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( )

.. , .. , ..

1.
1.1. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.11. -. . . . .
1.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.13. . . . . .
1.14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.15. . . . . .
1.16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
2.1. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
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7
11
12
15
18
20
21
24
25
26
28
29
32
35
37
41
47


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47
52
55
59
71
81

3
2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10. -.
2.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12. .
2.13. .

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. 85
. 86
. 89
. 90
. 93
. 109
. 133
148


. . . , : , , , , ; ,
.
.. .
. . .:
, 1998, . 572.

(. .
, 1994, .2, 6, .67-81) , ,
. ,
( ), ,
(Wunder und Zauber), , :
() ... . . .
( ), : , .
,
( ) ()
.
,
1997-2000 .

5
..
, .

, - -,
.
... ...
(), , -.
, , () . , , , (
, ;
).

,
, , - ..
. , .. , . . .
- , ,
, . ,
.
,
( , , ),
. , , ,
.
, , , .
, ( )
.
( ), . ,
.
.A.

6
.A. .

,
.
1. .. . ,
.4. .: - , 1955.
2. .., ..
. .: , 1984.
3. .., .., .. . .:
, 1979.
4. .., .. . - .: , 1988.
5. .., .. . - .: , 1986.
6. .., .. . .: ,
1979.
7. .., ..
( ). .: . 1982.
8. . . .: , 1977.
9. .. . .: , 1989.
10. ., ., .
. .: , 1971.
11. . / . ..
.. . .: . 1978.

1.


1.1. .

1. ,
. a. a = 1 .
2. V S
. P . . M
. , .
3. m, q, R,
Q. .
4. l m.

. . F . F ?
5. 1 . ?
6. .
.
. m 0.4 , R 0.15 ,

. 1.1. 4
, 105 .
, .
7. , ,
,
.
,
, , ,
, ? .
8.
, .
? n.
9.
, n ?
10. , , , p, E.
.
11. .
12. ,
k
m1 m2 .
13. ,
I1 I2 , ,
. M = .

. 1.2. 14
14. , . 1.2.
m, l, k.
15. l
, . 1.3. ,
. .
16. R
m r.
. .
17.
m, x,
x :


a) U (x) = U0 (x/l)3 3(x/l) ,


) U (x) = 4a (b/x)1 2 (b/x)6 .

. 1.3. 15

10

. 1.4. 16
18. , "" y = a sin(2x/l). "" . .
19. m
V (r) = Kr 3 , K > 0 r = a.
,
?
20. l
,
T0 .
, /2?
21.
m U (x) = k|x|n ,
n > 1. , n = 2.

n?
22. ,
x F = x3/2 .
?
.
23. , y = kx2 .
. ?

11

1.2.
24. m = 100 ,
k = 10 /, v0 = 1 /. x0 = 4 . t = 1 .
25. C = 16 L = 160 .
V = 10 B, .
? ?
26. l = 2 m = 1 10
. ?
, .
27. m, c R0 P .
, :
,
.
28. , x0
v0 , x(t)
t2 . .
29. l = 5 , 100 .
, .
30. f0 = 100
Q = 100. ,
, R = 5 .
31. m k f = v. ,
, , . ?
32. ,

12
= 0 . ?
33. r = 5
l = 2 .
10 . . ,
?
= 20106 .
34. ,
?
35. , v0 .
.
t2 , .
. , . ?
36. , , ,
F =

2e2 d3 x
,
3c3 dt3

- . , = 1015 / a = 108 .
1) , .
2) ?
3) ?

1.3.
37.

13
.
?
38. , .

.
39. 38
.
40. p ,
- (x). d/dp.
41. , .
: .
42.
. 2 , 20 .
?
43. ,
x0 v0 ,
. , .
44. f (t) = p(t).
45. ,
F (t) = p

N
1
X
n=0

(t nT ).


T .
? ?

14

. 1.5. 46
46. . 1.5
.
. v , e,
. .
,
v l0 , 0 . m.
47. ,

0 , t < 0 , t > T,
F (t) =
f, 0<t<T.

?

48.
,

0 , t < 0 , t > T,
F (t) =
t , 0 < t < T .
, . ? .
49. Q 1
,

f0 , nT t (n + 0.5)T , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
F (t) =
0 , .

15
T = 2/. .

1.4.
50. l

, . ?
51. m R
, U (r) = cm/r n , c > 0.
n ?
52. l = 1
0.01 .
100 ?
53. . t,
. , 2 ?
54. " "


U (x) = U0 (x/l)3 p(x/l) ,

< p < . p ?
.
55. a b ,

p4 + (a + b)p3 + p2 + ap + b = 0 .
56.
, . a b , .

16
1) ap + b = 0
2) p2 + ap + b = 0
3) p3 + ap2 + bp + 1 = 0
4) p4 + ap3 + bp2 + p + 1 = 0
57. a b ,

p3 + (b + 3)p2 + 3ap + a + b = 0 .
58. D-
p5 + p4 + 2p3 + p2 + 2p + 1 = 0 .
59. D-
). (p + 1) sh(p + 2) = 0 ,
). ep (p + 2) + p2 + 3p + 1 = 0 .
60.
ax = x2 + y 1 ,
y = xy .
61.
x =

xy
x

x2 ,
2 +x

y =

xy
y
,
+x 2

> 0, > 0, 2 > 1, ,


.
62. :
N
dN
=
,
dt
l

mc

dT
= N k(T T1 ) ,
dt

17
N , T , l
, m , c , = (T T0 ) , > 0, T1 , T1 < T0 , k .
,
.
63. ,
.
, ?
64.
C1 C2 , C = C2 C1 << C0 = (C1 +
+ C2 )/2. (C/C0 , 0 ), 02 = 1/LC0 ,
.
65.
C(t) = C0 + C

n=

(t n ) .

(C/C0 , 0 ), 02 = 1/LC0 , .
66. Q
1 C(t) = C0 + C cos(pt), p 20 ,
C C0 . ((p 20 )/0 , C/C0 ) . C/C0 ,
?
67. , , U0 .
C(t) = C0 + C cos(2t), C << C0 . ?
68. 67, Q.
66.
69. p
2 g/l a. . ?

18

. 1.6. 77
70. l
, p

p 0 = g/l a ( ).
?

1.5.
71.
, ?
72.
, . ,
, - .
73.
,
?
74.
, a .
.
.

19

. 1.7. 78
75. . . . .
76. m q d ,
. . .
.
77. ,
.(1.6). ,
.
78. (. . 1.7). . .
79.
. , .
? ,
.

. 1.8. 80

20

. 1.9. 82

1.6.

. , , .. , ,

.
80.
k, . 1.8, m, - 2m.
.
81. ,
. . , .
?
82. L M
k (. 1.9).
a, , .
. : ,
.
83. ,
(. 1.10) .
84. 83 ,
4 .

21
. 4-
, .
85. ,
. 1.11.
86. m , (. . 1.12).
k.
.
87. .
. ,
- . .

1.7.
88.
f (x, t) = Re{A exp[j(t kx)]}

2
2f
2 f

v
= 0.
t2
x2

?
89. , f (x vt) g(x + vt) f g.

. 1.10. 83

22

. 1.11. 85
f (x vt).
, , t = 0
f (x) .
90. , v = 1 /. ,
, . 1.13
2 4 .
91. . 1 / , (. 1.14).
2 . 2 5 .
92. (x, t) (, ) = x vt, = x + vt.
? ,

F (x, t) = f (x vt) + g(x + vt) ,

. 1.12. 86

23

. 1.13. 90

. 1.14. 91
f g .
93. ,
F (x, 0) = (x) ,

Ft (x, 0) = (x) .

94. V . ,
t = 0:
1) f (x, 0) d , f (x, t)/x|t=0 = 0;
2) , f (x, 0) = 0, f (x, t)/x|t=0
d ?
95. , y(x, t) . T , . .

24
96. , . . , .
97.
. , .
.

1.8.
98. ,
2 v 2 k2 = 0 = vk.
. , f (x vt) g(x + vt) . .
99. .
2

a).

2F
t2

b).

F
t

c).

F
i F
t x2 = 0 .

v 2 xF2 + 02 F = 0 .
3

F
+ v F
x x3 = 0 .
2

100.
:
a) = vk + 0
c) 2 = kg +

k3

b) 2 = 02 + v 2 k2
d) 2 = c2 k2 /(1 + rd2 k2 )

v (k) v (k) .
101.
2
2f
4f
2 f

= 0.
t2
x2
t2 x2

25
,
.
102.
F (x, t)
i
t

(x x )F (x , t) dx = 0 .

.
103. v () .
, v = v .
104. = 2/k ,
. , v
v :
dv
.
v = v
d
105. - .

1.9.
106. , . ,
, , N 1 . , ,
? .
107. = (k) f (x) = A(cos k1 x + cos k2 x),
|k1 k2 | k1 , k2 . ,
: .
.
(k).
108. , 107
f (x)

26
k0 k/2 k0 + k/2 k0 k , . , t > 0
. .
x ,
xk 2.
109. (k) t = 0
f (x) =

+
Z

2 /(k)2

e(kk0 )

eikx

dk
2

t > 0, k0 k.
110. (k) k0 k k0 .
, v (k0 ) 6= 0,

f (x, t) = F [x v (k0 )t]ei((k0 )tk0 x) ,
F (x) 2/k0 . .
111. 110 ,
F (x, t).
112. (k) k0 k k0 ,
v (k0 ) = 0. ,

f (x, t) = F (x, t)ei((k0 )tk0 x) ,
F (x, t) 2/k0
. F (x, t).

1.10.
113. ei(tkx) .

27
~

114. ei(tk~r) . , ~v ?
.
115. 0 .
, :
1) ,
V ?
2) , ?
c.
116.
.
117. , .
118. 0 v
.
, , .
?
119. 0 c v. , ?
, 1.
120. , E(x, t) = E0 cos(0 t k0 x).

v0 .
. ,
t = 0 x = 0. ,
.
121. , v, . .
1.

28
.
- "" , .
.
122. 2 = c2~k2 , c . , ~v
?
123. ( ) 2 = 02 + c2 k2 ,
c .
, v
.

1.11. -.

124. v0 n ~
~~k. , , .
.
125. v (~k).
V

~k. , ,
cos = v /V , ,
.
126. , , v0 n ~ ~~k. , U
. .

29
127. 124 126 .
128. ~v0 n > 1 , , ~k.
.

~ 0 , ? E
.
129. x
E = E cos(tkx),
x. v T . ,

:
1) , T .
2) ,
, T 1/.
3) v 6= /k. ( T
) ?
4) , , n
.
, .
130. 2 = ck + k3 ?
. c, > 0.

1.12.
131. .

