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. ., . .

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,

2011

517.9
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()

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9 7 2011 .

9 23 2011 .
:
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:
.-. , . ..
. .-. , . ..

, .
. , :
/ .. , .. . : , 2011. 112 .

II - .

, 2011
c

.., .., 2011

1


F (x, y, y ) = 0,

(0.1)

x , y(x) . ,
,
dy
= f (x, y).
(0.2)
dx
(0.2) D (x, y). (0.2)

M (x, y) dx + N (x, y) dy = 0
(0.3)
, .
(0.2) ( (0.3)) I x
y = (x),
I . (0.2)
.
C
y = (x, C).

(0.4)

(x, y, C) = 0,

(0.5)


y x
(0.2).
(0.2) . , , .
(0.2) (0.3)
. , , (0.3) , x y . , dx
(
), dy
x = (y, C) (0.2).
3

: (0.2),
y(x0 ) = y0 , (x0 , y0 ) D.

(0.6)

(0.6) , . y = (x) (0.2) D ,


. ,
, ,
(x0 , y0 ) D. , (0.6) (0.4) (0.5) C = C0 ,
(x0 , y0 ) .
y = (x, C0 ) (x, y, C0 ) = 0.

1. ,

1.1.
,

y = (x)(y)
(1.1)

M (x)N (y) dx + P (x)Q(y) dy = 0.

(1.2)

, , ,
, dx
, x, dy , y . (1.1)
dy
= (x) dx,
(y)
(1.2)
Q(y)
M (x)
dx +
dy = 0.
P (x)
N (y)
,
f (x) dx + g(y) dy = 0.
(1.3)
4

F (x) =

g(y) dy , (x0 , y0 ) D

f (x) dx G(y) =
x0

y0

f (x) g(y) .
dF (x) = f (x) dx dG(y) = g(y) dy.
, (1.3)
dF (x) + dG(y) = d(F (x) + G(y)) = 0.
, . (1.3)
x
y
F (x) + G(y) =
f (x) dx +
g(x) dy = const.
x0

y0

,
x = x0 , y = y0 P (x) N (y). ,

- C = C0 , .
1. ( )
(x + 1)y dx + (y + 2) dy = 0, y(1) = 1.

(1.4)

. ,
(x + 1) dx +

y+2
dy = 0.
y

, , ,

y+2
1
(x + 1) dx +
dy = (x + 1)2 + (y + 2 ln |y|) + C = 0.
y
2
, (1.4) ( C C )
1
(x + 1)2 + (y + 2 ln |y|) = C.
2
y . y = 0
(1.4), , y = 0 C ,
.
5

x = 1, y = 1 , :
+ 1)2 + (y + 2 ln |y|) = 3.
2.

1
2 (x

x2 (y + 1) dx + (x3 1)(y 1) dy = 0.

(1.5)

. :
x2
y1
dx
+
dy = 0.
x3 1
y+1
x3 1 y + 1, x3 1 = 0 y+1 = 0. (1.5) x = 1,
y = 1, , .
, :
)

(
y1
x2
1 3x2 dx
2
dx +
dy =
+
1
dy =
x3 1
y+1
3
x3 1
y+1
1
= ln |x3 1| + y 2 ln |y + 1| + C = 0.
3
, (1.5) :
1
ln |x3 1| + y 2 ln |y + 1| = C,
3

x = 1,

y = 1.

C ln |C|, :
(x3 1)1/3 ey
= C.
(y + 1)2
x = 1 C = 0.
y = 1.
ln |C|
(y + 1)2 = Cey (x3 1)1/3 , , , y = 1
C = 0.
3.
y (y + 1) sin x + 2y = y 2 .
.
dy
(y + 1) sin x = y 2 2y.
dx
6

,
(y + 1)dy
dx
1 dy 3 dy
dx
=
,
+
=
.
y(y 2)
sin x
2 y
2 y 2 sin x
:

x
1
3


ln |y| + ln |y 2| = ln tg + C.
2
2
2
C ln |C| ,
(y 2)3
x
= C tg2 .
y
2
, y(y 2) = 0 sin x = 0.
y = 0 y = 2,
, x = n, n Z,
. y = 2 C = 0,
y = 0.
1.2. ,


y = f (ax + by + c).
z = ax + by + c,
dz

= bf (z) + a.
dx
4.
y = (2x + 3y + 1)2 .

(1.6)

1
. z = z(x) = 2x+3y+1, y = (2x+z 1).
3
2 1
2 1

y = + z . : + z = z 2 ,
3 3
3 3

dz
dz
= 3(z 2 + 2) 2
= 3 dx.
dx
z +2
,
1
z
1
2x + 3y + 1
arctg = 3x + C, arctg

= 3x + C.
2
2
2
2
z 2 +2 z ,
.
7

2. ,

,
. , , t .
, , ,
, .
. x(t)
: x(t) , x (t) ; x(t) , x (t)
.. .
1. 12 3 . ?
.
. x(t) t. ( t)
dx
x (t).
= kx,
dt
k , . ,
x = Cekt . , N (
, ). t = 0, C = x(0) = N . t = 12.
N e12k = 3N , e12k = 3. , x(72) = N e72k =
N (e12k )6 = 36 N = 729N .
: 729 .
2. , v0 = 400 /,
h = 0,2 v1 = 100 /.

, T .
. , ,
, , . dv
w =
. dt
Fc = kv 2 ( ). , mg , 8

. ,
dv
m = kv 2 . ( dt
k/m).

dv
= kv 2 .
dt
1
1
,
= kt + C , v =
. t = 0,
v
kt + C
1
1/C = v0 . , t = T ,
= v1 ,
kT + 1/v0
1
1
. k . ,
kT =
v1 v0
T

v(t) dt. :

,
0

)
T 1 ( kT + C ) 1 ( kT
dt
1

= ln(kT + C) = ln
= ln
+1 =
0
kt + C
k
k
C
k
C
)
( (
( )
1)
1
v0
1
1

+ 1 = ln
.
= ln v0
k
v1 v0
k
v1

,
) , 0,2 =
(
1
3
1
1 1

=
ln 4, k = 5 ln 4. , T =
.
k
k v1 v0
2000 ln 4
3. , ,
. 10% .
, . , h
, 2gh ( ), . = 0,6.
. h(t) . S
, s0 . t t + t.
Sh(t+t)Sh(t). C , h(t)+(t), (t) = o(t)
, t. ,

, , 2g(h(t) + (t)) s0 t.

S(h(t + t) h(t)) = 2g(h(t) + (t)) s0 t.



S t t 0.

s
2g
s0 2g
0
, h (t) =
h. k =
S
S
9

dh
= k h.
dt

2 h = kt + C . ,
, h .
1. , h(0) = 1 h(24) = 0,9. C = 2,

, 12k + 1 = 0,9.

h(T ) =0,5. T

2
0,5 = kT + 2,

2 0,5 2
0,5 1
T =
= 12
68,5.
k
0,9 1
: 68 30 .
4. , (2, 3)
, ,
, .
. y
y(x)
y = y(x)
- (x0 , y0 )
. A B . ,
B
AB . , (x0 , y0 )
, xA A
x
O
A
x0 .

, xA .
. 1.

y = y (x0 )(x x0 ) + y0 .
y0
. y (x0 )
(
), , x0 , y0 , y (x0 ) :
x0 > 0, y0 > 0, y (x0 ) < 0; x0 < 0,
y0 > 0, y (x0 ) > 0; x0 < 0, y0 < 0, y (x0 ) < 0; x0 > 0, y0 < 0, y (x0 ) > 0. ,
y0
x0
= 2x0 y (x0 ) = x0 y0 .
y (x0 )
(x0 , y0 ). y = 0, xA = x0

10

, (x0 , y0 ) ,

y = xy

dy
dx
= .
y
x

C
.
x
, , (2, 3),
C = 6.
: y = 6/x.
y =

3. ,
3.1.
f (x, y) m (
, m), t (
t > 0)
f (tx, ty) = tm f (x, y).

(3.1)

3
4
2 2
, f (x, y) = x + 2y , g(x, y) = x y 7y + 2x y , h(x, y) =
x3 + y 3 1, 4 3/2, ( !). (x, y) = x2 y 3 y 6 .

M (x, y) dx + N (x, y) dy = 0

(3.2)

, M (x, y) N (x, y) m. ,

(y )

y =f
.
(3.3)
x
y
y(x) = x t(x).
y dy
y = t x + t,

dy = t dx + x dt.
11

(3.4)


y
t= .
x
1.
y =

2xy
, y(0) = 1.
x2 + y 2

(3.5)

. (3.3). y = tx. t t3
2t
dt

=
(3.5) t x + t =
, x
.
1 + t2
dx 1 + t2
,
(1 + t2 )dt dx
=
.
t(1 t2 )
x
,
(
)
1
2t
dx
+
dt =
.
2
t 1t
x

1
2t
+
t 1 t2

dt =

dx
x

ln |t| ln |1 t2 | = ln |x| + C.

C ln |C|,
t
= Cx.
1 t2
t = y/x,
xy
= Cx Cy = (x2 y 2 ).
2
2
x y
, x, t 1 t2 . ,
x = 0 , t = 0 t = 1
2t
. ,
t x + t =
1 + t2
(3.5) y = 0 y = x. ,
y = x Cy = (x2 y 2 ) ( C = 0),
y = 0 ( C = 0
).
x = 0, y = 1, : y = x2 y 2 .
2.
x(y x)dy = y 2 dx.
12

(3.6)

. dx dy 2. y = tx, dy = t dx + x dt. (t dx + x dt)x2 (t 1) =


t2 x2 dx. x2 (, x = 0 !) , t2 dx t dx + tx dt x dt = t2 dx, (t 1)x dt = t dx

dx
t1
dt =
.
t
x
,
t ln |t| = ln |x| + C.
C ln |C|,
t = ln |Cxt| et = Cxt.
x, y ,
ey/x = Cy.
t. t = 0 , y = 0. ,
,
. y = Cey/x ,
y = 0 C = 0.
3.2. ,

)
ax
+
by
+
c
y = f
(3.7)
a1 x + b1 y + c1
u = x x0 , v = y y0 ,
(x0 , y0 ) ax+by +c = 0 a1 x+b1 y +c1 = 0.
, a1 x + b1 y = k(ax + by)
k R (3.7) y = f1 (ax + by).
. 1.2.
3.
(x + y 2) dx + (x y + 4) dy = 0.
.
{

x + y 2 = 0,
x y + 4 = 0,
13

(3.8)

x0 = 1, y0 = 3. u = x + 1, v = y 3;
x = u 1, y = v + 3, dy/dx = dv/du. (3.8)
(u + v) du + (u v) dv = 0.
v = tu,
u2 + 2uv v 2 = C.
(x, y),
x2 + 2xy y 2 4x + 8y = C.
3.3. -
-,
y = z m , m .
4.
9yy 18xy + 4x3 = 0.

(3.9)

y = z m , 9mz 2m1 z 18xz m +4x3 = 0. ,


x z , , : 2m 1 = 1 + m = 3.
m, .
, , m = 2 . y = z 2 ,

9z 3 z 9xz 2 + 2x3 = 0.
z = tx

9t (t x + t) 9t + 2 = 0
3

9t3 dt
dx
+
= 0.
4
2
9t 9t + 2
x

t2 = u,
1
9u du
dx
2
+
=0
2 9u 9u + 2
x

6du
3du
2dx

+
= 0.
3u 2 3u 1
x

,
2 ln |3u 2| ln |3u 1| + 2 ln |x| = ln |C|,
14

(3u 2)2 x2
= C.
3u 1

z2
y
u = t = 2 = 2 ,
x
x
2

(3y 2x2 )2
= C.
3y x2
x, 3u 2, 3u 1. , x = 0

.
u = 2/3 u = 1/3 ,

, t = 1/ 3 t = 2/ 3.
9t3 (t x+t)9t2 +2 = 0, , .
y = x2 /3 y = 2x2 /3 (3.9).
(3y 2x2 )2 /(3y x2 ) = C
C = 0, , .
. , -, . , x 1, y m, y
m 1. m ,
, , .
: , , - , . ,
, 9yy , 18xy 4x3 , , m+(m1), 1+m 3. : 2m1 = 1+m = 3,
m = 2. (3.9) y = z 2 .

4. ,
4.1.
, y(x) , ,
y + a(x)y = b(x).

(4.1)

b(x) (4.1).
y + a(x)y = 0

(4.2)

, dy
=
(4.1). (4.2),
y
15

a(x) dx, ln |y| =

x0 a(x) dx

+ ln |C|,

y = Ce

x
x0

a(x)dx

(4.3)

, (4.1), . , (4.1)
, (4.2), C , x.
, (4.1)

y = C(x)e

y = C (x)e

x
x0

a(x)dx

x
x0

a(x)dx

C(x)e

(4.4)

.
x
x0

a(x)dx

a(x).

y y (4.1),
x

C (x) = b(x) e
,

C(x) =

b(x) e

x0

a(x)dx

x0

a(x)dx

dx + C,

C = const.

x0

C(x) (4.4),
( x
)
x
x
a(x)dx

a(x)dx
y=
b(x) e x0
dx + C e x0
.
(4.5)
x0

(4.5), .
1.
y +

y
= 3x.
x

(4.6)

. :
y +

y
= 0.
x

, ln |y| = ln |x| + ln C . C
, y = .
x

C(x)
y=
.
x
16

,
(
)
C (x) C(x)
C(x)
2
+ 2 = 3x,
x
x
x
C (x) = 3x2 . , C(x) = x3 + C .
(4.6)
x3 + C
C
y=
= x2 + .
x
x
2. ,
x y . ,

2y dx + (y 2 2x) dy = 0.
. y ,
y 2 . , x.
2y

dx
+ y 2 2x = 0
dy

dx x
y
= .
dy y
2

,
y2
x = Cy .
2
4.2.

y + p(x)y = q(x)y n ,

n = 0, n = 1,

(4.7)

. y n .
y
p(x)
+ n1 = q(x).
n
y
y
(
)
1
y

, z = y 1n
=
(1

n)
n1
n
y
y
z :
z
+ p(x)z = q(x).
1n
n > 0 y = 0 (4.7), n < 0
.
17

3.
(x y 2 ) dx + 2xy dy = 0.

