel 233


(FRC). ,
Pentium Pro ,
. CPUID 063xh.
Pentium II, Deshutes,
1998 0,25 , 2,0 .
( , , ).
333 66,6 , 350, 400 450
100 . SDRAM (
),
. 1 (-
). 350 , , L2,
4 . CPUID 065xh.
Pentium III (1999 .) Pentium .
Katmai. SIMD- SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions), KNI (Katmai New Instructions),
128- . 32-
( ). FPU/MMX ,

. ( ). ,
. . CPUID, 64- (, SMBus). Pentium III SECC SECC2 1, FC-PGA -370; Pentium III Xeon
2.
Pentium II Pentium II .
(FRC) Pentium III Xeon.
500 , 100 133 .
Pentium III 512 -
,
( ). CPUID 067xh.
Coppermine ( CuMine)
Pentium III. copper ( ) ,
. 0,18 , 28 ,
106 2. SECC-2 -1 \SC242) FC-PGA (Flip-Chip PGA) -370. 32
(16+16), -,
Advanced Transfer Cache) 256 -,
. 256

234 5.

( 6 Celeron 64 ). Celeron Pentium III, CuMine


( ), 4 . ,
Pentium III 533B 533
533 8 = 4,2 533 32 = 17 / .
SSE . -370
1,6 , 1 1,65 . 100 133 .
. 500 (100
5), 533 (133 4), 550 (100 5,5), 600 (100 6 133 4,5), 650 (100 6,5), 667 (133
5), 700 (100 7), 733 (133 5,5), 750 (100 7,5), 800, 850, 866, 933, 1000 (
500 550 ). , Pentium
III-533EB, , 133 (
100 ). Pentium III
, 2000 FC-PGA
. , RB805526PY600256
600/256/1'00/1.6V - / 2/
/ . 2000 850 866 .
(500 550 ) FC-PGA SMP, ,
600 , SMP . SECC2
, 1.
BIOS
(1,65 ) . FC-PGA
Celeron, -370, ,
(,
i440BX/ZX) . CPUID 068xh.
1998
Pentium II, Celeron. Celeron
Covington ( 0,25 , 2 ) 266 300 (
66 ) 1,
SEPP (Single Edge Processor Package).
.
(
1 , , ). CPU ID
065xh.
Celeron
.
1998 Celeron, Mendocino. Celeron 300A ( 300 )
Celeron 333-533 . (128 ) ,
(
Pentium Pro, ). 300433 1 ( 0,25 , 2,0 ),
-370 ( 0,22 , 2,0 ) PPGA.

5.6. Intel 235

PPGA 533 , 66 . CPUID 066xh.


2000 Celeron Coppermine (0,18 ,
1,5 ), Celeron .
Celeron, 128 ,
66 . SSE.
533 (Celeron 533A). 800 , -
100 . CPUID 068xh. FC-PGA
( -370),
Celeron (RESET# , 2
GND).
( ,
128 ), Celeron Pentium II
.
36 32 ( 4
).
, -
,
.
: BRO#,
.
BR1# ,
Celeron SMP-.
. 66
( BSEL[1:0]#).
() Pentium II Pentium III.
2, ( )
FRC, 1-, 2-, 4- 8-
. , Pentium Pro, (
). 512 , 1 2 .
64 ( 36- ).
, 15,2
12,7 1,9 .
.
( ) PIROM (Processor Information ROM) ,
- ( ), S 64- . CPUID
, -.
Scratch EEPROM
(
) . ( ) -

236 5.

. - , . PIROM.

, .
PIROM, Scratch EEPROM
SMBus (System
Management Bus).
Pentium II Xeon Deshutes (0,25 )
100 , 400-500 . 6+.
Pentium III Xeon Tanner (0,25 )
100 , 500 . 512 , 1
2 ( 550 512 ),
. P6+MMX+SSE.
( 4/8 SMP).
Pentium HI Xeon Cascades (0,18 )
133 , 600 . 256
, , .
.
2 866 .
(
Coppermine, , SM Bus,
).
6 . :
BGA1, BGA2 , Micro-PGA2
, - 240-
-1 -2. :
Pentium III, Pentium II ,
Celeron 128 Pentium II
256 .
Pentium II/III:
- (FRC) ;
* ,
1 ;
;
Quick Start,
Stop Grant , ( ),
,
Quick Start , Stop Grant.
,
iXBT Hardware (http://ixbt.stack.net) . 5.5.

5.6. Intel 237

. 5.5.

BGA1 ( PBGA-B615) 35
32 2,8 . BGA (Ball Grid Array) 24
26 1,27 .
- ( ) 56 60 5,5 . 240- 8 30.
- ,
,
SMBUS ( PC).
-1 (Mobile Module Connector
1). 102 64 ,
140- .
Connector 1. 8 (
).
, (
), 1440 .
4,
,
. i440BX
PCI 2.1 (3,3 ) ( 3 SO DIMM EDO
SDRAM).
5-21 .
+3,3 +5
, .
,
SMBUS.
ACPI 1.0.
-2 -1 AGP 1.0
66 ( 2 500 /). AGP
, -2
400 . ,
-1.

238 5.


4 : 8, 1, 2 -370. Intel
AMD, Cyrix ( -370
VIA). () SPGA, SECC, SECC 2, SEPP,
PPGA ( ).
Pentium Pro
(SPGA), () ,
-.
Pentium Pro
SECC (Single
Ended Edge Connector). (S.E.C.C., S.E.P.P., Intel).
, Pentium II.
(),
( - ).
( ).
Celeron
. 10 , SEPP. Celeron
PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array),
Pentium. Pentium III
. Pentium II Pentium III Xeon
SECC, .
, 1 (SC242),
(. 5.6, ).
w SECC Pentium II Pentium III.
.
(thermal plate), ,
( ).
.
+70...75 ( ).
SECC 2 , ,
350 ( SECC).
,
,
. , SECC 2,
PLGA (Plastic Land Grid Array), OLGA (Organic Land Grid
Array). 400
90
80 , PLGA. ,
105 .

5.6. Intel 239

SEPP (Single Edge Processor Package) Celeron,


, .
, Celeron
.

. 5.6. : 1; -370; 2

240 5.

-370 PPGA FC-PGA (.


5.6, ) .
(FC Flip Chip, ). PPGA
, FC-PGA
; , .
1 8
-. .
. (. 5.7)
,
(
SENSE)
.

( Celeron PPGA ).
+12V

(7-13,8 ), 100 .
SENSE
+12V
GND

. 5.7.

Pentium II

Pentium Pro SPGA 387


,

( SPGA-).
Pentium II SECC,
350 SECC 2. SECC
.
Pentium III SECC 2,
Coppermine FC-PGA.
Celeron SEPP 1,
PPGA FC-PGA -370.
SEPP ( ) ,
266 ( ). 466 ,
. PPGA , Celeron
300 ( 128 ). PPGA
.
Celeron 533A, 566, 600... FC-PGA.
-370 1. PPGA
1, .
Pentium II Pentium HI Xeon (. . 5.6, )
SECC 2.

5.6. Intel 241

5.6.2. Pentium 4
Pentium 4 32- 86,
, ( Intel)
. 86
SSE2 (. . 5.2).
- Pentium 4 Pentium III.
,

(2) (4) ,

. , NetBurst,
(1,4 ), (400
).
. ,
:
,
, ,
;
;
;
;
(HDTV);
;
-.
Pentium 4 - .
42 ,
0,18 ( Pentium III Coppermine 28 ).
' 1,4 1,5 . - . ,
, 256 256
(32 ), Pentium III.
, 32 1,4 =
44,8 / (48 / 1,5 ). -,
.
(44,8 /),
(8 16 Pentium III).
, (trace cache).
,
. 12 .

, , , -

242 5.

1. (FRC). 6 ,
AGTL+.
.
( )
400 (quad pumped). ,
, .
100 ,
. -
BCLKO BCLK1 (
).
100 . 2 4-
: ,
, ,
. 2 , ADSTBO# ADSTB1#.
, .
, ( 10 ) , ( 6
2 , 15-30 ).
,
DSTBp[0:3]# DSTBn[0:3]# 5 ( 200 ).
2,5 ( ),
.
, ,
64 (8 ), 4-
1 0 0 x 4 x 8 = 3,2 /. Pentium III
133 8 - 1,06 /, Pentium 4
. 36 ,
64 , 4 .
. , . , .
,
, , .
. 6
, -
.
,
.
1

, Pentium II, III Celcron(l)


, - .

5.6. Intel 243

, . ,
,
( ).
OLGA (interposer)
, -423 (. . 4.2.1),
. ,
.
1,6 40,6 (1,4 ) 43 (1,5
), 65-70 !
( stop grant) 3.5 ,
(deep sleep) 6,6 ( !).
, ,
,
, 250 .
70 . Pentium HI-1000 2 .
, Pentium 4 , :
. (Thermal Control
Circuit) ( ). , ,
, . -
: 3 -.
3 . -
50 %.
1:8 8:1, ,
1:1 ( , -
- , , 1/8 ).
- . BIOS ,
.
Pentium 4 , Pentium 4 Intel
i850.
RDRAM (Rambus).
RDRAM 32-, RIMM -.1
.
NetBurst
( ) , -
, (. )
, , -
, -. 6,
1,4
Pentium 4 -- ?6 -

244 5.

, ,
. , ,
(
Office 2000 Pentium 166 Word 7). Pentium 4 1,4
( 0,18 ), .
NetBurst ( )
Xeon (Foster),
(SMP).
256 , (1,4, 1,5 1,7 ) 2
SMP, 4 8 .
, 603 Socket F.

5.7. AMD
Pentium 75 (AMD, Cyrix, IBM)
Pentium- . 5 7 Intel .
(, )
, .
Intel, 7 233 ( Pentium
MMX 233 ), AMD, Cyrix IBM
. 2000
533 , Pentium
II/III . Intel
.
7 Super 7,
100
AGP
.
Pentium . ( )
6,
( ).
AMD Super 7 , .

5.7.1. AMD 5 7
AMD ,
7 ( 5 5).
86 ,
Windows.
, .
-, -

5.7. AMD 245

. ,
AMD, .
AMD, , SMM
.
Intel.
AMD K5 PR75/90/100/120/133/166 - Pentium- , 7.
Intel :
, ,
, . PR (P-Rating),
PR.
AMD 5K86 75 MHz (90, 100...).
50, 60 66,66 ,
(. . 4.2.1).
AMD , AMD ( 300, 266, 233, 200 166 ), , Pentium II, Pentium II, . AMD 200 Windows Intel Celeron
300. BIOS,
-
. ,
, ,
Pentium II, .
(VCC2) (VCC3=3,3 ) , . Stop Grant
. AMD 300
6,6 .
AMD -2 . (
9) 3DNow!
(. . 5.2),
, . 100 .
. 350
Windows 95 ,
AMD.
2000 6-2+ 7
128 , (500 ).
0,18 . SDNow! DSP.
AMD K6-III (Sharptooth)
7 (, Super 7),
Pentium III ( , 6-2).
-

246 5.
6--450 - Pentium III-450 500 .
, 6. K6-III (!) . (, 6-2),
64 ( 32 )
, Pentium II, III.
256 ,
.
,
2 , () .
Pentium III , , ; Celeron , 128 . K6-III
Super 7, 2
-, 3- . ,
( 800 /),
.
, SDRAM,
(latency). K6-III
2368 , 320
. K6-III Athlon
86. K6-III
.
AMD-K6-III+
500 ; 0,18 . 3DNow! DSP.

Athlon (K7) Pentium 4,


( ) 86.
1999 .
,
.
AMD Intel.
6-
3DNow!. 3DNow! 21
, 6-2, 24. SIMD- , , 7 .
(DSP), , ( ADSL),
(Dolby Digital surround sound).
Athlon ,
( ) , ,
.

5.7. AMD 247

Athlon 1 ( 0,25 ) 2 (0,18 , 550


) 242-
. 1
,
Intel. Athlon
Pentium II/III .
128 (64 64 ) , . -.
550-700
2:1, 750 800 2,5:1, 900 3:1.
700 ,
(!).
512 8 , 512- .
2,5 3,3 .
Athlon 4 256
, .
Pentium III Athlon
8- ( 32--),
Athlon . '.
(Socket-462),
-370,
( ).
Duron 7 ( Spitfire).
, 64 , ,
. PGA .
.
Athlon Duron EV6 : Alpha, 200 '..6
/.
, , 400 . EV6 ,
-: AMD . Athlon -ta
AMD-750, :
. AMD-751
, SDRAM PC100, AGP (66 ,
:? 2) PCI.

5.7.3. Cyrix, VIA, IBM


. Cyrix , .
( ) i.-.:
- . (Data Dependency Remo-

248 5.

val) ( Pentium
Pro 16- ).
Cyrix 6x86 (1), 86, ,
Pentium, .
, , . .
16 , ;
256- .
7.
Pentium, Windows 95
6x86 486. BIOS
Cyrix, POST
. Windows 95 Pentium, , Pentium, ,
86.
Cyrix 5x86,
,
Clipper. - ,
. -,
ftp://ftp.cyrix.com/tech/pipeloop.exe.
3D-Studio ,
ftp://ftp.ktx.com/download/patches/3dsr4/fast_cpu/fstcpufx.exe.
Cyrix 6x86-PI20+ 120+ , Pentium 120 (PRating). 120+, 133+, 150+, 166+ 200+.
,
, , ,
Pentium. 50, 55, 60, 66,66
75 , : 55 ( 133+)
, 75
Pentium . 25
( Pentium Pro),

. 6x86L
.
Cyrix 686 Ml, , Pentium ( , )
64 . , Intel,
, ,
. . Cyrix MII. ,
2, 2,5, 3 3,5 .
IBM Cyrix,
. Cyrix
( ).

5.7. AMD 249

6 Rise ( )
7 . 16 (8+8). -
166 366 .
IDT (Integrated Device Technology) IDT-C6,
Winchip, Centaur ( )
5. 486 ( ), . Win-chip-2
Super 7. FPU,
SDNow! (
3D), 200-300 . Winchip-2A ,
SDNow!. Centaur VIA.
VIA Cyrix , VIA ( Cyrix)
Joshua, -370. SDNow!. 64 (),
L2 256 , .

.
PC,
, -, , , , .
, , (Main Memory)
( ) , (, ) (, -, . .).
( )
RAM (Random Access Memory) .

. ,
:
( ) ,
;
, ;
, , .
- (Cache Memory) (),
( )
. -
;

251

, .

, ,
- , .
- , , .

BIOS, . .
, (
) . ROM (Read Only Memory
^ ) ( ).
:: , BIOS PC/XT 8 , =
128 - 2 . , ,
(. . 3.2.4).
-, s
, (, FRAM).
-_
. :
- (CMOS Memory CMOS RTC)
, ESCD (Extended Static Configuration Data) -,
Plug and Play
. CMOS-

. -
NV RAM (Non-Volatile RAM),
.
(-SLMX.
.) (-.
) .
16- FIFO- -, 16- ( - SCSI-.



.
-
Flash Drive (. . 7.1).
, .

,
.

252 6.

6.1.
, , ,
(, ).

, ,
, . (
) , , , , .
, ,
, .

6.1.1.


.
.
(access time)
. , .
( ),
.

.
.
.
, , -,
, -,
,
, .
, , ,
(Memory Burst Read Cycle).
(. . 6.1.4) ,
(486 ); ,
( ,
).
, .
5-3-3-3

. (latency)

6.1. 253

, . ,
, . 5-1-1-1 100 133 .
Pentium 4, 64- ,
.

,
.

, .
( ), . (1
- 8088; 2 - 8086, 80286, 386SX; 4 - 386DX,
-486; 8 Pentium ). ,
, .
32- ( )
Pentium , , 64 . :
(8086, 386DX)
50 % (8088, 386SX)
. , 32-
-. Pentium, .
( , SIMM DIMM), . .
( -)
.
486- SIMM-72 SIMM-30. 5-6 ( AMD 7-)
SIMM-72 DIMM RIMM (
, . ).
ji50 Pentium 4 RIMM (
, ).
, & (bank
:2.:erieaving). , t
) .
. !
,
-
,

254 6.

.

.
()
. ,
() . (two way interleaving, three way interleaving).
.
.
,
, ,
, .
SDRAM (. )
, ( ...) (row).

6.1.2.
, . , , . , ( , , , , ...) ,
- .
, . , , , .
.
, ,
(
).
.
PC,
, . (Parity bit),
.
.
(NMI),
Parity Check Error ( )
Halt.
Halt ()
. , .

6.1. 255

( ),
.
, , Reset,
, Ctrl+Alt+Del.
( 06lh) NMI (. . 3.6.1),
NMI (
).
POST ,
( ).
,
CMOS Setup:
,
, . (SIMM, SIPP)
, , (-
) , , :
(fake parity PG Parity Generator).
1*
2,
, .
*
. **:> , VT, GSM . . , (Checklt, PCCheck . .)
.

. 1
, -
, , ->
.
, -I*
( 1, 3, 5 7 ), ,
:.,1> . ,
, -
( )
, - .
, -

, . *
.
, -*< .
n:*Siirrabift , -:
4S6. .

256 6.

Memory (Error Checking and Correcting).


(
, )
,
. 64- 7-8 .

()
.
.

.
,
. , -
,
.
, CMOS Setup.
, :
, ;
, ;
, (
).
, , - .
.
-
6 , , , . , ,
- ( CMOS Setup)
.
, (ROM BIOS) (CMOS RTC, ESCD)
(Checksum) , 256
.
POST.

6.1.3.
(DRAM),
(wait states). (SRAM), ,
, ,

( ).

6.1. 257


.
DRAM -
SRAM.
cache () , ().

. ,
.
,
.
(cache directory)
. , ,
: -, -
; -,
(
). ,
, .
, ,
, ,
. Windows ,
,
(. . 3.2.7).
- , .
, - (cache hit) .
, - (cache miss),
.
, ,
.
, , .
,

.
, ( Look aside).
,
. :
( Look Through), ,
, , .
, .
, L1 Cache (Level I Cache), 1 ,
(Internal, Integrated) 486 ,
386.
, L2 Cache (Level 2 Cache), 2 . Pentium ( ) (External) ,

258 6.

. 6
,
.
,
7, AMD K6-3, .
(8-128 ); , (

). Pentium 4
(. . 5.6.2).
- (coherency) -
, , (bus-master) ,
(PCI, VLB, ISA . .). ,
, .
(cache line) .
, , ,
.
.
(valid) ,
, . , (
) ,
(tag)
(tag RAM).
( ), 486
, ( 486
4 x 4 = 16 , Pentium 4 8 = 32 ).
(sectored) ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,

,
( ) .
, 6 . ,
, (
). ,
, , -

6.1. 259

(Write Policy). * : WT (Write Through)


WB (Write Back).
WT
( ), , ,
. -
.

.
* *^ ( ,
* - , ). -
.
, < FIFO-
.
WB
: . , ,
, , (dirty), , .
1 ( ) - (clean), Sier
* .

( ,
) .
, , * WT.


, -
, , ,
, . .

* -:
(direct-mapped cache), (fully esociative
cache) - - 'associative cache). [2], -
.
- ,
, ,
* . ,

( ). : , ,
!. , , -

260 6.

. , , ,
, .

.

. (read ahead),
(
).
.

.
:
, ,
, , (cache
trashing).
,
. (MCACHED)
- (VCACHK)
(N): MCACHED = VCACHE x 2N. , 256
8- ( 5 7)
MCACHED = 256 28 = 64 .
- ,
(set). ,
() ,
,
.
(Two Way Set-Associative Cache - ). -
. , ,
( )
.

,
.
,
.
.

6.1.4.
(Burst Mode)
486+. 486
16 , , 32-

6.2. 261

. 32- Pentium+
, 64 .
, .
(Burst Cycle)
.
,
, , , .
,
. .
. (interleaving) , . 6.1, Intel
, 486. , , --
. so

. ). : BEDO
DRAM, SDRAM Sync Burst SRAM, PB SRAM, RDRAM. (, Power PC) (linear) -
. :.
.
6.1. Pentium*


10h
18h


18h
10h

18h
.b

lOh

( -:.
)
. , -acii
. , , . , Kspmiep,
BEDO-50 5-: -: -1
66 .

6.2.
1* DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
, , . ffitx , , -

262 6.

, .
, ,
,
.
,

( )
. ,

( ).


,
.
, .

6.2.1. DRAM
DRAM .
MA
(Multiplexed Address) RAS# (Row Access Strobe)
CAS# (Column Access Strobe).
. 6.2.
6.2.

RAS#

Row Access Strobe .


, .

( ) ,
_________RAS (TRP - RAS precharge time)______________________________
CAS#
Column Access Strobe .
, (TCAS)
.
( ) ,
_________ CAS ( CAS precharge time)_____________
MAi
Multiplexed Address .
RAS# , CAS#
.
. 4
11 11
_________ 12 10 ______________
WE#
Write Enable .
CAS# WE# (Early Write ,
), WE# CAS# (Delayed Write
). WE#
CAS# , EDO DRAM

6.2. 263

Output Enable .

-In

Data Bit Input (
) -Out
Data Bit Output (

).
RAS#, CAS#, OE# WE#;

. EDO CAS#.

________ _____________________________
Data Bit
(
)

06*

No Connection

, ( ) RAS# CAS# ( -).


WE# CAS#. . 6.1. .
( RAS#) ,
TRAC,
5*

:AS*
1

TRAC

^
(R 1

VA

V *1 K1

01


(Early Write)

k.

^
^R2 X C2

TRC TRC

^
*

TCAS

j111
\\\\\

D1

>
)2

( R2 X c.2
TR

TCP

______

AS

TWC

(Later Write) k,
f

>

>

D2
'

\ ___

. 6.1.

DRAM , , -
CMOS Setup.
TRAC (RAS Access Time)
RAS (. -

264 6.

). , ,
(-7 -70
70 ). 40-100 .
(cycle time)
(Twc TRC ).
75-125 .
* ( CAS#)
(Page CAS Time - . . 6.2.3).
RAS# CAS# TRAS TCAS
( )
(. ).
RAS AS TRP (RAS AS Precharge Time)
.
RAS# CAS# TRCD (RAS to CAS Delay).
CAS# (TCAC).
. .
6.3 ,
.
CMOS Setup, ,

.
.. DRAM

RC' H^
RAC' ^
,

75

-5
_

' ^

50
_60
_

100
104

-4

HI

40

15
20
_25_
30

1
0

1
0



.
86 2 ,
.
, -, , -,
,
. ,

. , , SDRAM,
DDR SDRAM Rambus DRAM, ,
.
-7

6.2. 265

6.2.2.
( )
,
(Memory Refresh )
( ) .
.
. -
TRF (refresh time) . 8-64 . 512, :024.
2048 4096 . (districted
refresh) - tRF
(. 6.2, ), :5.6 .
refresh rate, -
f=l/tRF. :.
(extended refresh) 125 . 3-
(burst refresh), -:
(. 6.2, ), tj . 1024 130 ,
-< . , ,
, -
(, 4) .
tpjp = TRF/ n = 15,6 ( )



n 512 /1024 /2048 / 4096

. 6.2. : ;

. -
CAS# (. 6.3, ), .9OR
(RAS Only Refresh RAS#). ijpec
:~.4
RAS# , r-
.
CBR (CAS Before RAS), * (. 6.3, ).
? RAS# CAS#
* :<6 ). -

266 6.

,
,
. RAS# WE#
.

.
RAS only refresh

RAS#
CAS#

CAS before RAS

. 6.. : ROR (), CBR ()

CBR
Auto Refresh. Self Refresh Sleep Mode
.
, .
CBR, RAS#
100 .
.
RAS# CAS#.
(hidden refresh)
CBR: CAS#
, a RAS# ,
(. 6.4).
( , CBR,
CAS#
).
( CBR
).
PC/XT DMA-0.
Refr, 15,6 - 8253/9254 ( 04lh),
. PC/AT .
,
,
( ).
(smart refresh)
, ,
, -

6 . 2 . 267

. ,
(interleaving)
.

(slow refresh), ,
Extended Refresh.

(Hidden Refresh)

RAS#

CAS#

f
I

M
A

<

D1
. 6.4.

, , - , , ,
.

6.2.3. :
FPM, EDO BEDO DRAM
, . 6.1,
1." , -tsf
.
RAS# -:
, , .
FPM (Fast Mode)
(Page Mode), 1.
. 6.5. - (row),
RAS# .

, .
. 60
- 35 .
FPM (
* , EDO, ), -
( ). -

268 6.

FPM , EDO, BEDO SDRAM.


- (Std).

RAS#

CAS#
DATA {

/ ^

1X ci
1

J i l l l 9 ^ / ^ / ^ ^

X C4
I U ( (

1
04V

. 6.5. DRAM (FPM)

FPM
(bank interleaving): ( )
(. 6.6).
/

RASO# \
CASO#

DATA
RAS1#
CAS1#

DO X

X( D2

D1 X

\
\

' t DC ^
1\
/
/

. 6.6. DRAM : DO, D2


(CASO#); Dl, D3 1 (CAS1#)

,
DRAM
CAS# .
CAS# (-)
. 60-70
66
5-3-3-3.
, ,
EDO DRAM (Extended Enhanced Data Out). (data latch) , .
CAS#,
.
# (Output
Enable), CAS# RAS#,
WE#, CAS# ( PC
# ).

6.2. 269

EDO-
. 6.7,
(Hyper Page mode).
CAS# .
CAS#,
CAS#.
60 35 (28,5 )
DRAM 25 (40 ) EDO,
40 %. EDO- 60-70
66
5-2-2-2.
EDO- . ^
,
. , EDO .
, EDO- , .
- -;:4?.

. 6.7. EDO DRAM (HPM)

EDO DRAM SIMM-72 DIMM,


:
(FPM). EDO- ( EDO ). 36- EDO--
-, -: .
EDO DRAM -:
.. , :
. , -- :
. -tatt
EDO- **.
CAS# (. 6.8, - * RAS# :*
~ ).

270 6.

^
MA CZR

DATA

1 X ci

'

X
D1

C2

A
/\
D2

. 6.8. EDO DRAM

,
EDO . EDO- (
486). ,
, EDO-,
( ).
, -
EDO-.
BIOS EDO
. ,

(
, ).
,
,
.
EDO ,
.

BEDO DRAM (Burst EDO).
- ,
CAS#, .
(.
6.9), 2-, 3- 4- CAS#
.
CAS#,
, 5-1-1-1 BEDO-
60 66 .

. BEDO- SIMM-72 DIMM,
.
, . EDO
,
SDRAM.

6.2. 271
RAS*"1

CAS#
\ J
MA ( RI 1

\ __ /

XC5

DATA (

D1

X D2

X D3

y~v^^ y
X D4

X D5

. 6.9. BEDO DRAM


. , RAS# CAS#, - ( ) .
, .

6.2.4. : SDRAM DDR SDRAM


SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM)
,
( 50-70 ) 5-1-1-1,
100 . SDRAM -
:
, RAS#, CAS#, WE# ( -)
CS# ( ) (. 6.4). -
, -
.
RAS CAS,
FPM.
PRE

CKE

. 6.10. SDRAM:
RO/CO RO/CO+1; D
, RO/C1 RO/C1+1

272 6.


WR. .

. , CAS Latency (CL),
.
. SDRAM .
6.10. WR, RD
, ACT.
PRE. 2, CL = 3.
( CBR )
REF,
(idle) .
6.4. SDRAM

I/O

CLK

Clock Input ,

Clock Enable ( ).
Power Down,
Suspend Self Refresh_______
Chip Select ( ).
CS# ,
I
Row Address Strobe, Column Address Strobe, Write Enable ,
RAS#, CAS#, WE#
( )
I
Bank Selects Bank Address ,
BSD, BS1 , 1

A[0:12]

Address . Bank
Activate . Read/Write
[0:9] . 10
Read/Write (
10=1), Precharge A10=l
( BSD, BS1)

DQx

I/O

Data Input/Output

DQM

Data Mask .

( 2 ).
,
( )

Vss, VDD
w

SSQ' VDDQ


SDRAM BEDO.

.
,
,
- (PCI, AGP).

6.2. 273

SDRAM ( ) ,
, ,
. ,
TRC.
.
FPM DRAM. SDRAM
ACT,
Single-pulsed RAS interface
SDRAM.
.
RD WR,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
CS#. SDRAM
.
(burst length=l, 2, 4, 8 os). (wrap mode: interleave/linear /
) .
(normal), (Multiple Burst with Single Write).
TIT WB, ". , - >.
(, :>->1
length=4
).
( ) -i._ii!MH . -1^?
( ).
3 Write jtjfveHTa
DQM. :
:- .
SDRAM ,
- .
3 (Self Refresh) --r
, -."
.
(Power Down Mode)
NOP INHBT.
. -
, ^ so CKE=L,
;1 Clock Suspend Mode,

274 6.
( )
.
SDRAM :
* ;
CL (Cas Latency) (2 3);
TRCD ~~ RAS-CAS, (2 3);
TRP RAS;
* TRC ;

.
SDRAM, PC- , : 66 ( ,
), PC 100 PC 133 66,6, 100
133 . . 6.5.
SDRAM ;
, , .
-10
66 . -8 100 , ,
, . , ,
Micron -8...-8 100
CL - 3, a -8D -8 - CL - 2. "
, .
SDRAM, , , , .
6.5. SDRAM

66

CL
32

TRCD

100

332

322

133

3322 3232

22

TRP
32

TRC

87

877

22
3222 9888


100 100 / ( 1
). SDRAM DIMM 8-
, 800 /. 133
1064 /.

, . -
, , .

6.2. 275

, SDRAM,
. , ,
, FPM EDO DRAM.
DDR SDRAM SDRAM.
(Dual Data Rate ), -
DDR SDRAM
(. 6.11). !00
DDR SDRAM 200 /,
8- DIMM 1600 /.
(100 )
.
:

CLK CLK# (Differential clock inputs).

.

DQS. :
DQS ,
().
, DQS.
DQM.
DQS (CLK)
DLL (Delay Locked Loop)
DQS CLK.
( DQS CLK)
.
DDR SDRAM DLL,
. DLL
( ). DLL DQS CLK,
, , .
3 SDRAM, , DDR SDRAM (
OQM) (write latency). AS Latency
(CL = 2, 2,5, 3).
DDR-II SDRAM,
.
SDRAM .

276 6.

, . CL (CAS Latency)
, , CL,
, . DDK SDRAM CL,
. DDR SDRAM -
DLL .

I Readl I NOP I I NOP I I MOP I I NOP

cLK#DCIXZX=3aCZ)CI)C=)C=)CZ)C=)C
"~K Write NOP 1 NOP Q NOP fTNOPYT"
DQS
DQ
DQM.
. 6.11. DDR SDRAM: , CL = 2,
4; 6 , 4, D1


SDRAM SIMM,
DIMM ( )
. DDR SDRAM SDRAM.
-
. SDRAM 90- ,
DDR SDRAM .

6.2.5. Rambus DRAM


RDRAM (Rambus DRAM) ,
.
- ,
.
RDRAM
. Rambus Channel 1
, , 250-300 , -

6.2. 277

500-600 /. CRDRAM (Concurrent RDRAM)


300-350 600-700 /.
(Rambus) DRDRAM (Direct Rambus DRAM),
1600 /
400 . RDRAM (, DRDRAM,
) ; DDR SDRAM,
.
() RDRAM ,
. DDR SDRAM RDRAM . RDRAM (16 )
, , ,
.
.
64- 8 , 256- 32 .
,
.
,
(
). 16 128 144 ( )
. 1/8 ,
RAS CAS. RDRAM
40-53 .
RDRAM (Rambus Channel) - . ,

.
.
400 ,
. ,
800 /. 30 RSL
(Rambus System Logic) 4 ,
. ,
. 6.12.
, ,

. .
-
, BGA.
,
.
32 , .
,
DEVID. -

278 6.

(Device Enumeration) ,
-. SCK, CMD
SIO. SCK CMD . SIOO SIO1,
, .
.

CFM
ROW 2:01

s
1

?5

1 Q.Q *
00

__

COL [4:0]
DQA. DQ
SCK
CMD

<

<

< Q?

.
01 Q

SIOO
SIO1

01 Q

TERM

<

. 6.12. Direct RDRAM

(Clock To Master).
, ( ). , . ,
CFM (Clock From Master) , . ,
,
.
CFM 5
(12,5 ).
DLL (Delay Locked Loop)
DQS CLK.
. RSL :
0 VTERM = 1,8 , 1 1,0 . N 1.
,
( ).
VREF = 1,4 VTERM.
. ( ).
( ), - .

6 . 2 . 279

. .
, , ,
.
, .
, CTMN CFM, CFMN . ,
.
: 3- ROW[2:0], 5 COL[4:0] ( 2 x 9 ) DQA[8:0]
DQB[8:0]. (
RDRAM) .
, 4 (8 ) (10 ). 8 ; 24 ,
40 16 8 9 .
( )
( BEDO SDRAM)
.
.
. 6.13, SDRAM , (SDRAM)
. ROW ,
. :
ROWA COLC,
-
,
.
, , ,
.
,

COLC. ,
, .
.
10

TR.n=40

ROW[2:0]
4:0]
DATA[15:0]
. .""