30

. 1.15. 139
132.
-
k.
, ? .
133. ,
().
.
134. , ""?
135. . ,
12 2 , 10 . ?
136. 0.01 . 36 /.
, ?
137. , kh 1 (h
)
= ck k3 c . , .
138. V ,
. .
V = 20 /.
139. , . , . 1.15. ?
V .
140. .

31
. 10 .
141. . r ,
. . .
142. . ,
, .
? .
143. , 39 .
144. .
145. .
. 2 = k3 /,
, .
146. ,
.
147. . = 1 ?
148. . ? ? .

32

1.13.

149.
F
F
+ v1
= I ,
t
x

I
I
v2
= F ,
t
x

v1 , v2 > 0. , + .
, ?
150. 149, , ( ).
151.
149 150 .
, .
152.
( ck2 )( vk) = 2
1.
.
?
153.
( vk)( + vk)( 2vk) = 3 ,
> 0, 1. ?
, , ?
154.
,
p
k2 c2
=1
,
2

vk 0

33

. 1.16. 155
0 < v < c. ? ,
, .
. .
155. . 1.16
E, K. P .
y(x, t)
ytt + Ky + P yxx + Eyxxxx = 0
P ?
156. (, k)
3 ck = 0, ,c > 0. ? , ?
157. l 2 c2 k2 = 2 . ?
158.
[ 1 (k, )][ 2 (k, )] = 2
1 (k, ) 2 (k, ) ,
. ,
(, ) , .
159.
( vk)( 0 ck2 ) = 2 . :
.

34
160. ,
( kv + 0 )( kv 0 ) =

2
k2 + d2

.
161. -

p2
b2
+
= 1,
2 ( vk)2

p b . , , ,
, .
162. 161
.
163. .
,
, , pp = np T , T .
164.
,
1 2 . . , v1 v2 > 0 ,
v1 v2 < 0 .
165.

1
,
0 ,

= k2 +

k B i

, k .
166. ,


2 c2 k2 02 id ( kv) = 30 ,

35

. 1.17. 167
v > c,c, d, 0 > 0, d, 0 0 .
.
?

1.14.
167. , , , . 1.17 Z , Y . .
168. 167 ,
.
169. ,
. . 1.18 )-).
, :

. 1.18. 169

36

. 1.19. 170
1). .
2).
.
3).
(k 0).

170. L C-, . 1.19


2 C1 , C2 , C1 , C2 , . . . .
.
171. , LC, 1.18,,
. ,
, , .
172. 171
, C
-.
L.
, , - .
173. , 172, .
? ,
, .
174. , , , ,
, x.
. ,
x?
175. x = 0
. -

37
V . ?
, x = 0 ?
176. C
L
C L. (. 1.20). V .
? = V /V+ . .

1.15.

177. , .
178. , , , . ,
,
, . ,
, . .
H, L. L = 50 , H = 50 .
179. (
) N , . l,
m, k.

. 1.20. 176

38
180. ( ) N , . l,
m, k.
181. l, .
C L.
182. C L
, C0 .

C l C0 C l C 0 .
183.
2
2F
2 F

v
= 0,
t2
x2

F (x, t) x t.
l . ,

F (x, t) = Re{eit f (x)} ,
:
) f (x);
) n , ;
) fn (x) ( )
.
) , fn (x)

Zl
0

fn (x)fm (x) dx = 0 ,

n 6= m.

184. 183 , :

F
= 0,
y(0) = 0 ,
x x=l

39

. 1.21. 186
,
,


F
F
= 0,
= 0,
x x=0
x x=l
, .

185. L
. .
186. , M L .
m (. 1.21).
.

187. L R
. ,
. c0 . ,
?
188. L R, R L
. , .
c0 .
189. L R, R, R L
. ,
. c0 . .
190.
. . 5 .
191. .
.

40

. 1.22. 197
192. R. , , , T .
193. -,
,
i~

~2 2 (x, t)

= 0,
t
2m x2

(x, t) . ,
, L ,
. .
194. ,
L R. .
.
195. . , . a b.
.
196.
R.
197.
,

(. . 1.22). . l.
,
0 < x < l l < x < Z1 Z2 , Z1 > Z2 .

41

1.16.
198. , , sin x x x3 /6. , sin(2 ).
. y = sin x
y = x x3 /6. , ?
199. , y = sin x/x . ( ). .
200. px = sin x p > 0.
, p
. p,
.
201. y = sin y
x = 5/2, px = sin x.
p ? C 200 p.
202.

A=
1
0

1 0
2 1 .
1 1

,
,

. A.

203. A 2 2 detA = 1. ,
|SpA| > 2, , 1.
204. (1 + i)1999

205. sin 3, cos 3, sin( ), cos( + ).


206.
sin + sin 2 + sin 3 + . . . + sin N .
207. , ,
x1 (t) = a cos(t + 1 ) x2 (t) = b cos(t +
+ 2 ) .

42

. 1.23. 215
. , x1 (t) =
= a sin(t) x2 (t) = b cos(t)
208. ,
.
209.
Z

eax cos bx dx

210. r . z
. ,
(1,0), (0,-1), (2,2). ,
z + 2 z = 0.
211. z = eit , z = reit ?
212. e m xy. B . , z i z = 0. ,
z = reit .
213. , ei , ,
x y .
214. z
x , iz, iz, iz ?
215. M
(. . 1.23). ,
, x.
a.

43
216. x, ,
. C, q.
217. m
v1 v2 , .
F (t).
t = 0 x1 x2 .
218. a
q.
.
219. (t) =

Zt

( )d .

220. sign x (x). sign x


221.

0, t < 0,t > T ,
f (t) =
f, 0<t<T,
(t).
222. : y = |x|, y = [x], y = x.
[x] x, x x.
: d|x|/dx, d2 |x|/dx2 , d[x]/dx, d{x}/dx.
223.
df
if = (t), f |t<0 = 0 ,
dt
df
).
if = (t), f |t<0 = 0 .
dt
).

224. :
 t
e
, t 0,
). f (t) =
0,
t < 0,
 t
te
, t 0,
). f (t) =
0,
t < 0,

a , |t| ,
). f (t) =
0 , |t| > .

44

225. , f (t) - f , f (at) - |a|1 f/a .


226. ,

1
(t) =
2

eit dt .

. , -
R
R
(t) dt = 1 > 0 , ,
(sin t/t) dt = .

227. 226, .
228. . :
).

1
).
2

f (t) eit dt ,
Z

f (t) eit dt ,

1
).
2

f (t) eit dt ,

229. , f (t) = 1/(t2 + 2 ) -


f = e|| .
230. eit , cos t, cos2 t,

P
Cn (t nT ).

n=

231. f (t), -

P
Cn ( n). , f (t)

n=

. ,
f (t).

232. :

P
sin t, cosn t,
Cn (t nT )?
n=

45

. 1.24. 233
233.
, . 1.24
234. f (t) T -
f .
F (t), f (t).
235. , n- f (t) ,
- f 1/ n+1 .
224.

P
236.
(x n) .
n=

237.

I(a, b) =

sin(bx2 ) eax dx ,

I(a, b) =

Z
0

eax

dx .
b2 + x 2

a b b a.
.
238.
1
J0 (z) =

cos(z sin t) dt


z .
239.
1
Ai(z) =

Z
0

t3
cos tz +
3


dt

46
z
.
240. f (t),
Z

f (t )
1
d = 2
.
2
2
+a
t + b2

a b ?

2.


2.1. .

4.
x , .
T , , . 2.1, T 4F x/l.

p
m
x = 4F/lx = 4F/ml.
F .

. 2.1. 4
7. t =

R/g 42

8. n
n3 . . ,

48
E. L,
, . , ,
. ,
, , k = CE L ,
C() .
= 1, = 1, k L.
n . T2 /T1 = n.
10. T E 1/3 1/2 p5/6
q
1 m2
12. T = 2 (mm
1 +m2 )k
q
1 I2
13. T = 2 (I1I+I
2 )
q
3k
14. T = 2 1/ 3g
2 + m

15. ,
/2. I1 = ml2 /3,
I2 = ml2 /12.
K=2

I2 2
ml2 2
I1 (/2)
2
+
=
,
2
2
8


1
l
()2
[2mg (/2)2 + mgl(/2)2 ] = mgl
.
2
2
2
q
T = 2 2gl
q
5g
16. = 7(Rr)
=

17. m
U (x), x0 . ,

49
:

(x x0 )2
d2 U
,
U (x) = U( x0 ) +

dx2 x=x0
2

2 + k 2 /2 = const, =
m/2
2
2
= x x0 k = (d U/dx )x=x0 . ,



p
p
= U (x0 )/m T = 2 m/U (x0 ).
. )
x0 = l U (l) = 6U0 /l2 .
p
T = 2 6U0 /ml2 .

) x = 6 2b U (x) 36 22/3 a/b2 .



r
m
2/3 b
T =2
.
6
a
19. , , [2],
U (r) = U (r) +

L2
,
2mr 2

L . a,
(a) = 0.
r = a : U
U (r) = Kr 3 , , L2 = 3mKA5 . (a) = 15Ka.
U
17,
p , T = 2 m/(15Ka).

20. T . T = T
T0 . , 1.
, , , t1 , , ,
/2, t2 .

50
, T 4(t2 t1 ). , , , .
:
=

d
,
()

()

,
. ,
,

. , .
, 22 () = 21 () + 22 () ( 1 , 2 ). , 2 () 2 (),
:
1
2 ()
1
1

22
.
1 () 2 ()
2 2 () 2 ()
,
1 2

22 () d
22 ()
2 .
6
2 22 () 2 ()
2 22 ()

v2 () 2 , 22 () = (g/l)(sin2 (/2)sin2 (/4))


(3g/l)2 /16. 1 2 c
.
t1 t2 . , ,
,
:
02 = 0 ,

t
k2 1),
=

ln(k
+
0 = g/l.
1
0

1
2
t2 = 0 ln(2k + 4k 1), k = /. , ,
t2 t1 01 ln 2.
p
: T T0 + 4 l/g ln 2.

51
21. m U (x)
mx 2
+ U (x) = E = const ,
2
x =

T =4

2[E U (x)]/m. U (x) = k|x|n ,


Zxm
0

r
Z1
d
m 1n/2
p

A
=4
,
2k
1 n
2[E U (x)]/m
dx

A ( ), kAn = E.
, n = 2 ( ). 1 < n < 2,
A 0, n > 2,
A 0.
23. . , : . ,
m(x 2 + y 2 )
+ mgkx2 = E
2
(E ). , x y-
, y = y (x)x = 2kxx.



mx 2
1 + 4k2 x2 + mgkx2 = E .
2

. (2kx 1), m(gkx2 + x 2 /2) = C.


.
,
, ,
(. . 2.2). x, , ,

52

. 2.2. 23.
, , .
.