(4.8)

.
dy
y2 x
=
,
dx
2xy

x
y
= .
(4.9)
2x
2y

n = 1. z = y 2 , y = z ,
z
y = . (4.9),
2 z

z
z
x
z

=
z = x.
2x
x
2 z
2 x
,
y

z = (x + C)x = x2 + Cx.
(x, y),
y 2 = x2 + Cx.
x = 0,
(4.9).
4.3.

(y)y + a(x)(y) = b(x),
(y) . z = (y)
( z = (y)y ), z + a(x)z = b(x).
4.
y ln y
+
= 1.
y
x
. (y) ln y . y
z

z(x) = ln y(x), z = , z + = 1.
y
x
C x
, z = + . ,
x
2
C x
ln y = + .
x
2
18

4.4.

y = p(x)y 2 + q(x)y + r(x)

(4.10)

. , , .
, y = y1 (x)
. y = y1 + z . ,
y = y1 +

1
z

z=

1
,
y y1

.
5.
xy + y 2 2y = 4x2 2x.

(4.11)

. . , x y .
y = ax + b.
, :
ax + a2 x2 + 2abx + b2 2ax 2b 4x2 2x.
x2 , x .
2
a =4
a + 2ab 2a = 2
2
b 2b = 0.
, , a = 2, b = 0 .
, y1 = 2x (4.11).
z
1

y = 2x + . y = 2 2 .
z
z
(4.11) ,

(1
)
2z x
4x
1
2
1

2 = 2+
z +
2 z = .
z
z
z
z
x
2x

z=

1
C
+ e2x .
4x x
19

z =
(4.11):

1
, y 2x

4Ce2x 1
1
=
.
y 2x
4x
4C C ,
y :
4x
y = 2x +
.
2x
Ce 1

5. .
5.1.
, .

M (x, y) dx + N (x, y) dy = 0
(5.1)
, F (x, y).
dF (x, y) = 0,
F (x, y) = C.

(5.2)

M (x, y) N (x, y)
D
x y , (5.1)
,
M (x, y) N (x, y)

.
y
x

(5.3)

(5.3) ,
(x,
y)

M dx + N dy
(x0 , y0 )

, F (x, y)

x
y
F (x, y) = M (x, y) dx + N (x0 , y) dy
(5.4)
x0

y0

20

y
F (x, y) =

x
N (x, y) dy +

y0

M (x, y0 ) dx.

(5.5)

x0

x0 y0 ,
(x0 , y0 ) D ( M
N ). x0 y0
(5.4), (5.5). , M N x y , x0 = y0 = 0.
1.
(4x3 + 6xy 2 ) dx + (6x2 y + 10y 4 ) dy = 0.

(5.6)

M (x, y) N (x, y)
=
= 12xy , (5.3) .
y
x
(5.4), x0 = y0 = 0:

y
x
F (x, y) = (4x3 + 6xy 2 ) dx + 10y 4 dy = x4 + 3x2 y 2 + 2y 5 .
0

, (5.6) x4 +3x2 y 2 +2y 5 = C .


. F (x, y),
F (x, y)
= N (x, y).
y

F (x, y)
= M (x, y),
x

(5.7)

(5.7) y x.
, x , F
, y . ,
x
F (x, y) =

M (x, y) dx + (y),

(5.8)

x0

M (x, y) , y .
y ,
(5.7):
x

M (x, y) dx + (y) = N (x, y).


y
x0

21


(y) = N (x, y)
y

(y) =

x
M (x, y) dx. ,
x0

N (x, y)
y

y0

M (x, y) dx dy.

x0

(5.8), (5.2).
2. (5.6) .
M (x, y) = 4x3 + 6xy 2 x,
F (x, y) = x4 + 3x2 y 2 + (y).

F
N (x, y),
y
6x2 y + (y) = 6x2 y + 10y 4 ,

(y) = 10y 4 (y) = 2y 5 + const. (y) = 2y 5 , x4 + 3x2 y 2 + 2y 5 = C .


5.2.
,
, ,
- .
1
1
y dx + x dy = d(xy),
y dy = d(y 2 ),
x dx + y dy = d(x2 + y 2 ),
2 ( )
2
(x)
y
dx
y dx x dy = y 2 d
= x2 d
,
= d(ln x) . .
y
x
x
3.
xy dx = (y 3 + x2 y + x2 ) dy.
.
x(y dx x dy) = (y 3 + x2 y) dy
, , t = y/x:
( y ) (( y ) 3 ( y ) )
(y )
3
2
2
= (y + x y) dy, d
=
+
x (x )d
dy.
x
x
x
x
22

(5.9)

:
dt = (t3 + t) dy,
,
1
ln |t2 + 1| ln |t| = y + C.
2


x2

ln 1 + 2 = 2y + C.
y
x t = y/x. , y = 0
(5.9), x = 0 .
4.
(y
)
(
x3 )
2
+ 3x dx + 1 +
dy = 0.
(5.10)
x
y
x y dx + x dy :
x4
y dx + x dy + 3x dx + dy = 0
y
3

x4
d(xy) + 3x dx + dy = 0.
y
dt t dx
t = xy , y = t/x, dy =
2 :
x
x
x5 ( dt t dx )
x4
3
3
dt + 3x dx +
2 = 0 dt + 2x dx + dt = 0.
t x
x
t
3

t u = x2 :
t dt + t 2x x2 dx + (x2 )2 dt = 0,

t dt + tu du + u2 dt = 0.

t du + u dt =
d(ut) t :
t2 dt + ut d(ut) = 0.
,
1 3 1
t + (ut)2 = C.
3
2
(5.10)

1 3 3 1 6 2
x y + x y = C.
3
2
23

5.3.
(x, y)
M (x, y) dx + N (x, y) dy = 0,

(5.11)


. ,
(M ) (N )

,
y
x
(
)

M N

M
=

.
(5.12)
N
x
y
y
x
,

ln
ln M N
M
=

.
x
y
y
x

(5.13)

,
(5.12) (5.13). , ,
, ,
(5.11).
, (5.11)
, x y .
1) = (x).
M N

d ln
y
x
=
,
dx
N
, x
.
2) = (y).
M N

d ln
y
x
=
,
dy
M
y .
5.
(1 x2 y) dx + x2 (y x) dy = 0.
. M = 1 x2 y , N = x2 y x3
M N

= x2 (2xy 3x2 ) = 2x(x y) = 0,


y
x
24

(5.14)

.
, ,
x:
M N

d ln
2x(x y)
2
y
x
=
= 2
= .
dx
N
x (y x)
x
x, ,
:
d ln
2
2 dx
1
=
d ln =
, = 2 .
dx
x
x
x
(5.14) ,
(1
)
dx

y
dx
+
(y

x)
dy
=
0,
+ y dy (y dx + x dy) = 0.
x2
x2
,
( 1) 1
1 1
+ d(y 2 ) d(xy) = 0, + y 2 xy = C.
d
x
2
x 2
, (x)
x . , x = 0
(5.14).

6. ,

F (x, y, y ) = 0.

(6.1)

6.1.
y = (x) (6.1) ,
- ( ). ,
. , ,
.
F (x, y, y ) y ,
. y

F (x, y, y )
= 0.
y

F (x, y, y ) = 0,
25

(6.2)

x y ,
.
( ) ,
(6.1) , , , .
(x, y, C) = 0 (6.1) ,
. ,
C
(x, y, C)
=0
C

(x, y, C) = 0,

(6.3)

,
- .
1.
3y 2 y 2 2xyy + 4y 2 x2 = 0,

(6.4)

, .
. y . D = 4x2 y 2 12y 2 (4y 2 x2 ) = 16y 2 (x2 3y 2 ). ,
( )

2
2
2
x
2xy 4y x 3y
x
2

3.
y =
=

6y 2
3y 3
y

. (3.4): y = tx.
1
1
t x + t =

3,
3t
t2

2
1

3t

2
1 3t2
3t dt
dx

=
3t x =

.
t
x
1 3t2 2 1 3t2

3t dt


,
1
3t2 2 1 3t2
1 3t2 = u, v = u ( !). ,



ln 1 3t2 2 = ln |Cx|
( ln |C| ,

( ), Cx ),

x 1 3t2 2 = C . t = y/x,

3y 2
C
1 2 = 2. ,
x
x
26

C 2 4C
3y 2
C . 2
+4 = 1 2 ,
x
x
x
2
2
2
C 4Cx + 3x + 3y = 0.
(x, y), , , x2 y 2
. , C 3C 3x2 +3y 2 12Cx+12C 2 3C 2 = 0

(x 2C)2 + y 2 = C 2 .
(6.5)
, (6.4)
(2C, 0) |C|.

t 1 3t2 2 1 3t2 .
t = 0
y = 0,
2
. 1 3t 2 1 3t2 = 0, 1 3t2 = 0 1 3t2 = 4.
1
t = . .
3
x
, y = (6.4).
3
.
y

. 2.
x
, y = 3
. , . ,
.
(6.2):
3y 2 y 2 2xyy + 4y 2 x2 = 0,
6y 2 y 2xy = 0.
x
y =
.
3y
27

x
. , 3
x
y = .
3
x
, . (x) = . y
3
(6.5):

2
2
y = C (x 2C) = x2 + 4Cx 3C 2 .
y 2 =

Oy x, y > 0. x0 > 0
y = (x) y = x2 + 4Cx 3C 2 :
y (x0 ) = (x0 ).

y(x0 ) = (x0 ),
:

x0
x20 + 4Cx0 3C 2 = ,
3

(6.6)



2C x
1

= .

3
x2 + 4Cx 3C 2 x=x0

x0
, , x20 + 4Cx0 3C 2 =
,
3
2
(3C 2x0 )2 = 0, , C = x0 . C
3
1
1
. , = .
3
3

x
, y = y = x2 + 4Cx 3C 2
3
2
x
x0 C = x0 . y =
3
3
x
(6.4). , y = 3
, . ,
, ,
Ox.
y
, (6.5).
. , , y = (x) , (x, y, C) = 0,
, y .
, y(x) (6.5):
2
x 4Cx + 3C 2 + y 2 = 0. x.
2x4C+2yy = 0, .., yy = 2Cx. (6.6) (
x = x0 )
x0
y0 = ,
x20 4Cx0 + 3C 2 + y02 = 0.
3
28

y0 . (3C 2x0 )2 = 0, . ,
y (x0 ) = (x0 ). , x = x0
1
y(x) (x) . (x0 ) = . y (x) 3
x0
yy = 2C x. x = x0 , y = ,
3
x0
1
2
x0
C = x0 . y (x0 ) = , y (x0 ) = = (x0 ).
3
3
3
3
, . .
(6.3):
x2 4Cx + 3C 2 + y 2 = 0,
4x + 6C = 0.
2
C = x .
3
2
x
x
= 0, y = . ,
y 2
3
3
, .
6.2. ,
y = f (x, y).
.
2. yy 2 + (x y)y x = 0.
x
y . , y = 1 y = . y
y = x + C .
: y dy = x dx. , y 2 + x2 = C .
y . , y = 0
. ,
.
6.3.
, (6.1) x y . .
1) (6.1) y , ,

y = f (x, y ).
(6.7)
y = p. y =

29

f
f
f (x, p). dy =
dx +
dp. dy = p dx,
x
p
, x p:
p dx =

f (x, p)
f (x, p)
dx +
dp.
x
p

p x = (p, C)
, (6.7)

x = (p, C),

y = f ((p, C), p).

x,
p = (x, C), p
(6.7), y = f (x, (x, C)).
2) (6.1) x, ,

x = g(y, y ).
(6.8)
p = y . g
g
x = g(y, p). dx =
dy+ dp. dx = dy/p,
y
p
, y p:
g(y, p)
dx g(y, p)
=
dy +
dp.
p
y
p
p y =
(p, C), (6.8)
y = (p, C), x = g((p, C), p).
y ,
p = (y, C), (6.8),
x = g(y, (y, C)).
3. ,
3
(6.9)
x y = y 2 y 3 ,
2
, .
. y , ,
3
. x y = p2 p3 ,
2
dx dy = 3(p p2 ) dp. dy = p dx,
(1 p) dx = 3p(1 p) dp.
30

(6.10)

3
3
dx = 3p dp, x = p2 +C y = x p2 +p3 = p3 +C .
2
2

3
p : x C = p2 , y C = p3 .
2
, . p6
27(y C)2 = 8(x C)3 .

(6.11)

, p = 1 (6.10).
1
p , x y = . ,
2
1
y = x (6.9).
2
, (6.2):
3
x y = p2 p3 ,
2

0 = 3p 3p2 .

p = 0 p = 1. ,
y = x,

1
y =x .
2

y = x ( ,
).
1
, y = x .
2
1
2
27(y C) = 8(x C)3 y = x (x0 , y0 ).
2
, 9y (y C) = 4(x C)2 .
4(x C)2

y =
. (6.6)
9(y C)
27(y0 C) = 8(x0 C) ,
2

1
y 0 = x0 ,
2

4(x0 C)2
= 1.
9(y0 C)

, . 2(x0 C)4 = 3(x0 C)3 . x0 C = 0,


1
y0 C = 0, y0 = x0 . ,
2
3
4
3
(x0 C) , C = x0 . y0 C = (x0 C)2 = 1. 2
9
, x0 y0
.
31

y=x
y =x

1
2

. 3.
4. y = 2xy + y 2 + x2 /2.
. y = 2px + p2 + x2 /2, dy = p dx. p dx =
2x dp + 2p dx + 2p dp + x dx
(x + p)(2 dp + dx) = 0.

2x dp + p dx + 2p dp + x dx = 0,

, x + p = 0, 2 dp + dx = 0.
x = C2p.
, y = 2p(C 2p)+p2 +(C 2p)2 /2 =
p2 + Cp + 21 C 2 .

1
x = C 2p,
y = p2 + Cp + C 2 .
2
1
p : p = 2 (C x),
: y = (C x)x + 12 x2 + 14 (C x)2 = 41 x2 + 21 Cx + 41 C 2 .
32

x + p = 0 : p = x,
y = 21 x2 .
y

5. x = + eyy .
2y
y
. x =
+
2p
p dy y dp
eyp . dx =
+ epy d(py). dx dy/p,
2
2p

( 1
)
py
e
d(py) = 0.
2p2
py = C , p = C/y . ,
y2
x=
eC .
2C
, epy = 1/(2p2 )

2
1
1
y = ln( 2|p|), x = 2 ln( 2|p|) 2 .
p
p
2p
6.4.
, x y ,
,
A(y )y + B(y )x = C(y ),

(6.12)

A, B C y . A(p) 0,
y , ,
y = (y )x + (y ).

