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журнал переводчиков № 1 /2004 выходит 4 раза в год Издатель: ООО

журнал переводчиков № 1 /2004

выходит 4 раза в год

Издатель:

ООО «Р.Валент»

Главный редактор:

З.В. Зарубина

Редакционная коллегия:

Мишель Берди

Линн Виссон

Д.И. Ермолович

И.В. Зубанова

Б.Н. Климзо

В.К. Ланчиков

А.И. Никольская

П.Р. Палажченко

К.В. Петренко

А.П. Чужакин

Н.Г. Шахова

Зав. редакцией:

В.Р. Колесниченко

Редакторы:

Н.Г. Богомолова

В.П. Кочин

Корректор

А.И. Никифорова

Подготовка макета

Т.И. Родионова

Адрес редакции:

105062, Москва, ул. Покровка, д. 38а Тел./факс: 917–41–53 e-mail: rvalent@online.ru www.rvalent.ru ISBN 5-93439-129-1

Номер подписан в печать 03.02.04 Цена свободная Тираж 800 экз. Заказ №301

Отпечатано в ОАО «Калужская типография стандартов» Калуга, ул. Московская, 256 Перепечатка материалов – только с разрешения «Р.Валент»

© ООО «Р.Валент» 2004

В номере:

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Восемь вопросов профессионалу

От редакции

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От редакции . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

О нашей профессии

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М. Цвиллинг. Профессиональный путь переводчика

И. Зубанова. Профессия переводчика:

штрихи к портрету

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Анализ практики

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П. Палажченко. Цитата в словарях

и

В. Ланчиков. Размах крыльев, или Как не потерять первоисточник цитаты

в переводе

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Д. Ермолович. Имена и названия

в переводе (из переписки)

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Л. Виссон. Terms for Describing Terrorism

М. Берди. Пытки переводчика

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Берди . Пытки переводчика . . . . . . . Заказчик – Переводчик . .

Заказчик – Переводчик

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Н. Дупленский. Проект документа СПР «Заключение

и

переводов. Нормы и правила»

Б. Климзо. Quality Versus Time. О качестве технического

письменного перевода

К. Флик. О чем обычно спрашивают переводчика. Пер. Н. Шаховой

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исполнение договоров на выполнение письменных

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Слово молодым

О. Чуракова. Записки переводчика. О переводе с французского романа Амели Нотомб

«Влюбленный саботаж»

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» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

XX

век – глазами переводчиков

А. Чужакин. Лидеры и их тени (фрагменты истории)

.

и их тени ( фрагменты истории ) . Издательство «Р.Валент»

Издательство «Р.Валент» предлагает

М. Загот. «Ищите и найдете, или Англо-русский словарь

библеизмов для всех и каждого»

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и каждого» . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Об

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От редакции

Еще в XVIII веке В.К. Тредиаковский утверждал: «Переводчик от творца только именем рознится». Во все времена искусству перевода отдавали и отдают свои силы многие талантливые люди. И если они подчас называ- ют свой нелегкий труд ремеслом, а не творчеством, то именно потому, что умеют вникать в суть слов. Как не затеряться переводчику в бурном море лингвистических проблем? Как лучше понять чужую культуру? Как найти общий язык с за- казчиком? Существует ли юридическая поддержка профессии переводчика? Кто поможет разрешить горячие споры по той или иной проблеме? – Да, обо всем этом написано немало книг, однако есть проблемы столь акту- альные, столь острые, что хочется поделиться ими сегодня, не ожидая вы- хода хорошо отредактированных книг в красивой обложке. Мы назвали наш журнал «МОСТЫ». Мы задумали его не глянцевым, красоч- но иллюстрированным, а живым, рабочим, нужным. Мы хотим, чтобы он стал настоящим другом – таким, с которым можно поговорить, поспорить, но в котором ты уверен на все сто. Название предложили наши ведущие переводчики. Наверное, это слово пришло к ним не случайно: кто-то перекинул мосты к недрам чужого язы- ка, сокровищницам чужой культуры, кто-то – к новым вершинам мастер- ства, а кто-то обратил внимание на изображение мостов на банкнотах евро – и это все реалии современной переводческой жизни. Но главное, что, переводя чужеземную культуру, переводчики раскрыва- ют не только то потаенное, что порой мешает понимать друг друга – по- литикам, бизнесменам, ученым, – они обогащают свою страну, аккумулируя лучшее, что есть в чужой культуре, делясь с миром своей, родной. Так и получается: строим мы мосты – навстречу друг другу. Хочется надеяться, что предпринимаемый издательством «Р.Валент» выпуск журнала для переводчиков поможет восстановлению всего ком- плекса взаимоотношений между переводчикам, и заказчиками. Мы приглашаем к сотрудничеству переводчиков – и не только из России и стран ближнего зарубежья. Наш журнал и для вас, уважаемые преподаватели перевода, и для вас, уважаемые студенты из числа тех, кто мыслит перевод своей профессией. Мы открыты для коллег со всех уголков земного шара. Мы ждем интересные статьи, фотографии и др. материалы из личных архивов. Мы не ставим тематические и прочие препоны. Нас не волнует количество знаков в присланных материалах. Мы ждем вас – тех, кто возводит мосты.

В общем, так: We try to bridge the communication gap!

2

Восемь вопросов профессионалу

Отвечает Зоя Васильевна Зарубина

– äÌË„Ë, ÍÓÚÓ˚Â Û Ç‡Ò ‚Ò„‰‡ ÔÓ‰ ÛÍÓÈ.

Û Ç‡Ò ‚Ò„‰‡ ÔÓ‰ ÛÍÓÈ. – ëÂȘ‡Ò ‚ÂÏÂ̇ Ó˜Â̸

– ëÂȘ‡Ò ‚ÂÏÂ̇ Ó˜Â̸ ËÁÏÂÌËÎËÒ¸. à Û‚ÂÂ̇, ˜ÚÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÏÌÓ„Ë χ-

ÒÚËÚ˚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍË Ì‡ÁÓ‚ÛÚ ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ ‰Û„Ë „·‚Ì˚ ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍË. ÑÎfl Ì‡Ò ‚ Ú ‰‡ÎÂÍË „Ó‰˚ Ò˜ËÚ‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï Á̇ڸ, ‚Ó ‚ÒflÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ·˚Ú¸ Á̇- ÍÓÏ˚Ï Ò ÅË·ÎËÂÈ, Ò Alice in Wonderland, Ë ÛÊ ‚ ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl Ï˚ ̇˜Ë̇ÎË ËÁÛ- ˜‡Ú¸ é„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆË˛ é·˙‰ËÌÂÌÌ˚ı 燈ËÈ: ìÒÚ‡‚ Ë ÓÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ ÔÓÎÓÊÂÌËfl, ÍÓÚÓ˚Â Ì‡Ò ‚ÓÁÏÛ˘‡ÎË ÚÂÏ, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ «ÌÂÛÒÒÍËÈ ÛÒÒÍËÈ», ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ ÔÂ‚ӉËÎË Î˛‰Ë, ÍÓÚÓ˚ Ì ÊËÎË ‚ ÒÚ‡ÌÂ, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ‰‡‚ÌÓ ·˚ÎË ÓÚÓ‚‡- Ì˚ ÓÚ Ì‡Ò. ÇÓÚ Ò ˜Â„Ó Ë Ì‡˜Ë̇·Ҹ, ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ, ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θ̇fl ÔÓ‰„Ó- Úӂ͇ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ ÚÂı ÎÂÚ, Ë Ï˚ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ Ì ÔÓʇÎÂÎË. ïÓÚfl ‚ÓÓ·˘Â Ó˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌÓ Í‡Í ÏÓÊÌÓ ·Óθ¯Â ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ Ë ·Óθ¯Â ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ËÒÚÓ˜ÌË͇ÏË.

– ëÎÓ‚‡Ë, ÍÓÚÓ˚Â Û Ç‡Ò ‚Ò„‰‡ ÔÓ‰ ÛÍÓÈ.

– åÓfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒ͇fl ·ËÓ„‡ÙËfl ̇˜‡Î‡Ò¸ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÒÔˆËÙ˘ÂÒÍË, Ò

˜ËÒÚÓ ÚÂıÌ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛ˚, Ë fl Ò ÚÂı Ò‡Ï˚ı ÔÓ ÒÓ·Ë‡Î‡ β·˚ ÒÎÓ- ‚‡Ë, ÍÓÚÓ˚ Ïӄ· ̇ÈÚË – χÎÂ̸ÍËÂ, ·Óθ¯ËÂ, ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌÌ˚ – β·˚Â, Ë Ì ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ ÒÎÛ˜‡fl, ÍÓ„‰‡ ·˚ fl ÔÓʇη Ó ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ Ëı ÔËÓ··. äÓ- ̘ÌÓ, ·Óθ¯Ë ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë – ˝ÚÓ Í·ÒÒË͇, ÌÓ ÓÌË Ô˜‡Ú‡˛ÚÒfl ‡Á ÎÂÚ ‚ ‰‚‡‰- ˆ‡Ú¸ ÔflÚ¸ Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ, ÍÓ̘ÌÓ, ‚ Ôӂ҉̂ÌÓÈ ÊËÁÌË ÓÌË Ì ‰‡˛Ú ÔÓ‰˜‡Ò ÚÂı Ì˛‡ÌÒÓ‚, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏ˚.

– ë˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ÎË Ç˚ Á‡ÍÓÌÓÏÂÌ˚Ï, ˜ÚÓ ÒÚ‡ÎË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓÏ?

– Ç ÏÓÎÓ‰ÓÒÚË Û ÏÂÌfl ·˚ÎË ‰ۄˠϘÚ˚, ÌÓ ‚ÓÈ̇ ‚Ò ÔÓÏÂÌfl·. à Ú‡Í

Í‡Í fl ‚Óβ Òۉ· Ó͇Á‡Î‡Ò¸ ‚ ‚Ó‰Ó‚ÓÓÚ ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌÂȯËı ÔÓÎËÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ÒÓ- ·˚ÚËÈ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÍÓÏÌÓ„Ó Û˜‡ÒÚÌË͇, ÏÂÌfl ˝ÚÓ ÔÓ‰ÚÓÎÍÌÛÎÓ Í flÁ˚ÍÛ, Í ÔÓÌËχÌ˲ ÚÓ„Ó, ˜ÚÓ flÁ˚Í ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ Á̇ڸ. Ç ÚÓÚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ fl Ì ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ıÓÓ¯Ó Á̇· flÁ˚Í, ÌÓ, ÍÓ„‰‡ fl ‚ˉ·, ˜ÚÓ ËÒ͇ʇÂÚÒfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ, ÏÂÌfl Í‡Í Ô‡ÚËÓÚ‡ ˝ÚÓ ·‡ÎÓ Á‡ ÊË‚ÓÂ. ü ÔÓÌËχ·, ˜ÚÓ Ì‡‰Ó ÔÂ‰ÂÎ˚‚‡Ú¸. à ‰Â·ڸ ıÓÓ¯Ó.

– óÚÓ Ç‡Ï ‰‡Î‡ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇?

– èÓÌËχÌË ÏÌÓ„Ó„Ó. ç‡ÔËÏÂ, ‚ ̇˜‡Î ҂ÓÂÈ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓÈ

‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚË, ÓÔflÚ¸-Ú‡ÍË ‚Óβ Òۉ·, Û ÏÂÌfl ·˚Î Í‡Í ÔÓÎËÚ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ÔÂ- ‚Ӊ, Ú‡Í Ë ÚÂıÌ˘ÂÒÍËÈ. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ ‰Ó ÒËı ÔÓ Ò··Ó Ò·fl ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Û˛ ‚ ÚÂı- Ì˘ÂÒÍÓÏ ÔÂ‚ӉÂ. ïÓ˜Û ‚‡Ï Ò͇Á‡Ú¸: ÌÂθÁfl ̉ÓÓˆÂÌË‚‡Ú¸ ‡·ÓÚÛ Ì‡‰ ÓÒ- ÌÓ‚Ì˚ÏË ÔÓÒÚÛ·ڇÏË ÚÂıÌ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡, ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Ôӂ· Ì ӉËÌ ‰Â̸ ·ÛÍ‚‡Î¸ÌÓ ‚ ÒÎÂÁ‡ı, ÔÂ‚Ӊfl ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ˚, ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÚÓ ‚ÓÂÌÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl Ì ·˚ÎÓ ÌË͇ÍËı ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÈ ÒÓ ÒÔˆˇθÌ˚ÏË ÚÂÏË̇ÏË, ‡ ÒÂȘ‡Ò Ëı ÏÓÊÌÓ Ì‡ÈÚË ˜ÛÚ¸ ÎË Ì ‚ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡ÚË. Ä ‰Îfl ̇Ò, ‚ ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl ̇˜Ë-

3

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков

Восемь вопросов профессионалу

̇˛˘Ëı ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚, ·˚ÎÓ ÌÂÔÓÌflÚÌÓ: Í‡Í Ê ڇÍ, ÓÚÍ˚‚‡Â¯¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡¸,

‡ Ú‡Ï ÌÂÚ ÚÓ„Ó ËÎË ‰Û„Ó„Ó ÚÂÏË̇. Ä Í‡Í Ê ·˚Ú¸? ÇÓÚ ÚÓ„‰‡ fl ÛÊ ÔÓÌfl-

·, Í‡Í ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ ÔËÓ·ÂÚ‡Ú¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë. äÒÚ‡ÚË ÔÓÁÊÂ, ÍÓ„‰‡ fl ·˚- · ‰ËÂÍÚÓÓÏ ÍÛÒÓ‚ ééç Ë ÔËÌËχ· ˝ÍÁ‡ÏÂÌ˚, ÂÒÎË ‚ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ Ì‡ ÏÓÈ ‚ÓÔÓÒ «ä‡ÍË ‚‡Ï ÌÛÊÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë?», ÒÎÛ¯‡ÚÂθ Óڂ˜‡Î: «åÌ Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡fl, fl ·ÂÁ ÒÎÓ‚‡fl», ‰Îfl ÏÂÌfl, Í‡Í ‰Îfl ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇, ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÔÓ¯ÂÎ ÓÔ- ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ÔÛÚ¸ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇, ˝ÚÓ „Ó‚ÓËÎÓ Ó ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÂÂ‰Ó ÏÌÓÈ Ì ̇- ÒÚÓfl˘ËÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ.

åÓÊÌÓ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ó ‡Á΢ËË ÏÂÊ‰Û ÛÒÚÌ˚Ï Ë ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚Ï ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ, Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ Ì‡ÔËÒ‡ÌÓ Ë ·Û‰ÂÚ Ì‡ÔËÒ‡ÌÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó ÍÌË„, Ë, ıÓÚfl ‡·ÓÚ‡ ÛÒÚÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇, ÔÓ-ÏÓÂÏÛ, ·ÓΠ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θ̇fl, ÌÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ – ˝ÚÓ ¯ÎËÙӂ͇ „‡ÌÂÈ ‡ÎχÁ‡. èÓÌËχÌËÂ, ÚÂÔÂÌËÂ Ë ÔÂÂ‡·ÓÚ͇ χÚÂË- ‡Î‡ – ˝ÚÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ ‚Ò„‰‡. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ fl ıÓ˜Û ÔÓÒÓ‚ÂÚÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÚÓ, ˜ÂÏÛ ÏÂÌfl Û˜ËÎË: Ò̇˜‡Î‡ ̇‰Ó ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸ Ò‡ÏÓ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓÂ, ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ì ·˚ÎÓ Ì‡‚‡ÌÓ. íÓθÍÓ ÔÓÒΠڢ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ÔÓ‚ÂÍË Ù‡ÍÚÓ‚, ‚˚ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎËÚ¸ Ò· ¯ÎËÙÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í. àÌÓ„‰‡, Á‡ÎËı‚‡ÚÒÍË Ê·fl ıÓÓ- ¯Ó ̇ÔËÒ‡Ú¸ ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË, Ï˚ ÛÔÛÒ͇ÂÏ Ò‡ÏÓ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓÂ. ùÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ ʇθ. Ç ÛÒÚÌÓÏ, ÍÓ̘ÌÓ, Ò͇Á‡Î – Ì ÔÓÈχ¯¸, ÌÓ Ò‡Ï ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ˜Û‚- ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸.

– LJ¯Â ÔÓÊ·ÌË ÏÓÎÓ‰˚Ï.

– ü ·˚ Ò͇Á‡Î‡ ‚ÓÚ ˜ÚÓ. ïÓÚfl fl Ë Ì ‡·ÓÚ‡˛ ÒËÌıÓÌÌ˚Ï ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓÏ

Ò 1990 „Ó‰‡, ‚ÒÂ-Ú‡ÍË «ı‚‡Ú͇ ̇ ÔÂ‚Ӊ», ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl. èÓÓÈ ÒÂÊÛÒ¸ ̇ ÒÂ- ·fl, Á‡˜ÂÏ fl ÔËÒÎۯ˂‡˛Ò¸ Í ˜ÛÊËÏ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡Ï, ıÓÚfl ÏÌ ˝ÚÓ Ë Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ,

Ë ‚ÓÁÏÛ˘‡˛Ò¸ ˜ÛÊÓÈ ı‡ÎÚÛÂ, Ӊ̇ÍÓ ‚ ÍÓ‚Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ «ÛÒÎ˚¯‡Î – ÔËÌflÎ – ÓÚ‰‡Î». à ÌËÍÛ‰‡ ÓÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó Ì ‰Â̯¸Òfl. à ˝ÚËÏ Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚ÓÏ ÌÂÓ·- ıÓ‰ËÏÓ Ó‚Î‡‰Â‚‡Ú¸. ü ıÓÚ· ·˚ ÔÓÊ·ڸ ÏÓÎÓ‰˚Ï Ì ÓÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡Ú¸Òfl ̇ ‰ÓÒÚË„ÌÛÚÓÏ. óÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ÏÂÌfl, ÚÓ Ë fl ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ ÒÚ‡‡˛Ò¸ ÎÓ‚ËÚ¸ ÚÓ ÌÓ-

‚ÓÂ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓfl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ flÁ˚ÍÂ, ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÏÂÌfl, Í‡Í ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇, ‡Á‰‡Ê‡- ÂÚ, ÍÓ„‰‡ fl Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛ ÚÓ ËÎË ËÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó, ̇ÔËÏÂ, ͇҇˛˘ÂÂÒfl ÍÓÏÔ¸˛-

ÚÂËÁ‡ˆËË Ë Ú.Ô

͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸ ÔÓfl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÌÓ‚‡fl ÎÂÍÒË͇, Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ Ò· ÔÓÁ- ‚ÓÎËÚ¸ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸: «ü Ì ıÓ˜Û ˝ÚÓ„Ó Á̇ڸ». Ç Ô‰Â·ı Ó·˘Â„Ó flÁ˚ÍÓ‚Ó„Ó ·‡- „‡Ê‡ ÌÛÊÌÓ Á̇ڸ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ó·Î‡ÒÚÂÈ, ÌÓ ˜ÂÚÍÓ ÓÒÓÁ̇‚‡Ú¸, ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Á̇¯¸,

‡ ˜ÚÓ ÌÂÚ. ÖÒÎË ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ „Ó‚ÓËÚ, ˜ÚÓ Á̇ÂÚ ‚ÒÂ, – ˝ÚÓ Á̇˜ËÚ, ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ì Á̇- ÂÚ Ì˘„Ó. üÁ˚Í ÓÌ ·ÂÁ„‡Ì˘ÂÌ. ùÚÓ Ó͇Ì. ÇÓÓ·˘Â fl ıÓ˜Û ÔÓÊ·ڸ ÏÓÎÓ- ‰˚Ï: ÔÓÏÂ̸¯Â ˜‚‡ÌÒÚ‚‡! ÖÒÎË Ú˚ ÏÓʯ¸ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ A–B–ë , ‰‡ Â˘Â Ò‰Â·ڸ flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ÓÈ ‚Â‡ÌÒ, ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ Ì Á̇˜ËÚ, ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ÛÊ ‚Ò Á̇¯¸. ùÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ ÓÔ‡ÒÌÓ Á‡·ÎÛʉÂÌËÂ! çÂθÁfl ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÔÓ‰‰‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl. à Ì ÒÚÂÒÌflÚ¸Òfl ÒÔ‡¯Ë- ‚‡Ú¸ Û Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ÍÓÎ΄Ë. ä ÒÓʇÎÂÌ˲, ÂÒÎË ‚ ̇¯Â ÚÛ‰ÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl, ÍÓÎÎÂ„Ë ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÎË ‰Û„ ‰Û„Û, ÚÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò Á‡˜‡ÒÚÛ˛ Ú· ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÓ‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÔÓ‰ÌÓÊÍÛ. ç‡‰Ó ÔÓÌËχڸ, ˜ÚÓ ÌËÍÚÓ ËÁ Ì‡Ò ÌÂ Ò ÅÓ„ÓÏ Á‡ Ô‡ÁÛıÓÈ, Ë Ú˚ Ò‡Ï ÏÓʯ¸ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ç‡‰Ó ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸, ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸, ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸.

燉 flÁ˚ÍÓÏ ÌÛÊÌÓ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ ‚˜ÌÓ! èÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ·ÛÍ‚‡Î¸ÌÓ

– äÚÓ ·˚ΠLJ¯ ÔÂ‚˚È Û˜ËÚÂθ?

– ÇÓ ‚ÂÏfl í„Â‡ÌÒÍÓÈ ÍÓÌÙÂÂ̈ËË, „‰Â ÏÌ ‰Ó‚ÂÎÓÒ¸ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸, χÈ-

Ó ÄÌÓθ‰ ÅËÒ, ΢Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ óÂ˜ËÎÎfl, ‚ˉfl, ˜ÚÓ ÏÓÎÓ‰ÓÈ ÛÒ- ÒÍÓÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËˆÂ ËÌÚÂÂÒÂÌ Í‡Ê‰˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ, ÏÌÓ„Ó Ó·˙flÒÌflÎ Ë ÒÓ‚ÂÚÓ‚‡Î ÏÌÂ. à ˝ÚË ÒÓ‚ÂÚ˚ ÒÚ‡ÎË ÓÒÌÓ‚ÓÈ ÏÓÂ„Ó Í‰Ó. éÌ ‰‡‚‡Î ÒÓ‚ÂÚ˚ ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇ ÓÔ˚ÚÌÓ„Ó, ÓÌË Í‡Ò‡ÎËÒ¸ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚‡ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌ˚ı ‚¢ÂÈ, Ó ÍÓÚÓ˚ı fl ÒÔ‡- ¯Ë‚‡Î‡, – Ë ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ fl ‡ÒÒ͇ÊÛ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ, – ÌÓ Ò‡ÏÓ „·‚ÌÓÂ, ÓÌ ‰‡Î

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ÏÌ ÔÓÌflÚ¸, ˜ÚÓ Ì ·˚‚‡ÂÚ Î˛‰ÂÈ, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÎË Á̇˛Ú ‚ÒÂ. à ‚ÓÚ ˝Ú‡ Â„Ó ÒÍÓÏÌÓÒÚ¸ ‚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÚÓ„Ó, ˜ÚÓ Ë ÂÏÛ ·˚‚‡ÎÓ ÚÛ‰ÌÓ, ̇ۘË· ÏÂÌfl ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ ÌËÍÓ„Ó Ì ÔËÌËʇڸ Ë Ì ‰Ûχڸ, ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Ò‡Ï˚È ÎÛ˜¯ËÈ.

– ë‡Ï˚È ÚÛ‰Ì˚È ÒÎÛ˜‡È ‚ LJ¯ÂÈ Ô‡ÍÚËÍÂ.

– ÇÓÓ·˘Â ҇χfl ·Óθ¯‡fl ÚÛ‰ÌÓÒÚ¸ ̇ ÔÂ‚ÓÏ ˝Ú‡Ô ÏÓÂÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚ – ÌÂ-

ÛÏÂÌË Òӂ·‰‡Ú¸ ÒÓ ÒÍÓÓÒÚ¸˛ ‚˚ÒÚÛÔÎÂÌËfl Ó‡ÚÓ‡ Ë Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ ̇ „‡ÏÓÚÌÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ Â„Ó ˜¸. ùÚÓ ÔÓÒÚÓ ‚˚Á˚‚‡ÎÓ Û ÏÂÌfl Ô‡ÌËÍÛ, ÔÓ͇ fl Ì ̇ۘË·Ҹ ÔËÚÓχÊË‚‡Ú¸ Ë ‚˚·‡Ò˚‚‡Ú¸ Ì ‚‡ÊÌ˚ ‰Îfl ÔÓÌËχÌËfl ÍÛÒÓ˜ÍË ÚÂÍÒÚ‡. à ‰Û„Ó„Ó ‚˚ıÓ‰‡ ÌÂÚ. èËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ‰‡ÍÚËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ̇ ıÓ‰Û, ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ·Âʇڸ ‚Ò ‚ÂÏfl Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ. óÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÛ- ˜‡fl, fl ‚ÒÔÓÏË̇˛, Í‡Í fl ÔÂ‚ӉË· flÔÓ̈‡ ̇ ÇÒÂÏËÌÓÏ ÍÓÌ„ÂÒÒ ÏÓ- ÎÓ‰ÂÊË. ç‡‰Ó Ê ÛÏÂÚ¸ ‡Á·Ë‡Ú¸ ‡ÍˆÂÌÚ. à ÍÓ„‰‡ Ó‡ÚÓ Ò‡Ï ‚ÓÎÌÛÂÚÒfl, ÒÔ¯ËÚ, „Ó‚Ófl ̇ ˜ÛÊÓÏ ‰Îfl ÌÂ„Ó flÁ˚ÍÂ, ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ Â˘Â ·ÓΠÒÎÓÊÌÓ. äÓ„‰‡ fl ÂΠÊË‚‡fl ‚˚¯Î‡ ËÁ ͇·ËÌÍË ÔÓÒΠÚÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ Ë ÏÂÌfl ÒÔÓÒËÎË, Ò Í‡- ÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ fl ÔÂ‚ӉË·, fl ‰‡Ê ‡ÒÚÂfl·Ҹ: «ç Á̇˛». ùÚÓ ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ Â˘Â Ë ÚÓ, Í‡Í ‚‡ÊÂÌ ‡Î¸flÌÒ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ Ë Ó‡ÚÓ‡. ä ÒÓʇÎÂÌ˲, Ë ‚ ̇- ¯Ë ‰ÌË Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ ˝ÚÓ ·˚‚‡ÂÚ. Ú‡Í.

– ë‡Ï˚È ÔÓÛ˜ËÚÂθÌ˚È ÒÎÛ˜‡È ‚ LJ¯ÂÈ Ô‡ÍÚËÍÂ.

– 燉Ó, ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ıӉ˯¸ ‚ ͇·ËÌÛ, ÔÓ‚ÂflÚ¸, ̇ ͇ÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÚÓËÚ ‚‡¯

ÏËÍÓÙÓÌ. ùÚÓ ·˚ÎÓ ‰‡‚ÌÓ ‚ åéí (åÂʉÛ̇Ӊ̇fl Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËfl ÚÛ‰‡. ÒÔˆˇÎËÁËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓ ۘÂʉÂÌË ééç, ÒÓÁ‰‡ÌÌÓ ‚ 1947 „.). ü Á‡ıÓÊÛ ‚ ͇·Ë- ÌÛ, ÔÂÂ‰Ó ÏÌÓÈ ÔÂ‚ӉË· ̇¯‡ ·˚‚¯‡fl ÒÓÓÚ˜ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌˈ‡, „‡ÙËÌfl. é̇ ÏËÎÓ ÔÓÔÓ˘‡Î‡Ò¸ ÒÓ ÏÌÓÈ Ë Û¯Î‡, ‡ fl ̇‰Â· ̇ۯÌËÍË Ë, ÛÒÎ˚¯‡‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÛ˛ ˜¸, ̇˜‡Î‡ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸, Ì ‚ˉfl, ÍÚÓ ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡ÂÚ Ë Û‰Ë‚ÎflflÒ¸, ÍÚÓ ÊÂ Ú‡Í ıÓÓ¯Ó „Ó‚ÓËÚ. èÓÚÓÏ, ÍÓ„‰‡ fl „Ó‰‡fl ‚˚¯Î‡ ËÁ ͇·ËÌ˚, ÏÌ Ò͇Á‡ÎË, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ fl ̇¯Ëı ÔÂ‚ӉË· Ò ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó, ÍÓÚÓ˚È Á‚Û˜‡Î ‚ ̇- Û¯ÌË͇ı ÏÓÂÈ ÍÓÎ΄Ë. ÇÓÚ Ú‡Í fl Ë ÔÂ‚· Ò ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ. éÈ, Í‡Í ÏÌ ·˚ÎÓ ÒÚ˚‰ÌÓ.

Отвечает Линн Виссон

– èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ç˚ ÒÚ‡ÎË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓÏ?

I have always been fascinated by the process of communication, by how thoughts, ideas and images in one language can be recreated in another tongue. That process does not merely involve the selection of appropriate lexical and semantic units, but requires a shift into another culture, another way of perceiving the world. Only through an understanding of the culture in which a language is embedded can the interpreter/translator successfully convey the full meaning of a foreign linguistic/cultural system. Growing up in America a quadrilingual household – my parents spoke their native Russian, as well as French, German and English – probably fated me to be an interpreter. My parents were from a generation of Russian intellectuals who thought that any child who did not speak four languages fluently by the age of four was probably mentally retarded. They didn’t give me much choice as far as language learning was concerned! I very early fell in love with Russian and French literature, and was intrigued by translation and interpretation problems. Extensive contacts with Russians in the US and my own trips to Russia

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reinforced my interest in language and interpretation. Interpretation provides instant gratification: you immediately see the result of your work, the communication and understanding you provide people who otherwise would fail to understand each other. And you understand how much good a talented interpreter can do, how greatly he can help people understand each other, and how much damage a poor interpreter can inflict.

– óÚÓ Ç‡Ï ‰‡Î‡ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇?

– My more than twenty years as a staff interpreter at the United Nations,

working in the English booth from Russian and French, in addition to my previous work for the US Department of State and in the private sector provided me with a unique opportunity to work for international understanding and to be directly involved in international communication. It allowed me to deepen my understanding and knowledge of Russian, French, of the languages and cultures. Contacts with my colleagues at the United Nations have been deeply gratifying. Work as an interpreter has expanded my intellectual and cultural horizons, as I moved from a more narrowly academic focus to explore Russian-American relations in the context of Russian- American marriages and the impact of culture on language. My background in teaching Russian and my involvement with the United Nations interpreter training program prompted me to write a textbook, praktikum and other materials on issues of Russian- English interpretation, and other works. If it were not for my career as an interpreter and my interest in Russia I would never have met the wonderful people at RValent and the many outstanding Russian interpreters and translators who have become my friends and colleagues. And United Nations conferences have provided an opportunity to be a direct participant in negotiations and to travel all over the globe.

– óÚÓ ÓÚÌfl· ÔÓÙÂÒÒËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇?

I gave up a promising career in academics to become an interpreter. With a Ph.D. in Slavic Languages and Literatures, and a dissertation on Sergei Esenin, I was sure that I was destined to teach Russian language and literature, and I taught at several American universities, including Columbia University, for nearly ten years. While I very much enjoyed teaching, I have no regrets about leaving the rather narrow confines of academics for interpretation, which has proved to be far more rewarding in all respects.

äÚÓ ·˚ΠLJ¯ Û˜ËÚÂθ?

– Life. An interpreter learns from dozens, from hundreds of colleagues,

speeches, books, contacts. It would be absolutely unfair and wrong to single out any one of the many talented individuals to whom I owe so much.

ë‡Ï˚È ÚÛ‰Ì˚È ÒÎÛ˜‡È ‚ Ô‡ÍÚËÍÂ.

– In 2000 at the Millennium session of the UN General Assembly I was given only the English – but not the Russian – text of President Putin’s speech. That English text was a horrendous translation, stuffed with lexical and grammatical errors. What was

I to do? Read that out? And do an enormous disservice to all those in the hall?

I decided to drop the hopeless text and did the speech by listening carefully and rendering it into grammatical, literate and idiomatic English.

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– ë‡Ï˚È ÔÓÛ˜ËÚÂθÌ˚È ÒÎÛ˜‡È ‚ Ô‡ÍÚËÍÂ.

– When I was just beginning my career as an interpreter, back in the 1970s, I was

working at a conference of Russian and American women. The American delegate, a radical feminist, announced that in her country there had been great progress: women were now allowed to work at construction sites, in mines, operate heavy machinery, etc. The Russian delegate immediately responded that there must have been a mistake in the interpretation, for in her country there had also been great progress: such heavy work by women had just been prohibited by law. Two very different definitions of progress!

– äÌË„Ë, Í ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï Ç˚ ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ó·‡˘‡ÂÚÂÒ¸

– I don’t believe in “nastol’nye knigi.” One never has enough time to read all the

interesting books and posobiia which would make one a better interpreter – and a better human being. I do, however, think that every interpreter should have a solid background in the classics of world literature – Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Shakespeare, Dante, Goethe, Flaubert, Balzac, the Greek and Roman classics, and, of course, the Bible, which is the basis of Judeo-Christian civilization and which should be required reading for all interpreters and translators.

– èflÚ¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÈ, ÍÓÚÓ˚Â Û Ç‡Ò ‚Ò„‰‡ ÔÓ‰ ÛÍÓÈ.

a) The OED (Oxford English Dictionary)

b) Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary

c) BTC (Bol’shoi Tolkovyi Slovar’ Russkogo Iazyka (Sankt Peterburg: Norint, 1998)

d) The Russian-English/English-Russian Oxford Dictionary

e) Larousse Dictionnaire General Anglais-Francais/Francais-Anglais

LJ¯Ë ÔÓÊ·ÌËfl ÏÓÎÓ‰˚Ï ÍÓÎ΄‡Ï

– I hope you realize – and enjoy – the fact that being an interpreter is a life-long

learning experience which doesn’t end when you finish your schooling – it only starts then.

I hope you keep an open mind, an open heart, and keep asking questions. What does

this word or expression really mean? How do we say this in my culture? What does it

mean and how is it expressed in another culture? I hope you keep constantly reading in all of your working languages. I hope you keep up with current events, news, new discoveries in science and technology, new developments in the arts, new trends in literature. I hope you are continually in contact with native speakers of all your working languages.

I hope you travel to the countries where your working languages are spoken, I hope

you enjoy helping people communicate and understand each other, and that this is as important to you as the material rewards of this profession. I hope you share your experience and pass it on to others, so that more and more talented people join this profession.

I hope you always have as much fun as I’m having, and that you never lose a sense of humor!

7

О нашей профессии

О нашей профессии Профессиональный путь переводчика Размышления

Профессиональный путь переводчика

Размышления и воспоминания

å. ñ‚ËÎÎËÌ„

èÓÙÂÒÒËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ‚Ò„‰‡ (ËÎË, ÔÓ Í‡ÈÌÂÈ ÏÂ ̇ ÔÓÚflÊÂÌËË ÊËÁÌË ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ÔÓÒΉÌËı ÔÓÍÓÎÂÌËÈ) Á‡ÌË- χ· ‚ Ó·˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ÒÓÁ̇ÌËË Í‡Í ·˚ ‰‚ÓÈÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÛ˛ ÔÓÁËˆË˛.

ë Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚, ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ Ó·Î‡-

‰‡ÂÚ ÌÂÒÓÏÌÂÌÌ˚ÏË ÔÂËÏÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚‡ÏË ÔÂ-

‰ «ÔÓÒÚ˚ÏË ÒÏÂÚÌ˚ÏË» ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ ‰‚ÛflÁ˚˜Ë˛, ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎfl˛˘ÂÏÛ ÂÏÛ ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl «Ì‡ ‚˚ÒÓÚ» ‚ ÚÂı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı, ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÒڇθÌ˚ ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚flÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ·ÂÒÔÓÏÓ˘Ì˚ÏË ËÁ-Á‡ ̉Ó- ÒÚÛÔÌÓÒÚË ‰‡Ê ҇ÏÓÈ Ó·˚‰ÂÌÌÓÈ ËÌ- ÙÓχˆËË (‡‚ÚÓ Ò‡Ï ËÒÔ˚ڇΠ̇ Ò· ˝ÚÓ Ó˘Û˘ÂÌËÂ, Ó͇Á‡‚¯ËÒ¸ ̇ ÒÍÎÓÌ ÎÂÚ ‚ ̇ۘÌÓÈ ÍÓχ̉ËÓ‚Í ‚ äËÚ‡Â). Ç ÔË- ÒÌÓÔ‡ÏflÚÌ˚ ‚ÂÏÂ̇ «ÊÂÎÂÁÌÓ„Ó Á‡Ì‡‚Â- Ò‡» ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÛ-·ËÎËÌ„‚Û ·˚ÎË ÔËÓÚ- Í˚Ú˚ ͇̇Î˚ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË, ̇‰ÂÊÌÓ ÔÂÂÍ˚Ú˚ ‰Îfl ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚‡ fl‰Ó‚˚ı ÊËÚÂÎÂÈ ÒÚ‡Ì˚. çÂθÁfl ̉ÓÓˆÂÌË‚‡Ú¸ Ë Á̇˜ÂÌË ڇÍÓ„Ó Ù‡ÍÚÓ‡, Í‡Í ÓÙˈˇθ- Ì˚ Á‡Û·ÂÊÌ˚ ÔÓÂÁ‰ÍË «ÔÓ ÎËÌËË» (Ú‡Í ˝ÚÓ Á‚Û˜‡ÎÓ Ì‡ ·˛ÓÍ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍÓÏ Ê‡„ÓÌ ÚÓ„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË) „ÓÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı, ÔÓÎËÚË- ˜ÂÒÍËı, Ó·˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı, ÍÛθÚÛÌ˚ı, ̇- Û˜Ì˚ı, ÒÔÓÚË‚Ì˚ı Ë ËÌ˚ı Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËÈ, ‚‰¸ Ó ÒÚ‡‚¯Ëı Ì˚Ì χÒÒÓ‚˚Ï fl‚ÎÂÌËÂÏ ˜‡ÒÚÌ˚ı ÔÓÂÁ‰Í‡ı ÔÓ ‚ÒÂÏÛ ÏËÛ ÚÓ„‰‡ Ë Ï˜ڇڸ Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÎÓÒ¸.

ë ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚, Ӊ̇ÍÓ, ÔÓÙÂÒ-

ÒËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ÓÚfl„Ó˘Â̇ Ë ˆÂÎ˚Ï fl- ‰ÓÏ Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚, ̇ ÔÂ‚˚È ‚Á„Îfl‰ ‚˚Á˚‚‡˛- ˘Ëı Û «Ò‰ÌÂ„Ó Ó·˚‚‡ÚÂÎfl» (‡ ÚÂÏ ·ÓÎÂÂ,

ÔÂÛÒÔ‚¯Â„Ó Ì‡ ͇¸ÂÌÓÏ ÔÓÔˢ ˜Ë- ÌÓ‚ÌË͇) ‡ÒÒӈˇˆËË ÒÍÓ ̄‡ÚË‚ÌÓ„Ó Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡. èÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ – ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ Ì‡ ÔÓ·Â- „ۯ͇ı, ÔÂ‚ӉË, ˜ÚÓ ÔË͇ÊÛÚ, ‡ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔË͇Á‡Ú¸ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸, ÍÓÏÛ – ˜ÂÏÓ‰‡Ì ÔÓ‰ÌÂÒÚË, ÍÓÏÛ – ҉·ڸ ÔÓ- ÍÛÔÍË ‚ χ„‡ÁËÌÂ, Ë Â˘Â ÅÓ„ Á̇ÂÚ ˜ÚÓ ä ÚÓÏÛ ÊÂ, ˉÂÓÎÓ„Ëfl ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓÈ Û„ÓÁ˚ ÒÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ «Í‡ÔËÚ‡ÎËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ÓÍÛÊÂÌËfl» ‡‚ÚÓχÚ˘ÂÒÍË Á‡ÒÚ‡‚Îfl· ‚ˉÂÚ¸ ‚ ͇ʉÓÏ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ÔÓÚÂ̈Ë- ‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó ‡„ÂÌÚ‡ ‚‡ÊÂÒÍÓ„Ó ‚ÎËflÌËfl, ‡ ÚÓ Ë ÔÓÒÚÓ ‚‰ËÚÂÎfl ËÎË Î‡ÁÛÚ˜Ë͇, «‚‡„‡ ̇Ó‰‡», Ó‰ÌËÏ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ. çÂχÎÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡- ‚ËÚÂÎÂÈ ˝ÚÓÈ, ÔÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û, ÒÛ„Û·Ó ÏË- ÌÓÈ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËË ·˚ÎË Ó·‚ËÌÂÌ˚ ‚ ÔÓÒÓ·- Ì˘ÂÒÚ‚Â ˜Ûʉ˚Ï ÒËÎ‡Ï Ë ÔÓ‰‚Â„ÌÛÚ˚ Ó·˚˜Ì˚Ï ‰Îfl ÚÂı ‚ÂÏÂÌ ÂÔÂÒÒËflÏ. ç ÒÂÍÂÚ, ˜ÚÓ ‚ Úˉˆ‡Ú˚ „Ó‰˚ β‰Ë ÌÂ- ‰ÍÓ Ô‰ÔÓ˜ËÚ‡ÎË ÒÍ˚‚‡Ú¸ Ò‚ÓË flÁ˚- ÍÓ‚˚ Á̇ÌËfl Ë ÛχΘ˂‡Ú¸ Ó ÔËÓ·Â- ÚÂÌÌÓÈ ËÏË ÔÓÙÂÒÒËË ‚Ó ËÁ·ÂʇÌË ÌÂÔËflÚÌÓÒÚÂÈ, ‰‡ Ë ‚ ÔÂ‚˚ ÔÓÒ΂ÓÂÌ- Ì˚ „Ó‰˚ ÌÂχÎÓ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ Ó͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸ «‚ ÏÂÒÚ‡ı Ì ÒÚÓθ ÓÚ‰‡ÎÂÌÌ˚ı» ÔÓ Ó·‚Ë- ÌÂÌ˲ ‚ ÔÓÒÓ·Ì˘ÂÒÚ‚Â ‡Ì„ÎÓ-‡ÏÂË͇Ì- ÒÍËÏ ËÏÔÂˇÎËÒÚ‡Ï, ̇ ÚÓÏ ÚÓθÍÓ ÓÒÌÓ‚‡ÌËË, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ ‰ÓÎ„Û ÒÎÛÊ·˚ Ó·ÂÒÔÂ- ˜Ë‚‡ÎË ÍÓÌÚ‡ÍÚ˚ Ò ÒÓ˛ÁÌË͇ÏË ÔË ÔÓ- ‚‰ÂÌËË ÍÓÌ‚Ó‚ Ò ‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ÏË „ÛÁ‡ÏË ËÎË Ó·ÒÎÛÊË‚‡ÌËË ‡˝Ó‰ÓÏÓ‚ ‰Îfl ‰‡Î¸- ÌËı ·ÓÏ·‡‰ËÓ‚˘ËÍÓ‚, ‚˚ÔÓÎÌfl‚¯Ëı ·Ó‚˚ ‚˚ÎÂÚ˚ ÔÓ ˜ÂÎÌÓ˜ÌÓÈ ÒıÂÏÂ.

