" "
EuroSim

2014

" "
EuroSim

2014
681.3.06
32.973.26018.2
63
Computer Modeling and Simulation : 
, 24 2014 . . :  . , 2014. 171 .
2014
( 2014), 
(),
EuroSim.
:
,
, ,
.
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.
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International scientific and technical conference "Computer Modeling and Simulation2014
(COMOD 2014) was organized by Saint Petersburg state Polytechnical University, National
Simulation Society, with assistance of Federation of European Simulation Societies EuroSim.
Complex natural, technical and industrial systems require complex mathematical models and
sophisticated technology to develop, research and visualization. Modern visual simulation
environments are the basis of these technologies and are used in scientific research, industrial
design, education.
Significant attention was paid to the joint operation of complex technical systems, problems of
electromagnetic compatibility. Consideration of the problems of mathematical modeling in
electric power industry, again becoming more and more popular in Russia was new for the
COMOD  2014.
The Conference Subjects were: mathematical and numerical modeling; development and
application of visual modeling environment of complex dynamic systems; modeling in electrical
engineering and electric power industry; projects of young scientists; author's presentation of new
books; author's presentation of software systems; information about planned and completed
theses; author's lectures about software products and subsequent issuance of certificates.
Editor Chairman of Organizing Committee,
Prof. Yuri Senichenkov
ISBN 9785742244943

, 2014
CONTENTS
Plenary lectures
Borut Zupani Realisation Preserving Modelling in Modelic...
16
19
24
27
32
35
39
43
45
47
55
59
64
68
72
75
81
86
the Workbench for Domain of Ore Transportation in the Mines Bundled Software
Rudopotok
Dairbayev A., Belgibayev B., Dairbayeva S. Determination of Surface Roughness
Using ThreeDimensional Graphics.....
Gornov A.Yu. Software OPTCONA for Solving Nonconvex Problems of
Parametric Identification of Dynamical Systems.....
Mityukov V.V. Universal Software for Conversion Discrete Sequences to
Continuous Relationships.
Parshikov I.A., Baum P.I., Petukhov V.N., Timofeev K.A., Shchekaturov A.M.
Simintech for Automated Process Control System Development...
Shornikov Yu.V., Bessonov A.V., Myssak M.S., Dostovalov D.N. Using ISMA
Simulation Environment for Numerical Solution of Hybrid Systems with PDE....
Zarodnyuk T.S. Software for the Computational Solving of Nonconvex Relay
Optimal Control Problems...
87
91
95
96
97
101
109
110
113
118
123
128
135
141
145
150
155
162
165
167
168
I.
INTRODUCTION (Heading 1)
II.
D. Hybrid features
This means that continuoustime, discretetime and
discontinuous modelling are supported. Such approach
demands many original solutions in symbolic processing and in
run time during simulation. Events can be periodically or
relation (state) triggered. The variable structure models which
can be studied in such environments are very useful especially
in control systems studies.
E. Symbolic processing
Multidomain OO modelling tools have a modelling preprocessor with some basic functions. Each variable (unknown)
must be calculated from a single equation. The equations
should be sorted on the way that all variables on the right hand
side are calculated before the equation is executed (in each step
size). Size and complexity is also reduced in this stage
(elimination of trivial equations v1=v2, symbolic elimination
of algebraic loops, reduction of the problem size (number of
unknowns) with tearing, index reduction, ).
III.
EDUCATION APPLICATIONS
1
Out1
Clock
1
s
u
Abs
Dot Product
Integrator
CRITERION FUNCTION
levels
To Workspace
ERROR
Level3
PUMP
LEVELS
PID
REF. for LEVEL3
PI contoller
K
Pump
Level2
P contoller Saturation
Level1
DymolaBlock
To confirm the efficiency of the combination of the MatlabSimulink and DymolaModelica we modelled the following
control system: with controlled pump the level in the Tank 3
must be controlled to the level 0.1m. At time t=0 the reference
step change 0.1m appeared and at time t=200s there was a
disturbance: the valve V1 was opened for 20%.
A cascade controller with Matlab Optimisation Toolbox
(function fminsearc for multidimensional unconstrained
nonlinear minimization (NelderMead)) was developed. The
objective function was
400
t e(t ) dt
Of
tank2
V23
V
3
2
CV
p...
V12
tank3
h
Disturbance
3
tank
startTime={200}
Fig. 6. Laboratory helicopter with forces affecting the body and control
input/output signals
The overall scheme of the top level model in DymolaModelica is shown in Fig. 7. The scheme is very clear. It
consists of the coordinate system definition (World), the stand
model, the helicopter body, the tail and main rotor model (rotor
means motor and propeller) and the controller with two
reference signals for the pitch and rotation angle.
The control system was designed and optimised using
MatlabSimulink environment. In Simulink the overall
mechanical model was presented with the Dymola block. The
input u1 into the helicopter model is the voltage driving the
front rotor and the input u2 is the voltage driving the tail rotor.
These are control signals. Output y1 is the pitch angle and y2 is
the rotation angle. These are controlled signals.
IV.
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
10
the building (ceiling, north, south, east and west walls) are
therefore connected to those connectors. The Floor connector
is connected to a constant ground temperature. The intensity of
the solar radiation is routed to the class named Sun in the toplevel model, where the direction vector of the solar rays is also
calculated from a specified start date and simulation time and
packed together with the solarradiation component intensity
into one connector. (Sunlight in Fig. 10).
Te
PROCESS
Heater
Ventilator
Blind positioning
u(t)
Tc
jc'
Test chamber
CONTROLLER
u(t)
Control
algorithm
e(t)
 Tc ref
j'c ref
11
2) Implementation in Modelica
The model of the heat exchanger, which is the most
complicated part of the recuperator, basically consists of two
thermally coupled pipes. So it should be built up by two pipe
classes and intermediate heattransfer class. Many public
available Modelica libraries for modelling thermo dynamical
systems exist. In our case basic components from
Modelica_Fluid library are used and adopted. Here a tube
bundle is described by distributed parameters. So the
component of the pipe with distributed parameters discretised
by finite volume method is taken from the library. For the
model of shell the pipe component was also used. Thermofluid
governing equations and properties of the media are realized by
a nested component of the Modelica.Media library.
Components of the tube bundle and the shell are connected
over a wall model, which is a custom made component. The
resulting scheme is shown in Fig. 13.
TubeInlet
TubeDown
tubePressureDrop
wall1
TubeOutlet
TubeUp
wall2
ShellInlet
ShellOutlet
shellPressureDrop
Shell1
Shell2
We can notice that the shell and the tube consist of three
components the basic pipe is split into two parts and a
pressure drop component is placed inbetween. At the
outermost edges appropriate connectors are used, namely inlet
and outlet. They represent the connecting interface of the heat
exchanger component.
Fig. 14. Part of the recuperator with two heat exchangers and with some
periphery
12
13
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
CONCLUSIONS
We have a long modelling and simulation education
tradition based at the beginning on analogue computers and
later on CSSL languages and Matlab Simulink environment.
But a real big change happened when we introduced Dymola in
the mid of 90s. Students became much more motivated as they
had also a strong modelling support and not only a pure
simulation tool. The problem was actually that we started in the
3rd year of our university study with MatlabSimulink
approach and later with Dymola. Recently we changed this
way starting with DymolaModelica already in the 2nd year.
We start with basic modelling exercises in which students do
not need almost any additional modelling knowledge as they
use standard Modelica libraries. So we can start with
interesting exercises from the very beginning. Later we
continue with other modelling techniques and introduce also
MatlabSimulink, which can be treated as a much lower level
approach but important to understand how modelling and
simulation really works. So I would like to emphasise that for
me it is not a question whether to use causal block oriented
MatlabSimulink approach or OO multidomain DymolaModelica approach but simply both. I also do not see the
necessity to introduce other approaches for the analysis of
models in Dymola Modelica e.g. linearization, steady state
solver, optimisation, identification etc. For these Matlab is
simply better. I would propose to use DymolaModelica for the
tasks for which it was designed, i.e. for the physical modelling.
And this physical model can be efficiently used in Matlab.
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
14
15
Afanaseva O. V.
I.
INTRODUCTION
METHODOLOGY
16
1 2
S D2 p z
Dczvt k Dczb
p z ) stroke ( S n ), cylinder
N max
.
Dczvt c Dczb
force ( N max ) and the distance between the piston and the
trunk of a mirror cylinder liners ( ), c  empirical coefficient
depending on the design of the engine and damping properties
of its materials.
h w n2
z
where
Pz  the maximum pressure cycle, w  vibrodisplacement; h  thickness of the sleeve;  density of the
material; n  engine speed.
Note that the first and third criteria were based on a
theoretical analysis of the equations describing forced
vibrations of shells, and the use of methods of similarity
theory. A second similarity criterion was obtained on the basis
of dimensional analysis.
17
Pz
V 4 S
2
hn
N max
Dczvt c Dczb
m
S D2 p z
,
Dczvt k Dczb
where
2f
angular
frequency,
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
f  cyclic
[3]
[4]
[5]
CONCLUSIONS
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
18
I.
INTRODUCTION
x1 (p1 ,t)
x2 (p2 ,t)
x4 (p4 ,t)
x3 (p3 ,t)
x5 (p5 ,t)
19
x1
2
x4
px5 (t t ) px 4 (t ) px3 (t )(1 t ) t px 4 (t ) t px 2 (t )(1 t )t.
(1)
(2)
i 0
T= tp'x5 (t)dt
(3)
'
 tp x 5 (t)e
xt
dt = x5(x)
(4)
T=
[ ( )][( )( ) ]
+
2 ( )2
[ ( ) ]
( )( )2
( )
( )2
(5)
20
2
Pencf = 2 nsen Penc
Pns
(11)
(6)
(12)
(7)
td
tc
(10)
Pdis = P1
(9)
2
1 Pdis nsen 2 Cn1sen
Psen= Pns P
(13)
(8)
Considering (6), (9), (10), (13) and taking Pns = P1, we can
define the probability of receiving a false discrete signals
21
nsen P13
td
t
c
2
P1 + P18 a21 a2 a3 a61 a2 a3 a4
+ 4 nsen Pencf
TABLE I.
Indicator
Value
(14)
8,71013
1,52 1012
3,471010
5,11010
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3,091010
5,061010
V.
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
[1]
22
[15] N.D. Dubovoi, E.M. Portnov, A.M. Bain, N.I. Sidorenko. A method for
improving the reliability of the control commands for electricity
distribution of thermal power. Defense Complex scientific and
technical progress of Russia. 2012. Vol. 3. pp. 8692.
[16] GOST 26.20588 Complexes and telemechanic. General specifications.
1988.
23
kaf_qm@donstu.ru
N.M. Serbulova
kaf_qm@donstu.ru
V.P. Dimitrov
kaf_qm@donstu.ru
I. INTRODUCTION
It is expedient to consider a grain harvester as a
mechanotronic system functioning in uncertain and
changeable conditions of the environment. The given system
(interrelations between its inlets and outlets) is characterized
by the complete state space including environment factors,
adjusting parameters and quality coefficients of the
technological process. The characteristic feature of the object
domain is that it is rather difficult to determine with the given
accuracy both values of harvesting factors and regulating
parameters and operating quality coefficients. Furthermore,
practically used recommendations on executing technological
adjustment of a harvester, that is description of relations
between the features under consideration, possess a distinct
fuzzyness [1, 2].
Expert information of a grain harvester operation may be
presented in the form of a system of conditional fuzzy
statements, interrelating between the values of inlet and outlet
parameters of the decisionmaking process.
24
IF
L1 :
THEN
11
L2 :
IF
L THEN 21
...
...
IF
m
THEN
m1
V
OR
V
OR
...
is
12
is
22
V1 ,
OR
... OR
1n
... OR
2n
2
...
V2
OR
...
...
V
is V
m
OR m2 OR
...
...
... OR mn
(1)
25
)
b)
Fig. 1 Practical application of PDA in field conditions
26
27
Contactless
Contact
10
5
6
7
8
Amplitudefrequency
Temporary
Majoritarian
Rc
2
Rd
MHz
V. CONCLUSIONS
1. Offered a set of informative features for detection and
fault logging for both passive and active elements.
2. In theory failures prompted to enter a new concept: a
differential
failure,
integral
failure,
combined
or
integrodifferential failure.
3. Proposed contact and contactless methods and devices to
detect and record failures.
4. Majority proposed method of signal processing failures.
REFERENCES
[1]. Levin A.P. Contact electrical connectors electronic
equipment. Calculation and design. Sov. radio, 1972.
[2]. Kechiev L.N. Calculation and design of multilayer
printed circuit boards. M. MIEM, 1983.