2.2.
1
6.28105 /c.
25. V (t) = V (0) cos t, I(t) = CV0 sin t, = LC
Qm = V (0)C = 1.6107 K.

26. E 0.3 ; N 1033

27. (.
19).
U (r) = GM m/r, G , M
.

GM m
L2
+
,
r
2mr 2
L . ,
(R) =
, U
= 0, , L2 = GM m2 R. U (r)
r = R,
U (r) =

U (r) U (R) +

GM m
(r R)2 .
2R3

53

q

= U (R)/m (. 17), =
p
= GM/R3 .
g , , g = GM/R02 , R0 .
R0
=
R

g
.
R0

,
R. ,
,
.
r(t) = r(t) R , r(0) = 0, r (0) = P/m
r(t) =

P
sin t .
m


, rmax = R + P/(m), ,
rmin = R P/(m). , ,
, 90 .
, R, .
, .
, ,
, P/(m). ,
a (a ). a =
= R, = P/(mR).
29. Q = 455, d = 6.9103 , = 1.54103 .
30. C = 1/(2f RQ) 3.2109 , L = RQ/(2f ) 8104 .

54
31. ,
Q=

t+T
Z

vF dt =

t+T
Z

v 2 dt .

,
. ,
A ,
x(t) = A cos(t+) v(t) = A sin(t+),
p
= k/m. , Q = T 2 A2 /2.
.
W

(t + T ) W
(t) = Q ,
W

dW
= kA2 /(2m) .
dt

, .
= kA2 /2, dW
/dt = 2 W
, = /(2m).
W
(t) = W
(0) exp(2t),
W
A(t) = A(0) exp(t).
, .
36.
m
x + m 2 x =

e2 ...
x,
c3

. = t,
:

d3 x d2 x
+ 2 + x = 0.
d 3
d

= 2e2 /(3mc2 ) 6.26109 .


p3 + p2 + 1 = 0, . .
p = i, p =
= i + , .

55
, p1,2 = i + /2. ,

p 1/ 3 , , , ,
1 .
, ,

x(t) = Aet/2 cos(t ) .

= e2 2 /3mc3 .
Q = /(2) = 3mc3 /(e2 ) 1.59108 . W = m 2 a2 /2, W = 2W/Q = 2 3 e2 a2 /(3c3 ).
, W 1.81028 .
t = 1 ln 2 = 5.5108 .

2.3.
= m 2 A2 /4, E
= mkA2 /4.
37. E
m k,
/E
= m 2 /k =
. E
2
2
= /0 .
41. f0
x
+ 2 x + 02 = f0 cos(t) .
, ,
x(t) = A cos(t + ),
f0
,
A= p
( 2 02 )2 + 4 2 2
02 2
,
cos = p
( 2 02 )2 + 4 2 2
2
sin = p
.
2
( 02 )2 + 4 2 2
1

, . ,
dxn /dtn .
.

56
0 ,
A = f0 /02 , = 0. 0 , A = f0 / 2 , = .

.
0 ,
.
, :
. ,
F 2 x, F x, F 02 x, . 02 x(t) f0 cos t, .. A f0 /02 , 0.
, ( 0 ),
, , , x
(t) = f0 cos t.
, : x(t) f0 / 2 cos t, .. A f0 /w2 ,
.
42. A/A = (0 /)2 = 0.01.

44. -

x
+ 2 x = p(t) .
, t = 0. -,
x(+0)

x(0)

Z+0

x(t) = p .

, x(t) ( , , ).
, x(0)

= 0, ,
x(+0)

= p.

x(t) =

p
sin t .

57

45. -
44. , N -
:
x(t) =

N 1
p X
sin (t kT )

k=0

sin = Im[exp(i)].
T = .
!
!
N
1
N
1
N
1
X
X
X
ik
it
iw(tkT )
sin (t kT ) = Im
e
= Im e
e
k=0

i=0

k=0

,
ei(N/21)

sin(N /2)
.
sin(/2)





N
p sin(N /2)
sin t
1
.
x(t) =
sin(/2)
2



p sin(N /2)
A=
.
sin(/2)

sin(N T /2)/ sin(T /2) N = 10 . 2.3.


46. v l0 , , ,
.

P =

Fx (t) dt =

e2
l
p
dt .
l2 + y 2 (t) l2 + y 2 (t)

y(t) . y(t) = vt, .. ,

58

. 2.3. 45.
; , P = 2e2 /(vl).
A = P/(m0 ) = 2e2 /(vlm0 ).
49. F (t) :
F (t) = a0 +

an cos

2nt
2nt X
bn sin
+
,
T
T
n=1

n=1


1
a0 =
T

ZT

F (t) dt ,

2
T

ZT

F (t) cos

2nt
dt ,
T

2
T

ZT

F (t) sin

2nt
dt ,
T

an =

bn =

n = 1, 2, 3, . . . . F (t),
, :
a0 = f0 /2 ,
an = 0, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,
2f0
bn =
, n = 1, 3, 5, . . . , bn = 0 , n = 2, 4, 6, . . . .
n

59
,
- n = 1,

f0 /2.
,
F (t)

2t
f0 2f0
+
sin
.
2

=
= f0 /(2 2 ). , A =
= 2f0 Q/( 2 )

2.4.
50. <

g/l.

51. ,
U (r) =

cm
L2
+
rn
2mr 2

. , ,

U
(r) =

nCm
L2

,
n+1
r
mr 3

U
(r) =

n(n + 1)Cm
3L2
+
.
n+2
r
mr 4

L , R ,
(r),
L2 = nCm2 /Rn2 . U

(r) =
U

Cm
[n (n + 1) + 3n]
Rn+2

(r) > 0, ..
, U
0 < n < 2.

52. T .
(T ) = 1000 = 1 ,
:
02 = 0, ,

60
p
, 0 = g/l.
, (t) = 0 [exp(0 t) + exp(0 t)]/2. t = T
e0 T + e0 T = 200 .
, ,
s
l
1
ln 200 = 1.69 .
ln 200 =
T
0
g
54. , ,
U (x):
U (x) =


U0 
3(x/l)3 p ,
l

U (x) =

6U0 x
.
l3

, p >p0 U (x) , x = l p/3.


, .
. 2.4
U (x), p > 0.
2 3pU0 /l2 (
), ,
= xxmin , + 2 = 0,
2 = U (xmin )/m, m . , = x xmax , 2 = 0.
55.
-, . , ,
(p) = a0 pn + a1 pn1 + . . . + an1 p + an = 0 ,

(1)

a0 > 0. (1) n pm = Re pm +i Im pm .
p. (
), .
,
.

61

. 2.4. 54.
.
(1) Re pm < 0, .. (p)
),

a1 a0 0 0 . . . 0
a3 a2 a1 a0 . . . 0

Dn =
a
a
a
a
.
.
.
0
(2)
5
4
3
2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0 0 0 0

: ( a1 an ) (1);

( a0 ); (
, n) .

1 = a1 ,



a1 a0
,
2 =
a3 a3



a1 a0 0


3 = a3 a2 a1 , . . .
a5 a4 a3


a1 a0 0 0 . . . 0


a3 a2 a1 a0 . . . 0


. . . , n = a5 a4 a3 a2 . . . 0 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


0 0 0 0 0 0

62

. 2.5. 55.

p4 + (a + b)p3 + p2 + ap + b = 0 .


a + b 1
0

a
1
a
+
b

0
b
a

0
0
0


0
1
.
1
b

1 = a + b, 2 = a, 3 = b[a
(a + b)2 ], 4 = b3 = b2 [a (a + b)2 ].
:
b > 0,

a + b > 0,

a (a + b)2 > 0 .

,
a > 0,
. , b a

a < b < a + a, a, b > 0, . ,


.

a > 0,
0 < b < a + a .
. 2.5 .
56. 1. a > 0,b > 0;
2. a > 0,b > 0;
3. a > 0,b > 1/a;
4. a > 0,b > 1/a + a.

63

. 2.6. 57.
57.
a > 0,

a > b,

b > 8/3

(a, b) (. 2.6 .
58. : = 1/p
2/p2 1/p3 2/p4 1/p5 . p = i,
, :
2
2

,
2 4
1
1
1
= Im = 3 + 5 .

= Re =

(1)

= (), = ()
( , ), ,
, , , .
, () , ()
, , , , ( , ),
.
. .
0 (1) , 2 4 , 5
( /2)5/4 ,

64
. ,
(1) ,
2 2 , 1 2 2 .
d /d . ,
4 3 2 + 5
d
=
.

d
4 3 8
,

, = 2.

( ( 2), ( 2)) = (1/2, 3 2/8), . ,


. , . 2.7.
,
, p
i i.
Im p > 0 . , .
- . = 1 p1 = 0.513376,p2,3 = 0.65878 i1.12403,
p4,5 = 0.415468 i0.987388.
,
D = 2 D = 3.
60.
x2 + y 1 = 0 ,

xy = 0 ,

, (xi , yi ), i = 1, 2, 3: P1 (0, 1), P2 (1, 0) P3 (1, 0).


,
, = x xi , = y yi .
1.
a = ,

= ,

65

. 2.7. 58.
: ap2 1 = 0.p
a > 0
: p1,2 = 1/a, P1 . a < 0
,
(. [8]) , , ,
.
2. P2
a = 2 + ,

= ,

: ap2 (a + 2)p + 2 = 0,
p1 = 1, p2 = 2/a, a > 0
a < 0.
3. P3
a = 2 + ,

= ,

ap2 + (a + 2)p + 2 = 0, p1 = 1,
p2 = 2/a. a > 0 a < 0.
61. : P1 (0, 0) p1,2 = 1/2, . P2 (1/2, 0) p1 = 1/2, p2 = +(12)/[2(1+2)],

66
, . P3 (, (1
2)) 8p2 + (12 2)p
(2 1) = 0. ,
, ,
P3 .
62.
y = (T T0 )/(T0 T1 ) ,

x = N/[k(T0 T1 )] 1 ,

= kt/mc .

:
dx
= r(x + 1)y ,
d

dy
= xy,
d

r = mc(T0 T1 )/kl > 0 . : P1 (0, 0) P2 (1, 1). ,

, , P1 p12 = (1 1 4r)/2.
r < 1/4 ,
P1 , p > 1/4
, P1 .
P2 p1 = 1,
p2 = r, .
63.
.
64. q . , , , ,
, q(t) q(t)

. - xn = [qn , qn /0 ]T ,
n

, 0 = 1/ LC0 , T .
q(t) = qn cos (t tn ) +

qn
sin (t tn ) ,

n < t < (n + 1) .

