Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 82

,

-
, .
166 ,

.

.



,
, ,
() 140 . ,
.

;
; ;
; , , , .
-: www.undp.org/energyandenvironment/climatestrategies
,
,
.
: , ,
/.
: Robert Kelly, Stephen Gold, Pradeep Kurukulasuriya, Lucas Black, Manuel Soriano, Benoit
Lebot, Simon Billet, Oliver Waissbein, Marcel Alers, John Hough, Nik Sekhran, Andrew Hudson, and Suely Carvalho
: (ECN)
: Caitlin Connelly,
:
: .
.
, . , -, , 2011.

Copyright 2011 United Nations Development Programme


. ,
, , , .
,
, . ,
. .
: Anvil Creative Group (NY, www.anvilcreativegroup.com)
: A.K. Office Supplies (NY)

Catalysing Climate Finance

5:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

1:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.1 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.3 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2: ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
5.4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
5.5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

6:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
6.2 , ,
. . . . . . . . . . 123
6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.2. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

4: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

, ,

6.1: , 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3: GET FiT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1: ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1
1: ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.2: 2030 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.3: 2030 . . . . . . . . . 21
1.4:
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.5: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.6: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.7: (2004 2008, . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.8: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2
2.1: - . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.2: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.3:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

3
3.1: ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.2: , . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.3: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.4: . . . . . . . . 66
3.5: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

4
4.1: : , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.2: . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.3: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.4: :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.5: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.6: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

5
5.1:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5.2: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
5.3: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5.4: - / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
5.5: ,
: , . . . . . . . . . . . 103
5.6: ,
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.7: . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.8: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.9:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5.10: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

114
116
119
125
133
140

1
1.1: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.2: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2
2.1: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.2:
( 2001 . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.3: ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

3
3.1: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.2: - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.3: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.4: () . . . . . . . . . 68

4
4.1: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.2: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.3: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.4: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

5
5.1: / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5.2:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

2
2.1: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3
3.1: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

4
4.1: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.2: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.3: ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.4: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

6
6.1: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5: , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115
124
132
137
138
7

, ,
. 2C , ,
. , , ,
,
.
2010 . ,
.
,
, , ,
.
, .
,
. , ,
, : ,
, , ,
, , . ,
.

, ,
, , , .
.
, ( ), .
,
,
, , ,
, , .

(
2020 .) 100 . .
, .
, , . , , . , ,
,

.
,
:
;
, ;
.
, ,
.
, .



, ,


,

,
,
.









(IRR)




(WEF)



-
(GEF)












. -





(IBRD)
(IPCC)





(IEA)

-


,



(OECD)



/


(UNDP)






10




C











(UNEP)
ACAD
AfD
BIDC
BOAD
CATIE

CDC-UK
CFL
CH4
CO ,
CO2 () ,
CO2-. ,
DBCCA

FMO
GCF
GEEREF

GET FiT

JICA -
KfW
MACC
MBI
N2O
NAMA


NAPA
NEF
NIB
OMB, USA ,
OPIC, USA -
PPM
REDD ,

REDD+ ,

REN 21 C XXI
RETAP

RTE -
SEFI
SREP

UN AGF

WBGU

Catalysing Climate Finance

11


()

, ,
,

,

, ,
. .




,

,
.

2050 . ()
, 2100 . 4 C . 100150 ,

2 C. , , ,
;
. (/ IPCC, 2007), 2035 . , , 0.51 C,
, 2050 .
2 C 1990 . ,
, .
, , .
178 . . (McKinsey
& Company, 2009); , .
, , , , .

. 22 . . 2002 . 200 . . 2010 . (Pew, 2011); 2020 ., , 400500 . . .

,
.
, 2012
. - , ,

, , .


. .

1:

, , ,
.

2:


20
100 .

.

3:



, : ,
, .

/


,



.

12

1:

2:

3:

4:

4:

13

1: ,

1:

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2

2: ,

4:


X
X

1
,
, 2C. 2
, . 3 , . 4 ,
. 5 ,
,
. 6 ,

: , , .

3:

,
. 1 . ,
/ , .
(UNDP, 2011).
, , .

14

15

1:


,

,

16

Catalysing Climate Finance

17

1:

1:

1: ,

3.0

: -

1.1

(%)

, ;
;

2.5



( )

450

2.0

1.5
500

550

600

650

700

750

1.0
850
0.5

, ,

100150
,

2050 . ()
, 2100 . 4 C
(IPCC, 2007). ,
7 . . 2020 . (Project Catalyst, 2010),
.
, ,
, (Mignone and others,
2007).
, () 2007/2008
(), 450 ppm ( ) ,
2 C. , 2010 .
( ). , , 2050 . 50% 1990 .
(UNDP, 2007). 2050 .
80%; 2020 . 2030%. -
,
2020 ., 2050 . 20%.
: 5,2% 2012 .
: , ? . 1.1
.

18

10 2

30 4

50

( )
. 1.1 ,
, . , 2011 ., 450 ppm 1,5 %
. , 810 ,
450 ppm 3% , ,
, . , ,
, 100150 , .
, , , . 2007 .
, (Smith, 2007). , 50% 2010 2014 .
.
1998 ., 14,54C. 2014 . .
, , , ,
. ,
,
(WBGU, 2007).

.

19



( )
9 1992 . . -
150


--
1992 .



,


.

.





()
1997 . . ().




,
. ,

,

(
, ,
, ,

)
5% 1990 .

2008
2012 .
16
2005 .

1:


,




,
:
,

,

.

. (), ,
, - ,
1,1 . . 2030 . . ;
(, , .), ,
, . 50%- 450 ppm, 20102030 .
10,5 . . (510 . . 20 ) (IEA, 2009).
(IEA, 2009),
, . . , ,
8,6 . . 2010-2030 .
17,1 . . . , 100 . . 2030 .
, . ,
- - . , , ,
, 2C. . 1.2,
, .
, McKinsey & Company (2009),
, 2030 . 10 CO2-. 30 CO2-.
(. 1.1). (. 1.3). ,
- , ,
. 1

() (. 1.1).
2010, , . (. 1.2).




,


()

().

1.2: 2030 .

,

CO2-.
80
60
40
20

10

-80
-100

-180
-200

15

20

25

30

: McKinsey & Company (2009). :


80 CO2-., , . ,
.
: ; ; ; ;
;

1.3:
2030 .
7

-/

6
5
4
3
2
1
0

<20 <50 <100

<20 <50 <100

<20 <50 <100

<20 <50 <100

<20 <50 <100

<20 <50 <100

C/

<20 <50 <100

$/2-
: Metz and others (2007)

20

38




/


()
2-

35


CO2-.

-60

-160


()

-40

-140

-20

-120

()

()
()

:
()


1-

C02e/


,

, .

? 2050 . 50%
1990 .
. ,
.
, , ,
- .

1:

21

1:

1.1:

, , ;
;
, .. ;
().

[5.4]

(); ;
; ; /
; (, );
.

; ;

.

[6.5]

, ;
, ;
;
.


;
.

; -
; ;
, CO2, ;
.

; ,
;
.

[4.3, 4.4]

[7.5]


;
; ,
CH4;
N20;
; .


[9.4]

; ,
; ;
;
.


.

.

[10.4]

;
; ;
;
.

CH4 .

[8.4]

: SPM.3 Metz and others (2010). :


. . , ,
, , 7 SPM.3.

. ,
:
4 . 109 . . (World Bank, 2010). : 1)
; 2)
; 3) (US National Academy of Sciences, 2010).

22

1.2:

,
2030 .

; ;
;
(, , , );
;
() (, CO2, ).

1:


;
;

; ;
;


;

;


(, )

,
..


;


();

.


(
)


;
;

.


,

;
;


: Parry and others (2007), Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Priorities.

, ,
, ,
, , ,
. ,
(ECA, 2009), , , ,
. ,
,
40-100% 2030 . (
). . 1.4 .
,
,
, . , .
23

1:

1:

. 1.5, , , . , , .
, , , , ,
. , , , .
,
. , ,
, .
. , , .

1.4:
:
100% -

1.4

100% - ,

1.3
1.2
1.0
1.00

0.9

0.4
0.5
0.4
0.3

0.3
0.1
0

0.5

0.8
0.5
0.5 0.6
0.5

0.2

0.5

-1.1

( )

1.0


( )

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0


,

. .

: From Economics of Climate Adaptation Working Group, Shaping Climate-Resilient Development: A Framework for Decision-Making (2009)

1.2


, ,
. . , ,
,
.
,
, .
, . , . ,
. 15% ;
, (60%), (70% ), (85 %), (98
%). . 1.5 .

24

, . , ,
, ,
. ,

(, - , ..).
.
, , (
, , ), (
, ). . ,
. ,
. ,
, , : , .

, ,
. ,
( )
( , ,
..), , , ,
.
. . ,
; ,
.

25

()

,
: ,
-, , ,
;
,
.

1:

1:

1.5:


()




.


;



,

, , ,


.


.

,

.

, 70% . ,
,
. , ,
,
(UNDP, 2004).

: Pate and others (2007).

, ,
, .
,
. , , . .
, . ,
: .
,
. ,
. , , , ,
.


, .
, (UNDP,
2010). . 50 38 - (Rossi and
Lambrou, 2009). 10 20% 26
;
.
. , , .
, , ,
(UNEP, 2010; Ervin and others, 2010).
, ( ,
, , ..),
. ,
, .
,
, ,
.
(.
4 5).
;

.
, .
.