[3]. Vyushkov Y.A, Dianov V.N. Asynchronous electric
with PWM control. Copyrights. testimony. USSR number
365789. BI 1973. Number 6.
[4]. Sidorov Y., Dianov V.N. Kodo  pulse control
asynchronous motors twophase // Math. Universities. Energy.
1972. Number 5. Pp. 131  135.
[5] Dianov V.N, Dianov S.V. Third state connectors //
Foreign electronics. 1992. Number 6. Pp. 36  56.
[6]. Dianov VN Testers methods in detecting failures in the
computer // Questions electronics. Ser. EVT. 1992. MY. 6. Pp.
102  114.
[7]. Danilin N.S., Kolesnikov N.P. Lifecycle Management of
the spacecraft on the basis of information about the precursors
of failure. Network electronic journal " Systems Engineering ,
8, 2010
[8]. GOST RV 20.57.415. Methods of estimating the
frequency of single failures of integrated circuits.
[9]. Dianov V.N. Conceptual features of build fail
equipment // Automation and Remote Control. 2012. Number 7.
P.119  138.
[10]. Dianov V.N. A method for controlling electrical
connectors. RF patent number 2001413, 1993. BI Number 37.
[11]. Dianov V.N. A method for detecting latent defects
connectors. RF patent number 2003126, 1993. BI Number 42.
C. 9.
30
in
technical
systems.
[21]. Dianov V.N. Integro differential pulse codemodulation in the diagnostics of hidden defects of complex
objects. International Scientific  Practical Conference
"Innovative Information Technlogies" (I2T). Prague  2012,
April 23  27. C.403  405.
[22]. Belousov I.M., Dianov V.N. Method for determining
the survivability of stock item in the failed state. Internftional
Scientific  Practical Conference "Innovative Information
Technologies (I2T). Part 2 Innovative Information Technologies in Science. Prague  2013, April 22  26. C.473  478.
[23]. Dianov V.N. The concept of improving the reliability
of nondestructive testing equipment // 10th Europ. Conf. on
NonDestructive Testing (ECNDT). Moscow, 2010. Abstracts.
Part 2. P. 248  250.
[24]. Dubnitskiy L.G. Harbingers of failures in electronic
products. AM Radio and Communications. 1989.
[25]. Contactless testing and diagnostics connector HPC //
Questions electronics. Ser. EVT. 1992. MY. 6. Pp. 93 101.
[26]. Dianov V.N. Automatic and electronic systems of
vehicles increased reliability. Monograph. ID " League ",
Kolomna. 2009.
[27].. Dianov VN Tsarev BD, Dianov SV Poliker BE, sensor
electrical signals // Russian patent for invention is number
2064189. 1996. Bull. Number 20.
[28]. Nekrasov V.N., Savostin Y.M. Hydroacoustic antenna.
RF Patent 2201041 from 21.07. 2000. IPC 7 H04R 1/44 A; 7
H04R 29/00, 7 G01S 15 / B.
[29]. Dianov V.N. Intellectual properties of passive elements
of electronic equipment. Proceedings of the eighth international
direct. symposium. " Intelligent Systems ". INTELS'2008,
Russia, Nizhny Novgorod, June 30  July 4, 2008, pp. 56  61
[30]. Plyushkin K.V., Sarkisov A.A., Vlasov D.V., Dianov
V.N. Intelligent Fault Diagnosis executive mechanisms and
sensors using code  Vyushkova Dianova // Control,
Diagnostics. 2006. Number 4 (94). 5 sec.
31
x, y
where
where
(1)
f f x, y
characterizes
desired
x, y ,
(2)
(3)
function
J n x, y , x, y ,
INTRODUCTION
u( x, y) f ( x, y) ,
ux, y u 0 x, y ,
I.
u x, y
source
32
II.
utt'' t f (t ) , t a, b .
the
line
has
the
f1 t f ( )d .
(traces)
which it is fulfilled:
f1 t f1 x, y , x, y l .
We shall consider further extensions of functions f ( x, y ) and
presentation:
u t and f (t ) of variable t .
u b u a v p, .
v p, (b a) J p, ,
(10)
r 2 p2 .
R[ f1 x, y ]( p, ) v p, (b a) J p, ,
ut' a J p, ,
(9)
Using relations (5), (6) we can write the left hand side of (7) in
the next form
( f ( )d )dt R[ f1 x, y ]( p, )
a, b at each line : a b
(8)
(7)
x, y l
f ( x, y) for
(4)
parametric
u b u a (b a)u a ( f ( )d )dt
'
t
(5)
f1 ( x, y) R1[v p, (b a) J p, ] ,
(6)
(11)
f1 b for every
33
[3]
f ( x, y) R1[ f1 b ].
[4]
(11)
[5]
[6]
[1]
[2]
REFERENCES
Williams, R.A., and Beck, M.S., Process Tomography: Principles,
Techniques and Applications, ButterworthHeinemann, Oxford, 1995.
Grebennikov, A. I., A novel approach for solution of direct and inverse
problems for some equations of mathematical physics. Proceedings of
the 5 th International conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering:
Theory and Practice ( ed. D. Lesnic), Vol. II, Leeds University Press,
Leeds, UK, chapter G04, 110, 2005.
34
Tasi D.
Klimenta J.
Independent consultant
in the field of urban and spatial planning
Ni, Serbia
klimenta.jelena@gmail.com
Some of these studies are experimental [69], while others are
numerical [1012]. Raithby and Hollands [13] correlated a
number of experiments on the natural convection heat transfer
from a flat plate in both vertical and horizontal positions. They
proposed a set of natural convection correlations for laminar
and turbulent flows from vertical, horizontal UF and horizontal
DF isothermal plates, and suggested the use of the correlations
for different tilt angles. According to [14], the natural
convection from a vertical plate may be correlated with the
fundamental dimensionless number, while the only correlations
available for natural convection from horizontal plates are in
the form of Nu=C(Ra)n. Furthermore, to the best knowledge of
the authors, there do not appear to be any correlations in the
literature, based on fundamental dimensionless number, for
modeling the natural convection from a flat plate or PV panel
at tilt angles between vertical and horizontal limits. Application
of such correlations is the objective of this paper.
I.
INTRODUCTION
This paper was based on research conducted within the project TR33046.
35
as follows
TPV
h UF h r ,UF h DF h r ,DF
Ta
(2)
where [2,1618]
Q th,s,UFa h UF (TPV Ta ) ;
(3)
(4)
4
4
h r ,UF UF SB (TPV
Tsky
) /(TPV Ta ) ;
(5)
Q th,s,DFa h DF (TPV Ta ) ;
(6)
(7)
4
h r ,DF DF SB (TPV
Tg4 ) /(TPV Ta ) ;
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
UF Q E ,s ,S
Q tr ,s ,DFa Q el / SPV
UF Q E,s ,S Q el / SPV
(1)
36
Nu()=C()(N)n
N=Ra/(1+0.492/Pr)
Ra
g
(TPV Ta ) L3
t
0Pr
Geometry
Surface
Plate
Vertical
(=0)
Tilted
(0<<90)
(13)
Horizontal
(=90)
III.
(15)
(16)
(17)
TABLE II.
Turbulent Gr>Grcr1
Laminar GrGrcr2
Downwardfacing
Turbulent Gr>Grcr2
Upwardfacing
Downwardfacing
Laminar
Turbulent
Laminar
Turbulent
GrGrcr1
Gr>Grcr1
GrGrcr2
Gr>Grcr2
0.67
0.057
0.67(cos)1/4
0.098+0.057
(sin)1/3
0.67(cos)1/4
0.0285[1+
+(cos)1/3]
0.376
0.155
0.308
0.0285
1/4
1/3
1/4
1/3
1/4
1/3
1/4
1/3
1/4
1/3
hUF
hDF
hr,UF
hr,DF
kt,eff
deg Wm2K1 Wm2K1 Wm2K1 Wm2K1 Wm1K1
0
10
20
30
40
50
53
60
70
80
90
TUF TDF
Upwardfacing
C()
(Q th ,s,DFa Q tr ,s,DFa ) PV
Laminar Gr109
Turbulent Gr>109
Laminar GrGrcr1
Sidewardfacing
Correlation
Range
of Gr
k t ,eff
Flow
regime
h UF Nu () k t / L and h DF Nu () k t / L .
(18)
37
4.098
4.084
4.137
4.294
4.413
4.506
4.530
4.580
4.641
4.696
4.752
4.098
4.084
4.036
3.952
3.832
3.671
3.612
3.453
3.148
2.670
1.917
8.743
8.740
8.741
8.746
8.746
8.741
8.738
8.729
8.710
8.678
8.626
8.166
8.164
8.164
8.170
8.170
8.165
8.162
8.154
8.136
8.106
8.057
6.065
6.065
6.041
5.980
5.922
5.859
5.838
5.786
5.692
5.551
5.322
TUF
C
TDF
C
52.052
52.090
52.083
51.988
51.989
52.079
52.125
52.270
52.599
53.187
54.205
49.292
49.330
49.323
49.228
49.229
49.319
49.365
49.510
49.839
50.427
51.445
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
Fig. 2. The temperature distribution over the solution domain for =0.
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
Fig. 3. Measured and computed temperatures on a groundmounted PV panel
for =53 and QE,s,S=920 Wm2.
IV.
[11]
CONCLUSIONS
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[20]
[19]
38
Klimenta J.
Independent consultant
in the field of urban and spatial planning
Ni, Serbia
klimenta.jelena@gmail.com
Jevti M.
Technical Faculty in Bor
University of Belgrade
Bor, Serbia
mjevtic@tf.bor.ac.rs
performances of ETCs. All these studies were performed to
determine the efficiency, optimal tilt angles and other ETC
performances eliminating the natural convection heat transfer
on the outer surface of ETCs, as well as the conduction heat
transfer through the inner and outer tube walls. According to
[8], the natural convection on the outer surface of an ETC
affects its efficiency and cannot be neglected, while the
influence of the conduction through the tube walls is
negligible. Following the guidelines for computation of the
heat transfer on the outer surface of an ETC proposed by
Incropera et al. [8], it can be revealed that the natural
convection heat loss amounts of up to 35% of the overall heat
loss for the horizontal orientation. Moreover, ETCs are
sensitive to the influence of tilt angle [8].
I.
INTRODUCTION
39
III.
PROBLEM FORMULATION
(1)
as follows
T2
(2)
where
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
S1,o is the outer surface area of the copper tube; S2,o is the outer
surface area of the glass tube; F12=1 and F2a=1 are the
appropriate radiation shape factors; and SB is the StefanBoltzmann constant.
Four temperature dependent parameters for air at film
temperature Tf=(T2+Ta)/2 are used: kinematic viscosity ,
thermal diffusivity t, thermal conductivity kt and Prandtl
number Pr. These parameters have been read from
corresponding input data files and interpolated using a cubic
spline. The thermal expansion coefficient of air is taken as
=1/Tf. Thus, the Rayleigh number based on outer diameter of
the ETC RaD and the Rayleigh number based on length of the
ETC RaL can be expressed as
Ra D
g
(T2 Ta ) D3
t
(8)
Ra L
g
(T2 Ta ) L3
t
(9)
and
40
Nu *D
(10)
h 2,o
Nu *D k t
.
D
TABLE II.
(11)
in
degrees
NuD()=C()(ND) or
NuL()=C()(NL)n
ND=RaD/(1+C0/Pr) or
NL=RaL/(1+C0/Pr)
Tilted
cylinders
for
0<90
for
0<90
for
0<90
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
for
0<90
Laminar and
104ND109
Turbulent and
109<ND1012
Laminar and
104NL109
Turbulent and
109<NL1012
Empirical correlation
C()
0.559 0.305[1+0.7cos] a
1/4
0.559 0.057[1+0.6cos] b
1/3
0.492
0.492
0.67[1+1.44
(RaD)0.04cos] a
0.057[1+1.89
(RaD)0.044cos] a
a.
b.
FEMbased
model
Analytical model
hr1,o in
Wm2K1
1.141
1.141
1.141
1.141
1.141
1.141
1.142
1.142
1.142
1.143
hr2,o in
Wm2K1
6.085
6.085
6.085
6.086
6.087
6.088
6.090
6.092
6.094
6.097
h2,o in
Wm2K1
3.181
3.161
3.102
3.004
2.870
2.705
2.512
2.297
2.065
1.823
T2 in C
T2 in C
27.384
27.389
27.404
27.429
27.464
27.509
27.563
27.627
27.699
27.778
27.384
27.389
27.404
27.429
27.464
27.508
27.562
27.624
27.696
27.774
C0
1/4
1/3
k t ,eff
(12)
IV.
V.