(6.13)

p = y (x), , ,
dy = p dx,
(
) dp
.
p = (p) + (p)x + (p)
dx

(6.14)

x p. :
(p)
(p)
dx
+
x=
(6.15)
dp (p) p
p (p)
33

(. . 4.1). x =
Cf (p) + g(p). , (6.13)
y = (p)(Cf (p) + g(p)) + (p),

x = Cf (p) + g(p).

p , .
,
y = C0 x + (C0 ),
C0 (p) p = 0.
6. y = x(1 + y ) + y 2 .
. y = x(1 + p) + p2 , (p) = 1 + p,
(p) = p2 . (6.15):
dx
+ x = 2p.
dp
x = Cep +2(1p).
, y = (Cep + 2(1 p))(1 + p) + p2 = Cep (1 +
p) + 2 p2 .
, (p) p,
(6.15) . (p) p
.

y = px + (p).
(6.16)
. (6.14)
(
) dp
p = p + x + (p)
;
dx

)
dp (
x + (p) = 0.
dx

dp
= 0,
dx
p = C . (6.16)

y = Cx + (C).
(6.17)

.
, x = (p).
p, .., p = (x), ,
(6.16),
y = x(x) + ((x)).
34

(6.18)

,
x = (p),

y = p (p) + (p).

(6.19)

, (6.19) (6.16). (p) , (6.18)


(6.17), , , .

7. y = xy + 1 y 2 .
. (6.17):

y = Cx + 1 C 2 .

(p) = 1 p2 , x = (p)
p
x=
.
1 p2
x
p, p =
.
1 + x2

1
(p) = 1 p2 =
.
1 + x2
( )
y=

x2
1
+
,
1 + x2
1 + x2

35

y = 1 + x2 .

2

7. ,
n-
F (x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n) ) = 0,

(7.1)

x , y , F G (n + 2)-
.
(7.1) I x
n y(x) , x I (x, y(x), y (x), y (x), . . . , y (n) (x)) G
(7.1) . (7.1)
y = (x, C1 , . . . , Cn ),

(7.2)

C1 , . . . , Cn , .

(x, y, C1 , . . . , Cn ) = 0,

(7.3)

(7.3) (7.1).
(7.1) , , (7.2) (7.3), ,
, y(x0 ) = y0 , x0 I ,
x0 n 1 . , (7.1)
: y(x) (7.1),
() :
y(x0 ) = y0 , y (x0 ) = y0,1 , . . . , y (n1) (x0 ) = y0,n1 ,

(7.4)

x0 , y0 , y0,1 , . . . , y0,n1 ,

(x0 , y(x0 ), y (x0 ), y (x0 ), . . . , y (n) (x0 )) G.


36

(7.2) ( (7.3)) (7.4)


C1 , . . . , Cn , , . , , (7.1), .
(7.1), ,
. (7.1) .
(7.1),

.
7.1. (7.1) y(x) k 1


F (x, y (k) , . . . , y (n) ) = 0,

1 6 k < n.

(7.5)


z(x) = y (k) (x).

(7.6)

z (x) = y (k+1) (x), . . . , z (n) (x) = y (nk) (x) (7.5)



F (x, z, z , . . . , z (nk) ) = 0,
(7.7)
k .
(7.7)
z = (x, C1 , . . . , Cnk ),
, (7.6) k ,
x
(k1)
y
(x) =
(x, C1 , . . . , Cnk ) dx + Cnk+1 ,
x0

..............
x
x
y(x) =
...
(x, C1 , . . . , Cnk ) dx
. . dx} +
| .{z
k
| x0 {z x0}
k
+ Cnk+1 xk1 + . . . + Cn1 x + Cn .
(7.7)
(x, z, C1 , . . . , Cnk ) = 0,
37

(7.8)

x, (7.5) , z .
, , , (7.6) k -
. , :
x = (z, C1 , . . . , Cnk ),

y (k) (x) = z.

(7.9)

,
, y .

dy (k1) = y (k) dx = z d(z, C1 , . . . , Cnk ),
...
dy = y dx = y d(z, C1 , . . . , Cnk ),

(7.10)

dy = y dx = y d(z, C1 , . . . , Cnk ).
y (k1) , . . . , y , y z , n , n k
x, k (7.10). (7.5) :
x = (z, C1 , . . . , Cnk ),

y = (z, C1 , . . . , Cn ).

(7.11)

(7.7) x,
:
x = 1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cnk ),

z = 1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cnk ),

(7.12)

t , , (7.6) (7.12),
(7.10):
dy (k1) = y (k) dx = z d1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cnk ) =
= 1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cnk ) d1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cnk ),
...
dy = y dx = y d1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cnk ),
dy = y dx = y d1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cnk ).
(7.13)
38

( y (k1) , . . . , y , y
t) (7.5) (7.11).
1. y + y x = 0, y(0) = 1, y (0) = 1,
y (0) = 0.
. . , (7.6) k = 2, z + z = x, z = C1 ex + x 1. ,
y = C1 ex + x 1 , (7.8), y = C1 ex + 16 x3 12 x2 + C2 x + C3 . , C1 + C3 = 1, C1 + C2 = 1,
C1 1 = 0. C1 = 1, C2 = 0, C3 = 0, ,
y = ex + 61 x3 12 x2 .
2. (y + 1)y = y /x.
. y = z(x),
(z + 1)z = z/x,
z + ln C1 z = ln |x| (
ln |C1 | , C1 z ).
, z = 0,
y = C . , y . z , , x, x = C1 zez .
, z . ,
(7.10), dy = y dx = y d(C1 zez ) = C1 z(1 + z)ez dz , y = C1 (z 2 z + 1)ez + C2 , ,
x, . y = C
C1 = 0.
3. y y + x = 0.
. y = z(x),
zz + x = 0, z 2 + x2 = C12 ( ).
: x = C1 sin t, z = C1 cos t. (7.12), dy = y dx = C12 cos t d sin t = C12 cos2 t dt = 21 C12 (1 + cos 2t)dt.
y = 14 C12 (2t + sin 2t) + C2 .
7.2. (7.1) x

F (y, y , y , . . . , y (n) ) = 0.

39

(7.14)


y = p(y).

(7.15)

dp(y)
y = p p,
dy
d(p p)
y =
y = (p p + p2 )p = p p2 + p2 p.
dy
.
(7.14), ,
:
F1 (y, p, p , . . . , p(n1) ) = 0,
(7.16)
y =

y . (7.16)
p = (y, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ), , (7.15),

dy
= (y, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ).
(7.17)
dx
(7.17), (7.3) (7.14).
(7.16)
(y, p, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ) = 0,
y , (7.14)
, p .
, , , (7.15) dx
. , :
y = (p, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ),

dx =

dy
d(p, C1 , . . . , Cn1 )
=
.
p
p

(7.18)

, x = (p, C1 , . . . , Cn ). , (7.16) ( ), y = 1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ), p = 1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ).


(7.18) , x t:
x = 2 (t, C1 , . . . , Cn ).
4. y 2yy = 0.
. (7.15), p p = 2y . y = C ,
40

p = 0. p = y 2 + C1 . (7.15), dy/dx = y 2 + C1 .
C1 C1 = 0. , C1 C12 , ,
:


y C1
y
1
1
= x + C2 ,
arctg
= x + C2 ,
ln
C1
C1
2C1 y + C1
y = C y = 1/(Cx)
( C1 = 0) .
5. 2y = ey .
. (7.15), (7.16), ,
2pp = ey y = ln |p2 + C1 |. p ,
(7.18) dx = 2 dp/(p2 + C1 ). , 4,
, ,



p c1
2
p
1
+ C2 , x = C 2 .
x=
arctg
+ C2 , x =
ln
C1
C1
C1
p + c1
p
6. 2yy 3y 2 y 2 = 0.
. y = p(y) (7.16) 2ypp
3p2 y 2 = 0. p2 + y 2
C1 y 3 = 0. p y , ,
p = ty , y = 0. y = (t2 + 1)/C1 , p = (t3 + t)/C1 .
dx = 2 dt/(t2 + 1), x = 2 arctg t + C2 . , , y = 0 .
t, .
7.3. (7.1) x, y(x) k 1

F (y (k) , . . . , y (n) ) = 0,

1 6 k < n.

(7.19)

(7.19) (7.14),
(7.5). , y = p(y),
41

(7.14), . z = y (k) (7.14),


n k , z .
z = p(z) (7.19)
. , , z(x) ( ), (7.19)
, y (k) = z .
.
7. y + y 1 = 0.
. y = z(x), z =
p(z), , , z + z = 1, z + pp = 1. :
p2 + (z 1)2 = C12 . , p = C1 cos t, z =
1 + C1 sin t. z = p dx = dz/p = dt, x = t + C2 . , dy = z dx = (1 + C1 sin t) dt, y = t C1 cos t + C3 .
t x, .
7.4.
, (7.1) , ,
x .
.
8. yy = 2y 2 .
. , (7.14),
, yy .

( )
( )
y
y
=
2

ln
y
=
2
ln y .
y
y
, ln y = 2 ln y + ln C1 , y = C1 y 2 .
, 1/y = C1 x + C2
y = 1/(C1 x + C2 ). y y = C ,
C = 0 ( C1 = 0), C = 0
.
9. (yy + y 2 )x + (1 y )xyy yy = 0.
. xyy ,
(
)
1
(yy + y 2 )

+
(1

y
)

=
0

ln
yy
+
x

ln
x
= 0.
x
yy
x
42

ln yy = y x + ln C1 x, , yy = C1 xeyx . ,
: (y + 1)ey = C1 (x + 1)ex + C2 .
y = C , xyy .

8.
8.1. ,

F (x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n) ) = 0

(8.1)

,
y ty , y ty , . . . , y (n) ty (n)
. , F y , y , y , . . . , y (n) m, , F (x, ty, ty , ty , . . . , ty (n) ) =
tm F (x, y, y , y , . . . , y (n) ). ,

y = zy,
(8.2)
z = z(x) . y , . . . , y (n)
;
y = z y + zy = (z + z 2 )y,
y = (z + 2z z)y + (z + z 2 )y = (z + 3z z + z 3 )y,
...

(8.3)

y (n) = f (z (n1) , . . . , z , z)y.


(8.2) (8.3) (8.1) F ,
F (x, y, zy, (z + z 2 )y, . . . , f (z (n1) , . . . , z , z)y) =
= y m F (x, 1, z, (z + z 2 ), . . . , f (z (n1) , . . . , z , z)) = 0.
y m ( , m > 0, y = 0),
F1 (x, z, z , . . . , z (n1) ) = 0,
.
z = (x, C1 , . . . , Cn1 )
43

(8.4)

(8.4), , (8.2) , (8.1):


x

y = Cn e

x0

(x,C1 ,...,Cn1 )dx

(8.5)

y = 0 Cn = 0.
(8.4)
(x, z, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ) = 0,
x, , z , x = (z, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ). y z (8.2):
z

y = Cn e

z0

z d(z,C1 ,...,Cn1 )

(8.6)

(8.4) x,
: x = 1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ), z = 1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ),
(8.1)
x = 1 (t, C1 , . . . , Cn1 ),
t

y = Cn e

t0

1 (t,C1 ,...,Cn1 ) d1 (t,C1 ,...,Cn1 )

(8.7)
.

1. (yy y 2 )x yy = 0.
. y , y , y
m = 2. y = yz ( y = (z 2 + z )y , (8.3)),
y 2 xz z = 0,
2
z = C1 x. (8.5) y = C2 eC1 x . y = 0
C2 = 0.
y 3 y /y y 2

= 0.
2. y e
yy
y
. (7.15). ,
( 1) (8.2) z = ez /z .
,
x = (z + 1)ez + C1 .
z , (8.6):
y = C2 e(z

44

+2z+2)ez

, y = 0 ,
.
y 2
2y y 2y 3

= 0.
3.
y2
y3
xy 2
. y , y , y
m = 0. , 2zz x z 2 =
x2 , z 2 x2 2C1 x = 0.
z = C1 sh t, x + C1 = C1 ch t,
(8.7):
2

x = C1 (ch t 1), y = C2 eC1 (sh 2t2t)/4 .


8.2. -
(8.1) -,
x tx, y t y , y t1 y , . . . , y (n) tn y (n) ,
, .
, F (x, y, y , . . . , y (n) ) :
F (tx, t y, t1 y , . . . , tn y (n) ) = tm F (x, y, y , . . . , y (n) ),

(8.8)

m .
, :
x = et (x = et x < 0),

y = z(t)et .

(8.9)


yt
y (x) = = (z + z)e(1)t = g1 (z, z )e(1)t ,
xt
[y (x)]t
y (x) =
= (z + (2 1)z + ( 1)z)e(2)t = g2 (z, z , z )e(2)t ,

xt
...

y (n) (x) = gn (z, z , . . . , z (n1) )e(n)t .


(8.10)
(8.9) (8.10) (8.1),
F (et , z(t)et , g1 (z, z )e(1)t , . . . , gn (z, z , . . . , z (n1) )e(n)t ) = 0.
(8.8) , et - F
F (1, z(t), g1 (z, z ), . . . , gn (z, z , . . . , z (n1) )) = 0
45

(7.14), .
z = p(z).
4. yy + xyy xy 2 + y = 0.
. , -, x tx, y t y , y t1 y , y t2 y
, t
. + ( 1) =
1++(2) = 1+2(1) = , 21 = .
= 1. ,
, (. . 3.3). , x 1, y , y , y , . . . , 1, 2, . . . , .
, . , : ,
.
.
(8.9) ( = 1) (8.10).
x = et ,

y(x) = z(t)et ,

y (x) = z (t) + z(t),

y (x) = (z (t) + z (t))et .

z = p(z),

zpp p2 + z = 0 p(z). dz/ C1 z 2 + 2z =


dt ( z ,
y = 0).
C1 .
C1 = 0, 2z = t + C , z = (t + C)2 /2.
1
t = ln x, z = yet = y/x, y = x(ln |x| + C)2 .
2
C1 > 0 (
z )

x = C2 ( C1 (C1 z 2 + 2z) + C1 z + 1)1/ C1 ,

y = C2 z( C1 (C1 z 2 + 2z) + C1 z + 1)1/ C1 .