.
:

 

0
0
cos 2
cos 1
sin 2
sin 1

2
1
xn+2 =

xn (1)
cos 2
20 sin 2
10 sin 1 cos 1 ,

67
p
1,2 = 1/ LC1,2 ( , n C2 C1 ). , , 

, 
 
A . A
.
 
, A ,
. ,
  , | Sp A | > 2,
Sp ( !).

 
| Sp A | = 2,



2 + 2

2
1
2 cos 1 cos 2
sin 1 sin 2 =

1 2





2
2


12 + 22
1 + 2

cos(1 + 2 ) + 1
cos(1 2 ) = 2 .
= 1+
21 2
21 2
(2)
= C/C0 1,
p
p
1 = 0 / 1 /2

2 = 0 / 1 + /2 .

, :
12 + 22
= 1 + 2 /8 + O(4 ) ,
21 2
1 + 2 = 20 + 30 2 /16 + O(4 ) ,
1 2 = 0 /2 + 50 3 /64 + O(5 ) .
(2),


2

cos 20 + [(cos 20 1) 30 sin 20 ] = 1
(3)

16

, 2 , ,
| cos(20 )| 1, .. 0 n/2, n =
= 1, 2, . . . .
n = 1; 0 = /2 + , || << 1.
, , ,
(1 + 22 2 /8 + . . . ). , , /4.

68
.
n = 2, 0 = + .
(1 22 3/82 + . . . ). 0 0
2 32 /16. ,
, 2 .
, n
, n = 1: .
n
N = 2.
66.
q + 2 q + 02 (1 cos pt) q = 0 ,

(1)

x
+ 2 (1 cos pt) x = 0 ,

(2)

q , = 1/ LC0 , = C/C0 1, = /(2Q)


. q(t) = exp(t)x(t)

2 = 0 2 . ,
0 .
(2)
1
x(t) = A(t)ei0 t + .. ,
2
A(t) . ,
0 . .. . x(t):
i
1h

i0 A(t) + A(t)
ei0 t + .. ,
2h
i
1
+ A(t)

x
(t) =
02 A(t) + 2i0 A(t)
ei0 t + .. .
2
x(t)

, , A(t) , . A(t)

69
(2),

2
i0 t

2i0 A(t)e
0 eipt + eipt A(t)ei0 t
2

2
2i0 A (t)ei0 t 0 eipt + eipt A (t)ei0 t = 0 .
2

exp(i0 t) 2/p.
,
, exp[i(p20 )t],
p 20 , .

+ i0 A (t)ei(p20 )t = 0 .
A(t)
4

(3)

0 p/2 = a(t) = A(t) exp(it).


:
a(t)
ia(t) +

i0
a (t) = 0 .
4

, a(t) =
= a (t) + ia (t). a (t) a (t)


0 
a (t) = 0 ,
a (t) + +
4 

(4)
0
a (t)
a (t) = 0 .
4

a (t), a (t) exp(t), (4)





+ 0 /4

= 0.
+ 0 /4

q
1,2 = (0 /4)2 2 . , , , || > . 2 = (0 /4)2 2
(/0 )2 = (/4)2 1/(2Q)2 ,

(5)

(/0 , ) , (0,2/Q) (. . 2.8).

70

. 2.8. 66.
, , = 0, min = 2/Q
67. A = C/C0 sin 2W , .
68. C/C0 > 2/Q.
70. , ,
x
(02 + p2 cos pt)x = 0 ,
= a/l.
x
02 x = f (x, t) = xp2 cos pt .
,
, . p 0 . : x(t) = y(t) + (t), ,

y, . ,
y + 02 (y + ) = f (y + , t) .
= 2/p:
y 02 y = f (y + , t) ,

(1)

71
( ) . :
02 = f (y + , t) f (y + , t) .

(2)

, y . , (1)
h(y) = f /x, (2) f (y, t).
(2), , 02 ( 0 p),

1 = f (y, t) = yp2 cos pt ,


1 = y cos pt. h(y), ,
(1) :

y + 2 p2 /2 2 y = 0 .

, ap > 2lg.

2.5.
 
 
80. 12 = 0, X 1 = [1, 1, 1] T ; 22 = k/m, X 2 = [1, 0, 1]T ; 32 = 2k/m,
 
X 3 = [1, 1, 1]T .

82. , ,
,
. ( ) ,
,
. p
k/M
,

=
1
 
X 1 = [1, 1]T .
,
.

p
 
T
2 = 6k/M , X 2 = [1, 1] . ,
:


 
 
x1 (t)
= X 1 (a1 cos 1 t + a2 sin 1 t) + X 2 (b1 cos 2 t + b2 sin 2 t) .
x2 (t)

72

. 2.9. 83.
a1,2 b1,2 , a1 = b1 = a/2, a2 = b2 = 0.
:
!
r
r
k
6k
a
cos
t + cos
t ,
x1 (t) =
2
m
m
!
r
r
a
k
6k
x2 (t) =
cos
t cos
t .
2
m
m
83. .
.
,
p
,  . 1 = g/l,
X 1 = [1, 1, 1]T . ,

p
2 = g/l
 +
 k/m .
X 2 = [1, 0, 1]T .
. , A B (. . 2.9), 1/2 (
). ,

2 =
p
= g/l + 3k/m. .
, , A B
. ,
, , ,


x1 (0) = x3 (0) = 2x2 (0). X 3 = [1, 2, 1]T .

84. ,

73

. 2.10. 84.

. N , (.2.10),
mi , Ii
li , i = 1, 2, . . . , N .

0i =
p
=
mi gli /Ii . ,
.
l.
i- xi .
:

Ii x
i + mi gli xi = ki l2 (xi+1 xi ) ki1 l2 (xi xi1 ) ,

i = 2, 3, . . . , N 1 .
(1)

, . ,
x1 = 0, xN = 0. , . 2.10,
, , , k0 = kN = 0.
. ,
.

,
  (1)
 
 
T
X = [x1 , x2 , . . . xN ] K M -

74
N :
 
K =
I 2

1 01
l2

+ k1

k1

...

I2 02

k1
+ k1 + k2
k2
...
0
0
l2

2
I

3
03
=
+
k
+
k
.
.
.
0
0
0
k2

2
3
l2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I 2
0
0
0
. . . kN 1 N l20N + kN 1

I1 /l2
0
0
...
0

I2 /l2
0
...
0

  0
2

M = 0
0
I3 /l
...
0
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
0
. . . IN /l2

, , .

d2        
M X = K X .
dt2
 
 
},

X
=
Re{exp(it)
X
 
T

X = [x1 , x2 , . . . xN ] , .
x1 , x2 , . . . xN :
  
  
= 2 M X

K X
(2)
, , ..
 
 
Det K 2 M = 0

, N 2 :
aN N + aN 1 N 1 + . . . + a1 + a0 = 0 ,
 
2 , a K

i
 
M . N ,

75
.
i (2),

, .  

X i ,
.
, , N 5
,
. ,
, , (. 179 180.
, .
,

k
0
... 0
0
m02 + k

k
... 0
0
m02 + 2k

  k
2

,
0
k
m0 + 2k . . . 0
0
K =

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . k m02 + k

m 0 0 0 ... 0

  0 m 0 0 ... 0
 

M = 0 0 m 0 ... 0
=m I ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 .............. m
 
I , 2 = g/l.
. N = 4,
:
2

0 + k/m
k/m0
0
0
k/m
 
  
k/m
0
02 + 2k/m

.
= 2 I X
X
2

k/m
0
k/m
0 + 2k/m
0
0
k/m
02 + k/m

1 1 0
0
1 2 1 0  
  
= I X

X
0 1 2 1
0
0 1 1

(3)

76
= m( 2 02 )/k. ,
(3 62 + 10 4) = 0 .

(4)

1 = 0 1 = 0 .
. ,
,

. 
= [1, 1, 1, 1]T .
X
1

(4). ,
. , ,
,
. ,
p
. 2 = 2k/m,
2 = 2. ,
.
 

X 2 = [1, 1, 1, 1]T .
, (4)
2
( 2).
4+ 2 = 0,
3,4 = 2 2.
r

 k
3,4 = 02 + 2 2
m

, 3,4 (3). , :

 
 
= [1, 1, 1 + 2, 1 2]T ,
= [1, 1, 1 2, 1 + 2]T ,
X
X
3
4
 

 
= [1, 0, 1]T , 2 = 2 2, X
= [1, 2, 1]T , 3 = 2+ 2,
85. 1 = 2, X
1
2

 
= [1, 2, 1]T .
X
3

87. , ,
.
,

77
. ,
: H = He + Hk + H .
He = p2 /2m. . ,
(
) Hk = kx2 /2+ p2 /2m. , , x q, x I, m L, k 1/C, I
, L C .
Hk = q 2 /(2C) + P 2 /(2L),
P = Lq , q.
. ,
H = eqx/(Cd), d .
:
q2
P 2 eqx
p2
+
+
+
.
2m 2C
2L
Cd
:
H=

H
p
=
,
p
m
eq
H
=
,
p =
x
Cd
H
P
q =
= ,
P
L
H
q
ex

P =
=
.
q
C
Cd
x =

,
e
e
x
=
q,
q + 02 q =
x,
mCd
LCd
02 = 1/(LC).
. , , , , ,
.

x(t) = Re[x0 exp(it)] ,

q(t) = Re[q0 exp(it)] ,

78



2
e/(mCd)
e/(LCd)
2 02

 
x0
=0
q0

, ,

e2 02
.
2 2 02 =
mCd2

, C = 0 S/d ( ); ,
, n0 = 1/(Sd) =
= 1/V .

2 2 02 = 02 p2 ,

p
e2 n0 /m0 p =
. ,
, , . , , . , ,
,
.
, 0 , .
0 , , = 0 + , p2 /w0 ,
, . 2 = p2 . , , , .
86. ,
6 ,
. , x y .

79
.
. , (xi , yi ) ,
x1 + x2 + x 3 = 0 ,

y1 + y2 + y3 = 0 .

. , , , . x a (a

)
l = 3x.
3mx 2 /2, 9kx2 /2.
p , 1 = 3k/m.
,
. ,
, , . . C
. 2.11,. ,
y.

y1 = y3

x1 = x3 ,

x2 = 0 ,

y2 = 2y1 ,

(1)

, . , , x1 y1 .
, , x1 , y1 a. , , ,
2mx 21 6mx 21
+
,
2
2

9kx21 27ky12 3 3kx1 y1


+

.
E =
4
4
2
E =

, L(x1 , x 1 , y1 , y 1 ) = E E , ,

80

. 2.11. 86.
:

3 3k
9k
y1 ,
2m
x 1 = x1 +
2
2

3 3k
27k
y1 +
x1
6m
y1 =
2
2
, ,



2m2 9k/2
3 3k/2
3 3k/2
6m 2 9k/2

x1 , y1 exp(it),
 
x1
= 0.
y1

, 6 4 (27k/m) 2 + 27k2 /m2 = 0.