8

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • å. ñ‚ËÎÎËÌ„

è‡‚‰‡, ‚ ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl ‰‚‡ ÎË ·˚· ıÓÚ¸ Ӊ̇ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËfl, Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÂÎË ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ·˚ÎË ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ „‡‡ÌÚËÓ‚‡Ì˚ ÓÚ ÔÓ- ‰Ó·Ì˚ı Ó·‚ËÌÂÌËÈ ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË ‚˚ÚÂ͇˛˘Ë- ÏË ÓÚÒ˛‰‡ ÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËflÏË, ‡ ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ‰‡Ê ڇÍË Ï‡˜Ì˚ ÔÂÒÔÂÍÚË‚˚ (ÚÂÏ ·ÓÎÂÂ, ˜ÚÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó ÒÚ‡ÎÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ Î˯¸ ÒÔÛÒÚfl „Ó‰˚) Ì ۉÂÊË‚‡ÎË ÔÓÚÂ̈ˇθÌ˚ı ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇ÎÓ‚ ÓÚ ‚˚·Ó‡ ‚ ÔÓθÁÛ ‰‡Ì- ÌÓ„Ó ‚ˉ‡ ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚË. èÛÚË ÔËıÓ‰‡ ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÛ˛ ÔÓÙÂÒÒ˲ Ó˜Â̸ ÏÌÓ„ÓÓ·‡ÁÌ˚. óÚÓ·˚ Ì ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ‡ÒÚÂ͇ڸÒfl «Ï˚ÒÎ˲ ÔÓ ‰‚ۻ, ÔˉÂÚ- Òfl, ÔÂʉ ‚Ò„Ó, Ó„‡Ì˘ËÚ¸Òfl Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡¯ÂÈ ÒÚ‡ÌÓÈ. lj¸ ‚ ÒÚ‡Ì‡ı Ò ¯ËÓÍÓ ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚Ï ‰‚ÛflÁ˚˜ËÂÏ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÌÂËÒ˜ÂÔ‡ÂÏ˚È «ÂÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È ÂÁÂ‚Û‡» ·ËÎËÌ„‚Ó‚, ‰Îfl Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó ËÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÓÚÍ˚Ú ÔÛÚ¸ ‚ ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰˜ËÍË. ë‚Ó·Ó‰‡ ÔÂ‰‚ËÊÂÌËfl, ÓÚÍ˚- ÚÓÒÚ¸ ‰Îfl ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰Ì˚ı ÍÓÌÚ‡ÍÚÓ‚ ̇ ΢ÌÓÒÚÌÓÏ ÛÓ‚Ì ڇÍÊ ÒÓÁ‰‡˛Ú ÔËÌ- ˆËÔˇθÌÓ ËÌ˚ Ô‰ÔÓÒ˚ÎÍË ‰Îfl ÙÓ- ÏËÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓ„Ó ÍÓÔÛÒ‡, ˜ÂÏ ÚÂ, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÏÌÓ„Ë ‰ÂÒflÚËÎÂÚËfl ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÎË Û Ì‡Ò. ÖÒÎË Ê „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ó Ì‡¯ÂÈ ÒÚ‡ÌÂ, ÚÓ ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓÒÚË ÂÍÛÚËÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Â- ÒÍËı ͇‰Ó‚ ÛÊ ‚ ÔÓÒÎÂÓÍÚfl·¸ÒÍË „Ó- ‰˚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÏÂÌflÎËÒ¸ ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ÒӈˇθÌ˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚ËÈ ÚÓ„Ó ËÎË ËÌÓ„Ó ÔÂËÓ‰‡. èÂ‚Û˛ ‚ÓÎÌÛ, ÂÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ, ÒÓ- ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÎË ‚ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓÏ «·ÛÊÛ‡ÁÌ˚ ÒÔÂ- ˆ˚» – ‚˚ıÓ‰ˆ˚ ËÁ ‰Ó‚ÓβˆËÓÌÌÓÈ ËÌ- ÚÂÎÎË„Â̈ËË, ‚ Ò‰ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ Á̇ÌË ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ (‚ ÔÂ‚Û˛ Ó˜Â‰¸ Ù‡ÌˆÛÁÒÍÓ„Ó Ë ÌÂψÍÓ„Ó) Ò˜ËÚ‡ÎÓÒ¸ ˜ÂÏ-ÚÓ Ò‡ÏÓ ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‡ÁÛϲ˘ËÏÒfl. ä ̇- ˜‡ÎÛ ÏÓÂ„Ó ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓ„Ó ÔÛÚË, Ú.Â. Í ÒÓÓÍÓ‚˚Ï „Ó‰‡Ï ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó ‚Â͇, Ô‰- ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÂÎË ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÔÓÍÓÎÂÌËfl, fl‰˚ ÍÓÚÓÓ- „Ó ÒËθÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÂÎË ‚ ÂÁÛθڇÚ ·ÛÌ˚ı ÒÓ·˚ÚËÈ 20-ı – 30-ı „Ó‰Ó‚, ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÎË Â˘Â Á‡ÌËχڸ ‚ˉÌÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÔˆˇÎËÒÚÓ‚ ÔÓ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚Ï flÁ˚Í‡Ï – ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚, ÔÂÔÓ‰‡‚‡ÚÂ- ÎÂÈ, ‰‡ÍÚÓÓ‚, ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚÂÎÂÈ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÈ Ë Ú.Ô. ü ‰Ó ÒËı ÔÓ ËÒÔ˚Ú˚‚‡˛ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó „ÎÛ- ·ÓÍÓÈ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡ÌÓÒÚË Í ÔË̇‰ÎÂʇ‚¯ËÏ,

9

О нашей профессии

Í ˝ÚÓÈ Í‡Ú„ÓËË ÏÓËÏ Û˜ËÚÂÎflÏ, Ú‡ÍËÏ, Í‡Í ÌÂÁ‡·‚ÂÌÌ˚È ÄÎÂÍ҇̉ åËı‡ÈÎӂ˘ í‡Û·Â (ÓÚÔ˚ÒÍ ÓÒÚÁÂÈÒÍÓ„Ó ‰‚ÓflÌÒÍÓ„Ó Ó‰‡), ‚ӯ‰¯ËÈ ‚ ËÒÚÓ˲ ÎÂÍÒËÍÓ- „‡ÙËË Í‡Í ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚÂθ fl‰‡ ‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÈ, ÌÂÔ‚ÁÓȉÂÌÌ˚È ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÈ Ô‰‡ÌÚ˘ÌÓÈ ÔË‚ÂÊÂÌÌÓÒÚË Í ·ÂÒÍÓÏ- ÔÓÏËÒÒÌÓÈ ÚÓ˜ÌÓÒÚË ‚ ‰ÂÚ‡Îflı ÅÓËÒ ùÏχÌÛËÎӂ˘ ò‚‡Ì·‡ı (‰ÓÒÚÓÈÌ˚È Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÂθ Ù‡ÏËÎËË Ó·ÛÒ‚¯Ëı ÌÂÏ- ˆÂ‚, ËÏ‚¯ÂÈ ÌÂχÎ˚ Á‡ÒÎÛ„Ë ÔÂ‰ êÓÒÒËÈÒÍËÏ „ÓÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚ÓÏ Â˘Â ‚Ó ‚ÂÏÂ- ̇ àÏÔÂËË), ·ÎËÒÚ‡ÚÂθÌ˚È Á̇ÚÓÍ ÌÂψÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ Ë ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛ˚ ÄÎÂÍ- ҇̉ Ä̉‚˘ ãÂÔËÌ„ (‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl 1-È ÏËÓ‚ÓÈ ‚ÓÈÌ˚ – ¯Ú‡·Ò-͇ÔËÚ‡Ì êÓÒ- ÒËÈÒÍÓÈ ‡ÏËË), Ù‡ÏËÎËfl ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó Òڇ· ‚ÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËË Ì‡ˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï Ó·ÓÁ̇˜Â- ÌËÂÏ ÌÂψÍÓ-ÛÒÒÍËı ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÈ, Ë ÏÌÓ- „ËÏ ‰Û„ËÏ. äÓ̘ÌÓ, ·˚Î Ë ‰Û„ÓÈ ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ ÔÓ- ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl flÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚ı (Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍËı) ͇‰Ó‚ – ÂÔ‡ÚËËÓ‚‡‚¯ËÂÒfl ‚ ëÓ‚ÂÚ- ÒÍËÈ ëÓ˛Á ‚ÓβˆËÓÌÂ˚-˝ÏË„‡ÌÚ˚ Ë Ëı ‰ÂÚË, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ („·‚Ì˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ, ÛÊ ‚ 30-ı „Ó‰‡ı) ‡ÌÚËÙ‡¯ËÒÚ˚, ÒÔ‡Ò‡‚¯ËÂÒfl ÓÚ ‰ËÍÚ‡ÚÓÒÍËı ÂÊËÏÓ‚ ÉËÚÎÂ‡, åÛÒ- ÒÓÎËÌË, ïÓÚË, ÄÌÚÓÌÂÒÍÛ, ‡ ÔÓÁ‰ÌÂÂ Ë î‡ÌÍÓ. åÌÓ„Ë ËÁ ÌËı ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÎË Á‡ÏÂÚ- Ì˚È ÒΉ ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÈ Ó·Î‡ÒÚË ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚË. í‡Í, ËÁ ÌÂψÍÓflÁ˚˜Ì˚ı ÒÔˆˇÎËÒÚÓ‚ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ̇Á‚‡Ú¸ ‡‚ÒÚËȈ‡ íÂÓ ÄÛ˝- ·‡ı‡. Ç „Ó‰˚ ÇÂÎËÍÓÈ éÚ˜ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ‚ÓÈÌ˚ ÔÓ Á‡‰‡Ì˲ ΄Ẩ‡ÌÓ„Ó „ÂÌÂ‡Î‡ ç.ç. ÅËflÁË, ̇˜‡Î¸ÌË͇ ÇÓÂÌÌÓ„Ó ËÌ- ÒÚËÚÛÚ‡ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ı flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ ä‡ÒÌÓÈ ÄÏËË (Çààü äÄ), ÓÌ ÒÓÁ‰‡Î ÛÌË͇θ- Ì˚È ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌËÍ-ÒÔ‡‚Ó˜ÌËÍ ·‡ÌÌ˚ı ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÈ Ë ÍÂÔÍËı ÒÎӂ˜ÂÍ ÌÂψÍÓ- „Ó ÒÓΉ‡ÚÒÍÓ„Ó Ê‡„Ó̇. èÓÌflÚÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ ÙÓÌÚÓ‚˚Ï ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇Ï, ÔÓÎۘ˂¯ËÏ Â˘Â ‚ ÏËÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl Ò‚Ó˛ flÁ˚ÍÓ‚Û˛ ÔÓ‰- „ÓÚÓ‚ÍÛ ÔÓ‰ ÛÍÓ‚Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÓÏ ËÌÚÂÎÎË„ÂÌÚ- Ì˚ı ÒÚ‡Û¯ÂÍ-«ÌÂÏÓÍ», ËÏÂÌÌÓ Ú‡ÍËı ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ÚË‚Ì˚ı Ò‰ÒÚ‚ ·Óθ¯Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ì‰ÓÒÚ‡‚‡ÎÓ ‰Îfl ‰ÓÒÚËÊÂÌËfl Ê·ÂÏÓ„Ó «Ô‡„χÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ˝ÙÙÂÍÚ‡» ÔË Ó·˘ÂÌËË Ò ‚ÓÂÌÌÓÔÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË.

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • å. ñËÎÎËÌ

О нашей профессии

àÚ‡Í, Í‡Í ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂθ ÔÓÌflÎ, ˜¸ ‰Ó ÒËı ÔÓ ¯Î‡ Ó ÔÓÍÓÎÂÌËË, Í ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ ÔË- ̇‰ÎÂÊ‡Ú Ì‡ÒÚ‡‚ÌËÍË ‡‚ÚÓ‡, Ú‡Í ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ- ‡ ÔÂÂÈÚË Í ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ì˲ Ó ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ı ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θ- ÌÓ„Ó ÔÛÚË. åÓË Ò‚ÂÒÚÌËÍË, Ӊ˂¯ËÂÒfl ‚ ÔÂ‚ÓÈ ÔÓÎÓ‚ËÌ 20-ı, ˝ÚÓ Í‡Í ·˚ ÔÂ- ‚˚È ˝¯ÂÎÓÌ «ÒÓ‚ÂÚÒÍËı β‰ÂÈ» – Ì ‚ ÒÏ˚ÒΠ«ÒÓ‚ÓÍ» ËÎË «homo sovieticus», ‡ ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚË‚ÌÓ-ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ˝ÚÓ- „Ó ÚÂÏË̇. å˚ Ó‰ËÎËÒ¸ Ë ÒÙÓÏË- Ó‚‡ÎËÒ¸ ‚ „Ó‰˚ ÒÓ‚ÂÚÒÍÓÈ ‚·ÒÚË, Ë ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Ó ËÁ Ì‡Ò ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχÎË ÚÓ„‰‡¯ÌË ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl ÊËÁÌË, ‚Íβ˜‡fl  ˉÂÓÎӄ˘ÂÒÍÓ ӷ‡ÏÎÂÌËÂ, Í‡Í ÂÒÚÂÒÚ- ‚ÂÌÌ˚Â Ë ÌÂÓÒÔÓËÏ˚Â. ê‡Á‡ÁË‚¯‡flÒfl ‚ÓÈ̇, ̇ԇ‰ÂÌË „ËÚ- ÎÂÓ‚ÒÍÓÈ ÉÂχÌËË Ì‡ ̇¯Û Ó‰ËÌÛ – ëëëê – Ïӄ· ‚˚Á‚‡Ú¸ Û Ì‡Ò Â‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌ- ÌÛ˛ Â‡ÍˆË˛: ÌÂωÎÂÌÌÓ ÔËÌflÚ¸ Û˜‡Ò- ÚË ‚ ·ËÚ‚Â ÒÓ ÒÏÂÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚‡„ÓÏ. ÑÓ·- Ó‚ÓθÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÛÔÎÂÌË ̇ ‚ÓÂÌÌÛ˛ ÒÎÛÊ·Û ÒÚ‡ÎÓ Ò ÔÂ‚˚ı ‰ÌÂÈ ‚ÓÈÌ˚ χÒ- ÒÓ‚˚Ï fl‚ÎÂÌËÂÏ, ̇ ˝ÚÓÏ, ‚ ˜‡ÒÚÌÓÒÚË, Ë ÓÒÌÓ‚˚‚‡ÎÓÒ¸ ÙÓÏËÓ‚‡ÌË ̇Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÓÔÓΘÂÌËfl, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎËÎÓ ıÓÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÚ˘ÌÓ ÍÓÏÔÂÌÒËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÓÍÓ‚Ó ÔÓωÎÂÌË ‚ ‡ÎËÁ‡ˆËË ÏÓ·ËÎËÁ‡ˆËÓÌÌ˚ı Ô·ÌÓ‚. ÑÎfl ÏÂÌfl ΢ÌÓ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ˝ÚË ÒÓ·˚ÚËfl Ó͇Á‡ÎËÒ¸ ÒÚËÏÛÎÓÏ Í ‚˚·ÓÛ ÔÓÙÂÒÒË- Ó̇θÌÓ„Ó ÔÛÚË. åÌÂ, Ô‡‚‰‡, ÚÓθÍÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ËÒÔÓÎÌËÚ¸Òfl ¯ÂÒÚ̇‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÎÂÚ, Ë ÒÂ‰Ì˛˛ ¯ÍÓÎÛ Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÚ¸ fl ¢ ÛÒÔÂÚ¸ Ì ÏÓ„, ÌÓ Á‡ÚÓ Ò ‰ÂÚÒÚ‚‡ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÓ ‚·‰ÂÎ ÌÂψÍËÏ flÁ˚ÍÓÏ: Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÓÁ‡- ·ÓÚËÎËÒ¸ ÏÓË Ó‰ËÚÂÎË, ÏÌÓ„Ó ÎÂÚ ÔÓ‡- ·ÓÚ‡‚¯Ë ‚ Á‡„‡ÌÔ‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ı ç‡Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÍÓÏËÒÒ‡ˇڇ ‚̯ÌÂÈ ÚÓ- „Ó‚ÎË. Ç ‡‚„ÛÒÚ 1941 „., ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÎÛ- ˜Ë‚ Ô‡ÒÔÓÚ, fl ÔÓ‰‡Î Á‡fl‚ÎÂÌË ̇ ÍÛÒ˚ ‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ ÔË ‚ÓÂÌÌÓÏ Ù‡- ÍÛθÚÂÚ 2-„Ó åÉèààü (‚ÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËË Ì‡ ˝ÚÓÈ ·‡Á ·˚Î ÒÙÓÏËÓ‚‡Ì Çààü äÄ, Ì˚Ì ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍËÈ Ù‡ÍÛθÚÂÚ ÇÓ- ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÛÌË‚ÂÒËÚÂÚ‡), ÍÛ‰‡ Ë ·˚Î Á‡˜ËÒ- ÎÂÌ Í‡Í ÍÛÒ‡ÌÚ-‰Ó·Ó‚ÓΈ. åÓfl ‚ÓÂÌ̇fl ÒÎÛÊ·‡ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇ·Ҹ 15 ÎÂÚ, ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ÍÓÚÓ˚ı fl Ì ÚÓθÍÓ

10

Û˜ËÎÒfl Ë ÔÂÔÓ‰‡‚‡Î, ÌÓ Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÎ Ò‡- Ï˚ ‡ÁÌÓÓ·‡ÁÌ˚ ‚ˉ˚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚, ‚Íβ˜‡fl ÚÂıÏÂÒfl˜ÌÛ˛ ·ÓÂ‚Û˛ ÒÚ‡ÊËÓ‚ÍÛ ‚ ̇˜‡Î 1945 „. ̇ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓÒ- ÚË ÓÙˈÂ‡-ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ‡Á‚‰Óډ· ¯Ú‡·‡ 42 ÒÚÂÎÍÓ‚Ó„Ó ÍÓÔÛÒ‡, ‚Ó‚‡‚¯Â- „Ó ÚÓ„‰‡ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ 3-„Ó ÅÂÎÓÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó ÙÓÌÚ‡ ‚ ÇÓÒÚÓ˜ÌÓÈ èÛÒÒËË. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ ‚ÂҸχ Ò‚ÓÂÓ·‡ÁÌÛ˛ ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ‚ÓÂÌ-

ÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ˆÂÎÂÒÓÓ·‡ÁÌ ÓÒ‚Â- ÚËÚ¸ ‚ ÒÔˆˇÎËÁËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÏ ËÁ‰‡ÌËË, Ë Á‰ÂÒ¸ fl ̇ ÌÂÈ ÓÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡Ú¸Òfl Ì ·Û‰Û, ÚÂÏ ·ÓÎÂÂ, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓÚ ÔÂËÓ‰ ÏÓÂÈ «Í‡¸Â- ˚» ˜‡ÒÚ˘ÌÓ ÓÒ‚Â˘ÂÌ ÏÌÓ˛ ‚ ÊÛ̇Πëèê «åË ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡» («ä‡Í ÏÓÎÓ‰˚ Ï˚

·˚ÎË

ç‡ «¯ËÓÍÛ˛ ‰ÓÓ„Û» ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÂ- ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ fl ‚˚¯ÂÎ ‚ÒÍÓ ÔÓÒΠ‰ÂÏÓ·Ë- ÎËÁ‡ˆËË, ‡ ÚӘ̠– ‚ 1957 „., ÍÓ„‰‡ ÛÊ ÁÂÎ˚Ï ÒÔˆˇÎËÒÚÓÏ fl, ̇ÍÓ̈, ‚ÔÂ-

‚˚ ÔÓԇΠ‚ ͇·ËÌÛ ÒËÌıÓÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰˜Ë͇. èÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚÓ‚ ÒÎÓÊËÎÓÒ¸ ‚ ̇¯ÂÈ ÒÚ‡ÌÂ, ÏÓÊÌÓ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸, ÒÚËıËÈÌÓ. ç‡ÒÚÓfl˘Â ·Ó-

‚Ó Í¢ÂÌË ÔÂ‚Ó ÔÓÍÓÎÂÌË ÔÓÎÛ˜Ë- ÎÓ ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl ç˛Ì·Â„ÒÍÓ„Ó ÔÓˆÂÒÒ‡

1946 „., ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ ÏÂÏÛ‡˚ Ó ÍÓÚÓÓÏ

ËÁ‰‡Ì˚ Ó‰ÌÓÈ ËÁ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ëˆ, Ì˚Ì Á‰‡‚ÒÚ‚Û˛˘ÂÈ í.ë. ëÚÛÔÌËÍÓ‚ÓÈ («çË- ˜Â„Ó, ÍÓÏ Ô‡‚‰˚», å., «ÇÓÁ‚‡˘ÂÌË»,

2003 „.). àÏÂÌÌÓ ˝Ú‡ ·Ë„‡‰‡, ÒÚ‡¯ËÏ ‚

ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ·˚Î ÔÂÔÓ‰‡‚‡ÚÂθ Çààü äÄ Ö‚„ÂÌËÈ Ä·‡Ïӂ˘ ÉÓÙχÌ, ̇‰ÓÎ„Ó ÒÚ‡- · ÍÓÒÚflÍÓÏ Á‡Óʉ‡˛˘Â„ÓÒfl ˆÂı‡. ä‡Í Ï·‰¯ËÈ ÍÓÎ΄‡ ÔÓ Í‡Ù‰Â, fl ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÎ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÌÂÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÔËÓ·- ˘ËÚ¸Òfl Í ÓÔ˚ÚÛ Ö‚„ÂÌËfl Ä·‡Ïӂ˘‡ Ë ‰‡Ê ÔÓÈÚË ÔÓ‰ Â„Ó ÛÍÓ‚Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÓÏ ÔÂ- ‚˘ÌÛ˛ ÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚÂθÌÛ˛ ÚÂÌËÓ‚ÍÛ. åÓfl «ÒËÌıÓÌ̇fl ÔÂϸÂ‡» – Ò˙ÂÁ‰ ëÓ˛Á‡ ÍÓÏÔÓÁËÚÓÓ‚ ëëëê ‚ ÔÓÏ¢ÂÌËË Ì˚̯ÌÂ„Ó ñ˚„‡ÌÒÍÓ„Ó Ú‡Ú‡ (ÓÌ Ê – «ü»). çÂÚÛ‰ÌÓ Ò· Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÚÂχÚËÍ ڇÍÓ ÏÂÓÔËflÚË – Ì ÔÓ‰‡ÓÍ ‰Îfl ̇˜Ë̇˛˘Â„Ó ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚ‡. ëÏÂÒ¸ ‚˚ÒÔÂÌÌÂ„Ó Ô‡ÙÓÒ‡ Ò ÏÛÁ˚Íӂ‰- ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ ÚÂÏËÌÓÎÓ„ËÂÈ Ë ıÛ‰ÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚- ÏË ‡ÎËflÏË, ˜Â‰ӂ‡ÌË ҇Ï˚ı ‡ÁÌÓ-

»,

‹ 1/5, 2001 „., ÒÒ.40 – 53).

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • å. ñ‚ËÎÎËÌ„

Ó·‡ÁÌ˚ı χÌÂ Â˜Ë Ë ‡ÍˆÂÌÚÓ‚ (ÓÚ ÔË- ·‡ÎÚËÈÒÍÓ„Ó ‰Ó ͇‚͇ÁÒÍÓ„Ó Ë Ò‰Ì‡ÁË- ‡ÚÒÍÓ„Ó), ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ ̇Û¯ÂÌË „·- ÏÂÌÚ‡ Ë ‚˚Á‚‡Ì̇fl ˝ÚËÏ ÒÔ¯͇ – ‚ÓÚ, ÔÓËÒÚËÌÂ, ˆÂÎ˚È ·ÛÍÂÚ ÔÂÔflÚÒÚ‚ËÈ, ÔÂ- ‚‡˘‡‚¯Ëı ÔÂ‚Ӊ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ËÈ ÒÚËÔÎ- ˜ÂÈÁ. ÑÓÎÊÂÌ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸, ˜ÚÓ ‰Îfl ÏÂÌfl, Í‡Í ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ÓÔ˚ÚÌÓ„Ó Ë Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÓ ‚·‰Â˛- ˘Â„Ó flÁ˚ÍÓÏ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇, „·‚ÌÓÈ ÚÛ‰- ÌÓÒÚ¸˛ Ó͇Á‡Î‡Ò¸ ‚Ò ÊÂ Í‡Í ‡Á ÌÂ‚ÌÓ- ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θ̇fl ̇„ÛÁ͇, ËÎË ÒÚÂÒÒ, ıÓÚfl Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó ÚÂÏË̇ Ï˚ ÚÓ„‰‡ ¢ Ì Á̇ÎË. íflÊÂΠ‚ÒÂ„Ó ·˚ÎÓ Ì ÚÂflÚ¸ ÍÓ̈ÂÌÚ‡ˆËË, Ì ÓÚ‚ÎÂ͇ڸÒfl ÓÚ Â˜Ë Ó‡ÚÓ‡, Ì ÚÂflÚ¸ ÌËÚË ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. Ç ˜‡ÒÚÌÓÒÚË, ÍËÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏË Ï„ÌÓ‚ÂÌËflÏË Ó͇Á˚‚‡ÎËÒ¸ ÒÏÂÌ˚, ÓÚÍ˚‚‡˛˘‡flÒfl ‰‚Â¸ ͇·ËÌ˚ Ò‡ÁÛ Ê ̇Û¯‡Î‡ ̇ÒÚÓÈ, Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÏÓ„ ÔÓÒÚÓ ÔÂ‚‡Ú¸Òfl. èÂ‚Ӊ ̇ÒÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓ„ÎÓ˘‡Î ‚ÌËχÌËÂ, ˜ÚÓ Ó‰ËÌ ‡Á, ̇‰Â‚‡fl ÔË ÒÏÂÌ ҂ӷӉÌÛ˛ Ô‡Û Ì‡Û¯ÌËÍÓ‚, fl Ì Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Î, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÎÂʇ‚ 20 ÏË- ÌÛÚ Ì‡ ‡·‡ÊÛ ·ÏÔ˚ ÓÌË Ì‡Í‡ÎËÎËÒ¸ ‰Ó ÌÂÒÚÂÔËÏÓÒÚË, ‡ ÍÓ„‰‡ Û¯Ë Ì‡˜‡ÎË „Ó- ÂÚ¸, ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ·˚ÎÓ ÛÊ ÔÓÁ‰- ÌÓ. ÇÓΉ˚Ë, Ô‡‚‰‡, ˜ÂÂÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÌÂÈ ÔÓ¯ÎË, ÌÓ ÛÓÍ Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÎÒfl ̇ ‚Ò˛ ÊËÁ̸: ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ‚Ò„‰‡ ‡ÒÔ‰ÂÎflÚ¸ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ, ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχڸ ËÌÙÓχˆË˛ ÏÌÓ„Ó͇̇θÌÓ. à ÂÒÎË ‚Ó- Ó·˘Â ÔÓÔ˚Ú‡Ú¸Òfl ‚Í‡ÚˆÂ ÒÛÏÏËÓ‚‡Ú¸, ˜ÂÏÛ fl ‚Ò Ê ̇ۘËÎÒfl Í‡Í ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚ Á‡ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÂÒflÚËÎÂÚËÈ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ- ̇θÌÓÈ Ô‡ÍÚËÍË, ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ – ÛÏÂÌË ÛÔ- ‡‚ÎflÚ¸ ÒÓ·ÓÈ, ÒÓı‡ÌflÚ¸ Ò‡ÏÓÍÓÌÚÓθ, Ì ÚÂflÚ¸Òfl ‚ ÒÎÓÊÌÓÈ Ó·ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚Í (Í‡Í flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ÓÈ, Ú‡Í Ë ÒËÚÛ‡ÚË‚ÌÓÈ). éÒÂ̸˛ ÚÓ„Ó Ê 1957 „Ó‰‡ ÏÂÌfl ‚ÔÂ- ‚˚ ‚Íβ˜ËÎË ‚ „ÛÔÔÛ ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚÓ‚ ‰Îfl ‡·ÓÚ˚, Í‡Í ÔËÌflÚÓ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸, «Ì‡ ‚˚Ò- ¯ÂÏ ÛÓ‚Ì». Ç Ò‚flÁË Ò 40-ÎÂÚËÂÏ ÓÍ- Úfl·¸ÒÍÓÈ ‚ÓβˆËË ‚ åÓÒÍ‚Û Ò˙Âı‡- ÎËÒ¸ „·‚˚ ÒӈˇÎËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËı „ÓÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚ («ÒÚ‡Ì ̇Ó‰ÌÓÈ ‰ÂÏÓÍ‡ÚËË») Ë ÛÍÓ- ‚Ó‰ËÚÂÎË ÍÓÏÏÛÌËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËı Ô‡ÚËÈ ÒÓ ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÏË‡. àı Òӂ¢‡ÌË ÔÓıÓ‰ËÎÓ ÔÓ‰ Ô‰Ò‰‡ÚÂθÒÚ‚ÓÏ ç.ë. ïÛ˘Â‚‡ ‚ ÉÂÓ-

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„Ë‚ÒÍÓÏ Á‡Î ÅÓθ¯Ó„Ó äÂÏ΂ÒÍÓ„Ó ‰‚Óˆ‡. 䇷ËÌ˚ (Ëı ·˚ÎÓ ‚ÓÒÂϸ ËÎË ‰Â- ÒflÚ¸) ·˚ÎË ÛÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÎÂÌ˚ ÌÂÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚ Á‡ÎÂ, Û ‚̯ÌÂÈ ÒÚÂÌ˚, ÔÓÚË‚ÓÔÓÎÓÊ- ÌÓÈ Ô‡‡‰ÌÓÏÛ ‚ıÓ‰Û. ÑÂ΄‡ˆËË ÒˉÂÎË ‚ÓÍÛ„ ÔflÏÓÛ„ÓθÌÓ„Ó ÒÚÓ·. ÑÛ„ ÔÓ- ÚË‚ ‰Û„‡ ‚ ÒÂ‰ËÌ ‰ÎËÌÌÓÈ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ ÔflÏÓÛ„ÓθÌË͇ ‚ÓÒÒ‰‡ÎË ç.ë. ïÛ˘Â‚ Ë å‡Ó ñÁ˝‰ÛÌ (Óı·ʉÂÌË ÒÓ‚ÂÚÒÍÓ-ÍË- Ú‡ÈÒÍËı ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÈ ·˚ÎÓ Â˘Â ‚ÔÂ‰Ë). ꘸ ÍËÚ‡ÈÒÍÓ„Ó ÇÂÎËÍÓ„Ó ÍÓÏ˜Â„Ó ÔÂ- ‚ӉË·Ҹ ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ Ò ÏÂÒÚ‡ ÔÓÒΉÓ- ‚‡ÚÂθÌÓ Â„Ó Î˘Ì˚Ï ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓÏ – ÍËڇȈÂÏ, Ï˚ Ê ÒËÌıÓÌÌÓ «Ú‡ÌÒÎËÓ- ‚‡ÎË»  ̇ Ò‚ÓË flÁ˚ÍË. èÓÏÌËÚÒfl, Ì ‚Ò ÙÓÏÛÎËÓ‚ÍË ‚Â‰Û˘Â„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ·˚ÎË ÍÓÂÍÚÌ˚, ÌÓ ‚ ˆÂÎÓÏ Ó·Ó¯ÎÓÒ¸ ·ÂÁ ÎflÔÓ‚. ꘸ å‡Ó ñÁ˝‰Û̇ ÌÂÓ‰ÌÓ- Í‡ÚÌÓ ÔÂ˚‚‡Î‡Ò¸ ‡ÔÎÓ‰ËÒÏÂÌÚ‡ÏË, ‚ ˜‡ÒÚÌÓÒÚË, ÔÓÒÎÂ Â„Ó Á̇ÏÂÌËÚÓÈ Ù‡Á˚ Ó ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ «‚ÂÚÂ Ò ÇÓÒÚÓ͇ Ó‰ÓÎÂÂÚ ‚ÂÚÂ Ò á‡Ô‡‰‡» (‚ˉËÏÓ, ÏÌÓ„Ë ÚÓθÍÓ ÒÔÛÒÚfl ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÎÂÚ Á‡‰ÛχÎËÒ¸ Ó ÚÓÏ, „‰Â ÊÂ, ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÔÓıÓ‰ËÚ ˝Ú‡ „‡Ì¸ ÏÂÊ‰Û «ÇÓÒÚÓÍÓÏ» Ë «á‡Ô‡‰ÓÏ». çÓ, ÍÚÓ ÒÚ‡Ó ÔÓÏflÌÂÚ, ÚÓÏÛ „·Á ‚ÓÌ!). Ç ÔÓÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Ë „Ó‰˚ ‚ ÉÂÓ„Ë‚- ÒÍÓÏ Á‡Î ‰Ó‚Ó‰ËÎÓÒ¸ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ Ì ‡Á. èÓıÓ‰ËÎË Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ë Á‡Ò‰‡ÌËfl èÓÎËÚË- ˜ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ÍÓÌÒÛθڇÚË‚ÌÓ„Ó ÍÓÏËÚÂÚ‡ (èää) é„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËË ÒÚ‡Ì LJ¯‡‚ÒÍÓ„Ó ‰Ó„Ó‚Ó‡, Ù‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË – ÏÌÓ„ÓÒÚÓÓÌ- ÌË Òӂ¢‡ÌËfl „·‚ ÒӈˇÎËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËı „ÓÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚. Ç̇˜‡Î ÓÌË ÔÓÚÂ͇ÎË (ÔÓ Í‡ÈÌÂÈ ÏÂ ‚̯ÌÂ) ‚ ÔËÒÚÓÈÌÓÈ, ‰ÛÊÂÒÍÓÈ ‡ÚÏÓÒÙÂÂ, Ӊ̇ÍÓ ÒÓ ‚ÂÏÂ- ÌÂÏ ÔÓÎËÚ˘ÂÒÍË ‡ÁÌӄ·ÒËfl, ‚ÓÁÌË- ͇‚¯Ë ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ‚ÂÚÒÍËÏ ÛÍÓ‚Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÓÏ Ë ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË Ò‚ÓÂÌ‡‚Ì˚ÏË ˜ÎÂ̇ÏË ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÒÚ‚‡, ‚˚ÎË‚‡ÎËÒ¸ ‚ ‚ÂҸχ ·Û- Ì˚ ҈ÂÌ˚, ËÌˈËËÛÂÏ˚ ç.ë. ïÛ˘Â- ‚˚Ï. äÓ„‰‡ ‡Î·‡ÌÒÍËÈ ÎˉÂ ùÌ‚Â ïÓ- ‰Ê‡ ÔÓfl‚ËÎ ÒÚÓÔÚË‚ÓÒÚ¸, çËÍËÚ‡ ëÂ„‚˘ Ì ÒÚÂÒÌflÎÒfl ‚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËflı ÔÓ Â„Ó ‡‰ÂÒÛ. èËÂı‡‚¯ÂÏÛ ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ ù. ïÓ‰ÊË åÂıÏÂÚÛ òÂıÛ ·˚ÎÓ ÓÚ͇Á‡ÌÓ ‚ ‰ÓÔÛÒÍÂ Í Òӂ¢‡Ì˲, Ò ÙÓÏÛÎËÓ‚- ÍÓÈ, ˜ÚÓ, ÏÓÎ, Ò„ӉÌfl ÚÓ‚. ïӉʇ

11

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • å. ñËÎÎËÌ

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Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ Ì‡Ò „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ÒÓ Ò‚ÓËÏ Á‡ÏÂ- ÒÚËÚÂÎÂÏ, ‡ Á‡‚Ú‡, „Îfl‰Ë¯¸, Ô˯ÎÂÚ ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ Ò·fl Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ¯ÓÙÂ‡, ‡ ÚÓ Ë ÔÓ- ÒÚÓ ¯Ú‡Ì˚ ÔÓ‚ÂÒËÚ Ì‡ ÒÔËÌÍÛ ÒÚÛ·. ÑÂ- ΄‡Ú‡Ï Äη‡ÌËË ·˚ÎÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌÓ ÔÓ- ÍËÌÛÚ¸ Á‡Î, ‡ ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÌË Ì ҉·ÎË ˝ÚÓ„Ó, ·˚Î Ó·˙fl‚ÎÂÌ ÔÂÂ˚‚, βÒÚ˚ ÔÓ„‡ÒËÎË, ÓÙˈˇÌÚ˚ ̇˜‡ÎË Û·Ë‡Ú¸ ÒÓ ÒÚÓÎÓ‚ ·ÛÚ˚ÎÍË Ò ‚Ó‰ÓÈ Ë ÔÂÔÂθÌˈ˚, ‡ Û·Ó˘Ëˆ˚ – Ô˚ÎÂÒÓÒ‡ÏË ˜ËÒÚËÚ¸ ÍÓ‚˚. äÓ̘ÌÓ, «Ì‡Û¯ËÚÂÎË ÍÓÌ‚Â̈ËË» ‚˚- ÌÛʉÂÌ˚ ·˚ÎË Û·‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ÓÒ‚ÓflÒË, Ë ˜Â- ÂÁ ÌÂÍÓÚÓÓ ‚ÂÏfl ‡·ÓÚ‡ ‚ÓÁÓ·ÌÓ‚Ë- ·Ҹ ·ÂÁ ÌËı. ÑÎfl ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚÓ‚ ‡·ÓÚ‡ ‚ äÂÏΠ·˚· ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌ˚Ï ËÒÔ˚Ú‡ÌËÂÏ. ÇÒ ·˚ÎÓ ÔÓ‰ ÍÓÌÚÓÎÂÏ, Ú‡Í Í‡Í ‚ ‡ÔÔ‡‡Ú ·˚ÎÓ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ÒÓÚÛ‰ÌËÍÓ‚, ÓÚ΢ÌÓ ‚·‰Â- ˛˘Ëı ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ÏË flÁ˚͇ÏË Ë ÔÓ ‰ÓÎ- „Û ÒÎÛÊ·˚ ÓÚÒÎÂÊË‚‡˛˘Ëı ‚ÂÒ¸ ıÓ‰ ‰Â·‡- ÚÓ‚. ä‡ÍËÂ-ÎË·Ó ÂÔÂÒÒË‚Ì˚ ÏÂ˚ Í ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇Ï, ÍÓ̘ÌÓ, Ì ÔËÏÂÌflÎËÒ¸, ÌÓ ÓÚ·Ó ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ËÎÒfl ÊÂÒÚÍËÈ. ë‡Ï˚ ‚˚ÒÓÍË Ú·ӂ‡ÌËfl Ô‰˙fl‚ÎflÎËÒ¸ Í ÔÂ- Â‚Ó‰Û Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í. ÇÓ-ÔÂ‚˚ı, Â„Ó ÒÎÛ¯‡ÎÓ Ò‡ÏÓ ‚˚ÒÓÍÓ ̇˜‡Î¸ÒÚ‚Ó, ‡ ‚Ó- ‚ÚÓ˚ı, ÓÚ Â„Ó Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ Á‡‚ËÒÂÎ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ̇ ‚Ò ÓÒڇθÌ˚ flÁ˚ÍË. à ̇ Á‡Ò‰‡ÌËflı èää, Ë Ì‡ ÒÂÒÒËflı ëÓ‚ÂÚ‡ ˝ÍÓÌÓÏ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ‚Á‡ËÏÓÔÓÏÓ˘Ë (ëùÇ) ÒÎÓÊÌÂÈ¯Û˛ Á‡‰‡˜Û ‰Îfl ÒËÌıÓ- ÌËÒÚÓ‚ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îfl· ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ‡ ‚ ÏÌÓ- „ÓÒÚÓÓÌÌÂÈ ‰‡ÍˆËÓÌÌÓÈ ÍÓÏËÒÒËË (Í ÚÓÏÛ Ê ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÓıӉ˂¯‡fl ‚ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ- ͇ı ÏÂÊ‰Û ÔÎÂ̇Ì˚ÏË Á‡Ò‰‡ÌËflÏË, ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸, ÔÓ ÌÓ˜‡Ï). Ç Í‡·ËÌ ÎÂʇÎË ÚÓÎ- ÒÚ˚ ԇÔÍË Ò ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ÏË ÔÓÂÍÚÓ‚ Ó·ÒÛÊ- ‰‡ÂÏ˚ı ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚÓ‚ ̇ ‰‚Ûı flÁ˚͇ı, ÔÎ˛Ò ˆÂ·fl ÒÚÓÔ͇ ÎËÒÚÓ‚ Ò ÔÓÔ‡‚͇ÏË (Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ ÛÊ ÔÂ‚‰ÂÌÌ˚ÏË). èÓ ıÓ‰Û ‰Â- ·‡ÚÓ‚ ÔËıÓ‰ËÎÓÒ¸ ÓÚ˚ÒÍË‚‡Ú¸ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ- ‚Û˛˘Ë ÏÂÒÚ‡ ‚ Ó·ÓËı ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ı Ë Ì‡ ıÓ‰Û ‚ ÛÒÚÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ ‚ÌÓÒËÚ¸ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËfl ‚ ÚÂÍÒÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡, ‚ ÚÓ˜ÌÓÒÚË ÓÚ‡Ê‡˛˘Ë ÔÓÔ‡‚ÍË, Ô‰·„‡ÂÏ˚Â Í ËÒıÓ‰ÌÓÏÛ ÚÂÍÒÚÛ ÔÓÂÍÚ‡. Ä ˜ÚÓ ‰Â·ڸ, ÂÒÎË ÔÓ- Ô‡‚͇ Í ÌÂψÍÓÏÛ ÚÂÍÒÚÛ Ò‚Ó‰ËÚÒfl Í Á‡- ÏÂÌ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‡ÚËÍÎfl ÌÂÓÔ‰Â-

ÎÂÌÌ˚Ï? ç‡ ÔÂ‚˚ı ÔÓ‡ı ‡·ÓÚ‡ ÒËθÌÓ ÓÒÎÓÊÌfl·Ҹ Â˘Â Ë ÌÂÒÓ‚Ô‡‰ÂÌËÂÏ ÌÛÏÂ- ‡ˆËË ÒÚ‡Ìˈ ‚ ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ı ̇ ‡ÁÌ˚ı flÁ˚- ͇ı, ÌÓ ˜ÂÂÁ ÌÂÍÓÚÓÓ ‚ÂÏfl ˝Ú‡ ÚÛ‰- ÌÓÒÚ¸ ·˚· ÛÒÚ‡ÌÂ̇ Ò‡Ï˚Ï ÔÓÒÚ˚Ï ÒÔÓÒÓ·ÓÏ: ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ı ·˚· ‚‚‰Â̇ ‰ËÌÓÓ·‡Á̇fl ÒÍ‚ÓÁ̇fl ÌÛÏÂ‡ˆËfl ‡·Á‡- ˆÂ‚. èÓ˜ÂÏÛ-ÚÓ ‰Ó ˝ÚÓ„Ó ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ‡ÌÓ„Ó ¯ÂÌËfl ‰Ó‰ÛχÎËÒ¸ Ì Ò‡ÁÛ.

