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..

11
: . .
: . 11 .
. / .. ; .
.. . 3- . .: , 2002 .


1.

1.
1. , , , .
XIX . . 60- . , .
2. , .
3. , , -
.
4. , .. , , .

2.
1. ,
.
2. ,
( ).
3. , , ,
. .
4. ) x :

k x = k x , k x = k sin = sin , k x = k sin = v .

sin = sin .

) .

2

,
.
5. , , ,
, , .

3.
1. , , ,
.
,
:

sin 1
=
.
sin 2
:

k x = k x , k x = k sin =
k x = k sin =

sin .
1

sin .
2

sin 1
=
sin =
sin
.
1
2
sin 2
.
2. , .
3. .
4. .
5. , , .
6.
n1 =

c
c sin 1 n1 2
sin n2
; n2 =
;
;
=
=

= .
sin n1
1
2 sin 2 n2 1

.
3

7.
> 0 ,
n
0 = arcsin 2 .
n1

. .
8. , :

t=

x 2 + h12
1

(a x) 2 + h12
2

0:
t =

1
1
1
1

;
1 x 2 + h 2 2 (a x) 2 + h 2
1
2

t = 0 :

1
2

(a x ) 2 + h22
x

+ h12

sin
.
sin

9.
, . .

4.
1. .
2. ,
.
.
, , , .
T = t / N, N t -
, , .

c=

l
l
= ,
t nT

l ,
, n ,
, .

3. . , .
( ) .
4. . .
. t 1/8
.
2l T
16 l 16
= ; c =
= ,
c
8
T

, .
5. 299 792 458 /.

5. .
1. , .
2.
( ).
3. ,
,
, .
4.
.
5. , ,
. ,
, .
6. ,
.
7. ,
, , , .
8. , , .

6.
1. .
2. ,
( ). , , 5

. , , .
.
3.
, - .
4. , , , ( ) , , .
5.
, .
6.
. :
)
;
)
, .
7. , .
8. , ,
.

7.
1. .
2. .
3. , , .
4. :
v=

2
2
v0

t 1 2 / c 2 v0 1 / c
=

=
.
t
1 + x / c t 1 + x / c
1 + x / c

v0

5. , .
1938 . . .

8. (I)
1.
,
, .
6

2.
.
,
,
.
, , .
3. , ,
, .
4. , .
5. , , .
6. , .
7. .
8. , , ,
.

9. (II)
1. , . , .
2. 760 < <620 : 41014<<4,81014 .
450 < < 380 : 6,71014 < <
< 81014 .
3. ,
. ,
.
4. ,
, , .
5. .
.
6. .
7

7. ,
,
.
( ).
.
, . .

10.
1. .
2. :

D2
.

3.

D2
.

) l

(109 ) 2
= 2 1015 ;
500

(0, 5 106 ) 2
= 5 108 .
500
4. , , - .
5. ,
, .
6. :
) l

r = d sin ; = 2n; 2n =

2
d sin ; d sin = n.

7. . , ,
, , . . , ,
, , .
8

11. .
1. ,

.
2. , .
3. ,
.
4. .
5. ; ; .
6.) ; ) ; ) ;
) .
7. , , , .
8.1),
( ,
)
2) ,
( ,
).
3) ,
.
9. :
1
1
1

=
.
d |f |
|F|

10. ) , , ; ) , , ; ) , , ; ) ; ) , .
f
11.
1
0

2F

2F

-1

12.
.
13. , .

12.
1. , .
2. ,
.
3. , .
4. . 45 54, 45 36. , , , .
5. ,
42. ..
8, . .

13.
1. . 1800 . ,
, .
.
2. , , , ,
, , , ,
..
3. , , , , , .
4. . . 1801 ,
, .
, , .
5. , , , , , .
6. , , , , , .
10

14.
1. .. 1845 .
2. .
3. , , , .
, , .
,
. (), ( ).
4. , , , , , ..

11

2.
15.
1. 14 1900 . . ,
.
, ,
, .
2.
, .
3. .
4.
,
, .
5. :

= hv.

16.
1. , .
2. ().
3. 1) 0.
2) .
3)
, .
4) .
5) 0.
4.
2 = ( mc 2 ) 2 + (c) 2 ; m =
.
1
( E / c) 2 P 2
5. M =
c
12

( / c ) 2 p 2 ; p = m = 0 ,
c
c

p1 = p 2 =

2
, P 2 = 2(1 cos Q) 2
c
c

M =

2(1 cos Q) =

2
c

sin

Q
,
2

.
6. ,
,
.

17.
1.
.
2. .
3. ,
.
, ,
. , .
4.
hv = A +

m 2
.
2

5. ,
.
m 2
= eU .
2

6. ,
.
7. , .
8. , 1
, ,
. .
.
13

, ,
.
9.
A
m 2
Nhv = A +
; N = 2; v0 = .
2
2h

18.
1. ,
, , . , , .
2. .
3. (, ) .
4.
.
5. , . . , , .
6. :
= =

2h
h
h

cos =
= 2, 4 10 3 .
mc mc
mc

19. -
1. .
2. , .
3. .
4. , .
5. , .
6. :

p=
14

h
.

7.
, .
8. , .
9.
=

3, 63 10 34
h
h
=
=
= 3, 63 10 34 .
1 1 /
p m

15

3.

-

20.
1. , , .
2. 1) .
2) .
3) .
3. , ,
, , . .
4. ,
.
5. ,
.
6. 12 .
, 1
.
NA = 6 1023 1.
7. .

, r .

M = M r 10 3
.

8. M = 18 103 /; = 32 103 /; = 44 103


/; =56103 /.
9. , , , 2214 .
10. :
m0 =

16

M
.
NA

:
d0 = 3

m0
.

:
N=

m
N A.
M

21.
1. .
2. .
3. .
1827 . . .
4. , .
5. .
6. .
7.
,
.

22.
1. : ,
.
2.
( , ).
3. , ,
.

( ).
4. 10
. 17

, . .
. .
.

.
, , ,

.
,

.

18

4.

23.
1. , , .
2.
.
().
3. , 6, 12, 18, N 6N.
4.
3, 6, 9, N 3N.
5.
3, 6, 9, N 3N.
6. = , = V, = , = V .
m 2
mp 2
p2
=
=
7. p = m, E k =
, p = 2mE k , 2
2
2m
2m
.
8. , .
9. , .
10.
,
.
11. 1903 .

24.
1. .
2. ,
,
.
19

3. ,
.
w

En

4. U = E = E k + E n .
5. U = NE k . 5.
6. 1850 .
7.
,
, .

25.
1. .
2. , .
= = pV.
3. .
4. , , . .
5. ,
. .
6. Q = cm(t2 t1). Q = cm(t2 t1). Q = rm. Q = rm. Q = m.
Q = m.
7. ,
/ .
8. 1 = 4,2 .

20

26.
1.
, , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. . , .

.
5. , , U = Q,
.
6.
,
.
, , .

27.
1. , ,
.
2. ,
.
3. W, S.
.
4. .
5. , .
6.
W = / 0 .

,
k ln 0.
7. 12 1, 2 1, 8 5, 1 0.
8. 27 1933 .
21

28.
1. . 1822 .
2.
.
3.
, ,
, .
4. , , ,
, .
5. .
6. . , .
7. .

29.
1. , .
2. .
3. 1)
.
2) ,
, .
,
. ,
,
. , .
4. . 1709 . . .
5. .
6. : 35 750, : 80 70, : 200
35.
1
.
7. T =
S
9. T = t + 273,15.
T = T1 T2 = t1 t2 + 273,15 273,15 = t1 t2 = t.
22

10.

S = U1

T2 T1
200 K
= U 1
; T1 > T2 .
1000 K
T1T2

T1 , .

30.
1. 1864 .
2. 1912 .
3. ,
.
4. = 0. .
5. , .
1941 . . . , .

31.
1. - , . ,
, . .
2. 1774 .
3. ,
.
4. , , , ,
.
.
5. , ,
, .
6.
23

,
.
7. :
Q1 = T1 ( S 2 S1 ); Q2 = T2 ( S1 S 2 ); = 1

| Q2 |
T
= 1 2 .
Q1
T1

8. , 2-3 4-1 .
9.
.
10. :
= 1

| Q2 |
.
Q1

Q2 0, 1.
11. ,
.

24

5.
32.
1. , (
), .
2.
.
3.
U=

3
NkT .
2

4. .
Ek =

3
NkT .
2

5. () ,
.
6. = 500 /;
2
=
T = 408, 25 /,
3
= 1,13 = 461, 3 /.
7. , .
8. .
. , .
.
, ,
. , l.

:

= 2vR2 ( R2 R1 ) / l.
25

9. - .
10. :
t, S =
= R2 R1 , , , l. :
=

S R2 R1
.
=
t
t

t =

l
,
u

u .
, u = 2R2, R2
,
t =

l
.
2R2

,
=

2R2 ( R2 R1 )
,
l

33.
1. , .
2. ,
.
p=

N
kT .
V

3. .
4.
p=

26

N
m
pV
m
kT ; N =
N A;
=
R; R = kN A = 8,31 /()
V
M
T
M

5.
.
N = pV/kT. , ,
N.
6.
.
N = N1 + N 2 + ... + N n ;
p=

N1 + N 2 + ... + N n
N
N
kT = 1 kT + ... + n kT = p1 + ... p n ,
V
V
V

.
7.

.
8. .

34.
1. ,
.
2. :

A = Q.
3.
.
pV = const.

, -.
4. , .
5. U = Q.
6.
.
p
= const.
T

7. ,
.
8.
U 2 U1 = Q p(V2 V1 )

27

9. .
1787 .

V
= const.
T
10. : 23; :
45; : 12; 34; : 6
1; : 56.
11. .
, ,
.
12. .
, ,
.
13. .
, , .

35.
1. :
1
p = nm0 T2 .
3
2.
1
p = nm0 2 .
3

3. .
4. .
5. .
6. ,
. , ,
N/2. . . , .

28

6.
36.
1. , ,
.
2. .
, ,
, .
3. .
.
4. ,
,
. . ,
p = gh .
5. ,
, , ,
, .
6. -
.

37.
1.
1,24 1016 .
2. ,
.
3. , .
5. ,
1 3 .
6. .
7. ,
, , .

.
8. 100%.
9.
.
10.
.
11.
40 60%.
29

38.
1.
.
2.
, . , .
3. , .
.
4. , .
, . , .
5. , , ,
. . .
6. ,
0. , .
, .
. .

30

7.
39.
1.
, (
).
2. - . -,
. , ,
,
( ).
( ) .
3. -
.
4. ) .
) ,
.
+Ze, Z ..
.
) Z , Ze.
5.
-

,
,
.
6. - .
7. ,
.
8. +Ze = 79 1,61019 = 1,26
1017 .
9. 1 , 79,
92.

40.
1. , , ,
.
2. 1) ,
(), . .
31

2)
, .
3)
, :
m r = n h,

mv , n .
3. E n = Ry / n 2 ; 1 Ry = 13, 6 .
4. , .
5. 13,6 .
6. , .
7. , .
.

41.