, C1 < 0

y = x( sin( C1 ln |x| + C2 ) 1)/C1 .


, y = 0.

46

9. c
9.1.
n-
Ly a0 (x)y (n) + a1 (x)y (n1) + . . . + an1 (x)y + an (x)y = 0,

(9.1)

ai (x), i = 1, . . . , n , I
x.
y1 (x), y2 (x), . . . , ym (x) (9.1)
, C1 , C2 , . . . , Cm , ,
, C1 y1 (x) + C2 y2 (x) + . . . +
Cm ym (x) 0 I . , y1 (x), y2 (x), . . . , ym (x)
.
n
y1 (x), y2 (x), . . . , yn (x)
(9.2)
(9.1) W (x0 ) = 0 x0 I,



y
y2
yn
1

y
y2

yn

1
W (x) W [y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ]


(n1) (n1)
(n1)
y1

y2
yn
() (9.2).
(...) (9.1) I. ...,
(9.1)
y0 = C1 y1 + C2 y2 + . . . + Cn yn ,

(9.3)

C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn .
-
x
x a1 (t)/a0 (t) dt
W (x) = W (x0 )e 0
.
(9.4)
... . , (9.1) . 8.1
(8.2).
. , (9.1) n = 2
, (. . 4.4),
47

. , - y1 (x) (9.1),
. , y = y1 z , z(x) ,

y = y1 z +y1 z , y = y1 z +2y1 z +y1 z , . . . , y (n) = y1 z +. . .+y1 z (n) . (9.5)


(n)

y (k) (x), k = 1, . . . , n,
z , z , . . . , z (k) x, , (9.5) (9.1),
z(x) ,
( z Ly1 0):
b0 (x)z (n) + b1 (x)z (n1) + . . . + bn1 (x)z = 0,

b0 (x) = a0 (x)y1 (x).

, z = u(x) u = (y/y1 ) ,

L1 u b0 (x)u(n1) + b1 (x)u(n2) + . . . + bn1 (x)u = 0.

(9.6)

y2 (x) (9.1), y1 (x), (9.6) u1 =


(y2 /y1 ) . v = (u/u1 )
(9.6) . ,
m y1 (x), y2 (x), . . . , ym (x) (9.1), m .
n = 2 (9.1)
a0 (x)y + a1 (x)y + a2 (x)y = 0

(9.7)

y1 (x) .
, (9.4).
, y(x) , y1 (x). p(x) = a1 (x)/a0 (x).


x
y1 y

p(x) dx
W [y1 , y] = = y1 y yy1 = Ce x0
.
y1 y
y12 ,

x
x
( )

p(x)
dx
y
C x p(x) dx
e x0
dx
= 2 e x0
+ C1 .
,
y = y1 C
y1
y1
y12
x0

48

(9.7):
x
y0 = C1 y1 + C2 y2 ,

y2 = y1
x0

x
x0

p(x) dx

dx

y12

(9.8)

(9.7) ( (9.1))
x eax .
1. (x2 x + 1)y (2x2 + 1)y + (4x 2)y = 0.
. . , ,
1.
y1 = xn + . . . ( ). .
(x2 x+1)(n(n1)xn2 + . . . )(2x2 +1)(nxn1 + . . . )+(4x2)(xn + . . . ) 0.
x, , n+1.
, : 2n+4 = 0, n = 2. , ,
, y1 = x2 + ax + b.
x . a b a = 0, b = 1, y1 = x2 +1.
(9.8).
(9.8) ,
. y2 = eax . y2
, eax = 0
(a2 2a)x2 (a2 4)x + (a2 a 2) = 0.
.
a2 2a = 0,

a2 4 = 0,

a2 a 2 = 0.

a = 2 . ,
y2 = e2x . y1 y2 , y0 = C1 (x2 + 1) + C2 e2x
.

49

9.2.

Ly y (n) + a1 (x)y (n1) + . . . + an1 (x)y + an (x)y = f (x),

(9.9)

I f (x). 1. (9.9) n- ( f (x) ). (9.1) (9.9). (9.3) y0


y (9.9), y = y0 + y. (9.9)
, . (9.9)
: f (x) = f1 (x) + . . . + fm (x) yk
Ly = fk (x), k = 1, . . . , m, . y = y1 + . . . + ym
(9.9) f (x).
(9.9) ,
(...) (9.1),
.
, (9.9) (9.3),
(9.1), Ci , i = 1, . . . , n,
, Ci = Ci (x), i = 1, . . . , n.
, Ci (x):
C1 y1
C1 y1
...

+ C2 y2
+ C2 y2

C1 y1

+ C2 y2

(n2)

(n1)
C1 y1

+ . . . + Cn yn
+ . . . + Cn yn

= 0,
= 0,
(9.10)

(n2)

(n1)
C2 y2

+ . . . + Cn yn

(n2)

+ ... +

(n1)
Cn yn

= 0,
= f (x).

W [y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ]
, I . (9.10)
Ci (x) = i (x),
x
i = 1, . . . , n. Ci (x) = x0 i (x) dx+Ci , i = 1, . . . , n, Ci
50

. (9.3),
(9.9) :
x
x
x
y = C1 y1 +C2 y2 +. . .+Cn yn +y1 1 (x) dx+y2 2 (x) dx+. . .+yn n (x) dx.
x0

x0

x0

(9.11)
(9.11) n (9.1), (9.9), ,
Ci = 0, i = 1, . . . , n. , , , a0 (x)
(9.1) .
, (9.10) f (x)
f (x)/a0 (x).
y1 (x) (9.1), (9.9),
(9.1),
u = (y/y1 ) . L1 u = f (x),
(9.6). , m
y1 , y2 , . . . , ym (9.1),
(9.9) m .
m y1 , y2 , . . . , ym (9.9). y1 = y2 y1 , . . . , ym1 = ym ym1
(9.1). ,
, (9.9) (m 1) .
4y
1
2. xy + y
= .
x
x
. y1 = x2 . , C2
(9.8): y0 = C1 x2 + 2 .
x
, , Ci = Ci (x), i = 1, 2. ,
x, (9.10) :

C1 x2 + 22 = 0,
x

2C x 2C2 = 1 .
1
x3
x2
1
x
1
, C1 = 3 , C2 = , C1 (x) = C1 2 ,
4x
4
8x
51

x2
C2 (x) = C2 . ,
8
(9.11):
C2
1
x2 1
C2 1
2
y = C1 (x)y1 + C2 (x)y2 = C1 x + 2 2 x
2 = C1 x2 + 2 .
x
8x
8 x
x
4
2

3. x2 y + 4xy + 2y = 6x
y1 = x, y2 = x + 1/x.
. , y2 y1 = 1/x . (9.8):
y0 = C1 /x + C2 /x2 . , ,
, y1 = x:
C1 C2
y=
+ 2 + x.
x
x

10. c
10.1. c
(9.1), ai , i = 1, . . . , n, :
y (n) + a1 y (n1) + . . . + an1 y + an y = 0.

(10.1)

...
L(p) = pn + a1 pn1 + . . . + an1 p + an = 0,

(10.2)

p x ( ,
p = d/dx). L(p)
(10.1). , (10.1) y (k) , k =
0, . . . , n, pk , (y (0) = y p0 = 1).

p1 , p 2 , . . . , p n
L(p) ( , ).
.
52

1. p1 , p2 , . . . , pn . ... (10.1)
y1 = ep1 x , y2 = ep2 x , . . . , yn = epn x .
(10.1) (9.3):
y0 = C1 ep1 x + C2 ep2 x + . . . + Cn epn x .
2. p1 , p2 , . . . , pn , .
p = + i . i (10.2),
.
y = ex cos x, y = ex sin x,
... (10.1). ...
: p y = epx , i y1 =
ex cos x, y2 = ex sin x. (9.3).
3. ( ).
p k > 2.
k , ...:
y1 = epx , y2 = xepx , . . . , yk = xk1 epx .
- i k , 2k ,
...:
y1 = ex cos x, y2 = ex sin x, y3 = xex cos x, y4 = xex sin x, . . . ,
y2k1 = xk1 ex cos x, y2k = xk1 ex sin x.
(9.1) (9.3).
, , ...,
x. (9.1) x.
1. y 3y + 2y = 0.
. L(p) =
2
p 3p + 2. p1 = 1, p2 = 2 . ...
53

y1 = ex , y2 = e2x .
y0 = C1 ex + C2 e2x .
2. y IV 2y + y = 0.
. L(p) = p4 2p2 + 1
p1,2 = 1, p3,4 = 1.
y0 = C1 ex + C2 xex + C3 ex + C4 xex .
3. y IV + 8y = 0.
.
L(p) = p4 + 8p

p1,2 = 1 i 3
p3= 2, p4 = 0. y0 =
C1 ex cos 3x + C2 ex sin 3x + C3 e2x + C4 .
4. y IV + 2y + y = 0.
. L(p) = p4 +
2p2 + 1 : p1,2 = i, p3,4 = i.
y0 = (C1 + C2 x) cos x + (C3 + C4 x) sin x.
10.2. c

y (n) + a1 y (n1) + . . . + an1 y + an y = f (x)

(10.3)

f (x)
(. . 9.2).
5. y + y = x + 1/ sin x.
. : f (x) = f1 (x) + f2 (x),
f1 (x) = x, f2 (x) = 1/ sin x.
f1 (x) : y1 = x. f2 (x)
.
p1 = i, p2 = i
y0 = C1 cos x + C2 sin x.
Ci = Ci (x), i = 1, 2, ,
(9.10):
C1 cos x + C2 sin x = 0,
C1 sin x + C2 cos x = 1/ sin x.
, C1 = 1, C2 = ctg x, , C1 (x) =
x + C1 , C2 (x) = ln | sin x| + C2 .
54

: Ci = 0, i = 1, 2.
f2 (x) y2 = x cos x + sin x ln | sin x|.
, y = y1 + y2 = x x cos x + sin x ln | sin x|
.
, : y = C1 cos x +
C2 sin x + x x cos x + sin x ln | sin x|.
, , f (x) , (10.3) .
1. f (x) = Pm (x) m x.
1.1. p = 0
L(p) (10.3) ( p1 , p2 , . . . , pn p = 0).
y = Pm (x),

(10.4)

Pm (x) m x .
(10.3), .
,
(10.4).
1.2. p = 0 k L(p) (
p = 0 k ).
(10.3)
y = xk Pm (x).

(10.5)

Pm (x) .
2. f (x) = Pm (x)ex , Pm (x) m x,
.
2.1. p = L(p) ( p1 , p2 , . . . , pn p = ).
(10.3)
y = Pm (x)ex .

(10.6)

(10.6) (10.3), ex , , , m.
2.2. p = k L(p) (
p = k ).
(10.3)
y = xk Pm (x)ex .
55

(10.7)

3. f (x) = Pm (x) cos x + Ql (x) sin x, Pm (x) Ql (x) m l ,


.
3.1. p = i L(p).
(10.3)
s (x) sin x,
y = Ps (x) cos x + Q
(10.8)
s (x) s, s = max(m, l), Ps (x), Q
. (10.8) (10.3)
, cos x
sin x ( ).
,
s (x).
Pm (x) Q
3.2. p = i k L(p).

s (x) sin x), s = max(m, l).
y = xk (Ps (x) cos x + Q
(10.9)
4. f (x) = ex (Pm (x) cos x+Ql (x) sin x), Pm (x) Ql (x) x m l , ,
.
4.1. p = i L(p),
(10.3)
s (x) sin x), s = max(m, l).
y = ex (Ps (x) cos x + Q
(10.10)
(10.10) (10.3) ex , cos x sin x.
.
4.2. p = i k
L(p),
s (x) sin x), s = max(m, l).
y = xk ex (Ps (x) cos x + Q
(10.11)
, 4 13. , 3
= 0, 2 = 0, 1 = = 0.
, .
6. y + y = x + 2ex + cos x + ex sin x.
.
L(p) = p3 + p. p1 = 0, p2,3 = i. Ly y + y = 0
y0 = C1 + C2 cos x + C3 sin x.
56

: f (x) = f1 (x) +
f2 (x) + f3 (x) + f4 (x),
f1 (x) = x,

f2 (x) = 2ex ,

f3 (x) = cos x,

f4 (x) = ex sin x.

Ly = f1 (x) 1: m = 1, P1 (x) x.
1.2 k = 1.
(10.5):
y1 = x(ax + b).
, 2ax + b x,
a = 1/2, b = 0. , y1 = x2 /2.
Ly = f2 (x) 2 m = 0, P0 (x) 2,
= 1 2.1. ,
(10.6):
y2 = aex .
ex .
a
a3 + a 2 = 0. : a = 1, y2 = ex .
Ly = f3 (x) 3: m = l = 0, P0 (x) 1,
Q0 (x) 0, = 1 3.2 k = 1.
(10.9):
y3 = x(a cos x + b sin x).

cos x sin x . a = 1/2, b = 0,
, y3 = (x cos x)/2.
Ly = f4 (x) 4 = 1, m = l = 0,
P0 (x) 0, Q0 (x) 1, = 1 4.1. ,
(10.10):
y2 = ex (a cos x + b sin x).
, ex cos x sin x .
a = 3/8, b = 1/8. y4 = ex (3 cos x sin x)/8.
, , y = y1 + y2 +
y3 + y4 ,

(
)
x2
x
1
x
x 3
y = C1 + C2 cos x + C3 sin x +
+ e cos x + e
cos x sin x .
2
2
8
8
57

10.3.

xn y (n) + a1 xn1 y (n1) + . . . + an1 xy + an y = f (x),

(10.12)

ai , i = 1, . . . , n, . ,
. ,

x = et ,

(x = et x < 0),

t = ln x x > 0

(10.13)

. , ,
dt
1
y (x) = y (t)
= y (t) ,
dx
x
(
)
(
)1
d
1
dt 1
1

y (x) =
y (t)
= y (t)
y (t) 2 = y (t) y (t) 2 ,
dx
x
dx
x
x
x
(
)1
y (x) = y (t) 3y (t) + 2y (t) 3 ,
x
...
(
)1
(n)
(n)
y (x) = y (t) + . . . n
x
(n)
( y (x)
y (k) (t), k = 1, . . . , n 1, ).
(10.12),
y (n) + b1 y (n1) + . . . + bn1 y + bn y = f (et ).
7. x2 y 2y = ln x.
. (10.13)
y y 2y = t.
L(p) = p2 p 2 p1 = 1,
p2 = 2. (10.4), ,
y(t) = at + b. t a
2(at + b) = t, a = 1/2, b = 1/4. , y(t) = C1 et +
1
1
C2 e2t t + . ,
2
4
C1
1
1
y(x) =
+ C2 x2 ln x + .
x
2
4
(k)
(10.12) y (x) xk (ax + b)k , k = 1, . . . , n,
. ax + b = et
.
58

11. c
11.1. c .


n

Lji (p)xi (t) = fj (t), j = 1, . . . , n.