ÇÓÓ·˘Â, ̇΢ˠÚÂÍÒÚ‡ ÔË ÒËÌ- ıÓÌÌÓÏ ÔÂ‚Ӊ (̇ flÁ˚Í ÓË„Ë̇· ËÎË Ì‡ flÁ˚Í ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡), Ò Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÒÚÓÓ- Ì˚, ӷ΄˜‡ÂÚ ‡·ÓÚÛ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇, Ò ‰Û„ÓÈ Ê – ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ ÔÂ‰ ÌËÏ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌË- ÚÂθÌ˚ Á‡‰‡˜Ë (Û¯‡ÏË ÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸, „·Á‡- ÏË ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸). éÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ÊÂ, ÍÓ„‰‡ Ó‡ÚÓ ÓÚÒÚÛÔ‡ÂÚ ÓÚ ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ (˜ÚÓ Î˛·ËÎ ‰Â·ڸ ç.ë. ïÛ˘Â‚) ÎË·Ó ÔÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚ ˆÂÎ˚ ÍÛÒÍË, ËÎË ÔÛÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÒÚ‡Ìˈ‡ı (Í‡Í ã.à. ÅÂÊÌ‚), ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚÛ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl Á‡ÌËχڸÒfl ÔflÏÓ-Ú‡ÍË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ ˝Í‚ËÎË·ËÒÚËÍÓÈ. à ıÓÚfl ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ‚Ҡʠ΄˜Â, ˜ÂÏ ÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸, ‰ÓÏËÌËÛ˛˘ËÏ ËÒ- ÚÓ˜ÌËÍÓÏ ËÌÙÓχˆËË ‰Îfl ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚ‡ ‚Ò„‰‡ ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÊË‚‡fl ˜¸. 片ÓÏ Ì‡ Ô‰‚‡ËÚÂθÌÓ ÔÓ‰„ÓÚÓ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ı ˜ÂÈ, Ô‰̇Á̇˜ÂÌÌ˚ı ‰Îfl ‡Á‰‡˜Ë ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚ‡Ï ÔÓÒΠ‚˚ÒÚÛÔÎÂÌËÈ, Û ÌÂÏ- ˆÂ‚ ÔËÌflÚÓ ÔËÒ‡Ú¸ «Es gilt das gesprochene Wort» (·ÛÍ‚‡Î¸ÌÓ: «ÑÂÈÒÚ‚Ë- ÚÂθÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓËÁÌÂÒÂÌÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó»). èËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚È ÚÂÍÒÚ ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÌÓ„‰‡ Ò˚„‡Ú¸ Ò ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓÏ ÁÎÛ˛ ¯ÛÚÍÛ. ç‡ Ó‰ÌÓÏ ËÁ Á‡Ò‰‡ÌËÈ èää Á‡ÒÎۯ˂‡ÎÒfl ‰ÓÍ·‰ ÒÓ‚ÂÚÒÍÓ„Ó Ï‡¯‡Î‡, „·‚ÌÓÍÓ- Ï‡Ì‰Û˛˘Â„Ó ÇÓÓÛÊÂÌÌ˚ÏË ÒË·ÏË Ç‡¯‡‚ÒÍÓ„Ó ‰Ó„Ó‚Ó‡. èÂ‰ Â„Ó ‚˚- ÒÚÛÔÎÂÌËÂÏ ‚ Í‡Ê‰Û˛ ͇·ËÌÛ ·˚ÎË ÔÂÂ- ‰‡Ì˚ Ô‡ÔÍË Ò ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÒÂÍÂÚÌ˚Ï ÚÂÍÒÚÓÏ Â„Ó ‰ÓÍ·‰‡, Ë ÔÂ‰‡‚¯Ë Ëı ÓÙˈÂ˚ ÓÒÚ‡ÎËÒ¸ Û ‰‚ÂÂÈ Í‡·ËÌ˚, ˜ÚÓ- ·˚ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ Ô‡ÔÍË Ó·‡ÚÌÓ Ò‡ÁÛ Ê ÔÓÒΠÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. èÂ‚Ӊ ÔÓ- ‚ÓÂÌÌÓÏÛ ˜ÂÚÍÓÈ Â˜Ë Ï‡¯‡Î‡, ‰‡ ¢ ÔË Ì‡Î˘ËË ÚÂÍÒÚ‡, ‰‡‚‡ÎÒfl ΄ÍÓ. ç‡- ÍÓ̈ ‰ÓÍ·‰˜ËÍ „Ó‚ÓËÚ: «Ä ÚÂÔÂ¸ ‡Á- ¯ËÚ ‰ÓÎÓÊËÚ¸ ‚‡Ï ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÍÓ΢Â- ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚Â, ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÁÛ˛˘ËÂ

12

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • å. ñ‚ËÎÎËÌ„

·ÓÂÒÔÓÒÓ·ÌÓÒÚ¸ „ÛÔÔËÓ‚ÍË ‚ÓÈÒÍ

èÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍË ÔÂ‚ÂÎË ‰Ûı, ̇Á‚‡ÌËfl ‚ˉӂ ‚ÓÓÛÊÂÌËfl ÚÛ‰ÌÓÒÚÂÈ Ì Ô‰- ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú, ‡ ˆËÙ˚, ÓÌË ˆËÙ˚ Ë ÂÒÚ¸, ˜ËÚ‡È Ëı ̇ Ò‚ÓÂÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ Ò ÎËÒÚ‡, Ë ‚ÒÂ. çÓ Ì ÚÛÚ ÚÓ ·˚ÎÓ… éÚÍ˚‚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Û˛ ÒÚ‡ÌˈÛ, fl ۂˉÂÎ ÒÚÓηËÍ ÚÂÏËÌÓ‚, ‡ fl‰ÓÏ – ÔËÔËÒÍÛ ÍÛÔÌ˚ÏË ·ÛÍ‚‡ÏË:

ñàîêõ èÖêÖÇéÑàíú çÄ ëãìï! ÇˉËÏÓ, ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ ÒÂÍÂÚÌÓÒÚË ˝ÚËı ‰‡Ì- Ì˚ı Ì ‰ÓÔÛÒ͇· Ëı ‚ÓÒÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl ‚ ̇¯Ëı ‡·Ó˜Ëı ˝ÍÁÂÏÔÎfl‡ı. ïÓÓ¯ËÈ ÛÓÍ ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚÛ. èÓÏÌË, ˜ÚÓ ËÌÙÓχ- ˆË˛ Ú˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχڸ ‚ Á‚ÛÍÓ‚ÓÈ ÙÓÏÂ, ‡ ÓÒڇθÌÓ – ÚÓθÍÓ ÌÂÓ·flÁ‡- ÚÂθ̇fl ‰Ó·‡‚͇. ç‡ ˝ÚÓÏ, ÍÒÚ‡ÚË, ÒΉÛ- ÂÚ Ú‡ÍÊ Á‡ÓÒÚflÚ¸ ‚ÌËχÌË ÔË Ó·Û˜Â- ÌËË ÒËÌıÓÌÌÓÏÛ ÔÂ‚ӉÛ, Ë Ì ۂÎÂ͇ڸÒfl ÛÔ‡ÊÌÂÌËflÏË, ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌ˚- ÏË Ì‡ Ô˂ΘÂÌËË ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚ı ÚÂÍÒÚÓ‚. äÓ̘ÌÓ, ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌ˚È ÔÛÚ¸ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇-ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚ‡ ‡ÁÌÓÓ·‡ÁÂÌ Ë ËÁ‚ËÎËÒÚ. lj¸ ÚÂχÚË͇ ÏÂÓÔËflÚËÈ, Ó·ÒÎÛÊË‚‡ÂÏ˚ı ËÏ, Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË Ì Á̇- ÂÚ Ó„‡Ì˘ÂÌËÈ. ÇÒÂ‚Â‰Û˘Ëı ÒÔˆˇÎËÒ- ÚÓ‚ Ì ·˚‚‡ÂÚ, ÌÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÔËÁ̇Ì- Ì˚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍË-ÛÌË‚ÂÒ‡Î˚ (‡Ì„Î. allroundmen, ÌÂÏ. Generalisten), ÌÓ Ëı ÛÌË‚ÂÒ‡ÎËÁÏ – Ì ‚ÒÂÁ̇ÈÒÚ‚Ó, ‡ ·Ó„‡- Ú˚È ‡ÁÌÓÒÚÓÓÌÌËÈ ÓÔ˚Ú ‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË ÒÓ ÒÔÓÒÓ·ÌÓÒÚ¸˛ Í ËÌÚÂÌÒË‚ÌÓÏÛ Ò‡ÏÓÓ·Û- ˜ÂÌ˲ ÔÓ‰ ÒÚÓ„ËÏ Ò‡ÏÓÍÓÌÚÓÎÂÏ. ëËÌıÓÌÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÔË ‚ÒÂÈ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÔË‚ÎÂ͇ÚÂθÌÓÒÚË Ë ˝ÙÙÂÍÚÌÓÒÚË ÌË ‚ ÍÓÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ì ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡Ú¸Òfl Í‡Í ÌÂ͇fl ‚Â¯Ë̇ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍÓ„Ó Ï‡Ò- ÚÂÒÚ‚‡. «å‡Ï˚ ‚ÒflÍË ÌÛÊÌ˚, χÏ˚ ‚Òfl- ÍË ‚‡ÊÌ˚» – ‚˚ÒÓÍÓÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌ˚È ÔÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ, ·ÂÁ ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó, ̇ÔËÏÂ, Ì ӷıÓ‰flÚÒfl ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ ÔÂ„ӂÓ˚ ̇ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‚˚ÒÓÍÓÏ ÛÓ‚Ì (‡ ‰Ó ÒÂ‰ËÌ˚ XX ‚Â͇ ÓÌ Ù‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÓÒ- Ú‡‚‡ÎÒfl ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï ÒÔÓÒÓ·ÓÏ ÛÒÚÌÓ„Ó ÏÂÊ˙flÁ˚ÍÓ‚Ó„Ó Ó·˘ÂÌËfl) ÌË ‚ ˜ÂÏ Ì ÛÒ- ÚÛÔ‡ÂÚ ÔÓ Á̇˜ËÏÓÒÚË ÒËÌıÓÌÌÓÏÛ, Ì „Ó‚Ófl ÛÊÂ Ó Ò‡Ï˚ı ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ‚ˉ‡ı ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ – ÓÚ ‚˚ÒÓÍÓÒÔˆË- ‡ÎËÁËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓ„Ó Ì‡Û˜ÌÓ„Ó ‰Ó ÔÓ˝Ú˘ÂÒÍÓ-

».

О нашей профессии

„Ó Ë ‰‡Ï‡ÚÛ„˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó Ë Ú.‰. ç ÒΉÛÂÚ Á‡·˚‚‡Ú¸, ˜ÚÓ Ë ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Ó ÒËÌıÓÌËÒ- ÚÓ‚ Ì Á‡Ï˚͇ÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ «Ó‰ÌÓÏ» ‚Ë- ‰Â ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚË, ÌÓ Ò ÛÒÔÂıÓÏ ÔÓfl‚ÎflÂÚ Ò·fl Ë Ì‡ ‰Û„Ëı ÔÓÔˢ‡ı, ‚ ÚÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ Ë ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚, ÓÔ- Ó‚Â„‡fl ̇ Ô‡ÍÚËÍ ÔËÌflÚÓ ̇ á‡Ô‡‰Â ÒÚÂÂÓÚËÔÌÓ ‡Á„‡Ì˘ÂÌË ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÈ

interpreter – translator” ËÎË ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ “interprète – traducteur”, “Dolmetscher – Übersetzer”, “tolk – vertaler” Ë Ú..

á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡fl ˝ÚÓÚ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÓÚ˚‚Ó˜- Ì˚È Ó·ÁÓ ÔÓȉÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÏÌÓ˛ Á‡ ‰Ó·˚ı ¯ÂÒÚ¸‰ÂÒflÚ ÎÂÚ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓ„Ó ÔÛÚË, ıÓ˜Û ‚ÂÌÛÚ¸Òfl Í Ì‡˜‡Î¸Ì˚Ï ÔÓÎÓÊÂÌËflÏ ˝ÚËı Á‡ÏÂÚÓÍ. èÓÙÂÒÒËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ÔÓÎ̇ ÔÓÚË‚Ó˜ËÈ, Ë ËÁ·‡‚¯Â„Ó Â ‚ÒÂ¸ÂÁ ΄͇fl ÊËÁ̸ Ì ÓÊˉ‡ÂÚ. çÓ Ó̇, Í‡Í ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ë ‰Û„ËÂ, Ô‰ÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ ·Î‡- „ÓÔËflÚÌÂȯË ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË ‰Îfl ‡Ò¯Ë- ÂÌËfl Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ÍÛ„ÓÁÓ‡, ÍÓÌÚ‡ÍÚÓ‚ Ò Î˛‰¸ÏË, ̇ÍÓÔÎÂÌËfl ÊËÁÌÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÓÔ˚Ú‡. èÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ- ˜ËÍÓ‚ – fl „Ó‚Ó˛ ‚ ÔÂ‚Û˛ Ó˜Â‰¸ Ó ÒËÌıÓÌËÒÚ‡ı, Í‡Í Ì‡Ë·ÓΠ·ÎËÁÍÓÏ ÏÌ ÍÛ„Â – ‚˚‡·‡Ú˚‚‡ÂÚ ‚ Ò‚ÓËı ˜ÎÂ̇ı ˜Û‚- ÒÚ‚Ó ÍÓÎ΄ˇθÌÓÒÚË, ‚Á‡ËÏÓÛ‚‡ÊÂÌËfl, ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚË, ˜ÂÏÛ ‚ ÌÂ- χÎÓÈ ÏÂ ÒÔÓÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ë ı‡‡ÍÚÂ̇fl ‰Îfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó ˆÂı‡ ÔÂÂÏÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ ÔÓÍÓÎÂ- ÌËÈ, ÓÒÌÓ‚‡Ì̇fl ‚ ‡‚ÌÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË Ì‡ „Ó- ÚÓ‚ÌÓÒÚË Ï·‰¯Ëı Û˜ËÚ¸Òfl ̇ ÓÔ˚Ú ҂Ó- Ëı Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌËÍÓ‚ Ë Ì‡ Ê·ÌËË ÒÚ‡¯Ëı ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ Ò‚ÓËÏ ÔÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂÎflÏ ‚Ò «Ì‡ÊËÚÓ» ËÏË. à ¢Â. åÓÎÓ‰ÓÈ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ, ËÁ·‡‚¯ËÈ ‰Îfl Ò·fl ÔÓÙÂÒÒ˲ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇, ÓÚ- Ì˛‰¸ Ì ӷ˜ÂÌ ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚  ‡Ï͇ı ‰Ó ÍÓ̈‡ Ò‚ÓËı ‰ÌÂÈ. á̇ÌËfl, ̇‚˚ÍË Ë ˜ÂÎӂ˜ÂÒÍË ÍÓÌÚ‡ÍÚ˚, Ó·ÂÚÂÌÌ˚ ̇ ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÛÚË, ·ÂÁ ‚ÒflÍÓ„Ó ÒÓÏÌÂÌËfl Ó͇ÊÛÚ- Òfl ÔÓÎÂÁÌ˚ÏË ‚ β·ÓÈ ‰Û„ÓÈ Ó·Î‡ÒÚË ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚË, ·Û‰¸ ÚÓ ÔÓÎËÚË͇, ‰ËÔÎÓ- χÚËfl, ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚË͇, ̇Û͇, Ô‰‡„Ó„Ë͇, ÏẨÊÏÂÌÚ, ˛ËÒÔÛ‰Â̈Ëfl, ËÌÙÓχ- ÚË͇ ËÎË Í‡Í‡fl ÌË·Û‰¸ Ë̇fl, ¢ Ì ËÁ- ‚ÂÒÚ̇fl ÒÔˆˇθÌÓÒÚ¸, ÍÓÚÓ‡fl ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚ÓÁÌËÍÌÛÚ¸ ‚ ̉‡ÎÂÍÓÏ ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ.

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О нашей профессии

Профессия переводчика:

штрихи к портрету

à. áÛ·‡ÌÓ‚‡

ÑÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚, ‚ ÔÂ‚Û˛ Ó˜Â‰¸ ÛÒÚÌ˚ı, ÔËÌflÚÓ ‚ ¯ÛÚÍÛ Ì‡Á˚- ‚‡Ú¸ «‚ÚÓÓÈ ‰‚ÌÂȯÂÈ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÂÈ». Ç Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂÎÂ, ÛÊ ̇ Á‡ ˜ÂÎӂ˜ÂÒÚ‚‡, ÒÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌ Î„Ẩ‡ÌÓÈ Ç‡‚ËÎÓÌÒÍÓÈ ·‡¯ÌË, ÔÓfl‚Ë·Ҹ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚ¸ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ó·˙flÒ- ÌËÚ¸Òfl β‰flÏ, „Ó‚ÓË‚¯ËÏ Ì‡ ‡ÁÌ˚ı flÁ˚͇ı; ·ÂÁ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÚÛ‰ÌÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÒÂ- ·Â ‡Á‚ËÚË ÚÓ„Ó‚ÎË Ë ÂÏÂÒÂÎ, ÏË„‡- ˆËÓÌÌ˚Â Ë ËÌÚ„‡ˆËÓÌÌ˚ ÔÓˆÂÒÒ˚, ‚‰ÂÌË ‚ÓÈÌ˚ Ë Á‡Íβ˜ÂÌË ÏË‡ Ë ÏÌÓ„Ó ‰Û„ÓÂ. Ç ÓÎË ÔÂ‚˚ı ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë- ÍÓ‚ – ÚÓÎχ˜ÂÈ – ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡ÎË Î˛‰Ë, ‚ ÒË- ÎÛ ÚÂı ËÎË ËÌ˚ı Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ ӂ·‰Â‚- ¯Ë Ì ÚÓθÍÓ Ò‚ÓËÏ Ó‰Ì˚Ï flÁ˚ÍÓÏ, ÌÓ Ë flÁ˚ÍÓÏ ‰Û„Ó„Ó Ì‡Ó‰‡: ÔÛÚ¯ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌ- ÌËÍË, ÍÛÔˆ˚, ‚ÓÂÌÌÓÔÎÂÌÌ˚Â Ë ‡·˚, Á‡- ı‚‡˜ÂÌÌ˚ ‚ ˜ÛÊËı ÁÂÏÎflı, ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ˚, ‚˚‰‡ÌÌ˚ Á‡ÏÛÊ ‚ ÒÓ҉̠ÔÎÂÏfl. ÑÓ΄Ó ‚ÂÏfl ÚÓÎχ˜ÂÒÚ‚Ó Ì ‚ÓÒÔË- ÌËχÎÓÒ¸ Í‡Í ÒÔˆËÙ˘ÂÒ͇fl ‰ÂflÚÂθ- ÌÓÒÚ¸, ÓÚ‰Âθ̇fl ÓÚ ‰‚ÛflÁ˚˜Ëfl, ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ‚·‰ÂÌËfl ‰‚ÛÏfl ËÎË ·ÓΠflÁ˚͇ÏË. íÂÏ ·ÓΠ̠‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡ÎÓÒ¸ ÓÌÓ Í‡Í ÔÓ- ÙÂÒÒËfl. Å˚ÚÓ‚Ó flÁ˚ÍÓ‚Ó ÔÓÒ‰Ì˘ÂÒÚ- ‚Ó Ë Ò„ӉÌfl ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Ù‡ÍÚÓÏ Ôӂ҉̂- ÌÓÈ ÊËÁÌË ‚ Ò‡Ï˚ı ‡ÁÌÓÓ·‡ÁÌ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı – ÓÚ ÏÌÓ„Ó̇ˆËÓ̇θÌ˚ı ÒÂÏÂÈ Ë ÒÓÒ‰ÒÍËı Ó·˘ËÌ ‰Ó ÍÛÎÛ‡Ó‚ ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰Ì˚ı ÍÓÌÙÂÂ̈ËÈ. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ ‚ ïï ‚ÂÍ ̇fl‰Û Ò ˝ÚËÏ ÔÓfl‚Ë·Ҹ Ë ÌÂÓ·- ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚ¸ ‚ Í‚‡ÎËÙˈËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÏ Ë ÔÓ- ÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓÏ ÛÒÚÌÓÏ ÔÂ‚ӉÂ. èÓ- ËÁÓ¯ÎÓ ˝ÚÓ ‚ Ò‚flÁË Ò ‡Á‚ËÚËÂÏ Ì·˚‚‡ÎÓ ¯ËÓÍËı ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰Ì˚ı ÍÓÌÚ‡ÍÚÓ‚ ‚

14

‰ËÔÎÓχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ, ̇ۘÌÓ-ÚÂıÌ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ, ÚÓ„Ó‚Ó-˝ÍÓÌÓÏ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ, ÍÛθÚÛÌÓÈ Ë ÔÓ˜Ëı ÒÙÂ‡ı. éÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ‚‡ÊÌÛ˛ Óθ Ò˚„‡Î ‚˚ıÓ‰ ̇ ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰ÌÛ˛ ‡ÂÌÛ flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÚ‡Ì, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÔÂʉ ÓÒÚ‡‚‡ÎËÒ¸ ‚ ËÁÓÎflˆËË ËÎË Ì‡ ÔÂËÙÂËË Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó Ó‰‡ ÔÓˆÂÒÒÓ‚. åÂʉÛ̇Ó‰Ì˚ ҂flÁË ÔÂÂÒÚ‡ÎË, Í‡Í ‚ ÔÓ¯Î˚ ‚Â͇, ·˚Ú¸ Û‰ÂÎÓÏ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ëı ËÁ·‡ÌÌ˚ı β‰ÂÈ, Í ÚÓÏÛ Ê ӷ˚˜ÌÓ ‚·‰Â‚¯Ëı Ú‡‰ËˆËÓÌ- Ì˚ÏË «ÛÌË‚Â҇θÌ˚ÏË» flÁ˚͇ÏË: ·Ú˚- ̸˛ ‚ Ò‰ ۘÂÌ˚ı ËÎË Ù‡ÌˆÛÁÒÍËÏ Û ‰ËÔÎÓχÚÓ‚. ë„ӉÌfl ̇ ‚ÒÚÂ˜Â Ò Á‡Û- ·ÂÊÌ˚ÏË ÍÓÎ΄‡ÏË ËÎË Ì‡ ÚË·ÛÌ ÏÂÊ- ‰Û̇Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÍÓÌÙÂÂ̈ËË ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸- Òfl Ë ËÌÊÂÌÂ, Ë ÒÓÚÛ‰ÌËÍ Ó·˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËË, Ë ÂÎË„ËÓÁÌ˚È ‰ÂflÚÂθ, Ë ˝ÍÓÌÓÏËÒÚ, Ë Ô‰‡„Ó„. ä‡Ê‰˚È ËÁ ÌËı, ÒÍÓ ‚Ò„Ó, ·Û‰ÂÚ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ̇ Ò‚ÓÂÏ Ó‰ÌÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ, ‡ÒÒ˜ËÚ˚‚‡fl ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ Â„Ó Ï˚ÒÎË Ë ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚Ó ‚ÒÂÈ ÔÓÎÌÓÚ ·Û‰ÛÚ ‰ÓÌÂÒÂÌ˚ ‰Ó ‚ÒÂı ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ÏË. ç‡ ‰‚Ó XXI ‚ÂÍ. ÜËÁ̸ ‚Ò ÒÚÂÏË- ÚÂθÌÂÂ, ¯ËÚÂθÌ ÓÚ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚ Ô‡Ú- ˇı‡Î¸Ì˚ı ÓÒÌÓ‚ Ë ‰Â‰Ó‚ÒÍËı Ó·˚˜‡Â‚. Ç ·˚Ú ÔÓ˜ÌÓ ‚ӯ· ˝ÎÂÍÚÓÌË͇. å˚ Ì Ï˚ÒÎËÏ ÊËÁÌË ·ÂÁ ÍÓÏÔ¸˛ÚÂÓ‚, Ù‡ÍÒÓ‚, ÒÓÚÓ‚˚ı ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÓ‚, ÚÂÎÂÍÓÌÙÂ- Â̈ËÈ. å˚ ÔÓ˜ÚË Ì Ô˯ÂÏ ÔËҸχ, ‡Á‚ ˜ÚÓ ˝ÎÂÍÚÓÌÌ˚Â, ÂÊ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÏ „‡- ÁÂÚ˚, ‡ ÌÓ‚ÓÒÚË Ë˘ÂÏ ‚ àÌÚÂÌÂÚÂ. ÇÒ ˜‡˘Â ÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ÒÚ‡ÎÍË‚‡Ú¸Òfl Ò Î˛‰¸ÏË, Ò ·Óθ¯ËÏ ÚÛ‰ÓÏ ÒÔ‡‚Îfl˛˘ËÏËÒfl Ò Û˜ÍÓÈ Ë ·Ûχ„ÓÈ: ÓÌË Ô˯ÛÚ ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • à. áÛ·‡ÌÓ‚‡

Í·‚ˇÚÛ ÍÓÏÔ¸˛ÚÂ‡ Ë ˜ËÚ‡˛Ú ÚÓθÍÓ Ô˜‡ÚÌ˚È ¯ËÙÚ. ç‡ÍÓ̈, ̇fl‰Û Ò ÏËÍÓ͇θÍÛÎflÚÓ‡ÏË Ë ˝ÎÂÍÚÓÌÌ˚ÏË Á‡ÔËÒÌ˚ÏË ÍÌËÊ͇ÏË ÔÓfl‚ËÎËÒ¸ Ë Í‡- χÌÌ˚ «ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍË». ùÚË ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθ- ÌÓ Ì‰ÓÓ„Ë ÛÒÚÓÈÒÚ‚‡, Ò̇·ÊÂÌÌ˚ ӷ¯ËÌÓÈ Ô‡ÏflÚ¸˛ Ë ÌÂ‰ÍÓ ‰‡Ê ÙÛÌ͈ËÂÈ Á‚ÛÍÓ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÓÒÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl ÒÎÓ‚ Ë Ù‡Á, ÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚Ò ·Óθ¯ÂÈ ÔÓ- ÔÛÎflÌÓÒÚ¸˛. ã˛‰Ë, ‚Ò˛ ÊËÁ̸ ʇ΂- ¯ËÂ, ˜ÚÓ Ú‡Í Ë Ì ÔÓÁ‡·ÓÚËÎËÒ¸ ӂ·‰ÂÚ¸ ıÓÚ¸ ͇ÍËÏ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚Ï flÁ˚- ÍÓÏ, ÓıÓÚÌÓ ÔÓÍÛÔ‡˛Ú ÛÏÌ˚ ÔË·Ó˚ ‚ ̇‰ÂʉÂ, ˜ÚÓ ÚÂÔÂ¸ Ëı ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ˚ ¯‡Ú- Òfl Ò‡ÏË ÒÓ·ÓÈ, ÒÚÓËÚ ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡Ê‡Ú¸ ÌÂ- ÒÍÓθÍÓ ÍÌÓÔÓÍ. çÓ Ú‡Í ÎË ˝ÚÓ? ëΉÛÂÚ ÎË ÓÊˉ‡Ú¸, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ‚ÒÍÓ ÛȉÂÚ ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÂ, ‚ÒΉ Á‡ ÔÓ- ÙÂÒÒËÂÈ ÔËÒˆ‡ ËÎË „·¯‡Ú‡fl? Çfl‰ ÎË ˝ÚÓ ÒÎÛ˜ËÚÒfl. ùÎÂÍÚÓÌÌ˚ Ò‰ÒÚ‚‡ ı‡ÌÂÌËfl Ë ÔÓËÒ͇ ËÌÙÓχ- ˆËË, ÓÚ «Á‡ÔËÒÌ˚ı ÍÌËÊÂÍ» ‰Ó ÍÓÏÔ¸˛- ÚÂÓ‚ Ò ‚˚ıÓ‰ÓÏ ‚ àÌÚÂÌÂÚ, ÌÂÒÓÏÌÂÌ- ÌÓ, ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÔÓÎÂÁÌ˚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÛ, ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌÓÏÛ. ÇÒÂÏË ˝ÚËÏË ËÌÒÚÛÏÂÌÚ‡ÏË Û‰Ó·ÌÓ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl, ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓ‚ÂËÚ¸ Ë ÛÚÓ˜ÌËÚ¸ Á̇˜ÂÌË ÒÎÓ‚‡, ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ÚËÔ˘Ì˚ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚ˚ Ë ÔËÏÂ˚ ÛÔÓÚ·ÎÂÌËfl, ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËÂ, ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ Ë Ú.Ô. àÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚ı Â- ÁÛθڇÚÓ‚ ÏÓÊÌÓ ‰Ó·ËÚ¸Òfl, ‡·ÓÚ‡fl ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡flÏË ÒËÌÓÌËÏÓ‚ Ë ‡ÌÚÓÌËÏÓ‚, ÚËÔÓ‚˚ı ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚÓ‚, ÒËÒÚÂχÏË ÔÓ‚Â- ÍË Ô‡‚ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl. ÇÔÓ˜ÂÏ, ÛÒÚÌÓÏÛ ÔÂ- ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÛ ‚Ò ˝ÚË Ò‰ÒÚ‚‡ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔË„Ó- ‰ËÚ¸Òfl Î˯¸ ̇ ˝Ú‡Ô ÔÓ‰„ÓÚÓ‚ÍË Í ‡·ÓÚÂ. Ç ‡θÌÓÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡- ˆËË ÛÒÚÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ÔÓ-ÔÂÊÌÂÏÛ Ó‰ËÌ Ì‡ Ó‰ËÌ Ò ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂÏ, ÏÂÊ‰Û Ó‡- ÚÓÓÏ-ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍÓÏ Ë ÒÎÛ¯‡ÚÂÎÂÏ. чÊ ÒËÌıÓÌÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ, ‡·ÓÚ‡˛˘ËÈ ‚ ÓÍÛÊÂÌËË ·Óθ¯Ó„Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚‡ ÚÂıÌË- ÍË, ÓÔÛÚ‡ÌÌ˚È ÔÓ‚Ó‰‡ÏË ÏËÍÓÙÓÌÓ‚ Ë Ì‡Û¯ÌËÍÓ‚, ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚ ‚Ò ˝ÚÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ‰Îfl Ó·ÂÒÔ˜ÂÌËfl Ò‚flÁË Ò Û˜‡ÒÚÌË͇ÏË ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË. éÌ Á̇ÂÚ, ˜ÚÓ, ıÓÚfl ÌÂÒÓ- ‚Â¯ÂÌÒÚ‚Ó ÚÂıÌËÍË Ë ÏÓÊÂÚ Á‡ÚÛ‰ÌËÚ¸

О нашей профессии

ÂÏÛ ‡·ÓÚÛ ËÎË ‰‡Ê ҉·ڸ  ÌÂËÒÔÓÎ- ÌËÏÓÈ, ÒÔ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl Ò ‡·ÓÚÓÈ ÔÓ ÒÛÚË ÚÂıÌË͇ ÂÏÛ Ì ÔÓÏÓÊÂÚ. ìÒÚÌ˚È ÔÂ- ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ‚ÓÓÛÊÂÌ Î˯¸ ÚÂÏ, ˜ÚÓ ı‡- ÌËÚÒfl Û ÌÂ„Ó ‚ „ÓÎÓ‚Â: Á̇ÌË flÁ˚͇, ÔË‚˚˜Í‡ Í ÔÓËÒÍÛ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚ı ˝Í‚Ë‚‡- ÎÂÌÚÓ‚, ‚·‰ÂÌË ÚÂχÚËÍÓÈ, Ó·˘‡fl ˝Û- ‰ËˆËfl, ̇ÚÂÌËÓ‚‡Ì̇fl Ô‡ÏflÚ¸, ̇Ô‡‚- ÎÂÌÌÓÂ Ë ‡ÒÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ, ‚·‰ÂÌË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍËÏË ÔËÂχÏË, Ô‰˚‰Û˘ËÈ ÓÔ˚Ú ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ Ë Ú.Ô. Ç ÓÚ΢ˠÓÚ Ï‡¯ËÌ˚-ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇, ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ ÔË ‚˚·Ó ËÌÓflÁ˚˜ÌÓ„Ó ˝Í‚Ë- ‚‡ÎÂÌÚ‡ ÛÍÓ‚Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚÒfl Ó˜Â̸ ·Óθ¯ËÏ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÓÏ ÍËÚÂË‚. Ç Ëı ˜ËÒÎÓ ‚ıÓ- ‰flÚ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡, ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛˘Â„ÓÒfl ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ ÓÚÂÁÍÂ, Ë ÚË- ÔÓ‚ÓÈ ÒÏ˚ÒÎ ÛÔÓÚ·ÎÂÌÌ˚ı „‡ÏχÚ˘Â- ÒÍËı ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËÈ (˝ÚÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ë ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜- ÌÓ ÏÓ˘Ì‡fl ˝ÎÂÍÚÓÌ̇fl χ¯Ë̇), ÌÓ Ë ÔÓÌflÚËÂ Ó ˆÂÌÌÓÒÚË (ÌÓ‚ËÁÌÂ, ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚË) Ô‰·„‡ÂÏÓÈ ËÌÙÓχˆËË; ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ Ë ÛÏÂÒÚÌÓÒÚ¸ ÍÓÏÔÂÒÒËË, ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ÒʇÚËfl ÓÚÂÁ͇ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËfl, ̇ÔËÏÂ, Á‡ Ò˜ÂÚ ÓÚÒ‚‡ ÔÓ‚ÚÓÌÓÈ ËÌÙÓχˆËË; Òڇ̉‡- ÚÌ˚ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Ë ÍÎ˯Â, ÔËÌflÚ˚ ‚ flÁ˚- Í ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡, Ë ÏÌÓ„Ó ‰Û„ÓÂ. Ä „·‚ÌÓÂ, ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ-˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚ Á‡‚ËÒË- ÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ‡Û‰ËÚÓËË ÒÎÛ¯‡ÚÂÎÂÈ ËÎË ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂÎÂÈ, ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï Ô‰̇Á̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ, ‚ÌÂÒÚË ‚ ÚÂÍÒÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ- ‰ËÏ˚ ÔÓÔ‡‚ÍË, ‡Á˙flÒÌÂÌËfl, ‰ÓÔÓÎÌÂ- ÌËfl, Á‡ÏÂÌ˚.

èÓÔÓ·ÛÂÏ Á‡‰‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ÓÔÓÒÓÏ: ÍÓÏÛ ËÎË ˜ÂÏÛ ÒÎÛÊËÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ Í‡Í Íβ˜Â- ‚ÓÈ Û˜‡ÒÚÌËÍ ÓÔÓÒ‰ӂ‡ÌÌÓÈ ‰‚ÛflÁ˚˜- ÌÓÈ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË? óÚÓ (ËÎË ÍÚÓ) ‰ÓÎÊ- ÌÓ ÒÚ‡Ú¸ „·‚Ì˚Ï Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ Â„Ó Á‡·ÓÚ˚, ÓÔ‰ÂÎfl˛˘ÂÈ ‚˚·Ó ‚‡ÊÌÂȯËı ÒÚ‡ÚÂ- „˘ÂÒÍËı Ë Ú‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ¯ÂÌËÈ? ÇÒÔÓÏÌËÏ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÔÓ- ÏÂÊÛÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï Á‚ÂÌÓÏ ˆÂÔÓ˜ÍË, ‚Íβ˜‡˛- ˘ÂÈ ÓÚÔ‡‚ËÚÂÎfl (‡‚ÚÓ‡) ÚÂÍÒÚ‡, Ò‡Ï ÚÂÍÒÚ ÓË„Ë̇·, ÚÂÍÒÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ Ë ‡‰Â- Ò‡Ú ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. ê‡ÁÛÏÂÂÚÒfl, ÌË Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ ˝ÚËı ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓ‚ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌ

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МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • à. áÛ·ÌÓ

О нашей профессии

ËÁ ÔÓˆÂÒÒ‡ ‰‚ÛflÁ˚˜ÌÓÈ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË ·ÂÁ ‡ÁÛ¯ÂÌËfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÔÓˆÂÒÒ‡, ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚˚·Ó «‚‡ÊÌÂȯ„ӻ ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ‡ ÌÂËÁ·ÂÊ- ÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚Ï Ë ÛÒÎÓ‚Ì˚Ï. é˜Â‚ˉÌÓ Ú‡ÍÊÂ, ˜ÚÓ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌ- Ì˚È ‚ÓÔÓÒ ·Û‰ÂÚ Á‡‚ËÒÂÚ¸ ÓÚ ‚ˉ‡ Ë ÙÓÏ˚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. Å˚‚‡˛Ú ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë, ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÓ ÚÓÈ ËÎË ËÌÓÈ Ô˘ËÌ ÓÚÔ‡‚ËÚÂθ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÎË Ì ıÓ- ˜ÂÚ ÒÓÁ‰‡‚‡Ú¸ ÚÂÍÒÚ, Ô‰̇Á̇˜ÂÌÌ˚È ‰Îfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡, Ӊ̇ÍÓ Ú·ÛÂÚ, ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ- ˜ËÍ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÎ ‡‰ÂÒ‡ÚÛ «ÚÂÍÒÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡»:

̇ÔËÏÂ, ÛÍÓ‚Ó‰ËÚÂθ ‰Â΄‡ˆËË, ‚‰Û- ˘ÂÈ Ó‰ÌÓÚËÔÌ˚ ÔÂ„ӂÓ˚ ÔÓÒΉӂ‡- ÚÂθÌÓ Ò ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËÏË Ô‡ÚÌÂ‡ÏË, ÏÓÊÂÚ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÛ: «àÁÎÓÊËÚ ËÏ Ì‡¯Û ÚÓ˜ÍÛ ÁÂÌËfl», ÔÓ·„‡flÒ¸ ̇ ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰˜ËÍ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ò‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓ ÓÔ˚ÚÛ Ô‰˚- ‰Û˘Ëı ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. ä‡Í Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ Ç.ç. äÓÏËÒÒ‡Ó‚, «ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‚˚ÌÛʉÂÌ ÔÓ ÛÒÎÓ‚ËflÏ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇- ˆËË ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡Ú¸ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ- „Ó ËÒÚÓ˜ÌË͇ ËÌÙÓχˆËË, ‰‡‚‡fl ‰ÓÔÓÎ- ÌËÚÂθÌ˚ ÔÓflÒÌÂÌËfl, ‰Â·fl ‚˚‚Ó‰˚ ËÁ ÒÓ‰ÂʇÌËfl ÓË„Ë̇·, Û͇Á˚‚‡fl ̇ ‚ÓÁ- ÏÓÊÌ˚ ӯ˷ÍË Ë Ú.‰.» (Ç.ç. äÓÏËÒÒ‡Ó‚ «íÂÓËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡», Ò. 43). ÇÓÔÓÒ Ó ÚÓÏ, ÏÓÊÌÓ ÎË Ú‡ÍÛ˛ ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸, ‚˚ıÓ‰fl˘Û˛ Á‡ ‡ÏÍË flÁ˚ÍÓ‚Ó„Ó ÔÓÒ‰Ì˘ÂÒÚ‚‡, Ò˜Ë- Ú‡Ú¸ ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ, ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÒÔÓÌ˚Ï, Ú‡Í ÊÂ Í‡Í Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒ, ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ ÎË ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ Ì‡ ÓÚÔ‡‚ËÚÂÎfl ËÎË ÔÓÒÚÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ Á‡Ï¢‡ÂÚ Â„Ó ÒÓ·ÓÈ. ֢ ·ÓΠ˘ÂÍÓÚÎË‚‡fl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ÒÓÁ‰‡ÂÚÒfl, ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÂ- ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÛ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ Ò ÓÚÔ‡‚Ë- ÚÂÎÂÏ, ÔÓÓʉ‡˛˘ËÏ ÚÂÍÒÚ, ÒÚ‡‰‡˛˘ËÈ „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏË Ì‡Û¯ÂÌËflÏË, Îӄ˘ÂÒ- ÍËÏË Ôӷ·ÏË, ÒÚËÎËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏË Ó„Â- ı‡ÏË Ë ‰‡Ê هÍÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏË Ó¯Ë·Í‡ÏË, Ë ÔÓÚÓÏÛ Ï‡ÎÓ ÔË„Ó‰Ì˚È ‰Îfl ‰ÓÌÂÒÂÌËfl ‰Ó ‡‰ÂÒ‡Ú‡ ̇ÏÂÂÌËÈ Ë ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚, ‚ıӉ˂- ¯Ëı ‚ Á‡Ï˚ÒÂÎ ÓÚÔ‡‚ËÚÂÎfl. á‡ÏÂÚËÏ, ˜ÚÓ ‚Ò ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ÔÓ·ÂÎ˚ Ë ËÒ͇ÊÂÌËfl ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ì ÌÓÒËÚ¸ Ô‰̇ÏÂÂÌÌÓ„Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ- ‡ ÒÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ ‡‚ÚÓ‡ ÚÂÍÒÚ‡, ‡ fl‚ÎflÚ¸Òfl Î˯¸ ÒΉÒÚ‚ËÂÏ Ì‰ÓÒÚ‡Ú͇ Û ÌÂ„Ó ÔË- Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó Í‡ÒÌÓ˜Ëfl ËÎË Ó‡ÚÓÒÍÓ„Ó

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ÓÔ˚Ú‡, ÂÁÛθڇÚÓÏ ÛÒÚ‡ÎÓÒÚË ËÎË ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ- ‚Ëfl Ò‡ÏÓÍÓÌÚÓÎfl. ÖÒÎË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÛ, ÌÂ- ÒÏÓÚfl ÌË Ì‡ ˜ÚÓ, Û‰‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓÌflÚ¸ ̇ÏÂÂ- ÌËfl Ë Á‡Ï˚ÒÂÎ Ó‡ÚÓ‡, ÓÌ ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl ‰‡ÍÚÓÓÏ Ë ‰‡Ê ÒÓ‡‚ÚÓÓÏ ÚÂÍÒÚ‡, ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰fl Ì ÒÚÓθÍÓ ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ Ù‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË Ò͇Á‡Î Ó‡ÚÓ, ÒÍÓθÍÓ ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ËÏÂÎ ‚ ‚ˉÛ. á‰ÂÒ¸ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ÒÎÛÊËÚ Ó‡ÚÓÛ, ÔË- Í˚‚‡fl Â„Ó ÒÓ·ÓÈ. èÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ‡Ï – Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌ- Ì˚Ï – ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ËÏÂÚ¸ ‰ÂÎÓ Ò ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ÏË, ÔÓ ÚÓÈ ËÎË ËÌÓÈ Ô˘ËÌ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛˘ËÏË ·Óθ¯Û˛ ÒÓ‰Âʇ- ÚÂθÌÛ˛ ËÎË ÙËÎÓÎӄ˘ÂÒÍÛ˛ ˆÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸. Ç Ú‡ÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍË Ë ÔÓÚ·ËÚÂÎË ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ Ê·˛Ú Á̇ڸ, ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÚÓ˜ÌÓÒÚË ·˚ÎÓ Ì‡ÔËÒ‡ÌÓ ‚ ÚÂÍÒÚ ÓË„Ë̇·, ‡ ËÌÓ„‰‡ Ë Í‡Í ËÏÂÌÌÓ ˝ÚÓ ·˚ÎÓ Ò͇Á‡ÌÓ; Ëı Ì ÒÏÛ˘‡ÂÚ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÔ˚Ú͇ ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ ÓË„Ë̇Π‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ·ÎËÊÂ Í ÚÂÍÒÚÛ ÏÓ- ÊÂÚ Ò‰Â·ڸ ÔÂ‚Ӊ „ÓÏÓÁ‰ÍËÏ, ÚÛ‰- Ì˚Ï ‰Îfl ‚ÓÒÔËflÚËfl, ‡ ÚÓ Ë Ì‡Û¯‡˛˘ËÏ ÛÁÛÒ (ÔËÌflÚ˚ ÛÔÓÚ·ÎÂÌËfl ÒÎÓ‚, ÙÓÏ Ë ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËÈ) flÁ˚͇ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. í‡Í ‰ÂÈ- ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÎË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍË ÅË·ÎËË, ÒÚÂÏË‚- ¯ËÂÒfl ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ Ì ÒÚÓθÍÓ ‰Ûı, ÒÍÓθÍÓ ·ÛÍ‚Û Ò‚fl˘ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÚÂÍÒÚ‡. Ç Ì‡¯Â ‚ÂÏfl ÔÓ˜ÚË Ú‡ÍÓÈ Ê ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ Í ‰ÂÎÛ ÓÊˉ‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ ˛ˉ˘ÂÒÍËı Ë ÍÓÏÏÂ- ˜ÂÒÍËı ÚÂÍÒÚÓ‚. ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ú‡ÍÊÂ Ë ÙËÎÓÎӄ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ (Í ÔËÏÂÛ, ·ÎËÁ- ÍËÈ Í ÔÓ‰ÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍÛ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ¯ÛÏÂÒÍËı ÚÂÍÒÚÓ‚, ÉÓÏÂ‡, òÂÍÒÔË‡ Ë Ô.), Ò ÔÓ- ÏÓ˘¸˛ ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ÒÔˆˇÎËÒÚ˚ ÔÓÎÛ˜‡˛Ú ıÓÚfl ·˚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓÛ˛ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÔӇ̇- ÎËÁËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÚÂÍÒÚ Ì‡ flÁ˚ÍÂ, ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï Ò‡ÏË Ì ‚·‰Â˛Ú. Ç Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ, ıÓ˜ÂÚ ÓÌ ÚÓ„Ó ËÎË ÌÂÚ, ÒÎÛÊËÚ ËÒıÓ‰ÌÓÏÛ ÚÂÍÒÚÛ, Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îflfl Â„Ó ‰Îfl ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ„Ó ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËfl ‡‰ÂÒ‡Ú‡Ï, ÔË̇‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Í ‰Û„ÓÈ ÍÛθÚÛÂ. ëËÚÛ‡ˆËfl, ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ ÔÓˆÂÒÒ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ÒÎÛÊËÚ „·‚Ì˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ Ò· ҇ÏÓÏÛ, Ì ‚ÔÓÎÌ ‚ÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÌÓÏ˚ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ ‰Âfl- ÚÂθÌÓÒÚË – Ӊ̇ÍÓ ˝ÚÓ Ì Á̇˜ËÚ, ˜ÚÓ Ú‡ÍÓ ‚ ÔË̈ËÔ Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ. à ˜¸ ÌÂ