CONCLUSIONS
41
[5]
[6]
[8]
[9]
[7]
[10]
[11]
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
42
The
E q12 a2 q 22 a3 q32 ; D q3 q1 ; q2 q1 , a s
coefficients;
I.
S S
S So
S
0 , q3 t 0 o are
c
co
c
c
co
o
unknown parameters; t is a heat conductivity of space
,
c ,
S o are a surface
INTRODUCTION
yt q1 Q
(2)
III.
1 t1
yt q1 Q2dt min
2 t0
(3)
PROBLEM FORMULATION
d E
dt q s
q2 t
Correction of machining errors problem occurs from fastdynamic detection of response sensor. In addition, this problem
occurs when the sensors have a long response time with fastdynamic processing. The accuracy of input signal ensures by
identification parameters of transducer. This aspect impact on
solving of IllPosed Problems. The solving this problem
actually, when the solution is instability. The low identification
error provide high output signal error. Generally this problem
solving by different of state space representation as different
modification of Kalman filter. This method provide high
computational cost and this method need the struct of model of
dynamic system and noise information.
II.
are iteration
E
D
Qs , s 1, m 1 ,
q s qs
qs
43
q1
1
q1 (t )
q1 ( y q1 ) q3 q1 q 2 q1 ,
L1 y q1 1
q (0) q , q (0) q ;
1
10
10
q s
q (t ) 1
( y q )G ,
q
s
s
1
s
as Ls y q1 Gs s
s0
(4)
s0
q G q G q , G
q G q G q ;
G
1
3 1
2 1
1
2
3 2
2 2
1
G (0) G G , G (0) G G ,
1
0, t 0,
Q1 t
1, t 0
The initial conditions are q1 0 0, q1 0 0, q 2 0 0.5,
q2 0 0,
q3 0 0,
q3 0 7.5,
1 2 105 ,
1
3
IV.
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
44
Andrashitov
D.S.,
Kostoglotov
A.A.
Lazarenko
S.V.,
Reguljarizirovannyj algoritm mnogoparametricheskoj variacionnoj
identifikacii dinamicheskih sistem // Servis v Rossii i za rubezhom.
2011. 8 (27). pages. 2536.
Kostoglotov A. A., Lazarenko S. V. Nonsmooth analysis in
measurement processing // Measurement Techniques. 2009. V. 52. N. 2.
P. 117124.
I.
ys t H s q, t s t ,
where
INTRODUCTION
SYNTHESIS OF SERVOANALYSER
H
Qs 1 Qs sign s (q, q )q s Rss1 ys t H s q , t s , (4)
q s
PROBLEM FORMULATION
aks qk k , m; s q k q m U s
q s qs ,
k 1
k 1 m1
n
(3)
s is a communication noise
navigation
(2)
d T
dt q s
H s
1
1
qt 0 q 0 , q t 0 q 0 , s 1, n.
qt0 q 0 , q t0 q 0 , s 1, n,
(1)
(5)
q s
45
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
46
Bain A. M.
INTRODUCTION
II.
47
48
a) Reference time
Di f
ti f
tn
K i ranges may be
( K (t * , t f ) 0,3) .
e) The concept of modes of stability of CTP is a
consequence of entering the concept of interpretation of the
CBTS and individuals as a dynamic system. In this regard, the
interpretation of equilibrium (EM) and periodic (PM) modes
of the individual's CTP may be the following [6]: EM
corresponds to the situation, which is characterized by in time
constancy CTP during the testing session; the PM is
characterized by fluctuations in the CTP individual's entropy
as a result of changes in the level of complexity of TT.
f) In the author's interpretation the EM of CTP is
quantitatively identified by
where
( Di f 1) .
( K (t * , t f ) 0,5) and PM by
factual
( K (t * , t f ) 0,5) .
determines the
procedure[12]:
necessity
of
terminating
f
n
o, ifGi Gi Ri Ri 1
x
f
n
1, ifGi Gi Stop
the
testing
(2)
49
q~ ( 0 )
q~ j( 0 ) q j qi
i( 0 )
, where
of
exactly
qi qi pi1
Qi( 0 )
tested subset:
j j ( 0 )
q~ j( 0 )
Zi(0)
in view
(1)
(0)
(0)
(1)
, which contains
={H
, hk}.
, starting with test 1, the procedure checks
7. To Subset
with the corresponding change in the superscript (0) in the
index (1). The verification procedure continues as long as
claimed in 6, at some step k is formed subset (1) , which
consists of a single element.
Procedure described in the application to multicomputer
complexness will implement consistent with the development
of the verification process. For current calculations and
selection of another tests used computer with the necessary
software and advance the memorized array of source data
(probability of failure, duration of inspections, test
specifications).
The same procedure can be done in advance and
make usage of the instruction sequence of tests depending on
( M 1)*
(0)
50
Test hk
successful?
q~1 = 0.028;
q~5 = 0.018;
Yes
Test
hi
successfu
l?
No
q~3 = 0.005;
q~7 = 0.005;
q~4 = 0.005;
q~8 = 0.011;
outcome
No
Yes
Test hj
successful?
q~2 = 0.018;
q~6 = 0.011;
No
Q2( 0 )
q~2
Q4( 0 )
q~1
Q6( 0 )
q~5
g1( 0 )
g 2( 0 )
g 3( 0 )
g 4( 0 )
g5( 0 )
g 6( 0 )
Z1
Q1(0)
Numbers of elements
1
1
1
2
3
4
2
1
1
1
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
Z2
= 2;
= 0,01;
Q3(0)
Z4
Q4(0)
Z5
Q5(0)
Z6
Q6(0)
= 29,8;
= 24;
= 26, 8;
= 38,8.
value g 4
(1 )
Q1(1)
q3 = 0,01;
Z3
=72,4;
tests.
Empirically established as a priority probability of failure
q4
Q2(0)
2,5
= 33,2;
0,075
Z2
= 0.02.
Q5(0)
51
And then
g1(1)
g i(1) :
Q6(0)
g 2(1)
= 68, 8;
g3(1)
= 72,4;
= 43,7;
g5(1)
(1)
g5(1)
Value
= 54, 3;
g5(1)
g6(1)
g 2(1)
= 72, 4;
= 56, 8.
give useful data, as it does not share many elements into two
subsets. We now consider the other branch, .. test h3oti is
unsuccessful, and for a subset of elements (1)= {3, 5} we
(1 )
need to compute Qi . ..
The next step  the test h4 is unsuccessful. Repeat the
procedure for a subset of (2) = {1, 6, and 8}.
Q1(1)
Q3(1)
Q5(0)
Q6(0)
=
=
=
=
g1(1)
= 235,7;
g3(1)
= 94, 3;
g 6(1)
=122,5.
= q7 = 0.023,
= 68, 8;
q8 = 0.011,
And then gi
(1)
= 54,3; g 6 = 56,8.
Thus, after a successful test h4 should be carried out test
h3. By itself, this test may be, in turn, successful and nonsuccessful. Considering the second possibility, the failed
element is in the subset, which is verified test h3 of the
elements
= {2, 4, and 7}.
Then:
Q1(1) = q~2 = 0.036;
Q2(1) = q~2 + q~4 + q~7 = 0.028;
Q5(0) = q~4 = 0.028;
Q6(0)
g1(1)
Start
testing
Test h4
successful?
Yes
No
Yes
q~1 = 0.028;
q~ = 0.011,
Test
h3successfu
l?
No
Test h6
successful?
(1)
And then gi :
= 64, 3;
g3(1)
= 94, 3;
g5(1)
= 53;
g 6(1)
= 122, 5.
Yes
No
g1(1)
Yes
Hence,
we conclude: if h5 is unsuccessful, then refused the first
element. If successful, it will explore many
= {6, 8}.
(1)
Q1 = q6 = 0.011;
Q3(1) = q6 = 0.011;
52
proposed methodology
Yes
Test
h4successful?
No
Yes
Test
h5successful?
Test
h3successful?
No
Yes
Z
i
Y
es
Test
h3success
ful?
N
o
Y
es
N hi .
Y
es
Test
h1success
ful?
(1 Q(ki ) )
[ ((ki ) )]
Test
h5success
ful?
(3.1)
(3.2)
Test
h3succe
ssful?
Y
es
N
o
6
C [ ( \ e1)] c2 C [ ( \ e1 e2 ))] .
DCS
C z1 p1 ( z2 p2 ( z3 p3 ( z4 ...))). (3.3)
z
z1
z
2 ... n .
q1
q2
qn
N hi
Y
es
N
o
numbers of test 
Y
es
N
o
[ ((ki ) )]
Test
h6success
ful?
53
N hi
6,32
5,01
0,207
7,96
6,44
0,191
6
7
8
9,22
11,11
12,55
7,54
9,31
10,77
0,182
0,162
0,142
13,72
11,91
0,132
10
16,2
14,19
0,124
Y
es
N
o
N
o
2
[ (i )] z(ki ) Q(ki )
No
Z
Z
N hi
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
10
N hi
54
Abstract This paper is about investigation of three dimensional CFD models acceptability and adaptation for mine
ventilation air distribution problems. The main feature of mine
ventilation problems is the wall roughness. The wall roughness
effects appear on a macro scale and are considered to be
predominating in pressure loss and air flow distribution in mine
ventilation networks. The classification of wall roughness
modeling approaches in existent CFD codes was proposed. A
turbulent flow through mine working conduit is considered. A set
of numerical computations for arbitrary wall roughness
approaches is presented. S olution convergence analysis for
different sets of inflow and outflow boundary conditions is
considered. The comparison between achieved pressure loss
roughness parameters dependences is carried out. Also the
comparison with classical formulas for arbitrary mine working
pressure loss determination in mine ventilation networks was
accomplished.
II.
I.
Wall roughness
modeling
55
Explicit analysis
Implicit analysis
Lawofthewall function
modification
Generation of random
roughness profiles
U*
KS
ln 1 CS K S ,
(1)
u * K S
dimensionless roughness height,
IV.
U0
p
L1
ln Ey*
where
U * dimensionless tangential velocity,
III.
L2
56
10 4
150
2
R
(2)
1.74 2 lg
h
2
2
S
V
D S
(3)
1.74 2 lg
2
d
0
K S
K S 4.49
0
0.342 exp 3472 1 ,
(4)
where
C 0.09 kepsilon turbulence model parameter;
57
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
CONCLUSIONS
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
58
I.
INTRODUCTION
EXPERIMENT
i exp(
i 1
Ei ,
)
kT
(1)
where i activation energy, K Boltzmann constant, Ttemperature; i constant coefficients characterizing the phase
state.
59
Connection Pha
se
Na3Cr2(PO)3
'
Ionic
Energy
conductiviy of
, .1 activati
on
, eV
4108
0,62
(290)
6
7,910
0,92
(370)
4
1,910
0,79
(410)
3
3,6310
0,39
(570)
DISCUSSION
The
temperature
of phase
transitions,
= 348
= 411
= 439
tg
2 2
(2)
C
1 1 (1 2 2 )
C2
60
(3)
( 0 )
0 2 2
tg
( 0 )
[1 ( j )1 ] ,
(4)
where
distribution coefficient, which characterizes the
distribution of relaxation times of the dipoles.
Fig.
4
Diagrams of the Cole  Cole for the different phases of Na3Cr2(PO4)3: 1  ' (at
383 ), 2  (at 433 ), 3  (at 463 ).
61
exp(
E
)
kT ,
(5)
exp( 0 t )
Na3Cr2(PO4)3
Parameters
Symmetry
distribution
coefficient
()
0
Phases
'
P21/n

P21/n
R3C
0,062
120
280
80
3200
1880
1600
Activation
energy (),
Relaxation
time (),
splittingpositi
ons Na2
0,393
0,262
0,213
2,17
0,83;
1,33
3,5 10
3
2,21
0,84;1,3
7
1,3 10 
(6)
R3C
d
exp(t ) f (t ) 0
dt
,
f (t ) P(t ) P(0) ,
(7)
1,7 10 6
2,26

Parameters of the process of relaxation for and phases these compounds were determined by analysis of the
frequency dependence of tangent of the dielectric losses angle.
According to the structural data [3], and experimental
62
REFERENCES
[1]
Fig. 4 diagrammatic representationa) a potential well with the two provisions
balance, b) onedimensional model of the potential relief of the '  phase
Na3Cr2(PO4)3
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
63
Nogay A. S., Young Hub and Yugay K.N. Ionic and Superionic
Conduction in NASICONLike Structures of the Na3Sc2(PO4)3 Type.
Physics of the Solid State,  2005 v, 47, 6, pp. 1076 1082 .
Nogai A. Kalinin V.B., Stephanovich C.U., Shyfrina P.P, VenevcevY.N.