12 = 3k/m, 22 = 3k/(2m).

T = [1, 3/3]T [x , y ]T = [1,

[x
,
y
]
1 1 2

 1 1 1
3/3]T . X = [x1 , y1 , x2 , y2 , x3 , y3 ]T , ,
(1),

 
X 1 = [1, 3/3, 0, 2 3/3, 1, 3/3]T ,

 
X 2 = [1, 3/3, 0, 2 3/3, 1, 3/3]T .

, ,
, 2 .
,
p
2 : 3 = 2 = 3k/(2m). ,
, , , (. . 2.11, ). ,

81
,   1
 2 .  X 1 X 2
.
(xi , yi ), i = 1, 2, 3
.
, 2/3 :
 
  
 
 
cos(2/3) sin(2/3) xi
xi
xi
,
= U 2/3
=
yi
sin(2/3) cos(2/3)
yi
yi

, , 1 3 2 1. P .
,

 
 
X 1 = P X 1 = [1, 3/3, 0, 2 3/3, 1, 3/3]T ,

 
 
X 3 = P X 2 = [0, 2 3/3, 1, 3/3, 1, 3/3]T .

 
 
, X 1 X 1 , ,
   
 
X 3 X 1 X 2 .
,  
: 2 X 2
 
X 3 . :
p
p
p
{0, 0, 0, 3k/(2m), 3k/(2m), 3k/m} .

2.6.
88. 2 = v 2 k2 . .
V = /k = v.
91. . . 2.12
93.
1
1
F (x, t) = [(x vt) + (x + vt)] +
2
2v

x+vt
Z

() d .

xvt

82

. 2.12. 91.

94. . . 2.13
95. , . y, x. (.. ) .
dx (. . 2.14). ,
T sin (x) + T sin (x + dx). (x) ,
.
sin tg (x) = yx , yx = /x. :


y
y
2y
+T
,
dx 2 = T
t
x x
x x+dx

2
2y
2 y

c
= 0,
t2
x2

p
T /
c =
.

. 2.13. 94.

83

. 2.14. 95.
96. , :
dv
p

=
,
+ (v) = 0 ,
dt

t
= (p, S) .

(1)
(2)

S . ,
x.
: (x, t) =
= 0 + (x, t), p(x, t) = p + p (x, t), vx (x, t) = v (x, t).
(1)-(2), ,

 
p

,
p =
S

 
1 p

v
=
,
t
0 S x
v

+ 0
= 0.
t
x
t, x ,
2
2v
2 v

c
= 0,
t2
x2

c2 = (p/)S .
. ,

84
, ,
. ,
.
.
p = const
s
s 
r
p
p0
RT
=
.
=
c=
S
0

T , R ,
.
p = 28, T = 293 K c =
= 1.4 8.3103 293/28 = 349 /, = 32
c = 326 /, = 28.8, c = 344 /.
97.
,
:
1 B
,
c t
1 D
rot H =
,
c t
div D = 0 ,

(3)

div H = 0 .

(4)

rot E =

(1)
(2)

D B E H D = E,
B = H, .
z, , ,
. (3) Ez /z = 0. z- (3)
, Ez /t = 0. Ez = const.
, Hz = const.

, ,
, . ,
,
.

85

:
Ey
z
Ex
z
Hy

z
Hx
z

Hx
,
c t
Hy
=
,
c t
Ex
=
,
c t
Ey
=
,
c t

(5)

(6)
(7)
(8)

(5) , (8) , Ey :
2
2 Ey
2 Ey

v
= 0,
t2
x2

v = c/ . .

2.7.
99. a). 2 = 02 + v 2 k2 ; b). = vk k3 ; c). = k2 .
100.
a) v = v + 0 /k ,
q
b) v = v 2 + 02 /k2 ,
c) v =

g/k + k/ ,

d) v = q

c
1 + rd2 k2

v = v ;
v = p

v2 k
02 + v 2 k2

g + 3k2 /
v = p
;
2 gk + k3 /
c
v = q
.
(1 + rd2 k2 )3

102.
F (x, t)
i
t

(x x )F (x , t) dx = 0

86
F (x, t) = F0 exp[i(t kx)]:
i(tkx)

iF0 e

it

iF0 e

(x x ) ekx ) dx = 0 ,

:
it

(x x ) eikx dx =
i(tkx)

=e

(x x ) eik(xx ) d(x x ) = ei(tkx) (k) ,

(k) - (x). = (k).


(k), , ,
, , .
, .

2.8.
106. 2N .
110.
1
f (x, t) =
2

F (k)ei[w(k)tkx] dk ,

(k) , F (k) f (x, 0) = F (x)eik0 x :


F (k) =

F (x)ei(kk0 )x dx .

87
, , F (k)
|k k0 | k.
(k) k0 :
(k) = (k0 ) + (k0 )(k k0 ) + (k0 )(k k0 )2 /2 + . . .
, , k k0
.
1 i((k0 )tk0 x)
e
f (x, t) =
2

F (k) ei(kk0 )[xw (k0 )t] dk =

= ei[(k0 )tk0 x] F [x (k0 )t] .

,
, v = (k0 ),
0 = (k0 ) v = 0 /k0 .
, .

| (k0 )|(k)2 /2 1. [| (k0 )|(k)2 ]1 .


111.
F
F
+ v
= 0,
t
x
v = (k0 ).
112.
ik0 x

f (x, 0) = F (x) = e

1
2

ei(kk0 )x F (k)dk ,


1
f (x, t) = eik0 x
2

ei[(k)t(kk0 )x] F (k)dk .

88
(k) k0 : (k) = (k0 ) + (k0 )(k k0 )2 /2 + . . . .
, :
i(0 tk0 x)

f (x, t) = e

1
2

ei[

(k

2
0 )(kk0 ) t/2(kk0 )x]

F (k)dk =

= ei(0 tk0 x) F (x, t) ,

0 = (k0 ). F (x, t)
, .
:
F
i (k0 ) 1
=
t
2
2
2F
x2

1
2

(k k0 )2 ei[

(k k0 )2 ei[

(k

(k

2
0 )(kk0 ) t/2(kk0 )x]

2
0 )(kk0 ) t/2(kk0 )x]

F (k)dk ,

F (k)dk .

, , F (x, t):
(k0 ) 2 F
F
+i
= 0.
t
2
x2
, . ,

.
= i sign( (k0 ))t,
:
| (k0 )| 2 F
F
+
= 0.

2
x2

x 1/k, t
(x)2 /| (k0 )| (| (k0 )|(k)2 )1 1/0 . 0 t
1,
.

89

2.9.
113. ,
V = /k
114. ( )

= kV ,

k = k .


V.
115. ,
, . = 0
k = 0 /c, c . , , = V k = 0 (1 V /c).
, =
= 0 (1 + V /c).
, , () = 0 .
= V k,
c = /k. = 0 /(1 V /c).
, = 0 /(1 + V /c)
= (k V/c2 ) ,
117. = ( kV) ,
kp
c , = 1/ 1 V 2 /c2 .

118. , ,
= 0 , k = (0 cos /c, 0 sin /c) (, x ). = (0 + 0 v cos /c).
,
v
= 0 (1 + cos ) .
c

119. = (1 + v/c) 2. 2 1 .

90
120. , , , eE0 cos(0 t
k0 v0 t) = qE0 cos[(0 k0 v0 )t], e . = 0 k0 v0 A =
= eE0 /(m 2 ), m .
121. . 119 , = (1+v/c) 2.
, ,
,
. , , , = 2 = 4 2 .
123. c
, , ( 2 c2 k2 )
.

2.10. -.

125. . 2.15 ,
x V . , ,
,
.
. , , , . A ,
. ,
v (k) .
cos = v /V ,
.
, A,
.
, ,
(0, 2), .
.

91

. 2.15. 125.
126. :
mV 2
mV 2
+U =
+ ~ + U ,
2
2
mV = mV cos + ~k cos ,
0 = mV sin ~k sin ,
, (. .2.16,),
U U .
.
, , ,
, cos 1.
,
E mV V , V = V V .




nV
kV
cos = ~ 1
cos
(1)
U = ~ 1

c
,
,
.
, : > 0 = arccos(nV /c), (1) U < 0
. (. . 2.16, ). :
< 0 , , , . . ,
. , ,
.

92

q
j

V
k

. 2.16. 126.
130. , kv = 0. ,
k2 kv 2 + c = 0 .
: v 4 4c 0. ,

4
v 4c = vmin .
:
v2
=
2

4c
1 4
v

, , (. 2.17). = vk, .
. , 1 2
. , 1
v, 2 .
, . ,
, .
, - ,

93

. 2.17. 130.
= /, c = g, , , g .
vmin 23 /.
, , ,
,
.. v < vmin . , ,
, 23 /c, .
(. 141-144).

2.11.
131. v = v /2, v =
= 3v /2.
132. . 2.18.
,
v min 23 / (. 130).
133. - 2 = gk + k3 /, g
, , . , . k, ,
.

p
k g/. ,

94
. = 1000 /3 ,
= 74103 /, = 2/k = 1.7 .
= 13.5103 /3 , = 465103 /, = 1.18 .
,
.
134. , .
= gh k, h .

V = gh.
h = 3 , V 170 /c 600 /.

135. 5 .

136. Fr = v 2 /gL,
L . ,
. 3.6 /.

137. c = gh, = gh [h2 /6 /(2g)].


138. = 2V 2 /g 20 .

139.
p ,

1 = (v 2 /g)(1 1 4g/v 4 ). p
2
2 = (v /g)(1 + 1 4g/v 4 ).
g/v 4 1, 1 2/(v 2 ) 2 2v 2 /g.
. . 130.
140.
, , .

. 2.18. 132.

95
, , , ,
,
,
, , , ,
. ,

, .
d, .
, -,
k 1/d, .
, [3], ,
.
(p p0 )
v
+ (v)v =
U ,
t

(1)

v , p , p0 ,
, U (r) , ,
( = const)
div v = 0 .

(2)


, , ..
rot v = 0.
v = , (2)
:
= 0 .

(3)

, (v)v , (1) [/t + (p p0 )/ + U ] = 0,


p p0
+
+ U = 0.
t

(4)

96
, ,
, , (4)
.
z , xy . (x, y, t). (4),
, , :


+ g = 0 .
(5)
t z=

, ,
=
z |z= ,
 2



+g
= 0.
t2
z z=

, , z = 0, (3),
:
= 0 ,

 2


+g
= 0.
t2
z z=0

(6) :


= 0.
(x, y, 0) = 0 (x, y) ,
t t=0

(6a)
(6b)

(7)

(6)-(7) [9]. (6)


exp(pt), p Re p > 0,
t 0 :
p = 0 ,





+ p2 p
g
= g0 (x, y) .
=
z
t z=0,t=0
z=0

(8)

(5), z = 0. p (x, y) p .