137
,
.
2. n2 = 4 .
3. 1/n.
,
.
4. 137 7 = 959 .
5. 4 ,
n- n2 , .
6. n .
7. :

1. (n = 1) 1 =

R=

Ry
= 109, 7 10 5 1.
hc

8. He+ 200 .

32

42.
1. () . ,
.
2. ( . . ) , .
, , ,
, .
, .
3. ,
.
.
, .
.
4. .

43.
1. ,
.

.
2. .
3.
, .
4.
, , , ,
.
5. ,
.
-

.
33

44.
1. .
.
2. , . , . , ,
.
3.
= 10 31 /; x = 1 = 10 3 ; t =

10 3
10 31

= 10 28 .

4. , , ,
.
, .
5. , , ,
0.

34

8.
45.
1. . 1910
.
2. 1932 . , .. . - . .
3. , , 1836,2 . .
1838, 7 , ,
. .
5. .
6. . , ,
,
.
7. +1, 1,
0.
8.
, .
9. : , , 14 H.
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. , , , , , .

46.
1. , ,
, , .
2. 1) .
2) 2-3 .
35

3) ,
.
4) , .
3. , .
.
4. ) 1 = 1 + 0, 1 = 1 + 0, 1 = 1 + 0, 0 = 0 + 0;
) 1 = 1 + 0, 1 = 0 + 1, 1 = 1 + 0, 0 = 1 + (1).

47.
1. , .
2. .
3. .
4.
.
5. 7,25 .
6. , ,
, .
7.
M = ( Zm p + Nmn ) M 0 ; M H m p ; M = ZM H + Nmn M .

48.
1.
,
.
2. - , .
- , -, ..
.
3. :
A
Z X

A 4
Z 2Y

+ 24 He (-)

A = A 4 + 4; Z = Z 2 + 2.
A
Z X

A
z +1Y

0
1 e

(-)

A = A + 0; Z = Z + 1 1.

36

4. .
5. ,
.
.
6. ,
.
. 1.
7. .
8. : , , .

49.
1. ,
.
2. :
N = N 0 2 t / T .
3. :
= 1, 44 T .
.
4. ,

.
5. , .
,
. .
t = T log 2 (1 + N Pb / N u ).

6. :
N u = ( N u + N Pb ) 2 t / T ;
t / T = log 2

Nu
;
N u + N Pb

t = T log 2 (1 + N Pb / N u ).

37

7. 60 000 . , ,
14 . 14
.
8. ,
14 , 20,16
. 12 , 17,28 .
9.

N
,

, ,
,
.
A=

50.
1.
.
2. Q = (m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 )c 2 .
3. ,
, , ,

.
4. , , , , .
5. ,
.
6. , .
7. .
8. . 1932 , 1920 .

51.
1. , , , , .
38

2. 235.
3. 7,6 ,
0,1 . 7,6
104 .
4. :
E .
Q = E

5., , 1844 103 .


6.
Q = ( M u M Sr M Xe mn ) 2 .
M u = 92m p + 43mn M u .
M Xe = 54m p + 86mn M Xe .
M Sr = 38m p + 56mn M Sr .

, :
Sr
U
Q = E cXe + E
+ E
.

52.
1. ,
, .
2. : 235, 233 239.
3.
.
4.
.
5.

k=

Ni
2
= = 2.
N i 1 1

6.
.
39

7. ,
. , , , , .
8. .

54.
1. ,
, .
2.
, .
3.
.
4.
, , , .
5. .

55.

1. , . , ,
, , .
2. .
3. , .

40

9.
56.
1. ,
, .
2. , , .
3. .
4. , ,
.
5. , , .
6. .
7. - -u- d-, .+ -d u-.
8. d- .

57.
1. 1931 .
2. 2 1932 .
3. , ,
.
4. , ().
5. , , .
6. (
) .

58.
1.
: .
2. , -
.
3. ,
( ,
), ,
41

, , .
4. +1 , 1
0 . +1 , 1 0 .
5. +1
, 1 0 .
+1 , 1
0 .
+1 , 1
0 .
6. 1, 0.
7. S,
S = 2Q B.

8.
.
9. - , 1 .

42

1
1.
: = 60o
: .

:
I .

, = 2 = 30.
2 + 2 = 180.
,
= 0,5(180 2) = 0,5(180 60) = 60.
, ==60o.
II .
I
= = 0,5(180 2) = 0,5(180 120) = 30.
: 1 = 60; 2 = 30.

2.
: = 60
: .

, .
= 0,5(180 90 ) = 15.
, = + = 15 + 60 = 75.
: = 75.
43

3.
:
:
R = 5 ,
h = 3 ,
H = 1,8
: l.

R, h l, H, R/h = l/h, l=RH/h=3
: l = RH/h=3

4.
:
:
a1 = 6 ,
a2 = 8 ,
l = 10
: .

SS` = a1 = 6 , SS`` = a2 = 8 , S`S`` = l = 10 .
, l2 = 12 + 22 , .. = 90.
: = 90.

5.
:
H
: h.

h ,
,
.
, h = H/2.
: h = H/2.

6.
:
,
s
s.
,
v. , V = 2v = 4 /.
: V = 4 /.
:
v = 2 /
: V.

44

7.
: n1, n2,
= 90
: .

, = 90 , sin = cos.
: sin/sin = n2/n1, sin/cos = n2/n1,
tg = n2/n1, = arctg(n2/n1).
: = arctg(n2/n1).

8.
:
sin = 0,8, = 90
: n.

,
= 90 , sin = cos.
:
n = sin/sin = sin/cos,

cos = 1 sin 2 = 0, 6 , n = 0,8/0,6 1,33.


: n = 1,33

9.
:
:

:

.
sin/sin = n2/n1, sin/sin = n1/n2.
, sin = n2/n1(n1sin /n2) = sin .
0 < < 90, 0 < < 90, = , .
45

10.
:
:
, d
, n

: h.
sin/sin = n, sin = nsin.
, = , l = d/cos, h = lsin.
tg
sin cos
d
h=
sin ( ) = d sin 1
= d sin 1 sin cos =
tg
cos

cos
cos
=
= d sin 1
= d sin 1

n 1 sin 2
n cos

cos
= d sin 1
.
n 2 sin 2

cos
: h = 1
d sin .
n 2 sin 2

11. .
12.
:
= 45, h = 40 ,
n = 1,33
: h.

: = 90 .
:
sin/sin = n.
, cos/sin = n,
l+d
d
= tg l = htg d ;
= tg d = htg ,
h
h

sin
l = h ( tg tg ) = h ( ctg tg ) = h ctg
=

cos

46

1 cos
cos
= h ctg
= h ctg
14,9 .

n 1 sin 2
n

cos

: h = 14,9 .

13.
:
:
) = 45,
, .
) = 50,
n = 1,33
sin/sin = 1/n.
: , > ., ..
?
sin > 1/n.
) sin45 0,7071 < 1/1,33 0,7519;
) sin50 0,766 > 1/1,33 0,7519.
, ) , ) = 50 .
: ) ; ) .

14.

: 0 = 30,
h = 40 , n = 1,
n = 1,36
: `0.

:

sin0 = n/n1, n1 = n/sin0.
, sin`0 = n/n1 = nsin/n
1,68, `0 43.
: `0 43.

15.
:
= 45
: .

I : /2 < , II : < /2

16.

: = 45
:

I : /2 < , II : < /2
47

17.
:
R = 4 , h = 2 ,
n = 4/3
: r.

: sin/sin = n, = /2 sin = 1/n.


,
l
1
= , nl = l 2 + h 2 ,
sin =
2
2
n
l +h
h

n 2l 2 = l 2 + h 2 , l =

: r = R

n2 1

h
n2 1

, r = Rl = R

h
n2 1

1, 7 .

18.
: h = 2 , n = 4/3
: rmin,
.

: sin/sin = 1/n, = /2 sin = 1/n.


,
r
1
h
sin =
= , nr = r 2 + h 2 , n 2 r 2 = r 2 + h 2 , r =
.
r 2 + h2 n
n2 1
: r =

h
n2 1

2, 3 .

19.

: = 15, = 45
: n.

48

1)
= /2 , = = /2 + = /2 + ,
= /2 + = /2+ , = = /2 + ,
/2 + = /2 + , = ( + )/2.
2) - :
2 + + + 2 = 2, 2 = = /2.

n = sin / sin = sin[( + ) / 2] / sin[ / 2].
: n 1,3.

20.

: = 30, n = 1,4
: .

= /2 ,
sin/sin = n sin = sin/n = cos/n,
= arcsin(cos/n),
= /2 /2 + = arcsin(cos/n) 1430`.
: 1430`.

21.

: = 510 ,
= 440
: n, v.

:
v = 224400 /.

n = c/v = c/() 1,3.
: v = 224400 /; n = 1,3.

22.

: = 0,7 , :

n = 1,3
n
= c/v v = c/n,
: 1.
v = 1 1 = v/ = ()/(n) = /n, 1 = 538 .
: 1 = 538 .

49

23.
:
, . , ,
, .
: .

24.
:
, , .
,
.
.
: .

25.
:

:
0 = 440 ,
= 560
: v.

v2
2
c2 , + v = 1 v ,
0
v
c
c2
1+
c
1

= 0

v
v2
v2
v2
v
2 + 2 2 + 2 2 = 0 2 02 2 , 02 + 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 02 = 0,
c
c
c
c
c

)(

2
4
2
2
2
2
2 o 2
v + o o
=
=

c
2 + o 2
2 + o2

v=

2 o 2

c 0, 24 .
2 + o2
: v = 0,24 .

26.

: 0 = 500 ,
v = 0,1 c
: v.

50

:
v2
c2 ,
v
1+
c
1

= c

c
c
= =
0

1+

v
c

v2
1 2
c
: = 550 .

= 0

1+

v
c

v2
1 2
c

550 .

27.
:
:

= 400

= 4
: = m, m = 0,1,2, ...,
? m = / = 4000/400 = 10
, .. .
: .

28.

: = 404 , :
2
= 17,17
: -
= (2m + 1), m = 0, 1, 2, ...,
m = (/ 1)/2 = 17170/404 = 10
?
2 , .. .
: .

29.

: N = 500 1, :

= 450

: mmax.
dsin = m, m = 0, 1, 2, ..., |sin| 1 mmax = d/ = 1/(N) 4.
: mmax = 4.

30.

: = 400 ,
sin = 0,04
: N.

:


dsin = m, m = 0, 1, 2, ..., d = 1/N.

,
N = sin/(m) 500 1.
: N = 500 1.
51

31.
: , .
:

) , ) , ) ,

) , ) , ) ,

) , ) , ) .

32.
: , .
:

52

) , ) , ) ;

) , ) , ) ;

) , ) , ) .

33.
:
)

34.
)

)
F

)
F

53

35.
: .
:

)
F A

B
F

36.
)
B
F

B
A
F

37.
:
(2)
(1)

(2)

38.
:
(1)
(2)

(2)

54

39.
: f = 2 c,
F = 7 c
: d.

:

1/d 1/|f| =(1/|F|),
d = (F f) / (F f) = 2,8 .
: d = 2,8 .