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • à. áÛ·‡ÌÓ‚‡

Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ë‰ÂÚ Ó· ‡ÌÂ͉ÓÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ÒÎÛ- ˜‡flı, Í‡Í ‚ ÙËθÏ «ä‡‚͇ÁÒ͇fl ÔÎÂÌÌË- ˆ‡», „‰Â «ÚÓ‚‡ˢ Ñʇ·‡Ëλ, ÔÂÒÓÌ‡Ê îÛÌÁË͇ åÍÚ˜‡Ì‡, ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡fl ‚ ÓÎË «ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇», ÒÛÏÂΠ̇ÔÛ„‡Ú¸ Ë Á‡ËÌÚ- Ë„Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‰Ó‚Â˜Ë‚Ó„Ó òÛË͇ Ò‚ÓËÏ ‚ÓθÌ˚Ï ÔÂÂÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ Á‡„‡‰Ó˜ÌÓ„Ó «Å‡Ï·‡·Ëfl! äË„Û‰Û!». àÌÓÈ ‡Á ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰˜ËÍ, Á‡·˚‚‡fl Ó ‚ÂÌÓÒÚË ÚÂÍÒÚÛ, Ô‡- ‚‡ı ‡‚ÚÓ‡ Ë ËÌÚÂÂÒ‡ı ‡Û‰ËÚÓËË, ‰ÂÈÒÚ- ‚ÛÂÚ Ò‚Ó‚ÓθÌÓ, „Ó‚ÓËÚ ËÎË Ô˯ÂÚ ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ Ì ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ Á‡Íβ˜‡ÎÓÒ¸ ‚ ËÒıÓ‰- ÌÓÏ ÚÂÍÒÚÂ, Í‡Í „Ó‚ÓËÚÒfl, «ÌÂÒÂÚ ÓÚÒ·fl- ÚËÌÛ». óÂÏ ·˚ ÌË Ó·˙flÒÌflÎÓÒ¸ Ú‡ÍÓ ÔÓ- ‚‰ÂÌË – ÔÓÔ˚ÚÍÓÈ «ÔÓÔ‡‚ËÚ¸» ‡‚ÚÓ‡ ÓË„Ë̇·, ÔÓËÁ‚ÂÒÚË Ì‡ ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ ‚ÔÂ- ˜‡ÚÎÂÌË ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ˝ۉˈËÂÈ Ë Í‡Ò- ÌÓ˜ËÂÏ ËÎË Ê ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ‡Ì˚Ï ÌÂÔÓÌË- χÌËÂÏ ËÒıÓ‰ÌÓ„Ó ÚÂÍÒÚ‡, – ÓÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ ÔÓ‰ ÒÓÏÌÂÌË Ô‡‚Ó ÔÓÎۘ˂¯Â„ÓÒfl ÚÂÍ- ÒÚ‡ ̇Á˚‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ. ÇÔÓ˜ÂÏ, ‚ ÒÙÂ ıÛ‰ÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó, ‡ ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ÔÓ- ˝Ú˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó, ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ·˚ÚÓ‚‡Î‡ Ë ·˚ÚÛÂÚ Ë Ë̇fl ÚӘ͇ ÁÂÌËfl: ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‡‚ÚÓ˚ ÓÚÒڇ˂‡˛Ú Ô‡‚Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ̇ ÔÓ˝ÚË- ˜ÂÒÍÛ˛ ‚ÓθÌÓÒÚ¸ Ë Ò‚Ó·Ó‰Û ËÌÚÂÔÂÚ‡- ˆËË. ÑÎfl ÒÚÓÓÌÌËÍÓ‚ Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó ÔÓÌËχÌËfl ÒˆÂ̇ËÈ Ï˛ÁËÍ· «ÇÂÒÚ҇ȉÒ͇fl ËÒÚÓ- Ëfl» – ˝ÚÓ ÔÂ‚Ӊ «êÓÏÂÓ Ë ÑÊÛθÂÚ- Ú˚». á‰ÂÒ¸, Ӊ̇ÍÓ, ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ ÛÏÂÒÚÌ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ÌÂ Ó ÔÂ‚ӉÂ, ÔÛÒÚ¸ ‰‡Ê ‚Óθ- ÌÓÏ, ‡ Ó· ‡‚ÚÓÒÍÓÏ ÔÂÂÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÎË ÒÓÁ‰‡ÌËË ÌÓ‚Ó„Ó ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl ÔÓ ÏÓÚË- ‚‡Ï ÒÚ‡Ó„Ó. èËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚È, ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ıÛ‰ÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌ- Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÔÓ ·Óθ¯ÂÈ ˜‡ÒÚË Ô‰̇Á- ̇˜ÂÌ ‰Îfl ÒÓÁ‰‡ÌËfl ÚÂÍÒÚÓ‚, ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï Ô‰ÒÚÓËÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‚ ÍÛθÚÛ ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰fl˘Â„Ó flÁ˚͇ Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ, ·ÂÁ Ôfl- ÏÓÈ Ò‚flÁË Ò ÚÂÍÒÚÓÏ ÓË„Ë̇·. íÓ Ê ÓÚ- ÌÓÒËÚÒfl Ë Í ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚Ï ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflÏ, ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔËÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl ÛÒÚÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ, ̇ÔËÏÂ ‚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ Á‚ÛÍÓ‚Ó„Ó fl‰‡ ÍËÌÓÙËθÏÓ‚ ËÎË ÚÂÎÂÔÂ‰‡˜. è˘ÂÏ ‡Û‰ËÚÓ˲ ÔÂ‚ӉÌÓ„Ó ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú „·‚Ì˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÚÂ, ÍÚÓ Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊ- ÌÓÒÚË Ó·‡ÚËÚ¸Òfl ÌÂÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ Í ÓË-

О нашей профессии

„Ë̇ÎÛ. éÒÌÓ‚Ì˚Ï Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓÏ ‚ÌËχÌËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÚÂÍÒÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. ç‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ÎÓÊËÚÒfl ·Óθ¯‡fl ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ – ‚‰¸ ÔÓ ÚÂÍÒÚÛ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ‡Û‰ËÚÓËfl ·Û‰ÂÚ ÒÛ‰ËÚ¸ Ó ‰ÓÒÚÓËÌÒÚ‚‡ı Ë Ì‰ÓÒÚ‡Ú͇ı ÓË„Ë̇θ- ÌÓ„Ó ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ (Ë Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡) Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ì ÒÚÂÏËÚ- Òfl ‰Ó‚ÂÒÚË ‰Ó ҂‰ÂÌËfl ‡‰ÂÒ‡Ú‡, Í‡Í ËÏÂÌÌÓ ‡‚ÚÓ ÓË„Ë̇· ‰ÓÒÚË„‡Î ¯Â- ÌËfl Ò‚ÓËı ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ÚË‚Ì˚ı Á‡‰‡˜, ͇ÍË flÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚ Ò‰ÒÚ‚‡ Ë ÔËÂÏ˚ ÓÌ ÔËÏÂ- ÌflÎ. É·‚̇fl Á‡‰‡˜‡ – ÒÓÁ‰‡Ú¸ ÔÂ‚ӉÌÓ ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËÂ, ÍÓÚÓÓ ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ Û‰Ó·ÌÓ ‰Îfl ‚ÓÒÔËflÚËfl ˆÂ΂ÓÈ ‡Û‰ËÚÓËÂÈ. àÌÓÈ ‡Á ÒÓÁ‰‡ÂÚÒfl ‰‡Ê ԇ‡‰ÓÍ҇θ̇fl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl, ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÂ‚ӉÌÓÈ ÚÂÍÒÚ ÔÓ Ò‚Ó- ËÏ ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂθÒÍËÏ ‰ÓÒÚÓËÌÒÚ‚‡Ï ÏÓÊÂÚ Ô‚ÓÒıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ËÒıÓ‰ÌÓ ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËÂ. òËÓÍÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚Ï ÔËÏÂÓÏ ˝ÚÓ„Ó fl‚Îfl- ˛ÚÒfl ‡·ÓÚ˚ Å. á‡ıÓ‰Â‡, ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÔÓ‰‡- ËÎ ÛÒÒÍÓflÁ˚˜Ì˚Ï ‰ÂÚflÏ Ì‡ÒÚÓθÍÓ Û‰‡˜Ì˚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˚ «ÇËÌÌË-èÛı‡» Ë «ÄÎË- Ò˚ ‚ ÒÚ‡Ì ˜Û‰ÂÒ», ˜ÚÓ ËÏË Á‡˜ËÚ˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÛÊ Ì ӉÌÓ ÔÓÍÓÎÂÌËÂ. èËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ, ‰‡Ê ÂÒÎË ÓÌ ÒÓÁ‰‡ÂÚ ÚÂÍÒÚ˚, ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï Ô‰ÒÚÓËÚ ‰Ó΄‡fl ÊËÁ̸, Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÔflÏÓ„Ó ÍÓÌÚ‡Í- Ú‡ Ò ÔÓÚ·ËÚÂÎflÏË Ò‚ÓÂÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚, Ë Ó· Ëı ‡͈ËË ÓÌ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÛ‰ËÚ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ÍÓÒ‚ÂÌ- ÌÓ, Ë ÚÓ Ì ‚Ò„‰‡. ëÓ‚ÒÂÏ Ò ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒËÚÛ- ‡ˆËÂÈ ÒÚ‡ÎÍË‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ÛÒÚÌ˚È. íÂÍÒÚ˚, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÓÌ ÔÓÓʉ‡ÂÚ, ˝ÙÂÏÂ- Ì˚, ‚ ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Â ÒÎÛ˜‡Â‚ ÓÌË ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÙËÍÒËÛ˛ÚÒfl (ÌË ‚ ‚ˉ ÒÚÂÌÓ„‡ÏÏ˚, ÌË Ì‡ χ„ÌËÚÌÓÈ ÎÂÌÚÂ), Á‡ÚÓ Â‡ÍˆË˛ ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÚÂÎfl ÏÓÊÌÓ Ì‡·Î˛‰‡Ú¸ Ò‡Ï˚Ï ÌÂ- ÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ. ÅÓΠÚÓ„Ó, ‚ÓÁÏÓÊ̇ ‰‡Ê ӷ‡Ú̇fl Ò‚flÁ¸: ÂÒÎË ÒÎÛ- ¯‡ÚÂθ ̉ӂÓÎÂÌ ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ ËÎË Ì‡ıÓ- ‰ËÚ Â„Ó ÌÂÔÓÌflÚÌ˚Ï, ÓÌ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ì‡ÔflÏÛ˛ Ó·‡ÚËÚ¸Òfl Á‡ ÛÚÓ˜ÌÂÌËflÏË Í ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë- ÍÛ ËÎË ˜ÂÂÁ ÌÂ„Ó – Í Ó‡ÚÓÛ-ËÒÚÓ˜ÌË- ÍÛ. Ç Ú‡ÍËı Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ı ‚ ÙÓÍÛÒ ‚ÌËχÌËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ÌÂËÁ·ÂÊÌÓ Ó͇- Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ËÏÂÌÌÓ ‡‰ÂÒ‡Ú ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. ìÒÚ- ÌÓÏÛ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÛ ÌË ‚ ÍÓÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÌÂθ-

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МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • à. áÛ·ÌÓ

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Áfl Ò˜ËÚ‡Ú¸, ˜ÚÓ Â‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚‡ÊÌÓ ‚Á‡- ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ ÏÂÊ‰Û Ó‡ÚÓÓÏ Ë ÌËÏ ËÎË ˜ÚÓ ÔÓˆÂÒÒ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë- ‚‡ÂÚÒfl, ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚ Ò‚ÓÈ ÚÂÍÒÚ. ç‡ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂΠÔÓˆÂÒÒ ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰‡, ‚ ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓÒÚË ÛÒÚÌÓ„Ó, Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡- ÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ „ÓÎÓ‚Â ÒÎÛ¯‡ÚÂÎfl. É·‚̇fl Á‡‰‡˜‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ – Ó·ÂÒÔ˜ËÚ¸ χÍÒË- χθÌÓ ÔÓÎÌÓÂ Ë Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÔÓÌËχÌË ‡‰ÂÒ‡ÚÓÏ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ÚË‚Ì˚ı ̇ÏÂÂÌËÈ Ó‡ÚÓ‡, ‰Ó·ËÚ¸Òfl ÚÓÈ ËÌÚÂÎÎÂÍÚۇθÌÓÈ ËÎË ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌÓÈ ‡͈ËË, ̇ ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ Ó‡ÚÓ ‡ÒÒ˜ËÚ˚‚‡Î: Ô˂Θ¸ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ, Ó·˙flÒÌËÚ¸, ۷‰ËÚ¸, ‡ÒÒϯËÚ¸, ̇ÔÛ- „‡Ú¸ Ë Ú.Ô. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ‰Ó·- Ì˚ı ˆÂÎÂÈ ÌÓÒËÚÂÎË ‡ÁÌ˚ı flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ Ë ÍÛθÚÛ ‰Ó·Ë‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÌÂ‰ÍÓ ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ ‡Á- Ì˚ÏË ÒÔÓÒÓ·‡ÏË, Ì ÔÓ‰‰‡˛˘ËÏËÒfl Ôfl- ÏÓÏÛ ‚ÓÒÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌ˲ Ò‰ÒÚ‚‡ÏË ‰Û- „Ó„Ó flÁ˚͇, ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ì‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ÎÓÊËÚÒfl ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθ̇fl Ó·flÁ‡ÌÌÓÒÚ¸ (Ë ·Óθ¯‡fl ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸), Ò‚flÁ‡Ì̇fl Ò ‡‰‡ÔÚ‡ˆËÂÈ ËÒıÓ‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËfl Í ËÌÓÈ ‡Û‰ËÚÓËË. ùÚÓ ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ, ÔÓÏËÏÓ ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÔӘ„Ó, ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ Í‡Í ÏÓÊÌÓ ÎÛ˜¯Â Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÚ¸ Ò· ˝ÚÛ ‡Û‰Ë- ÚÓ˲,  ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ Ë ÛÓ‚Â̸, ÏÓÚË‚‡ˆË˛ Ë ÔÓÚ·ÌÓÒÚË, ‡ „·‚ÌÓ – Ó·˙ÂÏ ÙÓÌÓ‚˚ı Á̇ÌËÈ, ÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË Ó̇ ‚·‰ÂÂÚ ÔÓ ÚÂχ- ÚËÍ ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË, Ë ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰ÂÌËfl Ò ÙÓÌÓ‚˚ÏË Á̇ÌËflÏË, ÍÓÚÓ- ˚ Ô‰ÔÓ·„‡ÂÚ Û Ì Ó‡ÚÓ. ùÚÓ ÒÓ‚- Ô‡‰ÂÌË ·Û‰ÂÚ Ï‡ÍÒËχθÌ˚Ï, ÂÒÎË, Í ÔËÏÂÛ, ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌ˚È ‡Á„Ó‚Ó ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÔˆˇÎËÒÚ‡ÏË ‚ ÚÓÈ ËÎË ËÌÓÈ Ó·Î‡ÒÚË (ÙËÁË͇ÏË, ÙË̇ÌÒËÒÚ‡ÏË, ÏÛÁ˚͇ÌÚ‡ÏË), Ë Á̇˜ËÚÂθÌÓ ÛÏÂ̸¯ËÚ- Òfl, ÂÒÎË, Ò͇ÊÂÏ, ̇ ‚ÒÚ˜ ˝ÍÓÌÓÏËÒÚÓ‚ ËÎË ÍÓÏÔ¸˛ÚÂ˘ËÍÓ‚ Ó‡ÚÓ Ôӂ‰ÂÚ ˜¸ Ó ÒÓ·˚ÚËflı ÓÚ˜ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ËÒÚÓËË ËÎË Ì‡˜ÌÂÚ ÒÒ˚·ڸÒfl ̇ ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl ̇ˆËÓ̇θÌÓÈ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛ˚. èÓÔÓ·ÛÈÚ ·˚ÒÚÓ Ó·˙flÒÌËÚ¸ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌˆÛ, ˜ÚÓ Á̇- ˜ËÚ «‰Ó ÓÒÌÓ‚‡Ì¸fl, ‡ Á‡ÚÂÏ», ËÎË ˜ÚÓ Ú‡- ÍÓ «ç¸˛-Ç‡Ò˛ÍË»! ìÒÚÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ‡ÒÒ˜Ë- Ú˚‚‡Ú¸ ̇ ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ ÒÎÛ¯‡ÚÂÎË ÒÛÏÂ˛Ú Â˘Â

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‡Á ÔÓÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸ Ë Ó·‰Ûχڸ ÔÓËÁÌÂÒÂÌ- Ì˚È ËÏ ÚÂÍÒÚ, ˜ÚÓ·˚ Û„ÎÛ·ËÚ¸ Ò‚Ó ÔÓÌË- χÌËÂ, ËÒÔ‡‚ËÚ¸ ӯ˷ÍË, ÛÚÓ˜ÌËÚ¸ ÌÂflÒ- ÌÓÂ. ÇÒÂ, ˜ÚÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓËÁÓÈÚË ‚ „ÓÎÓ‚‡ı Ë ÒÂ‰ˆ‡ı ‡Û‰ËÚÓËË ‚ Ò‚flÁË Ò ‚ÓÒÔËÌfl- Ú˚Ï Â˛ ÔÂ‚ӉÌ˚Ï ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂÏ, ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ÔÓËÁÓÈÚË «Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ë ÒÂȘ‡Ò», ËÎË ÓÌÓ Ì ÔÓËÁÓȉÂÚ ‚Ó‚ÒÂ. íÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËfl Ì ÒÓÒÚÓËÚÒfl, ËÎË, ˜ÚÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ¢ ıÛÊÂ, Ó̇ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚÒfl Ò ËÒ͇ÊÂÌËflÏË, Ë ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ Ì ÔÓÈÏÛÚ ‰Û„ ‰Û„‡ ËÎË ÔÓÈÏÛÚ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ, Ô˘ÂÏ Ì ËÁ-Á‡ ÌÂÒÓ‚ÏÂÒ- ÚËÏÓÒÚË ÔÓÁˈËÈ ÔÓ Ó·ÒÛʉ‡ÂÏ˚Ï ‚ÓÔÓ- Ò‡Ï, ‡ ÔÓ ‚ËÌ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇. Ç ÛÏÂÌËË ËÁ·Âʇڸ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı Ò·Ó‚ Ë ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ Ï‡Ò- ÚÂÒÚ‚Ó ÛÒÚÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇.

èÂ‚Ӊ, ‚ ÚÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ Ë ÛÒÚÌ˚È, ˝ÚÓ Û‚ÎÂ͇ÚÂθÌ˚È Ë Ú‚Ó˜ÂÒÍËÈ ‚ˉ ‰ÂflÚÂθ- ÌÓÒÚË. ìÏÂÎ˚È Ë Ú‡Î‡ÌÚÎË‚˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ‚Ó‚Ò Ì «ÔÓÔÛ„‡È», ÔÓ‚ÚÓfl˛˘ËÈ ·ÂÁ ÓÒ- Ï˚ÒÎÂÌËfl ˜ÛÊË Ï˚ÒÎË Ë ÒÎÓ‚‡, Í‡Í ËÌÓÈ ‡Á ‰Ûχ˛Ú β‰Ë, Ì ‡Á·Ë‡˛˘ËÂÒfl ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ‰ÂÎÂ. ìÒÔ¯Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ì‚ÓÁÏÓ- ÊÂÌ ·ÂÁ „ÎÛ·ÓÍÓ„Ó ÔÓÌËχÌËfl ‚ÒÂı ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓ‚ Ë ÛÓ‚ÌÂÈ ÔÂ‚ӉËÏÓ„Ó ÒÓÓ·- ˘ÂÌËfl, ˜ÚÓ Ú·ÛÂÚ ÓÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ÔÓ‰- Íβ˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÒÂı „‡ÌÂÈ Ò‚ÓÂÈ Î˘ÌÓÒÚË, ÓÚ ËÌÚÂÎÎÂÍÚ‡ Ë Ô‡ÏflÚË ‰Ó ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌÓÈ ÒÙÂ˚ Ë ‡ÍÚÂÒÍËı ÒÔÓÒÓ·ÌÓÒÚÂÈ. ë Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚, ‡·ÓÚ‡ ÛÒÚÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ- ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ‚ÂҸχ Ò‚ÓÂÓ·‡Á̇ Ë Ì ÔÓıÓ- ʇ ‚ ÚÓ˜ÌÓÒÚË ÌË Ì‡ ͇ÍÛ˛ ‰Û„Û˛, ‚ ÚÓ Ê ‚ÂÏfl, Ó̇ ËÏÂÂÚ ÌÂχÎÓ Ó·˘Ëı ˜ÂÚ Ò ÚÂÏ, ˜ÂÏ Á‡ÌËχ˛ÚÒfl β‰Ë ËÌ˚ı, ËÌÓ- „‰‡ ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ ÌÂÓÊˉ‡ÌÌ˚ı ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÈ. 燘ÌÂÏ Ò ÚÓ„Ó, ˜ÚÓ, ‡·ÓÚ‡fl Ò Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Ë- ÚÂÎflÏË ÚÓ„Ó ËÎË ËÌÓ„Ó Ó‰‡ ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒ- ÚË, ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ıÓÚfl ·˚ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó «‚ÊËÚ¸Òfl ‚ Ó·‡Á», ˜ÚÓ·˚ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ò ‚‡- ˜‡ÏË Í‡Í ‚‡˜, Ò ‰ËÔÎÓχڇÏË Í‡Í ‰ËÔÎÓ- χÚ, Ò ÍÓÏÏÂÒ‡ÌÚ‡ÏË Í‡Í ÍÓÏÏÂÒ‡ÌÚ Ë Ú‡Í ‰‡ÎÂÂ. äÓÏ ˝ÚÓ„Ó, ÓÌ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ Ó·Î‡- ‰‡Ú¸ ̉˛ÊËÌÌ˚ÏË ÒÔÓÒÓ·ÌÓÒÚflÏË ÔÒË- ıÓÎÓ„‡ (‡ ÚÓ Ë ˝ÍÒÚ‡ÒÂÌÒ‡!), ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÒÛ- ÏÂÚ¸ ÔÓÌflÚ¸ Ó‡ÚÓ‡, ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ Ì ۉ‡ÂÚÒfl flÒÌÓ ‚˚‡ÁËÚ¸ Ò‚Ó˛ Ï˚Òθ. éÌ

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • à. áÛ·‡ÌÓ‚‡

Ó·flÁ‡Ì, Í‡Í ÊÓÌ„ÎÂ, Ëϲ˘ËÈ ‰ÂÎÓ Ò ıÛÔÍËÏË Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ÏË – ÒÏ˚Ò·ÏË, – ÔÓ‰·Ó¯ÂÌÌ˚ÏË ‚ ‚ÓÁ‰Ûı Ó‡ÚÓÓÏ, ÛÏÂÚ¸ ÎÓ‚ÍÓ Ï‡ÌËÔÛÎËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ËÏË, ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÈχڸ, Ì ÔÓÚÂflÚ¸, Ì ÒÎÓχڸ Ì˘ÚÓ ËÁ ÚÓ„Ó, ˜ÚÓ Ó‡ÚÓÛ ·˚ÎÓ ‚‡ÊÌÓ Ë ‰ÓÓ- „Ó. ä‡Í ‡‚ˇ‰ËÒÔÂÚ˜ÂÛ, ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÛ ÌÛÊÌÓ Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ ¯‡Ú¸ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó ‡Á΢Ì˚ı Á‡‰‡˜, ÓÚÒÎÂÊË‚‡Ú¸ ÔÓÚÂ͇- ÌË ‡ÁÌ˚ı Ï˚ÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë ˜‚˚ı ÔÓˆÂÒÒÓ‚, Ò‚ÓËı Ë Ó‡ÚÓ‡, ÔÓ„ÌÓÁËÓ- ‚‡Ú¸ ‰‡Î¸ÌÂȯ ‡Á‚ËÚË ÒÓ·˚ÚËÈ Ë ‚ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÏ ËÚÓ„Â Ó·ÂÒÔ˜ËÚ¸, ˜ÚÓ·˚ «ÍÓ- ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó ‚ÁÎÂÚÓ‚ ‡‚ÌflÎÓÒ¸ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Û ÔÓÒ‡‰ÓÍ», ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚Ò ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ Ô˚- Ú‡ÎÒfl ‚˚‡ÁËÚ¸ Ó‡ÚÓ, ̇¯ÎÓ ÓÚ‡ÊÂÌË ‚ ÔÂ‚ӉÂ. ç‡fl‰Û Ò ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚ‡ÏË-ÏÂÊ- ‰Û̇Ó‰ÌË͇ÏË, ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍË, Í‡Í ÛÒÚÌ˚Â, Ú‡Í Ë ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚Â, Á̇ÍÓÏflÚ ‰Û„ Ò ‰Û„ÓÏ ‡ÁÌ˚ ̇Ó‰˚, ÍÛθÚÛ˚ Ë flÁ˚ÍË; ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÓÌË ÔÂ‚˚ÏË ‚‚Ó‰flÚ ‚ flÁ˚ÍË ÌÓ‚˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ë Á̇˜ÂÌËfl, Ë ËÏÂÌÌÓ Ì‡ ÌËı ÎÂÊËÚ ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ Á‡ Óı‡ÌÛ ˜ËÒÚÓÚ˚ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ Ë Â„Ó ‡Á‚ËÚËÂ. Ä Â˘Â ‡·ÓÚ‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ ÒÓ‰ÌË ‡·ÓÚ ۘËÚÂÎfl ËÎË ÔÓÔӂ‰ÌË͇: ÓÌ ÒÚÂÏËÚÒfl ‰Ó·ËÚ¸Òfl ÔÓÌËχÌËfl ‡Û‰ËÚÓËË, ‰ÓÌÂÒÚË ‰Ó Ì ‚Ó ‚ÒÂÈ ÔÓÎÌÓÚ ÒÏ˚ÒÎ ÓË„Ë̇·, ۷‰ËÚ¸ ÂÂ, Á‡ÚÓÌÛ‚ Í‡Í ‡ÁÛÏ, Ú‡Í Ë ˜Û‚- ÒÚ‚‡. ä‡Í ‡ÚËÒÚ, ÛÒÚÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÛÏÂÚ¸ «‰Âʇڸ Á‡Î», ‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊËÚ¸ Â„Ó Í Ò·Â, Ô˂Θ¸ Â„Ó ‰Ó·ÓÊ·ÚÂθ- ÌÓ ‚ÌËχÌË – ˝ÚËÏ ÓÌ ÒÓÒÎÛÊËÚ Ì‡Ë- ÎÛ˜¯Û˛ ÒÎÛÊ·Û Ó‡ÚÓÛ, ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ÓÌ ÔÂ- ‚ӉËÚ. à, ‡ÁÛÏÂÂÚÒfl, ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ Ò‡Ï fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Ó‡ÚÓÓÏ, ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÓÏ, ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡˛˘ËÏ ÔÂ‰ ‡Û‰ËÚÓËÂÈ, Ë ‰Îfl Ì„Ó, Í‡Í Ë ‰Îfl ‚ÒflÍÓ„Ó Ó‡ÚÓ‡, ˜ÂÁ‚˚- ˜‡ÈÌÓ ‚‡Ê̇ «ÔÓ‰‡˜‡», ÚÂÏ· Ë ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚- ͇ „ÓÎÓÒ‡, ÊÂÒÚËÍÛÎflˆËfl, ÛÏÂÌË ‰Â- ʇڸÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÔÛ·ÎËÍÓÈ, ÛÏÂÌË ӷ‡ÚËÚ¸ ‚ÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Ë ÒÚÂÒÒ Ì‡ ÔÓθÁÛ ‰ÂÎÛ, ‡ Ì ‚Ó ‚‰, Ë ÚÓÏÛ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓÂ. ç‡ÍÓ̈, ‰‡‚ÌÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ ÔÓÎÛ¯ÛÚÎË‚Ó Ò‡‚ÌÂÌË ÛÒÚÌÓ- „Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ Ò Ò‡ÔÂÓÏ – ‚‰¸ Û Í‡Ê- ‰Ó„Ó ËÁ ÌËı ‰Îfl ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl Ò‚ÓÂÈ ‡·Ó- Ú˚ ÂÒÚ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ Ó‰ËÌ ¯‡ÌÒ.

О нашей профессии

ìÒÚÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÂÚ ÛÒÔ¯ÌÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‚ Ò„ӉÌfl¯ÌÂÏ ÏËÂ Ë Ì ̇ÏÂÂÌ Ò‰‡‚‡Ú¸ Ò‚ÓË ÔÓÁˈËË. ÅÓΠÚÓ- „Ó, ÒÙÂ‡ Â„Ó ÔËÏÂÌÂÌËfl ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÂÚ ‡Ò¯ËflÚ¸Òfl, ‡ Ú·ӂ‡ÌËfl Í ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ- ̇ÎËÁÏÛ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ ‡ÒÚÛÚ. óÚÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓÒÓ‚ÂÚÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÏÓÎÓ‰˚Ï Î˛- ‰flÏ, ÍÓÚÓÓÏ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ÔÓÔÓ·Ó‚‡Ú¸ Ò·fl ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Û‚ÎÂ͇ÚÂθÌÓÏ ‰ÂÎÂ? ê‡ÁÛÏÂ- ÂÚÒfl, Û˜ËÚ¸Òfl ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓÏÛ Ï‡Ò- ÚÂÒÚ‚Û, Ô˘ÂÏ Û ÔËÁ̇ÌÌ˚ı χÒÚÂÓ‚, Ëϲ˘Ëı ‡θÌ˚È ÓÔ˚Ú Ú‡ÍÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚. é·Ó„‡˘‡Ú¸ Ò‚ÓË Á̇ÌËfl ‚ ÒÙÂ ËÌÓÒÚ- ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó Ë Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚ÍÓ‚, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ‚ ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ì‡Á‚‡Ú¸ Ó·˘ÂÈ ˝ۉˈËÂÈ. à ‰ÂÁ‡Ú¸!

Об искусстве перевода

Совершенство удаляется от глаз наших по мере нашего к нему приближения – сие пребудет истинно в морали, в искусствах, и в самом искусстве переводить.

(Н.М. Карамзин)

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Анализ практики

Анализ практики Цитата в словарях и в переводе è. è‡Î‡Ê˜ÂÌÍÓ

Цитата в словарях и в переводе

è. è‡Î‡Ê˜ÂÌÍÓ

é‰ÌÓÈ ËÁ ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ı ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓÒÚÂÈ ÚÂÍÒÚÓ‚ ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓÈ ıÛ‰ÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ Ë ÔÛ·ÎˈËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛ˚, flÁ˚͇ Ò‰ÒÚ‚ χÒÒÓ‚ÓÈ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË Ë ‰‡Ê ӷ˚˜ÌÓÈ Ôӂ҉̂ÌÓÈ Â˜Ë fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ËÌÚÂÚÂÍÒÚۇθÌÓÒÚ¸. ùÚËÏ ÚÂÏËÌÓÏ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÏÓÁ‡Ë˜ÌÓÒÚ¸ ÚÂÍÒÚÓ‚, Ó·Ë- ÎË ‚ ÌËı fl‚Ì˚ı Ë ÒÍ˚Ú˚ı ˆËÚ‡Ú, ÓÚÒ˚- ÎÓÍ Í fl‚ÎÂÌËflÏ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛ˚ Ë Ï‡ÒÒÓ‚ÓÈ ÍÛθÚÛ˚ – Ú‡ÍËÏ, Í‡Í Ì‡Á‚‡ÌËfl ÍËÌÓ- ÙËθÏÓ‚, ÒÚÓÍË ËÁ ÔÂÒÂÌ, ÂÍ·ÏÌ˚ı ÎÓÁÛÌ„Ó‚, ‡ÌÂ͉ÓÚÓ‚, Ë Ú.Ô. èÓ ÏÌÂÌ˲ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÎËÌ„‚ËÒÚÓ‚, ˝ÚÓ Ò‚flÁ‡ÌÓ ÒÓ ÒÚÂÏÎÂÌËÂÏ Î˛‰ÂÈ ‚ ̇¯Â ‚ÂÏfl Í ·ÓΠ΢ÌÓÒÚÌÓÈ Ï‡ÌÂ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ë ÔËÒ‡Ú¸. çÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏÓ ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó, ÔËÌËχÂÏ ÎË Ï˚ ˝ÚÛ Ú‡ÍÚÓ‚ÍÛ, Ә‚ˉÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ fl‚ÎÂÌË ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ fl‰ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ ÔÂ‰ ÎËÌ„‚ËÒÚ‡ÏË, ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ÏË Ë ÎÂÍÒËÍÓ„‡Ù‡ÏË. 燘‡Ú¸ Ò ÚÓ„Ó, ˜ÚÓ ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ ÔÓÒÚÓ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚË „‡ÌËˆÛ ÏÂÊ‰Û ˆËÚ‡Ú‡ÏË, «Í˚·Ú˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË» Ë Ù‡ÁÂÓÎӄ˘ÂÒ- ÍËÏË ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËflÏË. ÖÒÎË ÔÂ‚˚ ÓÚÌÓÒflÚ- Òfl Í fl‚ÎÂÌËflÏ Â˜Ë (‡ Ì flÁ˚͇ Í‡Í ÒËÒÚÂ- Ï˚) Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ì ÙËÍÒËÛ˛ÚÒfl ÚÓÎÍÓ‚˚ÏË Ë ÔÂ‚ӉÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡flÏË, ÚÓ Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁÏ˚, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ·ÎËÁÍËÂ Í ÌËÏ ÔÓÒÎӂˈ˚ Ë ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓÍË – ˝ÚÓ ÛÊ ‚ӯ‰- ¯Ë ‚ flÁ˚Í ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl, Ë ÎÂÍÒËÍÓ„‡Ù˚ ÒÚÂÏflÚÒfl ̇ÒÍÓθÍÓ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓÎÌ ÓÚ- ‡ÁËÚ¸ Ëı ‚ Ó·˘ÂflÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚ı ÒÎÓ‚‡flı.

çÓ „‰Â „‡Ì¸ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÌËÏË? Ä‚ÚÓ˚ Í·ÒÒ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚ «ä˚·Ú˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡» ç.ë. Ë å.É. įÛÍËÌ˚ ÓÚÌÓÒflÚ Í ˝ÚÓÈ Í‡- Ú„ÓËË «‚ӯ‰¯Ë ‚ ̇¯Û ˜¸ ËÁ ÎËÚÂ- ‡ÚÛÌ˚ı ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍÓ‚ Í‡ÚÍË ˆËÚ‡Ú˚, Ó·‡ÁÌ˚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl, ËÁ˜ÂÌËfl ËÒÚÓË- ˜ÂÒÍËı Îˈ, ËÏÂ̇ ÏËÙÓÎӄ˘ÂÒÍËı Ë ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛÌ˚ı ÔÂÒÓ̇ÊÂÈ, ÒÚ‡‚¯Ë ̇- ˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË, Ó·‡ÁÌ˚ ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍË ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÒÚËÍË ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍËı Îˈ. ëÔÓ- ÌÓ Á‰ÂÒ¸, ̇ ÏÓÈ ‚Á„Îfl‰, Î˯¸ ‚Íβ˜ÂÌË ËÏÂÌ ÏËÙÓÎӄ˘ÂÒÍËı Ë ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛÌ˚ı ÔÂÒÓ̇ÊÂÈ. ÇÒ Ê ÓÒڇθÌÓ ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ Òڇڸ ·Û‰ÂÏ ‰Îfl Í‡ÚÍÓÒÚË Ì‡Á˚‚‡Ú¸ ˆËÚ‡Ú‡ÏË. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÎËÌ„‚ËÒÚ˚ ÓÒÓ·Ó ‚˚‰ÂÎfl- ˛Ú Ô‡ÂÏËË – «ÛÒÚÓȘ˂˚ ‚ flÁ˚ÍÂ Ë ‚ÓÒ- ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ËÏ˚ ‚ Â˜Ë ËÁ˜ÂÌËfl Ò ÒËÌ- Ú‡ÍÒ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÒÚÛÍÚÛÓÈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl». í‡Í, ã.Å. 뇂ÂÌÍÓ‚‡ Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ, ˜ÚÓ «‚ ·Óθ- ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Â Ò‚ÓÂÏ Ô‡ÂÏËË ‡ÌÓÌËÏÌ˚, ıÓÚfl Ò‚flÁ¸ Ò ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍÓÏ ‚ ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ΄ÍÓ ÔÓÒÎÂÊË‚‡ÂÚÒfl», Ë ÓÚÌÓÒËÚ Í ÍÛ„Û Ô‡ÂÏËÈ, ÒÂ‰Ë ÔÓ˜Ëı, «ÔÓÒÎӂˈ˚, ÔÓ- „Ó‚ÓÍË, ËÁ˜ÂÌËfl ËÁ ë‚fl˘ÂÌÌÓ„Ó èËÒ‡- ÌËfl». éÒÚ‡‚Îflfl ‚ ÒÚÓÓÌ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ó ÚÓÏ, ˆÂÎÂÒÓÓ·‡ÁÌÓ ÎË Ó„‡Ì˘˂‡Ú¸ ËÌÚÂÂÒÛ- ˛˘Û˛ Ì‡Ò Í‡Ú„Ó˲ Ù‡Á‡ÏË, Ëϲ˘Ë- ÏË ÒËÌÚ‡ÍÒ˘ÂÒÍÛ˛ ÒÚÛÍÚÛÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂ- ÌËfl, ÓÚÏÂÚËÏ, ˜ÚÓ, ÔÓ ÏÌÂÌ˲ ÚÓ„Ó Ê ‡‚ÚÓ‡, «ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ Ô‡ÂÏËË ÛÒÚÓȘ˂˚ Ë

20

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • è. è‡Î‡Ê˜ÂÌÍÓ

‚ÓÒÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰flÚÒfl ‚ Â˜Ë Ì‡‡‚Ì ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡- ÏË Ë Ù‡ÁÂÓÎӄ˘ÂÒÍËÏË Â‰ËÌˈ‡ÏË, ÒÎÛʇ Á͇̇ÏË ÚËÔÓ‚˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ, ÔÓ- ÒÚÓθÍÛ ÓÌË ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡˛Ú ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ˝ÎÂ- ÏÂÌÚÓ‚ flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚, Û˜‡ÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ‚ ÒÓÁ‰‡ÌËË ˆÂÎÓÒÚÌÓÈ ÒÚÛÍÚÛ˚ ÚÂÍÒÚ‡». èÓ‰‚ËÊÌÓÒÚ¸ „‡Ìˈ˚ ÏÂÊ‰Û ˆËÚ‡Ú‡- ÏË Ë Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁχÏË ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓËÎβ- ÒÚËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ̇ ÔËÏÂ ӷ˘ÂËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ı Ù‡Á ËÁ ÅË·ÎËË Ë ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËÈ òÂÍÒ- ÔË‡. é˜Â‚ˉÌÓ, ̇ÔËÏÂ, ˜ÚÓ ÑÂÒflÚ¸ Á‡Ôӂ‰ÂÈ ËÎË ¯ËÓÍÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ËÁ ÍÌË„Ë ÖÍÍÎÂÒˇÒÚ‡ (To every thing

to every

be

born, and a time to die; <…> a time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones

together) – ˆËÚ‡Ú˚, ‡ Ú‡ÍË ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl,

Í‡Í the forbidden fruit, a fly in the ointment ËÎË at the eleventh hour – ‚ӯ‰¯Ë ‚

flÁ˚Í, ·ÓΠËÎË ÏÂÌ ÔÂÂÓÒÏ˚ÒÎÂÌÌ˚ Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁÏ˚. íÓ Ê ҇ÏÓ – ËÁ òÂÍÒ-

ÔË‡: To be or not to be: that is the question ËÎË A horse! A horse! My kingdom for a horse

(«Í‡ÌÓÌ˘ÂÒÍËÈ» ÔÂ‚Ӊ – «äÓÌfl, äÓÌfl! èÓΈ‡ÒÚ‚‡ Á‡ ÍÓÌfl!) – ˆËÚ‡Ú˚, ÓÒÓÁ̇‚‡- ÂÏ˚ ÏÌÓ„ËÏË Í‡Í Ú‡ÍÓ‚˚Â, Ô˘ÂÏ, ÔÓ Í‡ÈÌÂÈ ÏÂ ‚ ÔÂ‚ÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â, ÔÓ‰‡‚Îfl- ˛˘ÂÏÛ ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Û „Ó‚Ófl˘Ëı ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÂÌ Ëı ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ, ‡, Ò͇ÊÂÏ, foregone

conclusion, to wear one’s heart upon one’s sleeve ËÎË at one fell swoop ÙÁÂÓÎÓ-

„ËÁÏ˚, ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ «ÓÚÓ‚‡‚¯ËÂÒfl» ÓÚ Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ¯ÂÍÒÔËÓ‚ÒÍÓ„Ó ËÒÚÓ˜ÌË͇. çÓ ÌÂχÎÓ Ë ÒÔÓÌ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡Â‚. ùÚÓ, ̇ÔË-

ÏÂ, ¯ÂÍÒÔËÓ‚ÒÍË a plague on both your houses, brave new world (·ÓΠËÁÂÒÚÌÓÂ

Í‡Í Ì‡Á‚‡ÌË Óχ̇ éΉÓÒ‡ ï‡ÍÒÎË) ËÎË

there is a method in the madness. ɉ ÏÂÒ-

ÚÓ ˝ÚËÏ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËflÏ – ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡flı ˆËÚ‡Ú ËÎË Ó·˘ÂflÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚ı ÚÓÎÍÓ‚˚ı Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ- Ì˚ı ÒÎÓ‚‡flı, – ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÒÔÓÌ˚È, Í ÍÓÚÓ- ÓÏÛ Ï˚ ‚ÂÌÂÏÒfl. ÑÎfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇, ‚ÓÓ·˘Â „Ó‚Ófl, Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÔË̈ËÔˇθÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl, Í Í‡- ÍÓÈ Í‡Ú„ÓËË ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Ú‡ ËÎË Ë̇fl

purpose

there is a season,

under the

and

a

time

heaven. A

time

to

21

Анализ практики

Ù‡Á‡. ÑÎfl ÌÂ„Ó ‚Ò ÓÌË – «˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ˚ flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚». éÌ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÛÏÂÚ¸ ӷ̇ÛÊËÚ¸ Ëı ‚ ÚÂÍÒÚÂ Ë ÔÂÓ‰ÓÎÂÚ¸ ÌÂ- ‰ÍÓ ‚ÓÁÌË͇˛˘Ë ÔË Ëı ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÚÛ‰ÌÓÒÚË. ç‡‰Ó ËÏÂÚ¸ ‚ ‚ˉÛ, ˜ÚÓ ÓÒÓÁ- ̇ÌÌÓ ËÎË Ì ӘÂ̸ ÛÔÓÚ·ÎÂÌË ˆËÚ‡Ú Ë Í˚·Ú˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ Â˜Ë ÒÓ- ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ı ‡Ì„΢‡Ì, ‡ÏÂË͇̈‚ Ë ÛÒ- ÒÍËı, ÔÓʇÎÛÈ, Ì ÏÂÌ ˜‡ÒÚÓ, ˜ÂÏ ÛÔÓ- Ú·ÎÂÌË ÙËÍÒËÛÂÏ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚‡flÏË Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁÏÓ‚, ÔÓÒÎӂˈ Ë ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓÓÍ. à, Í‡Í ÏÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl, ‚ ÔÓÒΉÌË ‰ÂÒflÚË- ÎÂÚËfl Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁ‡ˆËfl ˆËÚ‡Ú Ë‰ÂÚ ÓÒÓ- ·ÂÌÌÓ ·˚ÒÚ˚ÏË ÚÂÏÔ‡ÏË. èË‚Â‰Û Ó‰ËÌ ÔËÏÂ ËÁ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ Ô‡ÍÚËÍË. ÇÓ ‚ÂÏfl Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ‚ËÁËÚ‡ ‚ åÓÒÍ‚Û ‚ ‡Ô- ÂΠ1987 „Ó‰‡ „ÓÒÒÂÍÂÚ‡¸ ëòÄ ÑÊÓ‰Ê òÛθˆ, ۂˉ‚ ‚ ˜ËÒΠۘ‡ÒÚÌËÍÓ‚ ÔÂ„Ó- ‚ÓÓ‚ Ò ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÈ Ë ÓÒÒËÈÒÍÓÈ ÒÚÓ- ÓÌ «Á̇ÍÓÏ˚ Îˈ‡», Ò͇Á‡Î å.ë. ÉÓ·‡-

˜Â‚Û: All the usual suspects are here. ÖÒÎË ÌÂ

ӯ˷‡˛Ò¸, ÏÓÈ ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍËÈ ÍÓÎ΄‡ ÔÂ‚ÂÎ ˝ÚÛ Ù‡ÁÛ ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ – «Ó·˚˜Ì˚ ÔÓ‰ÓÁ‚‡ÂÏ˚» – Ò ‰Ó·‡‚ÎÂÌËÂÏ Ì·Óθ- ¯Ó„Ó ÔÓflÒÌÂÌËfl. çÓ, ̇‚ÂÌÓÂ, ÎÛ˜¯Â (ıÓÚfl Ë ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ËÒÍÓ‚‡ÌÌÓ, ‚‰¸ ÌË- ÍÓ„‰‡ ÌÂθÁfl ËÒÍβ˜‡Ú¸, ˜ÚÓ „Ó‚Ófl˘ËÈ ¯ËÚ «‡Á‚ËÚ¸ ÏÂÚ‡ÙÓÛ») ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ Ò͇- Á‡Ú¸ «á̇ÍÓÏ˚ ‚Ò Îˈ‡» (ÍÓ̘ÌÓ, ÚÓÊ ˆËÚ‡Ú‡ – ËÁ «ÉÓfl ÓÚ Ûχ»). ùÚÓ ˝ÔËÁÓ‰ ‚ÒÔÓÏÌËÎÒfl ÏÌÂ, ÍÓ„‰‡ ̉‡‚ÌÓ ‚ ÒÚ‡Ú¸Â Ó ÍËÚËÍÂ, ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÔÓ‰‚Â„‡ÂÚÒfl íÓÌË Åν ‚ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ Ô‡ÚËË, ÏÌ ‚ÒÚÂÚË·Ҹ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘‡fl

Ù‡Á‡: John Reid, the party chairman, today dismissed the mavericks like Mr. Dalyell as “the usual suspects.” åÌÓËÂ,

ÍÓ̘ÌÓ, ÛÁ̇˛Ú ·ÂÒÒÏÂÚÌÛ˛ Ù‡ÁÛ Í‡- ÔËڇ̇ êÂÌÓ ËÁ ÍËÌÓÙËθχ «ä‡Ò‡·Î‡Ì- ͇» – Round up the usual suspects. é̇ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl Ë ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÏ, «ÔÓÎÌÓÙÓχÚ- ÌÓÏ» ‚ˉ (ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË Â ÏÓÊÌÓ, ̇ÔË- ÏÂ, Ú‡Í: «ÇÒÂı, ÍÓ„Ó Ó·˚˜ÌÓ, – ÔÓ‰ ‡ÂÒÚ!» – ÛÊ Ó˜Â̸ ÔÂÒÌÓ Á‚Û˜ËÚ «ÄÂÒ- ÚÛÈÚ ӷ˚˜Ì˚ı ÔÓ‰ÓÁ‚‡ÂÏ˚ı»).