(11.1)

i=1

t , x1 (t), . . . , xn (t) , Lji (p), i, j = 1, . . . , n, p (. . 10.1), fj (t),


j = 1, . . . , n, , . .
, Lji (p)xi xi (t) :
(si )

Lji (p)xi aj0,i xi

(si 1)

+ aj1,i xi

+ . . . + ajsi 1,i xi + ajsi ,i xi ,

j = 1, . . . , n,

si (11.1) xi ( xi , ).
m = s1 + . . . + sn .
L(p) :
1

L1 (p) L1n (p)


.. .
...
L(p) = ...
(11.2)
.
n
n
L1 (p) Ln (p)
D(p) = det L(p) (11.1).
p q , q 6 m. (11.1) x1 (t), . . . , xn (t),
, .
Mji (p) (.., ,
) Lji (p) (11.2). :
n

Mji (p)Ljk (p) = ki D(p),

j=1

ki (ii = 1, ki = 0 i = k ).
x1 (t), . . . , xn (t) (11.1). M1i (p), M2i (p), . . . , Mni (p)
59

, xi (t)

D(p)xi =

Mji (p)fj (t),

i = 1, . . . , n.

(11.3)

j=1

. xi (t) (11.3)
x1 (t), . . . xn (t), , ,
(11.1). (11.1), xi (t) (11.3),
i = 1, . . . , n, x1 (t), . . . , xn (t) ,
(11.1).
1.
{
x + x y
= t,
x x y + y = cos t.
. (11.1):
{
(p2 + 1)x py
=t
(p2 1)x + (p + 1)y = cos t.
D(p) (11.2)
2

p +1

p
= p2 2p + 1,
D(p) = 2
p 1 p + 1

M11 (p) = p + 1, M21 (p) = p, M12 (p) = p2 + 1, M22 (p) = p2 + 1.
M11 (p),
M21 (p), x(t)
x 2x + x = t 1 sin t.
M12 (p) M22 (p) ,
(11.3) y(t) :
y 2y + y = t.
( , . . 10.2)
x = (at + b)et + t + 1

1
cos t,
2
60

y = (ct + d)et + t + 2.

, et ,
:
(2a c)t + 2a + 2b d c = 0,

2a c = 0.

c = 2a, d = 2b. a = C1 , b = C2 ,
:
1
x = (C1 t + C2 )et + t + 1 cos t, y = 2(C1 t + C2 )et + t + 2.
2

n

Lji (p)xi (t) = 0,

j = 1, . . . , n.

(11.4)

i=1

, x1 (t), . . . , xn (t) (11.4), xi (t)



D(p)xi = 0,

i = 1, . . . , n.

(11.5)

q . , n (11.5), x1 (t), . . . , xn (t), (11.1),


(11.4).
p = D(p) k .
(11.4)
x(t) = g(t)et ,

(11.6)

x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) -, g ,
k 1 . (11.4) (11.6)
, . (11.6) (11.4),
et t ,
, nk g(t). r
, , ,
nk r .
, 1 , . . . , m D(p) k1 , . . . , km , , k1 + . . . + km = q.
x1 , . . . , xm (11.4), 1 , . . . ,
m ,
x(t) = x1 + . . . + xm .
61

(11.7)

D(p). D(p) , (11.6),


, ,
. D(p),
,
.
x(t) = g(t)et
, . , (11.4), . (11.4) , , ,
x(t) = g(t)et .
x + x = 2 Re(x), (11.7), . , ,
. , , ( 2
).
2.
{
x + x 2x + y y = 0,
x + y + y
= 0.
. (11.4):
{
(p2 + p 2)x + (p2 1)y = 0
px + (p + 1)y
= 0.

2
p + p 2 p2 1
D(p) =
p
p+1



= 2p2 2

p1 = 1, p2 = 1. , p1 = 1, :
x = aet , y = bet .
, et a + 2b = 0 b = C1 , a = 2C1 (
). ,
, :
x1 = 2C1 et , y1 = C1 et .
62

, p2 = 1, :
x = aet , y = bet ,
, , (a = 0, b = C2 )
x2 = 0, y2 = C2 et .
, (11.7),
x = x1 + x2 = 2C1 et ,
3.
{

y = y1 + y2 = C1 et + C2 et .

x + x + y + y = 0,
x + x + 2y
= 0.

. D(p) D(p) = (p 1)2


p = 1. ,
, (11.6) ( n = 2, k = 2):
x = (at + b)et , y = (ct + d)et ,
a, b, c, d . et ,

2(a + c)t + 2a + 2b + c + 2d 0,

2(a + c)t + a + 2b + 2d 0.

t,
a, b, c, d.
, , a = 2C1 , b = C2 , c = 2C1 , d = C1 C2 .

x = (2C1 t + C2 )et , y = (2C1 t C1 C2 )et .
4.

x x + y IV + y = 0,
x + y + y
= 0.

. D(p) p1 = i p2 = i. , p = i,
x = aeit , y = beit .
63

, a = (1 i)b.
b = C1 + iC2 . x = (1 i)(C1 + iC2 )eit , y = (C1 + iC2 )eit
, p = i. ,
, p = i,
, :
(
)
(
)
x = Re (1 i)(C1 + iC2 )eit = Re (1 i)(C1 + iC2 )(cos t + i sin t) =
= (C1 + C2 ) cos t + (C1 C2 ) sin t,
(
)
y = Re (C1 + iC2 )eit = C1 cos t C2 sin t.
11.2. c .

, :
x j =

aji xi + f j (t), j = 1, . . . , n.

(11.8)

i=1

aji , i, j = 1, . . . , n, , f j (t), j =
1, . . . , n, . n.

x j =
aji xi , j = 1, . . . , n
(11.9)
i=1

, ,
x = Ax,
A = (aji ), i, j = 1, . . . , n, , , (11.8). , ,
(11.4), Lji (p) = aji ij p,
i, j = 1, . . . , n, ij . D(p) (11.9)
det(A pE) A, n. , (11.4), (11.9) n ,
-,
xi (t) = (xi1 , . . . , xin ), i = 1, . . . , n,
(11.10)
, (11.9). ,
64

(11.10)

x11 (t) xn1 (t)

..
...
W (t) = ...
.
x (t) x (t)
1n
nn

(11.11)

. ,
(11.9)
x(t) = C1 x1 (t) + . . . + Cn xn (t)
, ,
x1 (t) = C1 x11 (t) + . . . + Cn xn1 (t),
...
xn (t) = C1 x1n (t) + . . . + Cn xnn (t).

(11.12)

(11.8) (11.12), (11.9), Ci , i = 1, . . . , n,


, t.
( (11.12))
C 1 (t)x11 (t) + . . . + C n (t)xn1 (t) = f 1 (t),
...
C 1 (t)x1n (t) + . . . + C n (t)xnn (t) = f n (t).

(11.13)

(11.13) (11.11). C i (t) = i (t), i = 1, . . . , n. , t


, Ci (t) = t0 i (t) dt + Ci , i = 1, . . . , n, Ci
. Ci (t) (11.12),
(11.8),
:
t
n

x(t) = C1 x1 (t) + . . . + Cn xn (t) +


xi (t)
i (t) dt.
i=1

t0

(11.9), .
5.
{
x = x + y + 1,
y = x + y + t.
65

.
:
{
(p 1)x y = 0,
x + (p + 1)y = 0.
D(p) p = 0.
, ,
x = a + bt, y = c + dt.

t,
, .
, :
x = C1 + C2 t, y = C1 + C2 (1 t).
, -
x1 = 1, y1 = 1;

x2 = t, y2 = 1 t.

(11.13) :
C 1 + C 2 t = 1,

C 1 + C 2 (1 t) = t.


t2 t3
t2
C1 (t) = t + C1 , C2 (t) = t + + C2 .
2
3
2

C 1 = 1 t t2 , C 2 = 1 + t;

,
x = C1 + C2 t + t +

t2 t3
+ ,
2
6

y = C1 + C2 (1 t)

t3
.
6

12. c
12.1.
- f (t)
t, :
1) f (t) = 0, t < 0;
2) f (t) t;
66

3) f (t) , .., M > 0 s0 > 0 , t


|f (t)| < M es0 t .
, 2), 3) :
n
t , et , sin t . 1) , , ,
, , , , t > 0 ,

. , ,
2), 3)
{
1, t > 0;
(t) =
0, t < 0,
-. ,
(t)f (t)
- f (t).
- F (p)
p = s + i,

F (p) = f (t)ept dt.

(12.1)

F (p) Re p = s > s0
, F () = 0. ,
F (p) - f (t), :
f (t) + F (p) ( F (p) + f (t)).
. ,
f (t) + F (p) g(t) + G(p).
I. .
f (t) + g(t) + F (p) + G(p).
II. . > 0
1 (p)
.
f (t) + F

67

III. . f (t) -,
f (t) + pF (p) f (0).
. f (t) n
t > 0 f (n) (t) ,
f (n) (t) + pn F (p) pn1 f (0) pn2 f (0) . . . f (n1) (0).
IV. .
F (p) + tf (t)
(
t).
.
F (n) (p) + (1)n tn f (t).
V. .
t
f ( ) d +

F (p)
p

( p).
VI. .

f (t)
,
F (p1 ) dp1 +
t
p

p F (p1 ) dp1 .
VII. . > 0
f (t ) + ep F (p).
VIII. .
et f (t) + F (p ).
IX. (. ).
t
F (p)G(p) +

t
f ( )g(t ) d =

g( )f (t ) d.
0

f g . , .
68

F (p) : F (p) =
A(p)/B(p), A(p), B(p) pk , k = 1, . . . , m,
F (p) nk ( , B(p) nk ),
f (t)
f (t) =

k=1

1
dnk 1
lim n 1 [F (p)(p pk )nk ept ].
(n 1)! ppk dp k

(12.2)

, pk , k = 1, . . . , m, (nk = 1),
(12.2)
m

A(pk ) pk t
f (t) =
e .
B (pk )

(12.3)

k=1

1. - f (t):
1) tn ; 2) et ; 3) cos t; 4) sin t; 5) ch t; 6) sh t; 7)et cos t;
8) tn sin t.
. (12.1) f (t)
1, , 1 + 1/p. IV, (1)n tn + (1/p)(n) , 1) tn +
n!/pn+1 .
VIII, 2) et + 1/(p ).
cos t = (eit + eit )/2, , I
et , , 3)
(
)
1
1
1
p
cos t +
+
= 2
.
2 p i p + i
p + 2
, 4) sin t = (eit eit )/2i + /(p2 + 2 ), 5) ch t = (et +
et )/2 + p/(p2 2 ), 6) sh t = (et et )/2 + /(p2 2 ).
VIII f (t) = cos t, 7) et cos t + (p
)/[(p )2 + 2 ].
, IV I f (t) = sin t, 8)
n
t sin t + (1)n [/(p2 + 2 )](n) .
2. F (p):
1) (p + 3)/(p2 + 4); 2) 1/p(p2 1); 3) (p 1)/(p2 + 2p + 1); 4) 1/(p2 + 1)2 .
. 1)
p+3
p
3 2
3
=
+
+
cos
2t
+
sin 2t;
p2 + 4 p 2 + 4 2 p2 + 4
2
2
2
t 2) . 1/(p 1) + sh t, , V, 1/p(p 1) +
0 sh d = ch t 1;

69

. (12.3) m = 3, A(p) 1, B(p) =


p p, p1 = 0, n1 = 1, p2 = 1, n2 = 1, p3 = 1, n3 = 1, B (p) = 3p2 1,

1
1
1
f (t) =
+ et + et = ch t 1;
1 2
2
3)
(
)
p1
1
2
1
=
+ et + tet
+ tet (. IV) ;

2
2
2
(p + 1)
p + 1 (p + 1)
(p + 1)
3

4) . 1/(p2 + 1) + sin t, , IV, t sin t +


2p/(p2 + 1)2 , V I,
1
1
+
(p2 + 1)2
2

t
sin d =

1
t
sin t cos t.
2
2

. (12.2) m = 2, A(p) 1, B(p) =


(p + 1)2 , p1 = i, n1 = 2, p2 = i, n2 = 2,
[
]
[
]
d (p i)2 ept
d (p + i)2 ept
f (t) = lim
+ lim
=
pi dp
pi dp
(p2 + 1)2
(p2 + 1)2
[
]
[
]
[
]
d
ept
d
ept
t
2
= lim
+ lim
= lim ept

+
2
2
pi dp (p + i)
pi dp (p i)
pi
(p + i)2 (p + i)3
[
]
( [
])
t
t
2
2
1
t
it
+ lim ept

=
2
Re
e

=
sin
t
cos t.
pi
(p i)2 (p i)3
(2i)2 (2i)3
2
2
2

12.2. c

:
a0 x(n) + a1 x(n1) + . . . + an1 x + an x = f (t),

(12.4)


x(0) = x0 , x (0) = x1 , . . . , x(n1) (0) = xn1 .

(12.5)

, f (t) x(t) (n 1)- -.


x(t) + X(p), f (t) + F (p).