Ionic Conductivity and Phase Transitions in the system Na 3Sc2(PO4)3 Na3Sc2(PO4)3. J. Inorganic Chemistry Acad. Science USSR , 1986, v. 31,
pp. 181 185.
Nogay A.S. Dipole ordering in the compounds Na32(PO4)3, = Sc,
Cr, Fe. Journal of Science of Kazakh National University. AlFarabi.,
Ser. Physical, 2005, 2 (20), P.119124.
Hippel A. Dielectrics and waves. 1960, Moscow, 438 p.
Poplavko Yu.M. Physics of dielectrics. 1980, Kiev, 398 p.
Nigmatullin R. R., Ryabov Y.E. Dielectric Relaxation ColeDavidson
type and Selfsimilar Relaxation Process. Physics of the Solid State,
1997, V, 39, 1, . 101 105.
Anton E. Novikov
yn +1 = yn + pmi ki , ki = hf tn + i h, yn + ij k j , (2)
j =1
i =1
I.
INTRODUCTION
III.
n = ( p8i p7 i ) ki .
i =1
64
k1 = Xyn , k2 = X + X 2 yn ,
18
1 2
1
k2 = X + X +
X 3 yn ,
12
288
IV.
i 1
i =1
j =1
yn +1 = yn + pi ki , yn,i = yn + ij k j ,
(4)
ki = hf (tn + i h, yn,i ) ,
bki =
i 1
j = k 1
ij k 1, j
, 2k m, k im.
i =1
j =i
Qm ( z ) = 1 + ci x i , ci = bij p j .
65
p7 = 0.12836904213518 103 .
Let's give one more set of coefficients pi, 1i7,
p1 = 0.41342955189830 , p2 = 0.57548324135785 ,
66
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Work was supported by RFBR (project 140100047).
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
V.
NUMERICAL RESULTS
Calculations were carried out on PC Intel(R) Core(TM) i73770S CPU@3.10GHz with double precision. Defined
accuracy of calculations was set equal to 106. Below by iso,
iwo and ifu are denoted accumulated number of integration
steps, number of recomputated (recovered), because of
violation of required accuracy of calculations, solutions and
number of calculations of a right part of the system (1),
respectively. For demonstration of operation of constructed
algorithms there is given an example
y1 = 77.27 ( y2 y1 y2 + y1 8.375 106 y12 ) ,
y2 =
1
( y2 y1 y2 + y3 ) ,
77.27
y3 = 0.161( y1 y3 ) ,
CONCLUSION
67
Ozerskiy A. I.
Candidate of the Technical Sciences (PhD), chief of the
department Heatandpower engineering and applied
hydromechanics,
Don State Technical University
Rostov on Don, Russia
email: kaf_ tepenergo@iem.donstu.ru
68
directly
depend
p . p . p .
on
the
of fluid pressure
difference
p . at
p .
at the
Q . (t , i , , ) qi (t , i , , ) , i 2 (i 1)
(2)
i 1
2
[1]. In the given
z
hi
hi (t )
D
tg (t )[1 cos i (t )]
2
D
hi (t ) tg (t ) sin i (t ) (t )
2
D
hi (t ) tg (t ) [cos i (t ) 2 (t ) sin i (t )(t )]
2
(3)
(4)
(5)
69
x(t ) , velocity x (t )
x (t , , , p H )
(t )
according to the
QH .T (t , , ) (p H )
1
x(t , , , , p H ) QH .T (t , , , ) (p H )
(6)
(7)
In all the considered cases the capacity of the positivedisplacement pump is determined by rotational speed of its
valve. From this it follows an important for the given
investigation result: computer simulation of dynamic modes of
operation of electrohydraulic drive systems with PDHM
should be carried out on the basis of simulation of joint
operation of electrical and hydraulic systems as one
mechanotronic electrohydromechanical system (EHMS) [3].
The latter will make it possible to perform a complex approach
to improving reliability and effectiveness of such systems using
not only constructive approach but also with the help of
computer experiments. This will make it possible to replace an
essential part of expensive fullscale tests of the systems under
consideration by computer calculations and will promote the
most optimal solutions of the main design tasks. The
investigations have shown that computer models improvement
Fig.3. Speed of operating fluid in the channel downstream the positivedisplacement axialpiston hydraulic pump (effect of each piston is shown).
70
REFERENCES
[1] Bashta .. Positivedisplacement pumps and hydraulic motors of
hydraulic systems. : Mashinostrojenije 1974.p. 606.
[2] Ozersky A.I, Poluhin D.A, Sizonov V.S. Research of onedimensional
flows of fluids with contact ruptures in the pipelines containing pumps.
Bulletin of USSR Academy of Sciences. Power engineering and transport.
1979. 2. p. 143150.
[3] Ozersky A.I., Babenkov J.I., Shoshiashvili M.E. Perspective approaches
for the development of the power hydraulic drive. Bulletin of High schools.
NorthCaucasian region. Engineering Sciences. 2008. 6. p.5561.
[4] Sedov L.I. Mechanics of continuum. V.1, 2. .: Nauka 1973.
71
II.
I.
A. Specialization
In [1] states: "the study of computer science, together with
a certain subject area, will be extremely useful." As such we
have chosen the control system as subject area (Fig. 1).
INTRODUCTION
72
evaluations.
SYSTEMRELATED CONSTRAINTS
A.
Restrictions themselves
All the systems mentioned above the dotted line, operated
under the following restrictions (Fig. 3):
1. Real time  we have only last data.
2. Stochastic impacts require using of statistical methods.
3. Dynamics converts the input signals into outputs,
changing not only the magnitude but also the shape of the
signal. And every reaction is a weighted mixture of last
individual inputs.
4. Limited surveillance intervals together with stochastic
effects
may
worsen
any
statistical
73
V.
CONSTRAINTS
VI.
CONCLUSION
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
74
OOO Rostovgiproshaht
344010, Rostov on Don, St.
Krasnoarmeiskaya, Dom 157, Russia
mafurag@hotmail.com
II.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
(1)
I.
Mafura G.M.
Tseligorova E.N.
INTRODUCTION
( )
k , (0) 0 ,
( )
(2)
75
consequently improve
characteristics [1].
the
control
systems
working
(7)
III.
SOLUTION OF PROBLEM
2j
Re [(1 q
)W(j )] k 1 0 , [0, ]
1 j
(3)
W ( j )
1 ( ) j1 ( ) .
2 ( ) j 2 ( )
(4)
(5)
(a0b0 a0b1 a1b0 ) x]
[ 22 ( ) 22 ( )](1 2 ) 0
W ( j )
ja1 a0
jb1 b0
(6)
Sub processcoeff()
Dim a1, b1, a0, b0, a2, b2, a3, b3, k, q
Dim coeff_x_4, coeff_x_3, coeff_x_2, coeff_x_1, coeff_x_0
a0 = Range("B1").Value
a1 = Range("B2").Value
a2 = Range("B3").Value
a3 = Range("B4").Value
(8)
1 ( ) 2 ( )) 2 2q( 2 ( )1 ( ) 1 ( ) 2 ( )) ]
jb3 3 b2 2 jb1 b0
T0  sampling interval.
ja3 3 a2 2 ja1 a0
a2 2 ja1 a0
b2 2 jb1 b0
76
b0 ^ 2
b0 = Range("E1").Value
b1 = Range("E2").Value
b2 = Range("E3").Value
b3 = Range("E4").Value
k = Range("B6").Value
q = Range("D6").Value
coeff_x_4 = (2 * a3 * b3 * k * q + a3 * b3 * k + b3 ^ 2)
coeff_x_3 = 2 * a2 * b3 * k * q  2 * a1 * b3 * k * q  2 * b2 * a3
* k * q  2 * b1 * a3 * k * q + 2 * a2 * b2 _
* k * q + a3 * b3 * k  a1 * b3 * k  b1 * a3 * k + a2 *
b2 * k + b3 ^ 2  2 * b1 * b3 + b2 ^ 2
coeff_x_2 = 2 * a0 * b3 * k * q + 2 * b0 * a3 * k * q + 2 * a1 *
b2 * k * q  2 * b1 * a2 * k * q  2 * b0 * a2 _
* k * q + 2 * a1 * b1 * k * q  2 * a0 * b1 * k * q  a1 *
b3 * k  b1 * a3 * k + a2 * b2 _
* k  a0 * b2 * k  b0 * a2 * k + a1 * b1 * k  2 * b1 *
b3 + b2 ^ 2  2 * b0 * b2 + b1 ^ 2
coeff_x_1 = 2 * a0 * b1 * k * q  2 * b0 * a1 * k * q + 2 * a0 *
b0 * k * q  a0 * b2 * k  b0 * a2 _
* k + a1 * b1 * k + a0 * b0 * k  2 * b0 * b2 + b1 ^ 2 +
coeff_x_0 = a0 * b0 * k + b0 ^ 2
Range("A8").Value = coeff_x_4
Range("C8").Value = coeff_x_3
Range("E8").Value = coeff_x_2
Range("G8").Value = coeff_x_1
Range("I8").Value = coeff_x_0
Dim f_2kq, f_k
f_2kq = 2 * a3 * b3 & "x ^ 4 + (" & 2 * (a2 * b3  a1 * b3  b2 *
a3  b1 * a3 + a2 _
* b2) & ")x ^ 3 + (" & 2 * (a0 * b3 + b0 * a3 + a1 * b2  b1 *
a2  b0 * a2 + a1 _
* b1  a0 * b1) & ")x ^ 2 + (" & 2 * (a0 * b1  b0 * a1 + a0 *
b0) & ")x"
f_k = a3 * b3 & "x ^ 4 + (" & (a3 * b3  a1 * b3  b1 * a3 + a2 *
b2) _
& ")x ^ 3 + (" & (a1 * b3  b1 * a3 + a2 * b2  a0 * b2  b0 *
a2 + a1 * b1) _
& ")x ^ 2 + (" & (a0 * b2  b0 * a2 + a1 * b1 + a0 * b0) &
")x + (" & a0 * b0 & ")"
f_x_0 = b3 ^ 2 & "x ^ 4 + (" & (b3 ^ 2  2 * b1 * b3 + b2 ^ 2) &
")x ^ 3 + (" & (2 * b1 _
* b3 + b2 ^ 2  2 * b0 * b2 + b1 ^ 2) & ")x ^ 2 + (" & (2 * b0
* b2 + b1 ^ 2 + b0 _
^ 2) & ")x + (" & b0 ^ 2 & ")"
Range("B10").Value = f_k
Range("B12").Value = f_2kq
Range("B14").Value = f_x_0
End Sub
Private Sub Worksheet_SelectionChange(ByVal Target As Range)
processcoeff
End Sub
2 p
a0
0
0
0
.
a1
b1
a0
0
.
a2
b2
a1
b1
.
...
...
...
...
.
a2 p 1
b2 p 1 , p 1,2,...,2n ,
a2 p 2
b2 p 2
.
polynomial P(x) .
In Juri's innorny method, the condition that the
polynomial roots should lie in the open left half plane
can be expressed using a matrix 2n1 of size (2n1)*(2n1). The matrix should be innor positive. The
matrix is built using the following scheme [5]:
1 an1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2n1 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
a
n 1
an 1 an2
... ...
...
... ...
...
... 1 an1
... 0
1
... 0
0
... 0
0
... 0
0
... 0
an 1
...
...
an 2
an1
1
0
an 1
an2
an 3
...
...
...
...
an3
an 2
an1
an 1
an2
an 3
an4
...
...
...
...
...
...
an 4 an5
an3
an 4
an 2 an3
an2 an 3
an 3 an4
an4 an 5
an 5 an6
...
...
...
...
...
...
an 6
an5
an 4
an4
an 5
an6
an 7
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
77
P1 ( x) a0 a1 x a 2 x 2 a3 x 3 a 4 x 4 ...
P2 ( x) a0 a1 x a2 x 2 a3 x 3 a4 x 4 ...
(10)
P3 ( x) a0 a1 x a 2 x 2 a3 x 3 a 4 x 4 ...
P4 ( x) a0 a1 x a 2 x 2 a3 x 3 a 4 x 4 ...