20

. 6.13.

280 6.

(. 6.14) ,
. DRAM
SDRAM, ,
RDRAM COLC TCWD ( ).
COLC
( ).
( SDRAM
CAS Latency 2-3 10 ).
,
. ,
1-5 , .

.
ROW[2:0] COL[4:0]
DATA[15:0]

. 6.14.

RDRAM , . ( D)
, - (sens amp)
(retire) .
, ( ).
TRTR
, TRCD,
.
RDRAM
.
ROW COL , .
, SDRAM.
.
,
. (RD) (WR)
, () , (1600 /) 100 %.
RD-RD-WR-WR 76 %, 94 %.

6.2. 281

,
.
, REFA
. TRFF (32 )
(
1,95 ).
.

. PDN (Power Down) 110 , STBY (Standby) ROWA. PDN
,
. -
PDN 250 , STBY ( DLL) PDN .
NAP,
. NAP , PDN,
. NAP
( 10 ). (
NAP REFA).
RDRAM ( 100 ) , .
.
SCK, CMD SIO (PDN NAP).
.
,
,
, .
, . . .
,
.
, SIOO SI01 .
CMD
, SIO
. (SOEVID)
,
. ,
( )
. SIO,
.

DLL.
-

282 6.

. (DEVID), SDEVID
( ).
RDRAM . , , ,
. , ,
. RDRAM Rambus. RDRAM 6 (, 1820, 1840), Pentium 4 (1850 32- ,
RIMM) .
RDRAM,
RIMM, .
RIMM ( 64,
96, 128 256 ). Intel
, .
- Continuity module.
RIMM, , ,
Rambus. ,
RIMM. ,
(. ).

6.2.6.
VCDRAM
(VirtualChannel Memory
Architecture, !)

.
:
. , . ,
-,
VC DRAM. VCM (Virtual-Channel
Memory). VirtualChannel
NEC, Elpida
Memory, Inc.
VC DRAM 128 ,
DIMM VC DRAM. (
) VC DRAM SDRAM,
.
4, 8 16 ,
. ( ) -

6.2. 283

88, 8
2 .
16 , 2 .
2
. PRF
(Prefetch ) RST (Restore ),
, .
ACT
( ).
( ) ,
(
PRFA RSTA), ,
.
4
(READ WRIT), ,
DRAM SDRAM.
, (1, 2,
4, 8 16 ),
.
(Read Latency) 2 ,
.
PFR ( ACT)
.
-. 4- , PRF(A) READ.
VC DRAM , SDRAM REF (
), , 9
SELF.
, VC DRAM SDRAM,
.
- , VC DRAM -
, SDRAM: SDRAM , CL (CAS Latency),
2-3 , VC DRAM 4 . - VC DRAM
.

.
(, AGP, PCI), ,
() , ,
.
*

( ).
, -JPT
. 8- DIMM, 8- VC DRAM,

284 6.

2 .
,
2 , 5, SDRAM.
(4) ( 6 )
32 .
, VC DRAM
SDRAM . (16)
,
.
. ,
: ,
() 4 , 4 , . , ,
VC DRAM ,
SDRAM. VC DRAM
, , VIA SiS, Intel
. VC DRAM
DRAM. (POST)
VC DRAM ,
EEPROM ,
. VCM NEC Kingston,
- .
VC DRAM
.
SDRAM
RDRAM DDR SDRAM.

6.2.7.

FPM, EDO BEDO
66 .
, 66 ,
15 , .
FPM, EDO BEDO, ( , ) ,
(). . 6.6
DRAM.
DRAM ( SDRAM) ,
. (back-to-back) ,
( 5-1-1-1 5-1-1-1
5-1-1-1-1-1-1-1).

6 . 2 . 285
6.6. DRAM

FPM

EDO

BEDO

(TRAC),

50, 60, 70

50, 60, 70

50, 60, 70

CAS,
, ,

30, 35, 40
, 50, 40 5-3-3-3

20, 25, 30
, 50, 40 5-2-2-2

15, 16,6, 20

, 60, 50
5-1-1-1

, (
, ), ,
(
), .
DRAM
( 6-2-2-2 ),
. DRAM
40 ,
. BEDO
( ),
SDRAM 5-1-1-1 100 .
, SDRAM
133 ( ).
4 AGP , , ,
: DDR SDRAM ( DDRII) RDRAM.

SDRAM .
, Rambus . 3
( DIMM SDRAM 8 ,
R1MM RDRAM 2). , ,
. RDRAM , DDR
SDRAM - .
RDRAM
(
) (600 , 700
). RDRAM
Intel ( ),
(Memory Translator Hub) ' RDRAM ( ) SDRAM ( ). * . , ( ..). , , .
^' - (* ) RDRAM.

286 6.

SDRAM, , 66
100 133 (100 133 ),
8 800 1064 /
. DDK SRDAM 1600 2100
1600 2100 /,
100 133 . DDRII
SDRAM, . RDRAM
(600, 700 800) (2 300, 2 356 2
400 ) RDRAM. ,
1200, 1424 1600 /
DDR SDRAM .

, .
,
.
. .
(), ( AGP,
PCI),
. , , . SDRAM 66 100
50 %,
20 %.

, SDRAM RDRAM,
.
, , , FPM
EDO DRAM.
,
. , .
,
( ).
, - ( ),

( ). (VC DRAM)

, SDRAM ( DRAM). ,

,
.
- .
PC. CDRAM (Cached DRAM)
Mitsubishi Samsung. CDRAM 4 16
16- 128-

6.2. 287

. EDRAM (Enhanced DRAM) Ramtron


International. EDRAM 4 8- 2048 .
DRAM , , - .
(VRAM, WRAM, MDRAM,
RDRAM, SGRAM) 8.

6.2.8.
DRAM 1-512 , 45250 1, 4, 8, 9, 16, 18, 32 36
. 16/ 18
8/9 , CAS#
() WE#, .
32/36 .
(-)
CAS# (CASL# , CASH* )
WE#, WE# CAS#.
4- CAS# QCAS
iQuadro CAS), .
, , , , , . , , . ,
1 ( 1 ) :
4-. N , = 64, 128, 256, 000...
i64:64K, 000:1); .
4 ,
(, 5, 51). :
41256 256 Kxl, 44256 256 4.

: 000, 100 1 ; 400, 800 160 4, 8 16 . -
(, EDO).
. :
- Hitachi;
- Hyundai;
Samsung;
- OKI;
Motorola;
Micron;
- Toshiba;

288 6.

TMS Texas Instruments;


(n)PD-NEC.
I
, ,

. ,
-6 -60 60 .
:
* 1000, 1100- 11;
* 4000, 4100 - 41; 4400 - 4;
16400, 17400, - 44; 16100 - 161; 16160 - 116;
* 64400 - 164; 64800 - 88; 64160 - 416.
, MCM417400J70 16- 70 . J
SOJ (, , ) . Motorola.
, ,
16- 2100.
DIP-, ZIP-, SOJ- TSOP-, .
DIP (Dual In-line pin Package)
. 1 ,
XT, AT-286 -386
VGA, SVGA.
ZIP (Zigzag In-line Pin Package) .
.
SOJ (Small Outline J-Lead)
, J.
( SIMM DIMM) ( ).
TSOP (Thin Small Outline Package) ( SOJ) .
0,8 .
TSOP-II , 0,65 .
EGA (Ball Grid Array)
, RDRAM.
, , . 6.15-6.17, . . 6.2.
SDRAM (. 6.18) 4-, 8- 16-
.
(Vss Vcc) (Vssq Vccq).

3,3
.
j

6.2. 289
A8C
Din
WE#C
RAS#
C
A2C
A1C
Vcc
DinC
WE#C
RAS#
C
A10*C

AU
A2C

Vcc

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

15
14
13
12
11
10
9

DIP16
256K
12 17
3 16
4 15
5 14
6 13
7 12
8 11
9 10

Wss
JDout
3A6
3A7
]Vss
DDout
3CAS
# ]A9
3A8
3A7

Din
WE#
RAS#
NC
A10*

1
2
3
4
5

26
25
24
23
22

Vss
Dout
CAS#
NC
A9

18

] A3

1
2
A3
Vcc

17
16
15
14

3 A7
3 A6
3 A5
3 A4

10
11
12
13

Dout
Din
RAS#
NC

A2
Vcc
A5
A7

3 f s 2
5 D
4
7 a ^ 6
a
9 a
8
1 a a 10
1 a a 12
1 D a 14
3 D a
1 D a
1
16
1 a a 18
20
9 '
ZIP-20

CAS#
Vss
WE#
A10*
NC
A1
A3
A4
A6
AS

1Mx1
4Mx1

SOJ-26/20
1Mx1
4Mx1

DIP18
. 6.15. DRAM
( 10 IMxl )
OE#C
DQ1C
DQ2C
WE*
RAS#
C A6C
A5C
A4C
Vcc1

14e
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

DIP-18

17
16
15
14
13
12
11

Vss
DQ4
CAS#
DQ3
A1
A2 A3
A7

64Kx4

OQ1C
DQ2C
W*C
AS
A9C
A1C
A2C

Vcc

1 ^20
2
19 3
18 4
17 5
16 6
15 7
14 8
13 9
12 10

IVss
1DQ4
3DQ3
]CAS#
]OE#
1A8
]A7
]A6
]A5
1A4

1
2
3
4
5

9fi

25
24
23
22

3 Vss
1 DQ4
1 DQ3
3 CAS#
3 #

18

1
2

Vcc

17
16
15
14

7
6
5
4

DQ1C
DQ2C
WE#C
RAS#
9*

10
11
12
13

OE#
DQ3
Vss
DQ2
RAS#

A2
Vcc
A5
A7

SOJ-26/20
256 4 1 4

DIP-20
2S6Kx4
4

. 6.16. DRAM
( 9 254 )

1 * * 2 CAS#
3
4 DQ4
5 * 6 DQ1
7 a k 8 WE#
9 D
1 A9*
1 a
0
1 D a 1 A1
3 a a 2 A3
1 D
1 A4
5 a
4 A6
1 ^
1 A8
7 4, 6

ZIP-20
256K x 4
1Mx4

290 6.
VccC

DQ1
DQ2C
DQ3C
DQ4 [
VccC
DQ5C
DQ6C
DQ7C
DQ8C
PQQC
NC
WE#C
RAS#C
NCC

A1C
A2C
A3
VccC

1
2

3
4
5

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20


39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21

40 ] Vss
3 DQ16
3 DQ15
] DQ14
] DQ13
3 Vss
3 DQ12
3 DQ11
3 DQ10
3 DQ9
3 PQ1
3 CASL#
3 CASH*
3 OE#
3 A8
3 A7
3 A6
3 A5
3 A4
3 Vss

SOJ-400mil
256Kx1
6 256K x
18

. 6.17. DRAM

DDK SDRAM SDRAM , . SDRAM VDD = 3,3 , LVTTL (Low Voltage TTL ). DDK SDRAM VDD = 2,5 .
SSTL_2 (Stub Series Terminated Logic), VREF - VDD/2 (1,25 ).
, VREF - (0,18 - 0,3) VREF + (0,18 - 0,3) .
: UOL - VREF - 0,76 , UOH - VREF + 0,76 .
25 , 25 ,
VREF.
DDR SDRAM 64 (2 32), 128
(4 32, 8 16, 16 8, 32 4), 256 (16 16, 32 8, 64 4)
512 (32 16, 64 8, 128 4). 4-, 8- 16-
TSOPII-66 (. 6.19);
16/18- DQS: UDQS LDQS (
). 32- TQFP-100.
4- 8- ,
DDR200 DDR266.
( , 16- 32-
) 400 / ,
300 (CAS Latency = 3) 334
/.

6.2. 291
^-^
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
cs#

11 19
10 20
21
1 22
2 23
A3 25 TSOP-II

VCC
DQO
DQ1
VSSQ
DQ2
DQ3
VCCQ
DQ4
DQ5
VSSQ
DQ6
DQ7
VCCQ
DQML
WE#
CAS#
RAS#

vcc

50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26

vss

0 DQ15
DQ14

DQ13
DQ12

3 DQ11

3 DQ10
3 VSSQ
3 DQ9
3 DQ8
3 VCCQ
3 NC
3 DQMH
3 CLK

UCL
3 NC
3 A9
3A8
3A7
3 A6
3A5
3 A4 3
VSS

vcc
vccc
DQO NC

VSSQ VSSQ
DQ1 DQO
VCCQ VCCQ
DQ2 NC
VSSQ VSSQ
DQ3 DQ1
VCCQ VCCQ
NC NCC
NC NCC
WE# WE#C
CAS# CAS#C
RAS# RAS#C

cs#
cs#c
A11 A11C

A10 A10C

A1 A 1 C
A2 A2C
A3

vcc vcc

>s*->'
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22 TSOP-II

x4
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23

x8
] VSS VSS
] NC DQ7
] VSSQ VSSQ
] DQ3 DQ6
] VCCQ VCCQ
] NC DQ5
3 VSSQ VSSQ
] DQ2 DQ4
] VCCQ VCCQ
3 NC NC
3 NC NC
3 DQM DQM
3 CLK CLK
3 CLKE CLKE
3 NC NC
3 A9 A9
3 A8 A8
3 A7 A7
3 A6 A6
3 A5 A5
3 A4
A4
3 VSS VSS

4Mx4, 2Mx8
1Mx16

4
VCC
NC
VCCQ
NC
DQO
VSSQ
NC
NC
VCCQ
NC
DQ1
VSSQ
NC
VCC
NC
WE#
CAS#
RAS#
CS#
A13(BAO)
A12(BA1)
A10(AP)

A1
A2
A3
VCC

x8
VCC
DQO
VCCQ
NC
DQ1
VSSQ
NC
DQ2
VCCQ
NC
DQ3
VSSQ
NC
VCC
NC
WE#
CAS#
RAS#
CS#
A13(BAO)
A12(BA1)
A10(AP)

A1
A2
A3
VCC

Y16

*1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
cs#

A13(BAO) 20
A12(BA1) 21 22
()

23
1
24
2
25
A3
26
VCC
27

* '
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34 33

VCC
DQO
VCCQ
DQ1
DQ2
VSSQ
DQ3
DQ4
VCCQ
DQ5
DQ6
VSSQ
DQ7
VCC
DQML
WE# I
CAS# I
RAS# t

x8
VSS
DQ7
aD DQ14 VSSQ
NC
Q DQ13 DQ6
3 DQ12 VCCQ
NC
DQ11
DQ5
3 VSSQ VSSQ
DQ10
NC
DQ9
DQ4
VCCQ
VCCQ
DQ8
NC
VSS
VSS
]
3 DQMH DQM
] CLK
CLK
3 CLKE CLKE
A14
3 A14
A11
3 A11
3 A9 3 A9 A3
A8
A7
32
3 A7
A6
31
3 A6
A5
30
3 A5
29
A4
3 AA4
SOP-II 3 VSS VSS
VSS
DQ15

x4
VSS
NC
VSSQ
NC
DQ3
VCCQ
NC
NC
VSSQ
NC
DQ2
VCCQ
NC
VSS

DQM
CLK
CLKE
A14
A11
A9 A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
VSS

4/8/16Mx16, 8/16/32Mx8, 16/64Mx4

. 6.18. SDRAM TSOP-50, TSOP-44, TSOP-54:


64 128 36

292 6.
4
VDD
NC
VDDQ
NC
DQO
VSSQ
NC
NC
VDDQ
NC
DQ1
VSSQ
NC
NC
VDDQ
NC
NC
VDD
NC
NC
WE
CAS
RAS
CS
NC
BAO
BA1
A10/AP

A1
A2
A3
VDD

x8
VDD
DQO
VDDQ
NC
DQ1
VSSQ
NC
DQ2
VDDQ
NC
DQ3
VSSQ
NC
NC
VDDQ
NC
NC
VDD
NC
NC
WE
CAS
RAS
CS
NC
BAO
BA1
A10/AP

A1
A2
A3
VDD

X16

VDD
DQO
VDDQ
DQ1
DQ2
VSSQ
DQ3
DQ4
VDDQ [
DQ5
DQ6
VSSQ
DQ7
NC
VDDQ
LDQS
NC
VDD [
NC
LDM
WE
CAS
RAS
CS
NC
BAO
BA1
A10/AP

1
2
A3
VDD

16

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

^-

32 TSOP-I
33

66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34

x8

ss VSS
] DQ15
DQ7
:3 DQ14 VSSQ
NC
] DQ13 DQ6
:] DQ12 VDDQ
NC
] DQ11
DQ5
] VSSQ VSSQ
] DQ10 NC
] DQ9
DQ4
3 VDDQ VDDQ
] DQ8
NC
] NC
NC
] VSSQ VSSQ
] UDQS DQS
] NC
NC
] VREF VREF
] VSS
VSS
] UDM
DM
] CLK
CLK
] CLK
CLK
] CKE
CKE
] NC
NC
] A12
A12
] A11
A11
] A9
A9
JA8
A8
] A7
A7
] A6
A6
] A5
A5
] A4
A4
] VSS
VSS

x4
VSS
NC
VSSQ
NC
DQS
VDDQ
NC
NC
VSSQ
NC
DQ2
VDDQ
NC
NC
VSSQ
DQS
NC
VREF
VSS
DM
CLK
CLK
CKE
NC
A12
A11
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
VSS

. 6.19. DDR SDRAM TSOPII-66

6.2.9.
1, 2,
4 8 , -
. ,
.
SIPP 57-30 , 486- .
SIMM-72-pin 4- ,
486 Pentium.
& DIMM-168 8- Pentium . , . DIMM 168-pin
Buffered (1- ), ,
DIMM 2- ( ). SDRAM.

6.2. 293

: Unbuffered,
Buffered Registered.
DIMM-184 8- DDR SDRAM 6-7
.
RIMM 2- RDRAM 6-7
.
50 DIMM (72 144-pin) 50 RIMM
( ).
AIMM (AGP Inline Memory Module), GPA Card (Graphics Performance
Accelerator) 66- 32- 16- SDRAM, ,
.
, SIMM DIMM : SIMM-30 pin 89 , SIMM72 108 . DIMM-168 DIMM-184 jjoxio 134
(5,25"), 168- , 184--
( ); , DIMM-184 :^> ,
. RIMM ,
.
RIMM . ,
, DIMM.
SIMM Macintosh, SIMM-30,
SIMM-72 IBM PC . ,
,
, .
SIMM, DIMM SO DIMM.
() DIMM-168, 100-Pin DIMM,
AIMM, SO DIMM-144, - (
).
1, 4 .
.
i ( Parity) 8, 32 64

CAS#.
i (Parity) 9, 36 72
,
.
i (Fake Parity, Parity Generator, Logical Parity)
,
.
.
i 36, 40, 72 80 .
,

294 6.


CAS#, .
ECC-Optimized , .
,
.
* ECC-on-Simm (EOS) .

, .

.
(Kill Protected Memory) ,
.
( , ) .

SIMM
.
. 6.7,
.
6.7.
, ,

SIMM-30, SIPP
SIMM-72
DIMM-168-I
DIMM-168-II
DIMM-168-II

8(9)*
32 (36)
64 (72, 80)
64 (72, 80)
64 (72, 80)

0,25-4
1-32
8-256
8-512
8-256

FPM, EDO
FPM, EDO, BEDO
FPM, EDO
FPM, EDO
SDRAM

5
5
5
5,3,3
3,3

DIMM-184

64 (72, 80)

128, 256...

DDR SDRAM

2,5

AIMM
100-Pin DIMM
100-Pin DIMM
SO DIMM-72
SO DIMM-144
SO DIMM-144

32
32
32
32 (36)
64 (72)
64 (72)

4
4-128
4-32
4-32
32,64
32-256

SDRAM
SDRAM
FPM, EDO
FPM, EDO
FPM, EDO
SDRAM

3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3

RIMM

16(18)

64, 96, 128,


256

RDRAM

2,5

60, 70, 80
50,60,70
50,60,70
50,60,70
66, 100,
133
PC 1600, 2100
166
100, 125
50,60
50,60
50, 60
66, 100, 125, 133

600, 700,
800

* .


.
( ).
SDRAM ,
( , , ,
CL). 66, 100 133

6.2. 295

( 66
), -
Intel. DDR SDRAM
(/): 1600 (8 , 2 100 ), 2100 (8 , ; * 133 ).
RDRAM (600, 700 800)
(2 300, 2 356 2 400 ) RDRAM.
, :::). 1424 1600
/.
SDRAM, Intel, PCX-exdefY, X , ; = CL (Cas Latency, ), b = Trcd ( iASCAS), = ( RAS), d = ( ), -mt
(SPD), f , Y (R ,
ontmcaa ).
, . -*
SDP , . , 100-JII-620
100 CL = 3 = 60 , SPD 1.2.
-322-60120. PC100-322-620R
, .
, SIMM (SIMMVerter,
JEMA/Sorer). , , SIMM-30
SLMM-72 SIMM-72 . -
(
), ?
. , , ^
4- SIMM-30 16-
MVi-72. , ~
.



,
(
> " .
>" 1-30
IBM. ,
( ) 1
' 4 (
- ,


, .
1 .
, a DIM.

296 6.


.
, ,
. -
. ,

.
DIMM-168.
DIMM-168 , SO DIMM-144,
DIMM-184 (Serial Presence Detection).
PC,
. JEDEC, 256 32 32 , 64
(. 6.8). , , ,
. PC
, , 4-10
. DIMM-168 3
SA[0:2],
.
()
. SO DIMM-144
,
,
.

,
.
128-255 .
(, )
PC.
0-127
. .
6.8.
________________________________________
_______________ _______________ ________
____________________
1
Serial PD (
________: 1 - 2 , 2 - 4 , ODh - 8 )____________________
2
: 00 - , 01 - Std FPM, 02 - EDO, 03 - Pipelined Nibble (BEDO),
04 - SDRAM

6.2. 297

1 ( 0-3) 2 ( 4-7) 16 (0
, 1 1 16, 2 2 17 . .) , 47 __________________________________
( )______________
( )___________________________
( 255, 7 0)____
: 0 TTL/5B, 01 LVTTL ( 5 ), 02 HSTL 1.5, 03 - SSTL 3.3, 04 - SSTL 2.5______________________
DRAM RAS Access time ( ). SDRAM
(Tclk) CL ( BCD-)
DRAM CAS Access time ( ). SDRAM
(),
: 00 - Non-Parity, 01 - Parity, 02 -
^
() : 00 Normal ( 156 ),
01 - Reduced 0.25 (39 ), 02 - Reduced 0.5 (78 ), 03 - Extended 2x
(313 ), 04 Extended 4x (625 ), 05 Extended 8x (125 ). 7
________ ( 6:0 )___________
..}
, . 7 1,
.
________, 7 0_______________________
_______ , ()___________
..,*- 36_____ SDRAM______
?:.
( ): 0 4 , 1 8 ,
7 512 ,
_______() __________________________________________
'_____ __________

_____________________________________________________
________
SPD
(
BCD-)_______________________________
_______ 0-62 256______________________
______________________
______________________

'"._____

JEDEC________________________
"Z_______

_________________________________
TJ
(ASCII)
* .
(wwyy , )

..
( Intel) DIMM SDRAM. 66
________ 66h, (100 - 64h)_________

W
' SIMM-30, SIPP, SIMM-72
SIMM (Single In-Line Memory Module) SIPP (Single In-Line Pin Packa
(. 6.9). SIMM
) , :

298 6.

. Single () ,
(
). SIPP (pin
),
SIMM ( - SIMM).
SIPP
.
SOJ TSOP,
.
.
, (byte-write);
CAS# .
5 .
6.9. SIMM
,
30-pin
256
1
2
4
8
16
32
64

256 9
19
512 36
49
2 36
4 36
8 36
16 36

30-pin

72-pin

72-pin
256 36
136

256 8
18
48

256 32
512 3 2
1 32
2 32
4 MX 32
8 32
16 32

.
()
, . ,
(single side double side).
, ,
(
). .
.
, SIMM 30-pin, SIMM ( ) 30
(. 6.20).
IBM ( IBM PS/2) . 1 :
IBM (2 ), . SIPP 30
SIMM 30-pin (SIMM-30).
32-
. SIMM-30 SIPP
[1].

6.2. 299
90

. 6.20. SIMM-30

, SIMM 72-pin (SIMM-72), SIMM 72


* (. 6.21) 4- * CASx#. --tsii
DQ[0:15] RASO# -d
RAS1# , DQ[16:31] RAS2* 63*.
(1, 4, 16, 64 1 ) -I.:
RASO# RAS2#, (2, 8, 32 ', )
RAS#. ,
RAS# . -
-, -
. - 32 ,
36 , 36 > . -36 -40
(ECC-optimised). - 32 .
107,95

ji fT

1
G

~^f\ YlfYYYT

"

1 ' *

. 6.21. SIMM-72

SIMM . PD[1:5].
( ) -()
.

DIMM
... DIMM (Dual-In-line-Memory Module) 168
, ( 1-84 , 85-168 ). 8 ,
- -.
21-.

300 6.

() ,
() .
3,3 5 .
. 6.22. SOJ 9 ,
TSOP 4 .
133,35
84
168

3,3
5

Vcc
3,3
5

^^
93

1
144 145

184

. 6.22. DIMM: DIMM-168;


; ; DIMM-184

SIMM-72,
, , CAS#.
,
4-
(Bank Interleaving). 64, 72 80
, 72-
( ),
; 80- .
4-64 8 256 ,
256- 512
. DIMM 64- (Pentium,
Pentium Pro...) ()
.

6.2. 301

,
.
168-pin Buffered DIMM DIMM ( IBM), ( RAS#) .
, 5 (
). (FPM, EDO
BEDO) SIMM-72.
8
(Presence Detect pins).
.
.
4-
64- Non Parity
(2 32), 72- Parity (2 36) 80- (2 39/32), 80 16- DRAM. -72 -80
16- DRAM 8-
(72/64 80/64 ). PC
, DIMM
Pentium . -
,
.
, (FPM EDO), -
(SDRAM). ,
, .
DRAM, i
SDRAM. , (, -72, -80).
!^ (PC) () ( EEPROM 24C02), w'.
168-pin Unbuffered DIMM ,
: ).
, . *> (1-4) DIMM it*
, . ta
DRAM SDRAM. 51 . r-i-fv
8-512 .
'*>$-pin Registered DIMM (SDRAM),
, . DIMM -

302 6.

EEPROM
-.
, . ,
. . ,
(PLL),
-.
, ,
, PLL ( PLL ,
) ( ). 64
PLL [0:3]
. (
66 ), REGE . 66
. 64-1024

DIMM-184 DDR SDRAM


DIMM-184 DDR SDRAM.
DIMM-168,
(. . 6.22, ) . 64 72
(),
(Registered DDR SDRAM) . 2,5 .
. DIMM SDRAM.
DQSx
4 . ,

DLL.

RIMM
RIMM (Rambus Interface Memory Module), no
(. 6.23), RDRAM.
30- ,
RDRAM BGA. RIMM
16 RDRAM, ( )
. .
SIMM DIMM, 2,
RIMM RDRAM
.

. 6.23. RIMM

6.2. 303

SO DIMM-72 pin
72 pin SO DIMM (Small-Outline-Dual-Inline-Memory Module)
( 2,35" 60 ) 72- ,
, (. 6.24).
DRAM TSOP, 2-32
, 32 36 ( ). 36-
PQx.

- .
, , ,
.
41 '

: 5
: 3,3
: .

i I

II

\
1

1
]
1

72
. 6.24. SO DIMM-72 pin

SO DIMM-144 pin
144 pin SO DIMM ( 2,35" 60 )
144- (. 6.25), 8-64 ,
64 72 .
CAS[0:7]#, RASO* 0, RAS1* 1 (
). 5 3,3 ,
59-60 61-62. , . . DRAM, SDRAM 8-256
.
60,0

. 6.25. SO DIMM-144 pin

304 6.

DRAM cards-88 pin


88 pin DRAM cards (3,37"2,13",13" 85,5x54x3,3 )
PCMCIA (PC Card). 88-
( PCMCIA!), 18, 32 36 , 2-36 .
DRAM TSOP. .
SIMM-72. 5 3,3 .
, .

6.3. DRAM


() .
,
.
,
.

, 40 .
, ( EDO)
(BEDO, SDRAM, RDRAM).
, (
) ( SDRAM ).
,

.

$ , 5-6 8 .

SDRAM
100-133 , DDR SDRAM 2 100 = 200
.
(VC DRAM).

96
.
:
, (
). Rambus DRAM,
, .

6.3. DRAM 305

SDRAM 100-133 ;
DDK SDRAM RDRAM,

, .
, RDRAM ,
.
SLDRAM (Sync Link DRAM), SLDRAM .
( ) DRAM,
, ( ),
, , .
RAS#
. RAS#. CAS#
() WE ,
.
( ).
5-6
SIMM-72 DIMM.
( RAS#) ()
.

.
RASi#
RASO/2# RAS1/3* SIMM-72 RASl/3#
RASO/2# (. 6.26). , - ,
(
,
). , , , 1
2, 3 .
486, ( )
RAS#, .
, SIMM-30 SIMM-72,
RAS#, ,

SIMM-72 ( RASl/3#, . 6.27).

(Pentium )
DIMM SIMM-72,
RASx#.
PC ( ) ( ). , , CASx#, ,
.
CASx# .

(two-way interleaving , three-way interleaving . .).

306 6.
RAS3#
RAS2# >

RAS2

DQ31 - DQ24

DQ23 - DQ16 D Q 1 5 - D Q 8

DQ7 - DQO

RAS044l

RAS3 DQ31 - DQ24

DQ23-DQ16 D Q 1 5 - D Q 8

DQ7 - DQO

RAS1 45

41

40 CASO

DQ15-DQ8

DQ7 - DQO

RAS044

DQ15-DQ8

DQ7 - DQO

RAS1 45 J

43

40 CASO

O*t

??

42

CAS3

CAS2

43

CAS1

L
RAS2

RAS1#

DQ31 - DQ24

O*t

r
J

RAS3 DQ31 - DQ24

33

42
RAS2

CAS3

DQ23DQ16
DQ23DQ16
41 CAS2

CAS1

DQ31 - DQ24

DQ23-DQ16 DQ15-DQ8

DQ7 - DQO

RAS044

RAS3 DQ31 - DQ24

DQ23-DQ16 DQ15-DQ8

DQ7 - DQO

RAS1 45 J

41

40 CASO

34

H1

33

42

RASO#
>
|

,oj KAOfc

CAS3

CAS2

43

CAS1

DQ31 - DQ24

DQ23-DQ16 D Q 1 5 - D Q 8

DQ7 - DQO

RASoJ

RAS3 DQ31 DQ24

DQ23-DQ16 DQ-15-DQ8

DQ7 - DQO

RAS1 45 J

41 CAS2
*I

40 CASO

'34
33

3
V.

<

42

i
)

CAS3

43 CAS1
I

( 0, 1 2, 3)


SIMM-72

. 6.26. RAS


( , ) , . -
SDRAM 100 PC 100,
. 133 133 . - . DIMM SDRAM 96
: 32 64 (
72 80) ,
.

.. DRAM 307

, , , (skew), .

(
). (DRAM)

. SDRAM 4- , . SDRAM
RASi# Si#,
( DIMM)
.
.
RAS
27

DQ7 -DQO
2
CAS

RAS
27

D
2

DQ7 -DQO t.
4xSIMM-30,
CAS 1
2
SIMM-72
RAS DQ7 - DQO
-DQO
27
CAS
2 CAS
RAS
27

((
RAS2#
RAS3# >
- i
RASO#

DQ31 DQ2 DQ23 DQ15 -DQ8 DQ7 - DQO


DQ16
4
DQ23 ??RAS3 DQ31 DQ15 -DQ8 DQ7 - DQO
34

42
1

RAS1#
> .

CAS3 41

DQ16
CAS2 43

CAS1 40 CASO

RAS2 DQ31 DQ24 DQ23 DQ15 -DQ8 DQ7 - DQO


DQ16
33RAS3
DQ31 DQ2 DQ23 DQ1 DQ15 -DQ8 DQ7 - DQO
6
2V
CAS2 43
CAS1 40 CASO
42
CAS3 41
<

A
34

RAS044l
RAS1 45
1
RAS044|
RAS145 J

a] i |1

. 6.27. SIMM-30 SIMM-72

6.3.1. DRAM
(
).
, -

308 .

.

.
. ,
. , ,
. , .
(
),
. () -
( ) ( 2 x 4
+ 1 ). SIMM - 16 ( 18- ),
( -).

,
.
,
- ,
.

.
.
5 3,3 .
, , .

(
).
. , 4 (
) 1 4, 2 2 4 1. , 1Refresh, 2K-Refresh 4K-Refresh . ,
. 4K-Refresh 2,3 , IK-Refresh
, 1,2 . PC, ,
1 2 . 4 ( ), (
).
CBR , .

6.3. DRAM &&79> 7 309

, RAS Only Refresh,


,
.
2, 4.
,
.
,
, POST
.