70

( III) (12.5)
x (t) + pX(p) x(0) = pX(p) x0 ,
x (t) + p2 X(p) px(0) x (0) = p2 X(p) px0 x1 ,

x(n) (t) + pn X(p) pn1 x(0) pn2 x (0) . . . x(n1) (0) =


= pn X(p) pn1 x0 pn2 x1 . . . xn1 .
(12.4) ,
A(p)X(p) = F (p) + B(p),
A(p) = a0 pn + a1 pn1 + . . . + an1 p + an , B(p)
n 1 p,
, X(p):
B(p) = a0 x0 pn1 + (a1 x0 + a0 x1 )pn2 + (a2 x0 + a1 x1 + a0 x2 )pn3 + . . . +
+(an2 x0 + an3 x1 + . . . + a0 xn2 )p + (an1 x0 + an2 x1 + . . . + a0 xn1 ).
X(p) = (F (p) + B(p))/A(p) x(t) X(p).
3. x + x = t, x(0) = 1, x(0)

= 0.
. x(t) + X(p), x(t)

+ pX(p) 1, x(t) + p2 X(p) p.


t + 1/p2 ,
(p2 + 1)X(p) =

1
+ p,
p2

p
1
1
+ 2 2
.
+1 p
p +1
, (. 1) x(t) = cos t sin t + t.
X(p) =

p2

12.3. c
:
n

(aik xk + bik x k + cik xk ) = fi (t), i = 1, . . . , n

k=1

71

(12.6)


(12.7)

xk (0) = k , x k (0) = k , k = 1, . . . , n.

xk (t), fi (t), i, k =
1, . . . , n, - Xk (p) Fi (p) , (12.6), III (12.7),
n

(
)
aik p2 + bik p + cik Xk (p) =
k=1

= Fi (p) +

[(aik p + bik ) k + aik k ] ,

i = 1, . . . , n.

k=1

X1 (p), . . . , Xn (p), x1 (t), . . . , xn (t) (12.6), (12.7).


4.
x + y = t, x + y = 1,
x(0) = y(0) = 1, x(0)

= y(0)

= 0.
. x(t) + X(p), y(t) + Y (p). x(t)

+ pX(p) 1, x(t) +
p X(p) p; y(t)

+ pY (p) 1, y(t) + pY (p) p.


, :
2

p2 X(p) + pY (p) = 1 + p + 1/p2 ,


pX(p) + p2 Y (p) = 1 + p + 1/p,
,
1
X(p) = ,
p

Y (p) =

1
1
t2
+ 3 , x(t) = 1, y(t) = 1 + .
p p
2

13. .
.
a0 (t)
x + a1 (t)x + a2 (t)x = f (t), t0 6 t 6 t1 ,

(13.1)

:
10 x(t
0 ) + 11 x(t0 ) + 10 x(t
1 ) + 11 x(t1 ) = 1 ,
20 x(t
0 ) + 21 x(t0 ) + 20 x(t
1 ) + 21 x(t1 ) = 2 .
72

(13.2)

ij , ij , i , i, j = 1, 2, . (13.1) f (t)
[t0 , t1 ]. ,
(13.2) () . ,
x(t) x(t)

t = t0 ,
t = t1 .
:
, ,
. , (t), (13.2) ( , , ) x(t) = y(t)+(t),
y(t) (13.1)
f1 (t) = f (t) a0 (t)
(t) a1 (t)(t)
a2 (t)(t) (1 = 2 = 0). , , ,
, (13.1),
10 x(t
0 ) + 11 x(t0 ) + 10 x(t
1 ) + 11 x(t1 ) = 0,
20 x(t
0 ) + 21 x(t0 ) + 20 x(t
1 ) + 21 x(t1 ) = 0.

(13.3)

(13.1), (13.3)
G(t, s), :
I. t = s G(t, s)
a0 (t)
x + a1 (t)x + a2 (t)x = 0.

(13.4)

II. t = t0 t = t1 G(t, s)
(13.3).
III. t = s G(t, s) :
G(t, s)|t=s+0 = G(t, s)|t=s0 .
IV. t = s Gt (t, s) ,
1/a0 (s):
1
Gt (t, s)|t=s+0 Gt (t, s)|t=s0 =
.
a0 (s)
(13.1), (13.3) ,
IIV ,

t1
x(t) = G(t, s)f (s) ds.
(13.5)
t0

73

,
(13.1), (13.3), (13.1) (13.5).
:
Vi,t0 [x] = i0 x(t
0 ) + i1 x(t0 ),

Vi,t1 [x] = i0 x(t


1 ) + i1 x(t1 ),

i = 1, 2.

(13.3) :
Vi [x] = Vi,t0 [x] + Vi,t1 [x] = 0, i = 1, 2.

(13.6)

x1 (t), x2 (t) (13.4)


x(t) = C1 x1 (t) + C2 x2 (t) (C1 , C2
). (13.1), (13.6) , (13.4), (13.6)
.
Vi [C1 x1 + C2 x2 ] = C1 Vi [x1 ] + C2 Vi [x2 ] = 0, i = 1, 2,
C1 = C2 = 0,
:


V1 [x1 ] V1 [x2 ]
= 0.
=
(13.7)
V2 [x1 ] V2 [x2 ]
I,
{
A1 (s)x1 (t) + A2 (s)x2 (t), t0 6 t 6 s;
G(t, s) =
B1 (s)x1 (t) + B2 (s)x2 (t), s 6 t 6 t1 .

(13.8)

, III, t = s
B1 (s)x1 (s) + B2 (s)x2 (s) = A1 (s)x1 (s) + A2 (s)x2 (s).
t
{
A1 (s)x1 (t) + A2 (s)x2 (t), t0 6 t 6 s;

Gt (t, s) =
B1 (s)x1 (t) + B2 (s)x2 (t), s 6 t 6 t1 ,
IV,
B1 (s)x1 (s) + B2 (s)x2 (s) (A1 (s)x1 (s) + A2 (s)x2 (s)) = 1/a0 (s).
Ci (s) = Bi (s) Ai (s), i = 1, 2,

C1 (s)x1 (s) + C2 (s)x2 (s) = 0,
C1 (s)x1 (s) + C2 (s)x2 (s) = 1/a0 (s),
74

(13.9)

{C1 (s), C2 (s)},


x1 (s), x2 (s).
, , II (13.6), (13.8),
A1 (s)Vi,t0 [x1 ] + A2 (s)Vi,t0 [x2 ] + B1 (s)Vi,t1 [x1 ] + B2 (s)Vi,t1 [x2 ] = 0,

i = 1, 2.

Bi (s) = Ci (s) + Ai (s), i = 1, 2,



A1 (s)V1 [x1 ] + A2 (s)V1 [x2 ] = C1 (s)V1,t1 [x1 ] C2 (s)V1,t1 [x2 ],
A1 (s)V2 [x1 ] + A2 (s)V2 [x2 ] = C1 (s)V2,t1 [x1 ] C2 (s)V2,t1 [x2 ],

(13.10)

, (13.7), . Ai (s),
, Ci (s), Bi (s), i = 1, 2,
(13.1), (13.3) (13.8).
1.
x + x = f (t),
x(0) + x()

= 1, x(0)

x() = 1.
. . (t), , : (t) = at+b.
, (t) 1. x(t) = y(t) +
(t) = y(t) + 1, y(t) ,
:
y + y = f1 (t),
y(0) + y()

= 0, y(0)

y() = 0,
f1 (t) = f (t) 1.
y + y = 0
y1 (t) = cos t, y2 (t) = sin t. ,
(13.8),
{
A1 (s) cos t + A2 (s) sin t, 0 6 t 6 s;
G(t, s) =
B1 (s) cos t + B2 (s) sin t, s 6 t 6 .
(13.9):
C1 (s) cos s + C2 (s) sin s = 0,
C1 (s) sin s + C2 (s) cos s = 1,
C1 (s) = sin s, C2 (s) = cos s.
75

(13.10),
G(t, s) Gt (t, s) II:
G(0, s) + Gt (, s) = 0,

Gt (0, s) G(, s) = 0.

A1 (s) B2 (s) = 0, A2 (s) + B1 (s) = 0. Bi = Ai + Ci ,


i = 1, 2, Ci , (13.10):
A1 (s) A2 (s) = cos s,

A1 (s) + A2 (s) = sin s.

,
A2 = (sin s cos s)/2.

A1 = (sin s + cos s)/2,

B1 = A1 + C1 = (sin s cos s)/2,


,

G(t, s) =

B2 = A2 + C2 = (sin s + cos s)/2.

(cos(t s) sin(t s))/2,

0 6 t 6 s;

(cos(t s) + sin(t s))/2,

s 6 t 6 .


(13.5):

y(t) = G(t, s)f1 (s) ds.


0

, s = t
s:
{
(cos(t s) + sin(t s))/2, 0 6 s 6 t;
G(t, s) =
(cos(t s) sin(t s))/2, t 6 s 6 .
:
t
x(t) = 1 +

G(t, s)f (s) ds

G(t, s)f (s) ds +


t

G(t, s) ds.
0

14.

dxi
= fi (t, x1 , . . . , xn ),
dt
76

i = 1, . . . , n,

(14.1)

,
dx
= f (t, x),
dt

x = (x1 , . . . , xn ).

, fi

(14.2)

fi
t > t0 ,
xk

i, k = 1, . . . , n.
. x = (t) (14.2), [t0 , +), , > 0
> 0,
1) x = x(t),
|x(t0 ) (t0 )| < ,

(14.3)

[t0 , +);
2)
|x(t) (t)| < t > t0 .

(14.4)

, x = (t) , t = t0
x = x(t) -,
x = (t).
, x = (t)
.
. x = (t) (14.2) , , ,
x = x(t), (14.3)
|x(t) (t)| 0,

t +.

(14.5)

, (14.5) , (14.4), ,
x = x(t) -,
x = (t).
t0 .
(14.3)(14.4) ,
6 .
x = (t) (14.2) y(t) 0 , (14.2)
x = y + (t).
.
77

. 4.
1. , y + y tg x = sec x
x(0) = 0?
. y = sin x + C cos x.
, C = 0. , (x) = sin x.
x(t) (t) = C cos x. t0 = 0. (14.3):
|x(t0 )(t0 )| = |C| < . (14.4) |C cos x| < . , t > t0 = 0
6 . , (x) = sin x
.
|x(t) (t)| = |C cos x|
x + C = 0, .

3
2. , x = 3 x2 x(0) = 1?
. x = (t C)3 , , y = 0. ,
, C = 1
(t) = (x + 1)3 .
x(t) (t) = 3t2 (C + 1) + 3t(C 2 1)
(C 3 + 1).
t0 = 0.

3
3
3
(14.3) |C + 1| < . 1 < C < 1 + .
, C , 1.
(14.4): |3t2 (C + 1) + 3t(C 2 1) (C 3 + 1)| < .
78

t,
C = 1. ,
t +. (t) = (x+1)3
.
14.1.

(14.1). fi x1 = x2 = . . . =
xn = 0 :
fi (t, x) = ai1 x1 + . . . + ain xn + i (t, x),

i = 1, . . . , n,

(14.6)

aij , i, j = 1, . . . , n, , i (t, x)
, ,
|i (t, x)|
=0
(14.7)
|x|
|x|0

t > t0 ( |x| = x21 + . . . + x2n ). A = (aij ) (14.6).


. A ,
fi , i = 1, . . . , n, (14.7),
(14.1) .
A
, .
, , .
A ,
( ),
() .
(. . 14.2).
3. , .

x = x,
(14.8)
y = 3y.
lim

. : x = C1 et , y = C2 e3t . t k = C2 /C13 , y = kx3 . ,


(14.8)
79

, x = 0 y = 0 ( C1 = 0 C2 = 0). , lim et = 0, ,
t+

. , ,
, t +.
, (14.8) .
(
)
1 0
A
. 0 3

1 3 .
4.

x = 9 x + 2y 3 cos 2y,
(14.9)
y = ex e2y + ln(1 5x).

2
2
.

o( x + y ) : 9 x + 2y = 3 1 x/9 + 2y/9 3 x/6 +


y/3; 3 cos 2y 3; ex 1 + x; e2y 1 +
2y ; ln(1 5x) 5x.
, o( x2 + y 2 )
(
)
1
1
1/6 1/3
x = x + y,
A=
.
6
3
4
2
y = 4x 2y,
A:


1/6 1/3
5
13


det(A E) =
= 2 + + = 0.

6
3
4
2

13
71
1,2 =
. 12 12
, , (14.9) .
14.2.
V (t, x),
D = {||x|| < , t > t0 }.
. V (t, x) ( ) D,
V (t, x) > 0 ( V (t, x) 6 0) (t, x) D.
80

. V (t, x)
D, W (x), ||x|| < ,

V (t, x) > W (x) > 0 x = 0;


V (t, 0) = W (0) = 0.
V (t, x) D,
W (x), ||x|| < ,
V (t, x) 6 W (x) < 0 x = 0;

V (t, 0) = W (0) = 0.

D.
W (x) W (x) = inf |V (t, x)|.
t

dxi
= fi (t, x), x = (x1 , . . . , xn ),
dt

i = 1, . . . , n.

(14.10)

V
V
fi (t, x)
V (t, x) =
+
t
x
i
i=1
n

t (14.10). x(t)
(14.10), V (t, x) t
V (t, x(t)).
. (14.10)
D V (t, x),
V (t, x) (14.10) ,
t +.
.
(14.10) D
V (t, x), V (t, x) (14.10) , t +.
V .
. n = 2
ax2k y 2 , a > 0.
. (14.10) . U
(x1 , . . . , xn ) V (t, x), x U , t > t0 ,
, :
81

1) x = 0 U ;
2) V (t, x) U ||x|| < ;
3) U t > t0 V , V (t, x) (14.10) .
.
5.
x = y 3 2x3 x2 y 3 ,
y = x + x3 y 5 .