Illustrative example
(11)
system of
78
Table 1
Re[1]=6.69324378319477E0002
Im[1]= 2.64951615687263E0002
Re[2]=6.69324378319477E0002
Im[2]=2.64951615687263E0002
Re[3]=5.67560632454901E0004
Im[3]= 1.70137172247520E+0000
Re[4]=5.67560632454901E0004
Im[4]=1.70137172247520E+0000
Re[1]=7.29622416713768E0001
Im[1]=0
Re[2]=4.16471942835530E+0000
Im[2]=0
Re[3]=1.46709225345333E0002
Im[3]=6.87104789219014E0002
Re[4]=1.46709225345333E0002
Im[4]=6.87104789219014E0002
Re[1]=5.07846811758653E0001
Im[1]=2.67863633327878E0001
Re[2]=5.07846811758653E0001
Im[2]=2.67863633327878E0001
Re[3]= 4.40346826594407E0001
Im[3]=6.88077238229985E0001
Re[4]= 4.40346826594407E0001
Im[4]=6.88077238229985E0001
Re[1]= 3.87529055139775E0001
Im[1]=0
Re[2]= 4.83910114759885E+0000
Im[2]=0
Re[3]=1.80815101369314E0001
Im[3]=2.90896784851936E0001
Re[4]=1.80815101369314E0001
Im[4]=2.90896784851936E0001
Table 2
Table 3
IV.
CONCLUSIONS
Table 4
References
[1] Tsipkin, Y.Z. Theory of nonlinear impulsive system/ Y.Z.
Tsipkin, Y.S. Popkov. Moscow, Science, 1973.
pp.414.
[2] Mutter, V.M. Absolute stability of nonlinear systems for
automatic ship equipment/V.M. Mutter. Leningrad,
Shipbuilding pp. 167.
[3] Tseligorov, N.A. Absolute stability analysis of nonlinear
automatic impulsive system using analytical methods/V.I.
Serkov,N.A. Tseligorov//Automatica and Telemexanika,
1975, N9, pp. 6065.
[4] Kharitonov, V.L. On asymptotic stability of equilibrium
point of a family of simultaneous differential equations/
V.L. Kharitonov // Differential Equations 1978. pp.
20862088.
[5] Juri, E. Innor and Stability of dynamic systems/Juri E.
Moscow, Science 1979. pp. 304.
[6] Gantmakher, F.R. Theory of matrices/ F.R. Gantmakher
Moscow, Science 1967. pp.575.
[7] Rimskiy, G.V. Fundamentals of the general theory of
automatic control system root trajectory/Rimskiy G.V.
Minsk: Science and Technology, 1972. pp. 328.
[8] Tseligorov, N.A. Use of a modified root locus method for
79
investigation
of robust
absolute
stability
of
multidimensional control systems/ N.A. Tseligorov, E.N.
Tseligorov // Works of the 6th International conference
SICPRO 07. 29th January 1st February 2007 IPU RAN,
DVDROM, N.13034.
[9] Tseligorov, N.A. Modeling complex Sustainanability for
80
obtained
from
international
meteorological
center
NCEP/NOAA being calculated with global hydrodynamic
models of ocean and atmosphere. It is known that sea level
anomalies can be considered as integral characteristic of sea
surface influenced with many factors. Thus, modern Russian
and foreign technologies and systems to analyze sea level
anomalies distribution are only regional. In addition,
corresponding differential equations have many parameters that
are difficult to be determined with appropriate (or acceptable
by practice) accuracy. As a result, multivariate time series
analysis is likely to be efficient way to solve shortterm
forecasting problems as mentioned above.
II.
I.
DEFINITION OF GRID
x xk
 a x0 ... xn b ,
xk xk 1 hx ,k 1,2,..., n;
INTRODUCTION
y yk
 c y0 ... yn d ,
yk yk 1 hx ,k 1,2,..., m.
Since grid node values of any characteristic at particular
time point are convenient to be represented by a matrix and
geographical coordinates are useless for further calculations,
the grid can be defined as a set of index pairs (row and column
numbers) for corresponding nodes:
G [1, d r ] [1, d c ] N2 ,
where
III.
d r m 1 and d c n 1 .
BASIC FORECAST METHOD BASIC FORECAST METHOD
81
1.
2.
3.
4.
1) decomposition
o data embedding which can be regarded as a mapping
that transfers the given multivariate series into
lagged vectors space; the result is trajectory matrix
of multivariate time series being Hankel matrix;
o singular value decomposition of trajectory matrix to
get basal vectors of space generated by rows of the
matrix and a sum of elementary matrices;
2) reconstruction
o grouping corresponds to splitting the elementary
matrices into several groups and summing the
matrices within each group;
o diagonal averaging is to transform each group
matrix to the form of a Hankel matrix which can be
subsequently converted to a time series.
Lcontinuation is carried out by linear recurrent formula for
all the series of multivariate system simultaneously. The key
assumption of this forecasting technique is a requirement of the
new row added to trajectory matrix (as the last one) being in
the space generated by its rows before adding. The new row
contains one time step ahead forecast for each univariate time
series.
V.
Fh (t k 1),k h
Fh (t k 1)
MSSAk ( FN (t N ),..., FN (t 1))
CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE
MSSAk 1 ( FN (t N 1),...,
th FT , Fh
h 1
max
1i s
1
D(T )
F (t j ) F (t j )
j 0
i
T
i
h
1i s
82
t T
t T
VI.
j 1
r
j t j
i 1 j 1
r
ij t j
2.
4.
1.
et (C ) e (C ) e (Ci )
r
0
3.
83
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
T
t0
t*
365
7.
84
clusters have worse results but they are also better than others
are.
IX.
CONCLUSION
1. Cluster number.
2. Number of matched cluster gradients (5 is maximum
possible value) for pair of the considered cluster and the
31st.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
Fig. 6. Cluster characteristics
85
Andrianov A.N.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
86
The
Cambridge
Cluster
Database
(CCD)
http://wwwwales.ch.cam.ac.uk/CCD.html
J.M.C. Marques, A.A.C.C. Pais and P.E. Abreu On the use of bigbang
method to generate lowenergy structures of atomic clusters modeled
with pair potentials of different ranges, Comput. Chem., 33, No. 4,
442452 (2013).
Neculai Andrei 40 conjugate gradient algorithms for unconstrained
optimization. A survey on their definition, ICI Technical Report, No.
13 (2008)
Y. Feng, L. Cheng, H. Liu Putative Global Minimum Structures of
Morse Clusters as a Function of the Range of the Potential: 161 <= N <=
240, Phys. Chem. A, 113, No. 49, 1365113655 (2009).
Kashnikov A. V.
Maltsev M.S.
I.
INTRODUCTION
A. Subject area
The core part of the program is detailed modelling and
simulation for the transportation processes in mine network
that is represented by mining areas (blocks) and bunkerconveyor system. The last one is used for ore underground
conveyor movement up to endpoint shafts. (Fig. 1). All
simulation results are processed to provide recommendations
for the mine design and equipment placement.
87
B. Analogs
There are static methods of calculation of ore mining [5]
Also, there are papers describing the dynamics of the process
based on Petri nets [6] and some others [7, 8]. However, they
have several drawbacks. First, do not take into account the time
component needed for detailed planning. In addition, they do
not considerate of the physical limitations. Often concentrate
on moving other type of PI on a conveyor network, without
attention to the processes of production and reception capacity
constraints of real equipment, such as conveyor belt and hopper
volume. Therefore, complete solution to all noted problems and
specifics does not exist.
Fig. 3. Transport network. Blocks  red line  black, transfer points  blue.
Green  point loading conveyor. Orange  ore.
A. Dynamical part
Modeled in detail the process of extraction of ore in mining
areas, presented in blocks. Algorithms implemented in relevant
objects (combine, selfpropelled car). Naturally modeled in
detail the operation of machines (working stroke, moving, ore
extraction, outgoing, unloading in ore passes and to cars), their
interaction and mining stages (Fig. 4). As input parameters, the
actual physical and technical data mining machines, obtained
from their passports.
RUDOPOTOK FEATURES
Fig. 4. Scheme mining ore in the chamber by combine and selfpropelled car.
Fig. 2. Graphs simulation results on schema objects.
III.
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
88
D. Oreflow
Overcoming the limitations of DES for streaming nature
require the use of finite decomposition paradigm when
modeling step divided into smaller substeps of arbitrary length
So appear of the notion of flow of ore (OreFlow). It is a
sequence of simple flows ore productivity during the time step,
while having quality and weight, i.e. characteristics of the ore
heap (OrePile) (Fig. 6, left).
B. Ore
The main object of interest in the program is the movement
of ore, starting from its production and finishing lifting ore on
the ground by shafts. In terms of simulation ore is the main
entity, need to be represented on the one hand natural, and the
other  quite effective. After talking with experts revealed that
the ore has properties such as weight / volume and qualitative
content of mineral in it. Customer needs this information.
However, any special concepts to simulate the movement
of PI through conveyorbunker system and selfpropelled
machines, transfer bunker and ore passes, did not exist. Also
must take into account that during PI move through pipelines
need to control the height of the ore, to prevent overflow
pipeline  this causes an essential equipment downtime and loss
of enterprise profit.
C. Ore ariphmetic/transformation
Thus, there are two views of the ore. One  the final volume
called a bunch of ore (OrePile) and characterizes the quality
and weight required for accounting by selfpropelled cars and
bunkers. Other  of a certain length and height, as well as
weight and quality, located on the conveyor (OreSegment). In
addition, they must be converted between each other, including
among themselves on overload from the bunkerloader in a
selfpropelled car. From the cars to ore passes, from ore passes
on the conveyor, of the conveyor into the bunker, with the
accumulation of ore in it.
Fig. 5. Ore presentation with operations. Left (violet) ore pile. Right (orange) ore segments.
89
IV.
TECHNICAL DECISIONS
V.
CONCLUSIONS
90
I.
INTRODUCTION
91
Fig. 4. Plaster cast surface of HTC (18 to 25cm), cast partition with a
grid (a pitch 0.5 cm).
92
III. RESALTS
For creation of roughness in 3Ds Max systems we
photograph a fragment of the cast of the shaft spillway
concrete surface. Initially, we create an object, a concrete wall,
for instance, and then import the image photographed before.
Then we immediately set to work on modeling (Fig. 8).
93
IV. CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
94
integration and system's discretization, and perform postoptimization analysis for organizing the interactive modes.
This work was partially supported by RFBR (project N 120100193) and Presidium of RAS, the program "Exploring
basic scientific research for the development of the Russian
Arctic".
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
95
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
96
I.
INTRODUCTION
II.
HARDWARESOFTWARE
SYSTEM
97
archive server;
hardware configuration;
PROVISION OF AUTOMATED
PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM
III.
SIMULATION
To provide the functional for designing APCS the
following options have been implemented in SimInTech
during its simulation:
98
Fig. 2.
Video Frame of Pressure Controller (Selection of Measurement
Channel)
Fig. 3.
99
CONCLUSIONS
Fig. 4.
Video Frame for Adjustment of Parameters of Standard Level
Controller in Pressurizer
References
[1]
[2]
100
y f x, y , t , x x, y , t ,
pr : g x, y, t 0,
t t0 , tk , x t0 x0 , y t0 y0 ,
x R N x , y R y , t R,
N
f : R Nx R
Ny
R R y,
N
: R N R R R Nx ,
x
g : R Nx R
Ny
Ny
R RS .
I.
INTRODUCTION
Modern systems of instrumental simulation usually have
an extensive set of subjectoriented specification languages.
They use unified analysis algorithms due to using a common
mathematical software. In this paper we propose a new system
architecture of ISMA (that in Russian means Instrumental
Facilities of Machine Analysis) based on the methodology of
hybrid systems (HS). This article examines a new application
of ISMA systems of partial differential equations (PDE)
with constraints. PDEs are used to describe processes in the
chemicaltechnological systems, elasticity problems, etc. To
achieve this goal a series of consecutive problems is solved:
the textual specification of ISMA environment models
expanded by constructions describing PDEs; a special data
structure for storing the model in memory is developed;
approximation algorithms are implemented for transition from
a system of PDE to ODE system. Analysis of ODE system is
performed by methods included in the library of the
environment.
II.
CLASS OF SYSTEMS
There are many systems (mechanical, electrical, chemical,
biological, etc.), the behavior of which can be conveniently
described as a sequential change of continuous modes [1].
These systems are referred to as hybrid or eventcontinuous.
Each mode is given by a set of differentialalgebraic equations
with the following constraints:
101
z
z 2 z
x, z , t , p , , 2 ,
t
p p
x x, t ,
pr : g x, t 0,
x t0 , p x0 , z t0 , p z0 ,
t t0 , tk , p p0 , pm ,
z
n
z p,
p
x R N x , z R N z , t R, p R p ,
N
: RN R RN ,
x
: RN RN R R
x
Np
2Np
R Nz ,
g : R Nx R R S ,
III.
ARCHITECTURE OF ISMA
Development of simulation languages, simulators,
simulation systems, etc. is essentially influenced by the CSSL
(continuous system simulation language) Standard 1968 [3].