.

. ,
.
, . ( )

RAS#
.
( ) ,
.
,
.
(
) ,
(. 6.10).
( ),
74F08 ( ),

. ,
.
6.10. SIMM DRAM

Intel Triton
Intel Neptune, Mercury,
Saturn. Aries

S.S 47 1,4965, 01/5501

, ,
. .
(SIMM-30, SIMM-72, DIMM-168, DIMM-184, RIMM)
(FPM, EDO, BEDO, SDRAM, DDR SDRAM, VC DRAM, RDRAM)
.

310 6.

$ ( )
(
).
,
, ,
CMOS Setup.
.
, ,
, (
BIOS) ,
.
&
.
: CL = 2
CL = 3.
. . .
DRAM (1, 4, 1664 )
RAS#, (2, 8, 32 )
RAS#.
.

. SDRAM ( )
Si#,
( ) .
.
( ) ,
( RAS#),

.
SDRAM (1, 2 4). , 66, 2
4 (4-Clock PC100 133 PLL)
.
DRAM SDRAM , SDRAM.
(, EDO FPM)
.

.. DRAM 311


.
. .
(Buffered
Registered SDRAM), ( , ).
.
, (Bank Interleaving),

, , CMOS Setup. , Pentium 16
SIMM 72 8
, 4
, ( )
. DIMM SDRAM,
, 5-1-1-1.
16
, , ( CMOS Setup)
ROM BIOS () (Memory Hole) - 16
.

,
( !)
CMOS Setup .

6.3.3.
-.
(,
,
).
() . -
(, ,
, ), -
.
, .
, y
( -tact
) Walk Bit Left/Right, Inverted li Bit
Left/Right, -

312 6.

. .
Pseudo Random Read/Write
.

.

POST.
.
.
CMOS Setup (Quick Test)
,
, ,
. (64 ), . ,
. (
Setup)
. ,
,
Turbo.
( )
.
( Setup)
. ,
.
16 POST
. , Memory Hole At
15M-16M, System BIOS Alias Below 16M , -
( -286,
24-). ,
, .
()
( MS-DOS 3.x),
Checklt, PCCheck, QAPlus . .

( HIMEM.SYS EMM386.EXE
). , .
( ).
, ,
.

.
.
,
,

6.4. 313

, - (, , , ...).
HIMEM.SYS, ,
.
, ,
( EOS).
, ,
.

, . (
) . .
POST , ,
,
. DOS
, .
,
.
,
. ( , ) CMOS
Setup. He , ,

( Setup). ,
( -).
, (+5 +3,3 )
.
.
,
, ,
,
.

6.4.
SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), ft
,
( ).

.
, -

314 6.

. . - (CMOS Memory)
100 ,
,
PC.
,
, .
SRAM 1 .

SRAM
. PC SRAM
; ,
. Async SRAM, Sync
Burst SRAM Pipelined Burst SRAM
.

6.4.1.
(Asynchronous SRAM, Async SRAM),

, , SRAM ,
( ).
, , CS#, OE# WE#. CS# (Chip select),
# (Output Enable) ,
WE# (Write Enable) .
. 6.28.
# ( 1),
WE# ( 2).
CS# , CSO#, CS1
CS2#,
, 1, 0 .
SRAM 12, 15 20 ,
2-1-1-1 ( ) 33
. 3-2-2-2.
, Sync Burst SRAM,
(burst) , -.
.
, (, , CS#, OE# WE#),
CLC (Clock)
ADSP#, CADS# ADV#.
CADS* (Cache ADdress Strobe) ADSP# (ADdress Status of Processor),
- ,
.
, (single)
(burst), ADV# (ADVance)

6.4. 315

. ,
#, CLK. ,
.
. . 6.29
. ,
. ,

(interleaved), i486 .
, SDRAM, ,
: ( Intel) (
Power PC).


\
_
J
[
~\

ADDR
CS#

ADDR1

WE#

D1

2
*
(WE Controlled)

ADDR2

/
1

"

OE#

1
( Controlled)

"

DATA

ADDR3

>

"

\666666666/

"

. 6.28.
\7\
CLK .j
ADSP# ~

-X/7

\/ / / / /i

CADS# "

^L

MX
ADDR E
WP
//////
177

cs# \2//\

///

ADV#
OE# ~
DQ -

--

'-

/
\

\i/ M/
-L_/ \L/

^/^2\^
^/^
/

/ / 1 Vi
\

S/

r\

^^

-Y^ ^^
VI/
\i/

\j
\j
////
/// /
\J
\j \J
f///
/ / / /
I7\ //7J^T^\

1
P
"

"^

-\J

M/
\J
^^
VL^ \i/
\J
'//< '//

/^

\-J \J
\i/
/ / / / ' / / / //A
I7\ I7\

/7 /

- - -41^

\__

)vv
V/

//
f

////

D - DO k2+1) Q(A2+2)XQ( DO DO DO
-" "(j
C C

C
I C
W-|

. 6.29.

//J

///

IS / t \/ / /
'///

jET- E7
//\
' / /\

316 6.


SRAM
TKQ (Clock-to-Output Access Time) 8,5,
10 13,5 2-1-1-1 66, 60 50 . 75 3-2-2-2.
- , SRAM(Pipelined Burst SRAM)
(
, ).
, ,
,
75 .
SRAM 4,5-8
! , Sync Burst SRAM,
( - ),

. SRAM Sync Burst
SRAM.
, , .
. 6.11.
6.11. SRAM*

33

2-1-1-1

Async SRAM
Sync Burst SRAM

T
'
KQ,
15

2-1-1-1

PBSRAM

'/
3-1-1-1

50
3-2-2-2
20
2-1-1-1
13,5
3-1-1-1
60
3-2-2-2
17
2-1-1-1
10
3-1-1-1
66
3-2-2-2
15
2-1-1-1
8,5
3-1-1-1
15
75
3-2-2-2
3-1-1-1
13
83
3-2-2-2
3-1-1-1
12
100
3-2-2-2
3-1-1-1
10
133
3-2-2-2
3-1-1-1
7,5
* : ,
,
.

6.4.2.

.
,
- (. .
6.1.3). 386, 486, Pentium
. -
. 6

6.4. 317

, ,
(Pentium II/III).
, ,
,
. -
5 7 ( Super 7), Pentium
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
. ,
,
- (VCACHE),
.

SRAM Tag SRAM, 8- .
,
.
-. .
( ) ,
- , -.
,
( 4 x 4 = 16 i486, 4 8 = 32 Pentium).
(MCACHED) , - . 8 256 VCACHE. , VCACHE = 256 MCACHED 64 . () (, ).
(WB)
.
Dirty SRAM Tag SRAM.
(
486), , .
DIP- 8 (. 6.30),
( ). 28
32 1, 2, 31
32. 4 386-DX 486, 8
Pentium. 16 32
(18 36 ), Pentium
.

318 6.

5 7 COAST
(Cache On A Stick) .
(. 6.31), .
- ( Async.
SRAM, Sync Burst SRAM SRAM),
.
, . (,
Power PC),
( Power PC )
, 86 Intel
(
Burst SRAM).
( )
, .
A14* [
A12 [
A7[
A6 [
A5 [
A4 E
A3!
a A2
A1 [
[
DQO t
DQ1 I
DQ2 t
GND [

1 4- -^ 28 ] Vcc
2
27
] WE#
3
26
] A13*
4
25
] A8
5
24
] A9
6
23
] A11
7
22
] OE#
8
21
] A10
9
20
]CE#
10
19
] DQ7
11
18
] DQ6
12
17
] DQ5
13
16
1 DQ4
14
15
] DQ3

NC I
A16* [
A14 I
A12
A7
A6
' A5
A4
A3
A2
A1 t
t
DQO
DQ1 [
DQ2 [
GND [

1 ^ ^
2
31
3
30
4
29
5
28
6
27
7
26
8
25
9
24
10
23
11
22
12
21
13
20
14
19
15
18
16
17

] Vcc
] 15*
] 2*
] WE#
13
I A8
1 A9
] A11
OE#
A10
CE1#
DQ7
DQ6
DQ5
1 DQ4
] DQ3

. 6.30. :
DIP-28, 8 8 ( 1 26 ),
16 8 ( 1 ), 32 8; DIP-32,
64 8 ( 2 ), 128 8
110,2
43

42 . 6.31.

- COAST 3.0

160
80

123 122

6.4. 319

SRAM
SRAM, ,

(host bus) .
(
5 ),
SRAM. SRAM
.
,
0,8 , 2 . . 6.12
(mixed-mode) SRAM,
SRAM 33 .
6.12. SRAM

3,3

-, (Vcc)

+5

+5

+3,3

0- +5
0-+5

0-+5
0 - +3,3

0 - +3,3
0 - +3,3

() SRAM , :
, SRAM,
- ,
- ( . 1
2 );
, SRAM,
,
SRAM 3,3 (54 CPU), SRAM 3,3
, 5 ,
;
, SRAM 3,3 ,
, , 3,3 ;
(Tag SRAM)
,
, .

-

* . :::: CMOS Setup. -rrce
.
(
, - )
.

320 6.

& , SRAM
COAST, .
SRAM, ,
.
Sync. Burst SRAM,
Sync. Burst SRAM, SRAM,
.
( )
. COAST
, . , , , ,
.
, .
, .
Tag SRAM.
, WB , Dirty SRAM.
VLB
VLB,
. , - VLB
.
- ( ,
SRAM).
.
PCI ,
.
, CMOS
Setup, .
(11 Cache Enable/Disable).

,
.
$ (LI Cache Write Policy WB/WT).
(WB) ( AM486DX4-100 ). , WT -

6.4. 321

, ,
(Bus-master)
.
(L2 Cache Enable/Disable). ,
, .
, , . BIOS
, .
, ,

. ,
HIMEM.SYS MS-DOS
6.x. , ,
. ,
Pentium
AMD (
).
( ) .
CMOS Setup
(
4-2-2-2 . .),
. , , .
, ,
(, 512 ) . Tag SRAM ( ).
,
. , ,

.
-BIOS
. ,
, ,
.
,
(DRAM),
.
.
,
. ,
.

322 6.

(NV Storage)
,
(
). ,
.
: ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash Memory,
FRAM, ,
.
, ,
,
. ( ) ,
.
, , ROM (Read Only Memory
) ( ). ,
.
.

, ,
() , .
. ( )
. ( )
( ), . , , ().
( ,
).

(12-26 ), () ( ) . , ( )
, (, ) .
, ,
( ).
,
,
. .

6.5. 323

, , , .

.
* , , ( )
PROM (Programmable ROM). .
, , ( ) EPROM (Erasable PROM ).
.
. ,
, (On-Board Programming).
, , EPROM UVEPROM (Ultra-Violet EPROM).
() EEPROM (Elecrical Erasable PROM).
, ,
, ISW (InSystem Write). ' NVRAM FRAM, -.
( ) (BIOS), (, ), (ESCD, EEPROM ).
PC ( BIOS
), -

. ( )
BIOS , ( PC).

,
.
WRAM (Non-Volatile Random Access Memory) :
^ .
, -,
, . FRAM EEPROM, . -
1": , , ", -

324 6.

FRAM (Ferroelectric RAM)


,
.

. FRAM DRAM,
(
), .
, . -,
PDA (personal digital assistants
).
Hitachi Ramtron (www.ramtron.com) Matsushita
Symetrix. 4-256
( 0,35 ) ( SRAM)
70-120 , PC.
FRAM ,
, FM573 FM574,
8- '573 '574,
. FRAM ,
5 , 2,7 . -,
( ),
FRAM '1-010
. FRAM ,
PC FRAM .

6.5.1. ROM,
PROM, EPROM
, ROM,

( 30-70 ). PC

( ),
CGA,
MDA, HGC.
,
PROM, ( )
BIOS . , . ,
( , ), (,
).
,
EPROM, BIOS

6.5. 325

, ,
. 27xx-tt 27Cxx-tt CMOS.
: 2708 IK x 8 ,
2716/32/64/128/256/512 2/4/8/16/32/64 ,
27010 27020 - 128 256 . tt 50-250 .
(, 27001 27002 64
128 16- ) PC .
EPROM ,
( , ).
. . ,
.
,
( ).
10 . 2764 5 .
.
,
( ).
, , ( ).
( ),
, - . EPROM 27.
(CGA, MDA, HGC) , ( ) BIOS Boot
ROM . EPROM -
LPT- PC ( :
ISA).
. 50-: .
8 (2764) . PC (, - 2400 )
.
- . () -

326 6.

Vpp ,
EPROM 12-26 ( ). ,
EPROM , . VPP 5
() , ROM. BIOS, .
PC EPROM DIP PLCC (.
6.13), . 6.32 6.33.
7
6
5
4
A3
2
1

DQ
DQ1
DQ2
GND

^24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13

1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Vcc 8
9
11/*
#/*
10
#
DQ7
DQ6
DQ5
DQ4
DQ3

Vpp/A15* 1 ^/28
12
2 27
7
3 26
6
4 25
5
5 24
4
6 23
A3
7 22

8 21
1
9 20

10 19
DQO
11 18
DQ1
12 17
DQ2
13 16
GND
14 15

Vcc
PGM#/A14*
13*
8
9
11
#/*
10
#
DQ7
DQ6
DQ5
DQ4
DQ3

Vppt
A16I
A15[
A12[
A7I
A6I
A5t
A4I
A31
A2t
AH
I
DQOt
DQ1 t
DQ2I
GND

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

' 32 J Vcc
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17

3 PGM#
A17*
I A14
I A13
A8
A9
A11
I OE#
I A10
I CE#
I DQ7
DQ6
DQ5
DQ4
DQ3

. 6.32. EPROM DIP: a


DIP-24; DIP-28; DIP-32
11
9
8
13
14
17*
PGM#
Vcc
Vpp
16*
15*
12
7

A5f
4

2U
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17

] #
] 10

:D

DQ7
DQ6
DQ5
DQ4
DQ3
GND
DQ2
DQ1
DQO

1
2
3 A3

'*


1- - -^

A7 5
A6 6
A5 7
A4 8
A3 9
2
1 11
12
DQO 13

29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
^^
- CM Q '

ssls;

. 6.33. EPROM TSOP PLCC: 5TSOP-32; tf-PLCC-32

14
13
8
9
11
#
10
#
DQ7

6.5. 327
6.13. EPROM

2716- 2 8

DIP-24

6.32, a

20 =

2732 - 4 8
2764 - 8 8
2712 - 1 6 8
2725 - 32 8
2751 - 64 8
2701 - 128 8
2701 - 128 8
2701 - 128 8
2702 - 256 8
2702 - 256 8
2702 - 256 8

DIP-24
DIP-28
DIP-28
DIP-28
DIP-28
DIP-32
TSOP-32
PLCC-32
DIP-32
TSOP-32
PLCC-32

6.32, a
6.32, 6
6.32, 6
6.32, 6
6.32, 6
6.32,
6.33, a
6.33, 6
6.32, e
6.33, a
6.33, 6

20-OE#/Vpp, 21 - A l l
1Vpp 22 - OE#; 26 1VP 22 - OE#; 26 1Vpp 22 - OE#; 26 1A15, 22 - OE#/Vpp,
30=
6- NC
30N

OE#; 21 - Vpp
NC, 27 - PGM#
A13, 27 - PGM#
A13, 27 - A14
26 - A13, 27 - A14

EPROM . 6.14.
6.14. EPROM

CE#

Chip Enable .
,
________________________________________________
#
Output Enable .
# .
______ ______________
DQx
Data Input/Output .
# (
______, )__________________________________

Address . 9 (12 )
( - 0) ( - 1),
______ ___________________
PGM#
Programm ( ,
______ # )_____
\'ff____ ( )_______
V____ (+5 )___________________________________

EPROM.
.
.
,
,
.
(5 )
Vpp ( ).
.

328 6.

6.5.2. - EEPROM
.
,
(10-30 )
.
EEPROM
,
. , , . EEPROM

. EEPROM
, .
,
, (
)
. EEPROM
() , .
- EEPROM (
), .
- (
). (). - ( 30 % DRAM),
, , , . Intel 1988 , .
- ()
. ;
8 16 ( ).
() ;
() .
,
, .
. ;
. -
,
( ) .
()
, ,
-.
,
, EPROM EEPROM.

6.5. 329

. -
, (SRAM),
ROM/PROM/EPROM.
, ,
, PC.
5 ,
Vpp - + 12 .
+5 .
2,7-3,3 1,65-2,2 , a Vpp 5, 3,3, 2,7
1,65 .
0,3, 0,22, 0,18 ( , ).
(1990 .)
- 10 000, 100 000.
- 35-200 . ( ) 90-
1-2 , () 10 .
. (. ).
()
. ,
.
,
.
, .

:
Bulk Erase (BE) ; -

;
;
Boot Block (BB) ,
,
;
Flash File ,
(SA Symmetrical Architecture).
BE ,
( EEPROM ).
( ), .
(SA), ,
.: 64 ; (
. ) .
3 64-
8 . -

330 6.


,
.
(BIOS), (Boot Block)
, (, )
-.
() (Bottom),
Boot- ,
. ,
( , 86, Pentium), , ,
.
, ,
28F001BX-T (28F001BN-T), -BIOS PC,
:
(Main Block) 112 (OOOOOh-lBFFFh);
(Parameter Block) 4 (ICOOOhICFFFh IDOOOh-lDFFFh);
(Boot Block) 8 (lEOOOh-lFFFFh),
.
; , ESCD Plug and Play.
, , MT28C3214P2FL
- 2 16 SRAM 256K 16.
NOR NAND. NOR
, - (NOR Not
OR).
, - (
) . NAND
,
- (NAND Not AND),
.
- ( )
(1 , 0 ).
4
, .
Intel StrataFlash, 128 (16
).
- , . , , AMD
(
-).

6.5. 331


(Page Mode). 4 8 ;
70 . ,
( )
20 .
. (Burst Mode)
()
. CLK.
ADV# (
CLK). 3 ,
.
- ( ), SDRAM. 66
(, MT28S4M16LC 1 16 4 ),
133 .
, ( ).
-
DRAM ( )
, RAS# CAS#. SIMM DIMM, . , , PostScript
. ,
, -
, POST
, .
BIOS,
.
, ,

-. SIMM DIMM
,
-12, , , , .
16-
, ,
( OFFh) .
BIOS - LPC,
(firmware hub).
. , Intel
(One-Time-Programmable).
64- ,
( ) .
Intel Wireless Flash Memory
, , (
).
( ): 1,85 , - . .

332 6.

,
-
- (. 6.34-6.36). DIP,
(E)EPROM -.
PLCC, TSOP TSOP-II.
FBGA (Fine Pitch Ball Grid Array) 6x8
0,8 ,
. , SartMe-dia,
KGD (Known Good Die).
VppC
A16*
A15*
A12
A7C
A6C
A5C
A4C
A3 .
2.
A1 .

DQO
DQ1 .
DQ2
GND

1 .
20
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17

] Vcc

:
:
3 14
13

3 8
] 9
3 11
3 #
3 10
3 #
3 DQ7
3 DQ6
] DQ5
3 DQ4
3 DQ3

I In CD

A7[
A6C
A5C
A4[
A3!
A2[
A1 [

DQOt

J4

's
6

7
8
9
10
11
12

13 *

29

28
27
26
25
24
23
22

I4- 00 CD 21

D D Q

. 6.34. - 8-
DIP PLCC: a DIP-32; PLCC-32
11 t
9 [
8
13
14
RP#
WE#
Vcc
Vpp I
A16*
A15*
A12
A7C
A6f
A5
A4 c

Jo
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17

] #
] 10
] #
DQ7
DQ6
DQ5
DQ4
DQ3
GND
DQ2
DQ1
] DQO
3
3 1
3 2
3 A3

1 6
1 5
14
13
12
11
9
8
WE#C
RP#C
VppC
WP#*
A18*C
A7C
A6C
A5C
A4C
A3
A2C
A1C

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21

3 A17
3 GND
3 NC
3 A19*
3 A10
3 DQ7
3 DQ6
3 DQ5
3 DQ4
3 Vcc
3 Vcc
3 NC
3 DQ3
3 DQ2
3 DQ1
DQO
OE#
3 GND
3 CE#
-J

. 6.35. - 8-
TSOP: a TSOP-32; TSOP-40

A14
A13
A8
A9
A11
OE#
A10
CE#
DQ7

6.5. 333
Vppt
WP#/A18*
A17'C
A7C
A6C
A5C
A4C
A3
A2C
A1C

CE#C
GNDC
OE#C
DQOC
DQ8C
DQ1C
DQ9C
DQ2C
DQ10C
DQ3C
DQ11C

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23

3 RP#
3 WE#
3 A8
3A9
3 A10
3 A11
3 A12
3 A13
3 A14
3 A15
3 A16
3 BYTE*
3 GND
3 DQ15/A-1
3DQ7
3 DQ14
] DQ6
3 DQ13
] DQ5
3 DQ12
] DQ4
3 Vcc

A15C
A14C
A13C
A12C
A11C
A10C
A9C
A8C
NCC
NCC
WE#
RP#C
VppC
WP#
NCC
A18*
A17'
A7C
A6C
A5C
A4C
A3
A2C
A1C

O
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25

3A16
3BYTE#
3GND
3 DQ15/A-1
3DQ7
3DQ14
3DQ6
3DQ13
3DQ5
3DQ12
3DQ4
3Vcc
3DQ11
3DQ3
DDQ10
3DQ2
3DQ9
3DQ1
3DQ8
3DQO
30E#
3GND
3CE#

NCC
NCC
A15C
A14C
A13C
A12C
A11C
A10C

A8C
NCC
NCC
WE#
RP#C
NCC
NCC
VppC
WP#
A18*
A17*
A7C
A6C
A5C
A4C
A3
A2C
A1C
NCC

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29

3NC
3A16
3BYTE#
3GND
3 DQ15/A-1
3DQ7
3DQ14
3DQ6
3DQ13
3DQ5
3DQ12
3DQ4
DVcc
3Vcc
3DQ11
3DQ3
3DQ10
3DQ2
3DQ9
3DQ1
3DQ8
3DQO
3 OE#
3GND
3CE#
bAO
3NC
3NC

. 6.36. - 8/16-
TSOP: a TSOP-44; TSOP-48; TSOP-56

- , . ,
,
EPROM EEPROM. EPROM,
.
- Intel AMD .
, ,
.
- Intel 28F, (. 6.15),
:
5, , , BR - Boot Block 5 ;
Boot Block 3 ;
F3 Boot Block 3 , ;
J3 J5 StrataFlash (SA) 3 5 ; S3
S5 Flash File (SA) 3 5 .
. - AMD :
Am29BDS 1,8 , ,
;
Am29DS 1,8 , ;
Am29SL - 1,8 ;

334 6.

Am29LV-3B;
Am29DL 3 , ;
Am29BL 3 , ;
Am29PL 3 , ;
AmSOLV - 3 , UltraNAND;
Am29F - 5 .
(. . 6.15), (, D), :
* boot sector, ;
boot sector, ;
, ;
L , ;
U ( ) ;
J40 100%- ( UltraNAND).
, , ,
.
6.15. -

256

32 8 BE

512

64 8 BE

128 8 BE
256 8 BE
128Kx8 BB
02
256 8 BB
0
5128, SA
00
1
IMxSBB, SA
00
2M x 8 BB, SA
2
256K x 8 / 128K x 16 BB
00
512Kx8/256Kxl6BB
80
1024Kx8/512Kx 16 BB
0
16
2 M x 8 / l M x l 6 S A , BB
0
4 M x 8 / 2 M x 16 SA
8M x 8 / 4M x 16 SA
* BE Bulk Erase ( ), BB Boot Block ( ), SA Symmetric
Architecture ( ).
.
01
0

- PCMCIA (PC Card) PC. - PC


Card IDE (ATA) ,
.
. -
PC Card -

6.5. 335

. Credit Card,
( PCMCIA)
. , ,
.

- Intel
-
Intel.
(28F256, 28F512, 28F010, 28F020)
, (bulk erase).

WSM (Write State Machine). -
Vpp 12 ,
WE#.
,
.

, , PROM
EPROM. -
EPROM . Vpp (0-6,5
) ,
EPROM.
,
( Boot Block
Flash File).
,
.
,

, .
.

SR (Status Register),

.
Boot-
, VHH ( ,
+12 ) PWD#
.
, #
.
Flash-file , (SA Symmetrical Architecture).
28F008SA -

336 6.

Vpp.
Boot Block ( Boot-).
28F016SA ,
( 28,6 /
) .
256 . ,
. .

. ,
.
( ) - . .
.
-
.

.

WP#.
.

(Sleep) . .
28F032SA 28F016SA . #
# 1#, - # 2#.
,
SmartVoltage, Vpp 12
, 5 . .
, (3,3 2,7 )
Vcc, , .

- AMD
AMD -.
- Intel
(Bulk Erase, 12 ): Am28F256/512/010/ 020.
Intel, Am28F256/512 -,
.
Am28F256A/512A/010A/020A
, Intel
, -

6.5. 337

. ,
, .
Data# Polling Toggle Bit.
Data# Polling DQ7 .

, .
( 1). Toggle Bit
DQ6,
.
- ,
7. DQ5 Exceeded Timing Limits
.
Am29Fxxx 5 (Sector Erase), ( Flash File) (Boot Block), -*
() () Boot-.
( Intel
AMD ).
JEDEC
- .
3-6 ,
.
. , Am29F010,
(Erase Suspend)
, a Am29F080/016
.
- Am29LVxxx
(3,0 ) .

EPROM .
( ) ( RY/BY#). ,
.
NOR.
Am30LV0064D 64 (88) UltraNAND,
. 512 16 , , , -.
( 528- )
7 , 20
/ (50 /). ,
65 . ( )
,
200 . ,
430 20 (NOR) -(
2,3 /).

338 6.

8 2 ( 600 ). 3 .
1 . 10 , 104
, 106
. , ,
. .

-
- .
, , ,
. AMD, Fujitsu Corporation, Intel Corporation Sharp Corporation
1996 CFI (Common Flash Interface),

-.

() SCS (Scalable Command Set).
, Intel AMD, , ,
.

(Fast Page Write)
. (
) .

2 6 , (
AMD). , . , .
- Micron Intel , MT28F. , :
MT28F321P2FG - 2 16 Page Flash Memory, MT28F322D18FH - 2 16 Burst
Flash Memory.
Silicon Storage Technology .
SST xx YY zzz ttt, :
28 , ;
29 (
, ).

YY :
EEPROM-, , Vcc = 5 ;
LE , , Vcc = 3 ;
VE , , Vcc = 2,7 ;

6.5. 339

SF SuperFlash Command Register, Vcc = 5 ;


LF - , SF, Vcc = 3 ;
VF - , SF, Vcc - 2,7 ;
DM Disk Media ( -, ),
Vcc - 5 ;
LM , DM, Vcc = 3 ;

- , DM, Vcc - 2,7 ;

PC PCMCIA ( ), Vcc = 5 .
zzz :
512 - 512 (64 8);
0 1 0 - 1 (1288);
040 - 4 (512 8);
080 - 8 ( 8);
016 - 16 (2 8);
032 - 32 (4 8).
ttt .
SST29010, 29LE010 29VE010,
-BIOS, 1024 128
. - .
,
.
Toggle Bit Data# Polling.
29011, 29LE011, 29VE011
Winbond.

6.5.3.

, , . ( ,
) PC ( 100, 400 1 ). SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface)
SCK (SI) (SO)
, PC: SPI Mode 0 2,1 , Mode 3 - 5 .

, 8 (. 6.37, 6.38, .
6.16). EEPROM, FRAM . EEPROM -
,
. -

340 6.



(). FRAM
( RAM). ,
(
, ROM).
-: WP# Write Protect, WC
Write Control, PP Programm Protect.
[0:2], CS#,
.

S[0:2], (S1) .
6.16. 12

16x 8, 128x 8
6.37, a
2402, 24164 256
8, 2K x \
24F016 2 8
6.37, 6
24F12 1 6 8
6.37,
X76F041
512x8
6.37,

1, 2, 3, 7 - NC

24001 2401

FM24C04, FM24C16,
512x8, 2 8,
FM24C64, FM24C256
8 8, 32 8
FM25040, FM25160,
512 8, 2 8,
FM25256
64 8
0*[
]Vcc
SOt
A1*t
]WP*
S1#t
A2*t I^ ^ S ]SCL
NCt 1 ^14 ]Vcc
PP
GNDt 2
]SDA
NCC 2

73
64
5

13 3
12 4
11

6.37, a

6.38,

PC

6.38,

SPI

SOt 1 ^ ]
S1 1 2 INC 'ie'wcc
N C C 3 ]NC
15]PP
NCU
14]NC

]Vcc
]PP

]Vcc

QS

]SCL
1SDA

Vcct
RSTt
SCLC

2
3
4

^^ ft

IVss
]CS#
7 ]SDA
6 INC
5

CL
. 6.37. EEPROM PC: 24; X76F041; 24F016; 24F128

12 (Security Devices). ,
X76F041, 4 128 ,
64- , .
(
).

6.5. 341

( )
( , ,
, ). ,

.
,
.
EEPROM 24C02 PC 256 DIMM-168 , DIMM-184 SODIMM-144.

CS#t 2
sot 3
WP# 4
t

vsst

]VDD
]HOL
D
]SCK
1SI

1 01 OJ -J
|

1 v J2 ]VD
2 19 ]W
NC 3 18 INC
NC 4 17 INC
NC 5 16 ]NC
NC 6 15 INC
NC 7 14 INC
NC 8 13 INC
A2[ 9 12 ]SCL
Vss 10 11 ]SD

. 6.38. FRAM: a FM24C256; FM25640

9.4. LPT
PC
1- (Line PrinTer ).

9.4. LPT 585

, , , LPT
. LPT
Centronics (. ).
, -.
,
3BCh, 378h 278h.
, IRQ7 IRQ5. 8 , 5- 4-
, - DB-25S. LPT-nop-
,
- -.
:
.
BIOS
POST Int 17h (. . 9.3.9)
( ),
, .
,
. LPT- , , ., , . JHH
,
IEEE 1284.
LPT- , , , , .

, (LapLink).
( PCI-
486) LPT-. ISA
LPT-, -,
(FDC+IDE). LPT- MDA ( ) HGC
( ). PCI LPT-,
-
.
'99 LPT . , LPT-, USB FireWire.

9.4.1. LPT-
, , LPT- SPP (Standard Parallel
Port) , Centronics.
(. 9.6) Centronics.

586 9. -
9.6. LPT-

DB-25S

1
3

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

12
13
14
15
16
17
18-25

5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
2
4
6
8
10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,
22, 24, 26

I/O1

Reg. Bit2

0/1

CR.OX

0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)

DR.O
DR.l
DR. 2
DR.3
DR. 4
DR. 5
DR. 6
DR. 7
SR.6
SR.7\
SR.5
SR.4
CR.1\
SR.3
CR.2
CR.3\
-

I3
I
I
I

0/1

0/1
0/1
-

Strobe*
Data 0
Data 1
Data 2
Data3
Data 4
Data 5
Data 6
Data?
Ack#
Busy
PaperEnd
Select
Auto LF#
Error#
Init#
Select In#
GND

I/O (-) . /1 ,
; 0(1) ,
(. ).
2 \ (1
).
3 Ack# (10 ) +5 .
1

LPT- SPP 8- ,
-,
BASE (3BCh, 378h 278h).
Data Register (DR) , =5. ,
, . ,
, , , .
,

- ( - ),
.
,

. ,
,
.

9.4. LPT 587

:*. 50 . ^ 30 . 1..
* 1,5 , -'v.iHKa . *i- . '-
. ** .
Status Register (SR) ; 5-
**> ( SR.4-SR.7), =5+1. SR.7 *> i
., .
(
: ).
SR.7 - Busy Busy (11):

.
SR.6 - Ack (Acknowledge) Ack# (10).
SR.5 - (Paper End) Paper End (12).
.
SR.4 - Select Select (13). .
8 SR.3 - Error # (15).
.
SR.2 - PIRQ Ack# ( PS/2).
, Ack# .
.
SR[1:0] .
Control Register (CR) , =$+2. \. 4- ( 0-3),
. WTMO -? ':
. , 1, 3 .
.
CR[7:6] .
CR.5 - Direction (
PS/2, . ).
. .
CR.4 - AcklNTEN (Ack Interrupt Enable)
Ack# ( ).

588 9. -

CR.3 - Select In
Select In# (17) ,
Centronics.
CR.2 - Init
Init# (16) .
CR.1 - Auto LF
Auto LF# (14) (LF Line
Feed) (CR).
AutoFD AutoFDXT.
CR.O - Strobe
Strobe* (1) .
( IRQ7 IRQ5)
10 (Ack#)
CR.4=1. 10 +5 . ,
. , BIOS .
Centronics ( ISA).
1. (1 IOWR#).
2. ( SR.7
Busy). - ( 1 IORD#).
3.
, . ,
(),
, IOWR# IORD*.
, 4-5 -
( ,
).
. 100-150 /
, .
.
12 ( ),
, 5 . , Nibble Mode. , Hewlett Packard Bi-tronics, 4 , .
, ,
5 -.