(14.11)

.
)
(
0 0
, . A . 14.1
1 0

,
.
V . (14.11)
V
3
3
2 3
3
5
V = V
x (y 2x x y ) + y (x + x y ). , +. V
ax2k , y 3 (ax2k ) = akx2k1 y 3 . V
y x. , 2k 1 = 1, k = 1.
, V by 2 , V
x3 (by 2 ) = 2bx3 y 21 . 2 3
V
x x y , = 2. , , ,
V ax2 + by 4 . V 2ax(y 3 2x3 x2 y 3 ) + 4by 3 (x + x3 y 5 ) =
2axy 3 4ax4 2ax3 y 3 4bxy 3 + 4bx3 y 3 4by 8 . , a = 2,
b = 1, V = 8x4 4y 8 .
, V (t, x, y) = 2x2 + y 4
(14.11) .
6. ,
x = x + xy,
y = 2y 2 + x2

(14.12)

.
. , V (x, y) = y x2 /2 . , U = {(x, y) | y >
x2 /2}. (0, 0) , V
82

.
V = x(x + xy) + 2y 2 + x2 = 2y(y x2 /2)
U , y > x2 /2 > 0.
14.3.
det(A E) = 0 A .
, ,
, .
: ,

a0 n + a1 n1 + . . . + an1 + an

(14.13)

, ? .
. ai . , , n 6 2,
. , n = 1, = a1 /a0 < 0. n = 2,
. 1)
D
a1 i |D|
,
. 1,2 =
2a0
a1
,
, . 2) 2a0
. ,
a2
a1
( ), ( ).
a0
a0
.
-. (14.13) n n, :

a1 a0 0 0 0 0 . . .
0
a3 a2 a1 a0 0 0 . . .
0

a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 a0 . . .
0
.
G=

............................

0 0 0 . . . 0 an an1 an2
0 0 0 0 0 ...
0
an
: a1 , a2 , . . . , an . ai
, , ,
. 83

.




a1 a0 0
a a


1 = a1 , 2 = 1 0 , 3 = a3 a2 a1 , . . .
a3 a2
a5 a4 a3
- ,
.
-. - , ,
n1 , n3 , n5 , ..
, .
7.
x 1
x 2
x 3
x 4
x 5

=
=
=
=
=

3x1 2x3 x5 ,
x1 3x2 x3 x4 ,
2x1 2x2 x3 x5 ,
x1 3x2 x3 2x4 ,
3x1 2x2 + x3 x4 x5

(14.14)

?
.


3

0
2
0
1


1 3 1

1
0


2
= 5 +104 +273 +232 +24+15 = 0.
2
1

0
1


1

3
1
2

0


3
2
1
1 1
, . , ,
-:



10 1 0 0 0
10 1 0 0


23 27 10 1 0

23 27 10 1

10 1

, 2 =

4 =
G=

15 24 23 27 10 ,
23 27 .
15
24
23
27


0 0 15 24 23
0 0 15 24
0 0 0 0 15
, 4 = 14316, 2 = 247. 4
, (14.14) .
84

15.

dx
= P (x, y),
dt

dy
= Q(x, y)
dt

(15.1)


dy
Q(x, y)
=
,
(15.2)
dx P (x, y)
P (x, y) Q(x, y) , ,
. (15.1) .
(15.1) (15.2) (x0 , y0 ),

x = x1 + x0 , y = y 1 + y 0
(15.3)

x1 = 0, y1 = 0. , (0, 0).

dx
dy
= ax + by,
= cx + dy.
(15.4)
dt
dt
(15.2)
dy
cx + dy
=
.
dx ax + by

(15.5)

1 , 2 A (15.4), ..,



a

b

= 0.
c
d
1 = 0, 2 = 0 det A = 0.
1 , 2 , (0, 0) ( 1 < 0, 2 < 0 1 > 0,
2 > 0). (15.4) ( (15.5)),
, |1 | < |2 | h1 , h2 A, 1 2
:
Ahi = 1 hi , i = 1, 2.
85

, ,
x1 , y1 h1 h2 .
x1 = 0, y1 = 0, x1 y1 (
t (0, 0)).
t x1 ,
x1 , y1 t. ,
t
.
1 , 2 , (0, 0)
. 1 < 0 < 2 h1 , h2 A 1 , 2 , , ,
(15.4) x1 = 0, y1 = 0,
x1 y1 h1 h2 ( x1 t
(0, 0), y1 ).
t
y1 , t x1 .
A ( ,
-, .. A ):
1 = + i,

2 = i

( > 0).

A -: H = h1 +ih2 , H = h1 ih2 . h1 h2
, H H .
(15.4)
x = ret cos(t + )h1 + ret sin(t + )h2 ,

(15.6)

r > 0 .
= 0, (0, 0) (
< 0 > 0). ,
,
x = 0, y = 0. ,
v = (x,
y)
(x0 , y0 ):
v = (x,
y)
= (ax0 + by0 , cx0 + dy0 ).

(15.7)

, .
86

= 0, (0, 0) .
x1 , y1 h1 h2 r > 0
(. (15.6) = 0), x1 , y1 r|h1 |
r|h2 | , r = 0 x1 = 0, y1 = 0.
t (15.7).
A (1 = 2 = 0).
(0, 0) ,
. (15.4) x = ax, y = ay. ,
x = 0, y = 0.
t
(1 < 0) ,
(1 > 0) .
, A h1 1 . h2 ,
Ah2 = h1 + 1 h2 ,

(15.8)

. H1 = h1 ,
H2 = h2 x1 , y1
. (15.4) (1 < 0) x1 = 0, y1 = 0 x1 (
t ).
t , x1

t .
(1 > 0)
x1 .
t , x1
,
.
1.

x = 11x + 3y,
y = 2x 4y.
. 1 = 5,
2 = 10 (|1 | < |2 |). (0, 0) .
87

h1 = (h11 , h21 ) 1 = 5
(
)( 1 )
( 1)
h1
11 3
h1
.
= 5
2
2 4
h1
h21

1. , , ,
, 6h11 = 3h21 . , , , ,
h11 = 1, h1 = (1, 2). h2 = (h12 , h22 ) 2 = 10
(
)( 1 )
( 1)
11 3
h2
h2
= 10
.
2
2 4
h2
h22
h12 = 3h22 h2 = (3, 1). . 5.
y

x1

h1

y1
h2

. 5.
2.
dy
4x 3y
=
dx
y + 2x
.
88

. (15.4)
x = 2x + y,
y = 4x 3y.
1 = 2, 2 = 1 (1 < 0 < 2 ).
(0, 0) . , 1 = 2 2 = 1 , h1 = (1, 4),
h2 = (1, 1). . . 6.
y

h2
h1

y1
x1
. 6.
3.
x = x y,
y = x + y
.
. -: 1 = 1 + i,
2 = 1 i. . (15.7)
(1, 0) v = (1, 1). t (
t). . 7.
89

v
x

. 7.
4.
dy
yx
=
dx 5y x
.
y

h2
h1
x

. 8.
. (15.4) :
x = x + 5y,
y = x + y.
1 = 2 = 2i. (0, 0) . 1 = 2i
90

H = (5, 1 + 2i). h1 = (5, 1), h2 = (0, 2).



x1 , y1 (5, 1) (0, 2) 2 6r 2r, r > 0
. (3, 1) v = (2, 2)
( ). . . 8.
5.
x = x,
y = x + y
.
. 1 =
2 = 1. (0, 0) . h1 = (h11 , h21 ) h11 = h21 , h11 + h21 = h21 .
h1 = (0, 1). h2 = (1, 0)
(15.8), = 1 H1 = h1 = (0, 1),
H1 = h2 = (1, 0).
, . x1 = 0, y1 = 0 x1
( y ). t . t
x1 , y1 (
x, y )
x1 , y1 . . 9.
y (x1 )

H1
O

H2

. 9.
91

x (y1 )

(0, 0) (15.1) P (x, y) Q(x, y) , . (15.1)

dx
dy
= ax + by + r1 (x, y),
= cx + dy + r2 (x, y),
(15.9)
dt
dt

ri = o( x2 + y 2 ), i = 1, 2, . .,
, ( , P Q
).
(0, 0) (15.9) , (15.4), ,
, , . (15.4), x1 () y1 ,
(15.9), , , ,
.
, (15.4) , (15.9) .
( ), (15.9)
, .
y = kx , (15.2) x y
[(1 k 2 )x + 2ky]/(1 + k 2 ) [2kx (1 k 2 )y]/(1 + k 2 ), .
k .
k . , k = 0 ( x) (15.2)
y y ; k = ( y )
x x; k = 1
x y y x, k = 1 x y y x. , (15.9)
t + t . (.
. 14.2).
6.
x = x + 2y + xy,
y = 2x y xy.
. , : x = 0, y = 0 x = 3, y = 3.
ri (x, y) = xy , i = 1, 2, (0, 0)
92

, . (15.4):
x = x + 2y,
y = 2x y

(0, 0) (1,2 = i 3). , (15.2):


dy
2x + y + xy
=
dx
x + 2y + xy
x y y x. ,
y = x (0, 0) .

. 10.
(3, 3),
, (15.3): x = x1 3, y = y1 3.

x 1 = 2x1 y1 + x1 y1 ,
y 1 = x1 + 2y1 x1 y1 ,

ri = o( x21 + y12 ), i = 1, 2, (x1 , y1 ) (0, 0).


x1 = 0, y1 = 0
x 1 = 2x1 y1 ,
y 1 = x1 + 2y1
93


(1,2 = 3). (3, 3)
.
, , . 10.

16.
.
, ,

dx1

= f1 (t, x1 , . . . , xn ),

dt
...
(16.1)

dx

n = fn (t, x1 , . . . , xn ),
dt
xi (t), i = 1, . . . , n, , fi (t, x1 , . . . , xn ), i = 1, . . . , n,
t, x1 , . . . , xn , .
n . x1 = x1 (t),
. . . , xn = xn (t), (a, b), (16.1) (a, b),
t (a, b). x1 = x1 (t), . . . , xn = xn (t),
(0)
(0)
x1 (t0 ) = x1 , . . . , xn (t0 ) = xn ,
(0)
t0 (a, b), xi R, i = 1, . . . , n, , . ,
(0)
(0)
fi , i = 1, . . . , n, (t0 , x1 , . . . , xn ).
(t, x1 , . . . , xn ) (
) (16.1), . , d t (a, b):
d =

dt +
f1 dx1 + . . . +
fn dxn 0.
t
x1
xn

n n . , 1 , . . . , n D(1 , . . . , n )
(
= 0),
D(x1 , . . . , xn )
1 , . . . , n .
(t, x1 , . . . , xn ) = C (16.1). n 94

.
, ,
.
16.1.
,
, .
1.

dy

= z,

dx
(16.2)
dz
z2

= .

dx
y
. , x. dy
y
, y z .
= .
dz
z
z = C1 y . ,
y = C1 y , y = C2 eC1 x . z = y = C1 C2 eC1 x .
2.

dy

= y + z,
dx
(16.3)
(
)
(
)

dz = 2 + 2 1 y + 2 1 z.
dx
x2 x
x
. z = y y .
2
2
y y + 2 y = 0 x2 y 2xy + 2y = 0.
x
x
(. 1 . 9.1).
y = xn + . . .. n
n2 3n + 2 = 0, n = 1 n = 2. n y1 = x y2 = x2 , ,
y = C1 x + C2 x2 . z = y y = C2 x2 + (2C2 C1 )x + C1 .
16.2.

dx2
dxn
dx1
=
= ... =
F1 (x1 , . . . , xn ) F2 (x1 , . . . , xn )
Fn (x1 , . . . , xn )
95

(16.4)

(0)
(0)
. (x1 , . . . , xn )
(, Fn ) , (16.4)
n 1
dx1
F1
=
,
dxn
Fn

dx2
F2
=
,
dxn
Fn

...,

dxn1
Fn1
=
.
dxn
Fn

, (16.4) n1 . (16.1)
:
dx1
dx2
dxn
dt
=
= ... =
= .
f1
f2
fn
1

(16.5)

, , , , . ,
m < n (16.1), m n m , n m (16.1),
, . (16.5) (16.1) , ,
, , .
, .
, -
.
a2
an
a1
=
= ... =
,
:
b1
b2
bn
k1 , k2 , . . . , kn
a1
a2
an
k1 a1 + k2 a2 + . . . + kn an
=
= ... =
=
.
b1
b2
bn
k 1 b1 + k 2 b2 + . . . + k n bn
, 1, :
dy
y dz
= 2 ,
z
z
z/y = C1 . , y = C1 y , , y = C2 eC1 x . C2
( C1 ) ,
: yezx/y = C2 .
dx =

96

3.
dx dy
dz
=
=
.
x
y
x+y

(16.6)

dx
=
x
dy
, x = C1 y , ,
y

x
= C1 .
(16.7)
y
,

.

dx + dy
dz
=
,
x+y
x+y
, x + y = z + C2 .
(16.6)
x + y z = C2 .
(16.8)
, (16.7), (16.8) .
D(1 , 2 )
x

, 1 = , 2 = x+y z , D(u, v)
y
u v x, y , z . ,


1

x
D(1 , 2 )
x
x+y
2 1
= y
0,
y = + 2 =
2
D(x, y)
y
y
y
1
1
, .
-: 1 z , 2 ,
.
4.
dy
dz
dx
=
=
.
zy
xz
yx
. (16.9) :
dx
dy
dz
dx + dy + dz
=
=
=
.
zy
xz
yx
0
,
dx + dy + dz = 0,

d(x + y + z) = 0,
97

(16.9)

,
x + y + z = C1 .

(16.10)

(16.9) 2x,
2y 2z , .
2x dx
2y dy
2z dz
d(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )
=
=
=
,
2x(z y) 2y(x z) 2z(y x)
0

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = C2 .

(16.11)

, (16.10) (16.11) , (16.9).


5.
dz
dx dy
=
=
.
xz
yz
xy z 2 + 1
.
dx dy
= ,
x
y

x = C1 y.

,
x
= C1 .
y
, , x = C1 y :
dy
dz
dy
dz
z dz

=
,
=
,
C1 y dy =
,
z
z
x z2 + 1
C1 y z 2 + 1
z2 + 1

C1 y 2 /2 = z 2 + 1 + C2 . C1 = x/y ,
xy = 2 z 2 + 1 + C2 ,

xy 2 z 2 + 1 = C2 .

17.

z x1 , . . . , xn ,
n > 2. , , ,
98

. , , . , ,

z
z
a1
+ . . . + an
= b,
(17.1)
x1
xn
a1 , . . . , an , b x1 , . . . , xn , z . ,
:
dx1
dxn
dz
= ... =
= ,
a1
an
b

(17.2)

n
1 (x1 , . . . , xn , z) = C1 ,
(17.3)

.........
n (x1 , . . . , xn , z) = Cn .