,
.
, , ,
, ..
, .
, ,
.
.
, ,
. 1,2 . ,
26

27

,

.



,

( ).

,
.
, ,
,
(
X Y)
.

1:

1.3

,



,

. (2008),
80% ,
,

:
.

, , , . (
) , , (. 3.3).
, . ,
, . (2008), 80% ,
, :
. (2009), 40% 2020 .
, 40% , 20%
.
. , , ,

. 20%,
10%, 46% (WEC, 2004).
, , ,
, .
. ,
,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , . 178 .
. (McKinsey & Company, 2009);
, . , , ,
(, , ,
), ,
. , , , .

1:


, ,
, , .
, 1 ,
1000 ,
(OECD, 2009). , ,
.
2008 . , . The
Pew Charitable Trusts (2011), 2010 . 30% 2009 .
243 . . . , - , ,
450 . .
2012 . 600 . . 2020 . (UNEP, 2010).

1.6:
250
, G-20
G-20

...

200

150

100

50

0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

: The Pew Charitable Trust (2011).

19
28

29
5/11/11 1:09 PM

1:

1:

( 1 ) , 2010 .
. 20
100%, 56,4 . . (Pew, 2010). , , ().
, . (), (),
.
2007 . , , ,
( ) 1,3 . .
. 575 . (IEA, 2006), 2007 .
1% .
,
(. . 1.7).

1.7: (20042008, . . )

48.4 48.4

4.6

9.2

32.9 33.3
20.7

11.3

18.7
40.8

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

3.7

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

0.2

1.5

2.0

2.1


2.8

14.9


2.5

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

0.5

7.9

4.5

8.0

14.6 11.6

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


24.4

31.3

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

0.2

,
() . ,

170 () (De Gouvello, Dayo and Thioye, 2008). . ,
. , 2012 .
: , , , 80%
; , .

( , , ..). , ,
, : NAMA (
), NAP ( ), , , ( ) ,
.

1.4
43.7

28.1
27.1

, , . (). -
.

, .
,
, .
, ,
. ,
.
,
.
. , ,
. 510
, ,
.
. ,
XXI .

: UNEP (2010).

30

31



(), 12
,
: 1)
,

I ,

; 2)
,
I ,



.

.
, ,
, ( 1 30
). , ,

,
(

),
.
.
,
,

.



(NAMA)


(NAMA)
,

. ,




;
, ,
,
.

1:

. 1.8 Climate Interactive C-Roads



, . , ,
, , 2050 . ,
, 95% 1990 .,
75%,
2C. .

1.8:

20

CO2

CO2/

15

10

2:

0
2000

2020

2040

2060

2080

2100

()
: Jones and others (2010). Note on the scenarios: Developed and developing A start in 2010 to reduce emissions by 95 percent and 75 percent,
respectively, by 2050, from 1990 levels. Developing B is business-as-usual.

, , , . ,
, .
-
.
,
:

, .

, ,
.
, .

32

33

2: ,

2: ,

2.1
; , .

2.1:

...

,

.



.

1. /







(, ,
,
-,

..),
,
(
,
,

,
,
, ,
,
,
..).

2.1

, .
, , .
. (, ,
, -, ..),
, ( , , , , , , ,
, ..).
.
,
. ,
. , , ,
(Mendonca, Jacobs and Sovacol, 2010).

, , , . :
/ (, ,
..)
( ..)

, ,
, ,
, , .

- ,
.


, , , ,
, .

,
. ,
.

2.



(),
.


.

.

3.

,
.

/ ,

/ .

4.

-

,
-
.

,
,

.


(
/ ..)


, , (
, , ), /
.

( ..)
( ..)
( ..)

34

35

2: ,

2.1:

5.

/



,
,


.

,
, ,
.

-
, (, ,
..)
.

,
500 . . ,
, .

,
, .

,
, .
.


- .
, , ,
,
.

2: ,

2.2. ,


, , . . -

. , , , ,
(. 3).

( , ..),
( , ..). . 2.1
: () (). :
, ,
; ,
,
, , .

2.1:

: http://www.ey.com/
US/en/Industries/Oil---Gas/Oil_
Gas_Renewable_Energy_).

,
.
,
,
, , .
,
. , ,
.
, , .
2

, .
, Ernst and Young (Ernst and Young, 2010). 2

, . ; 42% (, , , ,
29% ). 60%
( ), . , ,
, , ,
.
36

37



,


.


,


,
,


.

2: ,


, , ,
: , , ,
.

,
. : , .
, , .


,

,

, ,

, ,
, ,
.



,
,




;

,

,
;

,

,

.

,
, ,
, , . , :

: , , , ,

, ,

. ,

2: ,

:
( .. )
,


.
, ;
. 2.3 150 .
, . ,
2.3, , ,
. ,
, -
. ,
, .


: ,
, . , - .

, ,
; , ,
; , ,
.

38

,
. ,
,
.
.
,
- ,
.
, , ,
: , ..
, , , , , ,
. , ,
, . (Janda, 2009),
. .

39


, ,

,
.

.

,

(Herring, 2008).
,



,

. ,

, , ,

.

2: ,




,
-

.

2: ,

, ,
.

/ ( , ,
, ..), (
, , ,
..).
2004 . () , 60 14 ( -15), (, , ), (, ) ().
, 750 , 1600 (. . 2.2).


,
,
(Secretariat of CBD, 2011). , , , ,
(TEEB, 2010).

2.2:

60

,
.
, , , ,
. , , , : , ,
, .

50
40
30
20
10
0

/.

/. .

. 2.3 ,

. 1995 . : A G, A , G
.
, .
. 2.3, , 2008 ., 50%
, , .
, 1999 . , , . 2.3.

: WEC (2004). : (. )

, .
1, ,
.
. ,
,
(UNEP and SEI, 2010). (TEEB, 2010).
,
- . - .

40

41


,
, ,
,

. ,
,
, :

,

,






,
.

2: ,

2: ,

2.2:
( 2001 . . . )

2.3:

50

1992
2000
2006

(%)

60

40

A
B

C
D

.

(dB(A) re 1 pW)

30

3094 6 176
655 813
4 700 4 768

1 643 1 672
361 610
2 472

9 129 11 710

3 165 3 334

551 625

348

1 804 4 185

1 056

6 144 9 456

4 220 6 718

120 753 193 163

23 359 26 604

146 812 230 896

36 625 42 813

20

10

0
A++

A+

: UNDP (2011a).

. 1999 2004 .
, .
200 . . 250 . CO2
10 (Lin, 2002; Ogden, 2004).
,
, . ,
, ,
, . , , .
. ,
(OMB) (2003 .) 107
, 10 ( 1 1992 . 30 2002 .). , 146 230 . . ,
36 42 . . . ,

, (. 2.2).

42

: OMB (2003)

.
-, ,
.
. ,
, ,
, , .
,
.
( ..) , , (Mendonca, Jacobs and Sovacol, 2010).

,
.
,
. , SunRun (2011) , , 50 , ,
. , ,
1 . . ( ). 27
(Mendonca, Jacobs and Sovacol, 2010).
43

2: ,

, .
, , ,
: 1)
, ; 2) ;
3) , , ,
. ,
.

,
. ,

. .







,
.

, ,
, , , ,
. /

.


,

,


(,
).


,
, , . ,
,
,
,
.
. :
( ), , ,
.


( .. )
,


: ,
. ,
, , , , . , ,
. ,
(.. ) .
,
,
( ). ,
, (, ), (, ).
, , , , , , . ,
44

2: ,

, . , , ,
500 . . (IEA, 2009).
, ; , .
, ,
.
, , , . ,
( , )
, , , , .

, , .
, ,
(, ).
, (OECD, 2005). . (OECD, 2005 2010; World Bank, 2005,
Bredenkamp and Pattillo, 2010; Laan, 2010) , ,
.
, ,
,
. . ,
, ,
, . ,
,
, (. 2.1).

2.1:

, , . ,
40 100 . . . , , 4000 . ,
.
.
2010 .
, , . ,

90% .

20 . . , 40 .
. . . 90- .
80% , , .
, 60 . .
45

2: ,

(
,

)
,

, ,
,

.

(OECD, 2005). ,
, .
, .
, (. 6).
,
,
.

,
, , , .
/. , ,
. ( , ..)
.
,
.
, , ( ,
, , )
. 2002 . -
30% 2007 . 2003 . ()
, , , 43%.
.
, .
. ,
, .
, , , .
, ,
, ; .
,
, , ,
. , ,
. ,
, .

46

2: ,

.
, ,
. , . ,
(Schwarz, 2010). ,
, , (.
6).
, (), .
. , ,
, , , ,
. ,
.



.
() ; ; , ; .
,
. ,
.
.
: ; ;
(. 5 ).
, , .
, ,
. , ,
.


,
, ( ), ( ) . () .
, ,
. ,

, .
, . .
47




, , , 3-5

.


,

,

.

2: ,


,
() ( ). , , ,
, . ,
. ,
, .

2: ,

(
)

( /
)


(
)

.
, ,
,
. . , , (. 4).
2.3 , , .

2.3: ,

/



, ..


( ..)


-








(,
)

: ,

, ,

, ,

.


/





(
)
, , ..



/



,

,

///


//
(2,
, )

/

48

49

2: ,

2.3: ,

/


(,
/ )

/
/





/

,

/
/


()

( ) /


(,
)

3 :


(, )
()


/ /



/
/ /

( )





( , ..)
( , )

-
:

50


1:
2:
3:
4:

51

3:

3
,

,

,


.