9.4. LPT 589

9.4.2.
, PS/2.
1 ( 1 parallel port) , PS/2.
. ,
CR.5: 0
, 1 . ,
enhanced bi-directional, .
.
( 3 DMA parallel port)
PS/2 57, 90, 95.
. , ,
, ,
Centronics .
LPT-,
Centronics Fast Centronics. FIFO-
Parallel Port FIFO Mode. He ,
.

.
VLB. ' ISA,
.

9.4.3. IEEE 1284


IEEE 1284, 1994 ,
SPP, . 5
( ), ,
.
$ (Compatibility Mode) ()
Centronics. SPP.
(Nibble Mode) ( 4 )
. ,
.
(Byte Mode) .
,
(Bi-Directional PS/2 1, . ).
(Enhanced Parallel Port) ( Mode)
.
.
.
(Extended Capability Port) (ECP Mode)

590 9. -

RLE (Run Length Encoding) FIFO- DMA. .


.
, , (PC), ( ).
, Centronics (Fast
Centronics, Parallel Port FIFO Mode), IEE1284,
.
LPT- SPP, ,
CMOS Setup.
SPP. .
:
, ;
, ;
Ptr ;
;
.
. 9.7 LPT- .
9.7. LPT-
SPP,
I/O
1
SPP
ECP

0/1
CR.O\
Strobe*
1
HostClk
2
0/1
DR.O
Data 0
Data 0
3
0/1
DR.1
Data 1
Data 1
4
0/1
DR. 2
Data 2
Data 2
5
0/1
DR.3
Data3
Data3
6
0/1
DR. 4
Data 4
Data 4
7
0/1
DR. 5
Data 5
Data 5
8
0/1
DR. 6
Data 6
Data 6
9
0/1
DR. 7
Data?
Data?
10
SR.6
Ack*
PeriphClk
I

SR.7\
Busy
PeriphAck
I
12
SR.5
PaperEnd
AckReverse*
I
13
SR.4
Select
Xflag
I
14
0/1
CR.1X
Auto LF*
HostAck
15
SR.3
Error*
PeriphRequest*
I
16
0/1
CR.2
Init*
ReverseRequest*
17
0/1
CR.3\
1284Active
Select In*

\ (1 >
). 2


1

Write*
Data 0
Data 1
Data 2
Data3
Data 4
Data 5
Data 6
Data?
INTR*

Wait*
DataStb*
Reset*
AddrStb*

9.4. LPT 591


(Enhanced Parallel Port )
.^ Intel, Xircom Zenith Data Systems ->, IEEE 1284.
/vena . Intel 386SL (; 82360) Tiiit . , ..i-.- IEEE 1284, (. ).
:
;
;
;
.
. - - , .
** . >
[4].
- (. 9.8),
- 5-8 .
9.8. -

R/W

S?P Data Port

+0

SPP/EPP

SPP

<? Status Port


>?? Control Port
?P Address Port

+1
+2
+3

SPP/EPP
SPP/EPP
EPP

R
W

SPP
SPP
. ()

()
R/W

?? Data Port

+4 .

R/W

()
()
Defined
+5...+7

N/A

16-32-
______________________________________ -______

- , ,
- -
. . 9.8
, , -*jiii
( ).
-JOM
.
. 9.9. :.: .

592 9. -
1
IOW*

23

\
\

Write*

Data Strobe* Wait*

/
Data [0:7] ////1

///////

\taMMM

. 9.8.

IOR#
Write*
Add Strobe*
Wait*
Data V/////m///////////////\

\\\\1 .

9.9.


-.
(0,5-2 /). ,
, ,
ISA. (interlocked handshakes)
, , .

Wait*.
. ,
IEEE1284 (. ),
, , ,
.
- : .
, . - PC, , 15 .
-
(5 ), ( ) .

9.4. LPT 593

, IEEE 1284, , 1.7 (


Xircom). 82360. ,
IEEE 1284 , 1.7,
1.7 1284.
- (. .
9.7). , , 1 2
, ( Address Port
Data Port),
.

REP INSB REP OUTSB.
16/32- .
2 /,
, , CD-ROM.
.
, .
.
.
- ,
, ,
. .


(Extended Capability Port )
Hewlett Packard Microsoft
. ,
.
:
;
.
:
RLC (Run-Length Count).
() , The !
1284 Extended Capabilities Port Protocol and ISA Interface Standard
Microsoft. ,
IEEE 1284:
- RLE;
FIFO ;
DMA -.
RLE (Run-Length Encoding) no1* 64:1 -

594 9. -

, .
, , .

, . ,
//, ,
. SPP,
, ,
.
.
SPP (. [4]).

, .
. 9.10, :
. ,
.

, FIFO-. FIFO-
DMA, . . ,
, .
3 4
HostClk
PeriphAck
Data[0:7]

HostAck

1 2 3

PeriphClk HostAck

Data [0:7]

PeriphAck
ReverseRequest#
_ _ AckReverse#

\
-^

45
i

67

vr / v

i\

E D X

f. le X

. 9.10. : ;

9.4. LPT 595

-
IEEE 1284
Microsoft.
(. 9.9)
ISA 10 . , ,
Port, Port+400h, Port+800h...
Port, 0-3FFh. PC
,
0378h 0778h .

( 400-402h) . -,
,
-. ,
000-001 -
.
9.9.
R/W

*

000
R/W
000-001
Data Register
DR
000
R/W
011
Address FIFO
ECPAFIFO
301
R/W

Status Register
SR
2
R/W

Control Register
CR
100
R/W
010
Parallel Port Data FIFO
SDFIFO
400
R/W
011
ECP Data FIFO
ECPDFIFO
4
R/W
110
Test FIFO
TFIFO
400
R
111
Configuration Register A
CNFGA
401
R/W
111
Configuration Register
CNFGB
02
R/W

Extended Control Register


ECR
* ( 7-5 ECR).

( ) . ECR. , , 000 001.


. , (010-111)
000 001.
FIFO-.
RLE .
ECPAFIFO -:* ,
7 RLC ( RLC=127 co-
128 ), . ECPDFIFO -
. ( ),

596 9. -

. , DMA .
FIFO-
.
(000
001), .

.
-: . ( ECR)
. FIFO-
ECR, .
.
- ( )
( DMA), .

IEEE 1284
IEEE 1284
, .

(negotiation sequence). ,
, IEEE 1284,
. IEEE 1284
, , ,
. Selecting ( 17
). ( )
, .


IEEE 1284 , .
, , .

. (
) . IEEE 1284
. (Level I)
, .
(Level II) ,
, .
IEEE 1284 . A (DB-25)
{Centronics-36) ,
36- .
18 25 ,
GND. ,
. .

9.4. LPT 597

2 /
2 . IEEE 1284 :

() ;
626 4-16
;
10 %;
* (), 85 %
,
.
, ,
Std 1284-1994 Compliant. 10 .

9.4.4. LPT-
LPT- (Int 17h, . . 9.3.9). POST
BIOS 3BCh, 378h
278h BIOS Data Area
0:0408h, 040Ah, 040Ch, 040Eh. LPT1-LPT4,
.
0:0478, 0479, 047, 047 , -
.
!
) (AAh 55h),
.
, , LPT-;
310S Data Area. . LPT4 BIOS , -
.

Init#, ,
. Init# -
. --!fpa
Cr^Line.
(,
CMOS Setup) Print Screen .

9.4.5.
:. , LPT-,
1284 . :^*: ,
1284.

598 9. -

, 1284
, , .
,
.
, .
,
, .

.
. , ,
,
. Windows , , (
), ,
.
. Windows , . , , Selectln* ( 17
LPT 36 Centronics).

9.4.6. LPT-
LPT-
(. . 9.3.8), .
,
, . , .
10 .
. 9.10. PC
Interlnk MS-DOS Norton Commander.
9.10. PC-PC (4-)
XI, #1

DR.O 2
DR.1 3
DR. 4
DR. 5
DR. 6
SR. 10
SR. 11
SR.5 12
SR 4 13

2, #2

15

SR.3

13
12
10

5
6
4
3

SR.4
SR.5
SR.6
SR.7
DR.3
DR. 4
DR. 2
DR l

9.4. LPT 599


XI, #1

SR.3 15
18-25

2, #2

2
DR.O
18-25
GND

XI 2 - DB25-P ().


, ( ,
- ).
LPT- , (Bi-Di), .
, (
, ).
(Iomega Zip Drive, CD-ROM .), - . SPP : , ( ) . (Bi-Di
PS/2 1) , , .
LPT-
ISA-.
LPT- (, LPT - IDE, LPT - SCSI, LPT - PCMCIA).

9.4.7. LPT-

(Setup) ()
.
, .
,
.
LPT- . , (), ISA
ISA-VLB, . -_ CMOS Setup.
.
3BCh, 378h 278h. BIOS
, ,
LPT1, LPT2, LPT3.
, MDA HGC.
378h
278h.

600 9. -

: LPT IRQ7, LPT2 IRQ5.


,
. ( Fast Centronics)

.
^ DMA Fast Centronics DMA. ^ :
SPP ;
PS/2, Bi-Directional SPP
( CR.5=1);
D Fast Centronics Centronics FIFO- , , DMA;
SPP ;
SPP PS/2, ECR
,
ECR 100 ;
+ , , ECR 100
.
, Fast Centronics ,
. ,
.
. Windows (3.x, 9 NT)
. DOS
.
, CD-ROM,
, .
; .
, LPT-,
1284 .
,
1284. ,
1284
. ()
, . : , , .

.

9.4. LPT 601

9.4.8.


. ,
BIOS .
BIOS Data Area .
BIOS , ,
, .
:
, , ,
. (Loop Back) ,
, (
) . BIOS . , , .
, a BIOS ,
, ( scero,
- ). ( )

.
DOS Windows 95 ( MS-DOS).
DOS .
, .
,
. (12) (5) ,

. -
(. 9.11).

DB25P

DB25P

. 9.11. LPT-:
Checklt; Norton Diagnostics

602 9. -

LPT-
. , (Checklt, PCCheck
. .), - .
s DOS (
LPTn PRN ),
() , ,
( ) Strobe*.
On Line,
, Busy.
, , (SPP)
, ,
IEEE 1284 (. ).
50-100
/, 1-2 /, .
, 2 .
PnP- ,
17 DB-25 36 Centronics.
, .
, (
) . ,
(,
BINCOD.CHR, . . 9.3.7).
,
.
.
LPT- . DOS PRINT ,
.
, , .
- (, NetWare) . ,
.
, , , ,
:

( ), -.

9.5. ,
,
IBM PC.
(joystick) -

9.5. , , 603

. .
- ,
(paddle) it
. , (
) , .
IBM PC
Game port,
. 4 (XI, 2, Y1
V2) 4 . . XI -, Y1 -, 2
-, Y2 . XI , Y1
-. 2 ( Y1).

.
.
. 9.12.
;
. , ,
, .
- , 0-3 .
1. 0,
;
.
5-7.

IN201hDO(D1,D2, D3)

OUT 201 h J

. 9.12.

-vro
.
0-3,
:.:? . -?!
GND , -
. -:v<yrpeH . 0-100

<) = 24,2 + 11 R ().

, -,
.
: , (, ), , ,
, (IP-), . , ,
[5], ,
: -, , , . , , ,
: LPT- (. . 9.4.6), Fire Wire USB (. 14). , ()
,
.

10.1. RS-232C -

, -

10.1. RS-232C - - 609

.
Serial Interface Serial Port, .

.
, PC - (Communications Port ).
RS-232C. PC
, SDLC V.35. -
(UART),
18250/16450/16550. 8 8-
3F8h (COM1), 2F8h (COM2), 3E8h (COM3), 2E8h (COM4).
IRQ4 (
1 COM3) IRQ3 ( COM2 COM4).
,
, RS-232C. -
- (male ) DB25P DB9P,
.
- -.

.
115 200 /.
1-4
( AT )
BIOS. BIOS Int 14h ,
( ) . Int 14h
110-9600 / (,
). , - i8250/16450/
16550.
(, ) , .
:
, , . - , .
- .
( PCI-
486) -.
(IrDA). ISA -,
LPT-, (FDC+IDE). -
- ,
-

610 10.

. FIFO-
DMA, , .
'99 - ,
. ,
UART 16550A 115,2 /. , -,
U SB Fire Wire.

10.1.1. RS-232C
RS-232C
(
, RS422}. .
-12...-3 .
+3...+ 12 . -3...+3
, :
.
-12...-5 +5...+12
.

,
.

.
( )
.

. 10.1 - (
, ).
, (-) .
10.1. RS-232C



PC

RS-232

V.24
2

DB-25P

DB-9P

I1

22

44

I/O

PG

101

(10)

(10)

(10)

SG
TD
RD
RTS
CTS

102
103
104
105
106

7
2
3
4
5

5
3
2

5
3
2
7
8

9
5
3
4
6

13
3
5
7
9

1
8

3
4
8
7

10.1. RS-232C - 611


RS-232


V.24
2

DB-25P

DB-9P


PC
I1

22

DSR
107
6
2
6
6

DTR
CD
108/2
4
4
7
20
DCD CF
109
8
1
1
1
RI

125
22
9
9
8
: 8- .
J 16- .
1 .
* 25- .

44

I/O

9
2
5
6

11
14
15
18

I
0
I
I

RS-232C, , - PC. , -
( RS-232 V.24).
. 10.2.
10.2. RS-232C

PG

Protected Ground

,
Signal Ground () ,
SG~ ______________________________________ Transmit Data
_________ Receive Data
"
9D Request To Send :
.
TS ________
______________
"5
Clear To Send .
.
_________ __________________________________
2SR
Data Set Ready
(
________ )____________________
1"*
Data Terminal Ready .

XD

Data Carrier Detected

Ring Indicator ().


_______ ____________________

-
- . 10.1. ,
, - .

612 10.
DTR |______________________
DSR

1_______________________

RTS

I_______________

CTS
12 3

78

910

11 12

1314

. 10.1. RS-232C

.
1. DTR
.
2. DSR .
3. RTS
.
4. CTS
.
5. CTS
(, )
.
6. CTS
( ).
7. RTS
( ), . .
8. RTS CTS.
9. RTS .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. DTR,
( ).
14. DSR .

DTR-DSR RTS-CTS - .
-, , ,
, (,). -,
(. 10.2). -
-,
. -, -

10.1. RS-232C - 613

( 0),
. , -
.

| ^

0
I

'

2 3 4 5 6 7

IIIIIIIIII
. 10.2.

-. -, -, . : . *s
- , .^ -.
: 50, 75, ! :0
150. 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19 200, 38 400, 57 600 115 200 /. -
/ (baud),
. --?
, (
) - (/)
() -.. ( . . 10.3).
5, 6, 7 8 (5- 6- ). - 1, 1,5 2
( ).
- (-) ().
( -) -1 i
in - , , .

10.1.2.
(Flow Control) . -
. (handshaking) -
, -

.
RTS/CTS (hardware flow control) .
CIS, , -

614 10.

(. 10.3).
CTS. , , CTS ( ).
.
, ,
, .
.

TD
CTS


. 10.3.

,
. ( )
RTS CTS.

CTS (
RTS CTS). .
IBM PC 8250/16450/16550 CTS
, MSR (.
). RTS/CTS BIOS Int 14h,
. ,
-, UART ( BIOS),
CTS .
CTS (
), CTS
RTS. (,
8251), CTS . ,
CTS ( )
. RTS/CTS
XON/XOFF (
FIFO) .
XON/XOFF
. :
, , ,
,
- XOFF (13h). , ,
.

10.1. RS-232C - 615

, XON (llh),
.
(XON XOFF)
(. 10.4).
, ,

( ).
RD.

XOFF

XON


XON/XOFF
. 10.4. XON/XOFF

,
3 (. . 10.1.6). ,
(
- XON),
.
( )
, .
,
, , .

10.1.3.


, .

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter
).
. - IBM PC XT/AT
, UART i8250
8250/16450/16550. , , . .

616 10.

8250 ( ), XT BIOS.
8250 , BIOS. AT,
9600 /.
8250 8250 8250, XT BIOS. AT DOS
( 9600 /).
8250 .

CPU.
AT UART
.
* 16450 8250 AT. 8250
XT BIOS .
* 16550 16450. DMA . FIFO-,
.
16550 16- FIFO-
DMA. UART
AT 9600 /
. -, .
UART 16550
, (
) DLAB ( 7 LCR). 8 .
UART 16550 [4].

10.1.4. -
- BIOS Int 14h, .
( , AL; ). DTR
RTS ( ).
* Olh AL ( ). DTR RTS, THR
. , - .
02h ( ).
DTR (RTS ),
, AL.

10.1. RS-232C - 617

,
-.
03h ( MSR LSR).

- -.
Int 14h ,
-3) DX (0 1, 1 COM2...). , 1 3
X*ncip ( LSR), AL
Btte.ua (MSR). 2 7
AL;
7 , 3.
( ) :
7 - ( 2
);
6 ( );
5 (
);
4 ;
3 ( -);
2 ;
1 ( );
0 .
5 ( AL 0, 1,3)
:
7 DCD;
6 RI;
5 DSR;
4 CTS;
3 DCD;
2 RI;
1 DSR;
0 CTS.
; AL :
[7:5] :
000=110; 100=1200; 001=150; 101=2400;
010=300; 110=4800; 011=600; 111=9600 /;
[4:3] :
01 ;
11 ;
s 0 10 ;

618 10.

. 2 -: 0 1 , 1 2 ( 110 /
1,5 -); [1:0] : 00 5 , 0 1 6 , 10 7
, 1 1 8 .
POST BIOS ( UART 8250 )
BIOS Data
Area 0:0400, 0402, 0404, 0406.
1-4.
. 0:047, 047D, 047, 047F ,
- .
2400 /, 7
(even), 1 -. DTR RTS ( ).

10.1.5. -
1-4,
AT .
(Setup) ()
. .
.
CMOS Setup.
.
& , 1-4
3F8h, 2F8h, 3E8h 2E8h. BIOS

1, COM2, COM3 COM4. COM3
COM4 3EOh, 338h 2EOh, 238h .
PS/2 -8 3220h, 3228h,
4220h, 4228h, 5220h 5228h .
. 1 COM3
IRQ4 IRQ11, COM2 COM4 - IRQ3 IRQ10.
( ), (,
) .
, ,
, .
,
, UPS .
( ),
PC .
- -

620 10.

, R , , N
( ).

10.1.6. -
-
, ,
, ,
RS-232C. - , 3 4 -
. . , , - ,
PC,
-. PC
. ,
PC, , -
.


- (,
). .
Serial Mouse
.
DB-9S-DB-25P DB-25S-DB-9P.
, 1 IRQ4, COM2 IRQ3. ,
1 IRQ4, ,
.
-
RS-232C. ;
.
(9-)
-, . 10.5.
( );
9-25, .
, ()
. 9600 /
, - UART 16550A
. FIFO-
DMA .
, ,
- -
(. 10.6). MS-DOS Norton Commander Interlnk
115,2 /
.
Lantastic, .

10.1. RS-232C - -

621

DB9P
DB25P

. 10.5.

DB9S
DB25S

DB9S
DB25S

TD
RD
DTR
DSR
RTS
CTS
DCD
RI
SG

| DB9S
DB9S
DB25S
DB25S
,, 4>
< < ~~~~^<^~
<
3
2
4
6
7
8
1
9
5

2
3
20
6
4
5
8
22
7

> _-^ --_ 3 2 TD


>
2 3 RD
>
- 4 20 DT
>
- 6 6 DSR
>
- 7 4 RTS
X
- 8 5 CTS
>
- 1 8 DC
9 22 RI

5 7 SG

::
::

. 10.6. - : ;

- (Security Devices),
.
,
, .
-
PC , (VT-52, VT-100 . .).
, BIOS -
(Int 14h), (Int 10h) (Int 16h).
(, ,
Pentium), BIOS ,
.


,
.
, RS-232C, -

622 10.

[5]. . 10.7 , (L)


(V). RS-232C RS-423A
, RS-423A .
RS-422A () RS-485, .
() .
,
, .
RS-232C/ V.24

1 = 15
V = 20 /
L = 9i

RS-422A/V.11/X.27

V= 100 /

RS-423A / V.6 / .26

L = 911
L = 12001

V = 10 /
V = 1 /
V= 100 /

1*121
1=1201
L= 12001

RS-485

V= 10 /
V = 1 /
L
= 121
L = 1201
L = 12001

V= 10 /
V = 1 /
V = 100 /

. 10.7.

. , ,
- MIDI (. 11).

.
, , . ( )
20 , .

- (
).

.
( ). -

10.1. RS-232C - - 623

( ),
. -
, -^
.

1 .
.
, . :-:

" , -jpv
Oi/XOFF. ,
. "5
( ) ( -u;.t )
-
. -tiif-
, * .
TTixro -. .

10.1.7. -
, -, .
, ,
^- , [4].
, _|
.
(28h 08h) (29h 09h),
.
16 ,
* . -~*
-
, PnP-. ,
Microsoft Mouse ASCII-
- ( ).

10.1.8.
-
- () -~-
.


( )
. . -

624 10.

, BIOS .
BIOS Data AREA .
BIOS , , ,
. COM3 COM4:
BIOS 3EOh, 338h, 2EOh
238h; 3E8h 2E8h. , , :
3F8h 3E8h,
1 COM2, .
1 COM3 ( 3E8h
COM3), COM3 ,
3E8h 0:402h BIOS Data Area,
COM2, COM3 (0:404h)
. , ,
, BIOS Data
Area (
). (, Port Finder),
.
,
(External LoopBack).
,
(. UART [1 4])
( ) ,
. .
, ,
.
BIOS,
, LPT-: ,
. .
- ,
.
. , .


-
(Checklt) .
UART ( ) ,
,
. ,
/ UART.

10.1. RS-232C - - 625


, - (. 10.8). LPT-
- .
RTS-CTS . DTR
DSR, DCD RI.

DB9S
DB25S

. 10.8. - (LoopBack Checklt Norton Diagnostics)

,
, ,
. . .
1.
( , ,
,
).
2. TD, RTS DTR:
TD -12 (
, -5 ), RTS DTR . ,
. :
;
(
);
.
,
. . 10.1
10- -,
; - .
. ,

626 10.

(
).
, , . 3.
RTS CTS ( ),
- (, COPY
C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT 1:).
.
RTS DTR ,
TD
5 . RTS DTR ,
. RTS ( CTS)
, COPY , ,
CTS ( - ).
COPY , TD (
,
), TD.
,
.
.
(
), ( ,
). -, ,
CMOS Setup,
, . .
. ,
.
( ) (56 115 /).

.
PC- () 58051 18251.
- ( USART Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter). PC -
. ,
BIOS Int 14h, ,
.


-
.

10.2. 627

DTR RTS , 12.


20 .
,
. TD
,
. -
( TD , BRCON).
(+V DTR RTS, -V TD)
, -. ,

. ,
( ),
.
. 5
( ), , ,
(
).

. +12
. -12
, -. (
Power Good, ).
, . ,
.

10.2.

(wireless) , , .
(IrDA)
(Blue Tooth) .

(. . 10.4).

10.2.1. IrDA
()
,

628 10.

. IR (InfraRed) Connection
, . - ,
, .

-.
,
: (PDA), ,
. .
( 115,2 /), (1,152 /)
(4 /) .
, , , ,
. . ,
. 1993
IrDA (Infrared Data Association),
.
IrDA 1.1,
Hewlett Packard HP-SIR (Hewlett Packard Slow
Infra Red) Sharp ASK IR (Amplitude Shifted Keyed IR). :
IrDA SIR (Serial Infra Red), HP-SIR - 9,6-115,2 /;
IrDA HDLC, IrDA MIR (Middle Infra Red) - 0,576
1,152 /;
IrDA FIR (Fast Infra Red) - 4 /;
ASK IR - 9,6-57,6 /.
- ,
880 ;
30. PIN-,
- 15. IrDA
,
, -.
,

. :
,
, ,
( ) .
. IrDA (BER
Bit Error Ratio) 10~9 1
( 10 ).
, ,
.
( ) .

10.2. 629

IrDA ,
.
IrDA .
IrDA SIR 2,4-115,2 /
( -): - (), 8
- ().
3/16 (1,63
115,2 /), ( IrDA SIR-A).
, ,
-. 1.1 IrDA SIR-B,
1,63 .
ASK IR 9,6-57,6 /
, :
500 , .
IrDA HDLC 0,576 1,152 /
, SIR,
1/4 .
HDLC, 01111110,
(bit
stuffing). 16- CRC-.
IrDA FIR (IrDA4PPM) 4 / , .
- : 00 1000, 01
0100, 10 0010, 11 0001 (
).

.
.
32- CRC-.
IrLAP (IrDA Infrared
Link Access Protocol) HDLC, . :
, ,
, . . IrLAP
, . 9600 /,
(9,6, 19,2, 38,4, 57,6 115,2 /)
(
).
IrLAP IrLMP (IrDA
Infrared Link Management Protocol).
( IrDA
:
). IrLMP -

630 10.

, ,
.
IrLMP , .
.
Tiny TP (IrDA Transport
Protocols) ,
( , . .), ( TCP).
IrTP.
IrCOMM -
:
3- RS-232C (TXD, RXD GND);
9- RS-232C ( -);
Centronics ( ).
IrLAN ; Ethernet Token Ring. -
- IrDA,
() ,
( ).
IrOBEX (Object Exchange Protocol)
, PUT GET
. Tiny
. IrOBEX ,
, GSM (
, , , . .),
( PDA).
, -. , (, . .) 880- , .
IrDA
;
( ), ,
.
(30 15 )
( 1 ).
115,2 / (IrDA SIR, HPSIR, ASK IR) UART,
16450/16550 -.
(
115,2 /) COM2.
UART ,
. COM2 -

10.2. 631

, CMOS Setup
( COM2).
( ISA, PCI, PC
Card), -.

IrDA,
() DMA, .
UART , . IrDA FIR
; ,

SIR.

IR-Connector ,
( )
(mini-DIN), -
. ,
, ( )
.
;
. 10.3.
, FIR SIR,
IRRX ( SIR) FIRRX ( FIR).
, .
10.3.

/
2
1

IRRX
FIRRX
IRTX
GND
VCC (+5B)
NC


FIR

1
3
2
4
-

3
5
4
1
2

3
4
1
2
5
-

1
2
5
4

- RS-232C
- USB. USB
FIR, - SIR. - IrDA SIR
- , : -
, 16-
( UART -).
-
. ASK IR
, TXD
;
.
IrDA .

632 10.

Windows 9x/ME/2000 IrDA .



( , );
; ; PDA,
;
,
.

10.2.2. Bluetooth
Bluetooth ( )

( ) ,
.
,
3Com, Agere Systems, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia,
Toshiba. , Bluetooth Special Interest Group,
. Bluetooth
(www.bluetooth.com), , ( 15 PDF-).
,
.
( ).
, ,
.
,
2,4 . , ,
.
() ,
F = 2402 + k (), k = 0,...,78. (.
, ),
F = 2454 + k (k = 0,...,22).
, . , 1, 2,5 100
,
.
,
.

(79 23 ). ,
(
), (piconet),
2 8 . 7
. ,
-

10.2. 633

:
( ) , ,
. (1-7); -
(), .
(- ).
, (scatternet).
,
(
, ). ,
.
, (
).
- 625 ,
227. -
(1600 ).
- .
, 1 5 -.
, ,
625 ,
(
). :
,
( ).

: .
( ) , SCO link
(Synchronous Connection-Oriented),
(, ). -
,
( ),
. .
.
SCO .
SCO
. SCO
.
, ACL link (Asynchronous
Connection-Less), -
.
, SCO,
. ,
(
).
. -

634 10.


.
ACL.


,
(72 ), (54 ) (payload) 02745 . .
ACL CRC- ( ) 1
( ).
DM1 (Data Medium ) 18
( ) 16- CRC,
2/3 FEC (. ). ACL, SCO.
DH1 (Data High ) 28
, 16- CRC, FEC .
DM3 DH3 , 123
185 ( )
. DM5 " DH5 226
342 5 .
AUX1 DH1, CRC, 30 .
SCO CRC-, , , .
.
HV1 (High-quality Voice ) 10
, 1/3 FEC. 1,25
64 / 2 .
HV2 20 , 2/3 FEC (2,5 ):
4 .
HV3 30 ,
6 .
DV (Data Voice) 10
10 , 2/3 FEC.
. CRC-.

.
FEC
(Forward Error Correction code). FEC 1/3

10.2. 635

, . , .
FEC 2/3 , (15, 10)
10 15- ,
10 . 10,
-. Bluetooth 5
.
LC (Link Control), ,
( , ,
).
LM (Link Manager) .
DM.
UA/UI (User Asynchronous/Isochronous Data)
( 2- ), (
).
.
US (User Synchronous Data)
, SCO.
64 / . (- ) CVSD (Continuous Variable Slope Delta Modulation
- ).
G.711, , 8-
8 / ( ). CVSD
- 64 /, 432 . () , (, )
.
723,2 /
( 57,6 /)
433,9 / .
(link layer), , , .
48- (BD_ADDR
Bluetooth device address), 128-
, 8-128- 128-
() .

636 10.

(BD_ADDR),
IEEE802. 24- ( IEEE)
8 . ( ) 24 ,
-. ,
232.
, .
,
.


, ,
,
(BD_ADDR). ()
28-
3,2 . ,
.
,
.
,

-,
. ,

.
,
-.
,
.
, ;
. ,
.
paging.
(page scan),
, .
(32 16
), .
,
, , , . page,
, .
, ,
,
.
,

10.2. 637

FHS, , ,

.
. ,
,
(BD_ADDR).
, ,
, .
, ,
inguiry. -
IAC ( )
. , GIAC
(Global IAC) ,
, DIAC (Dedicated IAC).
paging,
, (GIAC DIAC).
16 ,
,
. ( )
, .
,
.
,
( ) .

Bluetooth
,
.
, -, . -
L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation
Protocol), .

L2CAP, .
SDP (Service
Discovery Protocol), .
, ,
(, ,
. .).
RFCOMM (9- RS-232) L2CAP. ( -)
- .
( ),

638 10.

.
RFCOMM ,
( irDA). RFCOMM
, TCP/IP
. RFCOMM ,
( ).
- TCS BIN (Telephony Control protocol Binary),
( ), L2CAP.
TCS.
- HCI (Host Controller Interface) - .
, . L2CAP . :
(, PC Card), USB, -.
HCI ,
HCI .

10.3. -
( )
().
.
(-)
, ,
.
()
,
.

.
- (fax-modem)
, -.
,
: - , (1
), .
. -
,
.

10.3. - 639

,
.
,
. (voice modem)
, .
. ,
, ADPCM (Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
- , ).
,
.

,
( ).

(), .
,
.
, ,
.
[5]
, , ,
.
, . ,
V.90,
. K56flex
.
10.4.

Bps

Baud

Bell 103

300

300

Bell 2 12
V.I 7

1200
600
14 400, 1200,
2400
9600, 7200, 4800

V.21
V.22
V.22bis
V.23
V.27ter

300
1200
2400
1200/75
4800 2400

V.29
V32
V.32bis

9600, 7200
2400
9600, 4800
2400
14 400, 1200,
2400
9600, 7200, 4800

300
600
600
1200/75
1600 1200

, Fax Group III (),


V.29
Bell 103
Bell 212A

, Fax Group III ()
, Fax Group III ()
,
,

^>

640 10.
10.4 ()
Bps
Baud

V.32fast
V.34
V.34+
V.90 (2)

V.32Bis
V.34

K56flex
HST

19200
28800
33600
56 000/
33600
56 000/
33600
16 800

2800
9600
9600

,
9600


300/450. .
U.S. Robotics

10.3.1.
PC :
(internal) (external).
.
ISA,
PCI.
PC Card (PCMCIA). -
8250/16450/16550.
.

,
.
(, ). , ,
.
, ( -)
(IRQ)
. -,
. , 1 COM2 (
),
COM3 COM4. 1 COM2,

(. . 10.1.5) COM3 COM4.
( )
( ISA).
, 1 COM3, COM2 COM4

( ISA
, . . 3.4.3). .
- , -

10.3. - 641

,
. 1/,
2/4, .
, .
, ,
9- 25- -.
, ,
,
.
, USB.
LPT-,
( ).
- PC ,
( ) .
PC ,
V.35. SDLC -
PC
IBM (mainframe).
-

.

. 10.9. RJ-11
Line ( Telco),
Phone.
Phone

Line

. 10.9.

, ,
(, . .).
(pulse dialing) (tone dialing).
,
.
().
, -

642 10.

|
I

. , , .
.
, -.
.
:
, .
.
(DSP).
, . . (firmware) (EPROM) . . ,
( - , ,
DSP).
( ).
, ( ) ,
. ,
-.
,
.
,
.
(DSP), .
SoftModem WinModem,
Windows.
.
, AC-Link (. . 11.2.3).
PC Card (PCMCIA).
( NMT-450 GSM), .

xDSL , (Digital
Subscriber Line ). ,

10.3. - 643


(splitter). ( 3,5 )
(
), ( 4 )
xDSL-. (
)
1 , , 56 /,
.