40.
:
d = 5 c
f = 7 c
: F.

:
1/d + 1/f = 1/F,
F = (df) / (d + f) = 17,5 .
: F = 17,5 .

41.
:
d = 30
F = 1,5 c
h=2
: h`.

:
h`/d`= h/d.
1/d + 1/d` = 1/F,
d` = (Fd) / (d F).
,
h` = (Fh) / (d F).
: h` 1 .

42.
:
F = 15 c,
h = 3 ,
h` = 9
: d.

:
h/d = h`/d`.
1/d + 1/d` = 1/F,
d` = (Fd)/(d F).
,
d = F[1 + h/h`].
: d 50 .

43.
:
,
1
1 1
+ = .
l f f F
, f1 f2 = a,
l 2 a2
F=
= 20 .
4l
:
a = 30 c
l = 90
: F.

: F =

l 2 a2
= 20 .
4l

55

44.
:
D = 8 , n = 3,
h = h`, h1 = h/3

:
1) . 1
h

: d.

h/d = h`/d` d = d`h/h = d`.


1/d + 1/d` = 1/F = D.
, d = 2/D.
2) . 2

d1

d1

h1

h1/d1= h1 / d1 d1 = d1 h1 /h1 = (d1h)/(3h) = d1/3.


1/d1 + 1/d1` = D.
, 1/d1 + 3/ d1 = D, d1 = 4/D.
3) d = d1 d = 2/D4/D = 2/D = 2/8 = 25 .
: d = 25 .

45.
:
:
= 2,

l = 20
h/d = h`/d` d`= dh`/h = 2d,
: F.
d + d` = l 2d + d = 3d = l d = l/3; d` = 2l/3.

1/d + 1/d` = 1/F 3/l + 3/(2l) = 1/F F = 2l/9 4,4 .
: F = 4,4 .

46.
:
:
F = 10 ,
,
a = 4 ,

h = 2

.
: h`.
l = a F > 0.
h/l = h`/l` l` = lh`/h.

56

1/l 1/l` = 1/F 1/l h/(h`l) = 1/F


h/(lh`) = (F + l)/(Fl) = a/F h` = hF/a = 5 .
: h` = 5 .

47.
:
= 3, F` = F
: `.

:

1) h1/h = l1/l = l = l1/,
2) h1`/h = l1`/l = ` l = l1`/`.

1) 2) ` = l1`/l1.
3) 1/l 1/l1 = 1/F, 4) 1/l 1/l1` = 1/F.
3) 4) 2/l 1/l1 1/l1` = 0 l1`/l1 = l/(2l1 l),
` = l/(2l1 l) = /(2 1) = 0,6.
: ` = 0,6.

48.
:
:
= 3, D =
2D`
1/F = 2/F` F` = 2F.
: `.

1) h1/h = l1/l = l = l1/,
2) h1`/h = l1`/l = ` l = l1`/`.
1) 2) ` = l1`/l1.

3) 1/l + 1/l1 = 1/F, 4) 1/l 1/l1` = 1/(2F).
4) 3), 3) 1/2:
1/(2l) 1/(2l1) 1/l1` = 0 l1` = 2l1l/(l1 l),
` = l1` /l1 = 2ll1/[l1(l1 l)] = 2l/(l1 1) = 2/(1) = 3
: ` = 3.

49.
: F1 = 10 ,
F2 = 5 , d1 = 25 ,
L = 35
:
, .

:
:
F d
1 1
1
+ = , f1 = 1 1 = 16, 7 .
d1 f1 F1
d1 F1
:

d2 = L f1 18,3 .
:
F d
1
1
1
+
=
, f 2 = 2 2 6,89 .
d 2 f 2 F2
d 2 F1

57

..
f2 = 6,89 .
, :
f f
= 1 2 = 1 2 = 0,25
d1 d 2
: = 0,25

50
: F1 = 10 ,
F2 = 15 , d1 = 12 ,
L = 30
: l.

:
:
F d
1
1
1
+
=
, f1 = 1 1 = 5,45 ,
d1 f 1
F1
d1 + F1

.. d2 = L + f1 = 35,45 .
:
F d
1
1
1
, f 2 = 2 2 = 26 .
+
=
d 2 f 2 F2
d 2 F2

: l = d1 + L + f2 = 12 + 30 + 26 = 68 .
: l = 68 .

51.
: F1 = 10 ,
D1 = 5
: D2 ?.

: , ,
, D2 = 5 .
: D2 = 5 .

52.
:
F = 25 c
: D.

: , ,
:
D = 1/F = 8
: D = 8

53. .
54.
:
do = 25 c,
D = 2

58

:
1) 1/f + 1/do = D + Do,
2) 1/f + 1/do`=D.

: do`

2) 1)
1/do 1/do` = Do do` = do/(1 Dodo) = 50 .
: do` = 50 .

59

2
55.
:
= 500
h = 6,631034
: E.

:

E = h = hc/, E = 3,96 10-17 .
: E=3,96 10-17 .

56.
:
E = 4 1019
: .

:

E = h = E/h = 606 .
: =606 .

57.
:
= 800
: p.

:
p = mc, E = mc2 m = E/c2.
, p = E/c = h/c = 1,77 10-27 /.
: p = 1,77 10-27 /.

58.
:
p = 1027 /
: .

:
p = E/c E = pc, = 31019 ,
E = hc/ hc/ = pc = h/p.
= 660
: = 660 , = 31019 .

59.
:
D = 600
: 2m.

2m =

2h
c2

E = h, E = pc p =

= 8,81036 .

h
h
, p = mc m = 2 ,
c
c

: 8,81036 .

60.
:
D = 450
: m.

60

:
:
h
p = 2 p1 = mc, p1 =
,m=
c
= 4,71036 .
: 4,71036 .

2h
c2

61.
:
P = 60 , = 1,2 ,
p = 1027 /
: N.

:
P = E/t, E = NtEo = Nthc/,
N = E/t/(hc) = P/(hc) = 3,61020.
: N = 3,61020.

62.
:
P = 100 ,
N = 51027 1
: .

:
P = E/t, E = NtEo = Nth,
= E/t1/(hN) = P/(hN) = 300 .
: = 300 .

63. .
64.
:
n = 1,3, = 590
: E.

:

n = c/v v = c/n, v = = v/ = c/(n),
E = h = (hc)/(h) = 2,61019 .
: E = 2,61019 .

65.
:
A = 2,4 , = 400
: Ekmax.

:

h = A + Ekmax , Ekmax = h A 2,61019.
: Ekmax = 2,61019.

66.
:
:
A = 2,2 ,

= 800 ,
mv 2max
2
31

=
A
+
, v max =
h
( h A) 600 /.
m = 910
m
2
: vmax.
: vmax = 600 /.

67.
:
A = 4,2 ,
= 450
:

?

:

ho = A, = A/h c/0 = A/h,
0 = ch/A 300 , 0 = 300 < = 450
.
: .

61

68.
:
= 1,041015
: A.

:

mv 2max
h o = A +
= A, A = ho 4,3 .
2
: A = 4,3 .

69.
:
vmax = 2000 /,
= 690 , m = 91031
: .

h = A +
=

c
=

mv 2max
2
ch

mv 2max
A+
2

:

A = ho = hc/.

mv 2max
2 ,
h
ch

A+

2
c mv max
h
+
2
o

75 .

: = 75 .

70.
:
vmax = v,
,
: .

:
1) :
mv 2max
mv 2max
h = A +
A = h
;
2
2
2) A = ho o = A/h = mv2/(2h).
: o= mv2/(2h).

71.
:

mv 2max
h 1 = A +

2
mv 2max
U1 ,
= eU1,
2
h1 = A + eU1;
2. h2 = A + eU1;
62
:
1 = 750 , U = 2 ,
2 = 390 , U = 0,5

: h.

3. 1) 2) h(1 2) = e(U1 U2), h = e(U1 U2)/(1 2).


: h = e(U1 U2)/(1 2).

72.
:
U = 2 , = 600 ,
e = 1,61019
: .

:

ho = A,
mv 2max
= A + eU = ho + eU,
h = A +
2
= o + eU/h = c/ + eU/h,
o hc
c
1
=
=
=
= 305 .
c eU
1 eU hc + eU o
+
+
o
h
o hc
: = 305 .

63

.

3
73.
: : :
O2, H2SO4,
(Mr)
()

: Mr, M. (Ar), .
Mr (O2) = 2Ar(O) = 31,99; Mr (C) = 12;
Mr (H2SO4) = 2Ar(H) + Ar(S) + 4Ar(O) = 98,07.
, 1 .. = 1,661027 .
M(O2) = 53,11027 ; M(C) = 19,921027 ;
M (H2SO4) = 16,2791026 .
: Mr (O2) = 2Ar(O) = 31,99; Mr (C) = 12; Mr (H2SO4) = 98,07;
M(O2) = 53,11027 ; M(C) = 19,921027 ;
M (H2SO4) = 16,2791026 .

74.
: CO2, NaHSO4 :
Mr(CO2) = Ar(C) + 2Ar(O2) = 43,988;
: Mr, M.
Mr(NaHSO4) = Ar(Na) + Ar(H) + Ar(S) + Ar(O) = 120,05;
M(CO2) = 73,021027 .
M(NaHSO4) = 199,281027 .
: Mr(CO2) = 43,988; Mr(NaHSO4) = 120,05;
M(CO2) = 73,021027 ; M(NaHSO4) = 199,281027 .

75. : M(Au) = 326,961027 .


76.
:
= 197 /
: m0.

: m0 = M/NA, ..
,
, ..
m0 = M/NA = 32,71023 .
: m0 = M/NA = 32,71023 .

77.
: m=5,4 ,
= 27 /
: .

64

:
: = m/M = 200 .
: = m/M = 200 .

78.
:
= 10 ,
= 201 /
: m.

:
: = m/M m = M = 2 .
: m = M = 2 .

79.
:
m = 280 ,
= 28 /
: N.

: N =

:
N = m/m0, m0
.
m0 = M/NA, .. , .
mN A
N=
= 6 10 24 .
M

mN A
= 6 10 24 .
M

80.
:
m = 195 ,
= 195 /
: N.

:
N = m/m0, m0 (
).

m0 = M/NA, .. (),
.
mN A
N=
= 6 10 23 .
M
mN A
: N =
= 6 10 23 .
M

81.
:
:
S = 30 3, h = 10 ,
: V = Sh.
m = 0,01 , V0 = 2
:
: N0
N = m/m0,
m0 .
m0 = M/NA, .. , ,

65

mN A
M
. .
,
V
mN AV0
N
V
=
N0 = N 0 =
= 6, 7 1017 .
N 0 V0
V
MSh
N=

: N 0 =

mN AV0
= 6, 7 1017 .
MSh

82.
:
:
m = 200 ,
:
N0 = 2
N = m/m0,
m0 .

: t.
m0 = M/NA, .
mN A
.
M

, .
N=

t=

: t =

mN A
= 19 .
MN 0

mN A
N
=
= 19 .
N 0 MN 0

83.
:
V = 1 3,
= 800 /3,
=0,016 /
: Smax.