/, II
/, II,
,
II ,
.
4.2
(g),
, ,

. , II,


.



,
.

3.1

. . , , ,
. . -
,
. , ,
. ,

.
, ,
, , . - (Hamilton, 2009; Parker, 2009),
, , ,
. : ,
, ,
.

52

(
):

3:

, - , ,
. /
,
.
,
: 1) , I,
2) , (
), . , , ,
( , ), , , .
, , (-23 ..).
, , 2 , ,
(Cosbey and others, 2005 and 2006).
, ,
. ,
. ,
2 15 . CO2 .
, , , (
) . ,
( 500%). ,
, .

,
, .
(, , ..).
, , , ,
.

.
. , , ,
,
.

53

/, I
/, I,
, I ( ,
1998 .)
,

.
4.2 (a) 4.2 (b)
, I,

2000 .

1990 .
()
, I.

/, B
/, B, , B ,

, ,
I
( ,
1998 .),
.


,


.




, ..

3:

,
, ,


,


.

3:


, (.. , ) (Hamilton, 2009). . ,
. ,
.

, , , , . ,

. ,

(OECD, 2010). , . ,
, .

.
,
. ,
, ,
- .
.

3.1
, .
: , ,
, , .

3.1


,
. , ( /
) . ,
.
. ,
(UNDP, 2007).

, , . ,
, , .
, :
, , . , , . , ,
, , ,
, . ,
, .
54

;



.

,

.

,

.


2, , . , . ,
. , , ,
. , , , , : ,
, ,
, , ..
, , : , .

55

3:

3:

3.2

3.1


,
/

,
,
/



(
)

56

,
:
,


, ..
- ;

- , ,
,

.
.
,



.

,
-

,
-

;

.

, -


: ,
, , .
,
.
( ) , . ( )
, . ,
( , ..) ( ) .

1:



,
.
-
-
;
- -

, , . -



.

, : , , ,

2:


, ,
.

:

3:


1:

4:

2:

3:

4:

57

3:

3:

3.1:
,

1:


6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2

2: ,

1:

1:

1 . , . 1, ,
, ,
, . 3.2.

2:


3.2: ,

3:

3:

X
X

4:

4:

: UNDP (2009a).

58

59

3:

, , (UNDP, 2011b). . 3.2,


, (UNDP, 2009a):
(, , )
( 50 ) ,
,


,
,
, , ,
.
(2010) , (TNAssess, ClimateTechWiki ..).
-
, . 3.2 ,
.

3.2: -

60

LEAP




.

(TED),
,

.


.






,
,
.

(MARKAL)


,
,
MARKAL-TIMES)


;


(, )
.. ;
;

.


,


,

,
,
;


.

3:

1 . 3.1
(MACC). , MACC
, .
, , , . - MACC.
MACC .

3.1:
(MACC) .
,
() .
. .
. Excel :

1:

2:


= + ( , ,
)

3:

, , , ( , ). MACC
,
, ( ) ,
.

4:

: Excel (2010)

,
, , (, ,
) .
, , , , MACC. .

61

3:

2:

3:

3.3:
/

(
)

.

2
.
, ,
. 140
, 20 , , (
) . , - , ,
,
, , .
, ? , , , ,
.
, 3.3,
.
. , ( )
, ,
, . , ,
. , , ,
, ,
..





,


,




( ,
, )
,



(, )


62

/
,
()
-
()

1:

,

-

2:


,
, ,

3:

,
, ,
,

4:

,
, , , -

63

3:




.

,
.

.

, - . , , .
, ,
( ) ..
. , , , . , (
, , ..)
,
. .
. 3.3
.
, (,
). ,
. ;
. , , , ,
. (,
),
( , -
..).
2, . , ,
. ,
,
. : ,
. ,
, , , . ,
.
.
, (, ) . 2010 . 100
; 2005 . 55.
,
(REN 21, 2010).

64

3.3:

3:

3:

1:

2:



3:

,
:

ANCING
OPTIONS
AN ENABLING
IRONMENT

( )
( , , , )
( ( )
-)
( , )
, ,
(Schwarz, 2008). , , ;
, ,
.
/ . ,
.
, , , , . . . 3.4
.

65

4:

3:

3.4:




,
-

(
)

3:

.
,
-. , , . , ,
,
. , . .

. ,
,
. , , . , , , , ,
. . 3.5
,
. ,
.

: Schwarz and Glemarec (2009).

4
4
3

2
1
2

3
3
3

3
2
3

4
2
1

1
4
4

2
3
3

5
1
3

1
2
2

2
4
3

4
4
2

1
2
1

4
2
1

2
3
4


, , : ,
,
, .
.
, , . , ,
. , , , . ,
, ( ), . .

66

5
4
1
1

4
3
1
3

4
4
3
2

4
1
4
2

5
4
4
2

2
2
3
2

3
4
5
2

1
2
4
4

4
1
2
2

3
3
3
1

3
1
2
4

5
3
4
3

1
2
1
2

4
3
2
1

4:

2:

3:

. 3.5

1:

, . ,
, ,
.
. ,
.

67

3:

3.4: ()
2010-2015
:
,

2015-2025

,
,

,
( )

-

,

,
( , )


( )

/




,

3.3

2025-2050


( )

3:

, , , . 50 , , ,
. ,
, 25 . 3.4
.

1:

4:

2:

, . . 3 4
. , , ,
.

3:

: Schwarz (2009), . 3 Glemarec and others (2009).


68

4:

69

4:

70

Catalysing Climate Finance

71

4:

4
90 %


( , ..).


,
, ,
.
,
. 1
. 2 .
3
, 4 .
,

.
. , ,
, ,
,
, .

4.1

2, , .

.

4:


.
, , . ( 2009 .) ( 2010 .), ,
2020 . 100 . . ,
. , ,
, .

4.1: : , ,

.
(
)

,
,
. , . .
4.1 , , . 90 %
( , ..).
.

: , Atteridge and others (2009)

72

73

4:

4:

4.1:
(UN AGF) .





.

,
. ,
AGF, ,
,
, ,

.
2 .
. 3
(
).


, ,
-
,
,


(WEC, 2004).
(
, ,

..).

,
.
,
, . Schroeder (2006 .).

. , ().
. ,
.
. AGF,
30 . . .

.

; , , . ,
, 10 15 . . .
. . , ,
, , . , (
). , ,
10 . . (
).
UN AGF . ,
. , ,
1,52,0 ; , 120150 . .
.

2010 . (UN AGF),


, . 2010 .
. ,
100 . . 2020 . , . , ,
/
(. 4.1).
, ,
AGF, -.
.
, .
, . ,
. ,
().
3

74

2010 . 16- (-16) , AGF


, , .
(-17) 2011 .,
. ,
40 ( 25 15 ).
, , . . 4.2
.

4.2:

(MIES)

(NIEs)

: Billet and Glemarec (2010)

75

()
()

.
, ,
, .

4:

4:

, 2020 . .

4.2

4.1
.


, .

:
4.1


, .4

(, );

(,
).


()


. , ,
,

.


()

,
2% (.
4.3 /),
.
,
, ,
(. ).


()

, ,
( 20% ,
). .
2011 .


,
, , : ,
() ( ), ( , ,
..).
, . ,
().
( ) ( ,
, ) .
, , , , , REDD ( , ).

,
(ACAD).
() , . , . ,
. , 2008 .
(),
. 6 . . . , . 2009 .
,
. , -. , , (), , , .



,





,
.

76

77

,




(,
30%),
()

.

4:

,


.

...



,
.

4:

() , , - . , .

(), , ,
(AfD), (JICA), , (KfW), (OPIC-)
. 2008 . , AfD, , KfW JICA , 13 . . , .. (15 . . ), , ,
2009 . (UNEP, 2010).
.

4.3 , , II,
, I, . ,
. 2010 . , . 2010 .,
, .
, . , 2020 .
.

, - (, 30%),
() .
.

, ,
: () (). , , , , ,
, , , , . LDCF ,
(NAPA).

- / . , , , .

(A) . , A , .
2 % , .

()
- .

-. : ,
, , .

(BOAD 5, BIDC 6,CATIE 7 ..)


. , ,

. ,
, (. 5).

430
. . , 55 . . . ,
. , (OECD, 2009 .). - ,
, ,
(IEA, 2010 .).

78


.
, ,
, /.
, . ,
, . 4.2
.
, , ,
(, ) . (UNDP, 2011).

79

Banque Ouest Afrcaine


de Developpement/

6
Barbados Investment
Development Corporation/


7
The Tropical Agricultural
Research and Higher Education
Center/


4:

4.2:
:
. 2009 .
,
. . , .
: ,
, 2009 .
, 20
. ,
-, , , . , , ,
.

. , ,
. , , , .
: Glemarec, Waissbein and Bayraktar (2010); (2011 .)


.
.

4.3

.
.
, .
:
(). , ,
.
.

80

4:

: 1) , ; 2) , ; 3) , - .
. , ,
25 , 80 % (Evans, Cooley and Hamilton, 2011).
() .
. -, .
.
, .


. , , .
,
, .

. , I ( ),
,
( I) .
:
,
17 , ,
I, , , I
.
() ( 12 ), ( , ) .
()
, , I, ( , )
, I ( ).
, , ,
( 4.3). .