. (FDM)
, .
(echo-cancellation)
,
. ,
.
, ( , - )
( URL).
ADSL
(Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), (downstream) 6,1 /, 16-640 /.
( , ,
, . .).
5,5 0,5 (24 AWG) 4,6
0,4 (26AWG). 6,1 / 3,7
0,5 2,7 0,4 .
UADSL (Universal ADSL), DSL Lite, ADSL ( 3,5 1,5
/ 384 / ; 5,5 640
196 /). .
RADSL (Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line)
.
HDSL (High Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line) ,
1,536 2,048 / .
3,7 , .
SDSL (Single-Line Digital Subscriber Line)
(1,536 2,048 /) ,
3 .
VDSL (Very High Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line)
( 56 /), . 1,5 .
, .

( ), ( ) ,
.
xDSL, ( ) -

644 10.

. , , xDSL , .
xDSL
. xDSL
,
, .
(CATV),
75 . .
.
ADSL, :
, .

(downstream)
TV. (upstream)
(, ISDN ).
( )
.
,
.

.

10.3.3.
, . , 2048 /
. .
( 115,2
/). - RS232C, RS-423A, RS-422A, RS-449, RS-485, RS-530, V.35 .
Ethernet ,

(, - ).
(2 4-), (0,4 MM/26AWG 0,5
MM/24AWG) . 4-
0,4-0,5 2 / 2-2,4 ,
256 / - 9-12 , 32 / - 15-20 . 2--
160 / 4,2-5,6 , 144 / 6,5-8,5 .
Zelax ,
.
1500 . -

10.4. 645

,
( ).

10.4.

(NIC Network Interface Card),
.
, . : Ethernet, ARCNet, Token Ring, FDDI,
[5]. Ethernet, .

Ethernet.

.
(wireless)
, ( ,
0,9; 2,4; 5,8 ) .
:
.
, . , ,
( PC Card, ISA, PCI), . ,
(Ethernet) . ,
,
, ,
(
). 1 .
30-150 ,
.
, , ,
, .
,
( ,
).
.
( )
( ).

646 10.

IEEE 802.11,
1, 2, 802.lib 11 /
100 . 2,4 , 128
. ,
.

10.4.1.
, (NIC Network Interface Card),
.
,
. :
()

( , , CRC-), .
. ,
, ,
, , .
( , CRC).
. ,
, , .
, . .
, :

CSMA/CD;
;
: ( ), ;

;
, .

(Boot ROM) (Wake On LAN).
, (Master Boot Boot Record). , ,
.

10.4. 647

(Network Interface Card, NIC) PC


ISA, EISA, MCA, VLB, PCI, PC Card. ,
LPT- PC, (, . .) (
),
( 10 /).
.
.

,
.
(DMA), - (), .
8- ISA
2 /, 16- 4 /.
1,3 2,6 . 12 ,
Ethernet,
. Fast Ethernet,
1,2 , .
(),
. ,
(bus mastering) ISA/EISA (
8 / ISA 16 33 / EISA). 100 /
ISA , EISA . PCI,
32- 33 132 /. Gigabit Ethernet -
, , PCI 66
64 , .
PCI , .
PCI,
. .
, ,

:: . ISA/EISA
: (
)
64 , ,
. . PCI - ( ) 100
/ 2

648 10.

. Gigabit Ethernet (256 ).


(
Gigabit Ethernet).
. , .
, .
(?) 100 /, , .
,
NE2000 16- ISA
Novell-Eagle. PCI.
10/100 /
.
Boot ROM,
(remote wake up), DMI ACPI.
3--
, .
(
+5VSB),
. ,
(Magic Packet)
.
,
;
DMI. ,
, , .

PCI 32/64 33/66 ,
EISA . ,

.
802..
802.1,
, (tagged
VLAN), Fast IP, IP-. -
, ,
, .

(Resilient Link)
. -
, .

10.4. 649

,
. (Self-Healing
Drivers) ()
.
, , .
( ) SNMP RMON.
( , 4 ) , , . PCI (
EISA ).
100 /, Gigabit Ethernet
.
:
BNC 10Base2;
AUI DB-15 ()
lOBaseS, 10Base2, lOBaseT, lOBaseF, FOIRL;
RJ-45 8- ( ) lOBaseT, 100BaseTX / 100BaseT4;
SC (), ST 100BaseFX, lOOOBaseSX, lOOOBaseLX.
10- BNC+AUI RJ-45+AUI,
Combo 10- BNC/
AUI/RJ 45. 10 100 / RJ-45
. (,
BNC RJ-45)
.
RJ-45 lOBaseT 100BaseTX.
,
.
.
- , 4-32 ,
10- ( ISA) 16- (EISA, PCI) .
,
, .
(IRQ3, 5, 7, 9, 10, , 12 15), , ,
( - ).
PC, - .
,
. -

- (),
.

650 10.

CMOS Setup ,
: Legacy ISA ISA ,
PCI/PnP PCI ISA .
(DMA)
ISA/EISA, (bus mastering) ISA
16- 5-7.
(adapter RAM)
ISA
(UMA), AOOOOh-FFFFFh. PCI
,
.
. (shadow RAM)
adapter RAM CMOS Setup ,
.
(adapter ROM) ROM BIOS, 4/8/16/32 COOOO-DFFFFh. (Boot ROM) .
PC . ,
, .
(),
. ISA.
.

(NVRAM, EEPROM), ISA.
(jumperless), , () .
,
EISA ,
(ESCD EISA). ECU (EISA Configuration
Utility EISA).
ISA PCI. .
. () (
),
. , .
, , .

10.4. 651


. RAM ROM
, , .

(
MDA/Hercules). , 2-3
(soft configuration).

, . ,
( ) .
ISA,
. ,
.
()
. ,
.
( )
.
10Base2 (BNC-) , 305 185.
, ,
.
, .
.
Ethernet , [5].
lOBaseT Ethernet (Twisted-Pair Ethernet) 3,
2 . ,
- () (-.
10.10, ). (. 10.10, ). :
();

;
, ;
si .
8-
RJ-45 (. 10.5). -

652 10.

(. 10.10, ), ( )
(crossover) (. 10.10, ).
. 2,5 , 100 .
1024,
() .
:
.

. lOBaseT .
, [5].
Ethernet
. .
MDIX

MDIX

2*3~45<-y

&J

7*-

MD

4*- /
MD 5*-/
6*^
7*-

8*-

. 10.10. lOBaseT/lOOBaseTX: a ; ;
;
10.5. lOBaseT, 100BaseTX ( RJ-45)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

MDI
Tx+
TxRx+

MDIX

He
He

He
He

Rx-

Tx-

He
He

He
He

Rx+
RxTx+

10.4. 653


(full duplex mode)
. ()
.
100BaseTX Fast Ethernet
5. lOBaseT.
.
100BaseT4 3. (. 10.11, ),

(. 10.11, ).

. 10.11. 100BaseT4:
;

Ethernet
(autonegotiation), , .
.
: 100BaseTX ,
100BaseT4, 100BaseTX , lOBaseT , lOBaseT
.
( ),
.
(Fast Ethernet 10/100), 100BaseT4
.
Fast Ethernet .
Fast Ethernet
205 ,
II, I
. 100
, 5 .

654 10.

10.5.

(, ) - (
). ,
, , .
()
.
( ) -
( ) (
Windows ).
,
, .
,
( ) ,
( ).
( )

( , , ,
). . :
(); ;
.
(
). :
56 /,
. ,
,
,
, . , , .

( ).

,
.

.
xDSL- .

10.5. 655

,
, . , . ,
, .
xDSL- .
, - , .
, .
,
.
, , , ,
.
.
,
( )
, .
ISDN.
ISDN ( ISDN-)
ISDN, . 64
128 / ( BRI), ISDN .
.
( ) ,
,
.
( ).
,
.
,
. ,

( ).
, IP- . ,
. IP, IP-,
. ,

.
.

656 10.

10.5.1. IP-
IP-
IP-, -,
, IP. ,
IP .

64 (56) / . (
) -
().
- (ADPCM) 16
/, (
)
. ,
, 4-8 / . IP-,
IP-.
IP-
, - .
: , . ,
. ,
,
.
,
.
(), ,
.
.
, ( ADPCM),
,
(, ) .
64 /
4-8 /,
. IP-
: G.723.1
5,3 6,3 /, G.729A 8 /.
IP-
, ( )
.
IP- , IP- ().

10.5. 657

() .
(, ,
).
,
( ) .
IP- .
( NetMeeting Microsoft),
.
, web-
- . IP-
.
IP-
.


IP- ( ). : ,
( ).
(Ethernet),
.
, .

( web-) . . 10.12
, ()
(). ,
,
. , , ,
, (!)
, , ,
. ,
, . , IP-. IP-
,
, . ,
. IP ,
, .
,
,
. ,
: ,
IP-.

658 10.


()

. 10.12. IP

, , 2 4
RJ-11. (
), .
G.711 . (86)
.

. ,
, ,
( ).
, ( -,
Compact-PCI . .). -
,
, .

, -
. IP-

.
IP-
. ISA- -.
Ethernet lOBaseT 4 8 -
(RJ-11). G.711,
,
G.723.1 G.729A. ( Ethernet)
486 32 12 . - UNIX, . Ethernet

10.5. 659

( 3- )
(firewall). Ethernet
( 4 )
Ethernet.
, IP,
. , .
( )
, .
, (
),
(, )
.


SCSI
(IDE) SCSI.
, , , . , ,

( -, ).
() . ,
,
( ).
- , ,
. (
) (),
. : SCSI
( SCSI).
. (
)

13.1, (IDE) 749

. 7.7.1. SCSI
, .
SCSI ( ) USB
FireWire FibreChannel (. 14).

13.1. (IDE)
AT Attachment for Disk Drives 1986-1990

IBM PC AT ISA. , 10,
40- .

, IDE
(Integrated Drive Electronics). AT
.
,
,
, .
ISA ,
, ,
. ISA
:
;
$s ,
AEN ,
CSO# 51#;
, , DMA,
.
AT , . .
, (DEV)
(drive/head register)
.
.
IDE ISA. ,
.

, - , . , , -

750 13. SCSI

. ATAPI, , (PI Package Interface). .


.
-
( ISA ).
- . -
-.
& () 40- -. .
(Master) ,
Device- (-0).
(Slave) ,
Device-1 (-1).
, .
, , . ( ) .
(. ),
.
- .
. DEV=0,
, DEV=1 .
. ,
, -
. IDE,
() . -4
(. . 13.1.6).

- . .
, - (
),
.
IDE .
, AT-BUS, 16- AT. 40- 4-
AT. (2,5" )
44- , .

13.1. (IDE) 751

PC Card 16- 68- PC Card


(PCMCIA) PC.
* XT IDE (8 ), XT-BUS, 40- ,
, .
MCA IDE (16 ) 72- , PS/2.
* -2 . 2 , 4 , Mode 3, Multiword DMA Mode 1, Block mode,
8 , LBA CHS.
Fast -2 Multiword DMA Mode 2 (13,3 /),
Mode 4.
$ -3 -2. , , SMART (Self Monitoring Analysis and Report Technology).
& ATA/ATAPI-4 -3, Ultra DMA
33 / ATAPI.
.
ATA/ATAPI-5 ATA/ATAPI-4:
, . Ultra DMA 66
/.
ATA/ATAPI-6 ATA/ATAPI-5:
- - , ,
Ultra DMA 100 /.
E-IDE (Enhanced IDE) ,
Western Digital. PCI VLB.
4 ( ), CD-ROM (ATAPI). Mode 3, Multiword DMA Mode 1,
8 , LBA CHS.
-2.
IDE, E-IDE, -2, Fast -2, -3, ATA/ATAPI-4, /
ATAPI-5 ATA/ATAPI-6 . ( ).
, - .
AT A/ATAPI 13
(NCITS).
ANSI. 1998 ATA/ATAPI-4 (ANSI
NCITS 317-1998 AT Attachment - 4 with Packet Interface Extension), 2000
ATA/ATAPI-5 ATA/ATAPI-6. , ,

752 13. SCSI

2001-2002 Serial .
, ,
.
,
( ),
,
. , , .
SCSI, USB Fire Wire.

13.1.1.
-.
40-
,
20.
.
-,
0,46 (18"), 35 .
(
-), () , - . . 13.1, .
13.1.
. ()
, . 13.2. 28
, 28 (CSEL) , .
, .
.

. 13.1.

13.1. (IDE) 753 1

. 13.2.


13.1. (IDE)

RESET*

GND

DD7
DD6
DD5
DD4
DD3
DD2
DD1
DDO
GND

I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS

3
5
7
9
13
15
17
19

4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS

DMARQ
DIOW# /STOP3

OTS2

21
23

22
24

DD8
DD9
DD10
DD11
DD12
DD13
DD14
DD15
(
)
GND
GND

DIOR*
/HDMARDY#
/HSTROBE3
IORDY
/DDMARDY#
/DSTROBE3

25

26

OTS2

27

28

I/O

SPSYNC/ CSEL7

DMACK#
INTRQ
DA1

29
31
33

30
32
34

GND
IOCS16#8
PDIAG# / CBLID3

DAO
CSO#
DASP#

I
I

35
37
39

36
38
40

I
I

OTS2

I
I/O OK5

11

GND

OK
I, O4

DA2
CS1#
GND

d>

754 13. SCSI


13.1 ()

+5 (Logic)
GND

41

42

436

446

+5 (Motor)

: I , , I/O , TS ,
. - I .
2 ( ).
3 , /, Ultra DMA (ATA-4).
4 , .
5 .
6 41-44 .
7 -3 CSEL.
8 -3 .
1

ATA/ATAPI-4,
-1 . 28
, . ,
- (
. 13.2). , 40 -
( ).
Ultra DMA 80 ,
(GND). , UltraDMA 2
( 33 /), , 40 ,
80 . ,
(
EVN GND ODD GND ).
( 80
). 80-
34 GND
, (CBLID).
34 ,
PDIAG# .
80-
.
- ,
34 .
.
0 ,
.
.
-1 () ,
28 .
.

13.1. (IDE) 755

, 0 1
.
40- ,
4- (. 13.3),
44- .
39

19

40

20

4 3 2 1
2

CN

. 13.3. ( ): ;

40- 2,54 . , (
).
ATA/ATAPI , . 13.4, .
() ,
1-40 (. . 13.1), -
(. 13.2) .
50- 2 (. 13.4, ),
1-44 . 13.1, A-D
(. . 13.2)
. 50-
IBM Thinkpad/Travelstar:
10 +5 ;
* : --0,
-1;
:
Standby, Idle;
D 28 (CSEL) 10
+5 .
, , , . Toshiba
( +5 47 ), GND, D
( -1).
13.2.

SFF8057

SFF8058

SFF8212

Toshiba (1996)



Master
Master Slave
Slave

-
E-F
G-H
G-H, E-F

A-F
-
E-F
E-F
C-D

A-D
B-D
-

A-D
B-D
C-D

756 13. SCSI

2 DB 1

IGECA

4 3 2 1

;;;;

HFDB
43

19

1 t/A
GECA

4 3 2 1

JHFDB
. 13.4. : a
SFF8057; 6 SFF8058; SFF8212 (50- )


HP 36, ATA/ATAPI .
- , CompactFlash Association.

. ATA/ATAPI-4.
[4] [6], :
RESET# (Device Reset) ;
DA[2:0] (Device Address) ;
DD[15:0] (Device Data) 16- ;
DIOR# (Device I/O Read) -;
DIOW# (Device I/O Write) -;
IORDY (I/O channel Ready) ;
IOCS16# 16- ;
& DMARQ (DMA Request) DMA ();
DMACK# (DMA Acknowledge) DMA;
INTRQ (Interrupt Request) ;
CSO# (Chip Select 0) (Command
Block Registers);
CS1# (Chip Select 1) (Control Block
Registers);
PDIAG# (Passed Diagnostics) ;
& CBLID# (Cable assembly type identifier) ;

13.1. (IDE) 757

DASP# (Device Active, Slave Present) :


;
SPSYNC/CSEL (Spindle Synchronization/Cable Select) / .
Ultra DMA ( 23, 25, 27, 34)
:
STOP (Stop Ultra DMA burst) Ultra DMA;
DDMARDY# (Device Ultra DMA ready)
Ultra DMA ( );
DSTROBE (Host Ultra DMA data strobe)
( DSTROBE);
HDMARDY# (Host Ultra DMA ready)
Ultra DMA ( );
HSTROBE (Host Ultra DMA data strobe)
( HSTROBE);
CBLID (Cable Identifier) (40- 80-).
IDE 68- PCMCIA (PC Card), . 13.3.
:
* SELATA# (Select 68-pin ATA) , : PC Card ( ) ( ,
);
CD1# CD2# (Card Detect) ;
* CS1# (Device chip select 1) ,
(11 42), ;
* DMARQ, DMACK# IORDY ;
M/S# (Master/Slave) CSEL
GND
.
CSO#, CS1#, RESET# SELATA# .
XT 8- , XT-IDE, XT-Bus. , , 40 , 16- .
XT-IDE ,
. XT/AT (
Seagate ).

13.1. (IDE) 757

DASP# (Device Active, Slave Present) : ;


SPSYNC/CSEL (Spindle Synchronization/Cable Select) / .
Ultra DMA ( 23, 25, 27, 34)
:
STOP (Stop Ultra DMA burst) Ultra DMA;
DDMARDY# (Device Ultra DMA ready)
Ultra DMA ( );
DSTROBE (Host Ultra DMA data strobe)
( DSTROBE);
HDMARDY# (Host Ultra DMA ready)
Ultra DMA ( );
* HSTROBE (Host Ultra DMA data strobe)
( HSTROBE);
CBLID (Cable Identifier) (40- 80-).
IDE 68- PCMCIA (PC Card), . 13.3.
:
SELATA# (Select 68-pin ATA) , : PC Card ( ) ( ,
);
CD1# CD2# (Card Detect) ;
CS1# (Device chip select 1) ,
(11 42), ;
DMARQ, DMACK# IORDY ;
M/S# (Master/Slave) CSEL.
GND
.
CSO#, CS1#, RESET# SELATA# .
XT 8- , XT-IDE, XT-Bus. , , 40 , 16- .
XT-IDE ,
. XT/AT (
Seagate ).

758 13. SCSI


13.3. 68- PC Card (PCMCIA)

GND

35

GND

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

DD3
DD4
DD5
DD6
DD7
CSO#

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

CD1#
DD11
DD12
DD13
DD14
DD15
CS1#

SELATA*
CS1#

INTRQ
+5

DA2
DA1
DAO
DDO
DD1
DD2
GND

DIOR#
DIOW#

+5

M/S#
CSEL
RESET*
IORDY#
DMARQ
DMACK*
DASP#
PDIAG#
DD8
DD9
DD10
CD2#
GND

13.1.2.
, - (CSO#, CS1#, DA2, DA1, DAO, DIOR# DIOW#).
(. 13.4) , 50# CS1#,
( , ) .
- IBM PC-
.
DMACK# . -

13.1. (IDE) 759

.
.
BSY .
BSY=0 DRQ=0, .
,
,
.
13.4.
(0

, 1 )

3FX

37

(R , W
)

CSO#
1

CS1# DA2 DA1 DAO

X X

(
)

X X

(
)

Control Block Registers


(
)
X
(
)
R: Alternate Status (AS) 0

W: Device Control (DC)
0

R: Drive Address (DA)
1
( )1

X X

3F6

376

3F6

376

3F7

377

1FX
1FO
1F1
1F1
1F2

17
170
171
171
172

Command Block Registers


0
0
0
0

1
1

1F3

173

1F4

174

1F5

175

1F6

176

1
1

0
0
0
0


0 0
R/W: Data (DR)
0 1
R: Error (ER)
0 1
W: Features (FR)
R/W: Sector Count (SC) -
0
1

R/W: Sector Number (SN)
1
1
/LBA [7:0]2
R/W: Cylinder Low (CL)
0 0
/
LBA[15:8]2
R/W: Under High (CH) -
0 1
/
LBA[23:16]2
R/W: Device/Head (D/H) -
10
/
LBA[27:24]2

1F7
177
0
R: Status (SR)
1
1
11
1F7
177
0
W: Command (CR)
1
1
1
1
1 , .
2 , LBA .

760 13. SCSI

AS ( 3F6h,
376h) , (. ),
.
DC (3F6h, 376h)

. .
DA (3F7h, 377h)
,
.
(
), ,
. ,
DD7 ,
. -
, ()
.
DR (IFOh, 170h) 8- 16 , . (
DMACK# ), ( Out) , PI ( In) . DMA
, DMARQ DMACK#, a
CSO# CS1# .
ER (IFlh, 17lh)
.
ERR .
FR (IFlh, 17lh) .
Set Features .
. -2

.
SC (lF2h, 172h) , . (
256 ). . ,
,
. Initialize Device Parameters Write
Same .
.
SN (lF3h, 173h) CL
(lF4h, 174h) (lF5h, 175h)
(CHS LBA). -,
, .
D/H (lF6h, 176h)

13.1. (IDE) 761

( 4 DEV) LBA CHS ( 6 L).


(SN, CL), -,
,
. -2 , ,
.
SR (lF7h, 177h)
: , , .

.
CR (lF7h, 177h) .
, .
Device Reset ATAPI
BSY DRQ Sleep.

13.1.3.
ATA/ATAPI
, , 512 , . CHS.
Cylinder , CL ( ) 0-65535 (216-1). 65 536 (216) (Cyl).
Head , 3:0 D/H
0-15 (24-1). 16 (24)
( Heads Per Cylinder).
Sector , SN
1-255 (28-1), .
255 (28-1) (SPT Sectors Per
Track).
, . ( , ), , ,
( ,
). CHS
267 386 880 (65 536 16 255)
(), 512 136 902 082 560 ( 137
).
( ) 1, 3 6 .
Initialize Device Parameters,
54, 55 56, ( S)
57-58. Initialize Device Parameters
SPT , .

762 13. SCSI

,
( 1, 3 6),
57-58 .
LBA (Logical Block Addressing)
() 28- 0268 435 455 (228-1), , , . , LBA, 60-61.
LBA,
, , , S,
, IDNF ABRT ( , , ).
LBA
, CHS LBA :
LBA = ( + ) SPT + S - 1.
, S , , SPT . : ,
, .
, (CHS LBA),
L ( 6) D/H;
. (LBA) .
,
V/(SPT ).
,
. , (
CMOS Setup), .
, (orphan
sectors) . , , SPT, 3 6 . S P T x H P C - 1 .
-2 ,
LBA 9 49 .
, -3, LBA , 16 515 072 ( 8
) CHS ( 1,
3 6). -4 16 514 064.
CHS . CHS ,
1, 3 6,
53-58. CHS , .
65 536
16 255. Set Max Address
.
8,4 CHS-
16 383 16 63 = 16 514 064 (8,4 ),
16 383 1 5 6 3 = 1 5 4 8 1 935

13.1. (IDE) 763

(7,9 ) BIOS Int 13h.

13.1.4.
[4] [6],
.


512- . ,
. PIO DMA.
,
,
, .
, ,
30 %.
.
.
Read Long . SC
. 16- ,
8-. -1
. 8-
Mode 0. (
), , ,
, .
.
, ,
. ., .
(firmware).
, :
(
);
, ;
.
-2,
-4 .
( , features set) ,
:
Removable Media Status Notification
, , ATAPI; ^ Removable Media
, .

764 13. SCSI

.
, .
,
Get Media Status.
ER, .
Media Eject (
ATAPI Start/Stop Unit).
(Removable Media Feature Set)
( ), . Media Lock
Medi a Unl ock,
ER. ,
( ). Media Eject
, .
- -4 , CFA (Compact Flash Association -).
: (),
, .
, ,
.
. ,

, . -
: , ;
.

,

:
(power on reset) , , ,
,
;
(hardware reset) RESET* , , ;
(software reset) SRST
.
ATAPI
Device Reset, .
.

13.1. (IDE) 765


, :
* SOOlh, SN-Olh, CL-OOh, CH-OOh, DH-OOh - ; SC=01h, SN-Olh,
CL=14h, CH-EBh, DH=OOh lOh - ATAPI ( DH=10h
Device Reset 1).

, .
Identify Device
256 , ( ).
,
Identify Packet Device.
, ,
.
( , ), 2
0; 0 2.
[4] [6].
.
Initialize Device Parameters
CHS. SC ,
DH
. ,
(
, ).
-1 ,
.


Power Management , ATA/ATAPI-4 . ,
.
$ Sleep ,
, .
30 .
Standby Mode ( ) ,
.
, (Standby Timer),
, . ;
.
Idle Mode ( ) , , .
* Active Mode ( )
.

766 13. SCSI

Check Power Mode SC


: SC=OOh Standby
, SC=80h (Idle), SC=FFh
( 80h , -3,
Idle FFh).

,
.

(Advanced Power Management). Level,
: Olh , FEh
. 80h
( Standby).
ATA/ATAPI-6 , , Automatic Acoustic Management. (acoustic management level)
0 ( ) FFh ( ).


-3, (Security).
, .
(unlocked) . Security Unlock, .
( 32 )
,

.
(locked) , . , .
(Security Erase) (Security Unlock).
.
(frozen) , . Security Freeze Lock
.

.
,
.
(master password) (user password), (high) (maximum). -

13.1. (IDE) 767

.
,
.
-4 ,
.

SMART
S.M.A.R.T.
(Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology ,
). (predictable failure)
. :
, ,
, , (
), .
: on-line
( ). offline ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
SMART (
),
FR.



, ,
. ()
,
, .
,
,
- . ATA/ATAPI-6
(streaming AV
commands). ND (Normal Data),
, / AV (Audio Visual Data),
. Read AV ( C9h)
Write AV (CBh) .
,
,
. /
Set Features,

768 13. SCSI

( ,
), .

13.1.5.
[4] [6].
, - IN OUT.
DMA.
. .
DMA .
(Programmed Input/Output)
. - , , , LPT-,
-
.
, . Mode 0-4,
.
- REP INS REP OUTS
( ) .

.
,
( ISA IOCHRDY). , 1 2
, -.
-2 ( Mode 3 ) ,
IORDY.
, .
DMA - .
,
(
). DMA
ISA -
.
. DMA
. Singleword DMA
DMARQ
DMACK#, .
Multiword DMA DMARQ
, DMACK#.
, DMARQ,
.
.

13.1. (IDE) 769

ATA/ATAPI-4 Ultra DMA, 16,6 /, . , PIO,


DMA ( !). -4 Ultra
DMA (, 1 2), (. 13.5); Set Features. Ultra DMA DMARQ DMACK#
, DIOR#, DIOW# IORDY
(Ultra DMA Burst) (. . 13.1).
, ,
.
,
8,33 "1 ( PIO
Mode 4 Multiword DMA Mode 2).
CRC-, - .
, . ,
, ,
.
, (DDMARDY#
HDMARDY#). ( ) ( STOP). STOP DMARQ .
13.5.

,
/

PIO mode 0
PIO mode 1
PIO mode 2
PIO mode 3

600
383
240
180

3,3
5,2
8,3
11,1

PIO mode 4

120

16,6

E-IDE, -2
( IORDY)
E-IDE, Fast -2
( IORDY)

Singleword DMA Mode 0


960
2.08

Singleword DMA Mode 1


480
4,16

Singleword DMA Mode 2


240
8,33

Multiword DMA Mode 0


480
4,12

Multiword DMA Mode 1


150
13,3
-2
Multiword DMA Mode 2
120
16,6
Fast -2
Ultra DMA Mode 0
120'
16,6
ATA/ATAPI-4
Ultra DMA Mode 1
80'
25
ATA/ATAPI-4
Ultra DMA Mode 2
60'
33
ATA/ATAPI-4
Ultra DMA Mode 3
45'
44,4
ATA/ATAPI-5
Ultra DMA Mode 4
30'
66,6
/ PI- 5
Ultra DMA Mode 5
20'
100
ATA/ATAPI-6
Ultra DMA , , . .

770 13. SCSI

. , .
, (
Ultra DMA).
- ( ), , . , ,
CMOS Setup. Ultra DMA Mode 3 80 (. . 13.1),
. ,
, (-) 3 4 40- ( ).

, ,
. [4].
-,
CBLID#. , (
). , 40-
80-.

PDIAG#/CBLID# -
0,047 .
. - , 40- 80, .
80- 40--.
- CBLID#, (
). 80- ,
.
1 80-
.
. Mode 0, . ,
, , . Set Features .

. ,
.

13.1. (IDE) 771

BIOS ,
Setup. , ,
. ( )

.
.
.
(, Mode 1 3)
( Mode 1).
( IDE) CDROM.
BIOS.
DMA .
,
.
.
DMA, , ,
(. . 13.5).

13.1.6. (-4)
:
, .
SCSI,

-. -4

.
(overlapped feature) , , .
DRQ BSY .
SERV .
,
, nIEN
. ,
NOP 01
. ,
. SERV,
Service, ,
. ,
SCSI, .
(
), - ()
-. NOP (
01), Packet, Read DMA Queued, Service Write DMA Queued.

772 13. SCSI

, , ( ).
, , ( ) .
, ,
75,
1 , .
-,
SC. Service
, .
,
, ( ).
.
.
,
. ,
, ,
, . SCSI
( ,
), . SCSI

.

CD-ROM (
) .
- ATAPI ( Package
Interface ). ATAPI , 16-
, -
Packet. SCSI,
SCSI ATAPI.
SCSI (. . 13.2.2),
.
ATAPI
, - ATAPI
. , -
, ATAPI, ,
512-
16- .
ATAPI.
Identify Device , ATAPI, -. ATAPI Identify Packet Device, ,
, [6].

13.1. (IDE) 773

s ATAPI Device
Reset, . Packet.

Packet,
.
ATAPI . Read Sector(s) ATAPI : , .
Packet, BSY .
Packet ,
. :
Packet;
;
;
;
;
( ).
ATA/ATAPI-4 ,

.

13.1.8.

.
IDE.
- ;
DMA. ,
.
. (.
13.6). DMA3,
8-, 16- DMA.
DMA .
13.6.

1
2
3
4

CSO

CS1

IRQ

!FOh-lF7h
170h-177h
lE8h-lEfh
168h-16Fh

3F6h-3F7h
376h-377h
3Eeh-3Efh
36Eh-36Fh

14
15 10
12 11
10 9

774 13. SCSI

PCI , 1 2.
,
.
.
, (
):
46 ,
35 .
.
ATA/ATAPI-6.

DIOR#, DIOW# IORDY ( );
CSO# CS1# ( , ).
, Ultra DMA.
Ultra DMA , 1 2 ( 33 /)
DMACK#.
Ultra DMA 3 (44-100 /)
.
RESET#, INTRQ, DA(2:0), CSO#, CS1# DASP#, .
-,
Mode /.

. .
, PCI (Bus
Mastering) DMA Ultra DMA.
. DMA
UltraDMA Mode
1 Mode 4 (. . 13.5).
DMA
,
(). ( )
,
.

Bus-Master, ( ,
). PCI IDE .
MS-DOS DMA ( ) . (Windows 9x/NT/2000, OS/2, UNIX, Linux,

13.1. (IDE) 775

NetWare...)
( ). , DMA
.
Ultra DMA ( Multiword DMA),
, ,
( ) .

UltraDMA ,
(, ).

32- PCI,
.
32- PCI 16- . 32- CMOS Setup (IDE 32-bit
Transfer Enable/Disable). .
( ) - . RAID- -.
BIOS.
( CD-ROM). 3 4.
, BIOS
POST . BIOS
, .
,
.
HDD XT
, , LPT-.
, ATA/ATAPI
USB. USB 2.0
.

PCI IDE
PCI IDE
( , ISA ). PCI IDE Controller Specification
1994 , ,
. ,
(
). Programming Interface
for Bus Master IDE Controller, DMA
. -

776 13. SCSI

PCI ( 256- ); PCI. :


* (compatibility), - ;
PCI (native-PCI),

.
. 13.7.
PCI, PCI-PCI
. PCI
.
.
( ) ,

.
,
. :
7 (Bus master) ;
6:4-000 ( , PCI IDE
Controller Specification);
3 ( 2);
2 : 0
IDE, 1 - PCI IDE;
* 1 ( 0);
* 0 : 0 IDE, 1 PCI IDE.
13.7. PCI IDE

: PCI:

( )

1
!FOh-lF7h
3F6h
14

2
170h-177h
376h
15

1
lOh
18h

2
14h
ICh

01:01:80h
.
-, / ATAPI
.