:
m = V, = m/ = V/, N = NA = NAV/,
Vo = V/N = /(NA),
N

V V
2
d = 3 Vo = 3
, S = = = V 3 A 3,1 .
N A

h d
: Smax = 3,1 2.

84.
:
V = 0,1 c3,
m = 1,932

66

:
= 0,197 /, = m/, m = V, N = NA =

: d.

NAm/,
Vo = V/N = V/(NAm),
V
d = 3 Vo = 3
2, 6 10 10 .
N Am
: d = 2,61010 .

67

4
85.
: m = 10 ,
U = 10
: <Ek>.

:
,
10 :
= m/M, M .
:
MU
.
N = NA = mNA/M, U = <Ek>N = <Ek>mNA/M < E k >=
mN A
: <Ek> = 6,651021 .

86.
: U = <E>N, N

N = U/<E> = 3.31026
: N = U/<E> = 3.31026.

:
U = 20 ,
<E> = 61021
: N.

87.
: p = const,
A = 20 ,
V2 V1 = 0.2 3
: p.

:
.. , :
A = p(V2 V1) p = A/(V2 V1) = 10 .
: p = A/(V2 V1) = 10 .

88.

: V1 = 0,3 3, :
V2 = 0,1 3,
. .. p = 100
, :
= (V1 V2)p = 20 .
: A, .

:
A = A = (V2 V1)p = 20 .
: = (V1 V2)p = 20 ; A = (V2 V1)p = 20 .

89.
:
. .
: .

68

:
I :
, A = p(V2 V1);
, . . .
.. A1 = p(V2 V1) = 0,4 .

II :
23 45 , .
V1 = 1 3, V2 = 23, p1 = 0,3 , p2 = 0,2 , p3 = 0,1 .
A2 = p1(V2 V1) + p2(V1 V2) + p3(V2 V1) = (p1 p2 + p3)(V2 V1) =
= 0,2 .
III :
.
1 = 0,1 , p2 = 0,2 , V1 = 0,5 3, V2 = 1 3.
A3 = 0,5(p2 p1)(V2 V1) = 25 .
: 1 = 0,4 ; 2 = 0,2 ; 3 = 25 .

90.
:
. .
:

:
I :
,
A = p(V2 V1).
, .
.. A1 = p(V2 V1) = 0,4 .
II :
2-3 4-5 ,
.
V1 = 1 3, V2 = 23, p1 = 0,3 , p2 = 0,2 , p3 = 0,1 .
A2 = p1(V1 V2) + p2(V2 V1) + p3(V1 V2) = (p1 p2 + p3)(V1 V2) =
0,2 .
III :
. 1
= 0,1 , p2 = 0,2 , V1 = 0,5 3, V2 = 1 3.
A3 = 0,5(p2 + p1)(V2 V1) + (V1 V2)p2 = 0,1 .
: 1 = 0,4 ; 2 = 0,2 ; 3 = 0,1 .

91.
: ,
.

,
.
h .
:
:
S = 1 3
m = 10
h = 20
p0 = 100
:

69

pS p0S mg = 0 p = p0 + mg/S.

(1)

,
, :
A = p(V2 V1)

(2)


:
V2 V1 = Sh

(3)

(1), (2) (3):


A = (p0 + mg/S)Sh = 39,6 .
: A = (p0 + mg/S)Sh = 39,6 .

92.
:
S = 0,01 3
A = 102
h = 10
p0 = 100
: m

:
, .
,


. h
.
:

pS p0S mg = 0 p = p0 + mg/S

(1)

,
, ,
:
A = p(V1 V2)
(2)

:
V1 V2 = Sh
(3)
(1), (2) (3):
A = ( p0 +

: m =

70

A p0 Sh
mg
) Sh m =
= 2 .
S
gh

A p0 Sh
= 2 .
gh

93. .
94.
:
m, v, M
: Q.

:

- ,
u.

(x): mv = (m + M )u .
:
Q=

mv 2 (m + M )m 2 v 2 m 2 v 2 + mMv 2 m 2 v 2
mMv 2

=
=
,
2
2(m + M )
2( m + M )
2(m + M ) 2
mv 2
(m + M )u 2
=Q+
.
2
2

: Q =

mMv 2
.
2(m + M )

95.
: m = 1 ,
= 30, l = 20 ,
v = 4 /
: Q.

: ,
, .
Q = mglsin 0,5mv2 = 90
: Q = 90 , - , .

96.
: M = 2000 ,
a = 0,3 /2,
t = 50
: Q.

: , 50
. :
0 v = at.
(1)
.
:
0,5mv2 = Q.
(2)

(1) (2): Q = 0,5Ma2t2 = 225106 .


: Q = 0,5Ma2t2 = 225106 .
71

97.
:
m1 = 70
m2 = 60
v1 = 6 /
v2 = 4 /
: Q.

:
. ,
,
:
Q = E 2 E1 =

(m1 + m2 )v 2
m v2 m v2
( 1 1 + 2 2 ).
2
2
2

(1)

:
r
r
r
m1v1 + m2 v 2 = (m1 + m2 )v .
:
Ox : m2 v 2 = (m1 + m2 )v x
Oy : m1v1 = (m1 + m2 )v y

v 2 = v x2 + v 2y =

m1v12 + m2 v22

(2)

(m1 + m2 ) 2

(1) (2):
Q=

: Q =

m1v12 + m2 v 22 m12 v12 + m22 v 22


m1m2

=
(v12 + v22 ) .
2
2(m1 + m2 )
2(m1 + m2 )
m1v12 + m2 v 22 m12 v12 + m22 v 22
m1m2

=
(v12 + v 22 ) .
2
2(m1 + m2 )
2(m1 + m2 )

98.
:
:
m, v1, M, v2

.
: E.
, , .
E = E 2 E1 =

Mu 2 mv22 mv12
+

2
2
2

(1)

, ,
.
72

:
mv1 = Mu + mv 2 u =

(1) (2): E =
: E =

m(v1 v2 )
M

(2)

mv22 mv12 m 2 (v1 v 2 ) 2


+
.
2
2M

mv22 mv12 m 2 (v1 v2 ) 2


+
.
2
2M

99.
:
m = 100 ,
t1 = 200,
t2 = 10
: Q.

:

.
:
Q = c B mt1 + m + c m | t 2 |,

;
; .
: Q = 39,4 .

100.
:
:
m = 10 ,

t1 = 0,
, 100
t2 = 100
.
: Q.
:
Q = 1 m + ( t 2 t1 ) m c + 2 m ,

1 2
; .
Q = 30 .
: Q = 30 .

101. .
73

102.
:
:
m1 = 1 , m2 = 10 ,
,
m3 = 5 , t1 = 6,
, t2 = 40, t3 = 60,
( 1 = 2 /(),
), 2 = 4 /(),
, 3 = 2 /()
.
: .
2 :
, , , . , .
.
I > 6.
c1m1 ( t1 ) + c2 m2 ( t 2 ) = c3m3 (t3 ) .
:
2( 6) + 40( + 40) = 10(60 ) 52 = 988 < 0, > 6, .
II < 6.
c1m1 (t1 ) + c 3 m 3 (t 3 ) = c 2 m 2 ( t 2 ) .
:
2(6 ) + 10(60 ) = 40(40 + ) 52 = 988 = 19.
: = 19.

103.
:
,
, , ,
.

,
.
:
:
m1 = 250 , m2 = 500 ,
t1 = 12, t2 = 100,
C = 63 /,
= 33,
c2 = 380 /()
: c1.

C ( t1 ) + c1 m 1 ( t1 ) = c 2 m 2 ( t 2 ) c 1 =

74

c 2 m 2 ( t 2 ) C ( t1 )
= 2,1 7 1 0 3 /().
m 1 ( t1 )

: 1 = 2,17 /().

104.
:
m1 = 0,3 , m = 0,2 ,
m2 = 1,27 , t2 = 15,
= 380/(),
1 = 460/(),
= 32
: t1.

:
,
, , ,
.
,
.
:
mc + m2 c2
m1c1 (t1 ) = (mc + m2 c2 )( t 2 ) t1 = +
( t 2 ) = 692.
m1c1
: t1 = 692.

105. .
106.
:
m1 = 2 ,
m2 = 4 ,
t1 = 30C,
t2 = 20C,
= 4,2 /()
= 2,2 /()
= 332,4 /
: ?

:
.
0 .
Q = m1t1 = 252 /).

0 .
.. . 0 .


Q = m2t2 = 176 /().
Q
Q = Q Q = 76 /()
Q = mo,
75

mo .
Q
mo
= 0,22 , m = m1 + mo = 2,22 ; m = m2 mo = 3,78 .

: 2,2 3,78 0.

107.
:
m1 = 10 , m2 = 2 ,
t1 = 20, t2 = 500,
= 380/(),
= 24
: m.

:
. . , , ,
,
.

.
:
(m1 m)c ( t1 ) + mc (100 o t1 ) + m = m2 c (t 2 )
mc (100 o t1 + t 2 ) + m = m2 c (t 2 ) m1c ( t1 )

m=

m2 c (t 2 ) m1c ( t1 )

c (100 0 t1 + t 2 ) +
: 0,1 .

= 0,1 .

108.
:
m1 = 1,5 , m2 = 200
,
t1 = 15, t2 = 100
: .

:
,
.
,
m2 100:

Q1 = m2 = 0, 2 2257 = 451, 4,

.
, m2
100:
Q2 = cm1 (100 o t1 ) = 4, 2 1, 5 85 = 535, 5,

76

.. Q2 > Q1, < 100. :


Q1 + m2 c(100 0 ) = m1c( t1 ) m2 + m2 ct 2 + m1ct1 =
= (m1c + m2 c) =

m2 + m2 ct 2 + m1ct1
= 88, 2 0 C
(m1 + m2 )c

: = 88,2 .

109.
:
m1 = 200 , m2 = 20 ,
t1 = 15, t2 = 10,
= 164 /
:

:

, 0. .
.
, ,
, .
:
m1(t1 t2) c(t1 t2) = cmt2 + (m1 m)
c m (t t ) c(t1 t 2 ) m2
m= 1 1 2
= 0,0087 .
c (t 2 )
: m = 8,7 .

110.
:
:
m = 4 ,
, t1 t2: Q1 = C(t1 t2),
t = 20,
t1 = 60,
Q2 = c m (0 o t ) + m + c m 100 o + r m ,
t2 = 20
, : .
:
;
; ; r .

c (0 o t ) + + c 2 100 o + r
Q1 = Q2 C =
m = 305,3 10 3.
t1 t 2
: = 305,3 /().

111.
:
h = 10 , = 0,5

:

77

.
. . ,
.

: mgh = E.
gh
= 0,11 o C.
E = Q = cmt mgh = cmt t =
c
gh
= 0,11 o C.
: t =
c
: t = t2 t1.

112.
: m = 1 ,
V = 250 3,
t1 = 100,
t2 = 20
: h.

: ,
h, , , .. E = mgh.
, :
Q = cm(t1 t2) = cV(t1 t2),

.
. . ,
,
cV (t1 t 2 )
= 8, 57 .
Q = E mgh = cV (t1 t 2 ) h =
mg
: h = 8,57 .