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • è. èÎʘÂÌÍÓ

Анализ практики

êÂÏËÌËÒˆÂ̈ËË Ò ˝ÚÓÈ Á̇ÏÂÌËÚÓÈ Ù‡ÁÓÈ – Ì ‰ÍÓÒÚ¸. åÓÊÌÓ Ò˜ËÚ‡Ú¸, ˜ÚÓ Ó̇ ‚ӯ· ‚ flÁ˚Í. à ÔÂ‚Ӊ  ÔÓ˜- ÚË ‚Ò„‰‡ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚÛ‡ÎÂÌ. í‡Í, ̇Á‚‡ÌË ÍËÌÓÙËθχ The Usual Suspects ÔÂ‚‰Â- ÌÓ Í‡Í «é·˚˜Ì˚ ÔÓ‰ÓÁ‚‡ÂÏ˚», Ë ÎÛ˜- ¯Â ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â, ÔÓʇÎÛÈ, Ì ÔÓÎÛ- ˜ËÚÒfl, ıÓÚfl Ë Ê‡Î¸, ˜ÚÓ ‡ÒÒӈˇˆËfl Ò «ä‡Ò‡·Î‡ÌÍÓÈ» ‰Îfl ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚‡ ÁËÚÂ- ÎÂÈ ÛÚ‡˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl. Ä ‚ÓÚ ÔËÏÂ ËÁ Denver

Westword: Eugene Valershteyn’s newer Russian Cafe in Littleton is still going strong. <…> we really love this spot for its comprehensive list of chilled vodkas available by the shot. In addition to all of the usual high-octane suspects, both foreign and domestic, the Russian Cafe also stocks an impressive spread of artisan vodkas in flavors like black currant, lemon, pepper

and cranberry. á‰ÂÒ¸, ÍÓ̘ÌÓ, ÌË «ÔÓ‰Ó- Á‚‡ÂÏ˚», ÌË «Îˈ‡» Ì ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰flÚ, Á‡ÚÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ «Òڇ̉‡ÚÌ˚È Ì‡·Ó „Ófl- ˜ËÚÂθÌ˚ı/ÍÂÔÍËı ̇ÔËÚÍÓ‚». ç ÏÂÌ ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚È ÔËÏÂ ËÁ ÒÔÓÚË‚ÌÓ„Ó ‡Á‰Â· ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÈ „‡ÁÂ-

Ú˚: There are prime suspects among the usual suspects, but I will stick my neck out

now. (꘸ ˉÂÚ Ó ÙÛÚ·ÓθÌ˚ı ÍÎÛ·‡ı, Ú‡‰ËˆËÓÌÌÓ ÔÂÚÂÌ‰Û˛˘Ëı ̇ Ôӷ‰Û.) á‰ÂÒ¸ Ï˚ ËÏÂÂÏ ‰ÂÎÓ Ò ‰‡Î¸ÌÂȯËÏ Ó·˚- „˚‚‡ÌËÂÏ ˆËÚ‡Ú˚, ‚Ò ·ÓΠ‚ıÓ‰fl˘ÂÈ ‚ flÁ˚Í ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÛÒÚÓÈ˜Ë‚Ó„Ó ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl. Ç ÔÂ‚ӉÂ, Í‡Í ÏÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl, ̇Ô‡¯Ë- ‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚Ó «ÒÔËÒÓÍ»: «Ç ÒÔËÒÍ Ú‡‰Ë- ˆËÓÌÌ˚ı ÔÂÚẨÂÌÚÓ‚ ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ÒÂÏ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚ- Ì˚ ه‚ÓËÚ˚, ÌÓ fl ‚ÒÂ-Ú‡ÍË ËÒÍÌÛ ‚˚ÒÛÌÛÚ¸Òfl ÒÓ Ò‚ÓËÏ ÔÓ„ÌÓÁÓÏ». Ç ‰Û- „Ëı ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚ‡ı ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚ ‚‡ˇÌÚ˚ «ÌË- ˜Â„Ó ÌÂÓÊˉ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó», «‰ÊÂÌÚθÏÂÌÒÍËÈ Ì‡·Ó» Ë Ú.‰. èÓÚË‚ ‚Íβ˜ÂÌËfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚ÓÒÓ˜Â- Ú‡ÌËfl ‚ Ó·˚˜Ì˚È (‡ Ì ÎËÌ„‚ÓÒÚ‡Ìӂ‰- ˜ÂÒÍËÈ) ÒÎÓ‚‡¸ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‰‚‡ ‚ÓÁ‡ÊÂ- ÌËfl. ÇÓ-ÔÂ‚˚ı, ÏÓÊÌÓ ÛÚ‚Âʉ‡Ú¸, ˜ÚÓ ˆËÚ‡Ú‡ ¢ Ì ÓÚÓ‚‡Î‡Ò¸ ÓÚ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚ‡ Ë Ì Òڇ·, Ú‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ, ˉËÓÏÓÈ. äÓ-

22

̘ÌÓ, «ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ ÁÂÎÓÒÚË» Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁχ ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„ÓÏ ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚË‚ÌÓ. çÓ Ô˂‰ÂÌÌ˚ ÔËÏÂ˚, ÔÓʇÎÛÈ, ÒÔÓÒÓ·- Ì˚ ۷‰ËÚ¸ ÒÍÂÔÚËÍÓ‚. à ‚ÚÓÓÂ: ÒÎÓ‚Ó- ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË ÒÂχÌÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÛÒÚÓÂÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÓ Ë Ì Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ ÓÒÓ·˚ı ÚÛ‰ÌÓÒÚÂÈ ‰Îfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇. çÓ Ë ˝ÚÓÚ ‡„ÛÏÂÌÚ ÓÔÓ- ‚Â„‡ÂÚÒfl Ô˂‰ÂÌÌ˚ÏË ÔËÏÂ‡ÏË. äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, ÔËÏÂÌÓ ÚÓ Ê ҇ÏÓ ÏÓÊ- ÌÓ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸, ̇ÔËÏÂ, Ó ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓÍ There

is no smoke without fire, ÔÂ‚ӉËÏÓÈ ÔÓ˜-

ÚË «ÔÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ» Ë ÚÂÏ Ì ÏÂÌ ‚Íβ˜‡Â- ÏÓÈ ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë. ÅÎËÁÍËÈ ÔËÏÂ – Ô‚‡ÚË‚¯‡flÒfl ÔÓ˜ÚË ‚ ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓÍÛ Ù‡Á‡ ËÁ Â˜Ë ÔÂÁË-

‰ÂÌÚ‡ ÑÊ. äÂÌÌÂ‰Ë – A rising tide lifts all

the boats. á‰ÂÒ¸, ÍÒÚ‡ÚË „Ó‚Ófl, Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÛÊ Ó˜Â‚Ë‰ÂÌ. ëÎÓ‚‡¸ ÏÓ„ ·˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸, ̇ÔËÏÂ, ‚‡ˇÌÚ «ÅÓθ- ¯‡fl ‚ÓÎ̇ ÔÓ‰ÌËχÂÚ ‚Ò ÎÓ‰ÍË». ëÏ˚ÒÎ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËfl – ˝ÍÓÌÓÏ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ÔÓ‰˙ÂÏ ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÂÚ ‚ÒÂÏ ÒÎÓflÏ Ì‡ÒÂÎÂÌËfl, ‚ ÚÓÏ ˜ËÒΠ·Â‰Ì˚Ï, ·Óθ¯Â, ˜ÂÏ ÓËÂÌ- ÚËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ̇ ÌËı ÒӈˇθÌÓ ˝ÍÓÌÓÏË- ˜ÂÒÍË ÔÓ„‡ÏÏ˚. ÇÓÓ·˘Â ËÁ˜ÂÌËfl ÔÓÎËÚËÍÓ‚ (˜‡ÒÚÓ ÂÁÛÎ¸Ú‡Ú Ì‚ˉËÏ˚ı ÏËÛ ÛÒËÎËÈ ÒÓÒÚ‡- ‚ËÚÂÎÂÈ Ëı ˜ÂÈ) – ÏÓ˘Ì˚È ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ ÔÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ˉËÓχÚËÍË. åÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl, ˜ÚÓ ‚Ó¯ÎÓ ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏÛ flÁ˚͇ Ë Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îfl- ÂÚ ËÌÚÂÂÒ Ò ÚÓ˜ÍË ÁÂÌËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ÛÁ-

‚ÂθÚÓ‚ÒÍÓ (Theodore Roosevelt) lunatic

fringe (Ӊ̇ʉ˚ ÏÌ Ô˯ÎÓÒ¸ «ÍÂÔÍÓ Á‡‰ÛχڸÒfl» – ‰ÓÎ„Ó ‰Ûχڸ Ì ·˚ÎÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË – ÍÓ„‰‡ ÑÊÓ‰Ê ÅÛ¯-ÒÚ‡¯ËÈ ÛÔÓÚ·ËÎ ˝ÚÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÂ Ò ÉÓ·‡˜Â‚˚Ï, ‡ ‰ÂÎÓ ·˚ÎÓ ‚ 1987 „Ó‰Û, ÍÓ„‰‡ ÒÎÓ‚Ó «Ï‡„Ë̇λ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ¢ Ì ‚Ó¯ÎÓ ‚ ‡ÍÚË‚ÌÓ ÛÔÓÚ·ÎÂÌËÂ). Ä ˜ÚÓ Ú‡ÍÓ ‚ËθÒÓÌÓ‚ÒÍÓ (Woodrow

Wilson) make the world safe for democracy

ÔÓÒÚÓ ˆËÚ‡Ú‡ ËÎË Ë‰ËÓχ, Ù‡ÍÚ flÁ˚͇? ÇÂÓflÚÌÓÒÚ¸ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ¸ ˝ÚÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ‚ ‡θÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‚ÂҸχ ‚ÂÎË͇. à Ú‡Í ÎË Ó˜Â‚Ë‰ÂÌ ÔÂ‚Ӊ? «é·ÂÁÓÔ‡ÒËÚ¸ ÏË ‰Îfl ‰ÂÏÓÍ‡ÚËË»? «ë‰Â·ڸ ÏË ·ÂÁÓÔ‡ÒÌ˚Ï

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • è. è‡Î‡Ê˜ÂÌÍÓ

‰Îfl (‡‰Ë) ‰ÂÏÓÍ‡ÚËË»? ëÎÓ‚‡¸ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ. á̇ÏÂÌËÚ Ë ‡ÙÓËÁÏ ìËÌÒÚÓ̇ óÂ-

˜ËÎÎfl Ó êÓÒÒËË: [Russia is]

a riddle

wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma

«Á‡„‡‰Í‡, ÓÍÛÚ‡Ì̇fl Ú‡ÈÌÓÈ Ë ÔÓ„ÛÊÂÌ- ̇fl ‚ ÌÂËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓÒÚ¸». ùÚÓ ‚ÒÂ-Ú‡ÍË, ÔÓʇÎÛÈ, ˆËÚ‡Ú‡, ¢ Ì ۯ‰¯‡fl ‚ Ò‚Ó- ·Ó‰ÌÓ Ô·‚‡ÌËÂ. Ä Í‡Í ·˚Ú¸ Ò ÚÛÏÂÌÓ‚-

ÒÍËÏ If you can’t stand the heat, get out of

the kitchen? ÑÎfl Ó‰ÌËı ÌÓÒËÚÂÎÂÈ flÁ˚͇ ˝ÚÓ ÛÊ ÔÓ„Ó‚Ó͇, ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÓÚÓ‚‡‚- ¯‡flÒfl ÓÚ ËÒÚÓ˜ÌË͇ ˆËÚ‡Ú˚, ‰Û„Ë ÔÂ- Í‡ÒÌÓ Á̇˛Ú, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ Ò͇Á‡Î ËÏÂÌÌÓ íÛÏÂÌ. ç‡ ÏÓÈ ‚Á„Îfl‰, ˝ÚÓ ÛÊ هÍÚ flÁ˚͇, ‡ Ì ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒ͇fl ‡ÎËfl. à ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ ˝ÚÛ Ù‡ÁÛ Ì‡‰Ó ‚ ÒÚËΠÔÓ„Ó‚ÓÍË:

«äÓÏÛ Ê‡ÍÓ – ÔÓ˜¸ ËÁ ÍÛıÌË». àÎË Á‡-

·‡‚ÌÓ If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it («óÚÓ ÌÂ

ÒÎÓχÌÓ – Ì ˜ËÌË»). ë͇Á‡Î ˝ÚÓ ÛÊ ÔÓ‰Á‡·˚Ú˚È ÏËÌËÒÚ ÙË̇ÌÒÓ‚ ‚ ͇·Ë- ÌÂÚ ÑÊËÏÏË ä‡ÚÂ‡ ÅÂÚ ã˝ÌÒ. äÚÓ-ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÏÌËÚ, ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ ÌÂÚ, ÌÓ ·Û‰¸ ÚÓ ˆËÚ‡- Ú‡ ËÎË ÔÓ„Ó‚Ó͇ – ÂÈ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Â. åÓÊÌÓ ÔË‚ÂÒÚË Â˘Â ÌÂχÎÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂ- ÌËÈ, ÍÓÚÓ˚Â, ̇ ÏÓÈ ‚Á„Îfl‰, ÒÚÓËÚ ‚Íβ- ˜ËÚ¸ ‚ Ó·˘ÂflÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë. ÇÓÚ, ̇ÔËÏÂ, the dismal science. ùÚÓ ÓÔ‰Â- ÎÂÌË ˝ÍÓÌÓÏ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÚÂÓËË economics (ËÎË, ÔÓ-ÒÚ‡ÓÏÛ, ÔÓÎËÚ˝ÍÓÌÓÏËË –

political economy) – ‰‡Î íÓÏ‡Ò ä‡ÎÂÈθ

(íhomas Carlyle). Ç Ó·˘ÂflÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚ı ÒÎÓ‚‡- flı fl Â„Ó Ì ̇¯ÂÎ. Ä ‚ Columbia Encyclopedia ˝ÚÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ÔË‚Ó‰ËÚÒfl ·ÂÁ ÒÒ˚ÎÍË Ì‡ ä‡ÎÂÈÎfl (Ë ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ‚ Ò‚fl-

ÁË Ò å‡Î¸ÚÛÒÓÏ): One of the most influential writers of the 19th cent. was Thomas Malthus, whose predictions that population growth would always tend to outstrip advances in the means of subsistence earned for economics the title “the dismal science.”

ÖÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ, Ú‡ÍÓ «ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌË» Ì ‚ÒÂÏ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. à ‚Ò Ê ˝ÚÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ‚Ó¯ÎÓ ‚ flÁ˚Í, ÂÒÚ¸ ‰‡Ê ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÍÌË„, ‚ ̇Á‚‡ÌËË ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÓÌÓ ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ,

̇ÔËÏÂ: Naked Economics: Undressing

23

Анализ практики

the Dismal Science by Charles J. Wheelan.

èÂ‚Ӊ ÌÂӘ‚ˉÂÌ. ü ·˚ ÔÂ‚ÂÎ «Ï‡˜ÌÂȯ‡fl ËÁ ̇ÛÍ» (Ô‚ÓÒıӉ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ – ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ÓÔ- ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ‡ÚËÍθ). çÓ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊ̇ Ë ‰Û„‡fl ËÌÚÂÔÂÚ‡ˆËfl – «ÒÍÛ˜ÌÂȯ‡fl» ËÎË ‰‡Ê «ÌÛ‰ÌÂȯ‡fl» (Ë ‚‰¸ ÚÓÊ ‚Â- ÌÓ, ÔÓʇÎÛÈ). ÇÔÎÓÚ¸ ‰Ó «·ÂÒÒÏ˚ÒÎÂÌ- ̇fl» ËÎË «·ÂÒÔÓÎÂÁ̇fl» – ÌÓ ˝ÚÓ, ÍÓ̘- ÌÓ, Ì ‰Îfl ÒÎÓ‚‡fl. àÎË ‚ÓÁ¸ÏÂÏ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË manifest

destiny, ÔÓËÒıÓʉÂÌËÂÏ Ò‚ÓËÏ Ó·flÁ‡ÌÌÓÂ

ÔÂÁˉÂÌÚÛ ù̉˛ ÑÊÂÍÒÓÌÛ ( country

A

manifestly called by the Almighty to a destiny which Greece and Rome, in the days of their

pride, might have envied ÄÏÂË͇, ÂÒÚÂ-

ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ). Ç ÅÄêë ˝ÚÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ÓÚÒÛÚ- ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ. Ç ÒÎÓ‚‡ É.Ç. óÂÌÓ‚‡ Americana ‰‡ÂÚÒfl Ì‚Â̇fl, ̇ ÏÓÈ ‚Á„Îfl‰, ÓÚÒ˚Î͇ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl Í ·ÓΠÔÓÁ‰ÌÂÈ (1845 „.) «Òڇڸ ÑÊ.ã. é’ë‡ÎÎË‚Â̇ Ó· ‡ÌÌÂÍÒËË íÂı‡Ò‡». àÌÚÂÂÒÌÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌË ‚ The

American Heritage Dictionary: 1. A policy of imperialistic expansion defended as necessary or benevolent. 2. often Manifest Destiny The 19th-century doctrine that the United States had the right and duty to expand throughout the North American continent. É.Ç. óÂÌÓ‚

Ô‰·„‡ÂÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ «Ô‰̇˜ÂÚ‡ÌË ÒÛ‰¸- ·˚», ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ‚‡ˇÌÚ˚ «·ÓÊËÈ ÔÓÏ˚ÒÂλ Ë «·ÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ Ô‰ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌË». ç‡ÍÓ̈, ‚ӯ‰¯‡fl ‚ ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓÍÛ Ù‡- Á‡ „ÓÒÒÂÍÂÚ‡fl ÑË̇ ê‡Ò͇, Ò͇Á‡Ì̇fl ‚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ‡Á‚flÁÍË ä‡Ë·ÒÍÓ„Ó ÍËÁËÒ‡ (ÍÒÚ‡ÚË, Ú‡Í Â„Ó Ì‡Á˚‚‡˛Ú ÚÓθÍÓ Û Ì‡Ò,

ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË – the Cuban missile crisis):

We’re eyeball to eyeball, and I think the other fellow just blinked. ÑÛχ˛, ˝Ú‡ Ù‡Á‡

ËÏÂÂÚ Ì ÏÂ̸¯Â Ô‡‚Ó Ì‡ ‚Íβ˜ÂÌË ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë, ˜ÂÏ ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ÔÓÒÎÓ‚Ë- ˆ˚ Ë ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓÍË, ÏÌÓ„Ë ËÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‚˚- ¯ÎË ËÁ ‡ÍÚË‚ÌÓ„Ó ÛÔÓÚ·ÎÂÌËfl. èÂ‚Ӊ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Ú‡ÍÓÈ: «å˚ ÒÏÓÚËÏ ‰Û„ ̇ ‰Û„‡ ‚ ÛÔÓ, Ë, ͇ÊÂÚÒfl, ÔÓÚË‚ÌËÍ ÏÓ„ÌÛλ.

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • è. èÎʘÂÌÍÓ

Анализ практики

ñËÚ‡Ú˚, Í‡Í Ë Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁÏ˚, ÔÓ- ÒÎӂˈ˚ Ë Ú.Ô., ÏÓ„ÛÚ ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡Ú¸ ‚ ÚÂÍÒÚ ‚ ÏÓ‰ËÙˈËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÏ Ë ÍÓÌÚ‡ÏËÌËÓ- ‚‡ÌÌÓÏ ‚ˉÂ. óÚÓ·˚ ÔËÌflÚ¸ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ¯ÂÌËÂ, ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ Á̇ڸ «ËÒ- ıÓ‰ÌËÍ». ÇÓÚ ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚È ÔËÏÂ ËÁ ÊÛ-

̇· The Atlantic:

represent <

these statements also

the same contempt for the

>

decent opinion of mankind that have marked the Administration’s drive for war.

óÚÓ Á‡ decent opinion? ÖÒÎË Ì Á̇ڸ ËÒ- ÚÓ˜ÌËÍ, ÚÓ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ Ó͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ Á‡- ϯ‡ÚÂθÒÚ‚Â. ùÚÓ – ÍÓÌÚ‡ÏË̇ˆËfl (ÚÛ‰ÌÓ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸, ̇ÏÂÂÌ̇fl ËÎË ÔÓ ÓÔ- ÎÓ¯ÌÓÒÚË) ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓÈ Ù‡Á˚ ËÁ ÑÂÍ·‡- ˆËË ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ëòÄ: When in the

Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them

to the separation. Ç ÓÔÛ·ÎËÍÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÏ ÔÂÂ- ‚Ӊ ÑÂÍ·‡ˆËË ˝Ú‡ Ù‡Á‡ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl Í‡Í «Û‚‡ÊËÚÂθÌÓ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ Í ÏÌÂÌ˲ ˜ÂÎӂ˜ÂÒÚ‚‡». ëÓı‡Ìflfl ‡‚ÚÓÒÍÛ˛ ‡ÎβÁ˲, ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË: «‚Ò ÚÓ Ê ÌÂÛ‚‡ÊËÚÂθÌÓ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ Í ÏÌÂÌ˲ ˜ÂÎӂ˜ÂÒÚ‚‡, ÍÓÚÓÓ ÔÓfl‚ÎflÂÚ ‡‰ÏËÌË- ÒÚ‡ˆËfl ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÏ ÒÚÂÏÎÂÌËË Í ‚ÓÈÌ». á‡ÒÎÛÊË‚‡˛Ú ‚Íβ˜ÂÌËfl ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ӯ‰¯Ë ‚ flÁ˚Í ˆËÚ‡Ú˚, ÌÓ Ë ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ̇Á‚‡ÌËfl (ÍÌË„, ÙËθÏÓ‚ Ë Ú.Ô.). é·ÓÁ‚‡ÚÂθ «ç¸˛-âÓÍ Ú‡ÈÏÒ» èÓθ äۄχÌ, ÍÓ̘ÌÓ, Ì ÎËÌ„‚ËÒÚ, ÌÓ Í Â„Ó ÏÌÂÌ˲, ̇‚ÂÌÓÂ, ÒÚÓËÚ ÔËÒÎÛ-

¯‡Ú¸Òfl: The 1997 movie “Wag the Dog” had quite a plot. Although the movie’s title has entered the language, I don’t know how many people have watched it lately. Read the screenplay. If you don’t think it bears a resemblance to recent events, you’re in

denial. àÚ‡Í, ‡‚ÚÓ Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ, ˜ÚÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂ-

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ÌË wag the dog «‚Ó¯ÎÓ ‚ flÁ˚Í». èÓ-ÛÒ- ÒÍË ˝ÚÓÚ ÙËÎ¸Ï Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÎÒfl (ÍÒÚ‡ÚË, ÔÓ˜Â- ÏÛ?) «èÎÛÚÓ‚ÒÚ‚Ó». ç Á̇˛, ÓÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÎË ÙËθχ ˉÂÚ ÛÒÒÍÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË «ı‚ÓÒÚ ‚ËÎflÂÚ ÒÓ·‡ÍÓÈ». çÂÔÎÓıÓ ·˚ ÔÓ‚ÂËÚ¸. ÇÓ ‚ÒflÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â, wag the dog fl ·˚ ‚Íβ- ˜ËÎ ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë Ò ˝ÚËÏ ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ. àÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚È ÔËÏÂ Ó·˚„˚‚‡ÌËfl ‚˚- ‡ÊÂÌËfl, ÍÓÚÓÓ ̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ̇ „‡ÌË ÏÂÊ‰Û ÛÁ̇‚‡ÂÏÓÈ ÏÌÓ„ËÏË ˆËÚ‡ÚÓÈ Ë ‚Ó- ¯Â‰¯ËÏ ‚ flÁ˚Í Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁÏÓÏ, ̇ıÓ‰ËÏ ‚ Òڇڸ åÓËÌ Ñ‡Û‰ ‚ «ç¸˛-âÓÍ

Ú‡ÈÏÒ»: Most Americans, even Republicans, have a more tolerant and happy vision of the country than Mr. Scalia and other nattering nabobs of negativism. èË͇ÌÚÌÓÒÚ¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚

ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ ‡‚ÚÓ, ÔÓ ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÏÛ Ë‰ÂÓÎÓ- „˘ÂÒÍÓÏÛ ‡ÌÊËÛ ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ËÈÒfl Í ÎË·Â- ‡Î‡Ï (ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ΂˚Ï), ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÂ, ‚ÔÂ‚˚ ÛÔÓÚ·ÎÂÌÌÓ ‚ Â- ˜Ë ‚ˈÂ-ÔÂÁˉÂÌÚ‡ ëòÄ (Ë ÓÚÌ˛‰¸ Ì «ÎË·Â‡Î‡» ‚ ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÏ ÔÓÌËχÌËË ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡) ëÔËÓ Ä„Ì˛. ìÔÓÚ·ÎÂÌËÂ Ë Ó·˚„˚‚‡ÌË ˝ÚÓÈ ˆËÚ‡Ú˚ (ÌÂ‰ÍÓ ·ÂÁ ‡ÚË·ÛˆËË) ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ˜‡ÒÚÓ. ÇÓÚ Á‡„ÓÎÓ-

‚ÓÍ ËÁ The Austin Review: The Nattering Nabobs of Nanotech Negativism. ֢ ÓËÌ ÔËÏÂ: These networks, like radio, have gone the way of talk to attract more viewers. But it is mostly weightless recycled opinion. After a while, these nattering nabobs of negativism sound like radio static (The Salt

Lake Tribune). ë˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ÎË ˝ÚÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÒÓ˜Â- Ú‡ÌË ˆËÚ‡ÚÓÈ, Ì ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÈ ‚Íβ˜Â- Ì˲ ‚ Ó·˚˜Ì˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë, ËÎË ‚ÒÂ-Ú‡ÍË Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁÏÓÏ – ‚ÓÔÓÒ, ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸, ÒÔÓÌ˚È. óÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡, ÚÓ ÏÓÊ- ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ «‚˜Ì˚ Ì˚ÚËÍË-ÌË„ËÎËÒ- Ú˚» – ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ ÚÓÈÌÓÈ ‡ÎÎËÚÂ‡ˆËË Á‰ÂÒ¸ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ‚Ӊ ‚ÌÛÚÂÌÌÂÈ ËÙÏ˚ «Ì˚-Ì˚-ÌË». èËÏÂ «ÔÓ„‡Ì˘ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÛ˜‡fl» – ̇ „‡ÌË ÏÂÊ‰Û ˆËÚ‡ÚÓÈ Ë ÛÒÚÓȘ˂˚Ï ÒÎÓ- ‚ÓÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËÂÏ – ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË a fine mess (‚‡ˇÌÚ – another fine mess), Ì ‚ӯ‰- ¯Â ÌË ‚ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ ÏÌ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë ˆËÚ‡Ú, ÌË

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • è. è‡Î‡Ê˜ÂÌÍÓ

‚ Ó·˘Ë ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë, ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓ Ô˘ËÌ ÔÓÒÚÓÚ˚ Ë «ÔÓÁ‡˜ÌÓÒÚË» Â„Ó ÒÏ˚Ò· (Ô˘Ë̇, Í‡Í Ò͇Á‡ÌÓ ‚˚¯Â, ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ ۷‰ËÚÂθ̇fl). ÇÓÚ ÔËÏÂ ËÁ ÌÂ- ‰‡‚ÌÂÈ ÒÚ‡Ú¸Ë ìËθflχ ë˝Ù‡È‡ (ÍÒÚ‡ÚË, ÛÔÓÏflÌÛÚÛ˛ ˜¸ Ä„Ì˛ ÔË҇ΠËÏÂÌÌÓ ÓÌ):

Our dovish left will say, with Oliver Hardy, “a fine mess you’ve got us into” – as if we created Saddam’s threat, or made our C.I.A. dance to some oily imperialist tune, or would have been better off with our head in the sand. Most Americans, I think, will move past these unending recriminations, reject defeatism and support leaders determined to win the final Iraq war.

ë˝Ù‡È Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ ˆËÚ‡- Ú˚ – ˝ÚÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡ „ÂÓfl Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ËÁ (˜ÛÚ¸ ÎË Ì ÔflÚËÒÓÚ!) ÙËθÏÓ‚ Ò Û˜‡ÒÚËÂÏ ‡ÏÂË- ͇ÌÒÍÓ„Ó ÍÓÏË͇ éÎË‚Â‡ ï‡‰Ë (of the

Laurel and Hardy pair). è‡‚‰‡, ‰Û„ËÂ

ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍË ‰‡˛Ú ˝ÚÛ ˆËÚ‡ÚÛ ‚ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ËÌÓÏ ‚ˉÂ. í‡Í ̇ Ò‡ÈÚ MSNBC

Entertainment ˜ËÚ‡ÂÏ: Sound added even more ingredients to Hardy’s comic repertoire, not the least of which were such catch- phrases as “Why don’t you do something to help me?” and “Here’s another nice mess you’ve gotten me into.” çÓ ‚ flÁ˚Í ‚Ó¯ÂÎ

‚‡ˇÌÚ a fine mess. ï‡‡ÍÚÂ̇fl ÓÒÓ·ÂÌ- ÌÓÒÚ¸ ˆËÚ‡Ú, ‚ӯ‰¯Ëı ‚ flÁ˚Í, – ÓÌË ˜‡- ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚ ̇Á‚‡ÌËflı ÙËθÏÓ‚. Ç 1986 „. ‚˚¯ÂÎ ÙËÎ¸Ï A Fine Mess. (ëÓ‰Â-

ʇÌËÂ: Spence and Dennis are a couple of losers who work odd jobs, while awaiting their big break. One day, Spence overhears some mobsters planning to dope a horse at the racetrack. Sure-fire way to make some dough, right? Wrong! Because the gangsters find out that Spence knows their secret – and they’ll do anything to shut him up.) ä‡Í

‚ˉËÏ, Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÔÓÒχÚË‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÚÂχ «ÌÂ- Ô‰‚ˉÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËÈ». èÓËÒÍ ‚ àÌÚÂÌÂÚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎËΠ̇ÈÚË ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÒÚ‡ÚÂÈ, ̇Á‚‡ÌÌ˚ı Another Fine Mess (̇ÔËÏÂ, Ó· ËÒÚÓËË Ò‚ÂÊÂÌËfl Ë‡ÌÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‡‚ËÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ ‚ 1953 „Ó‰Û, ÔÓ-

Анализ практики

ÒΉÒÚ‚Ëflı ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓ„Ó ‚ÚÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ à‡Í, ÁÎÓÍβ˜ÂÌËflı ·ËÚ‡ÌÒÍÓÈ ÏÓ̇- ıËË). Ç çÓ‚ÓÏ ÅÄêë ÔË‚Ó‰ËÚÒfl ÔËÏÂ You made a fine mess of my watch (çÛ Ë ÔÓ- ˜ËÌËÎ Ê Ú˚/‚Ó ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Ô‚‡ÚËÎ ÏÓË ˜‡- Ò˚!) çÓ Ì ÔË‚Ó‰ËÚÒfl Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ, ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ- ‚Û˛˘ÂÂ, ̇ ÏÓÈ ‚Á„Îfl‰, ÛÊÂ Í‡Í ÓÚ‰ÂθÌÓ («ÒÓ·‡˜¸fl Í͇ۘ»). ë Û˜ÂÚÓÏ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÏÓÊÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÔÂ‚Ó̇˜‡Î¸- ÌÓÈ Ù‡Á˚: çÛ Ë ‚ÎflÔ‡ÎÒfl/‚ÎËÔ/»‚ÒÚÛ- ÔËλ Ê fl ÔÓ Ú‚ÓÂÈ ÏËÎÓÒÚË (ËÁ-Á‡ Ú·fl). äÓ̘ÌÓ, ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚ Ë ‰Û„Ë ‚‡ˇÌÚ˚ («‚ÚflÌÛÎ Ê Ú˚ ÏÂÌfl ‚ ËÒÚÓ˲», «Ò‚flÁ‡Î- Òfl Ê fl Ò ÚÓ·ÓÈ Ò· ̇ ·Â‰Û» Ë Ú.Ô.) ç‡ÍÓ̈, ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ӉÌËÏË ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχ˛ÚÒfl Í‡Í ˆËÚ‡Ú‡, ‰Û„ËÏË – Í‡Í Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁÏ, ÚÂÚ¸ËÏË – Í‡Í Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. òÂÍÒÔËÓ‚ÒÍÛ˛ Ù‡ÁÛ to protest too much fl Ì ̇¯ÂÎ ‚ ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Â ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÈ ˆËÚ‡Ú. Ä‚ÚÓ ÒÚ‡Ú¸Ë ‚ «ç¸˛-âÓÍ Ú‡ÈÏÒ» Ó ÔÓÎÂÏËÍ ‚ Ò‚flÁË Ò ÚÂÎÂÙËθÏÓÏ Ó êÓ- ̇θ‰Â êÂÈ„‡Ì ÛÔÓÚ·ÎflÂÚ ˝ÚÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂ- ÌË ‚ÔÓÎÌ ÓÒÏ˚ÒÎÂÌÌÓ Ë, ÍÓ̘ÌÓ, Á̇- ÂÚ, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ ˆËÚ‡Ú‡: If there was one consistent theme to 90 percent of the outrage over a mini-series that no one outside CBS (including me) has seen, it was focused on a single line about AIDS attributed to Ronald Reagan: “They that live in sin shall die in sin.” The screenwriter of “The Reagans” admitted to The New York Times that she had no source for the line and it was cut. Yet even after it was cut, those on the attack kept harping on it more than any other element in the unseen film. Why? It was the syndrome of protesting too much, methinks. There’s no evidence to suggest that Reagan was a bigot, but even so, he did say things similar to that jettisoned sentence. ü‚Ì˚È ÔËÁÌ‡Í Á̇ÍÓÏ- ÒÚ‚‡ Ò ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍÓÏ – ‡ı‡Ë˜ÌÓ methinks. ì͇Á‡ÌË ̇ ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ì‡ÈÚË, ̇- ÔËÏÂ, ̇ Ò‡ÈÚ GoEnglish.com: To “protest too much” is to insist so strongly about something not being true that people begin to suspect maybe it is true. Example: “You do like that girl, don’t you?” Answer: “No! I don’t!

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МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • è. èÎʘÂÌÍÓ

Анализ практики

Not at all! Why do you think so?” Reply: “You protest too much.” “Protest too much” comes from Hamlet by William Shakespeare; the Queen speaking: “The lady doth protest too much, methinks.” (Note: people do not usually use the word “methinks” when they are speaking English today.) To “protest too much” is to insist so passionately about something not being true that people suspect the opposite of what you are saying. Example:

“Do you think he is telling the truth?” Answer:

“I think he protests too much.” ֢ ӉÌÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËÂ: To protest too much, which is what Hamlet’s mother describes the remarriage-forswearing player Queen as doing, is to vociferously insist on the opposite of what is actually true (Merriam Webster’s Word for the Wise). ä‡Í ‚ˉËÏ, Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‰‚‡ „·‚- Ì˚ı ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚ı ÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚ‡: «ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ÒÚ‡‡ÂÚÒfl» Ë «˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ÚÛÚ ÌÂ Ú‡Í („Ó‚Ófl- ˘ËÈ ÌÂËÒÍÂÌÂÌ)». Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ˝Ú‡ Ù‡Á‡ ÛÔÓ- Ú·ÎflÂÚÒfl Ú‡Í, ˜ÚÓ, ıÓÚfl Ë flÒÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ ‡‚- ÚÓÓÏ ‚ÔÓÎÌ ÓÒÏ˚ÒÎÂÌ˚ ˝ÚË ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚ ÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚ˚, ÌÂËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ, ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÂÌ ÎË ÂÏÛ ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ ˆËÚ‡Ú˚. Ç ‰Û„Ëı Ê ÒÎÛ˜‡- flı – Ë ˝ÚÓ Ò‡ÏÓ ÚÛ‰ÌÓ ‰Îfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë- ͇ – ËÏÂÂÚ ÏÂÒÚÓ Ë„‡ ÒÎÓ‚: protest, ÛÔÓ- Ú·ÎflÂÏÓ ‚ ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË «Û‚ÂflÚ¸», «Ì‡ÒÚÓÈ˜Ë‚Ó Á‡fl‚ÎflÚ¸», Ó‰ÌÓ- ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ë «ÔÓÚÂÒÚÓ‚‡Ú¸»:

Protesting Too Much. Anti-globalization fizzles in D.C. (theamericanscene.com) Protesting too much. The anti-war camp is wrong. It’s not the supporters, but the radical opponents of this war who are shameless opportunists, writes SiÓn Simon MP (The Guardian). – Ç Ó·- ˘ÂÏ, «ÔÓ‰ÓÁËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ÂÌË ÔÓÚÂÒÚÛ˛- ˘Ëı». «ñËÚ‡ÚÌÓÒÚ¸» Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚Ӊ ·˚ Ó˜Â- ‚ˉ̇, ÌÓ ‚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ì ۉ‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ ÌË ÂÂ, ÌË Ë„Û ÒÎÓ‚, ÍÓÚÓ‡fl ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎflÂÚ ‡‚ÚÓ‡Ï Û·ËÚ¸ Ò‡ÁÛ ‰‚Ûı Á‡ÈˆÂ‚: ‰‡Ú¸ ÔÓ- ÌflÚ¸, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÚÂÒÚÛ˛˘Ë Á‡ıÓ‰flÚ ÒÎ˯- ÍÓÏ ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ, Ë ‚ ÚÓ Ê ‚ÂÏfl – ‚‰ÛÚ Ò·fl Ì ‚ÔÓÎÌ ËÒÍÂÌÌÂ, ÔÂÒΉÛfl Ò‚ÓË ÍÓ- ˚ÒÚÌ˚ ÔÓÎËÚ˘ÂÒÍË ˆÂÎË.