13.1. (IDE) 777

PCI (bus mastering),


DMA.
(3,3-16,6 /), DMA
8237 (2-16,6 /) UltraDMA (16,6-100 /).
PCI,
.
POST,
ATA/ATAPI DMA/UltraDMA.
, -
CMOS Setup. POST
DMA (
DMA).
,
REP INS/OUTS. DMA
, .
16- ,
-. 20h ( 16
). . 13.8,
BMI (Bus Master IDE) (Primary)
, S (Secondary) ;
( ).
13.8. PCI IDE

,
/

1

2~____ _______________________ ____________________


1
BMICP/BMICS (RW) - :

0: 1 , 0 ;
& 3 : 0 ,
1 ; ____________________ 1-2. 3-7 -

(0)_______________________
1_____9_____1______ (0)_____________________________________
2
OAh
I
BMISP/BMISS - :
^ (R/0) ;
1 (RWC) PCI;
2 (RWC) ;
?$ 3-4 (0);
& 5 (RW) - -0 DMA;
6 (RW) -1 DMA;
& 7 (1,
_______________________ )_________________
3_____OBh
1______ (0)____________________________________
4____
4______BMIDPTP/ BMIDPTS (RW) - _______

BMICx, ,
.
0 , . -

778 13. SCSI

( )
ATA/ATAPI ( ).
.
, .
BMISx 1 2 , .

. 5 6 , POST
.

PCI.
BMIDPTx ,
.
(gathered read),
(scatter write).
EISA-,
, DMA. 8 :
i* 0-3 ( ) ();
4-5 () (, 0000 65 536);
6-7 () ( 15), 0-14 (0).
(
ISA) ,
64 .
64 . ,
. ,
;
.
,
. ,
.
2,0
:
0,1 ,
;
ss 1,0 ,
( );
1,1 ,
, ( );
as 0,0 ( 1), ,
.

13.1. (IDE) 779

13.1.9. IDE
, .
IDE NonIntelligent IDE. . . ,
, .
,
-
.
Intelligent. IDE,
-
. .
( ).
Read Multiple Write
Multiple, DMA.
,
. -
,
, .

Intelligent Zoned Recording IDE.
( ),
(

,
(CHS) (LBA) ).
, , . ,
, , (
).
. ,
( ), .
IDE , , (SMART), , , , .

13.1.10.
. -

780 13. SCSI

. XT AT
. Seagate, ,
: (16 ,) X XT (8 ),
AT/XT .
, . ,
. IDE- 1 ,
504
(0 1) .
IDE .

.
CS (Cable Select ).
CS,
(. . 13.2).
,
, -,
28. 28 ( RAID-). .
,

, .
, , .
,
(. . 13.1). CS ,
, .
(0/1), ,
,
(
DASP#). IDE
.
M/S (Master/Slave /) .
C/D ( :/ D:),
IDE .
.
SP (Slave Present), DSP (Drive Slave Present), Master but Slave is not ATAcompatible, Master but Slave uses only PDIAG-signal
( C/D) .
, ,
POST .
, DASP#.
Single Drive ,
( Western Digital). .

13.2. SCSI 781

ACT (Drive Active) DASP#


. -0,
.
HSP DASP# (,
ACT). -1
( ).
- , .
, ,
Help-
Disk Manager. ,
-. , ,
(. . 13.4).

,
, Reset. ,
- () .

13.2. SCSI
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface,
) ANSI 1986 (.131-1986).
:
( ) (), CD-ROM,
,
, , ,
. SCSI (SCSI Device) -,
SCSI - ,
(target controller),
SCSI.
(
, ), (),
-.
, ,
.
SCSI (embeded SCSI controller),
, CD-ROM, . 8
() LUN
(Logical Unit Number), .
8-
5 . 8 ,
5 /. (1991 .) SCSI-2 (.131-1994), -

782 13. SCSI

. Fast SCSI-2 10 , a
Ultra SCSI-2 20 . 16
Wide SCSI-2 (), 8-
Narrow (). 16- 16 . SCSI-2
32- ,
. SCSI-2 , CCS (Common Command Set),
, .
,
. ( 256 )
SCSI . ( )
, .
SCSI-3 , , Plug and Play. SPI
(SCSI-3 Parallel Interface) ,
- 100 /.
SCSI
SCSI-2 SCSI-3. SCSI-2, , SCSI-1,
SCSI-3
.
. SCSI-3
, SCSI-2. SCSI-3 ,
, .
, MT/s (Mega Transfer/sec),
. SCSI (Narrow)
8 , (Wide) , SCSI-2,
16 (32- ).

(. 13.9), 320 /. , , Western Digital 2000 . Fast SCSI
10 MT/s, SCSI-2.
Fast-20 Fast Wide SCSI (16 , 10
MT/s). Ultra SCSI 20 MT/s,
SCSI-3. Fast-40
Wide Ultra SCSI (16 , 20 MT/s). Ultra2 SCSI
40 MT/s, Fast-80 -

13.2. SCSI 783

Wide Ultra2 SCSI (16 , 40 MT/s). , SCSI-3,



.
LVD. SCSI-3 UltraS SCSI . Ultra
160 SCSI 160 /, (16 )
. ,
CRC-,
( Ultra DMA ). 2001
Ultra320 SCSI 320 /.
(SPI-4) Adaptec, LSI Logic Seagate,
.
Ultra2 SCSI ,
SCSI. , .
HVD (High Voltage Differential), SCSI-3 LVD (Low Voltage Differential). 40 MT/s
25 ( 8 ) 12 ( 16 ).
LVD SE (Single Ended)
. LVD HVD
.
13.9. SCSI

Fast

8 (Narrow)

5 /

16 (Wide)
10 /
32 (Wide)'
20 /'
' .

Fast-20
(Ultra)

Fast-40
(Ultra2)

Fast-80
(UltraS)

10 /

20 /

40 /

80 /

20 /
40 /*

40 /
80 /'

80 /
160 /'

160 /

SCSI-3 -

Fibre (Fiber) Channel, FCAL (. . 14.3).

SCSI-2
SCSI-3 , , SCSI-1. SCSI-1
SCSI-2 , - ,
. SCSI ,
Narrow SCSI-2/3. , Wide .

784 13. SCSI

13.2.1. SCSI
SCSI , 18
. .
.
.
,
, .
(single ended)
(differential) SCSI. ,
.
. 13.5.
DIFF
SCSI
SCSI

(Single Ended)

(Differential)

. 13.5. SCSI

SE (Single Ended)
- .
() ,
.
Diff HVD
, .
, RS-485, , (. 13.10). , PC . HVD
( Diff) SCSI-2, SPI-3 (SCSI-3 1999
) , Ultra2 .
13.10. SCSI

Ultra
Ultra 2 (20
Fast (10
(5 MT/s)
MT/s)
MT/s) (40 MT/s)

Ultra 160 Ultra320 (80


MT/s) (160 MT/s)

(Single ended)

1,5 (8 .) 3 (4 .)

(HVD)

25

12 (16
.) 25
(8 .)

6
-(16 .)
25 (8 .)

13.2. SCSI 785

Fast
Ultra
Ultra 2
Ultra 160 Ultra320
(5 MT/s) (10 MT/s) (20 MT/s) (40 MT/s) (80 MT/s) (160 MT/s)

(LVD)

12
(16 .)
25 (8
.)

12
(16 .)
25 (8
.)

12
(16 .)
25 (8
.)

LVD 40, 80 160 MT/s Ultra2, Ultral60 Ultra320 SCSI


25 (8 ) 12 (16 ). LVD
SE (Multimode LVD). LVD
DIFFSENS LVD () SE (). ,
, SE ,
SE,
SE.
.
, .
.
-.
, - ( 10 ,
). ,
, .
, .
(. . 13.10).

-

. -- ( . ).
, SCSI,
, .
, .
,
. DB-25,
, , DB-50.
.
IDC-50 (
, 40- IDC-40).
" (2,54 ),
, (. 13.6, ).
(IDC-50M),
(IDC-50F).
*
-50 Centronics,
( 50-).

786 13. SCSI

0,085" (2,16 ) (. 13.6, ). . (


SCSI-) (CX-50F), (50). ,
.
SCSI-1 (SCSI-1 External).
DB-25
D- ( LPT- ). (DB-25F), (DB-25M);
(. 13.6, ).
(, Zip).
HD-50, MiniDSO, D- (. 13.6, ),
(High Density) 0,05" (1,27 ). (HD-50F), (HD-50M);
-. SCSI-2 (SCSI-2
External).
HD-68, MiniD68, , 68 .
(HD-68F MiniD68F),
(HD-68M MiniD68M). , . SCSI-3,
. . 13.7 (
, ).
VHDCI-68 (Very High
Density Connector), Centronics 0,8 . , SCSI-4
SCSI-5.
(Micro-centronics) Centronics,
. -68 -80,
SCA.
SCA (Single Connector Attachment)
. ,
(, , ,
).
SCA-2 -80 (. 13.8).
(MCX-80F), (-80).
,
(, . .).
.
,
( ).
Narrow SCSI , .
13.6, Wide SCSI , . 13.7.

13.2. SCSI 787

D-
SCA-2, . (. 13.8).
49

i
P P D P P P P P P D O P P P P P P D P
^

. 13.6. 8- SCSI: a IDC-50F; 6


CX-50F; - DB-25F; HD-50F

68

35

. 13.7. 16- SCSI HD-68F

40

41

80

. 13.8. SCSI SCA-80

SCSI .
* - 8- , 25 .
,
, 25 :
- SCSI-1 SCSI-2 (. . 13.6, )
IDC-50 (); -
SCSI-1 (. . 13.6, 6) Centronics-50
(-50);

788 13. SCSI

- SCSI-2 (. . 13.6, ) MiniDSOM


(HD-50M).
- 16/32- SCSI-2.
- 8/16- 34 , . SCSI-2/3, 8- 1-5, 31-39, 65-68 :
- SCSI-3 HD-68M ;
- SCSI-3 MiniD68M ;
- SCSI SPI-2 VHDCI-68M (
SCSI-4 SCSI-5).
Q- 68- 32 ,
- . Q-
, SCSI SPI-3 .
Mac SCSI DB-25P (. . 13.6, ) 8-,
Macintosh (. 13.14), (Iomega ZIP Drive). ,
25- -.
- ( ) .
. ,
, ( !) (. . 13.2.5). SCA
, -,
.
. 13.11-13.14. ,
.
, ()
( SE-).
13.11. - SCSI
IDC-50/CX-50

SE/Diff

IDC-50/CX-50

1/1

GND / DBO+

2/26

DBO#

3/2
5/3
7/4
9/5
11/6
13/7
15/8
17/9
19/10

GND / DB1 +
GND / DB2+
GND / DB3+
GND / DB4+
GND / DB5+
GND / DB6+
GND / DB7+
GND / DBPO+
GND / GND

4/27
6/28
8/29
10/30
12/31
14/32
16/33
18/34
20/35

DB1#
DB2#
DB3#
DB4#
DB5#
DB6#
DB7#
DBPO#
GND

13.2. SCSI 789


IDC-50/CX-50

SE/Diff

-50/-50

21 / 11
23/ 12
25/ 13
27/14
29/15
31 / 16
33/17
35/18
37/19
39/20
41 /21
43/22
45/23
47/24
49/25

GND / GND

GND
GND / ATN+
GND
GND / BSY+
GND / ACK+
GND / RST+
GND / MSG+
GND / SEL+
GND / C/D+
GND / REQ+
GND / I/O+

22/36
24/37
26/38
28/39
30/40
32/41
34/42
36/43
38/44
40/45
42/46
44/47
46/48
48/49
50/50

GND

TERMPWR

GND
ATN#
GND
BSY#
ACK#
RST#
MSG#
SEL#
C/D#
REQ#
I/O#

13.12. - SCSI

SE/Diff

1/1

GND
GND / DB8+
GND / DB9+
GND / DB10+
GND/DB11+
GND / DB12+
GND/DB13+
GND / DB14+
GND / DB15+
GND/DBP1 +
GND / ACKB+
GND / GND
GND / REQB+
GND / DB16+
GND/DB17+
GND / DB18+
TERMPWR
TERMPWR
GND / DB19+
GND / DB20+
GND/DB21+
GND / DB22+
GND / DB23+
GND / DBP2+

2/35
4/36
6/37
8/38
10/39
12/40
14/41
16/42
18/43
20/44
22/45
24/46
26/47
28/48
30/49
32/50
34/51
36/52
38/53
40/54
42/55
44/56
46/57
48/58

GND
DB8#
DB9#
DB10#
DB11#
DB12#
DB13#
DB14#
DB15#
DBP1#
ACKB#
GND
REQB#
DB16#
DB17#
DB18#
TERMPWR
TERMPWR
DB19#
DB20#
DB21#
DB22#
DB23#
DBP2#

3/2
5/3
7/4
9/5
11/6
13/7
15/8
17/9
19/10
21/11
23/ 12
25/13
27/14
29/ 15
31 / 16
33/17
35/18
37/19
39/20
41 /21
43/22
45/23
47/24

^>

790 13. SCSI


13.12 ()

SE/Diff
/

49/25
51/26
53/27
55/28
57/29
59/30
61 /31
53/32
65/33
67/34

50/59
52/60
54/61
56/62
58/63
60/64
62/65
64/66
66/67
68/68

DB24#
DB25#
DB26#
DB27#
DB28#
DB29#
DB30#
DB31#
DBP2#
GND

GND / DB24+
GND / DB25+
GND / DB26+
GND / DB27+
GND / DB28+
GND / DB29+
GND / DB30+
GND / DB31+
GND / DBP2+
GND / GND

13.13. - SCSI

SE/Diff

GND / DB12+

29

GND / REQ+

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

GND / DB13+
GND / DB14+
GND / DB15+
GND / DBP1+
GND / DBO+
GND / DB1 +
GND / DB2+
GND / DB3+
GND / DB4+
GND / DB5+
GND / DB6+
GND / DB7+
GND / DBPO+
GND
DIFFSENS (GND)*
TERMPWR
TERMPWR

GND
GND / ATN+
GND / GND
GND / BSY+
GND / ACK+
GND / RST+
GND / MSG+
GND / SEL+
GND / C#/D+

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

GND / I/O+
GND / DB8+
GND / DB9+
GND / DB10+
GND/DB11+
DB12#
DB13#
DB14#
DB15#
DBP1#
DBO#
DB1#
DB2#
DB3#
DB4#
DB5#
DB6#
DB7#
DBPO#
GND
GND
TERMPWR
TERMPWR

GND
ATN#
GND

13.2. SCSI 791

SE/Diff

57

BSY#

63

REQ#

58
#
64
59
RST#
65
60
MSG#
66
61
SEL#
67
62
C#/D
68
* DIFFSENS LVD

I/O#
DB8#
DB9#
DB10#
DB11#

13.14. Mac SCSI (DB-25)

REQ#

14

GND

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

MSG#
I/O*
RST#
ACK#
BSY#
GND
DBO#
GND
DB3#
DB5#
DB6#
DB7#

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

C/D#
GND
ATN#
GND
SEL#
DBPO#
DB1#
DB2#
DB4#
GND
TERMPWR

. 13.15. L:
, # .
() +.
,
.
. .
( )
( ).
, FPT-,
. . 13.2.5. ,
TERMPWR, . SCSI
: () ,
. , .
(active negation),
. -
,

792 13. SCSI

( , ) .
13.15. SCSI

_____

__

BSY#________Busy ____________________________________ SEL#________Select


(Select) (Reselect)_____ C/D#________Control/Data
( )/ ( )____
I/O*
Input/Output :
. (Select)
___________ (Reselect) : Selection
MSG#_______Message _____________________________ DB[0:31]#_____Data Bus
__________________________
DP[0:3]#
Data Parity ,
. DPO# DB[0:7], ... DP3# DB[24:31].
___________ ______________________________
TERMPWR____Terminator
Power

_______________________
ATN#________Attention ( )_____________
REQ#_______Request ____________________
#________Acknowledge ( REQ#)______________
RST#________Reset - _______________________________________
DIFFSENS
(LVD) : 0,7 SE;
___________0,9-1,9 LVD: 2,4 HVD

SCSI, ,
, . 8-
0-7, 16- 0-15.
. - . SCSI ID,
. ,
.
DBO# (SCSI ID=00000001), 7 DB7# (SCSI
ID=10000000).
,
. ,
.

. (initiator),
(target) . .
: - (),
().
, . :
, , (Reselect)
.
()

13.2. SCSI 793

(Copy Master) ,
( ).
() ,
(REQuest) (ACKnowledge).
( ),
. ,
.
. 13.9.
REQ#/
#. , REQ# ( ). #.
.
1/0# __________________
DB#
\__DT__
/{
DT

\__5L REQ#

ACK#

. 13.9.
(DI , DT )


,
. 13.10.
# REQ#,
(REQ/ACK offset agreement).
, REQ# (. 13.10, ), ,
.
REQ#,
# .
# REQ#
( 2),
#. ,
.
,
# (. 13.10, ).

SCSI-1
, , ( )
( ) #. ,
, : REQ# ( )
.

794 13. SCSI


I/O* \__________________________________________/
DB# DT > DT ) DT ) DT

#
\

REQ#

\J~\J
. 13.10. : ; 5

16 32 , ( Q) REQB#/
# REQQ#/ACKQ# .
. ,
.
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
. -

REQ#/ACK#.
Message System,
.
. Synchronous Negotiation. , , Synchronous Data Transfer Request
REQ/ACK.
, .
(
).

13.2. SCSI 795

. . -
,
.
, Request Sense Inquiry.
Wide Data
Transfer Request.
Bus Device Reset ,
.
,
.

13.2.2.
(), SCSI,
(), . 13.16.
SCSI.
2 (block device) 0, 4,
5, 7 (stream device) 1, 2, 3, 9.
13.16. SCSI__________________________________
_____________________________

Direct-access device (
_________)__________________________________________
Olh
Sequential-access device (
_________ )______________________________________
02h_______Printer device ___________________________________
03h_______Processor device ( )_____________
04h______Write-once device ( )
05h______CD-ROM device - CD-ROM________________________
06h_______Scanner device ____________________________________
07h_______Optical memory device _________________
08h_______Medium Changer device (jukebox)____________
09h _____ Communications device ________________
OAh-OBh
ASC ITS (Graphic Arts Pre-Press Devices
_________ )________________________________________
_______Array controller device ______________
ODh_______Enclosure services device _________________
OEh
Reduced block command devices
________________________________________________________
OFh
Optical card reader/writer device
_________(-)___________________________________________
10h-lEh_____________________________________________ IFh_______
_______________________

796 13. SCSI

13.2.3.
, SCSI SCSI ID, .
8 LUN (Logical Unit Number)
0-7. LUN (-), SCSI- .
,
. 8 TRN (Target
Routine), .
SCSI-2, .
SCSI ,
. , (mandatory),
(optional) (vendor specific) . SCSI-
, .
(command descriptor block),
Command. ,
Data. ,
(operation code),
6, 10 12 .
0-9 [6]. SCSI-2
: Inquiry, Request Sense, Send Diagnostic,
Test Unit Ready. ,
, .
Inquiry
96 : , ,
32- 16- , ,
, , .
SCSI (ISO, ANSI, ECMA),
, . .
.

13.2.4.
,
(, ),
SCSI (Disconnect)
. , Read, ,
, ,
Disconnect. , ,
, .
, (.

13.2. SCSI 797

, ),
.
.
.
.

, , . ,
, Search Data,
, , .
Read,
.
Linked Command Complete (, ), ,
. , .
.
.
, SCSI-1, (LUN)
(TRN), , (
) .
(tagged queue) SCSI-2 (LUN,
TRN). I_T_L (Initiator_Target_LUN)
256 (
). ,
, I_T_L_Q, Q
(queue tag). ,
.
.
,
-, : ,
Head Of Queue Tag,
. ,
Simple Queue Tag, ,
. , Ordered
Queue Tag, . ,
.
,
, .
SCSI Programmable Operating
Definition.
, , ,
SCSI, , . .
( , ) .
Inquiry, Mode Sense Read Capacity.

798 13. SCSI

13.2.5. SCSI
.
,
.
SCSI ID 0-7 ( Wide SCSI 0-15),
. -, , 7 (15 Wide
SCSI, 16-). ,
, 8- 16-
.
. 13.17, .
BIOS SCSI ID=0.
SCSI,
.
(Legacy SCSI) ,
, .
SCSI Parity. ,
. , ,

.
* Termination. , - . . - , , ,
. ,
.
,
( ).
,
.

/
.

(Terminator power).
( ) .
* (SCSI synchronous negotiation).
, -

13.2. SCSI 799

, .
, -. , , -
. ,
Enable TI-SDTR (Target Initiated Synchronous Data Transfer Request
Negotiation).
(Enable disconnection).

,
.
.
,
.
16- , Enable TI-WDTR (Target Initiated Wide Data
Transfer Request Negotiation).
16- (Disable wide). .
(Force SE).
LVD SE, DIFFSENS.
(Disable U160). Ultra3 SCSI Ultra2.
(Start on command)
(Disable Auto Spin up).

-,
. .
(Delayed Start)

( ).

13.17.

SCSI ID

"

-__________________________7______________________

_______________6________________________

R/W

________4________________________
CD-ROM
3
,
_
________________2________________________
, BIOS -_______0 1____________________

800 13. SCSI

- SCSI
- , SCSI. . , .
,
.
,

. SCSI : ISA (8-16
), EISA, MCA, PCI, VLB, PCMCIA .
SCSI-, . , -,

SCSI. - PCI. ,

. - RAID, RISC-
.
- SCSI
.
. BIOS, ,
POST.
, -
, .
SCSI- :
ROM BIOS,
( -,
ROM BIOS , -
);
;
- (I/O port);
IRQ, ;
DMA ( ISA/EISA), (bus mastering).
SCSI .
BIOS -. , ASPI
(Advanced SCSI Programming Interface), .
SCSI. ,

. , (bus mastering);
SCSI .

13.2. SCSI 801


SCSI ,
.
SCSI, , , ,
-. SCSI
, ,

.
SE LVD.

LVD HVD !

LVD SE,
SE Ultra2,
LVD. LVD, ,
, ( +) ; SE
GND. LVD
SE, DIFFSENS
LVD SE. LVD
SE Force SE.
Ultra 160 Ultra2 ( ),
.
UltralGO ( Ultra2) Disable U160.
,
( SCSI)
( Centronics) . (. ), ( )
SCSI ID, 0-7.
, ( !)
. TERMPWR
( -), ,
.

, . -
. ,
LVD, ,
.
0-15.
68- 50- .
, .
,
.
( ) -

802 13. SCSI

. 0-7 , 8-15
(.
). SE, DIFFSENS
LVD SE. , ,
-, SE- LVD. , 16-
68- (46- 80-).
,
Disable Wide.
,
( ).

.
0-7 ( ,
).

.
,
, ,
.
, , ,

. ,

,
. ( ), , ,
(!) .
,
.
, .

. , ,
, ,
, . ,

.
. , ()
, ,
. ,
, ,
. .
, ,
, .

13.2. SCSI 803

, .
, .
, . , - . ,
,
,
.
: , , PCI
- ( ) . ,
, ( , )
, .

. ,
. ,
, - .
SCSI. , 25
( !). 5, 10,
20, 40 80 SCSI-1, Fast, Ultra, Ultra2 UltraS
SCSI-2/3 ( , ). SCSI
,
.
. ,
,
.
, .
TermPWR.
.
(SCSI-1) 132
. 330
GND 220 TermPwr (+5 ).
, 85-110
SCSI-2 ( 20
).
, 20 SCSI-2.
(),
, 110 . ,
20 MT/s .
FPT (Forced Perfect Terminator) . .

804 13. SCSI

, LVD, DIFFSENS 0,7 SE,


0,9-1,9 LVD. DIFFSENS
2,4 ,
HVD.
(
), (
).
. (SCSI-1)
. -
.
(
).
, .
, Ultra-Wide
SCSI 10-15 .
.
(, , )
LVD-.
LVD- , , :
,
.
,
.

LVD !


SCSI. ,
PCI ISA, . ,
, ( ),
( , ).
, .
:
( . 13.11, );
, ,
( TRM=ON)
(. 13.11, );

(TRM-OFF).
SCSI ,
, ,
, .

13.2. SCSI 805

:
(. 13.11, ) (. 13.11, ) , . ,
(. 13.11, ), .

. 13.11. SCSI: , ,
;

, , .
.
/ ( SCSI
Setup) . -
, ,
( ),
.
SCSI ,
, -.
(. 13.12, ),
. , (. 13.12, ),
. (. 13,12, ),
, ,
.
SCSI SCSI, .
, ,
. , , CT6BTS, Ultra-Wide SCSI,

806 13. SCSI

(wide) ( . 13.12, ,
) .
Wide SCSI : !
, , , ,
, !

. 13.12. SCSI

Wide SCSI
( narrow) . CT-6BTS 68 Wide SCSI 50- .
(8-)
(16-),
. ( )
.
,
: (TrmL)
(TrmH) . . 13.13,
(
). . 13.13,
(
) (!). ,
( )
.
,
. . (
),
SCSI , .
, .
, . ,
, ( )

13.2. SCSI 807

( ).
( , ), , , ,
. , (, Windows
NT), (Event Log),
, SCSI.
.
, ,
. (
). ,
, .

. 13.13. SCSI: , 5
;

:
USB, FIREWIRE,
FCAL, ACCESS. Bus

,
1-2 . 100
/ ACCESS.Bus 400 / Fire Wire, 480 / USB 2.0
1 / FCAL. ,
USB Fire Wire
- .
.
,
, ( USB ACCESS.Bus)
( Fire Wire) (Fibre
Channel). ,

. , USB
, .

;
,
-

14.1. USB 809

.
,
. .
USB Fire Wire,
PC- .
FireWire USB, , . (127
USB 63 FireWire), /
.
, 1394 .
USB
. ,
FireWire .
( /)
, DMA .
.
USB , PC.
USB , a USB
2.0 . ,
PC ,
. USB
, . , USB 2.0
PCI. PC USB
, -.
FireWire ,
.
, .
1394
().

.
, , ,

.

14.1. USB
USB (Universal Serial Bus )
PC,
. USB
1.0 1996 ,

810 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus


(Unused Serial Bus). USB
. 1.1,
1998 .
2000 USB 2.0,
40- . (
1.0 1.1) :
FS (full speed) 12 / LS (Low Speed) 1,5 /.
2.0 HS (High Speed) 480 /,
, .

. ,
25 (
).
1996 PC USB,
.
USB ( ) http://www.usb.org.
,
.

14.1.1. USB
USB - (). USB, (device)
, . (hub) . (function) USB
, ISDN, ,
. . (compound
device), ,
. USB
USB, USB, ( )
, . USB
- (host controller), - -. , , .
USB -: ,
, -,
.
FireWire, .
USB . -, (root hub), , .
-. ,
. -

14.1. USB 811

;
5 ( ). ,
6- .
(downstream) (
) (upstream)
.
USB : -
.
(ISA/EISA, PCI, PC Card), , , DMA, USB . , , USB.

SCSI ,
USB . USB 90 (+5 ), -5 .

3 ( ). USB
(. 14.1, ). USB (. 14.1 . 14.2, ).
,
.
,
( , . . ,
, ).
.


. USB . 14.1,
. 14.2, .

. 14.1. USB: a ;

812 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

. 14.2. USB: ; ;

14.1. USB

VBus
DD+
GND

D+ ID-no
. , ,
, D+ D-,
:
D-, D+.
HS
HS FS.
USB .

D+ D-, .
,
.
(480 / 2 , Gigabit Ethernet) .
. USB .
FS LS HS
, - .
(LS, FS HS) .
(
, LS ).
USB
, USB 2.0
, ,
.

14.1. USB 813

USB 1.1 FS LS,



. USB 1.1
,
.
: ,
, 8
. ,

-.
2.0 480 / ,
FS LS
( ).
, USB 2.0 .
(
), HS
- .
USB 2.0 1.1,
HS, ,
FS LS.
2.0 ( ) ,
FS LS
. (1.1)
, . ,
USB 2.0 ,
- ( 2.0) 2.0.
2.0 ,
FS.
( ,
),
, .
, USB
. , ,

. - , USB 2.0
. -
( PCI- ).
USB 2.0
. FS USB
2.0 ( ),
USB 12 / ,
.
. 14.3 , USB 2.0 , -

814 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

. USB 1.1
2.0,
12 / . ,
480 / (USB 1.0) 3 12 = 36
/. - 48 /,
- USB 2.0,
12 /. ,
,

( , ) .
() USB
1.1 ( )
() .
USB 1.1.

. 14.3.

:
, , , ,
. , ,
, USB, , USB
- (, ).

14.1. USB 815

14.1.2.
USB ( 127) .
(endpoint), -
( ) .
:
;
; ;
;

; (
).
0, , .

. (. ).
- ,
.
, 15 15
( ). (
)
(
).
(pipe) USB - . :
. (stream) ,
.
. : , . (message) , USB.
, ()
,
.
,
.
.
, (
, , . .).
USB. (Control Pipe 0),
, .

816 14. : USB, FlreWIre, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

14.1.3.
() USB - .
,
- (token packet). ,
USB .
( ) .
.
( ) ( , ).
(handshake packet).
. 14.4.
[OUT/ SETUP |

Data

1 1

IN |
| Data
i i

| Handshake |

1 i

"|

| Handshake |

. 14.4.

-
. ( 1,0 0,0005 )
(frames), (. 14.5). SOF (Start Of
Frame), ,
. EOF (End Of
Frame), . HS SOF (
125 0,0625 ). , .
(bulk transfers). ()
,
.
-1

KaflpN

N+1

_________,._________I |0- |________^ __________ |________

EOF _J
(-1)

EOF _J
()

_______

EOF _J
( N + 1)

. 14.5. USB


CRC-, .
, -

14.1. USB 817

. ,
.


USB .

14.1.4.
USB .
(control transfers) . .
(bulk data transfers) -
.
, .
,
.
.
, , . .
(interrupt) ,
, . 10-255
, 1-255 ,
125 . .
, ,
.
(isochronous transfers)
, . 1,023
/ ( 0,5 /), 70 % (
).
24 / (192 /).
.
: , (
USB, ), -
(CD DVD). ( ) USB
.
.
, ,
, ,
.
USB ,
,
. USB ,

818 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

, ,
.

14.1.5.
,
. USB,
USB ( ) USB (
)
( ).
: , ,
8 1 ( 64 /), - 44,1
2 x 2 (176,4 /),
32 .
(master clock).
, (, 20
50 ). ,
, , () ,
. USB
:
(sample rate) (source) (sink)
;
USB (1 ) (8 ) ; USB
() SOF;
,
USB .

:
(drift)
( );
* (jitter) ;
,
(PLL).
,

, . USB
( )
, (,
), USB.

SOF USB.
. , -

14.1. USB 819

() USB, .
,
() ( ,
).
,
(. ). - CD-
. ,
.
,
SOF ( 1 );
. () ()
, .

, SOF.

( ).
, .
.
, .
CD-
SRC (sample rate converter),
USB.
.
- (). -
(), -.
, () , -. ,
.
USB , , , . , 1 .

14.1.6.

USB. :
,

;

820 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

* ,
,
;
* ,
;
* ,
;
, .
, .
( ) , , -
(babble).
,
(). .
(downstream) , , . . .
Not Configured ( )
( ) .
Powered off ( ) .

( ).
Disconnected () , ( Disabled) .
Disabled () (
), ( ) . ,
.
Disconnect, , Resume.
Enabled () ( ).
Disabled,
Disconnect.
Resetting () .
Suspended ()
( ), .
, . ,

.

14.1. USB 821


. , . -
,
.
, ( )
(-). -
() .
:
* ;
* ;
;
(software
attention);
(hardware
attention).
(upstream)
( USB 2.0). USB 2.0 FS, HS
.
, USB, :
Attached , ;
Powered , ,
;
Default , ,
,
;
Address , , , ;
Configured , , ,
;
, ; ( ) ,
. .
;
Suspended ,
(
);
, ,
( ,
).
USB.
, , .

822 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

, 100 .
( 500 ) ,
, , ,
.
USB (suspended mode),
500 . .
(remote wakeup) -, .
.
.

14.1.7.
USB ( !)
USB. .
USB
. -, ,
( USB ). - (). -
(bus-mastering) .
USB, -(), , .
USB ( ,
). .
- HCD (Host Controller Driver) ,
, USB
.
USB USBD (USB Driver)
(USBDI) USB. HCDI (Host
Controller Driver Interface) USBD HCD USB
.
-,
.
HCDI,
USBDI. USBD IRP (I/O
Request Packet -),
. . USBD
USB

14.1. USB 823

,
(
). USBDI , USB
.
,
USB :

( ), ,
. .
USB ( ), USB. ( ), USB. USB - ( ) ,
USB.
:
USB;
; *
;
;
- USB, .
- USB
.
. USB,
, . BIOS
USB,
Int 10h. USB -

, .
USB
,
. '2001
USB BIOS ,
USB.
USB . , .
.

.
, USB Default

824 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

Address.
.
, ,
USB. (control
pipe) ,
.
,
, .
, USB
.
,
,
. ,
. ,
.

14.1.8. USB
USB PC . PC COM LPT,
MIDI. USB 2.0 SCSI,
FireWire. USB
/
, .
( 127) , ,
. -
. USB (
PCI). USB
( ):
, ,
Windows 98/SE (Second Edition), Linux, MacOS, UNIX
Windows 2000 N/A (Not Allowed
).
USB , ,
- ( , ). USB Windows
, ,
. ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
USB.