81

()

() C2,

,
.
2-.

.



, 6 ,
, I,

,




().

()
CO2-.,


( 6
).

4:

4:

4.3: ?
, , : , , ..
, , , ..


: , . , , , . , , ,
, . ( 2 ) , .
,
. . :
.
, .
,
.
.

2009 ., , 2012 .,
144 . . .

4.3:

118.5

2009: $144 .

$ .

1.1

0.4

0.3

0.3

: (World Bank, 2010). : (),


(), (),
(), ().

,



,

,
,


, .. , ,
, (, - ). ,
. (, , , ..):
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
.

, , ;
, , ,
.

2.0

82

, 1, , ,
. , 80% :
, , , (UNDP, 2006; UNDP 2009).
,
, : NAMA, , ,
.,
.
(UNDP, 2007 .; www.mdgcarbonfacility.org).
, .
,
.

.
, Mercer, Cooley and Hamilton (2011):

2.7

, , , ,
NAMA, , REDD , , ( ),
(Point Carbon, 2011). ,
, , , .
, AGF .
,
120150 . . .

4.2 .
, , . , . 2010 .,
,
, . REDD+ ( ,
). ,
[ .73]
. REDD+
: ;
; .
83


,
,
.

4:

,
, ,


.

2,7 CO2

17,2 37,5 .
2030 ., ,
, (2010 .) 37 .
. .
8

4:

REDD+ . , ,
, ,
, , .
2009 . REDD+
, 2015 . 25%
. , , 2010 2015 .
, REDD+ 1525 . .
1323 . (
3 . , ) 2 .
.8

4.2:


/
-

; $1,8-2,9 .
; - 2008 . (Ecosystem
Marketplace, 2009)

; - $9,3 . 2008 .
(Ecosystem
Marketplace, 2009)
;
;

;


;

; $5-10 .
- (Ecosystem
- Marketplace, 2008)


,
(, )

;
.

- $42 .(Ecosystem

Marketplace, 2008)

5-10%

-
-

$0,4-1,9 .
(Costello and Ward,
2006)

$100 .,
$17,237,5 .
2030 . (Parker, Brown
and Pickering, 2009)

REDD

, , ,
. , . , () 216 ,
(Stanton and others, 2010). , 2009 .
(. 4.3).

4.3

2008 ($ .)


2008 .
(. )


2008 .:
($ .)

101

36

31

2,3

177,6

33

1,8

0,1

91

0,2

47

47

7 800

270

40 800

270

30

0,03

20

10

62,7

0,2

570

0,4

10

10

1 350

16,4

8 355

2 970

216

113

9 245

289

50 048

3 240

72

14

10,8

52

288

127

9 256

289

50 100

3 240

: Stanton and others (2010).

, .
, (). . , , . 2008 . 14
, , , . , , ,
, - .
, , , ,
.



, , ( ), ,
, , .

: Ecosystem Marketplace (2009).


84

85

4:


.

,

,


.

4:

, , , , . . 4.4.

4.4:
:

2020 .:
$100-$200 .

2020 .: $1 .

()
()


,
,

,

( ).
,
,


,

.
.



,


.

.
(
), ( );
. 2007/2008 . , .
. , Simpson (2011)
,

. , , -
(2010) ,
: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4)
. Simpson, ,
, .
, : , , , (Parker and Cranford, 2010).
.
, . ,
.
, .
.
,
, (, , , , ..)
. , , , (TEEB, 2009 .), ,

86

. ,
, , ,
,
(Mercer, Cooley and Hamilton, 2011).
,

, .

.
, ,
: -REDD (UN-REDD, 2011; www.un-redd.org)
(Green Commodities Facility) (UNDP, 2010; www.undp.org/greencommodities).
, ,
.

4.4

,
, . (, ), ,
( , ), ,
( ). ,
, (
), . , ( ) , .

, ,
, .
. ,
1,5 2 . . , 3 6 . . (/IEA, 2010).
, , , .
, . 4.4
.
,
, , . ,

, .

87



,




,


.

4:

4.4:

4:

4.5:

. .
. , , .


,

,


.

. ,
, . , , , .
, ,
. ,
, .

()

() . , (
) ( ). ,
; , ,
. , ( ).
,
, , :
, ,
(, , ).


,
. : , .
,
.
, , (, ),
. , , , , , . , ,
, , ,
, .. , , , .., . . 4.5
.

88

( ,
)


,


,


,


.

. ,
, , ( ). : (, ,
,
) (, ,
, - , ).
: UNEP, 2009.

: Bayraktar (2010)

9;
, / , , , .
, , ,
. , , ,
, .
4.4, . (Hande Bayraktar, 2010), ,
, ,
.
,
,
,
.

89






.
, ,

,

,

(
, ..).

4:

4:

4.4:
-

(2008)
$19 .






,
,

$26 . -


, ..

- -

$3 .

~$1 .

- -

-,

,
.
. ,
-,
(Tallberg Project, 2011).
/ , . - ,
, ,
. , ,
-.

4.5

: Bayraktar (2010).

-
( )
-
.
: ,
, .
- - .
, . ,
J.P. Morgan (ODonohoe, 2010), , 400 . 1 . . ,
: , ,
, .
3000 . J.P. Morgan ,
- (Global Impact Investing Network)
1000 .
: ,
. , - ,
. -
( )
, (. 6
).
90

, , ,
, , (Tallberg
Project, 2011). .
.


. ,
: ,
(), (
, ) .


()
( ,
)

,
, , ,
.. , , .. , ,
, , .
,
,
.


, , , - .
: ,
, .
91

-
,



.

,


,

,
,
.



(
)


,


.

4:





,
, ,
,

..,
,
,
.

,


,

,
.

,
,
. /
, . ,
. , ,
; , ,
. , , ,
,
-, .


, , . ,
, ,
.
, , .
/
, ,
- , . (), , , ,
,

. 2,25% 5,23% ,
, 1215% (Ward, 2010).

4:



, , , . () , / .
( ) ,
.
(), . /
, 3 5 47 (UNEP, 2009).
, . , 1) , , 2) . , 2004 2009 .
35 . . ,
.
. , EMPEA/Coller Capital, , , .
, ,
, . , ,
, , (
, 2010 .).

/

, , , , . .
, .
, . , 2010
. MSS Capital, , ,
.
38 . . 1

; 12 25%.
100 . . 5 ,
15 (Environmental
Finance, April 2010).

92

,
, , . , .
, ,
( , ), .

93

4:

4.6:

( )


( ,
.)


()
:
: Yescombe (2002)

. 4.6,
. 70% .
, .
,
, ( , ), .

. , -
(, ..) . , , , .
, , , , .

5:


. 2009 .,
,
2012 , 26% 16 . . ( / Carbon
Finance, 2010).

94

95

5:

5
,
,

,

.




.
,
,
, : ,
, , .
,
.
,
. ,
,
,
.

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5:

5.1
, ,
(-), , ,
, . , , ,
, .
, , , . . , ,
. : , . 5.1 , .
, , ,
-, , , ().
,
, ,
, . ,
,
,
(UNEP, 2009).

, , ,
. . 5.1
, .

5.1 /

,
,


,
,

>50%
35%
15%

/ - ,

,


15%

LIBOR*
+ 700

LIBOR
+ 300

: UNEP (2009). * (LIBOR)


96

97


,



.


,

,



.

5:

5:

5.1:

()


(,
)


(
)

: Green Investing 2010, , 2010 .

5.2
.
(., , UN AGF).
,
, . , .
: , ,
. , ,
( , ,
..)

98

5.2:

, . ; ,

.
35
( , ),
2009 .,
. 2008 ., , 1976. ,
: 12% 1981 . 4% 2008 . ,
: 2008 . ( , ) 40%
.
,
. ,

, .
(IEA, 2010b), 10 . . , 4090 . ..
. ,
. ,
(IEA, 2010a 2010b).

99

...
,




,
,

5:

5:

5.3:

5.3

, , , 4,
. , , , . ,
.
,
, .
, . :

(, , ,
,
)

Carbon funds

: IEA (2010a, 14: ).

, ,
;
.

( , , REDD)
( , - ..)
( ..)
, , ,
, .
, , , - / , (www.climatefinanceoptions.org).

5.4: - /

, ,
.
, ,
. ,
( ) , ,
. .

: / (www.climatefinanceoptions.org)

100

101


,
...

5:

5.4








,
(),

().



,
,
1987 .

( 1990 .), ( 1992 .), (
1995 .), ( 1997 .)
( 1999 .). - ,

, , (), ,
.

10

, .

.
,
().
40% , () . ,

,
.
,
. , , CO2.
, , . , , , ,
, .
- , -
30 CO2-. :
20082012 . 5 CO2-.10 ,
, ,
, . ,
(, ), . ,
, , ,
,
. , ;
.
,
, , , . .
.
, ,

, , . . 5.5 ,
.

5:

5.5: ,
: ,


/

:

( )

/
:

:

(HFC 134a)
(HCFC 141b)

( )

,
, . ,
, , : ,
, , , , , (UNDP, 2010).
, . 5.6,
, , .
() 155 , 80
; 35%
. 2010 . , , 10% 17%
2020 .

, , ,
- . ,
.

:
102

103



,



-

30 CO2-.

5:

5.6:
, ,

/
n 0 50
n 51 -100
n 101-150
n 151-200
n 200+



,


.


=
+
+

5:

50%. 2,
, , , .
.
, , ,
, .