26

ê‡ÁÛÏÂÂÚÒfl, Ò͇Á‡ÌÌÓ ‚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËË ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı ˆËÚ‡Ú ‚ÂÌÓ Ë ‚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËË ÛÒÒÍËı. ÑÎfl ÛÒÒÍËı ÚÂÍÒÚÓ‚ «ËÌÚÂÚÂÍ- ÒÚۇθÌÓÒÚ¸ Ì ÏÂÌ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ̇. í‡Í, ‚ ÔÓÒΉÌ ‚ÂÏfl ÌÂ‰ÍÓ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚˚- ‡ÊÂÌË «[ÌÛÊÌÓ] ÔÓ‰ÏÓÓÁËÚ¸ êÓÒÒ˲». ùÚ‡ ˆËÚ‡Ú‡ ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÓÒÓÁ̇ÂÚÒfl Í‡Í Ú‡ÍÓ‚‡fl (ıÓÚfl ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ó̇ ÔËÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl èӷ‰Ó- ÌÓ҈‚Û, ‡ ̠ ‡‚ÚÓÛ ä. ãÂÓÌڸ‚Û). çÓ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ Ì ‚Ò„‰‡, Ë ÚÓ„‰‡ ˆËÚ‡Ú‡ Ô‚‡˘‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÓ·‡ÁÌ˚È Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ- „ËÁÏ Ò Ó·˙ÂÏÓÏ ÍÓÌÌÓÚ‡ˆËÈ, Á‡‚ËÒfl˘ËÏ ÓÚ ˝ۉˈËË ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂÎfl. ëÎÓ‚Ó «ÔÓ‰ÏÓÓ- ÁËÚ¸» ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ı ÛÒÒÍËı ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ı ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ËÏÂÌÌÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÓ˜Â- Ú‡ÌËË. á‡ÒÎÛÊË‚‡ÂÚ ÎË ÓÌÓ ‚Íβ˜ÂÌËfl ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë? ÇÓ ‚ÒflÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â, ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ë ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÌÂӘ‚ˉÂÌ. LJˇÌÚ˚ Ò freeze (up) Ì ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰flÚ, ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Ô‰- ÔÓ·„‡˛Ú ·ÓΠ«„ÎÛ·ÓÍÛ˛ Á‡ÏÓÓÁÍÛ». åÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸, to chill Russia? Russia needs to

be chilled (a bit)? To give Russia a chill? ÑÛ- χ˛, ÔÛÚ‡Ìˈ˚ Ò ÌÓ‚ÓÏÓ‰Ì˚Ï Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ to chill (to chill out – ‡ÒÒ··ÎflÚ¸Òfl, «ÓÚÚfl- „Ë‚‡Ú¸Òfl») Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ. èËÏÂ ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËfl Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡- ÌËÂÏ Ë Ó·˚„˚‚‡ÌËÂÏ ˝ÚÓÈ ˆËÚ‡Ú˚ (ÌÓ ·ÂÁ Û͇Á‡ÌËfl ËÒÚÓ˜ÌË͇) ‚ ÍÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË Ó·ÓÁ‚‡ÚÂÎfl ‡‰ËÓ «ë‚Ó·Ó‰‡» Ä̇ÚÓÎËfl ëÚÂÎflÌÓ„Ó ÔÓ ÔÓ‚Ó‰Û ÓÚÒÚ‡‚ÍË ÔÂÁˉÂÌ- Ú‡ ÖθˆË̇: «éÌ ÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ ÍÓÏ‡Ì‰Û ÏÓÎÓ- ‰˚ı ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌ˚ı β‰ÂÈ, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓfl- ÌËË ÒÔ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl Ò Ì‡ˆËÒÚ‡ÏË, Ò Ì‡Ó‰ÌÓÈ Á‡‚ËÒÚ¸˛, ÍÓχ̉Û, ÒÔÓÒÓ·ÌÛ˛ ÔÓ‰ÏÓÓ- ÁËÚ¸ êÓÒÒ˲ ‚ÓÓ‚, ·ÂÁ‰ÂθÌËÍÓ‚ Ë Ò‡ÏÓ- ‰ÛÓ‚, ÌÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ÔËÁ̇ÍË, ˜ÚÓ ˝Ú‡ Ê ÍÓχ̉‡ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔËı‚‡ÚËÚ¸ ÏÓÓÁÓÏ Ë ‰Û„Û˛ êÓÒÒ˲ – ÔÓÒ‚Â˘ÂÌÌÛ˛, ·Î‡„Ó- Ó‰ÌÛ˛ êÓÒÒ˲ Ä̉Âfl ë‡ı‡Ó‚‡. é·Ó-

» Ç ÔÂ‚ÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â

rein in the Russia of

thieves, loafers and bullies. Ä ‚Ó ‚ÚÓÓÏ

ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚ÂÌÛÚ¸Òfl Í «ÏÓÓÁÌÓÈ» ÏÂÚ‡ÙÓÂ:

there are signs that the actions of this team could have a chilling effect on the other

˛‰ÓÓÒÚÓ ̇ÒΉÒÚ‚Ó!

fl Ô‰ÔÓ˜ÂÎ ·˚

to

Russia

äÓ̘ÌÓ, ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÛÚ‡-

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • è. è‡Î‡Ê˜ÂÌÍÓ

˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‡Á‚ËÚË ÏÂÚ‡ÙÓ˚, ÌÓ, ̇ ÏÓÈ ‚Á„Îfl‰, ˝ÚÓ ‡ÁÛÏ̇fl «ÊÂÚ‚‡ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚‡» ‡‰Ë ÚÓ„Ó, ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ·˚ΠˉËÓχÚ˘- Ì˚Ï Ë «Á‚Û˜‡Î» – ÏÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ- Ô˚Ú͇ ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ ÒÚËÎËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ËÁ˚ÒÍ ‡‚- ÚÓ‡ ҉·· ·˚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÚflÊÂÎÓ‚ÂÒÌ˚Ï. ëÓ‚ÒÂÏ Ë̇fl ‡ÎβÁËfl ‚ ÒÂÌÒ‡ˆËÓÌÌÓÈ ÍÌË„Â ÖÎÂÌ˚ í„۷ӂÓÈ «á‡ÔËÒÍË ÍÂÏ- ΂ÒÍÓ„Ó ‰Ë„„Â‡»: «é˜Â̸ ÒÍÓÓ fl ‚ÓÓ·˘Â Á‡ÔÛڇ·Ҹ, ÍÚÓ Ê ËÁ Ì‡Ò Ì‡ ÍÓ„Ó ·Óθ¯Â ‚ÎËflÂÚ ‚ ˝ÚËı «ÓÔ‡ÒÌ˚ı Ò‚flÁflı» – ÊÛ̇- ÎËÒÚ˚ – ̇ ̸˛ÒÏÂÈÍÂÓ‚ ËÎË, ̇ӷÓÓÚ, ̸˛ÒÏÂÈÍÂ˚ – ̇ ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚÓ‚». á‰ÂÒ¸ ̇ÏÂÍ – ÚÓ ÎË Ì‡ ̇Á‚‡ÌË Óχ̇ òÓ- ‰ÂÎÓ ‰Â ã‡ÍÎÓ, ÚÓ ÎË Ì‡ Ó‰ÌÓËÏÂÌÌ˚È „ÓÎÎË‚Û‰ÒÍËÈ ÙËÎ¸Ï Ò ÉÎÂÌÌ äÎÓÛÁ ‚ „·‚ÌÓÈ ÓÎË. á̇ÌË ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎflÂÚ ËÁ- ·Âʇڸ ÔÂÒÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ dangerous connections Ë ‚˚·‡Ú¸ ÚÓ˜Ì˚È – dangerous liaisons (ËÌÚÂÂÒÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ‚Ó̇˜‡Î¸Ì˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ̇Á‚‡ÌËfl Óχ̇ – Dangerous Acquaintances, ÌÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò Á‡- ÍÂÔËÎËÒ¸ liaisons). òËÓÍÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚È Ë ÔÂÂËÁ‰‡ÌÌ˚È Ì‰‡‚ÌÓ «êÛÒÒÍÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ÒÎÓ‚‡¸ Í˚·Ú˚ı ÒÎÓ‚» à. ìÓί Ë Ç. ÅÂÍÓ‚‡ ÒÓ‰ÂÊËÚ ÌÂχÎÓ ˆËÚ‡Ú Ë ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚Â, ıÓÚfl, ̇ ÏÓÈ ‚Á„Îfl‰, Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ flÍËÂ Ë Ë‰ËÓχÚ˘Ì˚ ÔÓÔ˚ÚÍË Ëı ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰‡. Ç ÍÌË„Â «åÓÈ ÌÂÒËÒÚÂχÚ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ÒÎÓ‚‡¸» fl ÔÓÒÚ‡‡ÎÒfl ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ ÒÓ‰Â- ʇ˘ËÈÒfl Ú‡Ï Ï‡ÚÂˇÎ, Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ Ò‚ÓË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˚. çÓ ÏÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl ‡ÍÚۇθÌÓÈ Ë ‚ÔÓÎÌ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÏÓÈ Á‡‰‡˜‡ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ„Ó Ó·ÌÓ‚ÎÂÌËfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó ËÁ‰‡ÌËfl Ë ˜ÂÂÁ àÌ- ÚÂÌÂÚ. Ä ˜ÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ‡Ì„ÎÓ-ÛÒÒÍÓÈ ÍÓÏ·Ë̇ˆËË, ÚÓ „ÓÚÓ‚ËÚÒfl Í ËÁ‰‡Ì˲ ‡- ·ÓÚ‡ í. äβÍËÌÓÈ, å.äβÍËÌÓÈ-ÇËÚ˛Í Ë Ç. ã‡Ì˜ËÍÓ‚‡ ÔÓ‰ ‡·Ó˜ËÏ Ì‡Á‚‡ÌËÂÏ «èÓÎËÚË͇ Ë Í˚·ÚË͇. ë·ÓÌËÍ ˆËÚ‡Ú ÔÓÎËÚ˘ÂÒÍËı, „ÓÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı Ë Ó·˘Â- ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı ‰ÂflÚÂÎÂÈ ÇÂÎËÍÓ·ËÚ‡ÌËË, à- ·̉ËË, ëòÄ Ë ä‡Ì‡‰˚».

Анализ практики

à ÔÓÒΉÌÂÂ. ùÎÂÍÚÓÌÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë ‰‡˛Ú ÌÓ‚˚ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË Ë ‚ Ô·Ì ÓÚ‡- ÊÂÌËfl Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó Ï‡ÚÂˇ·, Ë ‚ Ô·ÌÂ Â„Ó Ó·ÌÓ‚ÎÂÌËfl. Ç ÔË̈ËÔ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡- ‚ËÚ¸ Ò· ‰‚‡ ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡. èÂ‚˚È: ÔÓ- ÒÍÓθÍÛ ‚ ÔË̈ËÔ ӄ‡Ì˘ÂÌËÈ Ì‡ Ó·˙- ÂÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÌÓÈ ÒÚ‡Ú¸Ë ‚ ˝ÎÂÍÚÓÌÌÓÏ ‚ˉ ÌÂÚ, ÏÓÊÌÓ ‡Á‰‚ËÌÛÚ¸  „‡Ìˈ˚ Á‡ Ò˜ÂÚ ‚Íβ˜ÂÌËfl ÎËÌ„‚ÓÒÚ‡Ìӂ‰˜ÂÒÍËı ҂‰ÂÌËÈ, ˆËÚ‡Ú ‡ÁÌÓÈ «ÒÚÂÔÂÌË ÁÂÎÓÒ- ÚË» Ë Ú.Ô. à ‚ÚÓÓÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ: ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚È ÒÎÓ‚‡¸ ˆËÚ‡Ú, ‚Íβ˜ÂÌÌ˚È ‚ «Ô‡ÍÂÚ» Ò Ó·˘ÂflÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚Ï ÔÂ‚ӉÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÏ. ÇÓÁÏÓÊ̇, ̇‚ÂÌÓÂ, Ë Í‡Í‡fl-ÚÓ ÍÓÏ·Ë- ̇ˆËfl ‰‚Ûı ‚‡ˇÌÚÓ‚. à ‚Ò Ê ÏÌ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚ÏË Ò ÚÂÓÂÚË- ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ Ë Ò Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÚÓ˜ÍË ÁÂÌËfl ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ó ÚÓÏ, ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ Ù‡ÁÂÓ- ÎÓ„ËÁ‡ˆËfl ˆËÚ‡Ú. ÇˉËÏÓ, ¯‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÌ ‚ ͇ʉÓÏ ÓÚ‰ÂθÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ë̉˂ˉۇθ- ÌÓ. åӠ΢ÌÓ ÏÌÂÌË ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ ˆËÚ‡Ú˚-Ù‡ÁÂÓÎÓ„ËÁÏ˚ ̇‰Ó ‡ÍÚË‚- Ì ‚Íβ˜‡Ú¸ ‚ Ó·˘ÂflÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë.

Об искусстве перевода

Если всякий перевод на другой язык не есть простое повторение мысли, а её новое постижение, то про художест- венный перевод это приходится сказать в исключительной степени.

(С.Н. Булгаков)

27

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков

Анализ практики

переводчиков Анализ практики Размах крыльев, или Как не

Размах крыльев,

или Как не потерять первоисточник цитаты

Ç. ã‡Ì˜ËÍÓ‚

Ç flÌ‚‡ 2003 „Ó‰‡ Ó‰ËÌ ÓÒÒËÈÒÍËÈ ÔÓÎËÚËÍ, ‰‡‚‡fl ËÌÚÂ‚¸˛ ‡‰ËÓÒڇ̈ËË «ÅË-ÅË-ëË», Á‡Íβ˜ËÎ Â„Ó Ú‡ÍËÏ, Ì „Ó- ‚Ófl ıÛ‰Ó„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡, ÒÏÂÎ˚Ï ÛÚ‚ÂʉÂÌË- ÂÏ: «ä‡Í Ò͇Á‡Î ÔÓ˝Ú, ‚Ò ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ÍÛ„Ë Ò‚ÓË». ëÔÓ‡ ÌÂÚ, «äÌË„‡ ÖÍÍÎÂÒˇÒÚ, ËÎË èÓÔӂ‰ÌËÍ» – ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌË ‰ÍÓÈ ÔÓ˝Ú˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÒËÎ˚. çÓ Ì‡ ˝ÚÓÏ ÓÒÌÓ‚‡- ÌËË Ì‡Á˚‚‡Ú¸ ˆ‡fl ëÓÎÓÏÓ̇ «ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏ» – Á̇˜ËÚ Ì‰ÓÓˆÂÌËÚ¸ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‰Û„ËÂ Â„Ó Á‡ÒÎÛ„Ë. ë‡Ï ÚÓ„Ó Ì Ê·fl, ÔÓÎËÚËÍ ÛÔÓ‰Ó·ËÎÒfl ‡‚ÚÓÛ, ÛÔÓÏflÌÛÚÓÏÛ ‚ ÍÌË„Â ë. ÇÓÎÍÓÌÒÍÓ„Ó «ê‡Á„Ó‚Ó˚» (1912 „.):

‡‚ÚÓ Ì „‰Â-ÌË·Û‰¸, ‡ ‚ ·Ó„ÓÒÎÓ‚ÒÍÓÏ Úۉ ̇ÔËÒ‡Î: «ä‡Í „·ÒËÚ Ù‡ÌˆÛÁÒ͇fl ÔÓÒÎӂˈ‡, – ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÔÓÓÍ ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÏ ÓÚ˜ÂÒڂ». ÇÔÓ˜ÂÏ, Ô‡‚‡ „‡Ê‰‡ÌÒÚ‚‡ ÚÓÈ ËÎË ËÌÓÈ Ì‡Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÏÛ‰ÓÒÚË ÓÚ˜ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ ÔÓÎËÚËÍË ÚÓÊ ÔÓ‰˜‡Ò ‡Á‰‡˛Ú ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ ‚ÍÛÒÛ. Ç 1998 „. ‰Û„ÓÈ ÔÓÎËÚËÍ – ‚ÂÌÂÂ, ‰ÂflÚÂθ ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚‡, ÔÓ‰‡‚¯ËÈÒfl ‚ ÔÓÎËÚË- ÍÛ, – ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚ‡, ̇ÏÂÂÌ ÎË ÓÌ ÔÂÚẨӂ‡Ú¸ ̇ ÔÓÒÚ ÔÂÁˉÂÌÚ‡, ÓÚ‚ÂÚËÎ: «Ç êÓÒÒËË „Ó‚ÓflÚ: ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ Ô‰ÔÓ·„‡ÂÚ, ‡ ÅÓ„ ‡ÒÔÓ·„‡ÂÚ». ùÚ‡ «ÛÒÒ͇fl ̇Ӊ̇fl ÏÛ‰ÓÒÚ¸» ıÓ- Ó¯Ó ËÁ‚ÂÒÚ̇ Ë ‚Ó î‡ÌˆËË (“L’homme propose, Dieu dispose”), Ë ‚ ÄÌ„ÎËË (“Man proposes but God disposes”), ‚ àÚ‡ÎËË (“L’uomo propone, e Dio dispone”) Ë ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ‰Û„Ëı ÒÚ‡Ì‡ı. àÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍÓÏ Â ҘËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ËÁ˜ÂÌË ËÁ Ú‡ÍÚ‡Ú‡ ÌÂψ- ÍÓ„Ó ·Ó„ÓÒÎÓ‚‡ XIV-XV ‚‚. îÓÏ˚ äÂÏ-

ÔËÈÒÍÓ„Ó «é ÔÓ‰‡Ê‡ÌËË ïËÒÚÛ»:

“Homo proponit, sed Deus desponit”. à ÛÒ̇˘‡Ú¸ ˝ÚÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ÒÔ‡‚ÍÓÈ:

«Ç êÓÒÒËË „Ó‚ÓflÚ» – ‚Ò ‡‚ÌÓ ˜ÚÓ ÒÚ‡- ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl ̇ ÔÓÁˈËË «ã˛·ËÚÂÎfl Á‡Ô‡‰- Ì˚ı ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛ» ËÁ ÙÂθÂÚÓ̇ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚ‡ Ë ÍËÚË͇ XIX ‚. Å. ÄÎχÁÓ-

‚‡ «ëÓÌ ÔÓ ÒÎÛ˜‡˛ Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÍÓωËË»: «àÁÓ

‚ÒÂı ÛÒÒÍËı ̇Ó‰Ì˚ı ÔÓÒÎӂˈ ÏÌ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Ó‰Ì‡: “ì ‚ÒflÍÓ„Ó ·‡Ó̇ Ò‚Ófl Ù‡ÌÚ‡ÁËfl”».

é„Ó‚ÓÍË? åÂÎÓ˜¸? ä‡Í Ò͇Á‡Ú¸. äÓ- ÏÛ-ÍÓÏÛ, ‡ ÔÓÎËÚËÍ‡Ï – β‰flÏ, Ò ÍÓÚÓ- ˚ı, Í‡Í Â˘Â ÔËÌflÚÓ ‰Ûχڸ, Á‡ Ëı ÒÎÓ- ‚‡ ÒÔÓÒËÚÒfl ·Óθ¯Â, ˜ÂÏ Ò ÔÓ˜Ëı ÒÏÂÚÌ˚ı, – Ì „Âı ËÌÓÈ ‡Á ‚ÒÔÓÏÌËÚ¸ Ó· ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ ÔÓβ·Ë‚¯Â„ÓÒfl ËÏ ‚˚‡- ÊÂÌËfl. Ä ÚÓ Í‡Í ·˚ ÍÓÌÙÛÁ‡ Ì ‚˚¯ÎÓ. ëÎ˚¯Ë¯¸, ·˚‚‡ÎÓ, ‚ Ó˜Â‰ÌÓÈ ‡Á ÔÓ- ËÁÌÂÒÂÌÌÓÂ Ò ÚË·ÛÌ˚: «ç ӯ˷‡ÂÚÒfl ÚÓÚ, ÍÚÓ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ‰Â·ÂÚ», Ë ‰Ë‚Û ‰‡Â¯¸- Òfl ¯ËÓÚ ‚Á„Îfl‰Ó‚ Ó‡ÚÓ‡: ÏËÌÛÚÛ Ì‡- Á‡‰ ÍÓÒÚËÎ ÍÓÏÏÛÌËÒÚÓ‚ – Ë ‚‰Û„ ‚ÓÚ Ú‡Í ÒÓ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˆËÚËÛÂÚ ãÂÌË̇. ïÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ÚÓθÍÓ ÛÚÓ˜ÌËÚ¸: ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó· ӯ˷͇ı ÚÓ„Ó Ê ÔÓfl‰Í‡, ˜ÚÓ Ë ÚÂ, Ó ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‚ ˲Ì 1918 „. „Ó‚ÓËÎ ãÂÌËÌ Ì‡

V ë˙ÂÁ‰Â ‡·Ó˜Ëı, ÍÂÒÚ¸flÌÒÍËı Ë ÒÓÎ-

‰‡ÚÒÍËı ‰ÂÔÛÚ‡ÚÓ‚? (àÏÂÌÌÓ ÚÓ„‰‡ Ë ÔÓ- Á‚Û˜‡ÎÓ: «ç ӯ˷‡ÂÚÒfl ÚÓÚ, ÍÚÓ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË Ì ‰Â·ÂÚ»). èÓÒΠڇÍÓ„Ó Ì ӘÂ̸-ÚÓ Û‰Ë‚Îfl¯¸- Òfl Ë ÌÂÓÊˉ‡ÌÌÓÈ ÌÓ‚ÓÒÚË: «ÖÒÎË ıÓ- ˜Â¯¸ ÏË‡, „ÓÚÓ‚¸Òfl Í ‚ÓÈÌÂ, Í‡Í „Ó‚Ó- ËÎ ÏÓθÂÓ‚ÒÍËÈ í‡Ú˛Ù». (ëÔ‡‚͇

28

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • Ç. ã‡Ì˜ËÍÓ‚

‰Îfl ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛӂ‰ӂ: ˝ÚÓ ÒÂÌÒ‡ˆËÓÌÌÓ ÓÚÍ˚ÚË ·˚ÎÓ Ò‰Â·ÌÓ Ì‡ Á‡Ò‰‡ÌËË ÉÓÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ÑÛÏ˚ 7 ‡ÔÂÎfl 1998 „.) ìÏÓÎ˜Û Ó ÚÓÏ, ÍÓÏÛ, Í‡Í Ë Ò Í‡ÍÓÈ ÒÚ‡ÚË ÔËÔËÒ˚‚‡˛Ú ˆËÚ‡Ú˚ ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚ˚. «ç ·Û‰ÂÏ ‚ÒÔÓÏË̇ڸ Ó Ô˜‡Îflı», Í‡Í „Ó‚ÓËÎ ·Û΄‡ÍÓ‚ÒÍËÈ ã‡ËÓÒËÍ. Ç ÔÓÎÛÓÔ‡‚‰‡ÌË β·ËÚÂÎÂÈ ÔËÔË- Ò˚‚‡Ú¸ Í˚·Ú˚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ̇ӷÛÏ, ÏÓÊÌÓ Á‡ÏÂÚËÚ¸, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÒΉËÚ¸ Ú‡ÂÍ- ÚÓ˲ ÔÂÂÎÂÚ‡ ˝ÚËı ˜ÂÌËÈ ÓÚ ‡‚ÚÓ‡ Í ‡‚ÚÓÛ, ËÁ flÁ˚͇ ‚ flÁ˚Í, ËÁ ÍÛθÚÛ˚ ‚ ÍÛθÚÛÛ – ‰ÂÎÓ ÌÂÔÓÒÚÓÂ. ê‡ÁÛÏÂÂÚÒfl, í‡Ú˛Ù ÌË˜Â„Ó ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ„Ó Ì ÔÓËÁÌÓ- ÒËÎ – ˜ÚÓ·˚ ۷‰ËÚ¸Òfl, ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ÔÓ- ˜ÂÒÚ¸ ÍÓω˲ åÓθÂ‡. çÓ ÍÓ„Ó Ò˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ËÒÚËÌÌ˚Ï ‡‚ÚÓÓÏ Ô˂‰ÂÌÌÓÈ Ù‡Á˚? ñˈÂÓ̇ («ÖÒÎË Ï˚ ıÓÚËÏ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÏËÓÏ, ÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸»– «îËÎËÔÔË- ÍË», VII, 6, 19)? äÓÌÂÎËfl çÂÔÓÚ‡ («åË ÒÓÁ‰‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ÓÈÌÓÈ» –«ùÔ‡ÏËÌÓ̉», 5, 4)? î·‚Ëfl Ç„ˆËfl («äÚÓ Ê·ÂÚ ÏË‡, ÔÛÒÚ¸ „ÓÚÓ‚ËÚÒfl Í ‚ÓÈÌ» – «ä‡ÚÍÓ ËÁÎÓÊÂ- ÌË ‚ÓÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‰Â·», ‚ÒÚÛÔÎÂÌËÂ, 3)? ÇÓÔÓÒ: «äÚÓ ÔÂ‚˚È Ò͇Á‡Î: “ù!”» ÏÓÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ ÔÓÒ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ̇‰ÛχÌÌ˚Ï, ÂÒÎË ·˚ ˆËÚ‡Ú˜ËÍË Ì ÌÓÓ‚ËÎË ‰Îfl ÒÓ- ÎˉÌÓÒÚË ÒÒ˚·ڸÒfl ̇ ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ. Ç ÎËÌ„- ‚ËÒÚËÍ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ó ÔÓËÒıÓʉÂÌËË Ë ·˚ÚÓ‚‡ÌËË ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÈ Á‡Ú‡- „Ë‚‡ÎÒfl Ì ‡Á (̉‡‚ÌËÈ ÔËÏÂ – ‚˚- ¯Â‰¯‡fl ‚ 2002 „. ÒÓ‰ÂʇÚÂθ̇fl ÏÓÌÓ- „‡ÙËfl ë.É. òÛÎÂÊÍÓ‚ÓÈ «ä˚·Ú˚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇, Ëı ËÒÚÓËfl Ë ‡Á‚ËÚË»). çÓ ËÒÚÓËfl ‚ÓÁÌËÍÌÓ‚ÂÌËfl Ë ÍӘ‚‡ÌËfl Ú‡ÍËı ˜ÂÌËÈ ·˚‚‡ÂÚ ËÌÚÂ- ÂÒ̇ Ë Ò‡Ï‡ ÔÓ Ò·Â, ·ÂÁ ̇ۘÌÓ„Ó ÓÒ- Ï˚ÒÎÂÌËfl. ÇÓÁ¸ÏÂÏ ıÓÓ¯Ó ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎÓ- flÁ˚˜Ì˚ı ÒÚ‡Ì‡ı ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌË ·ËÚ‡Ì- ÒÍÓ„Ó ËÒÚÓË͇ ÑÊ. ù. ùÍÚÓ̇ (1834- 1902): “The ship exists for the sake of the passengers” – «äÓ‡·Î¸ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ‰Îfl Ô‡ÒÒ‡ÊËÓ‚». é·‡Á̇fl ÓÒÌÓ‚‡ ‚˚‡ÊÂ- ÌËfl Ә‚ˉ̇: ÍÓ‡·Î¸ ÒڇΠÒËÏ‚ÓÎÓÏ „Ó- ÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚‡ ¢ ‚ ‡ÌÚ˘ÌÓÒÚË. à ÔË Û˜ÂÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ ÌÂ Ú‡Í Û‰Ë‚ËÚÂθÌÓ,

Анализ практики

˜ÚÓ ÒıÓ‰ÌÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ Òڇڸ Ç.Ç. êÓÁ‡ÌÓ‚‡ «ê˜¸ ËÁ “ê˜˔» («çÓ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl», 7 χÚ‡ 1907 „.): «êÛÒ- Ò͇fl ÓÔÔÓÁˈËfl ÛÒÒÍÓÏÛ Ô‡‚ËÚÂθÒÚ‚Û Ì‡Ï ‚Ó‚Ò Ì ÔÂÚËÚ, Í‡Í ÂÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ‰‚Ûı ÚÓ˜ÂÍ ÁÂÌËfl ̇ Ó‰ÌÓ Ë ÚÓ Ê ‰ÂÎÓ: ÚÓ˜ÍË ÁÂÌËfl, Ú‡Í Ò͇Á‡Ú¸, ÔÓ- Ï¢‡˛˘ÂÈÒfl ‚ÌÛÚË „ÓÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ Ï‡¯ËÌ˚, Ë ÚÓ˜ÍË ÁÂÌËfl, ‡ÁÎËÚÓÈ ‚ Ò‡- ÏÓÒÓÁ̇ÌËË Ë Ò‡ÏÓ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ËË ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ì‡- Ó‰‡ Ë Ó·˘ÂÒÚ‚‡. ç‡ ÔÎ˚‚Û˘ÂÏ ÍÓ‡·Î ‚‡ÊÌÓ ÏÌÂÌË ͇ÔËڇ̇ Ë ÍÓχ̉˚, ÌÓ ‚‡ÊÂÌ, Ó˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÂÌ, ÍÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, Ë „ÓÎÓÒ ÌÛʉ˚, ÓÔ‡ÒÂÌËfl Ë Û‰Ó·ÒÚ‚‡ Ô‡ÒÒ‡ÊËÓ‚, Ë·Ó ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÍÓ̈ӂ ÍÓ‡·Î¸ Ô·‚‡ÂÚ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ‰Îfl ÌËı». óÚÓ êÓÁ‡ÌÓ‚ Á‡ËÏÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Î Ó·‡Á ËÁ ‡ÙÓËÁχ ‡Ì„΢‡ÌË̇, χÎÓ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓ: ‚ ̇˜‡Î ïï ‚. ·‡ÓÌ ùÍÚÓÌ ‚ êÓÒÒËË ·˚Î ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÛÊ ıÓÓ¯Ó ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÂÌ. (ëÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ „Ó‚Ófl, Ë Ò„ӉÌfl ËÁ Â„Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËÈ Û Ì‡Ò ÌÂÛÒÚ‡ÌÌÓ ˆËÚËÛÂÚÒfl Î˯¸ Ó‰ÌÓ:

«Ç·ÒÚ¸ ËÏÂÂÚ Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚Ó ‡Á‚‡˘‡Ú¸, ‡ ‡·ÒÓβÚ̇fl ‚·ÒÚ¸ ‡Á‚‡˘‡ÂÚ ‡·ÒÓβÚ- ÌÓ» – “Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely”.) ÑÂÎÓ ÚÛÚ, ÒÍÓ-  ‚Ò„Ó, ËÏÂÌÌÓ ‚ Ó·˘ÂÏ ‰Îfl ‰‚Ûı ÍÛθ- ÚÛ – ·ËÚ‡ÌÒÍÓÈ Ë ÛÒÒÍÓÈ – Í·ÒÒ˘Â- ÒÍÓÏ ÔÂ‚ÓËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ ӷ‡Á‡. ÉÓ‡Á‰Ó β·ÓÔ˚ÚÌ ËÒÚÓËfl ‰Û„Ó„Ó ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl: «Ç‡‚‡‡ ÏÌ ÚÂÚ͇, ‡ Ô‡‚‰‡ ÒÂÒÚ‡». ë„ӉÌfl ÛÊ Á‡·˚Ú‡fl, ˝Ú‡ ÔÓÒÎÓ- ‚ˈ‡ ‚ XIX ‚. ·˚· Ó˜Â̸ Ë Ó˜Â̸ ÛÔÓÚÂ- ·ËÚÂθ̇. ÇÍβ˜ËΠ ‚ ÒÓ·‡ÌË «èÓ- ÒÎӂˈ˚ Ë ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓÍË ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ì‡Ó‰‡» Ç.à. чθ. è‡‚‰‡, ÍÓÂ-ÍÚÓ ËÁ ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌËÍÓ‚ чÎfl ¢ ÔÓÏÌËÎ, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ËÏÂÂÚ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛÌ˚È ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ. è˘ÂÏ Ì ÛÒÒÍËÈ. á̇ÏÂÌËÚ˚È ÍÓÏ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ‡ÍÚÂ Ë ‰‡- χÚÛ„ è.Ä. ä‡‡Ú˚„ËÌ ‚ Ò‚ÓËı «á‡ÔËÒ- ͇ı» ‡ÒÒ͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ ÔÓ Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ ÔÓ- ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÍË Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ‚Ӊ‚ËÎfl «á̇ÍÓÏ˚ ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓψ˚» (1830), ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ ‚ Ó·‡Á ÔÂÚÂ·Û„ÒÍÓ„Ó ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚ‡ ë‡͇ÁÏÓ‚‡ ‚˚‚‰ÂÌ Ì‰ӷÓÈ Ô‡ÏflÚË î.Ç. ÅÛ΄‡ËÌ.

29

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • Ç. ã̘ËÍÓ

Анализ практики

èÓÒΠÔÂϸÂ˚, ‚ÒÚÂÚË‚ ‡‚ÚÓ‡ ̇ ç‚ÒÍÓÏ, ÅÛ΄‡ËÌ Á‡ÏÂÚËÎ: «ü Ì ‚ˉ‡Î ¢ ‚‡¯ÂÈ Ô¸ÂÒ˚, ÌÓ Î˛‰Ë, ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï fl ‚Â˛,  ı‚‡ÎflÚ; fl ̇ ‰Ìflı ÌÂÔÂÏÂÌÌÓ ÔÓÈ‰Û ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ÂÂ Ë Ò‡Ï Ì‡ÔË¯Û Ó ÌÂÈ ÒÚ‡Ú¸˛, ÚÓθÍÓ ÛÊ Ì ÔÓ„Ì‚‡ÈÚÂÒ¸, ͇- ͇fl ÒÎÛ˜ËÚÒfl, ‚ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛÌÓÏ ‰ÂÎÂ Û ÏÂ- Ìfl ÌÂÚ ÌË Ò‚‡Ú‡ ÌË ·‡Ú‡; ÏÌ ÚÂÚ͇ – LJ‚‡‡, ‡ Ô‡‚‰‡ – ÒÂÒÚ‡». èÓÒÎÂ‰Ì˛˛ Ù‡ÁÛ ÅÛ΄‡Ë̇ ä‡‡Ú˚- „ËÌ Ò̇·‰ËÎ ÒÌÓÒÍÓÈ, „‰Â, Í‡Í ËÒÚËÌÌ˚È ‚Ӊ‚ËÎËÒÚ, Ì ۉÂʇÎÒfl ÓÚ Í‡Î‡Ï·Û‡:

«ùÚÓ ·˚· β·Ëχfl Â„Ó ÔÓ„Ó‚Ó͇ (ËÁ Ó- χ̇ ë‚ËÙÚ‡). ç Á̇˛, ·˚· ÎË Û ÌÂ„Ó ÚÂÚ͇ LJ‚‡‡, ÌÓ ˜ÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ‰Ó ÒÂÒÚ˚, Ú‡Í Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ ·‡·Û¯Í‡ ̇‰‚Ó „Ó‚ÓË·». ÄÚË·ÛˆËfl ä‡‡Ú˚„Ë̇ ‚Â̇ Î˯¸ ÓÚ˜‡ÒÚË: ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë- ÚÂθÌÓ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ÓÏ‡Ì XVIII ‚., ÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ‡‚ÚÓ Â„Ó Ì ë‚ËÙÚ, ‡ ã. ëÚÂÌ. àÒıÓ‰ÌÛ˛ ˆËÚ‡ÚÛ (Ô‡‚‰‡, ‚Ó Ù‡ÌˆÛÁ- ÒÍÓÏ ÔÂ‚ӉÂ) ÏÓÊÌÓ Ì‡ÈÚË ‚ Í·ÒÒ˘Â- ÒÍÓÏ Úۉ å. à. åËıÂθÒÓ̇ «êÛÒÒ͇fl

Ï˚Òθ Ë Â˜¸»: “Dinach était ma tante, mais la vérité est ma soeur. (Sterne)”.

íÂÔÂ¸ ÛÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸ ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍ ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ ÔÓÒÚÓ. ùÚÓ Ù‡Á‡ ËÁ Óχ̇ «ÜËÁ̸ Ë ÏÌÂÌËfl íËÒÚ‡Ï‡ òẨË, ‰ÊÂÌÚθÏÂ̇»

(I, 21): “Amicus Plato, my father would say, construing the words to my uncle Toby, as he went along, Amicus Plato; that is, DINAH was my aunt; – sed magis amica veritas – but

TRUTH is my sister”. Ç ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ä. î‡Ì- ÍÓ‚ÒÍÓ„Ó: « Amicus Plato, – „Ó‚ÓËÎ Ó·˚Í- ÌÓ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÏÓÈ ÓÚˆ, ÚÓÎÍÛfl Ò‚Ó˛ ˆËÚ‡ÚÛ, ÒÎÓ‚Ó Á‡ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ, ‰fl‰Â íÓ·Ë, – amicus Plato (ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ÑË̇ ·˚· ÏÓÂÈ ÚÂÚÍÓÈ), sed

(ÌÓ ËÒÚËÌ ÏÓ

maigs amica veritas

ÒÂÒÚ‡)». í‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ, Û ÚÂÚÍË Ç‡‚‡˚ ËÏÂÎÒfl Ô‡‰Â‰Û¯Í‡ è·ÚÓÌ. (ã‡ÚËÌÒÍÓÂ

˚ÊÂÌËÂ “Amicus Plato sed magis amica

veritas” – «è·ÚÓÌ ÏÌ ‰Û„, ÌÓ ËÒÚË̇ ¢ ·Óθ¯ËÈ ‰Û„» ‚ÓÒıÓ‰ËÚ Í ÍÌË„Â ÄÏ- ÏÓÌËfl «ÜËÁ̸ ÄËÒÚÓÚÂÎfl» Ë Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚- ÎflÂÚ ÒÓ·ÓÈ Í‡ÚÍÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË Ï˚ÒÎË, ÒÓ‰Âʇ˘ÂÈÒfl ‚ ‡ËÒÚÓÚÂ΂ÓÈ «çËÍÓχ-

ıÓ‚ÓÈ ˝ÚËÍ»: «ê‡‰Ë Òӷβ‰ÂÌËfl ËÒÚËÌ˚ Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÓÚÍÎÓÌËÚ¸ Ë ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ ·ÎËÁÍÓ Ì‡¯ÂÏÛ ÒÂ‰ˆÛ: Ì‡Ï ‰ÓÓ„Ó Ë ÚÓ Ë ‰Û„ÓÂ, ÌÓ Ì‡¯ ‰Ó΄ – ÓÚ‰‡Ú¸ Ô‰ÔÓ˜ÚÂÌË ËÒÚË- Ì». ꘸ ˉÂÚ Ó Ô·ÚÓÌÓ‚ÒÍÓÏ Û˜ÂÌËË Ó· ˉÂflı.) éÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓflÒÌËÚ¸ Ó‰ÌÓ: ÍÓ„‰‡ Ê ÑË̇ Ô‚‡ÚË·Ҹ ‚ LJ‚‡Û. èÂ‚˚È ÔÓÎÌ˚È ÛÒÒÍËÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ «íËÒÚ‡Ï‡ òẨ˻ (‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚È ç. ä‡ÈÒ‡Ó‚˚Ï) ·˚Î ÓÔÛ·ÎËÍÓ‚‡Ì ‚ 1804-1807, ÓÚ˚‚ÍË ËÁ Óχ̇ ÔÂ‚ӉËÎËÒ¸ ¢ ‚ XVIII ‚. ëÍÓ ‚Ò„Ó, ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÏ ËÁ ˝ÚËı ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ „ÂÓËÌfl Ë ÔÓÏÂÌfl· ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ‚ ÚÛ ÔÓÛ ˝ÍÁÓÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ ‰Îfl ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ûı‡ ËÏfl ̇ ·Ó- ΠÔË‚˚˜ÌÓÂ. (èÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ Á‡ÏÂÌ˚ ËÏÂÌ ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÂÒÓ̇ÊÂÈ ‚ ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl Ì ÔÓÚË‚Ó˜ËÎË Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌËflÏ Ó ÌÓ- Ï ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡.) çÓ Í‡ÍÓ‚ ‡Áχı Í˚θ‚ Ó͇Á‡ÎÒfl Û ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl: ÓÚ ÄËÒÚÓÚÂÎfl ‰Ó ÅÛ΄‡Ë̇! à ÂÒÎË ÔÓ‰ÓÈÚË Í ÌÂÏÛ Ì ÒÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚, ‡ ÒÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ ÒÓ‰ÂʇÌËfl, ÚÓ Â„Ó ËÒÚÓËfl ÌÂÔÎÓıÓ ÔÓ‰Ú‚Âʉ‡ÂÚ ÒÔ‡‚‰- ÎË‚ÓÒÚ¸ ̇·Î˛‰ÂÌËÈ Ö. Ň‡Ú˚ÌÒÍÓ„Ó:

«ë̇˜‡Î‡ Ï˚Òθ ‚ÓÔÎÓ˘Â̇

Ç ÔÓ˝ÏÛ ÒʇÚÛ˛ ÔÓ˝Ú‡,

ä‡Í ‰Â‚‡ ˛Ì‡fl, ÚÂÏ̇ ÑÎfl Ì‚ÌËχÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ò‚ÂÚ‡; èÓÚÓÏ, ÓÒÏÂÎË‚¯ËÒ¸, Ó̇

ìÊ ۂÂÚÎË‚‡, ˜ËÒÚ‡, ëÓ ‚ÒÂı ÒÚÓÓÌ Ò‚ÓËı ‚ˉ̇, ä‡Í ËÒÍÛ¯ÂÌ̇fl ÊÂ̇

Ç Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÔÓÁ ÓχÌËÒÚ‡;

ÅÓÎÚÛ̸fl ÒÚ‡‡fl, Á‡ÚÂÏ é̇, ÔÓ‰˙ÂÏÎfl ÍËÍ Ì‡ı‡Î¸Ì˚È, èÎÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ÔÓÎÂÏËÍ ÊÛ̇θÌÓÈ Ñ‡‚ÌÓ ÛÊ ‚‰ÓÏÓ ‚ÒÂÏ».

à ˝ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ: «ä‡Í Ò͇Á‡Î ÔÓ˝Ú».

30

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков

Анализ практики

переводчиков Анализ практики Имена и названия в переводе Из

Имена и названия в переводе

Из переписки

Ñ. ÖÏÓÎӂ˘

èÓÒΠ‚˚ıÓ‰‡ ‚ Ò‚ÂÚ ÏÓÂÈ ÍÌËÊÍË «àÏÂ̇ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ ̇ ÒÚ˚Í flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ Ë ÍÛθÚÛ» (ËÁ‰. «ê.LJÎÂÌÚ», 2001), „‰Â ̇ ÔÓÒΉÌÂÈ ÒÚ‡Ìˈ ·˚Î Û͇Á‡Ì ÏÓÈ àÌ- ÚÂÌÂÚ-‡‰ÂÒ (proper_names@yahoo.com), fl ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÎ ÔÓ ˝ÎÂÍÚÓÌÌÓÈ ÔÓ˜Ú ÌÂÍÓÚÓ- Ó ˜ËÒÎÓ ÔËÒÂÏ ÓÚ ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂÎÂÈ. é‰ÌË ‚˚- Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÎË ÏÌÂÌËfl Ë ÔÓÊ·ÌËfl, ‰Û„Ë ÒÔ‡¯Ë‚‡ÎË ÒÓ‚ÂÚ‡. ÇÓÔÓÒ˚, ÍÓÚÓ˚ Á‡‰‡‚‡ÎË ÏÌ ÒÚÛ- ‰ÂÌÚ˚ „ÛχÌËÚ‡Ì˚ı ‚ÛÁÓ‚, ·˚ÎË ‚ÂҸχ ÌÂÓ‰Ë̇Ì˚ Ë ÒÓÔÓ‚Óʉ‡ÎËÒ¸ ËÌÚÂÂÒ- Ì˚Ï flÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚Ï Ï‡ÚÂˇÎÓÏ. ü Ò Û‰Ó‚Óθ- ÒÚ‚ËÂÏ ‚ÒÚÛÔËÎ ‚ ÔÂÂÔËÒÍÛ Ò Ì‡˜Ë̇˛- ˘ËÏË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ÏË. èÓ-ÏÓÂÏÛ, ÚÂχ ËÏÂÌ Ë Ì‡Á‚‡ÌËÈ ‚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÔÓÒÚÓ ÌÂËÒ- ˜ÂÔ‡Âχ. ì‚ÂÂÌ, ˜ÚÓ Ò ˝ÚËÏË ÔÓ·ÎÂχ- ÏË ÒÚ‡ÎÍË‚‡˛ÚÒfl Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ‚Ò ˜ËÚ‡- ÚÂÎË Ì‡¯Â„Ó ÊÛ̇·. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ fl ¯ËÎ ÓÔÛ·ÎËÍÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‚˚‰ÂÊÍË ËÁ ÏÓÂÈ ÔÂÂÔË- ÒÍË Ì‡ ÚÂÏÛ Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÚÂÍÒÚÓ‚, ‚ ÍÓÚÓ- ˚ı ËÏÂ̇ Ë Ì‡Á‚‡ÌËfl ‚˚Á˚‚‡ÎË Û ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰˜Ë͇ ÚÛ‰ÌÓÒÚË.

Помрэ ли он?

ùÚÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ ÔËÒ·· ÏÌ ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ͇ 5 ÍÛÒ‡ ÖÎÂ̇:

á‰‡‚ÒÚ‚ÛÈÚÂ, Û‚‡Ê‡ÂÏ˚È ÑÏËÚËÈ à‚‡Ìӂ˘, ë ·Óθ¯ËÏ Û‰Ó‚ÓθÒÚ‚ËÂÏ ÔÓ˜Ë- ڇ· LJ¯Û ÍÌË„Û «àÏÂ̇ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌ- Ì˚ ̇ ÒÚ˚Í flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ Ë ÍÛθÚÛ». I liked it immensely. ë ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ÏË, ÍÓ- ÚÓ˚ Ç˚ ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÎË ‚ ÍÌË„Â, fl ÔÓ-̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏÛ ÒÚÓÎÍÌÛ·Ҹ ‚ ÔÓ- ¯ÎÓÏ „Ó‰Û ÔË Ì‡ÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÍÛÒÓ‚ÓÈ.