14.1. USB 825

USB.
, , , .
. USB . USB ,
USB ( , )
, .
USB 1.1 , LPT-
, USB
(,
). USB 2.0
.
: USB SCSI LPT-. USB 2.0
.
, , (). USB ,
. (
)
- ,
. -

( ) ,
(, )
.
, () .
MIDI- USB
MIDI (
MIDI
).
- USB 1.1
,
( ) (25-30 /)
, , ,
. USB 2.0
( ). USB ,
TV-.
USB ,
xDSL,
(IrDA FIR) - (115,2
/), .
Ethernet, USB.
,
. (
) USB

826 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

- (. ).
, USB
.
USB: 5 ,
(
5 ).
USB,
, : Centronics 1284 (LPT-), RS-232C (
UART 16550 -)
(RS-422, RS-485, V.35...), Game-, , ISA, PC Card ,
. USB -,
2- (3-) LPT - .

IBM PC,
. MS-DOS
-, , , DMA,
MS-DOS, USB ( Windows).
MS-DOS - .
, PC '99 '2001.
USB-LPT ,
LPT-, SPP.
, CD DVD,
. USB 1.1 ,
LPT, ( ,
). USB 2.0
SCSI,
. USB
( -)
( .) ( 16-256 ,
).
ATA-ATAPI ,
, - 5" 3,5",
36- .
- SmartMedia Card CompactFlash Card.
(
), ( )
(
?) .

( '99).
(ISDN). ,
, . .

14.2. IEEE 1394 FireWire 827

USB
. ( ) USB DDC. USB , ,
. . ,
. , , .
,
- .

USB. - LPT-.
,
USB.
USB ,
(, ). ,
( ).
,
.
.
, .
.
, 3". ,
, ,
. (
)
.
,
(distance extender). ,
( ),
.
. ,
,
USB, 100 .
USB, , .

14.2. IEEE 1394 FireWire


(High Performance Serial Bus), IEEE 1394,
1995 . , ,
(
).
FireWire, Apple Computer SCSI
Macintosh PowerMac. FireWire ( )

828 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

IEEE 1394,
1394. iLink,
Digital Link Sony
. MultiMedia Connection , 1394 High
Performance Serial Bus Trade Association (1394TA).
1394
: 98,304, 196,608 393,216 /, 100, 200 400
/. S100, S200 S400 .
, 1394-2000, (S800,
S1600 S3200) , 1394
USB, USB 2.0 480 /.
FireWire .
: 63 (). ( ),
, ,
, (CD DVD), ,
,
(, , )
.
.
(S100) (30
)
CD.
.
. FireWire .
()
.
/. ( 1,5 )

. PC,
.
FireWire VESA ,
.
(peer-to-peer), USB.

14.2.1.
1394 (, ,
). ( )
.
,
. 27 ,
.
, :

14.2. IEEE 1394 - FireWire 829

16 ;
4,5 ;
72 (
);
, .
1394 6 , ,
6- (. 14.6).
( ),
(8-40 , 1,5 ).
,
( 500 )
( 60
). 4-
, .

( -).
=1

CZZ
12

10,2
. 14.6. FireWire

, 1394,
:
UTP 5 RJ-45 ( ), 100
S100;
( POF
HPCF ) S200;
& ( 50 )
S3200.
, 1394, . , ,
.

(jitter) , .

830 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

1394 : -
(Backplane). - , , 1394. ,
, ,
,
. FireWire
PC PCI 1394.
1394 - .
,
.

14.2.2. IEEE 1394


1394 (. 14.7).
(Transaction Layer) , , . , ISO/IEC 13213:1994 (ANSI/IEEE 1212,
1994 .) CSR (Control
and Status Register) (, , ). 1394
.
(Link Layer) .
.
.
(Physical Layer)
. , ,
.

. ,
.

,
.
FireWire PHY Transceiver
LINK Chip. , , IBM-Apple
LINK-PHY.
,
.
64- 1394. 16 : 6 63 ; 10 1023
( ), .

14.2. IEEE 1394 FireWire 831

() DMA.
,
,
. ,
.
.
, , .

, .
PCI

^gf^jjjjjffjyjljj^

!f v,':1::1:^':^1.1^:1.-^.-.^. ''''' ''' '': v

:|11:^31:

<

;:4w::::^:-'^:: ''-'::::v'-

. 14.7. FireWire

.
, (
, )
, () (NACK),
. ( )
( -

832 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

). , .
. 64 ,
.
CRC-. ,
. - (, , )
.
.
, . , ,
. ,
,
. ,
. .

.
, 125 . 32- ,
24,576 , , .
, .
,
. , ,
. ,
, . ,
.
, . ,
, . , . , , . , 125-
6144. 20 , , (quadlet, 32- ) 1600
/.

14.2. IEEE 1394 FireWire 833

. 25
,
4915 . , ,
30 / (25 / 3-4 / ,
). S100 1800 , S200 900. , . , , . ,
, .

.
(Bus Master) 1394,
. ,

. ,
(Topology_Map Speed_Map),
, ,
. , ,
, .

14.2.3. 1394
PC- ( Macintosh) 1394
, USB. Fire-Wire
,
. 1394 PC PCI1394, PCI
FireWire. FireWire .
: LINK chip ( )
PHY chip ( ).
(
S400 ,
S100 S200).
. .
, VIA Fire II (VT6306) -
S400 PCI, Card Bus (
).

1394 -, - ,
. , 1394, FireWire
(, , ) - .
1394
CD DVD, AV- (, -

834 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

). 1394-IDE,
IDE- 5"
3,5". , CD DVD
( ), .
SCSI- , SBP-2 (Serial Bus Protocol),
SCSI-3 1394.

14.2.4. 1394
1394
.

.
, , ,

.
1394
( , )
, PC, .
1394
PC. (
, , MIDI , ) , . ( ,
, . .),
() , .
1394 .
- .
- (plugs)
(sockets), ,
. , .
, . ,
,
Digital Interface for Consumer Electronic Audio/Video Equipment
IEEE-1394, DVC (Digital Video Consortium).
Co ISO/IEC.
FireWire, -8940 Adaptec,
PC ( ), PCI.
(
Pentium 133, 32 , 256 , SCSI-).
1394 , Windows 98, Windows 95
OSR 2.1 . - (AVI) , , Adobe Premiere, Asymetrix Digital Video Producer, Ulead

14.3. Fibre Channel (FCAL) 835

MediaStudio, MGI VideoWave. - (DV),


1394, AVI- Adaptec.

. ,
()
,
. 5 (5 Sony,
Matsushita, Intel, Hitachi Toshiba)
.

14.3. Fibre Channel (FCAL)


Fibre (Fiber) Channel, FCAL (Fibre Channel
Arbitrated Loop ), (SCSI-3)
.
( ), .
1 100 /.
30 , 10 .

126 ( 8 16,
).
(200 /), .
Adaptec 2 / ( , ),
(1 /).
400 /,
126 , 10 .
FDDI
.
, .
,
(, SCSI IP). Fibre Channel
, , .
( , PCI). FCAL
( , ).
FCAL ,
()
. (, , Ethernet)

, , , . ,
, FCAL

836 14. : USB, FireWire, FCAL, ACCESS.Bus

(, SCSI ).
FCAL
,
. FCAL
, ,
.

14.4.
ACCESS.Bus 12
ACCESS.Bus (Accessory Bus), DEC,
,
( VESA DDC), (Smart
Battery) . . (12 , 500
) 14 -,
8 . 12,
, .
PC ACCESS.Bus ,
.
/
. [4].
PC, Philips, PC

( DIMM). , .
BIOS
,
(,
) ... .
, , .
PC
, : SDA (Serial Data)
SCL (Serial Clock).
(Master) (Slave). ,
SDA , . . . ( )
100 400 ,
-
.

14.4. ACCESS. Bus 12 837

PC ,
.
: SDA
, , .

( , )
.
. , , .


(Expansion Bus)
.
PC 8- ISA.
, PC
. -286 (ISA-16)
.
EISA, .
(
), ISA-. , IBM,
PC,
. 486
VLB. ISA/ EISA
.
486 .
PCI
86 , Power PC
. PCI,
, AGP,
. ,
, AGP
, ,
. PCI PCI-X.

705

,
PCI,
X-Bus.
ISA, ( ).

, , CMOS-, ROM
BIOS, , ,
.
LPC, ,
( ) .
PCI ,
ISA X-Bus.

PCI; AGP ; ISA,
,
. MCA, EISA VLB
, , (, VLB) .
, ,
PCMCIA, PC Card. PC Card 16-, ISA.
,
Card Bus.
ISA
, PC/104.
PCI , Compact
PCI PXI.
:
PC -, ,
. ,
,
, .
.
,

. PC.
; ,
ISA, PCI.
ISA,
, PCI .
-, ISA,
PCI .
-, .
. 12.1 PC.

706 12.
12.1.
Bus- ACFG2

Master
, DMA
/1

ISA-8

20 (1 )

ISA-16
8
7
+

16
24 (16 )
8
LPC
6,7
7
+
8/16/32
32 (4 )
33
EISA
33,3
7
+
+
32
32 (4 )
8,33
MCA-16 16
+
+
16
24 (16 )
10
MCA-32 20
+
+
32
32 (4 )
10
VLB
132
(+)
32/64
32 (4 )
33-50 (66)
PCI
132/264
+
32/64
32 (4 )
33/66
PCMCIA 10/20
+
+
8/16
26 (64 )
Card Bus 132
+
+
32
32 (4 )
33
1 . , .
2 , ISA PnP ,
.


() ,
.
(. . 4.2.4).

12.1. ISA
ISABus (Industry Standard Architecture) ,
PC . XT
8 20 . AT 16 24 .
. , . 12.1,
2,54 (0,1 ).
ISA-8 62- ( , ), ISA-16
36- ( , D). 32-
, 32-
ISA , EISA. /104,
PC,
ISA .
D18

D1 31

I!

18

1 31

I
1

. 12.1. ISA

12.1. ISA 707

ISA ( )
. - (Prototype
Card),
.
, .
,
. ,
,
.
ISA 8- 16-
, - ,
.
UMA (AOOOO-FFFFFh),
, . ISA-16
CMOS Setup 15- 16-
( 15
). 86 - 16
, -
-FFFFh. ISA -
,
-FFh ( ). PC
10- -, [15:10]
. ,
ISA lOOh3FFh, 758 8-
. (. .
3.3). 12- ( lOOh-FFFh).

10- ,
[9:0] 12- (
10- 12- ). 16 EISA PCI.
ISA-8 6 , IS -16 11.
PCI.
ISA-8 8- DMA. 16 16- 8- .
, ( ) . ,
.
-,
DMA .
,
16- DMA.
(bus mastering). DMA
, bus-master
, ,
15 ( ).

708 12.

.
.
-
DMA.
, ,
.
, ,
, . , , .
IRQx DRQx

. ,
, .
. ( ) PC
.

, ,
(. . 12.4).
ISA EISA [4].

DMA,
. DMA
, . .
DMA :
DRQx DACKx#,
. . 12.2 (
8- ) ( 16-) DMA.
( ) ,
IOR# MEMR#, MEMW# IOW#.
DMA.
, 8- DMA
64 , (
, . . 3.5). 16-
64 , ,
. DMA , ,
15 (
).
(bus mastering) - ,
DMA. , -

12.1. ISA 709

, ,
, ,
DMA ( ). , ,

.
, -
. ISA , 16- . ,
DMA - DMA
( 5-7).
DMA IDLE

DMA1

1
1
DMA 4 ', DMA IDLE

1 DMA 2 ! DMA3 1

CLOCK

J~i_ i_n_ unjij^j4j~iJ4jnjn

DRQx

BUS CLK DMA

UJ4 J~Vr4

AEN

DACKx#
SAO-SA20, SBHE
IORD#

l/O-

i
i
1, |
i
i
I ,
|
L_.
1

MEMW#
SDO-SD15

rn

1
1

'1

1
1

i - '

. 12.2. DMA

, ,
, , ,
(refresh) .
, .
15 (
REFRESH*), DMA,
.
- 15
, . 15
REFRESH*, -

710 12.

. , ,
, ,
,
.
,
, , .
ISA . IRQ2-IRQ7 , IRQ9-IRQ15 . 4 (IRQ2/9) IRQ2 /.
( AT) IRQ9,
( 8-) IRQ2.
.
,
. .

. ,
- ,
,
. , . . 3.4.
, ISA
, , , ,
( ) .
# (NMI), - .
,
, . NMI
3 (EIC) 061h, , NMI
#, 6 () .

12.2. PC/104
/104, , ISA. 104
, ISA. ISA
/104
: ,
. /104 -. /104, .

12.3. EISA 711

PC-104 ( ), . , . . 0,6" ( ).

12.3. EISA
EISA Bus (Extended ISA) ISA 32 . ISA-
(. 12.3). ( , F, G, ) ( ) ISA , , , D , ISA,
, . EISA
ISA , ISA,
( , ).
ISA
( , , , D)
EISA
( , F, G, H)

. 12.3. EISA

EISA ,
. ( ) 32
( , ). (Burst
Mode) .
,
1024 .
DMA, 33 /.
, ISA-:
( ISA), .
45 ,
, 8 360
.
EISA . ( 8)
-

712 12.

. ISP (Integrated System Peripheral). (


): , DMA, CPU, Bus-Master. EISA
NVRAM, EISA
. ,
ECU (EISA Configuration Utility).
-
,

. -
: AEN, -,
AENx, -.
ISA, ,
.
EISA ISA (
ESCD NVRAM EISA).
EISA , , ,
-. PCI
(8 4).
EISA ISA,
EISA. ISA / 32 , . EISA BCLK.

12.4.
ISA EISA
, - ISA EISA

-, ,
. ,
, , .


DMA. ,
,
, , DMA .
-
-

12.4. ISA EISA 713

.
,
.

ISA
( , NVRAM EEPROM), .
,
. : - (Software Configured) (jumperless).

. , .
.
, . ,
, (,
). NVRAM
( NVRAM). -
, , , , . NVRAM, ,
, ( ).

, , .

, ,
. - ,
, ,
.
- .
,
( ) ,
.
, .
MCA, PCI EISA, ISA
. EISA
AEN,
- .
EISA ,
ECU (EISA
Configuration Utility). EISA ,
ISA -
ISA PnP, .
-

714 12.


.
BIOS PnP BIOS, . 15.8.
ISA PnP BIOS,
/ ISA PnP , PnP
.

12.4.1. Plug and Play


ISA
ISA,
,
Intel Microsoft Plug and Play
ISA Specification, l.Oa 1994 . PnP,
, Legacy Cards (
). , PnP .
PnP .
1. .
2. CSN (Card Select Number),
(Assign a handle),
PnP.
3.
.
,
.
4. () ,

.
5. ( ).
POST ( BIOS
PnP) . PnP BIOS ,
,
. BIOS PnP
, ,
,
. ,
ISA PnP.
,
,
. [1,4].

12.5. PCI 715

12.5. PCI
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) local bus . Pentium,
486. PCI . PCI 1.0
1992 . PCI 2.0 (1993 .)
. 2.1 (1995 .) 66 .
PCI 2.2 ( 1998 .),
2.1.
PCI Local Bus Specification. Revision 2.2 18.12.1998,
PCI SIG (Special Interest Group).
PCI (mezzanine bus)
ISA, : (), . - (ISA/EISA
), ISA- X-BUS LPC,
(ROM BIOS,
, , DMA, LPT, ),
PCI .
(. . 4.1) PCI ,
,
.
() CLK. 33 , (
486 20-33 ).
41,5 (
83 ). 2.1,
66 .
32 ,
64 . 33
132 / 32- 264
/ 64-; 66 264 528
/ .
, -
( )
.
PCI ( VLB),
- (
VLB).
PCI -, ,
.
. DMA

716 12.

PCI , ,
( ),
. , ,
DMA IDE, PCI IDE (. .
13.1.9). PCI
.
().
-
.
-,
, -.
,
, -
0 (. . 12.5.10).
, .

12.5.1. ,
PCI
PCI , . ,
(
-, ).
,
.
PCI ,
IDSEL
, .
256 (. .
12.5.10). (function number),
, AD[10:8] (
).
, 8 .
() , , ( AD[10:8] ), 0.

, .
0 ,
.
PCI ,
(device number). , ,
PCI,
(PCI bus number). ; ,
, .

12.5. PCI 717

12.5.2. PCI
( )
(initiator) , (master) , (target)
(), (slave). PCI
: ,
.
. 12.2.
12.2. PCI

AD[31:0]
Address/Data /.
___________ , _________
/[3:0]#
Command/Byte Enable / . ,
,
___________ ______________________________________
FRAME*
. ( ),
,
___________ ______________________________
DEVSEL#
Device Select (
__
__
) ______________________________________
IRDY* Initiator Ready
TRDY* Target Ready

STOP*
LOCK*

,
PCI

REQ#
GNT*
PAR .

Request PCI-
Grant
Parity [31:0] /[3:0]#
PERR*
Parity Error ( ,
___________). ,
*
Power Management Event ,
___________ ( , PCI 2.2)____________
CLKRUN*
Clock running .

___________ ( )______________
PRSIMT[1,2]#
Present ,
.
GND,
RST* Reset
Initialization Device Select
-
IDSEL

SERR*
System Error . ,
,
___________. PCI NMI_____
REQ64*
Request 64 bit 64- .
( RST*) 64- ,
64- . 64-
, 32- ,
___________ _____________________________

J-

718 12.
12.2 ()

64#
64-
INTA#, INTB#,
Interrupt , , , D , ,
INTC#, INTD#
,
CLK
Clock . 2033 ,
___________ PCI 2.1 - 66 ______________________________
M66EN_______66MHz Enable 66 ___________
SDONE
Snoop Done .

. ,
___________ _____________________
SBO#
Snoop Backoff
. ,
___________ ____
_________Test Clock JTAG_______________
TDI_________Test Data Input JTAG__________ ________Test
Data Output JTAG________ TMS________Test Mode Select
JTAG________ TRST________Test Logic Reset
________________________

, . REQ#
GNT#
. (
FRAME*) GNT#. GNT#
,
(. ) .
,
. (, , )
.
AD.
/[3:0]
.
FRAME*, AD ,
/# ().
DEVSEL*.
IRDY#,
DEVSEL*. , TRDY#.
AD
IRDY# TRDY#. ,
. . 12.4 ,
, .
,
32 ,
.

12.5. PCI 719

Data 1 X. Data 2
/# ~ (

. 12.4. PCI

,
( FRAME* IRDY#
). ,
.
.
(Comletiori)
.
* - (Time-out) ,
( GNT*)
, Latency Timer. ,

. ( ) GNT*
.
(Master-Abort),
(DEVSEL#).
,
STOP*. .
(Retry) STOP* TRDY#
. , -
(16 ).

.
(Disconnect) STOP*
. STOP* TRDY*
, .
STOP* TRDY*,
. -

720 12.

, .
* (Target-Abort) STOP*
DEVSEL# ( STOP#
DEVSEL* ). .
, ,
.
,

.

12.5.3. ,
,

.
. 16 .
,
(Incremental Latency Mechanism),
(target subsequent latency) 8
.
.
, ,
(Latency Timer),
, .

, .
- , (Max_Lat)
,
(Min_GNT).
.

, . 5 /
, , 4 . 32 .
, ,
.
,
( ,
, ).
Fast Ethernet ( 10 /),

12.5. PCI 721

64- , .
,
, .
8 ( 0,25 33 ),
MIN_GNT-1. 10 /
3,2 , MAX_LAT-12
( 0,25 ).

12.5.4.
,
.
4 ( ),
(, . . 6.1.4). AD,
, /[3:0]# .
.
; ,
. ISA, PCI
32 .
PCI /# .
.
.
-
. PCI 32 ,
86 16 .
*
-, ( ), .
(. . 12.5.10).
-
(. . 12.5.9).
32-
64- .

12.5.5.
PCI ISA.
(
) INTA#, INTB#, INTC# INTO*.
, , -

722 12.

, ,
.
, ,
, ,
. PCI PCI-
(.
. 3.4).

(. . 12.5.10). ,
,
,
. , ,
PCI .
( )
, ( ).
, INTA#, INTA# INTB#
. .
PCI ,
(PCI Message-Based Interrupts). ,
, . , APIC.
APIC. ICH2
82801 FEC00020h,
0-23h.
; APIC, 8259 ,
.

12.5.6. DMA (PC/PCI)


, ISA 8237 PCI ,
.
PCI PC- PCI
Intel PC/PCI DMA,
REQi# GNTi# ,
DMA. (
PCI) DRQx# DACKx# ,
ISA (. . 12.1), REQi# GNTi#
.

12.5. PCI 723

12.5.7. ,
PCI
PCI (CMOS),
: 5 3,3 . ( ) , (33 66 ).
,
, ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
,
.

: 2 PCI 4 4 2 . ,
PCI -. , . ,
. - PCI
.
PCI ,
0,05 . ,
ISA/EISA . PCI
5 3,3 , . PCI
, PCI-
: 5 , 3,3 .
, .
12, 13 50, 51. 5
50, 51; 3,3 12, 13. PCI 50, 51 (5 ) 12,13 (3,3 );
.
. , +V I/O:
5 +V I/O +5 ;
3,3 +V I/O +3,3-3,6 ;
5 +5 ;
3,3
+(3,3-3,6) ;

5 3,3 , ,
.

724 12.

+3,3, +5, +12 -12


. PCI 2.2 .
+3,3 , #
.
32- , 62/62; 64- ,
94/94.
. 66 M66EN. ,
, 66 ( 49), 33 . 33
40-50 ,
.
. 12.5 32- (Long Card),
(Short Card) 175 ,
. (), ISA
( MCA IBM PS/2).
. 12.3,
. 12.2.
175

312

3,3
5
1 /
\ 62
56.2 -*
104.5

. 12.5. PCI
12.3. PCI

-12

TRST#

PRSNT1*

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

+12
TMS
TDI
+5
INTA*
#
+5

PRSNT2*
GND/ 3,3
GND/ 3,3

GND
CLK

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

+VI/0

GND/ 3,3
GND/ 3,3
3.3Vaux2

GND

+5
+5
INTB*
INTO*

RST#
+VI/O

12.5. PCI 725


GND
REQ*
+VI/0
AD 31
AD 29
GND
AD 27

17
18
19
20
21
22
23

AD 25
+3,3
/*
AD 23
GND
AD 21
AD 19
+3,3
AD 17
C/BE2*
GND
IRDY*
+3,38
DEVSEL*
GND
LOCK*
PERR*
+3,3
SERR#
+3,3
C/BE1*
AD 14
GND
AD 12
AD 10
GND/M66EN1
GND/ 5
GND/ 5
ADS
AD 7
+3,3
ADS
AD3

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

GNT#
GND
PME#2
AD 30
+3,3
AD 28
AD 26

GND
57
AD1
58
+VI/0
59
ACK64*
60
+5
61
+5
62
32-

GND
AD 24
IDSEL
+3,3
AD 22
AD 20
GND
AD 18
AD 16
+3,3
FRAME*
GND
TRDY*
GND
STOP*
+3,3
(SDONE*)3
(SBOFF*)3
GND
PAR
AD 15
+3,36
AD 13
AD 11
GND
AD 9
GND/ 5
GND/ 5
C/BEO*
+3,3
AD 6
AD 4
GND

GND
/6*
/4*
GND
AD63
AD61
+VI/0
AD59
AD57
GND
AD55
AD53
GND
AD51
AD49
+VI/0
AD47
AD45
GND
AD43
41
GND
AD39
AD37
+VI/O
AD35
33
GND

GND

63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
64-

'
AD2
ADO
+VI/0
REQ64*
+5
+5

GND
/7*
/5*
+VI/0
PAR64
62
GND
AD60
AD58
GND
56
54
+VI/O
52
50
GND
48
46
GND
44
AD42
+VI/0
AD40
AD38
GND
AD36
AD34
GND
AD32

GND

M66EN PCI 2.1 3,3 .


PCI 2.2 ( ).
3 PCI 2.2 (
5 ).
1

726 12.

PCI ,
www.pcisig.org (,
).
Small PCI (SPCI) PCI ,
SFF PCI (Small Form-Factor). ,

PCI. 32-, 64- ,
33 132 /.
PCI, (bus mastering).
CLKRUN,

. SPCI PC Card Card Bus,
. SPCI
( )
Card BUS (
). SPCI : 5 , 3,3
5/3,3 . ( )
. SPCI
( ), ( Card Bus).
Mini PCI Specification PCI, 32 ( JTAG), .
PCI,
CLKRUN .
- .
PCI-X , 1 /. PCI,

66 33 .
1995
Compact PCI. Compact PCI (cPCI)
PCI 2.1. PCIMG (PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group).
: 8 4.
Compact PCI 3U (100
160 ) (J1) 6U (233 160 ) (J1
J2). 7- 2
, - , .
Compact PCI National Instruments PXI (PCI extensions for Instrumentation PCI ) . PXI , Compact PCI ,
. PXI Compact PCI, Compact PCI
PXI.
PXI PXI.

12.5. PCI 727

12.5.8. PCI
PCI PCI (PCI Bridge). (Host
Bridge) PCI (
), (Peer-to-Peer Bridge)
PCI.
PCI
. ,
.
( ) PCI,
. PCMCIA, CardBus, MCA, ISA/EISA, XBus LPC ,
PCI ().
,
. ( PCI-PCI)
.
-, .
() ,
. , PCI (routing)
. ,
, ,
. DEVSEL#.
, PCI, ,
, ISA/EISA.

. PCI ( ) , ,
( -).
(positive decoding).
, , .
(subtractive decoding)
, .
( ) ,
.
,
.
,
-. , 1
(. . 12.5.2): , .

728 12.

PCI , :
;
;
* ;
.
, , ,
PCI. ,
,
,
.
PCI

Concurrent PCI Transferring
PCI Concurrency. ,
PCI PCI.
,
PCI, , .
, AGP
( PCI, . . 12.6),
PCI, ,
PCI .

.
(
) CMOS Setup.
( ) (, ISA)
(delayed transaction).
. ,
( ), ,
, .

, .

( ). ,
, ,
, .

,
.
,

12.5. PCI 729

.
( Prefetchable, . .
5.3.1). , ,
,
, .

, .
, .
.
, (
, ,
).
(posted write),

. ,
, .
.
, ,
. ,
. -
, ,
. , ,
, .
. ,
, . , ,
0, 4, Ch (write combining)
0, ( 8) /[3:0]# . (byte merging)
. , , 3,
1, 0 2 ,
.
( ),
.
. ( )
, , . PCI
,
. ,
Prefetchable.

730 12.

PCI VGA Palette Snooping


VGA,
-. PCI
AGP,
PCI. VGA- (Palette Registers),
-.

,
VESA Feature Connector ( ),
, .
,
( PCI AGP),
, (
ISA). CMOS Setup PCI VGA Palette Snoop.
-
PCI, ISA,
PCI. PCI.
,
ISA.

12.5.9.


PCI ,
, -. PC , 2.2 (Configuration Mechanism #1). , ,
PCI BIOS.
(
PCI), IDSEL (
). .
IDSEL ,
AD
(
32- ). , . , IDSEL.
1 -
32- OCFSh OCFCh, .
CONFIG_ADDRESS (RW,
CF8h) 32- .
CONFIG_DATA (RW, CFCh) .

12.5. PCI 731

2 -
8- OCF8H OCFAh, .

PCI COOO-CFFF -.
(4 )
PCI,
.
PCI
.

12.5.10.

( - ).
( )
BIOS Plug and Play.
PCI
256 (8-),
, -. Configuration Read Configuration Write,
.
, , .
( ) PCI
-,
.
IDSEL
. , ( POST),
.
-.
, ,
, . .
, ,
, .
, . .

12.5.11. PCI
PCI
(3 Class Code).
, ,
( ).
,

732 12.

PCI BIOS. (, 01:01:80


IDE 07:00:01 16450)
.
PCI SIG,
www.pcisig.com. , , .

12.5.12. PCI BIOS


PCI
BIOS, ,
. PCI. , ,
, (. ).
-,
BIOS ,
.
PCI BIOS , , ,
PCI BIOS.
PCI BIOS
. ,
, .
,
-.
PCI BIOS 16- , V86 16 , Int lAh.
.
OOOFFE6Eh (
Int lAh)
.
CF-0 -0;
CF-1 :
81h ;
* 83h ;
* 86h ;
* 87h PCI.
( 1024 ). 32-
, 32- (. . 15.5),

12.6. AGP 733

CF .
32- PCI. PCI BIOS:
= BlOlh PCI BIOS;
= B102h ;
= ;
= B106h PCI;
= 108, 109 BlOAh , PCI;
- 10, 10, BlODh , PCI.

12.6. AGP
PCI,
66 32
264 /.
.
,
, .
,
.
, .
,
.
,
.
Intel PCI 2.1 AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port
). 1996 ,
2.0 (1998 .),
4. 2000 Intel AGP8X,
,
. .
AGP 32- 66 ,
PCI. PCI
AGP ,

, PCI.
100 ,
AGP 2.0, AGP8X
66,6 ( PCI).
:

734 12.

;
(2) (4) ( );
.
. 12.6, PCI AGP. PCI
( ). AGP
, .

PCI

AGP
. 12.6. PCI AGP

66
533 (2) 1066 / (4), 32 .
, ( Ultra DMA).
2 4 ,
, .
()
.
AGP 8
SBA (SideBand Address), ,
. AGP,
AD.
AGP ,
SD- (. . 8.3);
. AGP
,
AGP ( )
( ) PCI.
AGP 64-
Pentium .
,
PCI. Intel AGP Pentium Pro
Pentium II. AGP Pentium.
, AGP
-

12.6. AGP 735

. AGP
-:
% ,
PCI (Fast Write);
, ,
;
, .
AGP, ,
WRAM RDRAM 1,6 /,
AGP .
AGP PCI AGP. , AGP, AGP,
AGP+PCI. AGP
( AGP ) PCI
( . .);
PCI. AGP
. PCI
, - .
PCI, ,
PCI (. . 12.5). ,
AD ,
,
.
,
.
.
( PCI)
, PCI.
AGP ( AGP) ; AGP
, .
.
, AGP,
PCI,
FW (Fast Write), AGP (2 4)
AGP, PCI.
FW
.
AGP ( ),
,
.

736 12.

AD[31:0] /[3:0] 1#,


CLK
.
(sideband) SBA[7:0]. , AD.
(1, 2 4).
AGP ,
AGP /.
AGP ( ),
. ,
.
, ,
( ). (, ,
6) AGP .
( ,

).
; ,
. (
) .
(
, ).
AGP
,
PCI. AGP ,
, , .
, AGP
256 .
(
)
. , ( ,
),
(
).
AGP , PCI,
, PCI. AGP 1
PCI,
(
). 2 4 .
1 (4 AD[31:0])
CLK,
66,6 4 = 266 /.
2 AD_STBO AD_STB1
AD[0:15] AD[16:31] . -

12.6. AGP 737

, , .
CLK,
66,6 2 4 - 533 /.
4 ()
AD_STBO# AD_STB1#. ,
. , CLK,
66,6 2 2 4 = 1066 /.
AGP ,
PCI, (. . 12.5.10). POST
, AGP .
AGP ,
AGP: , , 4
, .
AGP,
AGP, .
( ).
AGP :
, , , 4
, 1, 2, 4. AGP
.
AGP
, ,
AGP. AGP PCI (. 2.7),
( EISA)
. ,
PCI.

II

*-

23
1

S1

. 12.7. AGP: 3,3 ; 1,5 ;

AGP
: 3,3 1,5 ( RST# CLK

738 12.

3,3 ).
. 1 2
, 4 1,5 .
AGP : 3,3 , 1,5
, ,
. 3,3 2225 ( , . . 12.7, , ); 1,5
42-45. ,
.
TYPEDET*
3,3 , ,5 .

Vddq, 3,3 1,5 .
.
AGP . 12.4,
3,3/1,5 .
, ,
, . -
VCC3.3, ,
( 1).
.,
# .
12.4. AGP

OVRCNT*
5.0V
5.0V
USB+
GND
INTB#
CLK
REQ#
VCC3.3
STO
ST2
RBF#
GND

SBAO
VCC3.3
SBA2
SB_STB
GND

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

12V
TYPEDET*

USBGND
INTA#
RST#
GNT#
VCC3.3
ST1

PIPE*
GND

SBA1
VCC3.3
SBA3
SB_STB#'
GND

SBA4
SBA6
3,3 /
3,3 B/GND
3,3 B/3.3Vaux
3,3 B/3.3Vaux
AD31
AD29
VCC3.3
AD27
AD25
GND
AD_STB1
AD23

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

SBA5
SBA7
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
AD30
AD28
VCC3.3
AD26
AD24
GND
AD_STBl#l
/*
Vddq
AD22
AD20
GND
018

Vddq
AD21
AD19
GND
AD17

/
B/GND
/
B/VCC3.3

AN

12.6. AGP 739

/2*
Vddq
IRDY#
./ 1,5
GND/ 1,5
/ 1,5
./ 1,5
DEVSEL*
Vddq3.3
PERR#
GND
SERR#
C/BE1*
Vddq

39
40
41

AD 16

AD14
AD12
GND
AD10
ADS
Vddq
AD STBO
AD7
GND
ADS
AD3
Vddq
AD1
Vrefcg2

53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66

AD13
AD11
GND
AD9
C/BEO*
Vddq
AD STBO#'
AD6
GND
AD4
AD2
Vddq
ADO
Vrefgc2

Vddq
FRAME*

42
/ 1,5
43
GND/ 1,5
44
/ 1,5
45
VCC3.3/Kjno4 1,5
46
TRDY#
47
STOP*
48
#
49
GND
50
PAR
51
AD15
52
Vddq
1 3,3 ( 4).
2 1.