113.
: ,
,

:
A = E1 E2 = 0,5(mv12 mv22).


m
v12 v 22
= cm(t 0 t1 ) + m0 k = 0 =
Q = A. m
2
m
2
2
(v1 v 2 ) cm(t 0 t1 )
=
= 0, 07 .
2
: m0/m = 0,07.
: t0 = 327,
v1 = 400 /, v2 = 290 /,
t1 = 107, = 80%,
c = 130 /()
: k = m0/m.

78

114.
:
:

v = 200 /, = 80%,
:
c = 130 /()
E = 0,5mv2.
: t.

Q = .
C , ,
, Q = cmt. ..
cmt =

: t =

mv 2
v 2
t =
= 120 o C.
2
2c

v 2
= 120 o C.
2c

115.
: v = 900 /,
S = 1800,
m = 4 ,
N = 5900 ,
= 23 %
: q.

: : t =
S/v

A = Nt = NS/v.
, = Q,
Q=

A NS
=
.
v

, Q = qm.
:

qm =
: q =

NS
NS
q=
= 769, 6 /.
v
mv

NS
= 769, 6 /.
mv

116.
:
v = 700 /, m = 10 ,
= 30 %,
q = 3,8 /

: , , , . . -

79

.
A = 0,5 mv2 = Q
Q = qm.

: m.

(1)
(2)

(1) (2):
mv 2
m=
= 2,1 .
2 q
: m = 2,1 .

117.
: u = 220 ,
S = 0,84106 2,
m = 2 ,
t1 =20, t2 = 100C,
= 80%,
= 0,42106 ,
= 600 ,
c = 4,2103 /()
: l.

:
,
:
Q
,
(1)
P=

Q=cm(t2t1) .
u2
: P = Iu =
,
R

l
u 2S
u 2S
.
P=
l =
l
l
S
(1) :

.. R =

l=

u 2 S
c m(t 2 t1 )

69 .

: l = 69 .

118.

:
: = 20 ,
:
R = 160 , u = 220 ,
u2
m = 0,5 , t1 =20,
P=
Q = c m(t 2 t1 ) + m0 r.
t2 = 100C, = 80%,
R
r = 2257103 /()
u2
3
Q
=

=
.
c = 4,210 /()
R
: m0.

u2
c m(t 2 t1 )
m0 = R
= 0, 054 .
r
: m0 = 54 .

80

119.
: , , :
Q = A + U U = Q A = 5 .
.. .
: U = Q A = 5 .
:
Q = 8 ,
A = 3
: U.

120.
: , , .
,
.
0 = A + U U = A = 1 .
.. .
: U = A = 1 .
:
Q=0
A = 1
: U.

121.
: , ,

.
, .
Q = U U = cmt = 393 .
. . .
: U = cmt = 393 .
:
t = 20,
m = 30 ,
= 655 /()
: U.

122.
:
:
: Q = cm(t2 t1).
t1 = 20, t2 = 70
m = 50 , V = 0,02 3,
Q = U + A, A = pV, .. = 100 ,
.
= 1 /()
U
= cm(t2 t1) pV = 500 .
: U.
: U = cm(t2 t1) pV = 500 .

123.
: = 20 %,
Q+ = 1,5 ,

: :

81

= A/Q+ = 1 + Q/Q+ A = Q+, Q = Q+( 1),


= 0,3 , Q = 1,2 .
: Q = Q+( 1) = 1,2 , A = Q+ = 0,3 .
: A, Q.

124.
:
: = 250,
= A/Q+ = 1 + Q/Q+.
Q+ = 1,5 ,
Q = 1,2 ,
= 30
.
: .
,
:
= 1 /,

1 T X / TH
= K =
= 2,1.
1 Q / Q+
: =

K 1 T X / TH
=
= 2,1 .
1 Q _ / Q+

125.
:
:
Q+ = 40 ,
:
= A/Q+ = 1 + Q/Q+
= 150,
:
= 25
= 1 /,
: .
TX
Q
TX
Q+ .
=
Q =
TH
Q+
TH
.. :
T
A = Q + Q+ = (1 X )Q+ = 11, 8 .
TH
: A = Q + Q+ = (1

TX
)Q+ = 11, 8 .
TH

126.
:
:
Q+ = 10 ,
:
= A/Q+ = 1 + Q/Q+.
(1)
= 20,
:
= 30%
= 1 /
(2)
: , Q.
(1) Q = ( 1)Q+ = 7 .

82

(2) TH =

TX
= 418, 6 K = 145, 6 o C.
1

: Q = ( 1)Q+ = 7 , TH =

TX
= 418, 6 K = 145, 6 o C.
1

127.
:
: :
= 16 %, = 20 %
= A/Q+ = 1 + Q/Q+
:
: 1.
(1 )Q
1 = 1 +
.
(1 + )Q+
Q
(1): = 1 .
Q+
1
.. 1 = 1
(1 ) = 44% .
1+
1
: 1 = 1
(1 ) = 44% .
1+

(1)

128.
:
= 100 ,
Q = 400
: , Q+.

:
:
= A/Q+ = 1 + Q/Q+ Q+ = A Q = 500 ,
= A/Q+ = A/(A Q) = 20 %.
A
: Q+ = Q = 500 , =
= 20%.
A Q

5
129.
:
:
m = 10 , t = 27
: U0 = 1,5kT.
: U.
:

U = NU0,
N .
m
3
3m
N A kT =
RT = 9, 3 .
. . U =
M
2
2M
83

: U =

3m
RT = 9, 3 .
2M

130.
:
= 5 ,
t = 37
: U.

:

:
U0 = 3/2kT
(1)
:
U = NU0
(2),
N .

N = NA

(3)

(1), (2) (3):


U = 3/2kTNA = 3/2RT = 19,3 .
: U = 3/2RT = 19,3 .

131.
:
<v2> = 105 2/2
: <Ek>.

:
:
<E> = 0,5m<v2>,

N/NA = m/M (.. 1 ) m = M/NA


M < v2 >
< E >=
= 2, 7 10 21 .
2N A
: < E >=

M < v2 >
= 2, 7 10 21 .
2N A

132.
:
<E> = 6,211021
: t.

:
: <E> = 1,5kT
T =

: t =

84

2<E >
= 300 K t = 27 o C .
3k

2<E >
273o = 27 o C .
3k

133.
:
t = 27
: v.

:

:
U0 = 3/2kT.
2
U = 0,5m<v >,
m < v2 > 3
= kT
2
2

< v2 > =

< v2 > =

3 kT
=
m

3 RT
= 517 /.
M

3RT
= 517 /.
M

134.
:
t1 = 37,
t2 = 40
: .

:

: U0 = 3/2kT.

U = 0,5m < v2 >.


..
m < v12 >= 3kT1 ; m < v 22 >= 3kT2
= 1

v2
=
v1

t 2 + 273 0
t1 + 273 0

v2
t + 273 0
= 1 2
= 0, 005.
v1
t1 + 273 0

: = 1

t 2 + 2730
t1 + 2730

= 0, 5%.

135.
: :
U0
=
3/2kT.
(1)

:
U = NU0 = 1,5RT
(2)
-
:
V = 0,1 3,
p = 105
: U.

pV = RT.

(3)
85

(2) (3)

U=
: U =

3 pV
3
R = pV = 15 .
2 R
2

3
pV = 15 .
2

136.
: = 1 ,
V = 1 3,
t = 0
: p.
. .
R ( t + 273 o )
p=
= 2 , 27
V
: p =

: -:
pV = RT.
= t + 273.

R ( t + 273 o )
= 2 , 27 .
V

137.
:
V = 1 c3,
p = 0,1 ,
T = 300 K
: N.

:
, p = nkT, n .
n = N/V, N
.

pV = NkT N =
: N =

pV
= 2, 4 10 4 .
kT

pV
= 2 , 4 1 0 4.
kT

138.
:
p = 200 ,
t = 27
: n.

..

86

:

, p = nkT, T , :
= t + 273 = 300 .

p = nk (t + 273o ) n =

: n =

p
k (t + 273o )

p
k (t + 273o )

= 4,8 10 25 3.

= 4, 8 10 25 3.

139.
:
p = 200 ,
= 240 ,
V = 40
: .
: =

:

- :

pV = RT =

pV
= 4 .
RT

pV
= 4 .
RT

140.
:
V = 20 , t = 27,
m = 2 ,
= 29 /
: .

:

-:
pV = RT, T ,
= t + 273 = 300 ,

m
R ( t + 2 7 3 o ) = m/M,
M
o
p = m R ( t + 2 7 3 ) = 8, 2
MV
pV =

o
: p = m R ( t + 273 ) = 8 , 2 .

MV

141.
:
0 = 1,01105 ,
0 = 273
: .

. . =

:

-:
p0V0 = RT0, V0 ,
1 .
= M/V, V , ..
.

Mp0
3
= 1, 96 / .
R T0

87

Mp0
3
= 1, 9 6 / .
R T0

: =

142.
:
V = 0,1 3,
m = 150 ,
= 100
: t.

:
:
pV = RT,
T ,
= t + 273.
= m/M, :
pV =

m
pVM
R(t + 273o ) t =
273o = 16 o C .
M
mR

pVM
273o = 16 o C .
mR

: t =

143. .
144.
:
m1 = 32 ,
m2 = 48 ,
m3 = 44
: M.

:
M = mNA/N,
m , N , ..

m = m1 + m2 + m3; N = N1 + N2 + N3.
:
N1 =

m1
m
m
N A, N2 = 2 N A, N2 = 2 N A .
M1
M2
M2

:
N = (

m3
m1
m2
+
+
)N A.
M1 M 2
M3

. . :
m
= 4,77 /.
M =
m
m1
m
+ 2 + 3
M1 M 2 M 3
88

: M =

m
= 4,77 /.
m
m1
m
+ 2 + 3
M1 M 2 M 3

146.
:
m = 100
= 500
m0 = 80
: 1

:

, .
-:
m
pV =
RT ,
(1)
M
m m0
p1V =
RT .
(2)
M

(1) (2):
m m0
p
m
p = 10 .
=
p1 =
p1 m m0
m
: p1 =

m m0
p = 10 .
m

147.
:
t = 15,
= 40%,
t = 8
: .

:
-:
pV = RT,
T ,
= t + 273, = m/M (M )

m
R ( t + 2 7 3 o ),
M
(1 ) m
p 2V =
R ( t + t + 2 7 3 o ).
M
p 1V =


:
p
t + 273o
= 1 =
= 1, 6 .
p 2 (1 )(t + t + 273o )
89

: =

t + 273o
(1 )( t + t + 2 7 3 o )

= 1, 6 .

148.
:
V1/V2 = 2,
= 120 ,
T2/T1 = 1,1
: 1.

:
:
(1)
p1V1 = RT1,

(p1 + )V2 = RT2.


(1) (2):
p1
TV
p
= 1 2 p1 =
= 100 .
T2V1
p1 + p T2V1
1
T1V2
: p1 =

90

p
= 100 .
T2V1
1
T1V2

(2)

149.
:
-:
(1)
p1V = RT,

:
1/2 = 1,004,
t = 1
: .

p2V = R(T + t).