5.7:

300,000


25 ,

250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000

: Willcock and Swetnam, Valuing the Arc, presented by Prof. P.K.T. Munishi, December 2009. : http://www.valuingthearc.org.

5.5

4 ,
, . ,
, .

.
, . ,
, , (. WEF, 2010; Fulton, 2010; UNECE,
2010). .
: , , ,
.
-
, . . 5.7 ,
. , , 1218% 6% (Ward, 2010).
,
. ,
25 , 6% 12%,
104

14%

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

: Ward (2010).

( , ) ,
AAA
. , 2 5,23%
, ,
(Ward, 2010).
. , .
. , , , ,
, . .
, , , . , , ,
,
. 2008 . 1520%
. ,
30 50%.
, .
.
.
105

5:

5:

, , , ,
, . ,
; 675 . . (Crespo, 2008).
, ,
. .

() - .
. 5.8 ,
.
-
, . 5.2 (GEEREF), -
, .

5.8:

GEEREF 2008 . , , ( ) 10 .
. ,
110 . 20072011 . .
GEEREF - ,
, *,
.
, ,
.

5.2:

2007
110 .
( 200 .)

(GEEREF)

-
, (80
www.eif.org/
.)
about/geeref.htm

5.6


()


()


()

: Crespo (2008)

, . ( , ,
) .
, , .
,
, ,
. , , -.

, : , ,
.
* ,
(. .)

106

107

5:

, ,
, ;
, ;
;
;

5.10:

( , ..) ;

, ,

(. . 5.10).

, .
, 3 (. . 3.3),
. , (
, ), .
, 5.2;
, 5.3,; , 5.4;
- , 5.5.

5.9:






, :
,
,
.

3
(. 3.2). , ,
, , , .
:

5:

:
: ( )
(, ,
, )
(, , ..).
(, )

5.2
. 5.10, , ,
, .
5.3

5.4

, , : ;
( ); . (UNDP, 2011a).

5.5

108

109

6:


1:
2:

, ,

1: , , ,
.
2:

1: , ()
2:

1: () -
2:

110

Catalysing Climate Finance

111

6:






,
(UNFCCC, 2007) (IEA, 2009), 80% ,
,
. Robins (Robins, 2010)
,
, 20%
, 50%
( , ,
..) 80%
.

1:

2:

3:

4:

6:

6.1

.
, ,
, , ,
.
. ,
(Schwarz and Glemarec, 2009).

25% (1, 6 . ) (IEA, 2010c). .


; , ,
, , CO2 , .

2:


, :

3:



. ,
,
- ;
.
,
.
( ,
..), , , .
(REN 21, 2010) (. . 6.1).

:

, ,



(. ) .
112

1:

113

4:

6:

6:

6.1: , 2009 .

6.1:

320
300
280
260
220

200
180
160

1:

140

2:

: , , .

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

-27

: REN 21 (2010).

, , .
, .
, (REN 21, 2010).
;
.
, . , ,
.

114

.
, : 1)
; 2) , ; 3)
; 4) .

240





,


(REN 21, 2010).

;



.

, :
,
(, , ) (, ) .
, .

3:

:
, ..
,
- .
:
,
; , , .

4:

: ,
.
: (2011a).

6.1 (.
. 3, .3.3).

115

6:

, .
, .
, .

83 . .
; 2010 . , , 50 25 /
, 2005 . (REN 21,
2010). , , ,
, 3
.
.
. 6.2 , ( ,
, 15 25 ).

6.2:

,
..

t

t

2010 .
,
, 50
25 /,


2005 ..

t

t

t

:
( )
( , ,
/
( , .. )

6:

, , , .
. ,
. , , ,
. .
-
. , ,
, , . ,

. , , ,
. 6.1, , ,
,
(, ).
, - , ,
, . .
,
, , , , . 20
.

, ( ..), . , ,
.
5 , ,
. - ( , - ..).
(
)
; ,
. ,
, ; , ,
, ; ; ;
.

(, )

: Fulton (2011)

116

117

1:

2:


3:

4:

,

( ..),

.

6:

, . ,
, ( ).

. Schwarz (2008),
,
. , , , ,
(World Future Council, 2009).


(


)



;


,
.

, , ,
, , . ,
, ,
. , , , , , , , .
, .

6:

6.3: GET FiT

2:

()



( )

GET FiT

3:

GET FiT

(GET FiT)
. . 6.3
GET FiT.


(DBCCA) 2010 .
.
GET FiT . GET FiT ,

, , .

1:

( )


( )

4:

: Fulton (2010)

118

119

6:

GET FiT , . , .
, (
) , . ,
,
.
, ,

, . , , ,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
.
, .
. ,
(Mendonca, Jacobs and Sovacol, 2010).

.

(UNDP, 2011a).

6:

:


1:

; , - .
- , (
, , ),
:
5,2 . ; 20 ,

5 . . .
, 2009 . Eskom
, ,
3 .
, 2015 .
5 . 1 , , 1,5 . 2 .
. .

, . ,
.
() , ,
.
, , , , NAMA , .
Source: United Nations Secretariat, 2010

120

121

1:

2:


3:

4:

6:

2:


. . 2007/2008
. 40 .
147 . , 6,5 .
2000 . 25 . 2008 . 80% , , , .
20092025 .,
. 35% 2025 .


, , , , . /
,
2010 . 80%
. ,
. ,
- () ;
25 .
: Black (2011).

6:

6.2

, ,

1:

2,7 . . , 2,8 . 2030 . (IEA,


2010c). . (), 1,45 .
(WHO, 2008). ,
(IEA, 2010c) , 2030 . 1,5 . ,
, -.

, , . ,
,
, .
, ,
. CO2 ;
, , .
50% (Ezzati and others, 2000). , , , , , ,
(Matiru and Schaffler, 2011).

.
, :
;
;

2:

3:

4:

;
,
;
;
, .
,

, .

122

123

(),
1,45

(),
.

1,45 .

(WHO, 2008).


(WHO, 2008).

6:

2
,



,



,
, ,
.

, ,
, , , . 6.2 .

6.2:

:
, ;
, ,
. .
,
, , .
,
, (11 2009 .) (WHO and UNDP, 2009).

6:

()
,

1:

, .

, , , , , ,
(UNCDF, 2011).
. 6.4 .
, ,
, .

2:



: , ,
, .

6.4:

3:

:
.
: ,
,
, , .

: ,
,
, .

, ;
. (, ) .

, - :
/

: ( );
, .

t
t
t


t


t



t



t


t


tj
x 

4:



:
/

( ); REDD+ ..


124

125

6:

, , . , . .
-
- , .





,


.

,
( ). , , , ,
. , , , , , .
,
, , (.
).
. . , ,
, .
, , .
( ),
.
, , .
, , .

, . , .

6:


. 50%
70% (Brinkmann and Klingshirn, 2005; Gibbons, Sai and vuong,
2009; Limmeechokchaia and Chawana, 2006). , (, ),
CO2: , 1 CO2 .
( ) , , , .
,
-.

,
. (), , , .
.
,
(.
).
REDD+ (. 4, 4.3 ).
REDD+,

. ,
, , ,
REDD+
. , REDD+, ,

, . REDD+
.


. .
-
.

126

127

1:

2:


3:

4:

6:

:
, ,



1: , ,

,
.
95% 20 000 (, , ) .
1996 . (), ,
(RETAP) 20 . . 160
. (
50 000 . ),
, .
, /
,
, ,
20072010 . 1 . . ( 200 . . , ). 1500 1000 ,
, 500 000 .

(RTE) , .
2010 . RETAP, ( )
.
( , ,
) .
, ,
(SREP), .

6:

2:

: 60%
85% .
, 1960- . 85% .
.
, , , - Turbococina . Turbococina, ,
, 90% . 3,3
0,3 .
- Technologias Ecologicas
Centroamericanas (TECSA), : (MINED) (MARN). TECSA
-:
,
. Turbococina .
3500 . Turbococina , Progama de Alimentacion Escolar.
750 Turbococina 300 . , Comunidades
Solidarias Rurales, 100 000 .

, .
. ,
. AMS-II.G, , 45 2-. ,
500 . . , 2011 .
2008 ., .
:

/ ,

(2011). () .
RTE/RETAP , , . , , (Matiru and Schaffler, 2011).
: Black (2011); SGP (2003).
128

129

1:

2:


3:

4:

6:

:

,
.
: ,
Programa de Alimentacion Escolar, .
: , . ,
Turbococina .
: TECSA , , ,
.
: Salomon and Waissbein (2011).

6:

6.3

, , , .
. , ,
.

, , , , (Schwarz, 2010).
, , , . ,
, - ,
. ,
,
. ,
.

, ,
.
, : ,
, , , . .
, 400
2009 . (SGP, 2010). . :
.
. , ,
,
.
, .

, , ,
. 6.3 .

,
, . , ,

- . , , , ,
. , .

130

131

1:

2:


3:

4:

,




,

,


.

6:

6:

6.3:

: . . .

: , . , , :
, , , , , ..


/ , . , ,
. ,
, ,
,
.

: , , ,
, . , ,
. , , ,
. , , .
.
: , .
,
.

, :
, ( , ,
(IEA, 2008b). , , ( ,
) .
, , , ( , , , ),
.

t

2:

t

t
t

t

t

3:

4:

:
/
( ) ..

( ),
( ). , , (Fuller, Kunkel and Kammen, 2009).
,
. , ,
. ,
, ;
, .