Although forty years old, the structures defined in CSSL
Standard are used up to now. End of 90ties, CSSL extended to
implicit systems, while a new modelling language, Modelica,
was introduced. In principle, the modelling paradigm changed
from signal flow oriented modelling (explicit systems) to
power oriented modelling (implicit systems), from causal
signal modelling to acausal physical modelling. The early
CSSS standard determined basic necessary features for a
simulator, the late developments to implicit systems fixed
extended features for simulation systems both referred as
classical CSSL features. In 1968, the CSSL standard set first
challenges for features of simulation systems, defining
necessary basic features for simulators and a certain structure
for simulators.
The CSSL standard also defines segments for discrete
actions, first mainly used for modelling discrete control. Socalled DISCRETE regions or sections manage the
communication between discrete and continuous world and
compute the discrete model parts. For incorporating discrete
actions, the simulation engine must interrupt the ODE solver
and handle the event. For generality, efficient implementations
set up and handle event lists, representing the time instants of
102
IV.
Diagnostics
Editor with
input language
Interpreter
LISMA+
Equations of
chemical reactions
LISMA
(with PDEs)
Language of
diagrams Harel
Harel diagrams
Structure language
LISMA_EPS
Schemas EPS
Finite difference
method
Controller
Method of
event detection
Solver
Solver library
Graphic interpreter
103
V.
'both'
104
N n p ni ,
(3)
u j
u j 1 u j 1 2u j u j 1 2u j u j 1
, 1 j N
2
2
2
(4)
VI.
SCHEME OF MODEL INTERPRETATION AND SOLVING
Four basic levels of working with model can be
destinguished: the interpretation of the input specification of
the model, controller, solver, graphic interpreter. The Fig. 4
presents the first two levels in more detail.
105
Text
lexical analysis
Interpreter
Tokens
parsing
VII.
AST
semantic Analysis
building of unified model (HSM)
HSM (ODE+PDE)
Controller
HSM (ODE)
ci
2 ci
ci
i
1
2
Kh 2 Kv z
R c , c , t ,
t
z
z
x
( i 1, 2 ),
code generation
Executable code
where
K h 4 106 , K v z 108 e z 5 ,
simulation
R c , c , t k c
Simulation results
k2 c1c 2 k4 t c 2 ,
k1 6.031,
k2 4.66 1016 ,
exp 22.62 sin( t 43200) , t 43200
k3
,
0, t 43200
This system is a hybrid and has two states st1 and st2 with
transition condition t 43200 (Fig. 5).
ci x 0
Boundary conditions
c z 0
i
at
z 30 ,
at
x 0,
x 20 ,
z 1 0.1z 4 0.1z 4 2 .
2
t 43200
st1
Fig. 5. The state diagram of the hybrid system
106
st2
Kh = 4* pow(10, 6);
Kv = pow(10, 8) * exp(z/5);
C1 '= Kh* D(C1, x, 2) + D(DKV1, z) + R1;
C2 '= Kh* D(C2, x, 2) + D(DKV2, z) + R2;
DKV1 = Kv * D(C1, z);
DKV2 = Kv * D(C2, z);
R1 = k1*C1  k2*C1*C2 + 7.4*pow(10, 16) * k3 + k4*C2;
R2 = k1*C1  k2*C1*C2  k4*C2;
// Boundary conditions
edge C1=0 on z both;
edge C1=0 on x both;
edge C2=0 on z both;
edge C2=0 on x both;
// Initial values
C1 (0) = pow(10, 6) * (1  pow(0.1*x1, 2) + pow(0.1*x1,
4)/2) * (1 pow(0.1*z4, 2) + pow(0.1*z4, 4)/2 );
C2 (0) = pow(10, 12) * (1  pow(0.1*x1, 2) + pow(0.1*x1,
4)/2) * (1 pow(0.1*z4, 2) + pow(0.1*z4, 4)/2 );
// Change of state
state st1 (time>43200) {
k3=0; k4=0;
} from init;
In this example blocks of model description are marked by
comments: constants, variables to be sampling, algebraic
equations, the system of PDE, boundary conditions, the initial
value (the Cauchy problem) description of the state st1.
Variable x will be divided into 20 parts, and the variable
divided into z 40. The result is a grid dimension of 800. In this
example, state change occurs at the value of time t = 43200.
The resulting chart dynamics of the concentration of the
reactants are presented in Fig. 6. and Fig. 7. Fig. 8 shows
interface of new textual models editor. He is represented by
two windows: code editor and window for output debug
information.
VIII.
CONCLUSIONS
In this paper a new class of hybrid systems, continuous
dynamics of which is defined by a system of DAE and PDE
with boundary conditions, within ISMA instrumental
environment is introduced. The architecture of ISMA is
considered. New elements of LISMA language for description
of PDE and boundary conditions language are presented.
Grammar of new language inherited from the old language
and is also contextfree. Data structure for storing unified
107
[2]
[3]
[4]
REFERENCES
[1]
[5]
108
This work was partially supported by RFBR (project N 120733021) and integration project of SB RAS N 83.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
109
Shepard D. A twodimensional interpolation function for irregularlyspaced data // Proc. of the 23 ACM National Conference, ACM Press,
New York. 1968. P. 517524.
Gornov A.Yu., Veyalko I.A. Genetic search method for solving relay
optimal control problems // Proceedings of the Baikal XVI AllRussian
Conference Informational and Mathematical Technologies in Science
and Control, Irkutsk. 2011, Part. 1 P. 2229. (In Russian).
Gornov A.Yu., Zarodnyuk T.S. The Method of stochastic coverage for
optimal control problems // Computing teckniques. 2012. Vol. 17, N 2.
P. 3142. (In Russian).
Zarodnyuk T.S., Gornov A.Yu. Computing technique based on
multistart method for obtaining global extremum in optimal control
problems // J. Glob Optim. 2014. (In print).
TABLE I.
Distinguishing
mark
Shunt Capacitors
Automatic capacitors
Thyristor switched capacitors
Harmonic filter
Automatic harmonic filter
Synchronous compensator
Thyristor controlled reactor
Shunt reactor
Automatic shunt reactor
Static var system
Controlled shunt reactor
TSN
HF
TCR
SVC
CSR
STATKOM
ASK
SSLC
SCS
CSCS
JPFC
Currentlimiting device
110
STATKOM
AF
SVC
Pulsed voltage
Voltage interruptions
Flicker
Voltage fluctuations
CSR
Frequency deviation
TABLE II.
TSC
TCR
SSLC
CSCS
JPEC
CONCLUSION
In the first phase implementation of FACTS devices
without the use of higherlevel control systems is possible by
targeting these devices to the needs of a specific object
without covering the entire grid goals.
111
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
112
Khripkov Alexander
I.
INTRODUCTION
II.
113
Test
Measurement of
impedances and transfer
functions at
interconnection points
Obtain the correlation
between currents on the
components, cable harness
and radiated EMI field
strength
Measurements of
conducted and radiated
EMI
114
E, dBuV/m
40
20
, =
0
=
20
100 (a)
500
f, MHz
,
= +
/ .
(1)
(2)
Im(Z), Ohm
Re(Z), Ohm
30
,
,
,
30
100
f, MHz
500
(b)
Transfer function, dB
Nominal values
5% from nominal
+5% from nominal
115
f, Hz
Port 2
Port 1
Port 3
Ground plane
f, Hz
Fig. 7. Spectrum of the data source and transfer function of the test PCB
TABLE II.
freq,
MHz
180
1440
f, Hz
Measurement
data, dBuV/m
Old
New
PCB
PCB
41.4
23.5
36.9
29.2
,
dB
17.9
7.75
Simulation data,
dBuV/m
Old
New
PCB
PCB
41.5
13.6
36.8
25.2
,
dB
27.9
11.6
9.97
3.85
, dB
116
TABLE III.
Freq
Vdd1, dBuV
Viso, dBuV
Icoup, dBuA
180MHz
70.9
68.1
28.3
360MHz
71.1
77.4
27.1
720MHz
60.8
62.7
14.5
1.44GHz
50.6
43.7
8.7
REFERENCES
[1]
Fig. 10. Measurement setup for the reference layout (a), Test PCB for the
DC/DC converter ADuM5401 (b)
VDD1
VISO
GND1
GNDISO
III.
CONCLUSION
117
Fig.1. Micro hydro power plant at the retention pool of the pond
Radovanska Reka
I.
INTRODUCTION
118
a)
b)
Fig. 6. Daily load profile of the pond Radovanska Reka (month of
January): a working days; b weekends.
Fig. 4. The grid in zone of impeller and guide vanes.
119
C NPC=
PV Array
PPV =f PV Y PV
IT
IS
f PV  PV derating factor,
Y PV  rated capacity of the PVarray (kW),
I T  global solar radiation (beam plus diffuse)
CRF (i , N )=
i ( 1+ i )
( 1+ i ) 1
COE=
Cann ,tot
E prim + E + E grid ,sales
g gravitational acceleration,
hnet  net head,
Diesel generator
gen ,
c =c 0 m , gen+
C ann, tot
CRF ( i , R proj )
c rep , gen
+ F 0 Y gen c fuel, ef
R gen
c fuel ,ef
C rep ,batt
c bw =
N batt Qlifetime rt
Crep , batt  replacement cost of the battery bank
(dollars),
(kWh),
rt
 roundtrip efficiency.
Economic modeling
120
Component
PV
Hydro
Generator
Trojan T105
Inverter
System
Power
(kW)
11
6,4
12
72
5
29.4
Total Cost
($)
12.009
8.445
6.235
11.013
1.640
39.343
Generated Electrical
Energy (kWh/god)
16.337 (41%)
23.414 (58%)
458 (1%)
/
/
40.209 00%)
Power
(kW)
7
8,5
12
48
4
27,5
Total Cost
($)
7.642
10.104
10.742
7.342
1.312
37.142
Generated Electrical
Energy (kWh/god)
10.396 (21%)
38.239 (77%)
829 (2%)
/
/
49.464 00%)
Fig. 11. Cash Flow Summary of System Components During Project Life
Time (After Reconstruction)
121
[4]
[5]
[6]
Fig. 12. Monthly Average Electric Production of System
Components.
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
CONCLUSIONS
For power supply the trout pond that is built near the
remote mountain rivers economical solution is a hybrid
system of renewable sources of energy. The main source of
renewable energy is water that comes out of the retention
pool of the pond. In order to maximize the energy, it is
necessary to optimize the turbine (that is usually tubular
propeller, due to the small water head) and complete hybrid
system.
[2]
[3]
Lal D. K., Dash B. B., Akella A. K., Optimization of PV/Wind/MicroHydro/Diesel Hybrid Power System in HOMER for the Study Area,
International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Vol.
3, No. 3, 2011, pp. 307325.
Tomovi M., Jevti M., Milovanovi G., Optimization of the Hybrid
System for Power Supply Pond, Energija, Vol. 16, No. 12, 2014, pp.
170177.
Mostofi F. and Shayeghi H. Feasibility and Optimal Reliable Design
of Renewable Hybrid Energy System for Rural Electrification in Iran,
International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, Vol.2, No.4,
2012. pp. 574582.
122
Kenfack J., Neirac F.P., Tatietse T., Mayer D., Fogue M. and Lejeune
A. MicrohydroPV hybrid system: Sizing a small hydroPVhybrid
system for rural electrification in developing countries, Renewable
Energy, Vol. 34, No. 10, 2009, pp. 22592263
LunaRubio R., TrejoPerea M., VargasVazquez D., RiosMoreno
G.J. Optimal sizing of renewable hybrids energy systems: A review of
methodologies, Solar Energy, Vol. 86, No. 4, 2012, pp. 10771088.
Novkovi ., Marii N., Jevti M., Glavi Z. Improoving small
bulb turbine performances using CFD, Energija, Vol. 15, No. 34,
2013, pp. 309316.
Lambert T., Gilman P. and Lilienthal P. Micropower system modeling
with HOMER, in book: Farret A.F., Simoes M. Godoy. Integration of
alternative sources of energy , John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken,
New Jersey, 2006.
http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/
http://sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boljevac
http://www.europesolar.de/catalog/
The Cadastre of small hydropower plants on the territory of the
Republic of Serbia outside of SAP, Jaroslav erni Institute for the
Development of Water Resources, Belgrade, 1987.
http://www.alibaba.com/productgs/568621744/12kw_Best_Price_Sta
ndby_Power_ Diesel.html?s=p
http://www.steca.com/index.php?coolcept_18004200_en
http://www.trojanbattery.com/
http://www.ebay.com/itm/6v6voltbaterrytrojant105golfcartrvmarinesolardeepcycle/171288710818
Chistyakov G.N.