(2)

(2) (1):
p 2 T + t
t
=
T =
= 250 .
p
p1
T
2
1
p1
t = T 273 K = 23C.
t
237 K = 23o C.
: t =
p2
1
p1

150.
: 2/1 = 1,25,
T2/T1 = 2
: V2/V1.

: -:
(1)
p1V1 = RT1 ,
p2V2 = RT2 .

(2)

(1) (2):
p1V1 T1
V
pT
=
2 = 1 2 = 1, 6 .
p 2V2 T2
V1 p 2T1
:

V2 p1T2
=
= 1, 6 .
V1 p 2T1

151.
:
:
1
= 0,2 ,

t = 15, V = 5
V0= 22,4 .
: V1.

, .
:
91

pV = RT =

pV
o

R (t + 273 )
pVV

: V 1 =

, V1 = V0 =

R (t + 2 7 3 0 )

pVV0
R (t + 273o )

= 9,4 .

= 9,4 .

152.
:
= 100 ,
t = 15,
V = 0,002 3,
t1 = 20,
V1 = 0,004 3
: 1.
: p1 =

:
-:
pV = R(t + 273)
(1)
(2)
p1V1 = R(t1 + 273)
(1) (2):
p1V1 t1 + 273o
pV (t1 + 273o )
=
p1 =
= 51 .
o
pV
t + 273
V1 (t + 273o )

pV (t1 + 273o )
V1 (t + 273o )

= 51 .

153. .
154. .
155.
: .. : 1 = 95 ,
t = const, V1 = 230 c3, , :
p1V1 = p2V2 ,
V2 = 225 c3
p2 = p1V1 / V2 = 97 .
: 2.
: p2 = p1V1/V2 = 97 .

156.
: .. : 1 = 96 ,
t = const, V1 = 500 c3, , :
p1V1 = p2V2 ,
2 = 98
V2 = p1V1 / 2 = 490 3.
: V2.
: V2 = p1V1/2 = 490 3.

157.
:
t1 = 50, = const,
2 = 223
: = V1/V2.
92

:
..
( = const), :
V1/1 = V2/2, 1 2
,

V1 t1 + 273o
=
= 1, 45 .
V2
T2

: =

t1 + 273o
= 1, 45 .
T2

158.
:
:
.. ( = const),
t1 = 0,
:
= const,
V1/1 = V2/2,
V2/V1 = 2
1 2 .
: t.
,
V1
V2
V2 (t1 + 273o )
=

t
=
t1 273o = 273o C .
V1
t1 + 273o t1 + t + 273o
: t =

V2 (t1 + 273o )
t1 273o = 273o C .
V1

159.
:
:
.. 1 = 2,8 ,
, , , t1 = 7,
(V = const),
2 = 3 ,
:
V = const
1/1 = 2/2,
: t2.
1 2 ,
p1
t1 + 273

: t 2 =

p2
t 2 + 273

t2 =

p2
(t1 + 273o ) 273o = 27 o C .
p1

p2
(t1 + 273o ) 273o = 27 o C .
p1

160.
:
1 = 200 ,
t1 = 0,
t2 = 100
: 2.

:
. .
, ,
, (V = const),
:
93

p1
t1 + 273

p2
t 2 + 273

: p 2 = p1

p 2 = p1

t 2 + 273o
t1 + 273o

t 2 + 273 o
t1 + 273 o

= 273 .

= 273 .

161.
1. p(T) , , ..
, , V1/1 = V2/2 .
2. V(T) , : V = T, -
p = R/ = const, .
.
3. p(V) , , . (T = const).
: 1) p = const, T, V; 2) p = const, T, V; 3) T = const, p, V.

162.
1. p(V) , , ..
, ,
V1/1 = V2/2 .
2. V(T) , : V = T, -
p = R/ = const, .
3. p(T) , , , .. ,
p1V1 = p2V2 , .
: 1) p = const, T, V; 2) p = const, T, V; 3) T = const, p, V.

163.
:
. .

:

, : Tmax, Tmin.
p = V.
, , ,

, .
94

. p = V.
: p = V.

164.
.

165.
12 ; 14, 23: ; 43: .
1

2
1
4

166.
. , , .
12: , .
23: , , .
34: ,
, 12.
41: , , . .
4

4
1

2
V

167 168 , .

169.
:
1, 3,
2 = 4
: .

:
, , p(V). ..

= (p2 p1)(V4 V1)

(1)
95

1, 2, 3, 4 -:
p1V1 = RT1,
p2V1 = RT2,
p2V4 = RT3,
p1V4 = RT2.

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

(3) (5)
p2V1 = p1V4.
(2) (4):
p1V1 p 2V4 = R 2T1T3 p1V4 = p 2V1 = R T1T3 .

(6)

(1) = p2V4 p1V4 p2V1 + p1V1.


:
A = RT3 2 R T1T3 + RT1 A = R( T3 T1 ) 2 .

: A = R( T3 T1 ) 2 .

170.
p V, ,
, . ,
. .. 23
, 1234,
12 3 2
43, 123
243.
p
2

: 243 > 123.

171.
:
= 124,5 ,
= 2
: .
96

:
.. ,
.. ,
:

+ U = 0,

(1)

.

= .

(2)

(1) (2):
U = .
U = 1,5R T.
ABH =

: T =

2 ABH
3
RT T =
= 5 K.
2
3R

2 ABH
= 5 K.
3R

172.
:
1 = 100 ,
2 = 500 ,
U = 5
: V.

:
.. , .

-:
p1V = RT1,

(1)

p2V = RT2.

(2)

(2) (1):
(2 p1)V = RT.

(3)

:
U =

3
RT
2

(4)

(3) (4):
( p 2 p1 )V =

: V =

2
2 U
U V =
= 8, 3 .
3
3( p 2 p1 )

2U
= 8, 3 .
3( p 2 p1 )

97

173.
:
:
n = N/V0

:

:
t = 50,
V0 = 1 3,
V = 20 ,
N = 1020
: U.

p = nk(t + 273).

(1)

-:
pV = R(t + 273).

(2)

(1) (2):
nkV = R =

nkV NkV
=
.
R
V0 R

,
:
3
3 NkV
U = R (t + 273o ) =
R (t + 273o ) = 13, 4 .
2
2 V0 R
: U =

3 NkV
(t + 273o ) = 13, 4 .
2V0

174.
:
t = 27,
V = 20 ,
= 300 ,
= 50
: U.

:
:
U = 1,5RT.
(1)
. .
. -:
pV = R(t + 273).

(1) (2):

U =
: U =

98

3 pV T
= 3 .
2 t + 273o

3 pV T
= 3 .
2 t + 273o

(2)

175.
: m = 5 , t = 2,
Q = Qp Qv = 41,55
: M.

:
.
:

Qp = A + U,
, U .
A = p V =

3 m
m
RT , U =
RT .
M
2M

5 m
RT .
2M
.. , , ,
:
QP =

QV = U =

3 m
R T .
2M

. .
m
mRT
= 2 /.
R T M =
Q
M

Q =

: M =

mRT
= 2 /.
Q

176.
: 1, n = 1/2,
m, M
: U.

: 1, 2 3
-:

p1V1 = p2V3 = RT1,

(1)

p2V1 = RT2.

(2)

23 , :
A = p 2 (V3 V1 ) = (T1 T2 )

m ,
MR

2/1 = 2/1 = 1/n.


99


1 m
A = T1 (1 ) R .
n M

1 m
: A = T1 (1 ) R .
n M

177.
: ..
, .
, :
:
t1 = 7, t2 = 87
: = 1 N2/N1.

p = nkT,

(1)

n .
n = N/V,

(2)

N .
.. , (1) (2):
N 2 T1
N
T
=
= 1 2 = 1 1 = 22%.
N1 T2
N1
T2

: = 1

T1
= 22%.
T2

178.
: 3 :
, ,
, ,
,
.
. ,
, .
:
:
t = 27, V = 0,05 3,
m = 300 ,
S = 0,1 2,
0 = 100 ,
= 100
: .

100

pS = mg + p0 S p =

mg
+ p0 .
S

(1)

. . ,
:
A = pV = RT .
(2)
-.
- :
pV = R(t + 273o ) =

pV
R(t + 273o )

(3)

(1), (2) (3):


mg
+ p0
S
A=
=
V T = 2, 5 .
t + 2730 t + 2730
pV T

mg
+ p0
: A = S
V T = 2, 5 .
t + 273o

179.
:
V1 = 2,5 ,
1 = 100

: Q.

:
.
12 ,
:
Q12 =

3
3
RT = p1V1 .
2
2

2 - 3
Q23 = U + 2 p1V1 =

3
RT + 2 p1V1 = 5 p1V1 .
2

..
Q = Q12 + Q23 = 6, 5 p1V1 = 1, 6 .

: Q = 6 , 5 p1V1 = 1, 6 .

101

180.
:
:
. .

= /Q+ = 1 + Q/Q+
: .
, .
,
Q = 1,5V, Q = 2,5pV.
Q12 = 1, 5 p1V1 > 0,
Q23 = 2, 5 2 p1V1 = 5 p1V1 > 0,
Q34 = 1, 5 p1 2V1 = 3 p1V1 < 0,
Q41 = 2, 5 p1V1 < 0.
. .
=

(1,5 + 5 3 2,5)p1V1
= 15% .
(1,5 + 5)p1V1

: =

(1, 5 + 5 3 2, 5) p1V1
= 15%.
(1, 5 + 5) p1V1

181. .
182.
: ,
.
-:
m
m
O 2 : p1V = 1 RT p1 = 1 RT ,
M1
M 1V
:
V = 2 , m1 = 8 ,
m2 = 7 , t = 0
: p.

m2
m2
RT p 2 =
RT .
M2
M 2V
, ,
:
RT m1 m2
p = p1 + p 2 =
(
+
) = 567 .
V M1 M 2
N 2 : p 2V =

: p =

102

RT m1 m2
(
+
) = 567 .
V M1 M 2

183.
:

. ( ) -, ,
:

:
= 1 ,
p1 = 3105 ,
p2 = 5105 ,
1 = 2
: p.

p1V1 = RT = p2V2 .

(1)

- :
p1 (V1 + V2 ) = p1V1 ,

(2)

p2 (V1 + V2 ) = p 2V2 .

(3)

p = p1 = p 2 .

(2) (3):
p=

p1V1 + p 2V2
.
V1 + V2

(1):
p=2

: =

p1
p1
2 p1 p 2
=2
=
= 3, 75 10 5 .
V2
p1
p1 + p 2
1+
1+
V1
p2

2 p1 p 2
= 3, 75 10 5 .
p1 + p 2

184.
:
m1, m2, p, T
: .

: - , pM = RT.
, ,
. ,
:

103

m m1 + m2 m1 m2
=
=
+
= 1 + 2 .
V
V
V
V

p1V =

m1
m
RT , p 2V = 2 RT .
M1
M2

, :
m
m
m
m RT
.
pV = ( 1 + 2 ) RT V = ( 1 + 2 )
M1 M 2
M1 M 2 p
..
=

: =

m1 + m2
(m1 + m2 ) p
=
.
m
m
V
( 1 + 2 ) RT
M1 M 2

(m1 + m2 ) p
.
m1 m2
(
+
) RT
M1 M 2

185.