: /UNDP (2011a); Schwarz (2010).


132

1:


TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION

6.5:

, : ,
, , ,
, , , .

6.5 ,
, .

133

6:

, ,



(Fuller, Kunkel and
Kammen, 2009).

6:

,
, , , ,
, . , , , , .

. (Tallberg Project, 2011).


, , ,
, , ,
(). (. ).

1: ,

()

, ,
, , , ,
.
,
. , .
.


. .
.

:
, ,


,
( )
, , ,

.

(UNDP, 2011a).

1:

. ,
, , ,
,
. , , .
.
, .
14 , .
1997 . 300 000 .
1,7 . . , -.
. 1999 . 18
(, , ) 300 . ,
, :
, .
, , , , ( , ,
, , ..).

725 000 . 1 . . .
. , ,

. ,
.
,
, .
, , 20% .
.
: Soriano and Alders (2011); Pool and Lodon (2007).

134

135

2:


3:

4:

6:

6:

2:

6.4

3 746 758 (2007). 96% 65% .


1960 1980 .
, .
.
( ,
). . , , , 23%
.

, , . ,
(), ,
, , . , .
, ,
(), (. 6.4).
. , ,
, ; (Tamminen, 2006). , , ,
, , .

1200 . ,
40 60%
. , 5000 , 14% .
, ,
, : ;
; ( / ).
2007 . () .
/
, , /
, : a)
, ) ; c) .
2010 ., 1063 50 . 2011 .
/
(http://www.eusew.eu/awards-competition).
4 . .
/ , , , 1.2
( ).
15 .
: Stoyanova, Zlatareva and Dinu (2011).

136

6.4:

()
-1,3

(CO)


; /

;


;

,

1:

2:


3:

4:

: Tamminen (2006).

,
. ,
, , 90% ( ) (IEA, 2009). ,
, 750
2007 . 1,8 2,7 2050 . (IEA, 2010a).

, ,
; ; - . , 20% CO2,
, 80% 2050 .
.

137

6:


. , , .
, ,
, , , , .
, , ,
(, ).

, , . 6.5 .

6.5: ,

:

. ,
( , ,
,
) . ,
,
, ,
, .
:
. , . ,
, -
.

:
, , , .

: , , ,
,
, .

6:

. 6.6
.
,
,

.

,
, .
, , . , , ,
1989 . 1990- . . 2000 .
, , . 2010 . ,
.

(
). 100
. (
, ) .
, .
, , . , , , , ,
, , , .
,
.
,
(, , ) . , ,
,
.

2:


3:

4:

,
, , , ,
.


,
.

: , , , .
: ,
.

138

1:

139

6:

/
( ) ,

,
,
, ,

,


,

.

6.6:

t



t

t

t
..

:
( )


6:

,
. ,
, , ,
,
,
. (Caldecott, 2010).
, , , , . ,
Renault Fluence.
Renault, ,
, (Motavilli, 2011).

, , 15 .
. ,
(Barboza, 2010).
, , . , Fluence Renault 5000
(6994 ) (Motavilli, 2011).

2:

, ,

. 0,5% , , (UNEP/ Riso, 2010).
, (UNDP, 2011). , , . NAMA
,
, .
2011 ., 26 43 , ,
(Dalkmann and others, 2011).


(UNDP, 2011a).

, .
-.
.

, , , , (. 2
). ,
, . .

140

1:

141

3:

4:

6:

:

1:
() -
, 25% 60% -, . , ,
CO2 .
, ,
.
,
.
SPG/ 40 000 .

() . ,
, . ().
. ,
() , ,
. , .
.

6:

- .
, . , 25
.
,
. - : Cento
Lanka, Ceylinko Consolidated, Super Star (pvt) Ltd ,
, . ( ),
( ). ,
, , .
: Eco-Hotelier
Sanasuma Development (pvt) Ltd ,
.

2:


: Gitonga (2005).

3:

. . , , 10
. , , ,
:
, ,
. , , , .

142

1:

4:

143

6:

2:
, ,
, . , . ,
2002 .
, , , , .
. .
, ,
,
. , , ,
. , 270 ,
.
.
. ,
9,1 . .

/ ( 15,9 . . ) ( ) . / , .
2010 .
90 , 100
. , . 20
. 13 .
600 000
.
: Soriano (2011).

144

145

,
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
.
,
,
. ,
, , , .
, , . ,
, ,
,
.
, ,

.
, , ,
.

. : , , ,
.
: .


. , ,
, ,
, : , , ,
, . , .
. , ,
, , .
.
.
, (
)
.
, , ,
.
, .
, , .

. , ,
.

, .
. :
, .
, , , , , . ,
, ,
, ,
.

146

147

148

Catalysing Climate Finance

149


,
(,
).




, .

,
,

,
().
-
,
.


,
,
,
()
(), .

() ,
: ,
-, ,
, ; ,
.
- ,

.
, ,
,
, .
, , , , , , . /
.
,
.

,
150


()
, ,
,

( ). ,
,
,
. .

() C2, ,
. 2-.
.
() CO2-,

( 6
).
()

(CO2-.),
.
, ,
,
,

, , , ,
.
.
, , .

(, , ..),

,
.
( )
(
) (Burton and Huq, et al., 2004)

, ,
.

,
, , , .., , ,
.

, : , , .

()
1997 . . ().
, . ,
,
( , , , , ) 5%
1990 .
2008 2012 . 16 2005 .

() -
,
, , , .

,

.

, ,

.
() - 12 : 1) ,
I ,
; 2) , I ,


.
- ,
, 1987 . ( 1990 .), ( 1992
.), ( 1995 .), ( 1997 .)
( 1999 .). -
, , ,
(), ,
.

, , .
. , ,
, ( 1 30 ). , ,
,
(
),
.
151

. ,
, .
, , ,

, ,
, .
.
(H2O), (CO2), (N2O), (CH4) (O3) ,
. CO2, N2O, CH4,
(SF6),
() ().
(, ..).

,

,
,
.
.
,
.

.
,
,
, . , , ,
.
, ,
. 152

, , .
( )
, , 35
.
,
( )
.
, -,
,
(
)
.
( ) 9 1992 .
. - 150 -- 1992 .

,
.
. , ,
I, 2000
.
, , 1990 .
1994 .
, ,
.
, 6 , ,
I, ,
,

,
().


(NAMA)
,
. ,

; , ,
, .
,
, , : , ,
, .


, , ,
,
. , ( ) ,
.
/,
I , I (
, 1998 .) ,
.
4.2 (a) 4.2 (b) , ,
I,
2000 .
1990
. () ,
I.
/,
II ,
II , .
4.2 (g) ,


, ,
. ,
II, .

/, B , B
,
, ,
I ( ,
1998 .),
.
()
, .
()
- .
;

, , ,
, .

.



,
.
. ,

,


.
, ,
() ,
( ).
153

,
,
: , ,
.

, ,
, 35
.
,
, .


.

,
.


, ,
.
,
, ,
. .
,
(Herring, 2008).
,


,
. ,
, , ,

.

() ,

, ,
(
)
.

154

155

Agrawala, Shardul, and Samuel Fankhauser, eds. (2008). Economic

Coady, David, and others (2010). Petroleum product subsidies:

Policy Instruments. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation


and Development.

International Monetary Fund.

Fulton, Mark, ed. (2007). Investing in Climate Change: An Asset


Management Perspective. Deutsche Asset Management. New York:
Deutsche Bank Group.

Cosbey, Aaron, and others (2005). Realizing the Development Dividend:


Making the CDM Work for Developing Countries (Phase I Report).
Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development.

Fulton, Mark, ed. (2010). GET FiT Program: Global Energy Transfer Feed-in
New York: Deutsche Bank Group.
Available from www.dbcca.com/research.

Cosbey, Aaron, and others (2006). Making Development Work in


the CDM: Phase II of the Development Dividend Project. Winnipeg:
International Institute for Sustainable Development.

Fulton, Mark, ed. (2011). GET FiT Plus: De-Risking Clean Energy Business
Models in a Developing Country Context. New York: Deutsche Bank
Group. Available from http://www.dbcca.com/dbcca/EN/investmentresearch/investment_research_2367.jsp.

climate change: a mapping of climate portfolios. SEI Working Paper.


Stockholm: Stockholm Environmental Institute. Available from
http://www.sei-international.org/publications?pid=1324.
Averchenkova, Alina (2010). How to Guide on Low-emission
Development Strategies and Nationally Appropriate Mitigation
Actions: Eastern Europe and CIS. New York: United Nations
Development Programme.
Barboza, David (2010). China to invest billions in electric and hybrid
cars. New York Times, August 19.
Bayraktar, H. (2010). Institutional Investors and Climate Change
Financing. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
(LECRD): UNDP case studies from South Africa and the region.
Slides presented at ICLEI Local Climate Change Solutions for Africa
Conference 2011. 28 February.
Black, Lucas (2011). Supporting countries to transition to low-emission,
climate-resilient development
Bloomberg New Energy Finance (2010). Weathering the Storm:
Public Funding for Low-Carbon Energy in the Post Financial Crisis Era.
UNEP SEF Alliance. Available from http://bnef.com/free-publications/
white-papers/0.
Boyle, Rohan, and others (2008). Global Trends in Sustainable Energy
Investment 2008: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of
United Nations Environment
Programme; SEFI; and New Energy Finance Ltd. Available from
www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues.../Global_Trends_2008.pdf.