Department Electric power engineering
Khakas Technical Institute  branch of Federal State
Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional
Education "Siberian Federal University"
Abakan, Khakas Republics, Russia
email: chist2@yandex.ru
1. INTRODUCTION
System operator generates and uses its own forecasts for
ensuring of reliability of Unified electric power system of
Russia in the formation of the forecast dispatch schedule for
supervisory of the control territories. Temporary planning
hierarchy is divided into three main intervals: longterm
planning (from one month to a year in advance), shortterm
planning (market "dayahead"), operational management
regimes (balancing market). Predictive values of power
consumption are usually done at all time intervals with
successive refinement of the results of calculations with
decreasing lead time.
123
rji (W1i W ji )1 i ,
here
(1)
here
(2)
To obtain a complete picture of rank parametric distribution for each group of objects, threedimensional
surface (shown fig. 1) were constructed.
a1 , b1 , 0 , T
constants
of
W1
a b (t )
0 1 1 t T
r (t ) r (1 e ) ,
(4)
W (r , t )
W ( x) W1 x ,
(3)
approximating
equations.
124
2500
2400
2300
W ( r)
2200
2100
2000
10
20
30
40
50
60
W (r )
For combinations of indicators rank parametric distributions the concordance coefficients have been
calculated: K1 = 0,925 K2 = 0,92. Obtained coefficients
describe a high degree of interconnectivity of objects. On
the base of coefficients one can conclude, that daily
schedule of hourly electric power consumption for Khakas
power grid can be considered as technocenosis and in shortterm forecasting of hourly daynight electric power
consumption it is acceptable technocenosis approach, using
mathematical apparatus of rank parametric  distributions.
consumption
in
Approximation of obtained rank parametric distributions of empirical data was obtained with the help of
method of rank forecasting analysis, with the estimation and
spesification.
B. Approximation of rank parametric  distributions
A twoparameter hyperbolic form, according to the
formula (1) was given as a standard method of rank
analysis.
Approximation was carried out twice: by method of the
least modules and by method of the least squares. The
magnitude of maximum deviation, magnitude of the sum of
deviations and total magnitude of the relative error by
method of the least modules are significantly lower than by
method of the least squares. In this case, there is a reason to
recognize that the method of the least modules is more
correct to use.
125
0.03
0.02
0.01
Mds q
0
Misq
0.01
0.02
0.03
4. CONCLUSION
0
10
15
20
EP 4 q
EP 3 q
REFERENCES
2040
EP 5 q2020
2000
EP 2 q1980
2
R
1960
1940
1920
10
15
20
1
q q q q R
126
127
I.
INTRODUCTION
II.
RELATED WORKS
128
di
ea1 v a 01 La1 a1 ;
dt
di
eb1 vb 01 Lb1 b1 ;
dt
III.
di
ec1 vc 01 Lc1 c1 ;
dt
w
di
ea 2 2 v a 01 La 2 a 2
dt
w1
w
di
eb 2 2 vb 01 Lb 2 b 2 ;
dt
w1
w
di
ec 2 2 vc 01 Lc 2 c 2 .
dt
w1
w di
2 di
v a 01 ea 01 Lm (ia ) a1 2 a 2
3 dt
w1 dt
dia1
v 1 ra1ia1 La1 dt v a 01
v r i L dib1 v
b1
b 01
b1 b1 b1
dt
, (1)
dic1
ea 2 ra 2 ia 2 v 2
eb 2 rb 2 ib 2 vb 2
ec 2 rc 2 ic 2 vc 2
w di di
w di
1 di
b1 2 b 2 c1 2 c 2
2 dt
w1 dt dt
w1 dt
(2)
1
w
w
2
rm i1a 2 i a 2 i1b 2 ib 2
3
w1
w1
2
dia
w
i1c 2 ic 2 Lm (ia )
rm ia ;
w1
dt
where
129
vb 01 eb 01
w di
2 di
Lm (ib ) b1 2 b 2
3 dt
w1 dt
w di di
w di
1 di
a1 2 a 2 c1 2 c 2
2 dt
w1 dt dt
w1 dt
(3)
w
w
2
rm ib1 2 ib 2 i a1 2 i a 2
3
w1
w1
2
w di
2 di
v a 01 ea 01 Lm (ia ) a1 2 b 2
3 dt
w1 dt
w di di
w di
1 di
b1 2 c 2 c1 2 a 2
2 dt
w1 dt dt
w1 dt
(5)
w
2
rm i a1 2 ib 2
3
w1
w
w
1
ib1 2 ic 2 ic1 2 i a 2 ;
2
w1
w1
dib
w
ic1 2 ic 2 Lm (ib )
rm ib ;
w1
dt
w di
2 di
v 01 e 01 Lm (i ) 1 2 2
3 dt
w1 dt
w di di
w di
1 di
a1 2 a 2 b1 2 b 2
2 dt
w1 dt dt
w1 dt
1
w
w
2
rm ic1 2 ic 2 i1a 2 i a 2
3
w1 2
w1
(4)
w di
2 di
vb 01 eb 01 Lm (ib ) b1 2 2
3 dt
w1 dt
dic
w
ib1 2 ib 2 Lm (ic )
rm ic .
w1
dt
w di di
w di
1 di
a1 2 b 2 c1 2 a 2
2 dt
w1 dt dt
w1 dt
(6)
w
2
rm ib1 2 ic 2
3
w1
IV.
w
w
1
i a1 2 ib 2 ic1 2 i a 2 ;
2
w1
w1
w di
2 di
v 01 e 01 Lm (i ) 1 2 a 2
3 dt
w1 dt
w di di
w di
1 di
a1 2 b 2 b1 2 c 2
2 dt
w1 dt dt
w1 dt
rm
w2
2
i a 2
ic1
3
w1
w
w
1
i a1 2 ib 2 ib1 2 ic 2 ;
2
w1
w1
These permutations are reflected in the expressions (5) (7). In other words, such a change of phase indices is made
when entering the signals from secondary winding MM to the
primary winding MM. In addition to this, in the comments to
130
(7)
w
di
ea 2 2 vc 01 La 2 a 2 ;
dt
w1
w
di
eb 2 2 v a 01 Lb 2 b 2 ;
dt
w1
w di
2 di
v 01 e 01 Lm (i ) 1 2 b 2
3 dt
w1 dt
w di di
w di
1 di
a1 2 c 2 b1 2 a 2
2 dt
w1 dt dt
w1 dt
(11)
w
2
rm ic1 2 ib 2
3
w1
(8)
w
di
ec 2 2 vb 01 Lc 2 c 2 .
dt
w1
In version of MM, containing (5) (8) equations, "+" sign
in front of the right side of (8) should be used for schemes and
vector groups Dy7, d7, y8, Dd8, and "" to Dy1, d1, y2,
Dd2.
w
w
1
i a1 2 ic 2 ib1 2 i a 2 .
2
w1
w1
We also need to in the comments to the system of
equations (1) to make the replacement indices in each phase
at voltage drops in the magnetizing branch of the primary
winding as shown in (12): in phase a to b, in phase b to c, in
phase c to a.
w di
2 di
v a 01 ea 01 Lm (ia ) a1 2 c 2
3 dt
w1 dt
w di di
w di
1 di
b1 2 a 2 c1 2 b 2
2 dt
w1 dt dt
w1 dt
(9)
w
2
rm i a1 2 ic 2
3
w1
w
di
ea 2 2 vb 01 La 2 a 2 ;
dt
w1
w
di
eb 2 2 vc 01 Lb 2 b 2 ;
dt
w1
w
w
1
ib1 2 i a 2 ic1 2 ib 2 ;
2
w1
w1
(12)
w
di
ec 2 2 v a 01 Lc 2 c 2 .
dt
w1
w di
2 di
vb 01 eb 01 Lm (ib ) b1 2 a 2
3 dt
w1 dt
w di di
w di
1 di
a1 2 c 2 c1 2 b 2
2 dt
w1 dt dt
w1 dt
(10)
w
2
rm ib1 2 i a 2
3
w1
w
w
1
i a1 2 ic 2 ic1 2 ib 2 ;
2
w1
w1
V.
FEATURES OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL,
ITS COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION AND SIMULATION
RESULTS
Described by (1)  (12) MM is applicable in case of
asymmetry of parameters of phase windings of the transformer
(assuming the same for all phases of
Lm and rm ) and at
Lm ( I a ) , Lm ( I b ) , Lm ( I c ) .
131
TABLE I
HARMONIC CONTENT OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT FOR COMPUTER MODEL OF
3PHASE TRANSFORMER 240 KVA DY AT NOMINAL CONDITIONS WHEN
POWERED PRIMARY WINDING BY SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE AND
NONLINEAR MAGNETIZATION CURVE IS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT
V1ma
V2 ma
V2 mab
I1ma
I1mab
I 2 ma
I ma
Hz
50
1661,0
316,5
548,4
99,5
171,4
473,7
3,1
150
2,7
5,6
450
8,6
6,2
1,9
Fig. 1. The results of computer simulation of voltages and currents for 3phase transformer with the scheme and the vector group Yy8.
Fig. 2. The results of computer simulation of voltages and currents for 3phase transformer with the scheme and the vector group Yy4.
132
VI.
EXPANSION OF THE COMPUTER MODEL OF 3PHASE TWO WINDING TRANSFORMER COMPUTER
133
Fig. 10. The simulation results idling transformer Dz0. Curves: 1  phase
voltage  zero primary winding (5 times downscaled); 2  phase voltage of
the secondary winding; 3 and 4  phase voltages for respective secondary
halfwindings with lead and lag of 30 electrical degrees.
The developed computer model is suitable for nonstandard connection groups with the scheme "not equallegs
zigzag." The model is possible taking into account
nonlinearity of magnetization curve.
Presented in the report results is the part of the work
performed by the author under the proposed thesis for the
degree of Doctor of Technical Sciences. As a part of this work
has also developed computer models of threephase induction
motor, singlephase transformer, saturable reactor, thyratron,
power electronic convertors. They are used for the simulation
of industrial and railway transport electric drive modes,
including dynamic thermal modes of induction motor under
feeding with asymmetric power voltage.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
VII.
CONCLUSIONS
[6]
[7]
134
The Generation of
Multidimensional Stochastic Process of Perturbation
in the Problems of Railways Rolling Stock Dynamics
Savoskin A. N.
Electric trains and Locomotive Department
Moscow State University of Railway Engineering
Moscow, Russia
email: elmechtrans@mail.ru
istics
Akishin A. A.
Electric trains and Locomotive Department
Moscow State University of Railway Engineering
Moscow, Russia
email: elmechtrans@mail.ru
Abstract During the movement of trains on
the tracks it's exposed to the perturbation in the form of
railway track irregularities causing oscillations of mechanical parts. This raises the problem of the generation
of multidimensional stochastic process disturbances,
given the matrix of correlation functions or spectral
densities. For this was created the forming mechanism
in the temporary realm. With help, According of this
mechanism was performed the generation of multidimensional random process in the temporary realm
Keywords the generation of multidimensional stochastic
process, perturbing factor causing railway vehicles oscillation,
y t
or matrix spec
R yiu
j .
m 1
xi nT ,
one.This sequence
linear sustainable
xi nT
other.
This process is necessary converted into a multidimensional Gaussian stationary stochastic process with a
135
size
u 1, 2, 3, ..., m .
following procedure.
integral convolution.
transforms
X z Z x nT x n z n ,
formation:
n0
z eq e pT
yiu
z Z R
yiu
yiu
nT :
z
yiu
(2)
c j
Wiu z e qndq
(4)
iu x vt
in the following
yiu nT
kiu nT xiu d ,
z W z G
G yiu z Wiu
iu xiu z
where
(3)
where
c j
nT .
1
kiu nT Z1 Wiu z
2j
(1)
Wiu z is
x
v
(5)
z is a matrix of discrete
Wiu
Wiu z ;
G xiu z the matrix is singular spectral density uncorrelated signals at the output of
the generators of white noise with the size
mm :
1 0 0 ... 0
0 1 0 ... 0
G xiu z 0 0 1 ... 0 .
............