97
0 (x, y) ,
,
,
p
r = x2 + y 2 .
(8)
p (r) =

ekz J0 (kr)F (k, p) k dk ,

(9)

J0 (kr) . ,
k ekz J0 (kr) ,
(9).
k :
z . (9) (8), :
Z
0


gk + p2 F (k, p)J0 (kr) k dk = g0 (r) .

(10)

F (k, p) - [10].
- 0 (r) 0 (k)
0 (k) =

0 (r)Jm (kr) r dr ,

(11)

Jm (kr) m.

0 (r) =

0 (k)Jm (kr) k dk ,

(12)

(11)-(12) , 0 (r)
[10]. , R
, (r) |0 (r)| dr ,
.

98
(10) , (gk + p2 )F (k, p) - g0 (r).
p (r, z) =

g0 (k) kz
e J0 (kr) k dk .
p2 + gk

(13)

, - :
1
(r, z, t) =
2i

Z
L

ept dp

g0 (k) kz
e J0 (kr) k dk .
p2 + gk

(14)

p L,
p (r, z).
, .. (r, t). (5) z = 0
,
(r, t) =

0 (k)J0 (kr) k dk

1
2i

ept

p
dp .
p2 + gk

(15)

, p/(p2 + a2 ) cos at,


(r, t) =

0 (k) J0 (kr) cos[(k)t] J0 (kr) k dk .

(16)

(k) = gk
.
(16) ,
, .
(k) exp(ikx),
exp[i((k)t
kx)] exp[i((k)t + kx)],
x. (k)

99
t t. ,
, . , .
, ,
1
(x, t) =
2

i
1h
A(k)ei(k)t + B(k)ei(k)t eikx dk ,
2

(17)

A(k) B(k) .
:
1
(x, y, t) =
2

ZZ

1h
A(kx , ky )ei(k)t +
2
i
+ B(kx , ky )ei(k)t ei(kx x+ky y dkx dky ,

(18)

(7) ,
1
A(kx , ky ) = B(kx , ky ) = 0 (kx , ky ) =
2

ZZ

0 ei(kx k+ky y) dx dy .

(19)

0 (kx , ky ) - 0 (x, y).


p ,
r = x2 + y 2 , (18)
(19) .
(19)
0 (k) =

Z
0

1
0 (r)r dr
2

Z2

eikr cos d =

(r)J0 (kr) r dr .

(20)

q
k = kx2 + ky2 , k r, ,
c :
1
J0 (x) =
2

Z2
0

eikr cos d .

100
(18), (16). , ,
.
,
(16) ,
,
t
. , cos[(k)t]
J0 (kr) t r .
. , t
, kr 1.

p
J0 (x) 2/(x) cos(x /4). (16)
:
(r, t) =

1
2r

Z
0

2
r

Z
0

0 (k)k1/2 cos[(k)t] cos(kr /4) dk =

0 (k)k1/2 {cos[(k)t kr + /4] + cos[(k)t + kr /4]} dk =


=

1
Re ei/4
2r

0 (k)k1/2 ei[(k)tkr] dk +

+ ei/4

Z
0

0 (k)k1/2 ei[(k)t+kr] dk . (21)

I1 =

0 (k)k1/2 ei[(k)tkr] dk .

(22)



. , , -

101
, [11], :

I(t) =

Zb

F (k)eit(k) dk ,

(23)

F (k) (k) , a b , t :

(k) = 0

(24)

k , a < k < b, (23)


s
2
F (k ) ei[t(k )/4] ;
(25)
I(t)
| (k )|t
, (k ) > 0 , (k ) < 0.
k ,
(25). (24) ,
, O(1/t).
(24) , : I(t) exp(t), > 0. k = k .
(22). (k) = (k)kr/t,

(k) = v (k) = r/t .

(26)

= gk, v (k) = g/(4k), k = gt2 /(4r 2 ).

(r, t) = t(k ) = (k )t k r =

gt2
.
4r

(27)

, (k ) = (k ) = 2r 3 /(gt3 ) < 0. , , I(t)


r
 2
gt2
gt
2
I1
0
ei(gt /4r/4) .
r 2r 2
4r 2

102
, (21) ,
I. ,
gt2
(r, t) = 2 3 0
4r

gt2
4r 2


cos gt2 /4r .

(28)

r t, , r/t .
,
, .
,
. ,
k0 , k0 k/2 k0 +k/2, k k0 , ,
(k0 ),
.
, . t
r ,
(26), . (r, t) = (k0 )t k0 r,
- k0 . , ,
:
, (k0 )k,
, | (k0 )|t,

p ,
1/ | (k0 )|t.
, (25), /4, , , ,
. , , ,
.
, , 0 (r).

103

. 2.19.

(28) . , d , , ,
. 2.19,. - ,
,
. 2.19,. , 0 (k)
k . 1/d. , gt2 /4r 2 & 1/d (. 0
(28)), .

,

: r1 gdt/2. ,
, gd/2.
(27)
r, 1 : ,
,
2, 1 . r2 gt2 /4, g/2.
(28) ,
, .
, .. ,
. , ,
, .
, . ,
.

104

. 2.20.
.
. 2.20.
143. V
.
. ,
-,
, v () < V ,

cos =

v ()
.
V

, , , .
, ,
.
, . 2.21. AB . c
A, t B,
|AB| = V t. A
, t r = v t = V t cos /2 C.
, ,
A, V t/4
O, V t/4 A. ,
B x,

105

. 2.21.

. C
x = V t + r cos ,
y = r sin .
r t ,
1
3
1
x = V t + V t cos2 = V t + V t cos 2 ,
2
4
4
1
1
y = V t cos sin = V t sin 2 .
2
4
(x + 3V t/4)2 + y 2 = (V t/4)2 .
B , . 2.21 . |OB| = 3V t/4, 0 = arcsin(1/3) 19.5 .
, t, ,
! , , v < V .
144. - . . 2.21.
B x . A, ,
x. cos = v ()/V , . t, B,
r = V t cos /2 C (
, v = v /2). -

106
(r, t) = gt2 /(4r) , , 140.
r V t :
V 2
cos2 ,
g
2V 2
Vt=
cos .
g
r=

(1)


x = V t + r cos ,
y = r sin .

(2)

(1) (2),
V 2
cos (2 cos2 ) ,
g
V 2
y=
sin cos2 .
g

x=

(3)

(3) .
/2 /2, (x, y) , , .
, 2,
. 2.22.
, . -, ,
x. -,
, ,
p .
V v = g/k, 2V 2 /g. , ,
p
,
m = arcsin(1/ 3) = 35.3 , cm = 2/3V ,
m = 4V 2 /3g.
, ,
, . l,

107

. 2.22.
. l k 2/l (, ,
V > v ). ,
Fr = V 2 /gl, .
Fr << 1, , l, .
Fr >> 1
.
, , .
Fr ,
( ), Fr ( ) , .
145. 140.
146. 144

2 sin2 cos3
,
V 2
cos2
3 sin
.
y= 2
V cos3

x=

,
.
147. .

108
-:


v

+ (v) v = grad p + F + v ,
t

(1)

, p , F
, . (v)v
v/t .
, ,
.

v
v ,
t
= / .
, ,
. E v 2 ,

v
E
v
vv
t
t
v v/L2 , L ,
,

1 E

2
E t
L

(2)

,
k2

4
.
g2

.
= (P/x)P 1 , P , .
v g/,
/v 5 /g3 = k5/2 /g1/2 .

109
= 1 , = 1.75103 , = 103 /3 ,
7105 1/, 5105 1/.
148.
2

2/3

p
/v k3 /. , k, =
= 2 2 /. 0.3 ,
3103 . ,
.

2.12.

149. F = F0 exp[i(t kx)], I = I0 exp[i(t kx)].



i( kv1 )F0 = I0 ,
i( + kv1 )I0 = F0 ,
,
( v1 k) ( + v2 k) = 2 .

(1)

,
.
= 1 (k)
= 2 (k), , /k.
,
. (, k)
(0 , k0 ) () . ,

110
. (k, ) .
, .
, .
-, ( ..) .
, [ 1 (k)],
[ 1 (k)] [ 2 (k)] = ,

(2)

, , k.
, ,
. , , ,

[ 0 v1 (k k0 )] [ 0 v2 (k k0 )] (0 , k0 ) .
v1 = (d1 /dk)k=k0 , v2 = (d2 /dk)k=k0
(, k) , ..

= 0 k = k k0 , (1) (
).
(2) .
,
.
, ,
. ,
, 150.
, (1),
. 2.23. , .
= v1 k = v2 k
.

111

. 2.23. ,

k / v1 v2 .
, , .
, , |k| < 2/(v1 + v2 )
, , ( . ).
:
Im < 0, , .
( ), , ,
. ,
|| < 2 v1 v2 /(v1 + v2 ),
k. , : .
150.
( v1 k) ( v2 k) = 2 .
, v2 > v1 . . 2.24. , . |k| < 2/(v2 v1 )
. ( )

112
151.
< 2 v1 v2 /(v2 v1 )
. .
, , ,
D(, k) = 0 t = 0 x = 0
, = + i ,
. , exp( t) exp(i t): < 0
. .
,
, : ki (),
, x.
, , , ,
.. .
x , ,
.
ki () < 0, . ,
ki () , ,
x. k+i () ki ().
, , , .
k+i () > 0, = 0, ()x], ..
exp[k+i
() < 0, x. , ki

x.
, , [4, 1]: ki (), ,
, -

113

. 2.24. ,
. , : + . ,
:
k ,
, .
, , || = v1 k, = v2 k,
, k () .
.

< 2 v1 v2 /(v2 v1 ), , ,
, .. ,
.
. . 2.24,.
, .
151. , v1 v2 , ,
F
F
+ v1
= I ,
t
x

I
I
+ v2
= F .
t
x

(1)

149 150 ,
, . ,
, v2 > 0, v2 > |v1 |.

114
(1):
( v1 k)( v2 k) + 2 = 0 .

(2)

,
k. , (P.A.Sturrok), ,
[4]2 .
D(, k) = 0 k i (k), , i (k) < 0,
,
. ,
: ki (), , :
1)
k ;
2) = c , c < 0.
,
.
, .
,

d
= 0,
dk
2

D(, k)
= 0,
k

D(, k)
6= 0 .

(3)

.
- exp[i(t kx)], . ,
.
.
,
.