AGP AGP USB,


( USB+, USB- OVRCNT#, +5 , ).
# (Power
Management Interface). S.SVaux,
.
AGP Pro ,
, .
: AGP
AGP Pro, . AGP Pro AGP (. 12.8) GND
3,3 12 .
AGP Pro
. AGP Pro 1-2
PCI: ( ), , PCI.
AGP Pro 110 ,
3,3 ( 7,6 ) 12 ( 9,2 ) AGP,
AGP Pro - PCI.
AGP Pro (High Power, 50-110 ) PCI,
(Low Power, 25-50 ) .
. ,
.
PRSNT1# ( ), a PRSNT2#
( 50 , 110
).

740 12.

LU

iLL

. 12.8. AGP Pro ( 1,5 ): ;


AGP8X :
AD SBA 8,
2,132 /;
;
(
);
PIPE*;

, GART;
, .
; AGP;
, GART;
.

12.7. LPC
LPC (Low Pin Count , 7
) , X-Bus ISA: , , , , BIOS . . ISA
. ,
ISA: - -, DMA
(Bus Master). .
ISA/X-Bus 24- ,
16 , LPC 32-
, 4 . 16- -

12.8. PC 741

64 .
PCI,
. ISA/X-Bus,
- . LPC PCI.
. LPC 1.0
, . FIFO
DMA.
LPT- 2 /
47 % . 4 /
(11,4 %). ( , -, )
, 75 %
. , ISA/X-Bus LPC
, ,
.
LAD[3:0], LFRAME#, LDRQ# SERIRQ
PCI 2.1 3,3 . ,
, 5 , 3,3 .
LPC PCI ISA PnP, LPC BIOS.
LPC LPC.

12.8. PC
PC, , VLB.

[1] [4]. ISA ,
.

12.8.1.
MCA (MicroChannel Architecture)
IBM PS/2, 50.
ISA/EISA. ,

, .
( ).
, , -
ISA. MCA -,
-.
PCI.

742 12.

2.8.2. VLB
- ISA, MCA, EISA , PC.
486
( ). VLB
(VESA Local Bus) 32- ,
486, . Pentium
2.0,
64, .
VLB- ISA-16, EISA MCA,
. -
VLB
. 66 ,
33 .
132 / (33 4 ), .

( ) : VLB- 40 .
50 .
(Bus-Master) ,
.
Bus-Master, Masters'-.
,
VLB, VLB . ,
VLB.
,
.

12.9.

,
.
, . 12.5.
PCMCIA.
PC Card.
(, , -)
Miniature Card SmartMedia Card, PCMCIA, MultiMedia Card CompactFlash (CFA Compact
Flash Association). Miniature Card PC Card 2.

12.9. 743
12.5.
Small PC
Compact Smart
Miniature
PC Card
Card
Flash
Media Card Card

Multi Media
Card

85,6

,
,

54,0
42,8
3,3/5,0/ 10,5 3,3/5,0/ 10,5

45,0

36,0

45,0

33,0

32,0

43,0
3,3/5,0

37,0
0,76

38,0
3,5

24,0
1,4

68
,
-,
CardBus

22

(Flash,
ROM)

60
7

(DRAM,
(Flash, ROM)
Flash, ROM)

68
50
, - ,

12.9.1. PCMCIA, PC Card CardBus


90- PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association
)
,
. PCMCIA Standard Release 1.0/
JEIDA 4.0 ( 1990 .), 68-
: I II PC Card. . -
CIS (Card Information Structure),
.

PCMCIA 2.0 (1991 .) -, , . 2.01 PC CardATA,


III,
AIMS (Auto-Indexing Mass Storage)
(Card Services Specification). 2.1 (1994 .)
(Card and Socket Services Specificaiton)
CIS.
PC Card (1995 .) ,
:
3,3 , DMA 32-
CardBus.
.
PCMCIA PC Card 68- , .
, , ,
. -

744 12.

8- 16- 100 , 10 20 / .
- 255 ,
3,92/7,84 / 8/16- . CardBus
, PCI,
. 33 32
132 /, (bus mastering).
, PCI
( ). ,
, ( ) (PWM).
PC Card (. . 13.1.1).
PC Card, 54 85,5 ,
( ):
PC Card Type I 3,3 ;
PC Card Type II 5 -, , ; PC Card Type III 10,5
;
* PC Card Type IV 16 , ,
www.pc-card.com .
Small PC Card 45 42,8
.
PC Card
(DMA). DMA ,
, ,
ISA. PCI
CardBus, , .

ZV Port (Zoomed Video),
-.
VFC
, ( ), . ZV Port
[25:4], BVD2/SPKR#, INPACK* IOIS16*
.
,
16 .
ZV CCIR601,
NTS
VGA.
, MPEG.
, , -

12.9. 745

. (CIS Card Information Structure).


(, ).
MFPC (Multiple Function PC Cards)
.
,
FAT MS-DOS, -
. ,
, XIP (eXecute In Place),
(
).
(Card Services),
(, ) .
(Socket Services), , - , , .
,
, PC Card.
PCMCIA (AIMS)
(, ) - . 15-
(15-pin Shielded Modem I/O connector) 7 (7-pin Modem I/O connector).
JEDIA Small Block Flash Format,
. SISRIF (Still Image, Sound and
Related Information Format)
. .


.
, , . CD1# CD2# (Card
Detect) ,
. ,
.
- +5 . (3,3 ) , 3,3 , 5
. , .
, 3,3 ,
.

746 12.

, ,
.
(),
.
PC Card ,
, , ,
, . ., ,
. PC Card -,
.
.
PC Card ;
PCI PCI-PC Card. Small PCI (SPC1, . . 12.5.7),
.
PC Card
-, PCI ISA. (1-2
) 3" ,
-.

12.9.2. CompactFlash
CompactFlash (. 12.9)
-. 42,8 36,4 3,3 (4
) 50- ( ,
, . . 13.1.1). 50-
68- PC Card Type II
III. 4-32 , 5 3,3 . :
, - PC Card, IDE (ATA).
, PC Card.
IDE
(. . 13.1).
26

50
25

42,8

. 12.9. CompactFlash

12.9. 747

12.9.3. SmartMedia Card


- SmartMedia (45 37 0,76 ) PDA.,
, . .,
. - NAND ( ). - ,
(256 512 ), . ,

, , .
. 12.10. 5 16 32 (2
4 ). 3,3 16, 32 64 (2, 4, 8
). SmartMedia
PC Card Type II. FlashPath
(!) 1,44 (. . 7.4).

. 12.10. SmartMedia: 5 ; 6 3,3


IBM PC PC
Speaker (. . 3.6.3),
.
-
, ,
PC , ,
.

. 11.1.
CD-ROM DVD (. . 7.4.3) .

. 11.1. PC

PC 661

-, , MIDI-.
, , -

-CD . (recording) (- )
; . ,
.WAV ( Wave ).
, , (- ).
,
. (playback) , ( )
.

.
(, CD, ). (
)
. (
)
. (, )
,
,
. -
.

.

.
.
* FM Music Synthesizer (Frequency
Modulated), .
WT Music Synthesizer (Wave Table),
. ,
.
4 , , .
(speakers) PC . , , ,
, . , ,
, , . -

662 11. PC


.
. (active speakers)
, ( ) .
.
, . ,
( ) .
HiFi.
() .

.
CD-ROM,
-CD ( CD-ROM .)
. (
) CD-ROM.
,
- .
USB
. . USB,
.
,
.
.

MIDI (Musical Instrument Device Interface). MIDI- ( ).
, MIDI. , . MIDI- .
PC
/ -286.
- (). , -
. (1 ) -.

.
1
(061h). - . ( -

11.1. 663

) , ,
286 . ,

SACD (Super-Audio CD), Sony Philips
-CD.

2
R-2R, 8- .
Covox. -,
, .

Screem Tracker /-286.
.

11.1.

, ,
. , , 20 20 ,
2-5 .
140 1 (
107). 50 ( , ).
200 -4
40 .
70-90 .
,
. ,
, . ,
() . 300
, . 1 3,2 . , (, ).
() ,
101og(P/P0). / ,
201og(U/U0). 10 +20 , 2 -6 .
,
. 2 (
440 ), .

664 11. PC

, , ()
(). (,
) ,
. , -
, ()
( ) . -,
,
.
,
.
() ,
.
.

.
, 4 .
( ) ,
.

- .
(,
) . -, ( )
, . , ,
, (...), . , . ... , ( ) .
, . . /
90-100
.
,
, ,
.
.

. (
) .

11.1, 665

, (
), . ,
.
- (Audio-CD)
(DAT Digital Audio Tape),
.
PC , ( )
.

11.1.1.

. ,
(. 11.2).
- (ADC
Analog-Digital Converter).
,
, . ,
,
. ,
.

() ().
,

, , .
, ,
16 , -CD,
.

. 11.2.

: (
) .
-

666 11. PC

, . CD 44,1
20 .
- (DAC Digital-Analog Converter),
.
-
. ,
.

(
). , ( 20
/) 16- 80 . , CD
.
, 16 44,1
= 705,6 / (88,2 /) ,
1410 / (176 /). -.,
.
,
.
.
6 .
, 8-
5 5 /.
,
PC.
, , .
PC ,
.
,
(DMA) ISA, PCI
. DMA -,

. , 1,44
5 .
CD 10 ( CD 74
), .

.
.
Windows
, ( ) .

.
, , 80- ,
( !). -

11.1. 667

-,
, - .
,

. , . , (, )
, ()
(, . .).
.
. ( )

,
.
, .
,
. , , . .
, ,
. ,

. ( ) -
, , . , -

(, , ).
,
.
.


.
,
.
, .
, , . ,
. , ,
( - ), (
), .


( ).

668 11. PC

.
(, TMS).
, , , .
Pentium,
Pentium II, III 4. DSP (Data Signaling
Processor) .
, ,
. : ,
(Pentium -166), (GUS),
. . ,
, ,
PC.

11.1.2.

,
/. - ()
(Pulse-Code Modulation). (samples) . ( ), (Linear ).
, /
. (bit rate) (sample rate) .
-CD 44 100 16 2 - 1 411 200 / ().
(DAT) 32, 44,1 48
16 . 1 024 000, 1 411 200
1 536 000 / ().
(/) ()
.
, ,
, - (),
DPCM (Differential Pulse-Code Modulation).
: ,
,
.
, . ( ,
ADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation)
, -

11.1. 669

, . ,
, ,
. ADPCM
(CD-XA) (, ). ADPCM
PC ,
(). , -CD
DAT .
, Windows
, ,
(/), (, ADPCM).
.WAV (Waveform
),
, (/) ( ).
MPEG. MPEG-1 16-
48 ( ), 44,1 ( )
32 ( ).
(layer) Layer I, Layer 2 Layer 3, .

. :
,
, ( ).
. MPEG
32 (sub-band),

. . , ,
2-5 (premasking) 100
(postmasking).
, /.
.
Layer 1. (Layer 2)
.
23 (1152 ).
(Layer 3)
.
. (Mono), , (L/R Stereo) (M/S-Stereo). ,
joint stereo intensity stereo,
, .

670 11. PC

.
() .

32 / 448 (Layer 1), 384 (Layer 2) 320 / (Layer 3).
Layer 3,
11:1. ,
, -CD, 128
/ (Layer 2 - 160 /, Layer 1 - 288 /). Layer 1 Sony - Philips (384 /). Layer 2
-CD (224 /). Layer 3
ISDN (128 /),
CD-ROM.
,
. ,
.
MPEG-,
.
MPEG-1 Layer 3 ( .),

, WAV-. (
) MPEG-3 ( !).
.1 .2 MPEG-1
Layer 1 2 , .

486DX4-100. ( Layer 3)
,
86 500 . PC
WAV-, ,
MPEG, .
.
MPEG-2, MPEG-1,
16, 22,05 24 .
( ), ( 100 ).
18 24 .
, ( ), ,
(Hi-Fi) .
-.
- , .

11.1.3.
.
-

11.1, 671

, , ,
. , .
().
, () ( ),
, .
, - . ,
,
( ).
,
. , 2 ,
.
12 (7
). I2V2 .

( ) .

( ).
,
.
, .
, ,
.
( ).

(. 11.3). , ,
. :
(attack) , () ;
SB (decay), ;
(sustain) ,
(, );
(release)
( ).
ADSR.
,
.
.
(
). ,
.
, ,

672 11. PC

. (
) .

. 11.3.


, -
. . , ,
.
, , .

20- .
, . ; , .
. , -
. 60-80-
, 90-
( ).
, .
, (monophonic), ().
( ) . , (polyphonic),
( , ).
(multitimbral) ( ).
. ,
.
(addition ):
. (
) .

,
.

11.1. 673

(subtraction ). ( )
.
; .
, , .
.
,
Moog- ( ).
, : (VCO volt controlled oscillator),
(VCF volt controlled filter), (VGA volt controlled amplifies)
.
. ( Moog
12 ),
( ).
(Roland, Moog) ( Yamaha, Korg,
). ( ) , . (patch),
. patch
( )
(). , . (,
Mini-Moog), -.
FM--,
PC.'
FM (Frequency Modulation ' )
()
. , , () , () ,
. FM-
, ,
.
,
. , ( , , ),
. ( )
,
( ).
,
. -

674 11. PC

().
, . FM- ()
, .
FM- ,
PC .

, (playback)
(samples) . WT-,
.
, WT (Wave Table)
(). . , . -,
, , , . . , . , . -,
,
ADSR . , (
). ,
,
. ,
,
.
, .
,
.

.
.
(ROM)

, , .
(patches). PC
,
FM-.
.

, . ,
,
.

11.1. 675

,
(, ). , ,
.

11.1.4.

, ,
.
,
.
, (surround), Dolby Surround Pro
Logic, ,
4 .
: (,
), ( ).
,

(100-7000 ). 4
.
-, FM, .
( )
,
Dolby Surround Pro Logic 4 .
Dolby Dolby Digital,
-3, ()
.
: (,
), ( ) , ,
(subwoofer), (
). -;
( ) .
(rear spikers) .

, , .
Dolby, .
5.1. .
-3 -3. Dolby Digital 5
20-20000 (0,5 , -3 3 20 300 )
20-120 . 20
32, 44,1 48 .

676 11. PC

32 / () 640 /. 384 /
5.1 192 /
. 5.1 MPEG-2
DVD- ( -CD). 6 ( )
PC. -3,
,
DVD ( MPEG-2).
(
, ). , , , . , -
.

11.1.5.
, ,
.
, - .
, ( FM).
, . . , (3D Sound 3D Audio).

, ,
: -, -, -.
- , ,
. 2-, 4- 6- . ,
, - ,
.
, (
).
(DSP)
, ( SD-).
,
( ) . ,
(?)
-3,
.

11.1. 677


, .
-
, .
-.
.
SRS 3D Sound ( SRS Labs)
()
, . HRTF (Head-Related Transfer Function),
.
HRTF (
) .
TruSurround, SRS 3D Sound, -3
.
3D RSX (Intel 3D Realistic Sound Experience)
HRTF .
, , (
).
A3D Aureal Semiconductor , SRS 3D Sound. Wavetracing,
, . , . ,
. ,
. ,
, , . , .
() : , ,
.
. ()
.
, .
,

(API), DS3D (DirectSound 3D). DS3D
API ( ),
() HEL (Hardware Emulation Layer), SD- API (
). DS3D () , . DS3D ().

678 11. PC

A3D (
). IAS (Interactive Around-Sound), (4 ) , A3D
. Phantom IAS ,
3D- .

11.2. PC
( ,
) ,
, .
: ,
(Ad Lib), (WSS), MIDI , ,
MIDI- (MPU-401).
Creative Labs.
, ISA,
.
, --,
WT- .
WT- AWE. AWE
Gravis Ultrasound GUS
WT- ( FM). GUS 8-
( 16-), ,
(). ,
. 16 , , .
Gravis .

,
, .
16- ISA ( 8- ), . PCI PC Card
.
Sound Blaster
Creative Labs. - DMA SB 16
PCI DMA (PC-PCI, . . 12.5.6).
ISA , . 11.2.5. SB 16 , DOS .
( )
SB. Windows
,
. -

11.2. PC 679


-. , DOS- ,
XXI .

(GAME-, . . 9.5), ,
PC. -
, .
(
), .
PCI,
. ,
SD-. PCI , - SB16, DMA. PCI
DMA , .
PCI SB16
: PC/PCI DDMA. PC/PCI
Intel, ISA
, - PCI.
DDMA (Distributed DMA). ,
DMA ISA ,
.
DDMA
PCI.
PCI ISA,
( )
CMOS Setup. SB 16 PCI
, .
'99 Microsoft :
* /: 16-;
* - (): 8 16 ;
:
8 , 11,025 , 22,050 44,1 ;
16 , 32 48 (Advanced audio);
MIDI: 16- , 6 (24-
16- Advanced Audio);
* : 20 -20 ;
: <0,02 %;

680 11. PC

/: 75 ( Advanced Audio
/ 85 , - 90
).

. , Yamaha SW1000XG 20- 18 . 16- 32-
, 8-48 . 6
, / 94 .

11.2.1.
-
. 11.4. , CD (
CD-ROM), ,
.
,
.
( ).
.
, ,
. ,
, -
. ,
, .
,
.

Midi Out Midi In


Spk. Out
Line Out

. 11.4. -

11.2. PC 681

DMA 8- 16-.
(
), . ,
(8 16 ) (/) .
,
, .

( ).

.
DMA, . , ,
IP-: , IP-. -.
, . 11.4, .
.
, .
(),
,
. ,
, .
(4) , .
- ,
, .
(, . .)
DSP (Data Signal
Processor).

11.2.2.
Intel
.
(Analog) (,
, CD) ( ) .
.
MIDI.
ISA,
. PCI,
SB 16.
Digital Ready
, (USB,
FireWire) (S/PDIF, PS)
.

682 11. PC


, . , (, )
, , . 18 , 16
. ,
( ) . 32 , . , .

, PCI .
,
USB.
(Digital Only) , S/PDIF, PS, ACLink, - USB Fire Wire. 16- 48 .
, , ,
( ,
, ).
,
( ), . , .
. ,
, .
(DSP)
( ). Windows
DirectX.
DirectSound DirectSoimd 3D, .
, DirectSound DirectSound 3D,
, .
, PC ( , ).
USB, , USB.
Windows 9x/NT -CD,
WAV-, WT- MIDI. , , DOS
(USB ), .
, . , -

11.2. PC 683

16-
.
SB+
.


. . (
)
, (
, , ). , (resampleing), SRC (Sample Rate Conversion).
(
), . (
). ,
,
. ,
( ) , , ,
8/7. ,

. , -CD (
) 44,1 ,
DVD MPEG-2 48 ,
. '97 (. )
8,000, 11,025, 16,000, 22,050, 32,000,
44,100 48,000 . 48 ,
, . 11.5.
147:160 147 ,
, -CD, 160 ,
.
,
. ,
-CD .
,
.
|| /

| 22/ ! I 44K/C

16K/C
32/
. 11.5.
22,05=>44,1
(SRC1:2)
16,0=>32,0
(SRC1:2)

::::.tX|)
::::

44,1=>48,0
(SRC 147:160)
32,0=>48,0
(SRC 2:3)

I48K/C

684 11. PC

11.2.3. '97
'97 , Intel 1997 ;
2.2, S/PDIF, 2000 .
'97 , . 11.6.
'97 48-
, --
, ,
. . , ,
,
. AC-Link, ('97 Digital Controller). PCI ( ) . () (. . 11.1.1)
. , ,
PCI (bus master).

: , ,
(, ,
MPEG . .). ( ,
) .

-, , MPEG,
-, , -
.
.
'97

'97

1
AC-Link

AMR (CNR)

. 11.6. '97

'97 . , (-

11.2. PC 685

) . AC-Link
'97 ,
AC-Link
AMR CNR (. . 4.2.4). ,
. '97,
, .
, ,
(-, . ) .
AC-Link ; :
BIT_CLK 24,576 , ( );
SYNC , ,
BU_CLK;
SDATA_OUT ;
* SDATAJN ;
RESET* .

(TDM Time Domain Multiplexing).
. -, 20 . 13 , 0 12.
48 ,
20- 48 .
. 20 48 = 960 /. , , 48 , () ,
, . :

. , ,
- () , (),
.
48 , .
, 48 , '97.
96 /.
.
32- (16-) ( )
, , ,
.

686 11. PC

: 2-26h , 28-3Ah
, 3C-58h . 5A-7Ah . ,
, .
,
.
,
SYNC, -0. ( ) -0 :
,
-, ,
( ). -1
( ) 6- ,
( ).
-2 16- ,
( ). (3-12)
, . - 20 ,
() .
-0 ( )
. -1
,
( 0, ). 2 , . 312 .
() . 11.1.
11.1. '97
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
3, 4
Playback (L, R) ( , ),
________ ()_______________________________
5________Modem Linel _____________
6________ Center ______________
7, 8
Surround DAC (L, R)
________ ______________________________________
9________ LFE ______________ 10"_______Modem
Line2 ________________ ^_______Modem Handset Output ____________ 12*_______
_________________________

________________________________________ 3, 4_______ Record (L, R)


, () 5________Modem Linel ADC
_______________ 6________Dedicated Mic Record
_________ 7-9______________________________________________________

11.2. PC 687

10

Modem Line2 ADC

11

Modem Handset ADC

12

* 10-12
3, 4 6


(. 11.7), '97 2.2.
. ,
. ( DAC), SRC
48 .
() V
(Volume control) (Mute).
SD-
(F).
.
10,11
J6J).
7,8

S/PDIF

3,4

()

()
()
. 11.7. - '97


(MUX), ( ADC) -

688 11. PC

, ( 3D
).
( SRC) 3 4.
( ) , , . ( )
: ,
, .
, ,
-.
: , , (_) (Phone) SD-. - (
3,4) 3D, (
) AC-Link.
.
(Line Out),
(Aux Out) ( 32 ). 4-
;
4 (Dolby Pro
Logic). ,
. ,
S/PDIF, 6 -3
5.1. S/PDIF
.

11.2.4.
,
;
, .
,
, .
MIDI
(12 15) (DB-15S).
MIDI ,
( ).
,
. 11.8. PC 5 MIDI.

11.2. PC 689
MIDI-IN

220
GND
(5)
MIDI-Tx
(12)

1
MIDI-THRU

. 11.8. - MIDI



, , CD-ROM.

- (jack) 3,5 , .
( ),
( ),
. 6-
, ,
, - .
RCA,
( ). ,
,
.
- : , () ,
. ,
. ( -). 6- , .
.

, ,
.

690 11. PC

* Line In , , , . . 0,1-0,3 .
Line Out , 0,1-0,3 .
Speaker Out .
, , .
/ In , 3-10 .
, (
), ( )
.

. , , . CDROM ,
, ,
. .
, .
. 11.9. ,
(-
). - ,
, ,
, .
-CD .

Left Right GND

Mono

GND

GND
Lett IN
GND
Right IN

Left IN

GND
GND
Right IN

. 11.9. : - ( ); 6
CD-ROM


S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format)
( )
(DAT, CD-ROM . .).

11.2. PC 691

AES/EBU (Audio
Engineers Society/European Broadcast Union). AES/EBU
,
XLR, 3-10 , 12 .
S/PDIF 75 , RCA
BNC, 0,5-1 , 2 .
S/PDIF ( ) .
CD-ROM,
S/PDIF. S/PDIF (1:1), . , .
, .
( )
.
.
S/PDIF
Toslink, EIAJ -1201 (660 ). , .
(POF) 1,5 , 3 .
,
. 11.10.
,
.
HCT74U04 (6 , 1);
Toslink, (220 )
( ).

. 11.10.
S/PDIF (Toslink)

S/PDIF
,
( -).
-,
(, MPEG -3).
, .

692 11. PC

16, 20 24
, . S/PDIF
,
32, 44,1 48 .

ADAT, TDIF,
.
DVD PS.


MIDI- 26- (. 11.2).
140 90 , .
(Daugterboard Connector) MIDI (, ) ,
,
. (AG)
(DG). MIDI
( ). WT (Wavetable) Connector,
Waveblaster Connector.
11.2.

1
3
5

DG
DG
DG
DG

4
6
8

MIDI Out#
+5
MIDIJn* ()

DG
DG

10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26

+5

13
15
17
19
21
23
25

AG
AG
AG
AG
AG
AG

+5
+12
Audio (R)
-12
Audio (L)
Reset*

MIDI- .
,
/MIDI . ,
, .

11.2. PC 693

11.2.5.
.
,
, ,
.

Ad Lib
PC, FM-
YM3812 (OPL2), 388 - 389h. Ad Lib Gold YM262 (OPL3), 388-38.
; AdLib ( ) .

MPU-401 UART -32


MPU-401 Roland PC MIDI,
. MPU MIDI Processing Unit MIDI.
(UART), MIDI, PC . -,
.
, .
MIDI.
, MTC/SMPTE .
PC 8086, .
, (intelligent mode) ,
(

, MPU). MPU-401
UART mode, .
- MPU401 MPU
( ) MPU+1.
DATA ( MPU+0) , MIDI.
MPU ( MIDI).
STATUS/COMMAND ( MPU+1) / ( ). :
7 DSR (Data Set Ready) (DSR=0)
( ,
);

694 11. PC

6 - DRR (Data Read Ready) - (DRR=0) UART


( ,
).
MPU-401 , UART
3Fh. MPU-401 (- ) RESET ( FFh), MPU
(FEh). ,
MPU . 3Fh
MPU (
).
DSR
. MPU UART
. ,
, DSR=1 ( ).
DRR,
.
MPU-401,
MIDI, ,
MPU-401 UART mode;
.
-32 MIDI-, MPU-401,
32 ,
33 . 128 30
, GM. -32 .

Windows Sound System


,
16- 48 . Windows Sound System (WSS)
4 ,
WSS=534h. 32
. (IRQ 10 . .)
WSS.

Sound Blaster ISA


Sound Blaster 8-
11/22 (/), (
) FM- OPL2, MIDI,
; . Sound
Blaster Pro , 45,4
, 22,05 , 8 .
, Sound Blaster . -

11.2. PC 695

.
- SB: -
220-22F , , , DSP.
(IRQ5),
8- DMA ( DMA 1) ISA.
Sound Blaster 16 SB 16,
. 16- /,
4-44,5 .
DMA ( 8- 16-) . 16 16- DMA ( DMA 5). , 8- , DMA, 8-.
.
: ,
() ( CD-ROM) ().
FM- (OPL-2). -
16 (, DSP, . . 11.3),
(SB) 220h ( 22022Fh). Ad Lib
388-38Bh. MPU-401 UART ( 330, 331h).
(ASP),
WT-. ,
MIDI ( ), .
GAME-

. 12 15 GAME MIDI
. Creative Labs
.
( ), FM--
( ).
. DSP
/ . ASP (Advanced
Signal Processor), CSP (Creative Signal Processor),
, .
Qsound,
3D-Sound.
IDE CD-ROM (
CD-ROM Sony,
Panasonic, Mitsumi). , .
WT-. Sound Blaster AWE32 (Advanced Wave Effects) SB 16
32- WT- EMU8000. (

696 11. PC

FM-) , , . , () .
AWE ( AWE64, SB32),
, , ,
SD-Sound . .
SB- ,
BLASTER SOUND,
AUTOEXEC.BAT. SET SOUND=<path>
. SET BLASTER=A220 15 Dl H5
. (220)
, I (5), D 8- ()
DMA (1); H 16- DMA (5), ,
; MPU-401 (330).
, : 1 SB (SB 1.0), 2 SB Pro, 3 SB
2.0, 4 - SB Pro 2, 5 - SB MCV ( MCA), 6 - SB 16, SB 32 AWE 32.
(SB 32 AWE 32)
EMU8000.
.
11.3. Sound Blaster 16

R/W

SB+0 (388h)
SB+0 (388h)
SB+1 (389h)
SB+2 (38Ah)

R
W
W
W

SB+3 (38Bh)

SB+4

SB+5

R/W

FM music status FM-


FM music address register FM-
FM music data register FM-
Advanced FM music address register FM
Advanced FM music data register FM
Mixer, I/O setup address register
-
Mixer, I/O setup data register
-

SB+6
W
DSP reset - DSP
SB+8
W
FM music address register FM-
SB+9
W
FM music data register FM-
SB+OAh
R
DSP read data DSP
SB+OCh
W
DSP write data or command DSP
SB+OCh
R
DSP write buffer status DSP
SB+ODh
R
DSP timer interrupt clear DSP
SB+OEh
R
DSP data available status DSP
SB+OFh
R
16-bit voice interrupt clear 16-
SB+(10h...l3h)

MPU+0
R/W
MPU-401 data - MPU-401
MPU+1
R
MPU-401 status - MPU-401
MPU+1
W
MPU-401 address - MPU-401
* 38xh FM music Adlib; SB Sound Blaster (220h, 240h,
260h, 280h); MPU - MIDI- (300h, 330h).

11.2. PC 697

SB Live! PCI
PCI
Sound Blaster Live!, - Creative Labs.
-, , , /, , , MIDI.
EMU10K1 32- DSP, 48 .
( ) : Pentium 133, - 16 , PCI 2.1.
( 32 ) (
, ),
PCI. 64-
8- ,
. 512 .
MIDI
,
48 (3 16 ). WT ,
.
, SF2
(SoundFont 2).
, ,
, .
( ) . , 131, .
( ) .
,
.
.
DirectSound DirectSoundSD.

- 8 16 ,
8-48 , . , 32
. 20- S/PDIF,
.
. , ,
/MIDI. - S/PDIF ( ), MIDI ( ), 8 . CDROM ( S/PDIF), DVD (PS) .
/ 90 , 94 .

698 11. PC

11.3. MIDI
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital
Interface)
31,25 /. , 1983 ,
, , , ,
. MIDI
, ,
. MIDI
( ),
.
MIDI : MIDI (
.MID) 10 ,
( .WAV) -CD
10 . MIDI
, ,
.
MIDI
( ) ,
.

, - .
5 (, 10
) () .
, ( ) (
).
: MIDI-In, MIDI-Out MIDI-Thru
(. 11.11).
MIDI-In ,
2
.
.
MIDI-Out , .
5 . .
, .
MIDI-Thru ,
.
.
5- DIN, .

11.3. MIDI 699

. 11.11. MIDI

MIDI MIDI- . MIDI ,


( ). MIDI-
, ( )
. MIDI- (sequencer) ,
, ( ,
) MIDI- .
MIDI-
MIDI-Out.
MIDI , ,
.
MIDI-
(sound module) ,
. PC
, .
(MIDI
Channel) 1-16.
MIDI-Thru
. : MIDI-In
MIDI-Out MIDI-Thru . MIDI- . , ( ), , ,
. -,

.
MIDI (Channel Messages)
(System Messages).
(Channel
Mode Messages). . Note On,

700 11. PC

.
, (. . 11.3).
() ,
(, ,
). ( )
Note Off ( Note On ).
(, ,
. .). (
),
. MIDI--
, MIDI-.
,
.

,
, .
MIDI Sync, , - MIDI. ,
.

General MIDI (GM).
,
GS XG. GM , MIDI. GS ; XG ( )
Yamaha Korg. MIDI
.
MIDI .
MIDI MIDI- ,
. MIDI
.
, .
( ) .

.
( ), .
MIDI (,
) . MIDI
MIDI Sync SRT.
Sync24,
DIN Sync, , ,
MIDI Sync24 .

11.3. MIDI 701

MIDI SRT ( ).

MIDI- .
SMPTE, Society of Motion Picture and
Television Engineers ( ).
SMPTE MIDI
(MIDI Time Code). , MIDI,
(beat), SMPTE. , MIDI Sync

, . SMPTE, ,

.
MIDI
.
, ( )
MIDI,
.
, : ,
, . .
MIDI- 4-6- ( ) . : (), -, ,
( )
.
, ,
' .
, (wheels)
, (, ).
(sustain), , .

.
MIDI .
,
, ( ) .
MIDI- ,
. MIDI- ,
(). MIDI- , .

702 11. PC

MIDI-.
, , , . , . ( !)
.
,
.
MIDI- . - ,
. , ,
( ). MIDI- , MIDI-.
MIDI ,
. MIDI
.
MIDI (FM WT).
,
MIDI ,
.
MIDI (Soft MIDI),
. ,
( ).
MIDI ( Windows
, Multimedia, MIDI).
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MIDI-.

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.
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MIDI. 4
USB, 256.