Costello, Christopher and Michael Ward (2006). Search, bioprospecting


and biodiversity conservation. Journal of Environmental Economics and
Management, vol. 52, No. 3 (November), pp. 615626.
Crespo, Jacqueline R. (2008). SEF Alliance public venture capital study.
Slides presented in London, 11 November. New Energy Finance.
Dalkmann, Holger and others (2011). Cancun can, can land transport? A
summary of the proceedings from the United Nations Climate Change
port sector. Bridging the gap. Available from www.transport2012.org.
De Gouvello, Christophe, Felix B. Dayo, and Massamba Thioye (2008).
Low-Carbon Energy Projects for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa:
Unveling the Potential, Addressing the Barriers. Washington DC:
The World Bank.
Economics of Climate Adaptation Working Group (2009). Shaping
Climate-Resilient Development: A Framework for Decision-Making.
Washington D.C. Economics of Climate Adaptation.
Emerging Markets Private Equity Association (2010). Emerging markets
to gain greater share of private equity commitments as investors seek
high growth markets, 19 April. Available from www.preqveca.ru/
news/2007/.
Cundy, Christopher (2010). MSS launches suite of sustainable forestry

Bredenkamp, Hugh, and Catherine A. Pattillo (2010). Financing the

Global Environment Facility Science and Technical Advisory Panel


(2010). Payments for Environmental Services and the Global Environment
Facility: A STAP Advisory Document. GEF; UNEP.
German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). Climate Change as
a Security Risk, London: Earthscan.
Gibbons, Drew, Nii Sai Sai, and Bao Vuong (2009). Improved Cookstoves
Project: Scale up to Northern Ghana & Ghana School Feeding Program:
Biogas Installation Update. Berkeley: University California Berkeley.
Gitonga, Stephen (2005). Partnerships in shaping national policy.
SGP Publications: Climate Change. New York: United Nations
Development Programme.
Glemarec, Yannick, Oliver Waissbein, and and Hande Bayraktar
(2010). Human development in a changing climate: a framework
Development Programme.
Green Investment Bank Commission (2010). Unlocking Investment to
Deliver Britains Low Carbon Future. London.
for investment grade policy. Energy, Environment and Development
Programme Paper: 09/04. London: Chatham House.

Ernst and Young (2010). Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness


Indices, Issue 27. Available from http://www.ey.com/GL/en/Industries/
Oil---Gas/Oil_Gas_Renewable_Energy_Attractiveness-Indices.

How to Create Marginal Abatement Cost Curves in Excel (2010).


Somar Energy Saving News. Available from http://www.energy-savingnews.com/2010/10/marginal-abatement-cost-curves-how-to-createone-using-excel/#ixzz1K5ZFDP7J. Under Creative Commons
License: Attribution

Ervin J. and others (2010). Protected Areas for the 21st Century: Lesson
from UNDP/GEFs Portfolio. New York: United Nations Development
Programme. Montreal: Convention on Biological Diversity.

Inderst, G. (2009). Pension fund investment in infrastructure. OECD


Working Papers on Private Pensions and Insurance, No. 32. Paris:
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Calvello, Angelo (2010). Environmental Alpha: Institutional Investors and


Climate Change. Hoboken, US: John Wiley & Sons.

Ezzati, Majid, Bernard M. Mbinda, and Daniel M. Kammen (2000).


Comparison of emissions and residential exposure from traditional and
improved cookstoves in Kenya. Environmental Science & Technology,
vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 578583.

Carbon Finance (2010). Carbon fund managers upbeat on 2010, 27

Fuller, Merrian C, Cathy Kunkel, and Daniel M. Kammen (2009). Guide

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007). Climate


Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and
III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A.
(eds.)]. Geneva.

index.cfm?section=lead&action=view&id=12682.

Governments. Berkeley: University of California.

news/view/1087.
International Monetary Fund.
Brinkmann, Verena and Agnes Klingshirn (2005). Stove Producers Assess
Their Impact: Methodology and Results of a ProBEC participatory Impact
Assessment. Pretoria, South Africa: Programme for Biomass Energy
Conservation, GTZ.
Caldecott, Ben (2010). Green infrastructure bonds: accessing the
scale of low-cost capital required to tackle climate change. ThinkTank
Publications (December). London: Climate Change Capital.

International Energy Agency (2006). World Energy Outlook 2006. Paris.

156

International Energy Agency (2008a). Energy Technology Perspectives


2008: Scenarios & Strategies to 2050. Paris.
International Energy Agency (2008b). World Energy Outlook 2008. Paris.
International Energy Agency (2009). World Energy Outlook 2009. Paris.
International Energy Agency (2010a). Energy Technology
Perspectives 2010. Paris.
International Energy Agency (2010b). Global Gaps in Clean Energy
RD&D: Update and Recommendations for International
Collaboration. Paris.
International Energy Agency (2010c). World Energy Outlook 2010. Paris.
Janda, Kathryn B. (2009). Buildings dont use energy: people do. In
Proceedings of the International Conference on Passive and Low Energy
Architecture (PLEA 2009), Claude MH Demers and Andr Potvin, eds.
Qubec: Les Presses de lUniversit Laval.
Jones, Drew, and others (2010). Leaders for a new climate: day 1.
Slides presented at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Slone
Management. Climate Interactive. Available from http://www.
climateinteractive.org/resources/course-materials/leaders-for-a-newclimate-2010/LNC%20Day%201.pdf/view.
Justice, Sophie (2009). Private Financing of Renewable Energy: A Guide
for Policymakers. United Nations Environment Programme; Bloomberg
New Energy Finance; Chatham House. Available from http://www.
chathamhouse.org.uk/publications/papers/view/-/id/811/.
Klein, Richard and others (2008). International climate policy.
A Stockholm Environment Institute policy brief for the Commission
on Climate Change and Development. Stockholm: Stockholm
Environment Institute.
Laan, Tara (2010): Gaining traction: the importance of transparency
in accelerating the reform of fossil-fuel subsidies. Untold Billions:
Fossil-fuel Subsidies, Their Impacts and the Path to Reform.Geneva:
International Institute for Sustainable Development.
Lerner, Josh, with Felda Hardymon and Ann Leamon (2008). Venture
Capital & Private Equity: A Casebook, Fourth Edition. New York: John
Wiley & Sons.
Limmeechokchaia, Bundit and Saichit Chawana (2006). Sustainable
energy development strategies in the rural Thailand: The case of the
improved cooking stove and the small biogas digester. Renewable
Energy Reviews, vol. 11, No. 5 (June), pp. 818837.
Lin, Jiang (2002).
in China. Annual Review of Energy Environment, Vol. 27, pp. 349367.
Madsen, Becca, Nathaniel Carroll, and Kelly Moore Brands (2010).
Worldwide. Washington D.C.: Ecosystem Market Place. Available
from http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/documents/acrobat/
sbdmr.pdf.
157

Matiru V
in Kenya: Terminal Project Evaluation. New York: United Nations
Development Programme.
McKinsey Global Institute (2008). The Case for Investing in Energy
Productivity. San Francisco: McKinsey & Company.
McKinsey Global Institute (2009). Global Capital Markets: Entering a New
Era. San Francisco: McKinsey & Company.

Federal Regulations and Unfunded Mandates on States, Local and


Tribal Entities. Washington, D.C. Available http://www.whitehouse.gov/
omb/inforeg_regpol_reports_congress/.
Ogden, Doug (2004). Chinas Energy Challenge. San Francisco:
Energy Foundation.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005).

Robins, Nick and others (2010). Sizing the climate economic. Global
Climate Change (September). HSBC Global Research. Available from
http://www.research.hsbc.com/midas/Res/RDV?ao=20&key=wU4Bbdy
Rmz&n=276049.PDF.
Rossi, Andrea and Yianna Lambrou (2009). Making Sustainable Biofuels
Work for Smallholder Farmers and Rural Households: Issues and
Perspectives. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation.

and Reference Series. Paris.

Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (2008).


Renewables 2007: Global Status Report. Paris: REN 21 Secretariat;
Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2009).


TGHG Mitigation Actions: MRV Issues and Options. Paris.

Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (2010).


Renewables 2010: Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat.

London: Earthscan.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2010).


Taxation, Innovation and the Environment. Paris.

Schroeder, Frank (2006).


Conference: the concept is gaining currency but major challenges.

Mercer, D. Evans, David Cooley, and Katherine Hamilton (2011). Taking


Stock: Payments for Forest Ecosystem Services in the United States,
Washington D.C.: Ecosystem Market Place.

Parker, Charlie, and Matthew Cranford (2010). The Little Biodiversity


Finance Book: A guide to Proactive Investment in Natural Capital. Oxford:
Global Canopy Foundation.

Metz, Bert, and others, eds. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Mitigation.
Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge and New York:
Cambridge University Press.

Parker, Charlie, Jessica Brown, and Jonathan Pickering (2009). The Little
Climate Finance Book: A Guide to Financing Options for Forests and
Climate Change. Oxford: Global Canopy Foundation.

McKinsey & Company (2009). Pathway to a Low Carbon Economy:


Version 2.0 of the Global GHG Abatement Cost Curve. Available from
https://solutions.mckinsey.com/ClimateDesk/default.aspx.
Mendonca, Miquel, David Jacobs, and Benjamin Sovacol (2010).