115
D(, k) = 0,
.
(2). , |k| <
2/|v2 v1 |. , , k:
i
p
1 h
(v1 + v2 ) (v2 v1 )2 2 4v1 v2 2 .
k1,2 () =
2v1 v2
|| : k1 (x) /v1 , k2 (x) /v2 .
, v1 v2 > 0,
k . .
v1 v2 ,
k . k1,2 ()
p ,
, .. c = i2 |v1 v2 |/|v2
v1 |. ,
.. . .
, , , (2),
, , , .
.
, (1), ,
t = 0 - . , .
(x , t ), V = (v1 + v2 )/2
. (1) :
F
F
v = I ,

t
x

I
I
+ v = F ,

t
x

(4)

v = (v2 v1 )/2. I ,
, F
2
2F
2 F

v
2 F = 0 .
t 2
x 2

(5)

116
F (x , +0) =
= (x ), Ft (x , +0) = 0.
. (5), :
F (x , p) p2 2
p

F (x , p) = 2 (x ) .
2
2

v
v
x

(6)

F (x , p) F (x , t ). (6)

2
2
F (x , p) = Ae p x /v ,
x > 0, x < 0. , |x | , ,
. A dF/dx |+0 dF/dx |0 = p/v 2 , (6)

,
p
x = 0. A = p/(2v p2 2 ), x > 0 :
2 2
p
e p x /v .
F (x , p) = p
(7)
2v p2 2
x > 0, x . ,
p
Z
p2 2 x /v) pt
p
exp(
1
p
e dp .
(8)
F (x , t ) =
2i
2v p2 2
L

, p,
.

p
Z

2
2
exp( p x /v) pt
1 1
p
(9)
e dp .
F (x , t ) =
2v t 2i
p2 2
L

[10],
  q


1

2
2 2

I0 t x /v
F (x , t ) =
(t x /v) .
(10)
2v t

I0 (z) , (z) : (z) = 0 z < 0 1, z > 0.

117

. 2.25. 151. -
() ( ) .
, t = x /v 1/(2v), ,
- :

t < |x |/v ,
0



2
2

F (x , t ) = 1
t I1 t x /v2
(x vt ) +
2 2
t |x |/v .
2
2v

t x /v2

x < 0 x .
,

0
t < x/v1 , t > x/v2 ,

[(x v1 t) + (x v2 t)] +
2

 p
(11)
F (x, t) =

2 (x V t)2 /v 2

x/v

x/v
.
1
2

tI
1

p
+
2v t2 (x V t)2 /v 2

,
t .


I0 (z) ez / 2z z . , ,
. 2.25. -, v1
v2 , .
v1 > 0, v2 > 0,
,
.

118
v1 < 0, v2 > 0 ,
, , .
x F (x, t) exp t/ t t ,
.
154.
=

= /0 , k = kc/0 , = v/c < 1 = p /0


:
(
2 k2 )(
k 1) =
2 .

(1)

, , ( = 0) = k,
= k = vk + 1.
. , ,
,
.
(1) , . , , ,
, . x = /k y = 1/k. x
, y .
y x:
y=

(x2 1)(x )
.
(1 + )x2 1

(2)

y(x) ,
.
x = 1, x = x = 1

1 + , ,
x = 1/

1/ 1 + ,
.

< 1/ 1 + y(x) . 2.26,.


, y x. ,
. (1) , . .
(k, ) 2.26,.

119

. 2.26. 154. (1/k, v ).

: x y . ,
x (2) y (x )/(1 + ), ,
k 0 = 1 + + k. x y 0, ..
, = k k . x 1 y = 2(1
)(x 1)/ = k + /(2(1 )) k .
. x 1

(k, ): = k + /(2(1 + )).

(k, )
x 1/ 1 + ,
1/ 1 + .

, , . 2.27,.

1/ 1 + < < 1.
(x, y) . 2.27,.
, . , y
,
, y, x (2) .

y,
x. , , .
(k, )
, . . 2.26,.

120

. 2.27. 154. (k, ). . k


.
155. P > 2(KEI)1/2 .
157. L > 2c/.
158. ,
1 (k, ) 2 (k) ,
, =
= i. , , .
, 1 (k, ) > 2 (k, ).
:
=

i
p
1h
1 (k, ) + 2 (k, ) D(k) .
2

(1)

D(k) = [1 (k, ) 2 (k, )]2 42 , .


. 2.28
D(k). k ( 1), .
,
( 2). , 3, D(k) .
: D(k0 ) = 0, dD(k0 )/dk = 0, D (k0 ) > 0.

121

. 2.28. 158.
( < c ), ( = c )
( > c ).
D(k)
1 (k0 , ) 2 (k0 , ) = 2 ,
1 (k0 , ) 2 (k0 , ) = 0 ,

(2)

(k0 , ) (k0 , ) > 0 .

k, , (, ). ,
, , D(k).
, (2), . , , .
, ,
.
,
? ,
. c . < c
, > 0 ,
k0 . , c c ,

k, 0 ,
.
, (1).
0 = [1 (k0 ) + 2 (k0 )]/2, D(k) D (k0 )(k)
2 /2,
= 0 +
, k = k0 + k,

122

= v k

1
c [1 (k0 ) 2 (k0 )]k2 (2 2c ) .
2

v = d1 (k0 )/dk = d2 (k0 )/dk


(2)

2 1 c [ (k0 ) (k0 )] + (2 2 ) = 0 ,
[(
) v k]
1
2
c
2

"

! #
1

c [1 (k0 ) 2 (k0 )] k
2
"
! #
r
1

v+
c [1 (k0 ) 2 (k0 )] k = (2 2c ) .
2

, , ,
> c . ,
, ,
,
. , , (2),
r
1
v=
c [1 (k0 ) 2 (k0 )] ,
(3)
2
, . ,
.
159.
= /0 , 0 = /0 ,
p
p

k = k c/0 , v0 = v/ v/(c0 ) :
(
(
v0 k)
1 k2 ) = 20 .
, , 158. (2)

123

. 2.29.
159.
, ,
:
1 + k2 v0 k = 2 ,

v0 = 2k ,

v02
= 20 .
4

(v02 , 0 )
(. 2.29). . , , (. 158).
, ,
.
, ,
. (3) 158, v02 = ,
v02 = 4/9, = 4/9.
160. , 0 d
, :
( vk 1)( vk + 1) =

2
.
1 + k2

1 (2)
2 (2) < 2/(1 + k2 ), 1 (k) 2 (k) .

124

1 + k2 < . , > 1, , k0 = 0.
.

2 /(1 + k2 ) 2 (1 k2 ). ( kv 1)( kv +
+ 1) = 2 (1 k2 )
[ (v + )k] [ (v )k] = 1 2 .

,
> 1.
. v >
v < . . 2.30.
165. ,
. exp[i(t iBx + x)].
x ( < 0),
, , .

(. 2.31). k 1,
B >> 0 ,
, B << 0 . , , , ,
.
|B| 1
.

. 2.30.
160.

125

. 2.31.
165.
B,
.
, 151. ,

.

= (k) ,

d
= 0,
dk

Im (k) = 0 .

(1)

N , N 1. , . , (1) , ,
, ,
, , .
.
(1)
= k2 +

1
,
kB

d
1
= 2k
.
dk
(k B)2

z = k B, k B
z:
=

1
1
+ ,
4
4z
z

B = z +

1
.
2z 2

(2)

126
B,
z , . z
, ,
. ,
,
(2),
,
, .

B, 2z 3 + 2Bz 2 1 = 0 . , B < Bc =
= 3/2, B > 3/2
, B < 3/2 .
166. , , ,
,
. . 2.32. , ,
L. , ,
,
, , ki = i/L, i .
i = (ki ). .
.
, L (k)
, L . ,
. 2.32,
(0, 0 ).
,
, , k,
, ,
.
, , , ?

, ,

127

. 2.32. ,
, . ,

, i = + ii . , i > 0,
, i < 0.
, i ,
.
, ,
.
, , , .

.
1966 .. , , .
3 .

k = ki (), i = 1, 2, . . . , s (s ).
ki (w) , , .
3

[4].

128

. 2.33. .
, 150: , k ()
, , , k () +
.
k+i ki . 150 ,
> 0, ,
, k+i
< 0 , , ,
ki
,
. . 2.33
.
, . 1 2 {+},
3 4 {}. 1 3 ,
2 4 .
:
{+}
k . . . , {}
: k+1
+2
:
k . . . .
k1
2
ki () k, k+1 ()
{+}, k1 ()
k .
{}. k+

k+ k ,
.
k+
A+ (0).
L). , , A+ (0) exp(k+
, , ,

129
, , , k+ .
k R2 .
L),
|R2 |A+ (0) exp(k+

|R2 |A+ (0) exp[(k+ k )L]. ,


. ,
x = 0 k k+ R1 ,
k )L]. ,
A+ (0)|R1 ||R2 | exp[(k+

|R1 ||R2 | exp[(k+


k
)L] = 1 .

.
, , k ).
(k+

,
F ( , ) = Im[k+ () k ()] = 0 .

(1)

, , .
L , 4 . ,
- , (1),
, .
, ,
(1). = 0
F (0 , 0) > 0. , k+ (0 )
k k (0 ).
, k+ , k ,
< 0 (2) ,
. ,
, .
, , , F ( , 0) 0 .
4

, F ( , ) .

130

. 2.34. (1) . 1 , 2
.
1 , 2 , . . . . ,
, 1 ,
2 , . . . ,

,
.
, ,
, (1), , (. . 2.34). = 0 + i0
, F (0 , 0) = 0. F ( , 0) 0. ,

max F ( , 0) = 0 ,

< < .

(2)

(2) ( ), ,
.
, , e (2),
, (
), (1) ,
.
,
. . -

131

. 2.35. .
:
 p

p
q
q
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
id 0 + c k
id + 0 + c k
( vk) = 30 ,

(3)

, 0 = 0. , p
1,3 (k) id/(2) 02 + c2 k2 ,
2 (k) = vk. . 2.35. || 1,3 (k) ck, 2 = vk, ,
1 2 , 3 . 1
3 ,

q
d
1,3 (k) = 02 + c2 k2 + i p 2
.
2 0 + c2 k2

0 6= 0 , 0 = 0,
.
0 , ,
,
. . , : k = 0 / v 2 c2 ,
= vk ,
1 2. -
. , 3 0
.

132
, (3)
, , , 2 ,

k = k k
= . ,





V k i
v k = 2 , .
(4)
:
3 (k) = V k + i .

(5)

(4) (5) V = 1 (k ) = c2 /v, =


= d/(2 ), 2 = 30 /(2 ). (4)

k,

s



2

2
1
1
1
1
4

1
. (6)
+

i
k1,2 (
) =
2 V
v
V
V
v
V
Vv

,
, /V , Im k1 >
0, Im k2 < 0. , , , k1 ,
k2 .
(2) Im k1 ()
. Z = w + iu = (1/V
1/v)
i/V , a2 = 42 /V v, (6)

p
Z 2 a2 = s + it .
( s, t, w, u ). ,
:
w2 =

(t2 u2 a2 ) t2
.
t 2 u2

t2
w2 u2 . w2 (t2 ),
, , .