: n = 1025 -3
:
:
v = 500 /
p = 1/3nm0v2 , m0 - .
: p
M - , m0 = M/NA, . .
,
.
. .
1 M 2
p= n
v = 44, 3 .
3 NA
1 M 2
v = 44, 3 .
: p = n
3 NA

186.
: p = 100 ,
v = 600 /
: p.

104

:
: p = 1/3nm0v2 ,
m0 .

3 pN A
1 M 2
= 1, 8 10 25 3.
p= n
v n=
3 NA
Mv 2

M , m0 = M/NA, .. , .
..
n=
: n =

3 pN A
Mv

3 pN A
Mv 2

= 1, 8 10 25 3.

= 1, 8 10 25 3.

187.
:
V = 0,1 3,
p = 120 ,
v = 600 /
: N.

:
:
(1)
p = 1/3nm0v2,
m0 .
M , m0 = M/NA.
V :

N = Vn

(2)

.. (1) (2):
N=
: N =

3 pN AV
Mv 2

3 pN AV
Mv 2

= 2 10 24 .

= 2 10 24 .

188.
:
: :
m = 600 ,
(1)
p = 1/3nm0v2
3
V=1,
m0 .
p = 100 M ,
m0 = M/NA .
: v.
:

p = nkT.

(2)

(1) (2):
105

1/3m0v2 = kT.
NA :
1
1
Mv 2 = RT mv 2 = RT .
3
3

-:
1 2
3 pV
mv = pV v =
= 707 /.
m
3

: v =

3 pV
= 707 /.
m

189.
: :
(1)
p = 1/3nm0v2
m0 .
M ,
m0 = M/NA.
:
:
= 1,35 /3,
v = 500 /
: p.

p = nkT.

(2)

(1) (2):
1/3Mv2 = kTNA = RT.

(3)

- , :
pM = RT.

(4)

(3) (4):
1
v 2
pM = Mv 2 p =
= 112, 5 .
3
3

: p =

v 2
= 112, 5 .
3

190.
:
v2/v1 = 1,22
: p2/p1.

106

: :
(1)
p = 1/3nm0v2,
m0 .

.. , , , , (1) , :
p2
v
= ( 2 ) 2 = 1, 49 .
p1
v1
p2
v2 2
:
= ( ) = 1, 49 .
p1
v1

191.

: V = 1 3,
N = 31022,
p = 100
: EK.

:
:
p = 1/3nm0v2,
m0 .
: N = nV.
(1) V:

pV = 1/3Vnm0v2 = 1/3Nm0v2.

(1)

(2)

:
EK = 1/2 m0v2 , (2):
EK =

: E K =

3 pV
= 6 10 21 .
2N

3 pV
= 6 10 21 .
2N

192.
:
V = 0,01 3,
EK = 7,5 ,
v = 2400 /
: , .

:

:
EK = 1/2 Nm0v2.
:

p = 2/3nE0 ,
E0 .
E0 = EK/N
..
107

p=

2nE K 2 E K
=
= 500 .
3N
3V

= m/V
EK =

2E
mv 2
m = 2K .
2
v

: p =

108

2EK
Vv

= 0, 26 /3.

2E K
2EK
= 500 , =
= 0, 26 /3
3V
Vv 2

6
193.

: S = 1 2,
h = 40 ,
= 1000 /3
: F.

: ,
h
S.

F = pS = ghS = 0,4 .
: F = ghS = 0,4 .

194.
: p = 100 ,
= 1000 /3
: h.

: h , :
p = gh h =

: h =

p
= 10 .
g

p
= 10 .
g

195.
: n = 2,
p = 100 ,
= 1000 /3
: h.

:
, .
h :
p + gh = p1,
p = p2.

(1)
(2)

- :
4
4
p1V1 = p 2V2 p1 R 3 = p 2 (2 R ) 3 p1 = 8 p 2 .
3
3

(1), (2) (3):


p + gh = 8 p h =

: h =
108

7p
= 70 .
g

7p
= 70 .
g

(3)

196.

: S = 2,5 2,
T1 = 270 K,
p0 = p1 = 100 ,
F = 12,5 H
: T.

: ,
,
. , .
F + p0 S = p 2 S p 2 =

F
+ p0
S

(1)

.. , :
p1
p2
p
=
T = ( 2 1)T1
T1 T1 + T
p1

(2)

. . 0 = 1, (1) (2):
T = (

: T =

FT
F
+ 1 1)T1 = 1 = 135 .
Sp1
Sp1

FT1
= 135 .
Sp1

197. .
198.
:
l1 ;
h ;
p1 . ;
;

: l2.

:
)
F1 F2 mg = 0; F1 = p1S; F2 = p2S;
m = V = Sh, p1S p2S Sh = 0,
p2 = p1 gh,
T = const

p1/p2 = V2/V1 = l2/l1, l2 = p1l1/(p gh);


)
F1 F2 + mgsin = 0; F1 = p1S; F2 = p2S; m = V = Sh,
p1S p2S gShsin = 0, p2 = p1 + ghsin, T = const
-
p1/p2 = V2/V1 = l2/l1, l2 = p1l1/(p + ghsin).
: ) l2= p1l1/(p gh); ) l2 = p1l1/(p + ghsin).
109

199.
: 1)
: l = 1 ,
F1 + mg F = 0, F1 = p1S; F = pS;
h = 25
m = V=Sh, p1S + gSh pS = 0, p = p1 + gh.
: p.
2) T = const
-
p/p1 = V1/V = Sl1/(Sl/2) = 2(l h)/l, p1 = pl/[2(l h)].
3) p= pl/[2(l h)] + gh = 2(l h)gh/(l 2h) 750 . .
: p = 750 . .

200.
: l = 1 ,
h = 20 ,
d = 10
: p.

: 1) l1 = (l h)/2 + d, l2 = (l h)/2 d;
2)
F2 F1 mg = 0, F1 = p1S; F2 = p2S;
m = V = Sh, p2S p1S gSh = 0, p2 = p1 + gh.

p1
l1

l h
2

r
F2

h
r
F1

l2

r
mg

p2

3) T=const -
p/p1 = V1/V = Sl1/[S(l h)/2] = 2l1(l h) = (l h + 2d)/(l h),
p1 = p(l h)/(l h + 2d);
4) T = const -
p/p2 = V2/V = Sl2/[S(l h)/2] = 2l2(l h) = (l h 2d)/(l h),
p2 = p(l h)/(l h 2d);
5) 2), 3) 4)
lh
lh
p

= gh ,
l h 2d l h + 2d
gh
p=
375 . .
lh
lh

l h 2d l h + 2d
: p = 375 . .
110

201.
:
p = 1,1 , p = 2,2
: .

: = p/p = 50%.
: = 50%.

202.
:
p = 2,33 ,
= 60%
: p.

:

= p/p p = p 1,4 .
: p=1,4 .

203. .
204.
:
t1 = 16C, = 55%,
t2 = 8C, p1 = 1,8 ,
p2 = 1,06
: ?

:
= p(tp)/p(t1) p(tp) = p(t1)
0,99 ,
p(tp)<p2(t2)tp < t2 ;
: .

205.
:
:
V = 100 3, t = 0C,
= 20%, p = 0,61 = p/p p = p, pV = RT
: N.
= pV/(RT) = pV/(R(t + 273)),
N = NA = NApV/(R(t + 273))3,21024. : N = 3,21024.

206.
:
V = 100 3,
t = 20C, = 60%,
p = 2,3
: m.

:

= p/p p = p, pV = m/RT
m = pV/RT = pV/(R(t + 273))1 .
: m = 1 .

207.
:
V1 = 1 3, V2 = 2 3,
V = 3 3, 1 = 20%,
2 = 30%
: .

:
-
p1V1 = 1RT, p2V2 = 2RT,
pV = (1+2)RT = 1RT + 2RT=p1V1 + p2V2
p = (p1V1 + p2V2)/V.

111


1 = p1/p, 2 = p2/p,
= p/p = (p1/pV1 + p2/pV2)/V = (1V1 + 2V2)/V 27%.
: = 27%.

208.
:
:
1)
t1 = 20C, t2 = 30C,

1 = 0,8, p1 = 2,3 ,
1 = p1/p1 p1 = p1, 2 = p2/p2;
p2 = 4,2
2) V = const
: 2.
p1/T1 = p2/T2 p2 = p1T2/T1=p1(t2 + 273)/(t1 + 273);
3) 2 = p2/p2 =p1/p2(t2 + 273)/(t1 + 273) 45%.
: 2 = 45%.

112


7
209.
:
197
79 Au , Z = 79,

:
Ne = Z = 79.
q = Ne qe = 12,61018 .
: Ne = 79, q= 12,61018 .

qe = 1,61019
: Ne , q.

210.
:
Ne = 50
: , Ne
, q.


Z = Ne = 50, 119
50 Sn .
q = Ne qe = 81018 .
18
: 119
.
50 Sn , q= 810

211.
:
: Ne(H2O).

:

Ne(H) = ZH = 1, Ne(O) = ZO = 8,
Ne(H2O) = 2Ne(H) + Ne(O) = 10.
: Ne(H2O) = 10.

212.
:
m = 320 ,
= 16 /
: Ne.

:
N = NA = NAm/.

Ne = NZ = ZNAm/ = 9,61023.
: Ne = 9,61023.

213.
:
n=2
: En.

:

En =

1 Z 2 me e 4
n 2 8h 2 o 2

3, 4 .

: En = 3,4 .

113

214.
:
En = 1,51
: n.

n=

:

1 Z 2 me e 4
,
En = 2
n 8h 2 o 2

1 Z 2 me e 4
Ze 2
=
2h o
E n 8h 2 o 2

me
3.
2En

: n = 3.

215.
:
n1 = 2, n2 = 1
: .

:

1 Z 2 me e 4
.
En = 2
n 8h 2 o 2

Z 2 me e 4 1
1
h = E1 E 2 =
2 2, 45 1015 .
2 2
2

n1
8h o n2
: = 2,451015 .

216.
:
n1 = 3, n2 = 2
: .
= hc ( E1 E 2 )

:

h = E1 E2, hc/ = E1 E2,
1

= hc

8h 3c o 2 1
1
2
2
4
2

Z me e n 2
n1
: = 660 .
=

8h 2 o 2 1
1
2
2
4
2

Z me e n 2
n1

660 .

217.
: n = 3
:
,

,
.

114

: 3 :
31, 21, 32.
, , N = 3.
: N = 3.

218.
:
E = 4,9
: .

:

h = Em En = , hc/ = , = hc/ 250 .
: = 250 .

219.
:
n=1
: , .

:

me v n 2
Z 2e 4
.
=
rn
4 o rn 2

me vn rn = nh .
C,
2rn
4n 3 h 3 o 2
nh
Ze 2
= 2
=
1,5 10 16 .
,T=
vn =
2
2 4
vn
2n o h
me v n
me Z e
=

m Z 2e 4
1
= e3 3 2 6, 7 1015 .
T 4n h o

: T = 1,51016 c, = 6,71015 .