Mignone B. K., and others (2008). Atmospheric stabilization and


the timing of carbon stabilization. Climate Change, vol. 88, No. 34,
pp. 251265.
Mills, Paul (2008). The greening of markets. Finance and Development,
vol. 45, No. 1 (March), pp. 31-36.
Motavilli, Jim (2011). Better place reveals E.V. charging plan and
customer center in Denmark. New York Times, 4 March.
Munang, Richard, and others (2010). The role of ecosystems in developing a sustainable green economy. UNEP Policy Series: Ecosystem
Management, Policy Brief 2. Nairobi: United Nations Environment
Programme.
Nasseri, Ladane, and Caroline Alexander (2010). Iran cuts energy subsidies as sanctions take toll. Bloomberg, 19 December. Available from
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-12-19/iran-begins-cuttingenergy-subsidies-as-united-nations-sanctions-take-toll.html.
National Academy of Sciences (2010). Adapting to the Impacts of Climate
Change. Washington D.C.: The National Academy Press.

Parker, Kevin, ed. (2009). Paying for Renewable Energy: TLC at the
New York:
Deutsche Bank Group. Available from www.dbcca.com/research.
Parry, Martin, and others, eds. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts,
Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the
Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pate, Ron R., and others (2007). Overview of Energy-Water
Interdependencies and the Emerging Energy Demands on Water
Resources. Albuquerque, US: Sandia National Laboratories.
Pool, F., and E. Lodon (2007).
Building in Mongolia. UNDP-GEF Final Evaluation Report. Ulan Bator.
The Pew Charitable Trusts (2011). Whos Winning the Clean Energy
Race? Growth, Competition and Opportunity in the Worlds Largest
Economies. Washington D.C.; Philadelphia.
Point Carbon (2011). Whos in, Whos out: Credit Eligibility after
2012. London.
Project Catalyst (2010).

ODonohoe, Nick, and others (2010). Impact investments: an emerging


asset class. Global Research. New York: J.P. Morgan.
growth_formated.pdf.
Rao, P. K. (2011). The Architecture of Green Economic Policies.
Heidelberg, Springer.

158

Schwarz, Virginie, and Yannick Glemarec (2009). Energy access and


climate change mitigation: friends or foes? In Rethinking Development
in a Carbon-Constrained World: Development Cooperation and Climate
Change,
Schwarz, Virginie (2008). Promotion of Wind Energy: Lessons Learned
from International Experience and UNDP-GEF Projects. New York: United
Nations Development Programme.
Schwarz, Virginie (2010).
Lessons Learned from International Experience. New York: United
Nations Development Programme.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2011).
Incentive measures for the conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity: case studies and lessons learnt. CBD Technical
Series No.56. Montreal.
SEF Alliance (2009). Why Clean Energy Public Investment Makes
Economic Sense-The Evidence Base. United Nations Environment
Programme. Available from www.unep.org/publications/search/
pub_details_s.asp?ID=6158.
Simon, Gregory, Adam G. Bumpus, and Philip Mann (2010). Win-Win
Scenarios at the Climate-Development Interface: Challenges and
Opportunities for Cookstove Replacement Programs Through Carbon
Finance. Denver: University of Colorado.
Simpson, David R. (2011). The Ecosystem Service Framework: a critical
assessment. Ecosystem Services Economics Working Paper Series, No. 5.
Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.
Small Grants Programme (2003). Community Action to Address Climate
Change: Case studies Linking Sustainable Energy Use with Improved
Livelihoods. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
Small Grants Programme (2010).
Resilient Housing for the Poor in Pakistan. New York: United Nations
Development Programme.

Smith, Doug M. and others (2007). Improved surface temperature prediction for the coming decade from a global climate model. Science, vol. 317,
No. 5839 (August), pp. 796-799.
Soriano, Manual and Marcel Alers (2011). United Nations Development
Stanton, Tracy, and others (2010). State of Watershed Payments: An
Emerging Marketplace. Ecosystem Marketplace. Available from http://
Stern, Nicholas (2006). Stern Review on the Economics of Climate
Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stoyanova, Tatyana, Maria Zlatareva, and Adriana Dinu (2011). United
SunRun (2011). The Impact of Local Permitting on the Cost of Solar Power.
Available from www.sunrunhome.com/.../solar-report-on-cost-of-solarlocal-permitting.original.pdf.
Tallberg Project (2010) Rework the World. Stockholm:
Tallberg Foundation.
Tamminen, Terry (2006). Lives Per Gallon: The True Cost of Our Oil
Addiction. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems
(2010). More Money for Health, and More Health for the Money.
International Health Partnership. Available from www.internationalhealthpartnership.net/.../Final%20Taskforce%20Report.pdf.
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (2010). The Economics
of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature:
A synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB.
Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (2009). TEEB The
Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for National and International
Policy Makers. Wesseling: United Nations Environment Programme.
United Nations Capital Development Fund (2011). CLEAN START:
Sustainable Model of Renewable Energy Finance for Low-Income
Households and Micro-Entrepreneurs. New York.
United Nations Development Programme (2004). Gender and Energy for
Sustainable Development: A Toolkit and Resource Guide. New York.
United Nations Development Programme (2006). The Clean
Development Mechanism: An Assessment of Progress. New York.
United Nations Development Programme (2007). MDG Carbon Facility:
Leveraging Carbon Finance for Sustainable Development. New York.
United Nations Development Programme (2007). Human Development
Report 2007-2008: Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a
Divided World. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

159

United Nations Development Programme (2009a). Charting a New


Low-Carbon Route to Development: A Primer on Integrated Climate
Change Planning for Regional Governments. New York.
United Nations Development Programme (2009b).
Cost Housing for the Poor in Thatta, Badin and Karachi Districts.
Karachi, Pakistan.
United Nations Development Programme (2009c). Market
New York.
United Nations Development Programme (2010a). UNDP and Energy
Access for the Poor: Energizing the Millennium Development Goals.
New York.
United Nations Development Programme (2010b). UNDP Green
Commodity Facility. New York.
United Nations Development Programme, and United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (2010). Handbook for
Conducting Technology Needs Assessment for Climate Change.
New York.
United Nations Development Programme, and PWC (2010). Habitat
Banking in Latin America and Caribbean: A Feasibility Assessment.
New York.
United Nations Development Programme (2011a). Policy and Financial
Instruments for Low-Emission Climate-Resilient Development. New York.

United Nations Environment Programme, and Stockholm


Environmental Institute (2010). Bilateral Finance Institutions and
Climate Change: A Mapping of 2009 Climate Financial Flows to
Developing Countries. Available from http://www.unep.org/pdf/dtie/
BilateralFinanceInstitutionsCC.pdf.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat
(2007). Investment and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change.
background_paper.pdf.
UN-REDD (2011). 2010 Year in Review. Geneva.
United Nations Secretariat (2010). Report of the UN Secretary Generals
High-Level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing. New York.
United States National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council
(2010). Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change, Americas Climate
Choices, Report to Congress. Washington D.C.
Victor, David (2009). The politics of fossil-fuel subsidies. Untold Billions:
Fossil-fuel Subsidies, Their Impacts and the Path to Reform. Geneva:
International Institute for Sustainable Development.
Ward, Murray (2010). Engaging Private Sector Capital at Scale in
Financing Low-Carbon Infrastructure in Developing Countries. Auckland:
Global Climate Change Consultancy.
Willcock and Swetnam, Valuing the Arc, presented by Prof. P.K.T.
Munishi, December 2009. Available from http://www.valuingthearc.org.

United Nations Development Programme (2011b). Preparing


Low-Emission Climate-Resilient Development Strategies: A UNDP
Guidebook. New York.

World Bank (2005). Environmental Fiscal Reform: What Should Be Done


and How to Achieve It. Washington D.C.

United Nations Development Programme (2011c). Establishing National


Climate Funds: Guidebook for Development Practitioners. New York.

World Bank (2010). The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change.


Washington D.C.

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (2010). Financing


global climate change mitigation. The ECE Energy Series, No. 37. Sales
No. E.10.11.E.1

World Energy Council (2004).


Indicators, Policies, and Evaluation. London.

United Nations Environment Programme (2008). Public Finance


Mechanisms to Mobilize Investment in Climate Change Mitigation: An
Overview of Mechanisms Being Used Today to Help Scale-Up the Climate
Mitigation Markets, with a Particular Focus on the Clean Energy Sector.
United Nations Environment Programme (2009). Global Trends in
Sustainable Energy Investment 2009: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the
United Nations
Environment Programme and Bloomberg New Energy Finance Ltd.
Available from www.unep.org/pdf/Global_trends_report_2009.pdf.
United Nations Environment Programme (2010). Global Trends in
Sustainable Energy Investment 2010: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the
UNEP; Blomberg
New Energy Finance Ltd. Available from bnef.com/WhitePapers/
download/30.

160

World Economic Forum (2010). Green Investing 2010: Policy Mechanisms


to Bridge the Financing Gap. Geneva.
World Future Council (2009). Unleashing Renewable Energy Power in
Developing Countries: Proposal for a Global Renewable Energy Policy
Fund. Hamburg.
World Health Organization, and United Nations Development
Programme (2009). The Energy Access Situation in Developing Countries:
A Review Focusing on the Least Developed Countries and Sub-Saharan
Africa. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
World Health Organization (2008): The Global Burden of Disease: 2004
Update. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Yescombe, E. R. (2002): Principles of Project Finance. London:
Academic Press.

161

,
,

304 East 45th Street, 9th Floor New York, NY 10017 USA
www.undp.org
162