133

. 2.36. w2 (t2 ).
2.36. , t ( )
p w 0
/V 2 /V 2 + 42 /(V v), w
0 /V . w
,

Im
k
(

=
0,

1
p
/(2V ) + 2 /V 2 + 42 /(V v)/2.
Im k3 = /V , (2), c,
r
1 2

42

+
= ,.
(7)
+

2V
2 V2
Vv
V
2 = 2 2 v/V = 2 . > , F ( , 0) > 0,
.
= 0 , ,

2 =

2 2 v
V

2.13.

178. T 2L/ gh 4.5103 = 1.25 .


179. , (. 2.37).

134

. 2.37. .
d .
N 2 . 1 N xn
n- . :
x1 = 0 ,
x
n + 02 xn =

k
k
(xn+1 xn ) (xn xn1 ) ,
m
m

n = 2, . . . , N 1 ,

(1)

xN = 0 ,
02 = g/l. Xn
xn (t) = Re{eit Xn }; Xn (1)
X1 = 0 ,


2k
k
2 + 02 +
(Xn+1 + Xn1 ) ,
Xn =
m
m

(2a)
n = 2, 3, . . . , N 1 , (2b)

XN = 0 .

(2c)

Xn = A sin[(n 1)],
A . (2a)
, (2b)

2 () = 02 +

4k
sin2 .
m
2

(3)

(2c), , sin[(N 1)] = 0,


j =

j
,
N 1

j = 2, 3, . . . , N 1 ,

(4)

135

. 2.38. .
(3) (4) :
s
4k
j
j = 02 +
sin2
,
j = 2, 3, . . . , N 1 ,
(5)
m
2(N 1)

Xn(j) = Aj sin[j (n 1)]

(6)


j- . , N 2
, . j, 1, 2, . . . , N ,
.

, . 2.38 (, )
(), (3). ,
(4).
p
1 = 0
2 = 02 + 4k/m,
. .

/(N 1), . . . . , N , ,

136
,
1

2 , .
,
Aj , (6) ,
(j)
Xn , . .
, .
,
, . . 2.39
, N = 9. , ,
, .
,
, , , N ,
, N .
,
. ,
. , ,
( ),
,
.

C(n/l),

l = 1, 2, . . . .
181. n = 1/ L
182. , U (x, t) I(x, t)
I
U
= L
,
x
t

I
U
= C
.
x
t

. 2.39. .

137
U, I exp(it), (x) I(x):

U
(x) = U+ eikx + U eikx ,
U

1 

U+ eikx U eikx ,
I(x)
=
Z0
U+ U ,

p
x, Z0 = L/C , k = LC.
U (0) = 0, U+ = U ,
, x = l
I(l, t) = C0 dU (l, t)/dt = iC0 U
(l). ,
I(l)

z = kl = LCl:
ctg z =

C0
z.
CL

. 2.40.
, C0 /CL 1 z /2. z = /2 ,
= (C0 /CL)(/2),


C0

.
1
=
Cl
2l LC
(C0 /Cl 1)
p ,
ctg z 1/z, z = Cl/C0 ,

=

1
.
LlC0

, C0 L0 = Ll,
.
185. . 186.
186. ,
. ,

138

. 2.40. 182
. 2.41 dx, x x + dx.

dx

2 y(x, t)
= T (x + dx) sin (x + dx) T (x) sin (x) .
t2

T (x) x, (x) . , T (x) = g[m + M (1 x/L)]


,
M = L , (x) y(x, t)/x. dx
, :


2y

y
2
T (x)
.
(1)
t
x
x
. x = 0 , y(0, t) = 0.
,
. ,
m

2 y(L, t)
= T (L) sin (L) .
t2

, T (L) = mg, :

 2
y
y
+g
= 0.
(2)
y(0, t) = 0 ,
t2
x x=L

139

. 2.41. 186
, y(x, t) =
= Re[eit Y (x)]. = + 1
x/L, = m/M , 2 = L 2 /g, Y ()
:


dY ()
d

+ 2 Y () = 0 .
d
d

= 2
m = 0.
2

dY ()
d2 Y ()
+
+ Y () = 0 .
2
d
d

Y (2 ) = 0 ,


dY ()
= 0.
+ Y ()

d
2
=2 1+

:
Y () = C1 J0 () + C2 N0 () .
J0 N0 , C1 C2
, . ,
:

C1 J0 (2 1 + ) + C2 N0 (2 1 + ) = 0 ,





C1 J1 (2 ) J0 (2 ) + C2 N1 (2 ) N0 (2 ) = 0 .
(3)

140

J0 () = J1 ()

N0 () = N1 () .

(m = 0).
= 0, N0 . ,
C2 = 0,
C1 J0 (2) = 0, , = 0n /2,
mn n- m- .
01 = 2.405, 02 = p
5.520, 03 = 8.654.
p
p 1 = 1.2 g/L, 2 = 2.76 g/L, 3 = 4.33 g/L
, m 6= 0,
(3)


J1 (2 ) J0 (2 ) N0 (2 )



N1 (2 ) N0 (2 ) J0 (2 ) = 0 .

. , = 1 ( ), : 1 = 1.056, 2 = 4.082, 3 =p
7.738.
,

=
1.056
g/L,
1
p
p
2 = 4.082 g/L, 3 = 7.738 g/L.
187. R L , ,
. , ,
96:
v
c2
= 0
,
t
0 x
v

= 0
.
t
x
, v , .
,
c , (. 182).
0 C,

, v U , I, c20 /0 L,
. , .

141
v (0, t) = 0, ,
= 0,
. . ,
L,
R . 189,
,
, . ,
,
( ).
, , .
, , ..
L = (2n + 1)/4, n = 1, 2, . . . ., ,
= 2c0 /,


1 c0
.
n = n +
4 L
188. n = nc0 /L.
189. . ( ..),
. , L R.
,
. v(L) =
= v0 . S = R2 , =
= c0 /(4L) ( ) v0 .
(v = ):

1 2
= 0,
c20 t2

(1)

142

: /n = un (t)
.
,
(r ),
5 . ,
,
.
, , R0 ,
,
. (1), , (r, t) = A exp[i(t
kr)]/r, k = /c0 ,


1
ik
2 ei(tkr) .
(2)
v(r, t) = A
r
r
kr. r R0 ,
.
v(R0 ) = v0 eit

Aeit
,
R02

a = v0 R02 . , , ,

v(r, t) =

iv0 R02 k ei(tkr)


.
r

R c , :
I = 4R2 0 v 2 = c0 20 v02 R02
5

2 R02
.
c20

, .
, , .
[3]

143
,
P c0 v02

2 R02
.
2c20

(3)

. I P R2 0 v02 R4 2 /c0 , R
. , , W =
= 0 v02 L. Q 2W/I,
Q

L
c0 L
= 2.
2
R
R

L R Q L2 /R2 1. ,
.
p
190. /(R3 ) 1 . (. [3])
l2 =

l(l 1)(l + 2)
,
R3

l = 2, 3, . . . .


(l=2)
2 2 .
191. l2 = [80 Gl(l 1)]/[3(2l + 1)]. . [7].
192.

 2
2f
2f
2 f
v
+ 2 = 0,
(1)
t2
x2
y
p
f , v = T /.
, f f (x, y, t) = Re{F (x, y) exp[it]}.
F (x, y)
2F
2F
+
+ k2 F = 0 ,
x2
y 2

k2 =

2
.
v2

(2)

, F (r = R) = 0.

, F (r, ) = R(r) (). R(r) ()

144




d
dR
r
r
+ k 2 r 2 m2 R = 0 ,
dr
dr
2
d
+ m2 = 0 .
d2

(3)

m2 . ():
() = A cos(m) + B sin(m) .
, m .
R(r) , ,
r,
R(r) = CJm (kr) .
, ,
J0 (kR) = 0, k = kmn = mn /R, mn . m n



sin m
Fmn (x, y) =
Jm (mn r/R) .
sin m
mn = vkmn = vmn /R .
193. En = ~2 2 n2 /(2mL2 ), n = 1, 2, . . . .
194. C, x = 0,

 nz 
(r, ) ,
(x, y, z, t) = AeiEt/~ sin
L

n. ,
(r, )
+ k 2 = 0 ,
2

k2 = 2mE/~2 2 n2 /L2 , = x
2 + y 2
. , .

145
(R) = 0. 192
, :


sin m
(r, ) =
Jm (mn r/R) ,
sin m
2 = 2 /R2 . :
kmn
mn

 2
2 n2
~2 mn
+ 2
.
E=
2m R2
L

195. nm = gknm th hkmn , kmn = (1/(a2 m2 ) + 1/(b2 n2 ), m, n


, .
196. (. 182),
:
2
2V
2 V

c
= 0.
t2
x2

C .
c2 = 1/ L
p
C x = l, ,
Z = L/
,
g = Z1 /Z2 =
1 /L
2 > 1.
=L
.
x = 0 V (0, t) = 0, . ,


V
V
=g
.
V (x = l 0) = V (x = l + 0) ,
x x=l0
x x=l+0
, , x > l ,
.
.
, V (x, t) =
= Re{V (x) exp it}, V (x)

V (x, t) = A sin kx ,
V (x, t) = Beikx ,

0 x l,

x l,

146
k = /c. x = 0 . x = l, :
A sin kl = Beikl ,

A cos kl = igBeikl .

tg kl = i/g . kl = n + i, n =
= 0, 1, 2 . . . .
th =

1
.
g

1 g+1
1
.
= arcth( ) = ln
g
2 g1
, :
n =

c
nc
+i .
l
l

n > 0. , , x > l. , x > l


: Vn exp(ikn x) = exp(x/l) exp(inz/l). g > 1
> 0, x. ,
c. x
t ,
, t = t
x/c.
exp(ct /l),
exp(ct/l) exp(x/l).

. ,
.

, , .

147
,
, .. . ,
,
, x, , x > l , .
, . ,
t , , , , n .

, .
. g 1,
1/g.
. g 1, , g = 1+, (1/2) ln(2/). ,
, , 1/ l/c
.

148

1.

.., ..
. .: , 1984.

2.

.., .. . - .: , 1988.

3.

.., .. . - .: , 1986.

4.

.., .. . .: ,
1979.

5.

. . .: , 1977.

6.

.. . .: , 1989.

7.

., ., .
. .: , 1971.

8.

.. . : -
-. 1995.

9.

.
. .: , 1965.

10. ., . . .: , 1968.
11. .. . .: , 1984.

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