220.
:
n1 = 1, n2 = 3
: vn1/vn2.

:

me v n 2
Z 2e 4
.
=
rn
4 o rn 2


me v n rn = nh .
C,
v
n
Ze 2
Ze 2
, vn 2 =
, n1 = 2 = 3 . : vn1/vn2 = 3.
v n1 =
2n o h
2n o h v n 2 n1

221.

: vo = 1,9107/,
m = 6,61027 2/2,
q = 3,21019 ,
k = 9109 2/2,
Z = 79
: rmin.

: E1 = mvo2/2, E1 = 0, E1 = 0,
E2 = kZeq/rmin.

E = E + E E1 = E2
rmin = 2kZeq/mvo2 31014 .
: rmin = 31014 .

115

222.
:
W = 12,8 ,
n1 = 1, n = 2
: i.
n2

: E2 = E1 + W.

1 m e4
E 2 2 2e 2 ,
n 2 8h o

1 Z 2 me e 4
Ze 2
=
2h o
E 2 8h 2 o 2

me
4, 3 ; n2 = 4.
2 ( E1 + W )


h = Ei Ej, hc/ = Ei Ej, = hc/(Ei Ej)
1

8h3c02 1
hc
1

1)1 =
, ;
=
2 189
4
2
En2 En21 mee ( n2 1) n2

8h3c02 1
hc
1

0, 66 ;
2)2 =
=

En21 En22 mee4 ( n2 2) 2 ( n2 1) 2

8h3c02 1
hc
1

3)3 =
=
2 0, 49 .
4
2
En2 En22 mee ( n2 2) n2

: 1) 1 = 1,89 ; 2) 1 = 0,66 ; 3) 1 = 0,49 .

116


8
223.
:
A , Z ,
N ,
: d.
n ,
p .
1) N = A = 9, p = Z = 4, n = A Z = 5;
2) N = A = 59, p = Z = 27, n = A Z = 32.
59
Co: N = 59; p = 27; n = 32.
: 94 Be : N = 9; p = 4; n = 5; 27
:
9
59
4 Be, 27 Co

224.
:
A , Z ,
N ,
: d.
n ,
p .
1) N = A = 137, p = Z = 56, n = A Z = 81;
2) N = A = 238, p = Z = 92, n = A Z = 146.
238
: 1) 137
56 Ba: N = 9; p = 4; n = 5; 2) 92 U: N = 59; p = 27; n = 32.
:
137
56 Ba,

238
92 U

225.
:
A = 3, Z = 1,
m = 3,01605 ...
: m.

:
A , Z ,
m = m + Zme m = m Zme ,
m = [Zmp + (A Z)mn] m =
= [Zmp + (A Z)mn] m + Zme0,0089 ...
: m = 0,0089 ...

226.
:
A = 2, Z = 1,
m = 2,01410 ...
: m.

.
A , Z ,
m = m + Zme m = m Zme ,
m = [Zmp + (A Z)mn] m =
= [Zmp + (A Z)mn] m + Zme 0,00238 ...
: m = 0,00238 ...
117

227.
:
8
5 B , A = 8, Z = 5,
m = 8,02461 ...
: E.

:
A , Z ,
m = [Zmp + (A Z)mn] m,
E = m2 = {[Zmp + (A Z)mn] m}2
37,76 .
: E= 37,76 .

228.
:
10
6 C , A = 10, Z = 6,
m = 10,01683 ...
: E.

:
:
E = {[Zmp + (A Z)mn] m}2 6,03 .
: E= 6,03 .

229.
210
84 Po

230.

206
4
82 Pb + 2 He

231.
6
2 He

226
88 Ra

222
86 Rn

+ 42 He .

232.
6
0
3 Li + 1 e

19
8O

198 F +

0
1 e .

233.
:
:
232
A , Z ;
90Th , A = 232,

- A 4,
Z = 90, n = 4, m = 2
Z 2;
: A`, Z`
- Z 1, , ,
A` = A 4n = 216, Z` = Z 4n + m = 84.
, 216
84 Po .
:

216
84 Po

234.
:
238
92 U , A = 238,
Z = 92, n = 2, m = 2
: ,
.

118

:
A , Z ;

238
0
4
A
92 U 2 1 e + 2 2 He + Z X ,
A` + 4n = A 238 = 2 4 + A` A` = 230,
Z` + 2m n = Z 92 = 2 2 2 + Z` Z`=90.

:
:

232
90Th .

232
90Th .

235.
:
A = 16
: n.

: A , Z .
- A 4, , n = A/4 = 4.
: n = 4.

236.
:
238
206
92 U 82 Pb + ... ,
A = 238, Z = 92
: m, n.

: A , Z .

238
0
4
206
92 U m 1 e + n 2 He + 82 Pb ,

4n + 206 = 238,
n = 8; m = 6.

2n m + 82 = 92;
: n = 8, m = 6.

237.
:
t = 4T1/2
: No/N.

:
N
N = N o 2 t / T1/ 2 , o = 2 t / T1/ 2 = 2 4 = 16.
N
: No/N = 16.

238.
:
t = 6 ,
No/N = 8
: T1/2 .

:
N
t
= 2 .
N = N o 2 t / T1/ 2 , o = 2 t / T1/ 2 , T1/ 2 =
No
N
log 2
N
: T1/2 = 2 c.

239.
:
t = T1/2/2
: .

:
t
t
N
N = N o 2 T1/ 2 , o = 2 T1/ 2 ,
N
t
N
= 1 o = 1 2 T1/ 2 29%.
N
: = 29%.
119

240.
:

:
T1/2 = 18 ,
t = 3
: .

N = No 2
=

N
=2
No

T1 / 2
t

T1 / 2

= 2 4 = 6, 25%.

: = 6,25%.

241.
:
A N, ,
A1/A2 = N1/N2 = n.

t
t
t
N 2 = N1 2 T1/ 2 , T1/ 2 =
=
= 1 .
N1
log 2 n
log 2
N2
: T1/2 = 1 .
:
n = 16,
t = 4
: T1/2.

242.
:
:
t = 5T1/2
A N,
,
: A1/A2.
A1/A2 = N1/N2 = n.

N 2 = N1 2

T1/ 2

A1 N1
=
= 2 T1/ 2 = 2 5 = 32 .
A2 N 2
. A1/A2 = 32.

243.
:
= 41 %,
T1/2 = 4,5109
: t.
No

:
No = N + N` = N + N No/N = 1 + .

N = No 2

T1 / 2

= T1 / 2 log 2 (1 + ) 2, 25 10 9 .
N
: t = 2,25109 .
t = T1/ 2 log 2

120

244.
:
:
= m1/m2 = 0,86, m1 = 11 = 1N1/NA,
T1/2 = 4,5109
m2 = 22 = 2N2/NA,
: t.
m2/m1 = 2N2/(1N1),
N2/N1 = 1/2,
No = N2 + N1 = N1 + N11/2 No/N1 = 1 + 1/2.

N1 = N o 2

T1 / 2


= T1/ 2 log 2 1 + 1 4,5 10 9 .
2
: t = 4,5 109 .

t = T1/ 2 log 2

No

N1

245.

27
4
13 Al + 2 He

11 p + 30
14 Si .

246.

11
4
5 B + 2 He

n + 147 N .

247.

11
4
5 B + 2 He

n + 147 N .

248.

14
7N+n

p + 146 C .

249.

1)

24
11 Na

, 2) e, 3) n.

250.

1)

198
79 Au

, 2) 21 H , 3)

260
104 Ku

.
121

251.
:
ma = 7,01601 ...
mb = 2,01410 ...
m = 1,008665 ...
md = 8,00531 ...
: Q.

:

Q = (ma + mb mc md)c2,
a + b c + d.
Q = 14,5 .
: Q = 14,5 .

252.
:
:
ma = 7,01601 ...

mb = 4,00260 ...
Q = (ma + mb mc md)c2,
m = 1,008665 ...
Q < 0, md = 10,01294 ... , Q > 0 .
: Q.
Q = 2,7 .
: Q = 2,7 , .

253.
:
= 0,235 /,
m = 10 , = 10 %,
P = 10 , Q1 = 200
: t.

:
N = NA = NAm`/ = NAm/,
Q = Pt, N = Q/Q1 = Pt/Q1
t = Q1N/P = Q1NAm/(P) 95 .
: t = 95 .

254.
: = 0,235 /,
P = 10 , Q1 = 200 ,
t = 1
: m.

255.

: = 17 %,
= 0,235 /,
= 5 ,
Q1 = 200
: mt .

256.
: mt = 220 /,
= 0,235 /,
= 25 %

122

: Q = Pt, N = Q/Q1 = Pt/Q1

m= = N/NA = Pt/(Q1NA)
3,85 .
: m = 3,85 .

: A = Q = Pt, mt = m/t = N/(tNA)


N = Q/Q1
mt = Q/(Q1t)/NA = P/(NAQ1)
31 /.
: mt = 31 /.
: N = NA = NAm/ = NAmt/ t,
Q = NQ1 = Q1Natmt/,

: P.

P = A/t = Q/t = Q1NA mt/ 52 .


: = 52 .

123

9
257.

1) e + e+ + ,
.

258.
1 4 ,
.

259.
1)
p + + + n;
2)
e + n e + p;
3)
n + p d + .

260.
1)
e + e+ + +;
2)
+ p + + - + n;
3)
+ .

261.

) p: S = 0, ) : S = 0, ) : S = 1, ) 0: S = 0.

262.

) n: S = 0, ) : S = 0, ) +: S = 1, ) 0: S = 0.

263.
1) ,

0 0 + ;
2) ,

+ + + 0 + ;
3) ,

+ + + + 0;
124

4) ,

p + 0 + 0 + 0;
5) ,

+ + +;
6) ,

p + d + + 13 H .

264.
1)

p + 0 + 0;
2)

+ +;
3)

+ + + + 0;
4)

+ + 0 + + + +;
5)

p + 0 + + + ;
6)

d + p 0 + 32 He .

,
,
,
,
,
,

265.
1 3 ,
.

266.
2 3 ,
.

125


1.

1. : .
2. : , , , ( , ), .
3. :
)
.
) ,
, .
) , ,
.
) , , n = sin/sin.

2.

1. : .
2. : (
), .

3.

1. : .
2. : , , , , , .
: m1 , : t1 , ,
m2 , t1 < < t2, Q1 = cm1( t1),
t2 - Q1 = cm2( t2).
,
Q1 = Q2 cm1( t1) = cm2( t2),

c = c(m1/m2)( t1)/(t2 ).
: .
: c = c(m1/m2)( t1)/(t2 ).
126

4.

-
1. :
-.
2. : , , .
:
:
: p. , ..
p2 = p + gh, T = const -
p/p2 = V2/V1 = Sh2/Sh1 = h2/h1, p2 = ph1/h2,
ph1/h2 = p + gh, p = gh/(1 h1/h2).
: p = gh/(1 h1/h2).

127