(17.1)
F (1 (x1 , . . . , xn , z), . . . , n (x1 , . . . , xn , z)) = 0,

(17.4)

F . , z
, , n , (17.3) n
n (x1 , . . . , xn , z) = f (1 (x1 , . . . , xn ), . . . , n1 (x1 , . . . , xn )) = 0,

(17.5)

f .
(17.5) z , .

z
z
a1
+ . . . + an
= 0,
(17.6)
x1
xn
. n z . (n 1)
dx1
dxn
= ... =
,
a1
an
z ( ) Cn ,
.
99

a1 , . . . , an z , (17.6)
z = F (1 (x1 , . . . , xn ), . . . , n1 (x1 , . . . , xn )),
1 , . . . , n1 , F .
1.
z z
1
x
+ y
= .
x
y
2

(17.7)

. :
dy
dx
= = 2 dz.
y
x

x y = C1 yz = C2 . ,


F ( x y, y z) = 0,

z y = f ( x y). z ,
(17.7)

z = y + f ( x y).
2.
u
u
u
(y + 2z)
+ (3y + 4z)
= 0.
x
y
z

(17.8)

. :
dx
dy
dz
=
=
.
(17.9)
1
(y + 2z) 3y + 4z
.
,
(3y + 2z)2
= C1 .
y+z
, ,
dx d(y + z)
=
.
1
2(y + z)
, , , x.
e2x (y + z) = C2 .
100

, (17.8)
(
)
(3y + 2z)2 2x
u=F
, e (y + z) .
y+z
, ,
:
(3y + 2z)2
(3y + 2z)2
C1 =
=
.
y+z
C2 e2x
(3y + 2z)ex = C3 (17.9).
(17.8)
u = F (ex (3y + 2z), e2x (y + z)).
z = z(x, y)

z
z
a1 (x, y, z)
+ a2 (x, y, z)
= b(x, y, z),
(17.10)
x
y

x = u(t),

y = v(t),

z = w(t)

(17.11)

( ),

dx dy
dz
=
= .
a1
a2
b

1 (x, y, z) = C1 ,

2 (x, y, z) = C2

(17.12)

x, y , z (17.11) t.
1 (t) = C1 , 2 (t) = C2 t (C1 , C2 ) = 0. C1
C2 (17.12), .
,

(x, y, z) = 0,

(x, y, z) = 0,

(17.13)

- .
101

3. ,
z
z
+ 2y 3
= 2y 2 z,
x
y
,
(x3 + 3xy 2 )

xyz = 1,

(17.14)

x2 = y.

. :
dx
dy
dz
=
=
.
x3 + 3xy 2
2y 3
2y 2 z
dy/y = dz/z ,
y/z = C1 .
. 2y 3 dx = (x3 +
3xy 2 ) dy , x y . x = ty ,
2t y = t3 + t,
t2
= Cy .
t2 + 1
y3
y + 2 = C2 , .
x
. x = t, y = t2 , z = 1/xy = 1/t3 . y/z = C1 , t5 = C1 ,

y3
t = 5 C1 . y + 2 = C2 .
x

5
2
4
t + t = C2 . t C1 ,

5
2
C1 + 5 C14 = C2 .
y3
, C1 = y/z C2 = y + 2 ,
x
:

2
4
y3
5 y
5 y
+
= y + 2.
z2
z4
x

18.

y (n) = f (x, y, y , . . . , y (n1) ),

y(x0 ) = y0 , y (x0 ) = y0 , . . . , y (n1) (x0 ) = y0


.
(18.1)
(n1)

102

f (x, y, y , . . . , y (n1) ) (n1)


(x0 , y0 , y0 , . . . , y0
), ,
(n1)
xx0 , yy0 , . . . , y (n1) y0
.
y(x)
x0 .
y(x) =

ak (x x0 )k .

k=0

1. x5
1
y = x2 ,
y

y(0) = 1.

(18.2)

.
y = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4 + a5 x5 + . . .
, a0 = y(0) = 1.
x = 0, y (0) = 1/y(0). y (0) = a1 , ,
a1 = 1.
(18.2),
1 + 2a2 x + 3a3 x2 + 4a4 x3 + 5a5 x4 + . . .
x2 +

1
. (18.3)
1 x a2 x2 a3 x3 a4 x4 a5 x5 . . .

, ..
b0 +b1 x+b2 x2 +b3 x3 +b4 x4 +. . ., ,
(18.3) x x4 , .
,
1+2a2 x+3a3 x2 +4a4 x3 +5a5 x4 +. . . x2 +b0 +b1 x+b2 x2 +b3 x3 +b4 x4 +. . . , (18.4)
bi
(1 x a2 x2 a3 x3 a4 x4 a5 x5 . . . )(b0 + b1 x + b2 x2 + b3 x3 + b4 x4 + . . . ) 1.
(18.5)
, b0 = 1. (18.5) x, b0 + b1 = 0, b1 = 1.
(18.4), 2a2 = 1, , a2 = 1/2.
(18.5) x2 : a2 b0 b1 + b2 = 0,
1/21+b2 = 0 b2 = 3/2. (18.4)
x2 . 3a3 = 1 + 3/2, a3 = 5/6.
103

, (18.5)
x , b3 = 17/6. (18.4)
x3 . , a4 = 17/24. , b4 = 41/8
a5 = 41/40.
, o(x5 ) (18.2)
1
5
17
41
y = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 .
2
6
24
40
-. a0 = y(0) = 1,
a1 = y (0) = 1. x:
y
y = 2x + 2 .
y
x = 0 y (0) = y (0)/y 2 (0) = 1. , a2 =
y (0)/2! = 1/2. ,
y 2y 2

y =2+ 2 3 ,
y
y
y (0) = 5, a3 = y (0)/3! = 5/6. ,
a4 a5 .
3

2. x5
y = y 2 + x2 y ,

y(0) = 1, y (0) = 2.

(18.6)

. y = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4 +
a5 x5 + . . .. , a0 = y(0) = 1, a1 = y (0) = 2.
x = 0, y (0) = 1. y (0) = 2a2 ,
, a2 = 1/2.
y = 2a2 +6a3 x+12a4 x2 +20a5 x3 +. . .,
(18.6) x3 . y 2 = (a0 + a1 x +
a2 x2 + a3 x3 + . . .)2 = a20 + 2a0 a1 x + (a21 + 2a0 a2 )x2 + (2a1 a2 + 2a0 a3 )x3 + . . .,
x2 y = x2 (a1 + 2a2 x + 3a3 x2 + 4a4 x3 + . . .) = a1 x2 + 2a2 x3 + . . .
,
,
2a2 + 6a3 x + 12a4 x2 + 20a5 x3
a20 + 2a0 a1 x + (a21 + 2a0 a2 + a1 )x2 + (2a1 a2 + 2a0 a3 + 2a2 )x3 .
x,

2a2 = a20 ,

6a = 2a a ,
3
0 1

12a4 = a21 + 2a0 a2 + a1 ,

20a5 = 2a1 a2 + 2a0 a3 + 2a2 ,


104

a2 = a20 /2 = 1/2, a3 = a0 a1 /3 = 2/3,


a4 = (a21 + 2a0 a2 + a1 )/12 = 7/12, a5 = (2a1 a2 + 2a0 a3 + 2a2 )/20 = 13/60.
, o(x5 ), (18.6)
2
7
13
1
y = 1 + 2x + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 .
2
3
12
60

a0 (x)y + a1 (x)y + a2 (x)y = 0.

(18.7)

, (. . 9.1).
xx0 , x0 . ,
a0 (x), a1 (x), a2 (x) x x0 , a0 (x0 ) = 0,
(18.7)
x x0 .
3.
y + xy + y = 0.

(18.8)

. y =

kck xk1 , y =

k=1

ck xk . y =

k=0

k(k 1)ck xk2 . -

k=2

(18.8), , xy =

kck xk ,

k=1

k(k 1)ck x

k2

k=2

kck x +

k=1

ck xk 0.

k=0

k = m + 2,
k m,

(m + 2)(m + 1)cm+2 x +

m=0

mcm x +

m=0

cm xm 0.

m=0

, , m = 0. .
, .
,
(m + 2)(m + 1)cm+2 + mcm + cm = 0,
105

m = 0, 1, . . .

m + 1,
cm
cm+2 =
.
(18.9)
m+2
(18.8),
c0 c1 .
c0 = 1 c1 = 0, c0 = 0,
c1 = 1.
, c0 = 1 c1 = 0. (18.9) ,
c3 = c1 /3 = 0 , ,
c5 , c7 , . . . . c2 =
c0 /2 = 1/2, c4 = c2 /4 = 1/(2 4), c6 = c4 /6 = 1/(2 4 6), ,
, c2k = (1)k /(2k)!!. , (18.8)

(1)k 2k
x .
y1 =
(2k)!!
k=0

c0 = 0, c1 = 1.
c2k = 0. , c3 =
c1 /3 = 1/3, c5 = c3 /5 = 1/(1 3 5), c7 = c5 /7 = 1/(1 3 5 7),
, , c2k+1 = (1)k /(2k + 1)!!. ,
(18.8)
y2 =

k=0

(1)k 2k
x .
(2k + 1)!!

. , ,
-

k
1
R = limk |ck |.

(1)k 2k
(1)k 2k
y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 = C1
x + C2
x .
(2k)!!
(2k + 1)!!
k=0

k=0

4.
(1 + x2 )y + 4xy + 2y = 0.

. , y =
ck xk . k=0
,

2
k2
k1
(1 + x )
k(k 1)ck x
+ 4x
kck x
+2
ck xk 0.
k=2

k=1

106

k=0

, , k = 0,
,

k(k 1)ck x

k=2

k2

k(k 1)ck + 4kck + 2ck xk 0.

k=0

, , k = m + 2, k = m,
(

(m + 2)(m + 1)cm+2 + (m(m 1) + 4m + 2)cm xm 0.

m=0

m(m 1) + 4m + 2 = m2 + 3m + 2 = (m + 2)(m + 1),



cm+2 = cm .
, , c0 = 1 c1 = 0,
y1 =

(1)k x2k = 1 x2 + x4 x6 + . . . =

k=0

1
,
1 + x2

, c0 = 0 c1 = 1,
y2 =

(1)k x2k+1 = x x3 + x5 x7 + . . . =

k=0

x
.
1 + x2

,
y = C1 y1 + C2 y2 =

C1 + C2 x
.
1 + x2

(18.7) x0 , a0 (x)
, . x = x0 .

y = (x x0 )

ck (x x0 )k .

k=0


x2 y + xp(x)y + q(x)y = 0.
107

(18.10)

p0 = p(0), q0 = q(0).
( 1) + p0 + q0 = 0,

(18.11)

. 1 2 . 1 2 ,

y1 = x

(1)
c k xk

y2 = x

k=0

(2)

ck x k

k=0

(18.10). 1 2 ,
y1 , , , - (9.8).
,
y2 = Ay1 (x) ln x + x

(2)

c k xk ,

k=0

A , , .
5.
(
)
1
1
x2 y + x2 + x y y = 0.
2
2

(18.12)

. . p0 = 1/2, q0 =
1/2. , ( 1) +
1
1
2 2 = 0. 1 = 1/2, 2 = 1.
, .
, 1 = 1/2.

1/2
k
y=x
ck x =
ck xk1/2 .
y =

k=0

1
2

k=0

ck xk3/2 , y =

k=0

k=0

(
)(
)
k 21 k 23 ck xk5/2 .

(18.12) 2 .
)(
)
)
(
(

3
1
1
k
ck xk1/2 2
ck xk+1/2 +
2
k
k
2
2
2
k=0
k=0
)
(

1
k1/2
+
k
ck x

ck xk1/2 0. (18.13)
2
k=0

k=0

108

, xk1/2 xk+1/2 :
(
)(
) (
)
)
(

1
3
1
2 k
k
+ k
1 ck xk1/2
2
2
2
k=0
)
(

1
ck xk+1/2 0

2 k
2
k=0

, ,

(2k 3)kck x

k1/2

k=0

(2k 1) ck xk+1/2 0.

k=0

, , k = 0,
. ,
k = m + 1, k = m.

(2m 1)(m + 1)cm+1 x

m+1/2

m=0

(2m 1) cm xm+1/2 0.

m=0

, x,
(2m 1)(m + 1)cm+1 = (2m 1)cm ,

m = 0, 1, . . .

c0 = 1.
cm
cm+1 =
,
m+1
c1 = 1, c2 = 21 , c3 = 16 , . . . . 1
, cm = m!
. , (18.12)

xk
ex
1/2
y1 = x
= .
k!
x
k=0

, 2 = 1.

y =
ck xk . (18.12)
k=0

.
2

k(k 1)ck x 2
k

k=0

kck x

k+1

k=0

k=0

(k 1)(2k + 1)ck x
k

k=0

k=0

109

kck x
k

k=0

2kck xk+1 0.

c k xk 0

, ( x0 )
c0 , . , c0 = 0.
k = m + 1, m = 0, 1, . . . .

m+1
m(2m + 3)cm+1 x

2mcm xm+1 0.
m=0

m=0

, m = 0, . xm , m = 1, 2, . . . .

2cm
,
2m + 3

cm+1 =
c1 = 1, c2 =
,

2
5,

m = 1, 2, . . .
22
57 ,

c3 =

c4 =

23
579 ,

..

3 2m1
cm =
.
(2m + 1)!!

, (18.12)

3 2k1 k
y2 =
x .
(2k + 1)!!
k=1

, ,
2/3

ex
2k

y = C1
+ C2
xk .
(2k + 1)!!
x
k=1

110


[1] .., ..,
: . .
.: , . . .-. . 1976. 255 .
[2] ..,
. .: - 2007.
421 .
[3] .., . .:
. . 8, . 2004. 472 .
[4] .., . 6- . C-.: . 2004. 832 .
[5] .., . 7- ., . -.: . 2002. 432 c.
[6] .., .., ..,
: . 2- ., . .: . . 1989.
383 .
[7] .., .
: . 2000. 176 .

111

1. . . . . . 3
1. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. , 11
4. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6. , . . 25
2. . . . 36
7. , . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9. c . . . 47
10. c . . 52
11. c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
12.
c . . . . . . . . 66
13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

112