0 0 0 ... 1
Fig. 2. Structural scheme of forming mechanism in the
temporary realm
136
independent. Also
kiu nT
and integrators
iusl x vt
2
2
Giusl z Siusl
akiusl
k
exp
exp
exp x z
x z 2exp x cos xz 1
2
kiusl
2
kiusl
x coskiusl xz2
2
2
kiusl
2
kiusl
kiusl
. (7)
of 4 x 4.
exp
exp
2
kiusl
2
kiusl
x (coskiusl x )z expkius
l x
2
2
x z2 2 expkiusl
x (coskiusl x )z1
2
. (8)
process iusl x vt :
iu
2
2 *
2
2
Riusl Siusl akiusl exp kiusl niusl x with help of the command "iztrans" switch over to the ma
k
trix of the impulse response:
cos kiusl n*
x
iusl
kiusl nx Siusl akiusl
exp
x
;
kiusl
2
n 1 x ciusl
exp
kiusl
*
2
where niusl n nciusl [m]; akiusl the
part of the variance S
2
iusl stochastic process, coinciding
n 1, 2, ..., N ; x vT
(9)
akiusl 1 ; kiusl [m
2
kiusl
[m1]
, (6)
4), and
component
of
the
correlation
function
If
nential component. If
138
Fig. 6. Spectral density irregularities of the left vertical (a) rail and right rail horizontal (b): generated solid lines; analytic expression is dotted line
Fig. 5. The autocorrelation function of the irregularities of the track:the left vertical rail (a) and right rail
horizontal (b);mutual correlation function between vertical and right
horizontal irregularity rails (c); right vertical and
left horizontal irregularities of the rails (d):generated solid lines; analytic expression is dotted line
139
Thus, we propose an algorithm of generation of multidimensional geometric irregularities of the rail track. Using
this algorithm you can generate such irregularity at different speeds with any length of implementation and discretization step. This allows you to numerically solve it in a
temporary area of the multidimensional problem of the dynamics of rolling stock with nonlinear characteristics spring
suspension.
Reference
[1] Matyas I., Silhanek Ya. the Generator of random processes with a given matrix of spectral densities.// Automation and
remote control.  1960.  1.
[2] Savoskin A. N., Polyakov A. I. Modeling equivalent irregularities way to study the oscillations of the rolling stock.//
 Applicant.  2005  1.
[3] Savoskin A. N., Romain Yu. S., Akishin A. A., CharacterFig. 7. Components of the reciprocal spectral density between right vertical and right horizontal irregularities of rails: a  real, b  imaginary components of
the reciprocal spectral density between the left and right
vertical horizontal irregularities of rails: c  real;
d  imaginary; generated  solid lines;analytic expression is dotted lineanalytic
expression is dotted line
istics of perturbing factor causing railway vehicles oscillations. // Bulletin of VNIIZhT  2013.  12.
140
and identified patterns that would reveal the possible use of the
module not only in shortrange radar, but also in data
transmission. Nanosecond microwave pulses are successfully
used for sensing pipes and defect detection [5]. While the
pipeline itself is a kind of ultraboundary waveguide that
provides all types of waves. Data transmission in the ultraboundary waveguides has not been investigated because of the
large attenuation and lack of technological applications in the
past. However, recently in geophysics it became necessary for
improving efficiency and reducing resource consumption of
geophysical works [6].
I.
INTRODUCTION
RESEARCH PROBLEMS
III.
1. Frequency band.
2. Radiowave propagation in an inhomogeneous medium
with a large signal attenuation.
waveguide resonator.
Waveguide resonator where the Gunn diode are set forms a
microwave unit. Rectangular modulating signalgenerating unit
is designed for excitation of Gunn diode by pulses of different
duration and duty cycle Electrical block diagram of generation
module is shown on figure 1.
141
IV.
module can explore the frequency spectrum of the highfrequency signals, distortion and noise at the output of tract.
V.
142
SIMULATION RESULTS
143
[2]
[3]
144
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
I. INTRODUCTION
145
CPU 1
CPU 2
CPU N
3.1. Each processor works only with the own RAM (the
RAM has the same number, as the processor);
3.2. Each task works with the all RAMS in the set order.
RAM
RAM
146
all
above
Fig. 2 The screen form for setting an order of CPU  RAM accesses
Fig. 4 Initial data set screen for five processors and RAM
147
148
V. CONCLUSION
The program complex contains three typical
multiprocessor systems models. It is used in laboratory
classes on subject "Architecture of the highperformance
computing systems". Simulation models are developed with
use of the universal environments (Delphi and C ++). Models
were simplified to reproduce the functioning of main
computer elements, their structures and operational states, and
visualized to make material more understandable for the
student. The experiments that can be conducted using the
models help to analyze the computer parameters and find out
the optimal operating modes with provided input information.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
149
II.
MODULE
I.
INTRODUCTION
A. Equipment
Now day our education facility consists of 7 CNC
machines:
150
vertical milling machine 6560, CNC system NC201M, additional liquid cooling for spindle bearing,
parameter S1 till 2 500 rmp;
Fig. 3. Emulator
151
LABORATORY MODULES
Procedures:
1) Run SprutCAM7 in administrator mode;
2) Assign CNC lathe from program base parameters
lache: threecoordinate milling machine;
Procedures:
PRACTICAL EXAMPLE
152
153
V.
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
[1]
154
H. Sergeeva, HSC
http://www.ibag.ch/.
(Highspeedcutting).
[electronic
resource]
The purpose of the described research is to ensure faulttolerance of MAS in cases of software failures of agents and
particular tasks of agents, hardware failures of hosts required
for execution of software agents and hardware failures of
actuators which are defined as special hardware components
required for interaction of agents with an environment. To
make MAS and agentoriented technologies applicable for real
world industry systems it is required to guarantee a specified
level of reliability of MAS. Thus increasing of reliability
indexes is not enough and there is a need in a method for
theoretical assessment of reliability level of MAS guaranteed in
case of application of the faultrecovery methodology.
II.
I.
INTRODUCTION
155
III.
FAULTRECOVERY METHODOLOGY
A. Communication Protocol.
Each task of MAS is assumed to be able to request
execution of another task or to utilize a particular actuator
during its execution. To apply the faulttolerance strategy to the
existing MAS transparently we introduce new communication
protocol based on message processing which shall enable
execution of an active replica of a particular type as well as
usage of an actuator of a particular type independently of its
deployment in particular executive containers.
156
B. FaultRecovery Procedures
Faultrecovery procedures are required to deal with
mentioned above failures that lead MAS to inability to perform
one of tasks. We state that databases of agents and APs shall
contain records only for components that are not in failure. Its
assumed that failures of all components shall be detected to
perform an appropriate faultrecovery procedure. If a detected
failure results in an inability to perform an active replica of a
particular type then new replica shall be found and activated.
The procedure of activation of new replica shall be performed
iteratively in accordance with components hierarchy: firstly by
a component responsible for failure detection, then by its
parent and finally by coordinated actions of all agent platforms.
157
158
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
159
Probability of NoFailure
Redundant MAS 1
Time
IMITATION MODELLING
Redundant MAS 2
Theoretical
assessment
PA1(t)
Experimental
assessment
PS1(t)
Theoretical
assessment
PA2(t)
Experimental
assessment
PS2(t)
0.999563
0.999700
0.999994
1.000000
10
0.962195
0.962060
0.994722
0.994440
20
0.872160
0.874160
0.965839
0.966800
30
0.757702
0.763220
0.907169
0.906320
40
0.637612
0.644520
0.823529
0.822220
50
0.523370
0.527440
0.724277
0.723280
60
0.421105
0.422760
0.619205
0.618160
VI.
CONSLUSIONS
The developed model of redundant distributed hardwaresoftware MAS explicitly defines software agents and agent
platforms as universal executive containers and separates
universal and functional components such as tasks and
actuators. The model defines new faulttolerance strategy based
on replication of all functional components and on introduction
of redundant sets of executive containers.
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Operability functions and experimental assessments of probability
of nofailure
160
The developed faultrecovery methodology defines faultrecovery problem as a problem of search and activation of new
replica of a task of a particular type in case of inability to
perform the active replica of this type caused by detected
failure. The methodology introduces new communication
protocol that enables task execution and actuators utilization
independently of its deployment in executive containers of
MAS. The methodology defines faultrecovery procedures
required to deal with detected failures of software agents, tasks,
agent platforms and actuators.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
161
M. Bertier, O. Marin, P. Sens, DARX a framework for the faulttolerant support of agent software, in ISSRE03 Proceedings of the 14th
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P.R. Cohen, S. Kumar, H.J. Levesque, The adaptive agent achitecture:
achieving faulttolerance using persistent broker teams, in Proceedings
of Fourth International Conference on MultiAgent Systems, pp. 159166, 2000.
S. Haegg, A sentinel approach to fault handling in multiagent
systems, in MultiAgent Systems Methodologies and Applications, pp.
181195, 1997.
S. Kraus, V.S. Subrahmanian, N.C. Tas, Probabilistically survivable
mass, in Proceedings of IJCAI2003 International Joint Conference on
Artificial Intelligence, vol 3, pp. 789795, 2003.
S. Kraus, E. Neisterski, V.S. Subrahmanian, D. Peleg, Y. Zhang,
Computing the fault tolerance of multiagent deployment, in Artificial
Intelligence, vol. 173(3), pp. 437465, 2009.
S. Mellouli, A reorganization strategy to build faulttolerant multiagent systems, in Advances in Artificial Intelligence : Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, vol. 4509, pp. 6172, 2007.
A.V. Igumnov, S.E. Saradgishvili, Fault recovery in redundant
multiagent systems, in St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University
Journal. Computer Science. Telecommunication and Control Systems,
vol 193(2), 2014, in press.
A.V. Igumnov, S.E. Saradgishvili, Reliability assessment for redundant
multiagent systems, in Electronic Journal "Science and Education:
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(http://dx.doi.org/10.7463/0114.0696290).
I.A. Ryabinin, G.N. Cherkesov, Logikoveroyatnostnye metody
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Moscow, Radio i svyaz' Publ., 1981. 264 p. (in Russian)
I.
II.
INTRODUCTION
162
III.
163
TABLE I.
EXPERIMENT RESULTS
Step
Supercomputer result
PC result
1.
120,38692
120,38692
2.
129,38892
129,38892
3.
137,39692
137,39692
*******************************************
100
870,19692
870,19692
101
890,31292
890,31292
102
970,29692
970,29692
*******************************************
7405
2010,25698
2010,25698
7406
2013,36551
2013,36551
7407
2040,15454
2040,15454
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
164
I.
INTRODUCTION
165
REFERENCES
Fig. 1. Recognition of the Crosswalk road sign
[1]
The algorithm was tested on the video frames from the car
video recorder. Video recordings were made in the afternoon,
in the evening, at night and during rain. Results showed that
the percentage of detected signs is 95.6%, number of false
positive cases 1.
III.
[2]
[3]
CONCLUSIONS
166
Bay H., Tuytelaars T., Van Gool L.. SURF: Speeded Up Robust Featurs,
http://www.vision.ee.ethz.ch/~surf/eccv06.pdf.
Fleyeh H. (2006). Shadow and Highlight Colour Segmentation
Algorithm for Traffic Signs. IEEE Conference on Cybernetics and
Intelligent Systems. Bangkok: 2006
Luth N., Ach R.. Lane Departure Warning and Realtime Recognition of
Traffic Signs/ / Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications
2009.  Berlin: Springer, 2009.
I.
dynamic
INTRODUCTION
III.
CONCLUSION
COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATIONS
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
167
Efimov V.V.
Operations Manager
RingCentral Inc.
San Mateo, CA, USA
2vadim@inbox.ru
Mescheryakov S.V.
Professor
SPbSPU
St. Petersburg, Russia
sergphd@mail.ru
I.
INTRODUCTION
Shchemelinin D.A.
Operations Director
RingCentral Inc.
San Mateo, CA, USA
dshchmel@gmail.com
Configuration
PK
configuration_id
Host
PK
FK host_id
host_name
FK build_id
Configuration Item
PK
ci_id
ci_name
168
host_id
Build
PK
version_id
FK ci_id
version_name
PK
GET http://wiki.ringcentral.com/
rest/prototype/latest/search.json
labels
id
PK
PK
id_request
id_environment
PK
page_id
title
title
url
title
FK request_status_id
FK environment_id
user
FK permission_id
description
AttributeValue
id
FK attr_id
name
FK object_id
label
FK object_tid
FK
FK status_id
FK owner_id
id_requesttype
jira_request_id
FK request_type_id
milestone_dates
PK
FK stage_id
id
sticky
FK chapter_id
dict_sticky
Chapter
dict_value
PK
EntityLink
PK
id
sticky
id
name
GET http://jira.ringcentral.com/rest/api/latest/search?jql
date
description
FK chapter_id
dict_key
type
PK
AttributeMap
FK attr_id
IPv4Allocation
name
FK project_milestone_id
title
name
FK objtype_id
id
id
type
Dictionary
ip
title
completed_flag
milestones
has_problem
float_value
FK object_id
name
FK milestone_id
title
unit_value
PK
FK owner_id
project_id
FK parent_project_id
asset_no
comment
PK
Attribute
PK
string_value
requesttype
FK executor_id
id
PK
login
project_id
project_milestones
projects
PK
PK
FK objtype_id
id_user
PK
title
id
Object
id
FK parent_id
PK
environment
parent_entity_type
id
FK parent_entity_id
title
child_entity_type
url
FK child_entity_id
V.
CONCLUSION
TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
169

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