ëÂȘ‡Ò

Á‡ÌËχ˛Ò¸

̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËÂÏ

‰ËÔÎÓχ. ü Ëϲ ‰ÂÎÓ Ò ·Óθ¯ËÏ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ- ‚ÓÏ ËÏÂÌ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı. ç‡ àÌÚÂ- ÌÂÚ, Í‡Í Ç˚ Ò‡ÏË Ô˯ÂÚÂ, ÔÓ·- „‡Ú¸Òfl Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ ÏÓÊÌÓ. Ç ‡·ÓÚ ÏÌ ӘÂ̸ ÔÓÏÓ„ÎË Ú‡·Îˈ˚ Ô‡ÍÚË- ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ Ú‡ÌÒÍËÔˆËË, ÍÓÚÓ˚ Ç˚ ‡ÁÏÂÒÚËÎË ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÍÌË„Ë, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ‚‡¯ ÒÎÓ‚‡¸ ÔÂÒÓ̇ÎËÈ (ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ Â„Ó ‰ÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ). ì ÏÂÌfl ÏÌÓ„Ó ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚, ÍÓÚÓ˚ fl ıÓÚ· ·˚ Ç‡Ï Á‡‰‡Ú¸ Í‡Í ÒÔˆˇÎËÒÚÛ ‚ ˝ÚÓÈ Ó·Î‡ÒÚË, Ó͇Á˚‚‡˛˘ÂÈÒfl ‚Ì ÒÙÂ˚ ‚ÌËχÌËfl ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÔÓÒÓ·ËÈ ÔÓ ÚÂÓËË ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. ü ‚˚·‡Î‡ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ËÁ ÌËı Ë ·˚· ·˚ Ó˜Â̸ ÔËÁ̇ÚÂθ̇ LJÏ, ÂÒÎË ·˚ ÔÓÎۘ˷ ̇ ÌËı ÓÚ‚ÂÚ:

Ç Ì‡Û˜ÌÓÏ ÚÂÍÒÚ (New Scientist) ÏÌ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÎËÒ¸ ËÏÂ̇ Guy Poppy Ë David de Pomerai. ä‡Í Ç˚ Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÂ, Ëı Ù‡ÏËÎËË Á‚Û˜‡Ú ÍÓÏ˘ÌÓ? ëΉÛ- ÂÚ ÎË ÏÌ ËÁÏÂÌËÚ¸ Ëı ËÎË fl Ì Ëϲ ̇ ˝ÚÓ Ô‡‚‡ (‚ Ò‚flÁË Ò ÚÂÏ, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ ËÏÂ̇ Û˜ÂÌ˚ı, ‡ Ì ıÛ‰ÓÊÂ- ÒÚ‚ÂÌ̇fl ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛ‡, „‰Â ‚Ò „ÂÓË ‚˚Ï˚¯ÎÂÌÌ˚Â)? ᇷ‡‚ÌÓ, fl ͇Í-ÚÓ ‰‡Ê Ì Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓ- ÌflÎ, ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ ËÏÂ̇ Poppy Ë de Pomerai ÏÓ„ÛÚ Á‚Û˜‡Ú¸ ÍÓÏ˘ÌÓ. èÓÚÓÏ ÒÓÓ·‡- ÁËÎ: ̇‚ÂÌÓ, ÔÓÚÓÏÛ, ˜ÚÓ Poppy ÔÓıÓÊ ̇ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ÔÓÔ‡, ‡ Pomerai Á‚Û˜ËÚ Í‡Í ÛÍ‡- ËÌÒÍÓ ÔÓÏ˝ – «ÔÓÏÂÚ, ÒÍÓ̘‡ÂÚÒfl». ÑÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ, ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÍÌË„Â fl ÔËÒ‡Î Ó ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ ÌÛÊÌÓ Á‡‰ÛÏ˚‚‡Ú¸Òfl Ó· ˝‚ÙÓÌËË (·Î‡„ÓÁ‚Û˜ËË) ËÏÂÌË ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÔË ÔÂ‰‡˜Â Â„Ó Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í, – ÌÓ

31

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • Ñ. ÖÏÓÎÓ˘

Анализ практики

ÔÂʉ ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÚÓ„‰‡, ÍÓ„‰‡ ÌÛÊÌÓ ËÁ·Â- ʇڸ Í‡ÈÌ ÌÂÔËÒÚÓÈÌÓ„Ó ËÎË ÓÒÍÓ- ·ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Á‚Û˜‡ÌËfl. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌË هÏËÎËË ÔË ÔÂ- ‰‡˜Â ̇ ‰Û„ÓÈ flÁ˚Í, ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ‚ ËÌÙÓ- χˆËÓÌÌÓÏ ËÎË Ì‡Û˜ÌÓÏ ÚÂÍÒÚÂ, – ˝ÚÓ ÔËÂÏ, Í ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ Ô˷„‡˛Ú ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ Ò‡- Ï˚ı Í‡ÈÌËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. èËÏÂ˚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó fl ÔË‚Ó‰ËÎ ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÍÌË„Â: ̇ÔËÏÂ, ‚ ÒÓ- ‚ÂÚÒÍË ‚ÂÏÂ̇ Ù‡ÏËÎ˲ ˜ÎÂ̇ èÓÎËÚ- ·˛Ó òËÚËÍÓ‚‡ ̇¯Ë ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚ ‡„ÂÌÚÒÚ‚‡ ÔÂ‰‡‚‡ÎË ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË Í‡Í Chitikov, ‡ ÌÂ Í‡Í Shitikov ‚Ó ËÁ·ÂʇÌË ‡ÒÒӈˇˆËÈ Ò ‚Û脇Ì˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ. çÛ, ‡ ÂÒÎË ÌÂÊ·ÚÂθ̇fl ‡ÒÒӈˇˆËfl Ì ÒÚÓθ ÒÂ¸ÂÁ̇, ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ ÏÂ̸¯‡fl ÔÓÚÂ- fl, ˜ÂÏ ËÒ͇ÊÂÌË ËÏÂÌË. äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, Ú‡ÍË ‡ÒÒӈˇˆËË ‚ÓÁÌË͇˛Ú ÌÂ Û ‚ÒÂı Ë Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÌÂ̇‰Ó΄Ó. ê‡Á‚ ÓÌË ÔËıÓ‰flÚ Ì‡Ï Ì‡ ÛÏ, ÍÓ„‰‡ Ï˚ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÏ Ò͇ÁÍÛ «å˝Ë èÓÔÔËÌÒ» ËÎË ÒÏÓÚËÏ ÔÓÒÚ‡‚- ÎÂÌÌ˚ ÔÓ ÌÂÈ ÙËθÏ˚? àÎË ÍÓ„‰‡ Ï˚ ÒÎ˚¯ËÏ Ù‡ÏËÎ˲ èÓÔÓ‚? äÒÚ‡ÚË, ‚ åÓΉ‡‚ËË Ó˜Â̸ ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂ̇ Ù‡ÏË- ÎËfl èÓÔ‡ (˝ÚËÏÓÎӄ˘ÂÒÍË Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌ̇fl „˜ÂÒÍÓÏÛ παπας «Ò‚fl˘ÂÌÌËÍ», ÛÒÒÍÓ- ÏÛ ÔÓÔ Ë ÚÂÏ Ò‡Ï˚Ï Ù‡ÏËÎËË èÓÔÓ‚), Ë Ó̇ ÌË Û ÍÓ„Ó Ì ‚˚Á˚‚‡ÂÚ ÌË͇ÍËı Î˯- ÌËı ‡ÒÒӈˇˆËÈ. ÇÓÚ ˜ÚÓ fl ÓÚ‚ÂÚËÎ ÖÎÂÌÂ:

á‰‡‚ÒÚ‚ÛÈÚÂ, ÖÎÂ̇. ëÔ‡ÒË·Ó Á‡ ‰Ó·- ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ó ÏÓÂÈ ÍÌË„Â Ë ÒÎÓ‚‡Â. åÌ Ì ͇ÊÂÚÒfl Á‚Û˜‡ÌË ˝ÚËı Ù‡ÏËÎËÈ Ó˜Â̸ ÛÊ ÍÓÏ˘Ì˚Ï, ÌÓ ‰‡Ê ÂÒÎË ˝ÚÓ Ë Ú‡Í, ÚÓ ËÁÏÂÌflÚ¸ Ëı fl Ì ÒڇΠ·˚. (é· ˝ÚÓÏ Â˘Â ÏÓÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ ÔÓ‰Ûχڸ, ÂÒÎË · ÓÌË Á‚Û˜‡ÎË ÌÂÔË΢ÌÓ). à̇˜Â Ç˚ Á‡ÔÛÚ‡Â- Ú ۘÂÌ˚ı, ËÏ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÚÛ‰ÌÓ, Ò͇ÊÂÏ, ËÒ͇ڸ ÍÌË„Ë Ë ÒÚ‡Ú¸Ë ˝ÚËı β‰ÂÈ ‚ ·Ë·- ÎËÓÚÂÍÂ Ë Ú.Ô. Ç ÚÓÏ Ê ÔËҸϠÖÎÂ̇ Á‡‰‡Î‡ ÏÌ ڇÍÓÈ ‚ÓÔÓÒ:

ü Ì Á̇˛, Í‡Í ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË ËÏfl Û˜ÂÌÓ„Ó ËÁ ä‡Ì‡‰˚ Ulrike Lohman (ìÎËÍ ãÓχÌ, ÄÎËÍ ËÎË ìθËÍ?). Ç ÒÎÓ‚‡ ËÏÂÌ ê˚·‡ÍË̇ ÂÒÚ¸ ËÏfl Ulrica (ÊÂÌÒÍÓÂ), ‡ ÏÂÌfl ËÌÚÂÂÒÛÂÚ ÏÛÊÒÍÓÂ, ‰‡ Ë Ô˯ÂÚÒfl ÓÌÓ ÔÓ- ‰Û„ÓÏÛ, ÌÓ ‚ ÍÓÌˆÂ Â„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ÌÓÈ

32

ÒÚ‡Ú¸Ë Ì‡ÔËÒ‡ÌÓ: Ò. ÌÂÏ. Ulrike. á̇˜ËÚ, ˝ÚÓ Ó‰ÌÓ Ë ÚÓ ÊÂ? ä‡ÍÓÈ Ê ‚‡ˇÌÚ ‚ÒÂ-Ú‡ÍË ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸?

ÔËÌfl‚

ÊÂÌÒÍÓ ËÏfl Á‡ ÏÛÊÒÍÓÂ. ü ̇ÔË҇ΠÂÈ:

ì‚ÂÂÌ˚ ÎË Ç˚, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ ÏÛʘË̇? Ulrike – ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌÓ ÌÂψÍÓ ÊÂÌÒÍÓ ËÏfl, Ë ÔÂ‰‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÌÓ Í‡Í ìθ- ËÍÂ. (ëÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Â ÏÛÊÒÍÓ ËÏfl – Ulrich ìθËı).

à ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ‚ÓÔÓÒ: Ì Á̇˛, Í‡Í ·˚Ú¸ Ò „˜ÂÒÍËÏ ËÏÂÌÂÏ Â˘Â Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó Û˜ÂÌÓ„Ó Kessar (Alexopoulos) äÂÒ‡¸ (‚ ˝ÌˆËÍÎÓÔ‰˘ÂÒÍÓÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ ÒÚ‡ÓÒ·‚flÌÒ͇fl Ë ‰‚ÌÂÛÒÒ͇fl ÔÂ‰‡˜‡ ËÏÒÍÓ„Ó ËÏÂÌË Ë ËÏÔÂ‡ÚÓÒÍÓ„Ó ÚËÚÛ· Caesar) ËÎË äÂÒÒ‡¸ (Ú‡Í Í‡Í ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ËÏÂÌ ÌÂθÁfl ÚÂflÚ¸ Û‰‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ Òӄ·ÒÌ˚Â) ËÎË ‚ÒÂ-Ú‡ÍË ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚Ï ‚ÒÂÏ ËÏÂÌÂÏ ñÂÁ‡¸ (ÄÎÂÍÒÓÔÓÛÎÓÒ)? óÚÓ Ç˚ ÔÓÒÓ‚ÂÚÛÂÚÂ?

éÚ ‚ÂÚ: çË ‚ ÍÓÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ì «ñÂ- Á‡¸», ‚‰¸ ˝ÚÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ·ÚËÌÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í c ÒÚ‡ÎÓ ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚ¸Òfl Í‡Í [ˆ] ‚ ÔÓÁ‰ÌÂ- ËÏÒÍËÈ ÔÂËÓ‰, ‡ ‚ „˜ÂÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓ- ‰Ó·ÌÓ„Ó fl‚ÎÂÌËfl Ì ·˚ÎÓ. ü ·˚ ÔÂ‰‡Î ËÏfl, ÒΉÛfl „˜ÂÒÍÓÈ ÌÓÏÂ: äÂÒÒ‡ ÄÎÂÍÒÓÔÛÎÓÒ. á‡ÏÂÚ¸ÚÂ, -poulos ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË ‚Ò„‰‡ -ÔÛÎÓÒ. Ç „˜ÂÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÒÚÓËÚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË ·ÛÍ‚ («ÓÏËÍÓÌ+ËÔ- ÒËÎÓÌ»), ÍÓÚÓÓ ‚Ò„‰‡ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Í‡Í [Û]. ꇉ, ÂÒÎË ÔÓÏÓ„ LJÏ.

Кэгни и Шалтай-Болтай

ÇÓÚ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ, ÍÓÚÓÓ fl ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÎ ÓÚ ÄÎÂÍÒÂfl, ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ‡ 4-„Ó ÍÛÒ‡ Ù‡ÍÛθÚÂÚ‡ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ı flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ËÁ ‚ÛÁÓ‚. á‰‡‚ÒÚ‚ÛÈÚÂ, ÑÏËÚËÈ à‚‡ÌÓ- ‚˘. èÂ‚Ӊfl ‰Îfl ÍÛÒÓ‚ÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ÍÓÓÚÍË ‡ÒÒ͇Á˚, fl ‚ÒÚÂÚËÎÒfl ÒÓ ÒÎÓÊÌÓÒÚflÏË, ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚ÏË ‚ ‚‡¯ÂÈ Á‡Ï˜‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ÍÌË„Â «àÏÂ̇ ÒÓ·ÒÚ-

á‰ÂÒ¸

ÖÎÂ̇

ӯ˷·Ҹ,

ÑÂÎÓ ‚ ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÔË‚Â-

‰ÂÌÌÓÏ ÌËÊ ‡·Á‡ˆÂ ÔÂ‚Ó ËÏfl, Í‡Í ÏÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl, Ú·ÛÂÚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌÓ- „Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡, ‡ ‚ÚÓÓÂ Â„Ó Ì Ú·ÛÂÚ.

‚ÂÌÌ˚Â

».

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • Ñ. ÖÏÓÎӂ˘

He’s a little Scotsman, feisty, round as a ball, with short legs. It’s impossible to imagine him in the Navy, though he was. Of course, he was thinner then. In those days he looked like Cagney; today he looks like Humpty Dumpty. His waist size, as my mother complains to anyone who will listen, is almost the same as his height. He doesn’t buy new clothes often.

ꇷӘËÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ:

сих пор с трудом верится в то,

что он служил на флоте. Правда, тогда он был постройнее и смахивал на Кэгни; сейчас же он вылитый Шалтай- Болтай.

óÚÓ ‰Â·ڸ? ч‚‡Ú¸ ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ËÏfl ÒÌÓÒÍÛ, ˜ÚÓ, ÏÓÎ, ˝ÚÓ ‡ÍÚÂ Ú‡ÍÓÈ? èÓ͇ Ó„‡Ì˘ËÎÒfl ÒÌÓÒÍÓÈ. çÓ ˝ÚÓ ÔÎÓıÓ ¯ÂÌËÂ. ç‡‰Â˛Ò¸ ̇ ‚‡¯ ÒÓ‚ÂÚ.

До

åÓÈ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ ÄÎÂÍÒ²:

ëÔ‡ÒË·Ó Á‡ ‰Ó·˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚ ‡‰ÂÒ ÏÓ- ÂÈ ÍÌËÊÍË. ÅÓ˛Ò¸, ˜ÚÓ ‚ Ô˂‰ÂÌÌÓÏ Ç‡ÏË ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÂÒÚ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ‰‚‡ ¯ÂÌËfl.

èÂ‚˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ, Í‡Í Ç˚ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÓÚÏÂÚËÎË, – ÒÌÓÒ͇. Ç ÌÂÈ Ç˚ ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ‰‡Ú¸ ·ÓΠËÎË ÏÂÌ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÍËÌÓ‡ÍÚÂ‡ ÑÊÂÈÏÒ‡ 佄ÌË Ë ÔË‚ÂÒÚË ‰‡Ú˚ Â„Ó ÊËÁÌË – ÍÒÚ‡ÚË, ÂÒÎË Ç˚ ÒÂ·Â Â„Ó Ì Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚÂ, ÚÓ Ì‡‚ÂÌfl͇ ̇ȉÂÚÂ Â„Ó ÙÓÚÓ ‚ àÌÚÂÌÂÚÂ: ÓÌ Ì‚˚ÒÓÍÓ„Ó ÓÒ- Ú‡, ÔÎÓÚÌÓ„Ó ÚÂÎÓÒÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ò ÍÛ„Î˚Ï ·Óθ¯Â„·Á˚Ï ÎˈÓÏ.

ÇÚÓÓÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ – ‚Íβ˜ÂÌË ‚ ÚÂÍÒÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ÔÓflÒÌËÚÂθÌ˚ı ˝ÎÂÏÂÌ- ÚÓ‚, ÔËÏÂÌÓ Ú‡Í:

«…тогда он был просто плотным,

а сейчас со-

как киноактер Кэгни

вершенно округлился, как Шалтай- Болтай».

Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÌÓÒ͇ Ì ÌÛÊ̇, ‰‡Ê ÂÒÎË ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂθ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÒÎ˚¯‡Î Ó ä˝„ÌË. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ ‚ ÍÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË Í Ç‡¯ÂÈ ÍÛÒÓ‚ÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ fl ÔÓÒÓ‚ÂÚÓ‚‡Î ·˚ ‰‡Ú¸ Ó ÌÂÏ ÒÔ‡‚ÍÛ.

Анализ практики

Ç ÓÚ‚ÂÚÌÓÏ ÔËҸϠÄÎÂÍÒÂÈ Ôӷ·„Ó-

‰‡ËÎ ÏÂÌfl Á‡ ÒÓ‚ÂÚ Ë ‰Ó·‡‚ËÎ, ˜ÚÓ ÂÏÛ Ó˜Â̸ ÔÓÌ‡‚ËÎÒfl ‚‡- ˇÌÚ Ò «ÓÍÛ„ÎÂÌË- ÂÏ». óÚÓ·˚ ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂÎË, Ì Á̇ÍÓÏ˚Â Ò ÛÔÓÏfl- ÌÛÚ˚ÏË ÔÂÒÓ̇ÎËfl- ÏË, ÏÓ„ÎË ÎÛ˜¯Â Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ Ò·Â, Ó ÍÓÏ Ë‰ÂÚ ˜¸, ÔÛ·ÎË- ÍÛÂÏ ÙÓÚÓ„‡Ù˲

Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ Ò·Â, Ó ÍÓÏ Ë‰ÂÚ ˜¸, ÔÛ·ÎË- ÍÛÂÏ ÙÓÚÓ„‡Ù˲

Джеймс Кэгни

‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓ„Ó ÍËÌÓ-

(James Cagney)

‡ÍÚÂ‡ ÑÊÂÈÏÒ‡ 佄-

ÌË Ë ËÒÛÌÓÍ, ËÁÓ·- ‡Ê‡˛˘ËÈ ò‡ÎÚ‡fl-ÅÓÎÚ‡fl ËÁ «ÄÎËÒ˚ ‚ á‡ÁÂ͇θ».

ËÁ «ÄÎËÒ˚ ‚ á‡ÁÂ͇θ». Шалтай-Болтай (Humpty Dumpty) Поцелуи в

Шалтай-Болтай (Humpty Dumpty)

Поцелуи в Cinema Paradiso

и «Всемирный магазин»

燯‡ ÔÂÂÔËÒ͇ Ò ÄÎÂÍÒÂÂÏ ÔÓ‰ÓÎ- ÊË·Ҹ. ëÔÛÒÚfl ͇ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl ÓÌ ÔË- Ò·ΠÏÌ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ Ò Â˘Â Ó‰ÌËÏ ‚ÓÔÓÒÓÏ.

á‰‡‚ÒÚ‚ÛÈÚÂ, ÑÏËÚËÈ à‚‡ÌÓ- ‚˘. èÓ¯Û ÔÓ˘ÂÌËfl Á‡ ̇ÁÓÈÎË- ‚ÓÒÚ¸. ÑÂÎÓ ‚ ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÏÌ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÎÒfl ÒÎÛ˜‡È «ÍËÌÓÌËχ» (ËÁ‚ËÌËÚ Á‡ ÌÂ̇ۘÌÓÒÚ¸ ÚÂÏË̇), ÍÓÚÓ˚È, Í‡Í ÏÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl, Ô‰- ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ËÌÚÂÂÒ Ë ÒÎÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸.

33

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • Ñ. ÖÏÓÎÓ˘

Анализ практики

While he stood there ten stories above the Brooklyn alley…, the towers’ distant absence seemed a light throwing a shadow behind him, a weak shadow, but inextricable from his presencethe price, it could be said, of his living presence…

“Amazing,” his daughter said, seeking to read his thoughts, “how the not-thereness remains so haunting. Sometimes you still see them in old ads, where the admen haven’t noticed or taken the trouble to airbrush them out of the background, and it’s a thrill. It feels illicit. A lot of these yuppie movies and TV serials have a glimpse of the towers, from SoHo or the Staten Island ferry or wherever, and now they’ve been collected on a tape, like the kisses in Cinema Paradiso. They’ve become a kind of cult.”

à ‰ÂÎÓ ÚÛÚ ‰‡Ê Ì ‚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ̇Á‚‡ÌËfl ÙËθχ (Cinema Paradiso, 1988 „Ó‰), ‡ ‚ ÚÓÏ, ͇ÍÛ˛ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Û˛ ̇„ÛÁÍÛ ÓÌ ÌÂÒÂÚ. à‰Âfl ÏÓÂ„Ó ÚÂÍÒ- Ú‡ ‚ ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ¯ÎÓ ‚ÓÚ ÛÊ ÔÓÎ- „Ó‰‡ (̇ ÚÓÚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ) ÒÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÚÂ‡ÍÚÓ‚ 11 ÒÂÌÚfl·fl, ‡ Ì·ÓÒÍ·˚ ‚Ò ¢ Á‡ÏÂÚÌ˚ ‚ ÂÍ·ÏÂ Ë ‰Û„Ëı Ò˙ÂÏ͇ı, Í‡Í ÔËÁ‡ÍË, ‚ÂÁ‰Â ÒÓÔÓ- ‚Óʉ‡fl „ÂÓfl. íÓ ÂÒÚ¸ flashbacks, ÍÓ- ÚÓ˚ ·˚ÎË ‚ Cinema Paradiso. “Most of Cinema Paradiso is told through flashbacks”, Ë ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ „·‚̇fl ˉÂfl, ÔÂÂÍÎË͇˛˘‡flÒfl Ò ÏÓËÏ ÚÂÍÒÚÓÏ.

ëÌÓÒ͇ Á‰ÂÒ¸, ̇ ÏÓÈ ‚Á„Îfl‰, ÌÂÛÏÂÒÚ̇, ÔÓÒÚÓ ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÌÂÈ Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ ÚÓÚ Ó·‡Á, ÍÓÚÓ˚È Û ‡ÏÂË͇̈‚ (ıÓÚfl fl Ì ۂÂÂÌ) ‚ÓÁÌË͇ÂÚ ÔË ÛÔÓÏË̇ÌËË ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÙËθχ. åÌ ͇- ÊÂÚÒfl, ˜ÚÓ Û ÛÒÒÍËı ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂÎÂÈ Ë ÁËÚÂÎÂÈ, ÍÓÏ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ „ÛÔÔ˚ β‰ÂÈ, Cinema Paradiso Ú‡ÍËı ‡ÒÒÓ- ˆË‡ˆËÈ Ì ‚˚ÁÓ‚ÂÚ.

34

óÂÒÚÌÓ „Ó‚Ófl, ‰‡ÊÂ Ë Ì Á̇˛, ˜ÚÓ ‰Â·ڸ. éÔÛÒ͇ڸ ̇Á‚‡ÌË ‰Ûχ˛, fl Ì ‚ Ô‡‚ ˝ÚÓ ‰Â·ڸ, Ú‡Í Í‡Í Ú‡ÍËÂ, ̇ ÔÂ‚˚È ‚Á„Îfl‰, ÏÂÎÓ˜Ë Ë ÙÓÏËÛ˛Ú ÚÂÍÒÚ. ä ÚÓÏÛ ÊÂ Ú‡Ï Â˘Â Ë “kisses”. é˜Â̸ ‡ÒÒ˜ËÚ˚- ‚‡˛ ̇ LJ¯Û ÔÓÏÓ˘¸.

ç‡‰Ó ÔËÁ̇ڸ, ˜ÚÓ ÚÂÍÒÚ, ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÔËÒ·ΠÏÌ ÄÎÂÍÒÂÈ, ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚È Ë Ú·ÛÂÚ Á̇ÌËfl ‡ÎËÈ. Ç ÌÂÏ ‚‡ÊÌÛ˛ Óθ Ë„‡ÂÚ Ò˛ÊÂÚ ÙËθχ Cinema Paradiso. ä Ò˜‡ÒÚ¸˛, Û ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë- ͇, ÍÓÚÓ˚È Ì ‚ˉÂÎ ˝ÚÓÚ ÙËθÏ, ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ̇‚ÂÒÚË ÒÔ‡‚ÍË Ó ÌÂÏ ‚ àÌÚÂÌÂÚÂ Ë ‚˚flÒÌËÚ¸ Ò˛ÊÂÚÌÛ˛ ÎËÌ˲. é̇ Á‡Íβ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ ÌÂÍËÈ Ò‚fl- ˘ÂÌÌËÍ ‚ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÏ „ÓӉ͠‚˚ÒÚÛԇΠ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÏÂÒÚÌÓ„Ó ˆÂÌÁÓ‡ Ë ÔÂ‰ ÔÓ͇- ÁÓÏ ÙËθÏÓ‚ ‚ ÍËÌÓÚ‡Ú ‚˚ÂÁ‡Î ËÁ ÌËı ÒˆÂÌ˚ Ò ÔÓˆÂÎÛflÏË. Ä ÒÔÛÒÚfl ÏÌÓ„Ó ÎÂÚ ÂÏÛ ÔÓ‰‡ËÎË ÔÎÂÌÍÛ, ÍÛ‰‡ ·˚ÎË Á‡ÔËÒ‡Ì˚ ‚Ò ‚˚ÂÁ‡ÌÌ˚ ËÏ ÓÚ˚‚ÍË, ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ÙËÎ¸Ï ËÁ Ó‰ÌËı ÔÓˆÂÎÛ‚. ÇÓÚ ˜ÚÓ fl ̇ÔË҇ΠÄÎÂÍÒ²:

Äί‡, ÔÓ-ÏÓÂÏÛ, Ç˚ ÛÒÎÓÊÌflÂÚ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏÛ. àÁ LJ¯Â„Ó ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ ‚˚ÚÂ͇ÂÚ, ˜ÚÓ ÍÚÓ- ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ΠÔÓ‰·ÓÍÛ Í‡‰Ó‚ ËÁ ÙËθÏÓ‚, ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı Á‡ÒÌflÚ˚ ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ë Ì˚Ì ·‡¯ÌË-·ÎËÁ̈˚ (World Trade Center). ùÚË Ù‡„ÏÂÌÚ˚ Ó·˙‰ËÌÂÌ˚ ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÏ Ó- ÎËÍ ‡Ì‡Îӄ˘ÌÓ ÚÓÏÛ, Í‡Í ‚ ÙËθÏ Cinema Paradiso ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ ÔÓ‰‡ËÎ ˆÂÌÁÓÛ ÓÎËÍ ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË ‚˚ÂÁ‡ÌÌ˚ÏË ËÏ Í‡‰‡- ÏË ÔÓˆÂÎÛ‚. ü Ì ÒÏÓÚÂÎ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÙËθχ, ÌÓ, ̇- ÒÍÓθÍÓ fl ÏÓ„Û ÒÛ‰ËÚ¸, flashbacks (ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ÒÚ‡‚͇ ÒˆÂÌ ËÁ ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó Ò Ì‡Û¯ÂÌËÂÏ ıÓÌÓÎӄ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ÔÓfl‰Í‡ ÒΉӂ‡ÌËfl ˝ÔËÁÓ‰Ó‚) Ì ËÏÂ˛Ú Í ˝ÚÓÈ ‡Ì‡ÎÓ„ËË ÓÒÓ- ·Ó„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl. åÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl, ‚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ ÌË˜Â„Ó ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸ ËÎË ÔÂ‰ÂÎ˚‚‡Ú¸, ‚‰¸ ˜¸ ËÏÂÌÌÓ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ ÓÎËÍÂ Ë Ó· ˝ÔËÁÓ- ‰Â ËÁ ÙËθχ Cinema Paradiso, ‡ ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ Ï‡ÎÓ ÍÚÓ ËÁ ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂÎÂÈ ‚ˉÂÎ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • Ñ. ÖÏÓÎӂ˘

ÙËθÏ, ÌËÍ‡Í Ì Ô‰ÔÓ·„‡ÂÚ ÔÂÂÍÓÈ- ÍË ‡‚ÚÓÒÍÓ„Ó ÚÂÍÒÚ‡. çÓ ÒÌÓÒÍÛ (ÍÓÏ- ÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ) Ò Í‡ÚÍËÏ ‡Á˙flÒÌÂÌËÂÏ «ÔÓ- ˆÂÎÛ‚» ‰‡Ú¸ ÒΉÛÂÚ. ÇÓÓ·˘Â Ì ̇‰Ó Ú‡Í ÛÊ ·ÓflÚ¸Òfl ÒÌÓÒÓÍ. ÇÒÔÓÏÌËÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ Óχ̇ Ñ. ë˝ÎË̉ÊÂ‡ «ç‡‰ ÔÓÔ‡ÒÚ¸˛ ‚Ó ÊË», ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚È ê. ê‡ÈÚ-äÓ‚‡Î‚ÓÈ, ‚‰¸ ‚ ÌÂÏ ÔÂ‰‡˜‡ ÏÌÓ„Ëı ‡ÎËÈ Ë ÔÂÒÓ̇- ÎËÈ Ì ӷӯ·Ҹ ·ÂÁ ÒÌÓÒÓÍ, ÌÓ ÌÂÒÏÓÚ- fl ̇ ˝ÚÓ Â ‡·ÓÚ‡ ÔËÁ̇̇ ‚˚‰‡˛˘ËÏ- Òfl ‰ÓÒÚËÊÂÌËÂÏ ‚ ÒÙÂ ıÛ‰ÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡.

P.s. Ç Ò‚flÁË Ò Ç‡¯ËÏ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓÏ ‚ÒÔÓÏ- ÌËÎÓÒ¸, ˜ÚÓ Ú‡„‰Ëfl Ò WTC Ò‚flÁ‡Ì‡ Ò Ó‰- ÌÓÈ ËÁ Á‡ÒÚ‡ÂÎ˚ı ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚÒÍÓ-ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰˜ÂÒÍËı ӯ˷ÓÍ, Ó ÍÓÚÓÓÈ, fl ̇‰Â˛Ò¸, Ç˚ Á̇ÂÚÂ: ‚‰¸ «ÇÒÂÏËÌ˚È ÚÓ„Ó‚˚È ˆÂÌÚ» ˝ÚÓ Ì‚ÂÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ ̇Á‚‡ÌËfl World Trade Center, ‡ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È – «ñÂÌÚ ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÚÓ„Ó‚ÎË». í‡ÍË ˆÂÌÚ˚ – ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÒÚÓ ÓÙËÒÌ˚ ËÎË ÓÙËÒ- ÌÓ-„ÓÒÚËÌ˘Ì˚ ÍÓÏÔÎÂÍÒ˚, ÓÒ̇˘ÂÌÌ˚ ÛÒÎÓ‚ËflÏË ‰Îfl ‚‰ÂÌËfl ÍÓÏÏÂ˜ÂÒÍËı ÔÂ- „ӂÓÓ‚ Ë ÒËÒÚÂχÏË Ò‚flÁË. éÌË ÒÛ˘Â- ÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÍÛÔÌ˚ı „ÓÓ‰‡ı ‡Á- Ì˚ı ÒÚ‡Ì, ÌÂ‰ÍÓ Ú‡Ï ‡ÁÏ¢‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÙËÒ ÏÂÒÚÌÓÈ íÓ„Ó‚Ó-ÔÓÏ˚¯ÎÂÌÌÓÈ Ô‡Î‡Ú˚ (Chamber of Commerce and Industry). ÖÒÚ¸ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ˆÂÌÚ Ë ‚ åÓÒÍ‚Â, ̇ ä‡ÒÌÓÈ èÂÒÌÂ. ÖÒÎË Á‡Ï˜‡ÎË, ÚÓ Ì‡ ̇¯ÂÏ, ÏÓÒÍÓ‚ÒÍÓÏ, ñåí ‚ËÒËÚ Ë Â„Ó Ì‡Á‚‡ÌË ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË – World Trade Center.

ÑÓ·‡‚β ‰Îfl ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂÎÂÈ ÊÛ̇·: ÔÓ- ÛÒÒÍË ÚÓ„Ó‚˚È ˆÂÌÚ ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÔÓÒÚÓ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ Ï‡„‡ÁËÌ, ˜ÚÓ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÔÓ- ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ‚˚‡ÊÂÌ˲ shopping center (‡ ‚ ÄÏÂËÍ ڇÍÊ ËÏÂÌÛÂÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ mall). é¯Ë·Í‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ Ò‚flÁ‡Ì‡ Ò Ì‚Â- Ì˚Ï ÔÓÌËχÌËÂÏ ÒËÌÚ‡ÍÒËÒ‡ ̇Á‚‡ÌËfl:

world ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl ÌÂ Í center, ‡ Í trade, Ë ÛÊ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË world trade ÏÂʉÛ̇- Ӊ̇fl ÚÓ„Ó‚Îfl ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ë- ÚÂθÌÓ center. ÑÛχ˛, ˜ÚÓ Û ÌÂËÒÍÛ¯ÂÌÌ˚ı ÛÒÒÍËı ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂÎÂÈ Ë ÒÎÛ¯‡ÚÂÎÂÈ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË «ÇÒÂ-

Анализ практики

ÏËÌ˚È ÚÓ„Ó‚˚È ˆÂÌÚ» ËÒÛÂÚ ‚ ‚ÓÓ·- ‡ÊÂÌËË Ó„ÓÏÌ˚È ÛÌË‚Âχ„, ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ-ÚÓ Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl «‚ÒÂÏËÌ˚Ï» – ÌÛ, ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸, ÓÌ Ò‡Ï˚È ·Óθ¯ÓÈ Ë Ò‡Ï˚È „·‚Ì˚È, ‰Ûχ˛Ú ÓÌË. ljÛχÈÚÂÒ¸: ‚‰¸ «ÇÒÂÏËÌ˚È ÚÓ„Ó‚˚È ˆÂÌÚ» – ˝ÚÓ ÔÓ ÒÛÚË ÚÓ Ê ҇ÏÓÂ, ˜ÚÓ «ÇÒÂÏËÌ˚È Ï‡„‡- ÁËÌ». ç ‡·ÒÛ‰ ÎË? ÇÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ, ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂÎË ÊÛ̇· ‚ÓÁ‡ÁflÚ ÏÌÂ: ÌÛ ˜ÚÓ Ê ÚÂÔÂ¸ ‰Â·ڸ? lj¸ ‚Ò ÛÊ ÔË‚˚ÍÎË Í ÚÓÏÛ, ˜ÚÓ Ú‡„‰Ëfl 11 ÒÂÌÚfl·- fl 2001 „Ó‰‡ ‚ ÄÏÂËÍ ‡Áۯ˷ «ÇÒÂ- ÏËÌ˚È ÚÓ„Ó‚˚È ˆÂÌÚ», ‡ Ì «ñÂÌÚ ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÚÓ„Ó‚ÎË». èÛÒÚ¸ ˝ÚÓ Ó¯Ë·Ó˜Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ, ÌÓ ÓÌ ÛÊ ÛÒÚÓflÎÒfl. à ‚Ò ÊÂ: Ì ÔËÌËχÈÚ ÂÁÛÎ¸Ú‡Ú ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚÒÍÓÈ ·ÂÁ‡Î‡·ÂÌÓÒÚË Á‡ Ò‚Â- ¯Ë‚¯ËÈÒfl Ù‡ÍÚ! ç ÏËËÚÂÒ¸ Ò Ó¯Ë·- ÍÓÈ! äÓÏÛ, Í‡Í Ì ̇Ï, ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇Ï, Ú‡ÍË ӯ˷ÍË ËÒÔ‡‚ÎflÚ¸? ç‡ Ì‡¯ÂÈ ÒÚÓÓÌ – Ë Ù‡ÍÚ˚ ‡θÌÓÈ ÊËÁÌË (ñÂÌÚ ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÚÓ„Ó‚ÎË ‚ åÓÒÍ‚Â, Ó ÍÓÚÓÓÏ fl ÛÊ Ò͇Á‡Î), Ë ‡‚ÚÓ- ËÚÂÚÌ˚ ÒÔ‡‚Ó˜ÌËÍË – ̇ÔËÏÂ, ‡Ì„ÎÓ-ÛÒÒÍËÈ ÒÎÓ‚‡¸-˝ÌˆËÍÎÓÔ‰Ëfl Americana. (äÒÚ‡ÚË, ÓÌ ‚˚¯ÂÎ Á‡‰ÓÎ„Ó ‰Ó Ú‡„‰ËË ‚ 縲-âÓÍÂ. à ˜ÚÓ ÒÚÓËÎÓ ÊÛ̇ÎËÒÚ‡Ï ÚÛ‰‡ Á‡„ÎflÌÛÚ¸?) ÖÒÎË Ï˚ ÓÒÓÁ̇ÂÏ Ó¯Ë·ÍÛ Ò‡ÏË, ÚÓ ÍÓÎÎÂÍÚË‚Ì˚- ÏË ÛÒËÎËflÏË ÒÏÓÊÂÏ Â ËÒÔ‡‚ËÚ¸. ÇÓÚ, ÍÒÚ‡ÚË, ‡͈Ëfl ÄÎÂÍÒÂfl:

ëÔ‡ÒË·Ó Á‡ Ô‰ÓÒÚÂÂÊÂÌË ̇ҘÂÚ Çíñ. óÂÒÚÌÓ „Ó‚Ófl, fl Ì Á̇Î, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ Ó¯Ë·Í‡, ÛÊ ·ÓθÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ˝ÚÓ Ì‡Á‚‡ÌË ÙË„ÛËÓ‚‡ÎÓ ‚ Ô˜‡ÚË Ë Ì‡ íÇ, ıÓÚfl ˝ÚÓ, ÍÓ̘ÌÓ, ÌË Ó ˜ÂÏ Ì „Ó‚ÓËÚ. Officer – Û Ì‡Ò ÚÓÊ ‚ÂÁ‰Â «ÓÙˈÂ‡ÏË» ̇Á˚‚‡˛Ú. ü ͇ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl ‚˚·Ë‡Î ÏÂÊ‰Û ‰‚ÛÏfl ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡ÏË: Çíñ Ë Ô‰ÎÓ- ÊÂÌÌ˚Ï ‚ «ÄÏÂË͇Ì» – Ô‡‚Ëθ- Ì˚Ï, Í‡Í ÒÂȘ‡Ò ‚˚flÒÌËÎÓÒ¸. ü ‚˚- ·‡Î Çíñ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓÚÓÏÛ, ˜ÚÓ ÏÌ ·Óθ¯Â ÔÓÌ‡‚ËÎÓÒ¸ ÔÓ Á‚Û˜‡Ì˲, ÌÓ ÚÂÔÂ¸ ·Û‰Û ÏÂÌflÚ¸.

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МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков

Анализ практики

Terms for Describing Terrorism

Lynn Visson

Since in today’s world newspapers, radio and television programs around the globe are all too often filled with accounts of terrorist attacks, suicide bombings and other such horrific acts, the Russian-English/ English- Russian translator or interpreter is well advised to have a variety of synonyms in his active linguistic baggage. “Shocking,” a word commonly used to describe terrorist acts, can be supplemented or replaced by a wide variety of negative adjectives such as “abominable,” (ÓÚ‚‡ÚËÚÂθÌ˚È), “appall- ing” (ÊÛÚÍËÈ), “atrocious” (Á‚ÂÒÍËÈ, „ÌÛÒÌ˚È), “brutal” (ÊÂÒÚÓÍËÈ), “frightful” (ÛʇÒÌ˚È, ÒÚ‡¯Ì˚È), “hateful” (ÌÂ̇- ‚ËÒÚÌ˚È), “heinous” (ÓÏÂÁËÚÂθÌ˚È), “hideous” (·ÂÁÓ·‡ÁÌ˚È), “horrible” (ÛʇÒ- Ì˚È), “monstrous” (˜Û‰Ó‚ˢÌ˚È), “obnoxious” (ÔÓÚË‚Ì˚È, ÌÂÒÌÓÒÌ˚È), “odious” (ÌÂ̇‚ËÒÚÌ˚È, ÔÓÚË‚Ì˚È), “outrageous” (·ÂÁÓ·‡ÁÌ˚È, ‚ÓÁÏÛÚË- ÚÂθÌ˚È), “repugnant,” (ÓÚ‚‡ÚËÚÂθÌ˚È), “repulsive” (ÓÚÚ‡ÎÍË‚‡˛˘ËÈ), “sickening” (ÚÓ¯ÌÓÚ‚ÓÌ˚È), “terrible” (ÒÚ‡¯Ì˚È, ÛʇÒÌ˚È), “vile” („ÌÛÒÌ˚È). Another useful word is “unspeakable” – “unspeakable acts” imply actions so awful that one is loath to even talk of them. These deeds may also be “brazen” (‰ÂÁÍËÂ). A common Russian adjective describing such acts is ÍÓ‚‡Ì˚È, as in ÍÓ‚‡̇fl ËÁÓ˘ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ ÚÂÓËÒÚÓ‚. While the dictionary defines ÍÓ‚‡Ì˚È as “treacherous” or “perfidious,” in many contexts these may not be appropriate translations. In the given phrase, “the

insidious” or “fiendish” sophistication of the terrorists would successfully render the phrase’s meaning. “Reprehensible” implies something which is both Ô‰ÓÒÛ‰ËÚÂθÌ˚È and ÓÚ‚‡ÚËÚÂθÌ˚È – “revolting.” “Disgust- ing” is somewhat too colloquial for such situations. And the correct adjective to render ‚‡‚‡ÒÍËÈ is “barbaric,” not “barbarian,” as in “barbaric bombings” or “the barbaric and sick individuals who committed these acts.” The individual who carries out such acts

is the “perpetrator,” and he “commits,”

“carries out” or “perpetrates” his evil deeds. The individuals who order him to do so, Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍË or Á‡˜ËÌ˘ËÍË are the “masterminds,” “ringleaders” or “instigators”

of violence. While the word ·‡Ì‰ËÚ˚ often

comes up in reference to terrorists, the

English word “bandits” should be avoided.

A far better translation is “thug;” the

ÔÓÒÓ·ÌËÍË or ÔËÒÔ¯ÌËÍË of terrorists are their “henchmen,” “accomplices,” or “those who aid and abet terrorists.” èÂÒÚÛÔÌ˚ ·‡Ì‰˚ ÚÂÓËÒÚÓ‚ is better translated as “criminal gangs” than as “bands.” ço ‰ÂÎÓ (“cause”) can justify the actions of any Á‡·Îۉ˂¯ËÂÒfl (“misguided,” “deluded”) individuals, would-be martyrs (ÏÛ˜ÂÌËÍË) or fanatics. While ÒËθÌ˚È Ë ·ÂÒÔÓ˘‡‰Ì˚È ‚‡„, as terrorists are often called, can be translated as “a strong and merciless enemy,” “ruthless” is a more idiomatic translation of

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МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • Linn Visson

·ÂÒÔÓ˘‡‰Ì˚È, and a very useful word to describe someone who has no scruples/moral principles/will stop at noth- ing/will not shrink/shirk from perpetrating any kind of terrorist act. ÇÓÔÓÒ Ó ‰‡Î¸ÌÂȯÂÈ ‡ÍÚË‚ËÁ‡ˆËË Ë ÔÓ‚˚¯ÂÌËË ÒÓÚÛ‰Ì˘ÂÒÚ‚‡ ‚ ·Ó¸·Â Ò ÚÂÓËÁÏÓÏ is the “vitally,” “critically important” or “crucial” issue of the continuous/continued further revitalization (“activization” is not a good choice here) of effective cooperation in combating terrorism.” ÅÓ¸·‡ Ò ÚÂÓËÁÏÓÏ can be rendered in several ways: the war on terrorism/campaign against terrorism/ struggle/fight against terrorism. And ¯ÂÌË ÔËÓËÚÂÚÌÓÈ Á‡‰‡˜Ë ·Ó¸·˚ Ò ÚÂÓ- ËÁÏÓÏ can be rendered as “the high(est) priority objective of resolving (not solving!) the challenge/issue/problem of the fight/ struggle against terrorism.” íÂÓËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍË ‡ÍÚ˚, ÔÓÚflүˠÏË, are acts which “shocked,” “stunned,” “rocked,” or “convulsed” the world, or “made the world reel.” While ÚÂÓËÒÚË- ˜ÂÒÍË Ә‡„Ë are often translated as “hotbeds” or “flashpoints” of terrorism, in some contexts these can be “strongholds» or “bastions.” We often hear about the „·‚ÌÓ ÛÒÎÓ‚Ë ÛÒÔÂı‡ – “the key to” or “prerequisite for” success in the war on terrorism. Ç‡„ – “enemy/adversary/opponent” – ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ Ì ÒÎÓÏÎÂÌ – “has by no means/has not yet been defeated/conquered/smashed.” The forces of evil ‚ÛÚÒfl Í Ó·Î‡‰‡Ì˲ ÓÛÊËÂÏ Ï‡ÒÒÓ‚Ó„Ó ÛÌ˘ÚÓÊÂÌËfl – “are (despera- tely) trying/eager/out/to acquire weapons of mass destruction.” There are also ÏÌÓ„Ó- ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ÌÂÓÔÓ‚ÂÊËÏ˚ ‰Ó͇Á‡- ÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ – “a great deal of/a plethora of/ incontrovertible/irrefutable evidence” regarding terrorist activities. íÂÓËÁÏ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ËÒÍÓÂ- ÌËÚ¸/ÎË͂ˉËÓ‚‡Ú¸ can be translated as “Terrorism must be eliminated/destroyed/

Анализ практики

wiped out/ended.” This also requires putting an end to its ÔËÚ‡ÚÂθ̇fl Ò‰‡, or “breeding grounds.” ëÓ‚ÏÂÒÚÌ˚ ÛÒËÎËfl – “joint” or “common» efforts are needed to defeat the terrorists, and those involved in this struggle must “pool” or “unite” (not “share”) their efforts. What is required is a ÍÓÏÔÎÂÍÒÌ˚È ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ Í ÔÓÚË‚Ó‰ÂÈÒڂ˲ ÚÂÓËÁÏÛ. Better than a “comprehensive” approach would be “multipronged” or “multifaceted.” Also needed are ¯ËÚÂθ- Ì˚Â, ÒÔÎÓ˜ÂÌÌ˚Â Ë ‚˚‚ÂÂÌÌ˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÒÚ‚‡ – “vigorous/ resolute (much better than “firm”), united and considered actions on the part of the international community.” As the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Igor Ivanov stated in his speech to the UN Security Council in January, 2003.

àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ÏÂÚÓ‰Ó‚ ÚÂÓ‡ ÒÚ‡- ‚ËÚ ÍÂÒÚ Ì‡ ÔÓÎËÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ‡Ï·ËˆËflı ÚÂı, ÍÚÓ ˝ÚËÏ Á‡ÌËχÂÚÒfl, Ó‰ÌÓÁ̇˜ÌÓ Ô‚‡- ˘‡ÂÚ Ëı ‚ ÔÂÒÚÛÔÌËÍÓ‚ Ë ÔÓ‰ÎËÌÌ˚ı ËÁ„Ó- ‚. ç ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÓÔ‡‚‰‡ÌËfl Ëı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËflÏ. à Ò‡ÏË Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ- ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËË Ëı ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ:

ÔÂÒÚÛÔÌËÍË Ó·flÁ‡Ì˚ ÌÂÒÚË Ì‡Í‡Á‡ÌË Á‡ ÒÓ‰ÂflÌÌÓÂ.

The translator here is presented with plenty of interesting possibilities. The use of terror can either “doom” or “put an end to” the political “strivings” (better than “ambitions”) of those engaged/involved in terrorism, and (“and” is necessary in English!) clearly/unequivocally/stamps/ marks/brands them as criminals and utter/absolute pariahs/the lowest of the low/ places them beyond the pale. There can be no justification (whatever) for their actions. And we must take appropriate action against them: the criminals must be punished/ punishment must be meted out for their actions (or, much better) – for what they have wrought. In other words, they cannot be allowed to act ·ÂÁ͇̇Á‡ÌÌÓ – “with

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МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • Linn Visson

Анализ практики

impunity.” Terrorists must not be allowed to ÛÈÚË ÓÚ Ô‡‚ÓÒÛ‰Ëfl – “to escape from justice.” Those who ÛÍ˚‚‡˛Ú ÚÂÓËÒÚÓ‚, “harbor/give refuge” to terrorists must also be punished. As the Foreign Minister pointed out in his speech: «‰Îfl êÓÒÒËË ÛÍÂÔÎÂÌË ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÒÓÎˉ‡ÌÓÒÚË ‚ ·Ó¸·Â Ò ÚÂÓËÁÏÓÏ – Ì ‰‡Ì¸ ÔÓÎËÚË- ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ ËÚÓËÍ». For Russia, strengthening/consolidating international solidarity/unity in the war on/campaign/ fight against terrorism is not empty rhetoric/ hollow platitudes/mere political gesturing/lip service/mere verbiage. All those who are fighting terrorism must ÔËÚ‡Ú¸ ̇‰ÂÊ‰Û – “harbor/cherish the hope” that terrorism will be eliminated. And the translator/interpreter must take care to keep abreast of the growing vocabulary of political, military and humanitarian terminology so frequently used in discussion of this scourge of the twenty- first century.

Дайджест

МЕСТА НАДО ЗНАТЬ

Наталия БАБАСЯН, Максим ЮСИН

В интервью итальянским журналистам Владимир Путин

произнес фразу, которую телезрители, слышавшие вы- ступление президента, мгновенно оценили: «Все должны раз и навсегда для себя понять – надо исполнять закон

всегда, а не только тогда, когда схватили за одно место». Проблема лишь в том, что очередная крылатая фраза российского лидера (сопоставимая разве что со знамени- тым «мочить в сортире» и с предложением «сделать обре- зание» французскому журналисту) на Западе осталась не- замеченной. Выражение «схватить за одно место» очень трудно перевести на иностранные языки, сохраняя все ню- ансы, тотчас же приходящие на ум русскому.

В итоге в итальянской газете «Коррьере делла сера»,

корреспондент которой присутствовал на встрече с Пути- ным, фраза о «местах» выглядела вполне невинно: «Invece

38

oggi bisogna chiarire che tutti devono rispettare le leggi del Paese» – «Надо всем дать понять, что все должны соблю- дать законы своей страны». Как выяснили «Известия» в московском бюро газеты, автор вопроса, на который отве- чал Путин, – корреспондент Фабрицио Драгосей не гово- рит по-русски, но на интервью с Путиным его сопровождал референт, владеющий русским языком. Понял ли журна- лист смысл ответа, неясно. «Близко к тексту это можно перевести на итальянский язык так: «Tutti devono capire una volta per tutte che la legge va rispettata sempre e non solo quando ti prendono a calci nel sedere» – «Закон надо соблюдать всегда, а не только тогда, когда тебе дали пинка», – сказал «Извести- ям» заместитель главного редактора итальянского журна- ла «Фамилиа Кристиана» Фульвио СКАЛЬОНЕ. – Существу- ют более точные выражения, но их никто и никогда в итальянской прессе не употребляет: они звучат слишком грубо». Так что итальянская публика едва ли сможет понять, по- чему улыбаются (смущаются, возмущаются, качают голо- вами) россияне, слушая своего президента. Итальянцы, кстати, не исключение. «Известия» провели небольшое лингвистическое расследование и выяснили, что и на другие основные европейские языки фразу Пути- на было бы очень трудно перевести адекватно, сохранив юмор нашего президента. Алена КОЖЕВНИКОВА – журналист и профессиональ- ный переводчик. В 1991 году во время визита первого президента России в Лондон она работала синхронистом для Бориса Ельцина. «Эту фразу можно переводить по- разному, – сказала она «Известиям». – Совсем официаль- но я бы перевела ее так: «The law should be observed always and not only when you have been caught» – «Закон должен соблюдаться всегда, а не только тогда, когда тебя поймали». Но все зависит от того, какая газета и кто кон- кретно переводит. В таблоидных изданиях это может вы- глядеть и дословно, то есть «The law should be observed always and not only when you have been caught by the ass». По мнению старшего преподавателя кафедры испанско- го языка МГИМО Натальи МАТЮШЕНКО, по-испански по-

no solo

не только когда

en los momentos cuando te pillen» – «

следняя часть фразы Путина звучала бы так: «

y

а

тебя застигают врасплох (ловят на месте преступления)». Как считает переводчик Немецкого культурного центра имени Гете в Москве Татьяна МУХАМЕДИНОВА, в Германии лингвистический экзерсис российского президента могли бы перевести двумя способами. Первый, весьма резкий

по-

вариант звучал бы так: «

ставят к позорному столбу», а второй, помягче: « am

Kragen (packt) bekommt» – «

Так что насладиться очередным перлом Владимира Путина гражданам единой Европы вряд ли удалось бы. Да и не на них он был рассчитан.

(Известия 7.11.2003)

an

den Pranger stellt» – «

возьмут

за шкирку».

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Пытки переводчика

å. ÅÂ‰Ë

Originally printed in The Moscow Times

ÉβÍË: slang, from „‡ÎβˆË̇ˆËfl (hallucinations). Can mean “seeing things,” or can be a real malfunction in a computer, car or other machine. Can be translated as “glitch,” “problem” or “screw up.”

My car occasionally suffers from „βÍË. When the engine skips, this is a sign that there are „βÍË in the spark plugs or distributor. If not properly fixed, these can lead to Ì˛‡ÌÒËÍË. These are literally “little nuances” – small problems that have to be fine-tuned. I hate Ì˛‡ÌÒËÍË. They are much worse than Ì˛‡ÌÒ˚ – smaller and sneakier. I ask my mechanic if he fixed the problem and he says, “ч, ÌÓ ÂÒÚ¸ Ì˛‡ÌÒËÍË. èË ·˚ÒÚ- ÓÈ ‡ÍÒÂÎÂ‡ˆËË ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚È Ò˚‚ ‚ ÔÓ‰‡˜Â ÚÓ͇.” (Yes, but there are some tiny problems. There might be a momentary break in the power supply with sudden acceleration.”) What does this really mean? My translation is something like this:

you’re tooling along in the left lane at 80 kph. There’s a car on your right, and a Mercedes 600 SL coming up behind you fast. You decide to slip in front of the car on your right to let the Benz pass you. You hit the gas. The power outs. The superior power of the Mercedes propels you into the next world, where you are glad that you went to confession last week and paid up your life insurance premiums.

ÉβÍË in the office are usually less life- threatening. But no less annoying. In a panicked call to your computer repairman

Анализ практики

(ÍÓÏÔ¸˛ÚÂ˘ËÍ) you can scream: “èËÂÁ- Ê‡È ÒÍÓÂÂ! äÓÏÔ¸˛ÚÂ „β˜ËÚ!» (“Come as soon as you can! My computer is screwing up!”) You know the story: it’s 5 PM on the day you have to finish a 4 million dollar grant application. ÉβÍË hit your computer and the fonts change every other line, the printer network has disappeared, and Outlook is experiencing the software equivalent of PMS (pre-menstrual syndrom). Sasha, my ÍÓÏÔ¸˛ÚÂ˘ËÍ, who is a genius with anything that contains a microchip or integrated circuit, arrives to save the day. He grins, rubs his hands together and says, “çÛ- ͇ ÔÓÒÏÓÚËÏ! ä‡ÍË ÚÛÚ „βÍË?!” (“Let’s see now… what’s the problem here?!”) He hits keys, opens up the processor, pokes and prods and taps more keys, all the while keeping up a cheerful and totally incomprehensible monolog.

Listening to Sasha brings me back to the days when I was learning Russian and could pick out every fifth word in a sentence. Because I hadn’t mastered the grammar, I knew, for example, that I was being told there was a grandmother, a cat, and a stove, but I wasn’t sure if she was cooking the cat on the stove (that can’t be right) or (more mysteriously) sleeping with him… on the stove? (The village Ô˜͇ baffled suburban American students of Russian, for whom a “stove” was what you cooked eggs on.) When Sasha explains something to me, I hear a lot of familiar words, but I don’t quite

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Анализ практики

get the context – the grammar of computers, as it were. He tells me his diagnosis: «Ç ÒÎÛ- ˜‡Â ‚ÓÁÌËÍÌÓ‚ÂÌËfl Ò·Ófl ̇ ÔÓ‚ÂıÌÓÒÚË ÊÂÒÚÍÓ„Ó ‰ËÒ͇, ÏËÍÓÔÓ„‡Ïχ ‚˚‚Ó‰ËÚ „ÓÎÓ‚ÍÛ ‚ ÁÓÌÛ Ô‡ÍÓ‚ÍË Ë Ì‡˜Ë̇ÂÚÒfl ÔÓ- ˆÂÒÒ Á‡ÔÛÒ͇ ËÒÔ‡‚ÎÂÌËfl ӯ˷ÍË. èÓˆÂÒÒ ÔÓ‚ÚÓflÂÚÒfl, ˜ÚÓ ÔË‚Ó‰ËÚ Í ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌÓ- ÏÛ ÒÚÛÍÛ – “ÒÚÛ˜ËÚ „ÓÎÓ‚ÓÈ”».

Which I translate as: “It’s broken.”

åÂʉÛÒÓ·ÓȘËÍ: an event for insiders, and event just between friends; a heart-to- heart talk

Over the years I’ve developed a list of Russian words that express very succinctly a concept that is hard to express in English. Some of them I love, because they put into a Russian nutshell something you can barely fit into an English cocoanut shell. Some of them I loathe, because they are very hard to translate. Take ÓÚÒ·flÚË̇, a word that I love. This is frequently used in the world of translation and means literally, “something from oneself,” (ÓÚ Ò·fl) i.e., editorial commentary that the translator or interpreter adds to the text. ü Ì β·Î˛ Ò ÌËÏ ‡·Ó- Ú‡Ú¸ – ˉÂÚ ÒÔÎӯ̇fl ÓÚÒ·flÚË̇. (I don’t like working with him. He adds a lot of his own commentary to the text.)

Another nice word along these lines is ‚Òfl˜Ë̇, a noun from the adjective ‚ÒflÍËÈ (any, all kinds of), which means “a collection of all kinds of things.” In colloquial American English, this is usually expressed by the word “stuff.” It’s often used in the phrase ‚Òfl͇fl ‚Òfl˜Ë̇: Ç Í·‰Ó‚Í – ‚Òfl͇fl ‚Òfl˜Ë̇. (My closet is filled with all kinds of stuff.) ÇÒfl˜Ë̇ can refer to big or small “stuff.” åÂÎÓ˜Ë, another handy little word, can be used to describe “small stuff,” i.e., a collection of small items, and in some contexts can be translated as “sundries.” Ç Ï‡„‡ÁËÌ í˚Òfl˜Ë åÂÎÓ˜ÂÈ fl ̇¯Î‡ ‚ÒÂ, ˜ÚÓ ÌÛÊÌÓ ‰Îfl ÌÓ‚ÓÈ Í‚‡ÚË˚. (In the store “World of Sundries” I found

40

everything I need for my new apartment.) åÂÎӘ‚͇ is the diminutive of this, a collective noun that means “details,” “trivialities,” or “small tasks.” ü ÛÊ ̇ÔË҇· ÚÂÍÒÚ ÓÚ˜ÂÚ‡ – ÓÒڇ·Ҹ ÚÓθÍÓ ÏÂÎӘ‚͇. (I’ve already written the text of the report – all that’s left are the last little details.)

åÂʉÛÒÓ·ÓȘËÍ is another very useful noun. It comes from the phrase ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÓÈ (among ourselves/them), and refers to a conversation among close friends (usually over drinks) or any kind of event that is for insiders only. It can be translated variously, depending on the context. ì Ì‡Ò ÏÂʉÛ- ÒÓ·ÓȘËÍ – ̠ϯ‡È. (We’re having a heart-to-heart talk – please don’t bother us.) ç ÒÚÓËÚ Û˜‡ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‚ „‡ÌÚÓ‚ÓÏ ÍÓÌÍÛÒÂ. ùÚÓ ÏÂʉÛÒÓ·ÓȘËÍ. (There’s no point applying in the grants competition. It’s for insiders only.) Russian encapsulates the notion of “an activity for a select group of people” so nicely in the word ÏÂʉÛ- ÒÓ·ÓȘËÍ that I’ve always wanted to translate “insider trading” as ÏÂʉÛÒÓ·ÓȘËÍ Ì‡ ·ËÊÂ.

Another group of nouns that are voluminous in meaning but a headache to translate are abstract nouns formed by adding –ÓÒÚ¸ to the stem of an adjective. ë˲ÏËÌÛÚÌÓÒÚ¸ is derived from the adjective Ò˲ÏËÌÛÚÌ˚È and could be rendered literally as “right-this-minute- ness.” óÂÂÁ àÌÚÂÌÂÚ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ó„‡ÌËÁÓ- ‚‡Ú¸ Ò˲ÏËÌÛÚÌÓÒÚ¸ ÔÂ‰‡˜Ë ËÌÙÓχ- ˆËË. (Through internet you can update information virtually every minute.) èÓÚÛ- ÒÚÓÓÌÌËÈ ÏË is “the other word,” “the afterlife,” literally “the world on the other side.” This has a nice abstract noun, ÔÓÚÛÒÚÓÓÌÌÓÒÚ¸, literally “the concept of life in the next world,” which could be used in the phrase, èÓÚÛÒÚÓÓÌÌÓÒÚ¸ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Ó‰ÌÓÈ ËÁ „·‚Ì˚ı ÚÂÏ Ú‚Ó˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ 燷Ó- ÍÓ‚‡. (The idea of the afterlife is one of the main themes in Nabokov’s work.)

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Russian-English translators and interpreters also loathe another commonly used “meaningful” Russian noun: ÂÁÛθڇ- ÚË‚ÌÓÒÚ¸ (the condition of producing constructive results). When you hit up against this, you groan, throw the Russian semantic construction out the window, and rebuild the thought in English in another way. Try “constructive” or “productive.” éÌË ‰Ó‚ÓθÌ˚ ÂÁÛθڇÚË‚ÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ÔÂÂ- „Ó‚ÓÓ‚. (They were pleased that the negotiations were productive.) But if you’re interpreting in front of 3000 people and your brain short-circuits on “the resulting-ness of the negotiations,” try a bit of ÓÚÒ·flÚË̇: They thought the meeting went well.

è‡ÓÌËÏ˚: paronymous words, i.e., words that are allied by derivation from the same root

If we English-speakers pull the dictionary off the shelf from time to time when we want to check usage of confusingly similar words, like “sensual” and “sensuous”, Russians must keep their dictionaries next to their mouse pads. Because Russian has developed largely from one language and been fine- tuned by all those prefixes and suffixes over the millennia, there are a plethora of paronymous words that native Russian speakers often confuse. And if they confuse native speakers, they wreak havoc with us hapless non-native speakers. A classic example is ‡·ÓÌÂÏÂÌÚ and ‡·ÓÌÂÌÚ. Ä·ÓÌÂÏÂÌÚ is a season pass, a subscription; ‡·ÓÌÂÌÚ is the subscriber. ü ÍÛÔËÎ ‡·ÓÌÂÏÂÌÚ Ì‡ ˆËÍÎ ÎÂ͈ËÈ ‚ ÏÛÁÂÂ. (I bought a subscription to a series of lectures at the museum.) ü ıÓ˜Û ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÒÓÓ·- ˘ÂÌË ‰Îfl ‡·ÓÌÂÌÚ‡ 53999. (I want to leave a message for subscriber 53999 – what you say to a paging service.)

Ü·ÌÌ˚È/Ê·ÚÂθÌ˚È can also throw you off. Ü·ÌÌ˚È is something you are

41

Анализ практики

aiming for, Ê·ÚÂθÌ˚È is what you would like to see happen, the preferred outcome. Sometimes these are synonyms – what you are aiming for is what you prefer to get – but sometimes they are not. For example, Ê·Ì- Ì˚È ÂÁÛÎ¸Ú‡Ú and Ê·ÚÂθÌ˚È ÂÁÛθ- Ú‡Ú are nearly the same thing – the desired or preferred outcome. However, you can see the subtle distinction in the following sentence (which is a bit of a linguistic stretch, for purposes of illustration): ÑËχ – Ê·ÚÂθ- Ì˚È Í‡Ì‰Ë‰‡Ú, ÌÓ ë‡¯‡ – ̇¯ Ê·ÌÌ˚È Í‡Ì‰Ë‰‡Ú. (Dima is a preferred candidate, but Sasha is the candidate we want.)

Confused already? Then take two kinds of “friendly”: ‰ÛÊÌ˚È and ‰ÛÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È. Both express the idea of “being disposed in a friendly way” but ‰ÛÊÌ˚È means “internally friendly,” made up of friends, while ‰ÛÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È means “externally friendly,” disposed in a friendly way to others. So ‰ÛÊ̇fl ÍÓχ̉‡ – a team made up of friends; ‰ÛÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌ̇fl ÍÓχ̉‡ – a team that is friendly to other teams.

You can hear the difference in the news headline (that was the inspiration for this migraine-inducing column): ü·ÎÓÍÓ Ë ëèë ÛÊ Ì ‰ÛÊÌ˚ ԇÚËË, ÌÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸, ÓÌË ÒÚ‡ÌÛÚ ‰ÛÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ÏË? This is a real nightmare for translators. What it means is: Once upon a time the members of the Yabloko and SPS parties were all good friends, but now they aren’t. Can the parties at least get along? But that’s an explanation, and it doesn’t help the poor translator in the news bureau, who has ten minutes to come up with a headline. How about: Yabloko and SPS are no longer one big happy family, but maybe they can still be friends? Or: The Yabloko and SPS parties are no longer kissing cousins, but maybe they’ll hold the family together? Or: Yabloko and SPS have gotten divorced, but maybe the divorce will be amicable? You lose the nice word play on kinds of friendship, but at least you convey the meaning.

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Анализ практики

Thank heaven ̇‰ÂÚ¸/Ó‰ÂÚ¸ (to dress) are related words with clear-cut rules of usage – complicated, yes, but at least comprehensible. 燉ÂÚ¸ ˜ÚÓ (what) ̇ ÍÓ„Ó (on whom) or ̇ ˜ÚÓ (on what); Ó‰ÂÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó (whom) ‚Ó ˜ÚÓ (in what) or ˜ÂÏ (as what). The rule of thumb is that ̇‰ÂÚ¸ is followed by an inanimate object (WHAT you are putting on), and Ó‰ÂÚ¸ is followed by an animate object (WHOM you are putting it on). 燉ÂÚ¸ is the verb to use when you are talking about yourself. ü ̇‰Â· (óíé?) ԇθÚÓ. (I put on my coat.) ü ̇‰ÂÎ (óíé?) ·‡ÒÎÂÚ (çÄ óíé?) ̇  Û˜ÍÛ. (I put the bracelet on her wrist.) ü Ӊ· (äéÉé?) ·ÂÌ͇ (Çé óíé?) ‚ ¯ÍÓθÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ. (I dressed the child in his school uniform.) ü Ӊ· (äéÉé?) ·ÂÌ͇ (óÖå?) Á‡È˜ËÍÓÏ. (I dressed the child as a rabbit).

So how about a more interesting example:

what verb do you use for a condom? The confusion comes from not knowing if a body part is considered to be animate or inanimate in Russian. But look at the example above: ü ̇‰ÂÎ ·‡ÒÎÂÚ Ì‡  Û˜ÍÛ. In Russian, body parts are inanimate (sorry, guys). 燉ÂÚ¸ is the way to go: you use it for putting something on yourself, or for putting something on something else.

é·ÂÁ‡ÌËÂ: circumcision

We can thank President Putin for continuing to broaden our linguistic range. Now everyone knows that Ó·ÂÁ‡ÌË is the operation of circumcision. But it was news for me when the President recommended «Ò‰Â·ڸ ÓÔÂ‡ˆË˛ Ú‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ·˚ Û ‚‡Ò ÛÊ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ‚˚ÓÒÎÓ» (to do the operation so that nothing will ever grow back). Who knew that anything could?

The statement became the hot topic in the news largely because of the official Russian translation, which left out a good deal of the salty Russian original. We heard

42

the panicked stammering of the first translator, followed by the clatter of the microphone being grabbed by the second, who said, “…if you’d like to get a

circumcision, please come to Moscow

are welcome and everything and everyone is tolerated in Moscow.”

Journalists took the interpreters to task. But should they have? Interpreters are trained to judiciously edit the speaker in most situations, and especially to cut out improper words (ÌÂÔËÒÚÓÈÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡). This is because, first, when you interpret, your tone of voice is usually supposed to be neutral and relatively unemotional, so a four-letter word would startle far more than in the original. Second, each language has its own norms for usage. If a Frenchman says merde, you’d never translate it with the 5- letter Russian word for excrement (or any other strong Russian expression). Similarly, an American might toss off something like “Yeah, I read it. It was a f****** lousy article.” The literal Russian would be vastly stronger than the English, so you might say instead “ч, ˜ËÚ‡Î. ëÚ‡Ú¸fl ·˚· ˜ÂÚÓ‚- ÒÍË ÔÎÓı‡” (back-translated as “it was a hellishly bad article”). This comes under the heading of “translate what he means, not what he says.”

You

The third reason is that interpreters are charged with “cultural facilitation,” so you edit out ÌÂÌÓχÚË‚Ì˚È ÎÂÍÒËÍÓÌ (non- standard language), racial and other slurs, and afterwards pull the speaker aside and explain what you did and why.

I’ve certainly done this. A classic example is the traditional toast to “Á‡ Í‡ÒË- ‚˚ı ‰‡Ï, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÛÍ‡¯‡˛Ú ̇¯ ÒÚÓÎ.” The guy giving the toast might have a mother in the Cabinet, a wife who is Chief Doctor of a major teaching hospital, and a daughter studying to be an astrophysicist. He may not be a sexist pig at all; he is just fulfilling his duties as host. But try telling a

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table of ardently feminist businesswomen that they are “beautiful table decorations”! My standard cheat on this is “I raise my glass to the brilliant women gracing our table.” Everyone’s happy, no one’s insulted, and I’ve conveyed the intent of the toast, if not its exact meaning.

The book åË èÂ‚Ӊ‡ by Chuzhakin and Palazhchenko quotes the memoirs of Minyar-Beloruchev, who once translated for Khrushchev. In one particularly fiery speech about the betrayal of Albania, Nikita Sergeevich ranted about its leader: “˝ÚÓÚ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ Ó·ÓÒ‡Î Ì‡Ò Ò ÌÓ„ ‰Ó „ÓÎÓ‚˚, ÚÛ‰˚ Â„Ó Ï‡Ú¸!” (that man shat on us from head to toe, the f***er!) Minyar-Beloruchev translated it into French as something like “that man heaped dirt on us from head to toe” – and promptly got scolded for “daring to edit the General Secretary.” But ten minutes later he was told, “çËÍËÚ‡ ëÂ„‚˘ ÔÓÒËÎ Ôӷ·„Ó‰‡ËÚ¸ ‚‡Ò. éÌ Ì ıÓÚÂÎ, ˜ÚÓ·˚ Â„Ó „Û·˚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ÔÓ- Á‚Û˜‡ÎË Ì‡ ‚ÒÂı flÁ˚͇ı!” (Nikita Sergeevich asked me to thank you. He didn’t want his crude expressions to be heard in every language!)

So what would I have done in the shoes of the Russian translators last week? I would have gulped and translated Vladimir Vladimirovich word for word. In private conversations editing is permissible and even advisable, but not, to my mind, for a head of state, and not in public. For one thing – you’ll get caught. When half of the audience of journalists is laughing or gasping and the other half isn’t, the half that isn’t, is sure to poke around until they find out what was so funny. And then you have a mess. If the interpreters had translated it all right away, the protocol folks could have just shrugged and said: éÌ „Ó‚ÓËÚ, ˜ÚÓ ‰ÛχÂÚ. (He calls it like he sees it.)

Анализ практики

Дайджест

Анализ практики Дайджест Зачем банки меняют лица Журнал «Финанс»

Зачем банки меняют лица

Журнал «Финанс» № 36 (17-23 ноябрь 2003) Светлана БАРСУКОВА

Российские банки стали больше заботиться о собственных брэндах и при необходимости готовы их полностью изменять. Они охотно

расстаются со старыми именами, особенно если они эпатажны, труднопроизносимы или безлики.

особенно если они эпатажны, труднопроизносимы или безлики.

«В основном имена у банков безликие и мало о чем говорят клиенту, а ведь все банки производят одинако- вый набор услуг на практически стандартных условиях, так что им просто необходимо выделяться из общей массы», – утверждает директор по стратегическому развитию компании Brand Way Екатерина Дворникова. Противоположной крайностью подобной безликости являются малопонятные аббревиатуры или чрезмерно длинные названия типа АКЭФ-банк или Метронефтега- зохимпромбанк. Бывают и такие названия, которые, как выразился доктор филологических наук Валерий Белянин, способны вызвать лингвистический шок. Лингвистический шок у банкиров вызывают назва- ния банков «Петровка», ЗАТО-банк, банк «Общий», Щит-банк, Обибанк. Так, в банке «Петровка» просле- живается намек на близость к правоохранительным органам, Щит-банк в английской транскрипции звучит непристойно (от английского shit – «дерьмо»), а Оби- банк вызывает ассоциации с женскими гигиеническими средствами. Однако, несмотря на это, большинство опрошенных журналом «Финанс» банков довольны своим названием и в ближайшее время не собираются переименовываться. А вот их коллеги из Лубянка-бан- ка и иркутского банка «Падун» (в Сибири так называ- ются пороги и водопады на реках) оказались менее равнодушны к собственному имиджу и переименова- лись соответственно в Росевробанк и Сибирский банк экономического развития (СБЭР). Правда, теперь быв- ший «Падун» упрекают в том, что аббревиатура его но- вого имени звучит как сокращенный вариант Сбербан- ка, переделанный на украинский лад («э» вместо «е»). Неудачным считается и переименование Буйкомбанка в Совкомбанк. © ЗАО Газета «Финансовая Россия», 2000-2003

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Заказчик–переводчик

Проект документа СПР «Заключение и исполнение договоров на выполнение письменных переводов. Нормы и правила»

ç. ÑÛÔÎÂÌÒÍËÈ

ÑÛχ˛, ˜ÚÓ Ì ÔÓ„Â¯Û ÔÓÚË‚ ËÒÚË- Ì˚, ÂÒÎË Ò͇ÊÛ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ·ÎÂχ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ – Í‡Í ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌÓ„Ó, Ú‡Í Ë ÛÒÚ- ÌÓ„Ó – ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ̇¯ÂÈ ÒÚ‡Ì ÓÒÚÓÈ Ì‡ ÔÓÚflÊÂÌËË ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÎÂÚ. ë Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÒÚÓ- ÓÌ˚, Û ÏÌÓ„Ëı Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍÓ‚ ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ì‡‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ÔÓÌËχÌË ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚË Í‡˜Â- ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ‰Îfl Ëı ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ·ËÁÌÂÒ‡, ÔË‚Ó‰fl˘ÂÂ Í ÒÍÛÔÓÒÚË Ë Ê·- Ì˲ Ò˝ÍÓÌÓÏËÚ¸ ̇ ÓÔ·Ú ÚÛ‰‡ ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰˜Ë͇, ÔÂÌ·ÂÊÂÌ˲ Í Â„Ó ÚÛ‰Û, ‡ Ò ‰Û„ÓÈ – ·ÓÒ‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ „·Á‡ ‰ËÎÂÚ‡ÌÚÒÚ‚Ó Ë Ò‡ÏÓ̇‰ÂflÌÌÓÒÚ¸ «ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ ÌÓ‚ÓÈ ÙÓχˆËË», Ô˯‰¯Ëı ̇ ÔÂ‚Ӊ- ˜ÂÒÍËÈ ˚ÌÓÍ ‚ ̇‰Âʉ ÔÓÔ‡‚ËÚ¸ Ò‚ÓË ÙË̇ÌÒÓ‚˚ ‰Â· Ë Ëϲ˘Ëı ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÏ ·‡„‡Ê ‚ÂҸχ ÔÓ‚ÂıÌÓÒÚÌ˚ Á̇ÌËfl ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ÔË ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ËË ÌÂ- Ó·ıÓ‰ËÏ˚ı ̇‚˚ÍÓ‚ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. 片‚ÌÓ ‚ àÌÚÂÌÂÚ ‰Ó‚ÂÎÓÒ¸ ÔÓ- ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ̇ ˝ÚÛ ÚÂÏÛ ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚ Á‡ÏÂÚÍË ë. ó˜Ì‚‡ 1 , ÍÓÚÓ˚È Ô˯ÂÚ, ˜ÚÓ «…ÔÓ- ÙÂÒÒËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ Òڇ· ‚ ÔÓÒΉÌË „Ó‰˚ ÊÂÚ‚ÓÈ “‚ÒÂÓ·˘ÂÈ ËÌÚÂÎÎÂÍÚÛ‡ÎË- Á‡ˆËË” Ë ÔÓ‚‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó Û‚Î˜ÂÌËfl ‡Ì„ÎËÈ- ÒÍËÏ flÁ˚ÍÓÏ. é̇ Ô‚‡ÚË·Ҹ ËÁ ÔÂ-

1 ëÂ„ÂÈ ó˜Ì‚, «à„‡ ‚ ‡Ì„΢‡ÌÒÚ‚Ó, ËÎË ‡ÒÒÛʉÂÌËfl Ó ‚ÁÎfiÚÂ Ë Ô‡‰ÂÌËË ÉÓÎÎË‚Û‰‡» http://rybakov.narod.ru/text/o_perevodax.htm.

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ÒÚËÊÌÓ„Ó, ÔÓ˜ÚË Ò‡Í‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚‡ ‚ ·‡Ì‡Î¸ÌÛ˛ ÌËÁÍÓÓÔ·˜Ë‚‡ÂÏÛ˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ. çËÍÚÓ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÚ Û·Â‰ËÚ¸ ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌ- ÌÓ„Ó ÏẨÊÂ‡, ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ‰ÓÓÊËÚ¸ ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌ˚ÏË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ÏË. ᇘÂÏ? lj¸ Û ÌÂ„Ó ÔÓ‰ ÛÍÓÈ ‡ÏËfl ·ÓΠÔÓÍ·‰ËÒÚ˚ı Ë ÌÂÔËÚflÁ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı ͇̉ˉ‡ÚÓ‚. éÌË ˆÂÎ˚ı ÑÇÄ ÏÂÒflˆ‡ ıÓ‰ËÎË Ì‡ ÍÛÒ˚, ÎËÒÚ‡ÎË ÔÓ ‚ÓÒÍÂ- ÒÂ̸flÏ Û˜Â·ÌËÍ ÅÓÌÍ Ë ÔÓ˜ÎË ÏÓ‰Ì˚È ‰ÂÚÂÍÚË‚ ‚ ÓË„Ë̇ÎÂ. à ‚ÓÚ ÛÊ ‡ÏËfl ÌÓ‚ÓËÒÔ˜ÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ ¯ÚÛÏÛÂÚ ‚Ò‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚ ·‡ÒÚËÓÌ˚ ËÌÓflÁ˚˜ÌÓÈ ÒÎÓ‚ÂÒÌÓÒÚË… ç‡ÒÚÛÔ‡˛Ú ÌÓ‚˚ ‚ÂÏÂ̇. ùÚÓ ‡Ì¸¯Â ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍË – ÒϯÌ˚Â, Ô‡‚Ó, β‰Ë – „Ó‰‡ÏË Û˜ËÎËÒ¸, ÍÓÔÂÎË Ì‡‰ ͇ʉ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ, „ÓÌflÎËÒ¸ Á‡ ‰ÍËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡flÏË, ÒÓ·Ë‡ÎË Ò‚Â‰ÂÌËfl Ó ÍÛθÚÛ ÒÚ‡Ì˚ ËÁÛ˜‡ÂÏÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇. ä‡Í‡fl Ê ˝ÚÓ Úfl„ÓÏÓÚË̇! äÓÏÛ Ó̇ ÌÛÊ̇? íÂÔÂ¸ ‚Ò ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÓ-‰Û„ÓÏÛ…». Å˚ÎÓ ·˚ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ ÛÚ‚Âʉ‡Ú¸, ˜ÚÓ ‚Ò Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍË – «‰ÂÏۘ˻ β‰Ë, Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛˘Ë ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ‚˚„Ó‰˚. ùÚÓ ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ ÌÂ Ú‡Í – ˛ˉ˘ÂÒÍË ÙËÏ˚, ÍÓÏÔ‡ÌËË, ÔÓ-ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌÓÏÛ ‡·ÓÚ‡˛˘ËÂ Ò ‚̯ÌËÏ ˚ÌÍÓÏ, ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ ÍÎËÂÌÚ˚, ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÍÓ̈ӂ, ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ‚Á‚¯ÂÌÌÓ Ë ÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰flÚ Í Û‰Ó‚ÎÂÚ‚ÓÂÌ˲ Ò‚ÓËı ÌÛʉ ‚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍËı ÛÒÎÛ„‡ı.

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • ç. ÑÛÔÎÂÌÒÍËÈ

ÇÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÚÂÏ, Ò‡ÏÓÏÛ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍÓÏÛ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÒÚ‚Û ÌÂθÁfl «Ê‰‡Ú¸ ÏËÎÓÒÚÂÈ ÓÚ ÔËÓ‰˚», ‡ ÒΉÛÂÚ ˆÂÎÂÛÒÚÂÏÎÂÌÌÓ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ ‰Îfl ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËfl ÒÓÁ‰‡‚¯ÂÈÒfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Í ÎÛ˜¯ÂÏÛ, ̇ıÓ‰fl ‰Îfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó Ú‡ÍË ËÌÒÚÛÏÂÌÚ˚, ÍÓÚÓ˚ Ó͇Á˚‚‡ÎËÒ¸ ·˚ ˝ÙÙÂÍÚË‚Ì˚ÏË ‚ ‡θÌ˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëflı ̇¯Â„Ó ‡Á‚Ë‚‡˛˘Â„ÓÒfl ˚Ì͇. é‰ÌËÏ ËÁ Ú‡ÍËı ËÌÒÚÛÏÂÌÚÓ‚ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl Òڇ̉‡ÚËÁ‡ˆËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚË, ÔÓÌËχÂχfl ‚ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ¯ËÓÍÓÏ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÂ. Ç fl‰Â ‚ÓÔÂÈÒÍËı ÒÚ‡Ì‡ı ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ- ‚Û˛Ú Ì‡ˆËÓ̇θÌ˚ Òڇ̉‡Ú˚ ̇ ‚˚ÔÓÎ- ÌÂÌË ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ (‚ ˜‡ÒÚÌÓÒ- ÚË, ‚ Ä‚ÒÚËË, ÉÂχÌËË Ë àÚ‡ÎËË). Ç Ì‡¯ÂÈ ÒÚ‡Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ì‡·Ó ÉéëíÓ‚, ÌÓÒfl˘Ëı ̇Á‚‡ÌË «ëڇ̉‡Ú˚ ëàÅàÑ» 2 («ëËÒÚÂχ Òڇ̉‡ÚÓ‚ ÔÓ ËÌÙÓχˆËË, ·Ë·ÎËÓÚ˜ÌÓÏÛ Ë ËÁ‰‡ÚÂθÒÍÓÏÛ ‰ÂÎÛ», ‚ ÚÓÏ ˜ËÒΠÉéëí 7.36-88 «çÂÓÔÛ·ÎËÍÓ- ‚‡ÌÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ: ÍÓÓ‰Ë̇ˆËfl, Ó·˘Ë Ú·ӂ‡ÌËfl Ë Ô‡‚Ë· ÓÙÓÏÎÂÌËfl»), ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÏÓÊÌÓ Ì‡ÈÚË ÌÂχÎÓ ÔÓÎÂÁÌÓ„Ó ‰Îfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚. Ç ‡Á΢Ì˚ı Ó„‡ÌË- Á‡ˆËflı — ÇÒÂÒÓ˛ÁÌÓÏ ˆÂÌÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ (Çñè), íÓ„Ó‚Ó-ÔÓÏ˚¯ÎÂÌÌÓÈ Ô‡Î‡Ú (íèè êî) Ë ‰., — Á‡ÌËχ‚¯ËıÒfl Ó„‡- ÌËÁ‡ˆËÂÈ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚË, ËÏÂÎËÒ¸ ËÎË ËϲÚÒfl ‚ÌÛ- ÚÂÌÌË ÏÂÚӉ˘ÂÒÍË ÂÍÓÏẨ‡ˆËË ‰Îfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ Ë ‰‡ÍÚÓÓ‚. éÍÓÎÓ „Ó‰‡ ̇Á‡‰ ̇ Ó‰ÌÓÏ ËÁ Á‡Ò‰‡- ÌËÈ ÒÂ͈ËË ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ÓÙˈˇθÌÓÈ Ë ‰Â- ÎÓ‚ÓÈ ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ‡ˆËË ëÓ˛Á‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë- ÍÓ‚ êÓÒÒËË ÒÓÒÚÓflÎÓÒ¸ Ó·ÒÛʉÂÌË ÌÂψÍÓ„Ó Òڇ̉‡Ú‡ DIN 2345 ̇ ÔËÒ¸- ÏÂÌÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ, ‚ ÂÁÛθڇÚ ˜Â„Ó ‚ÓÁ- ÌËÍÎÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÒÓÁ‰‡Ú¸ Ò‚ÓÈ ‰ÓÍÛ- ÏÂÌÚ ·ÓΠ¯ËÓÍÓ„Ó ÒÓ‰ÂʇÌËfl, ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÒÔÓÒÓ·ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Î ·˚, Ò Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚, „ÛÎËÓ‚‡Ì˲ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÈ, ‚ÓÁÌË͇˛˘Ëı ÏÂÊ‰Û Û˜‡ÒÚÌË͇ÏË ˚Ì͇ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍËı ÛÒÎÛ„, ‡ Ò ‰Û„ÓÈ – ÙÓ- ÏËÓ‚‡ÌËÂ Û Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍÓ‚ ÔÓÚ·ÌÓÒÚË ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ë, Í‡Í ÒΉÒÚ‚ËÂ, ÔÓÌËχÌË ËÏË ÚÓ„Ó, ˜ÚÓ Á‡ Ú‡ÍÓÈ Ì‡‰Ó

2 ëÏ. ÔÓ ‡‰ÂÒÛ http://www.feb-web.ru/norms/.

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Заказчик–переводчик

‚˚Ô·˜Ë‚‡Ú¸ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Â ‚ÓÁ̇„- ‡Ê‰ÂÌËÂ. 燘‡Î‡Ò¸ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒ͇fl ‡·ÓÚ‡ ̇‰ ˝ÚËÏ ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚÓÏ, ÍÓÚÓ‡fl ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl- ˘Â ‚ÂÏfl ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ Í ÍÓ̈Û. ê‡Á‡·‡Ú˚‚‡ÂÏ˚ ëèê «çÓÏ˚ Ë Ô‡‚Ë·» (çËè) ÓÒÌÓ‚˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ̇ Ó·Ó·- ˘ÂÌËË ÓÔ˚Ú‡ ÓÒÒËÈÒÍËı ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı Ë ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ó- ‚‡‚¯Ëı ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ ÉéëíÓ‚, ÏÂÚӉ˘ÂÒ- ÍËı ÔÓÒÓ·ËÈ Ë ÂÍÓÏẨ‡ˆËÈ íèè Ë Çñè, ËÌÒÚÛ͈ËÈ ÓÒÒËÈÒÍËı ÔÂ‚Ӊ- ˜ÂÒÍËı ÙËÏ ÔÓ Ó·ÂÒÔ˜ÂÌ˲ ÍÓÌÚÓÎfl ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚‡, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ‡Ì‡Îӄ˘Ì˚ı ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌ- ÚÓ‚, ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÏ˚ı ‚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ Ô‡Í- ÚËÍ ‰Û„Ëı ÒÚ‡Ì. éÌË Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌ˚ ̇ Ó·ÂÒÔ˜ÂÌË ‚˚ÒÓÍÓ„Ó Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌ- Ì˚ı ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl ÛÌËÙË͇ˆËË Ë ·óθ¯ÂÈ ÙÓχÎËÁ‡ˆËË ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÈ, ‚ÓÁ- ÌË͇˛˘Ëı ÏÂÊ‰Û Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍÓÏ Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ- ˜ËÍÓÏ Ì‡ ˝Ú‡Ô‡ı Á‡Íβ˜ÂÌËfl Ë ËÒÔÓÎÌÂ- ÌËfl ‰Ó„Ó‚ÓÓ‚ ̇ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌË ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ (Ñèè), Ë ‰ÓÔÓÎ- Ìfl˛Ú ÍÓÏÏÂ˜ÂÒÍË ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl Ú‡ÍËı ‰Ó„Ó- ‚ÓÓ‚. чÎÂÂ, ‚ çËè Ô‰·„‡˛ÚÒfl ‚‡Ë- ‡ÌÚ˚ ¯ÂÌËfl ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚, Ò ÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË ÒÚ‡ÎÍË‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ ‚ ıӉ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ̇‰ ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ Ë ÔÓ‰„ÓÚÓ‚ÍË Í Ò‰‡˜Â Â„Ó Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍÛ. í‡Í‡fl ÙÓχÎËÁ‡ˆËfl ÔËÁ‚‡Ì‡ Á‡˘Ë- ÚËÚ¸ Ë Ó·ÂÒÔ˜ËÚ¸ ËÌÚÂÂÒ˚ Ó·ÂËı ÒÚÓÓÌ, Á‡Íβ˜‡˛˘ËÂÒfl, ‚ ÛÔÓ˘ÂÌÌÓÏ ‚ˉÂ, ‚ ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍ (ÂÒÎË ˝ÚÓ – «ÌÓχθÌ˚È» Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍ) Ê·ÂÚ ÔÓ ËÒÚÂ- ˜ÂÌËË ‰Ó„Ó‚ÓÌÓ„Ó ÒÓ͇ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ ͇˜Â- ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ, ‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ – ËÏÂÚ¸ ÌÓχθÌ˚ ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl ‰Îfl ‡·ÓÚ˚, ‡ ÔÓ Á‡- ‚Â¯ÂÌËË Â – ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ Ó„Ó‚ÓÂÌÌÓ ‚ÓÁ̇„‡Ê‰ÂÌË ‚ ÔÓÎÌÓÏ Ó·˙ÂÏÂ Ë ‚ ÒÓÍ. í‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ, Ë Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍ, Ë ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰˜ËÍ Á‡ËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡Ì˚ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰‡, ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚ ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ ëèê ‰Â·ÂÚÒfl ÔÓÔ˚Ú͇ Ó·Ó·˘ËÚ¸ Ë ÒÙÓÏÛÎËÓ‚‡Ú¸ Ô‡‚Ë· Ë ÔÓ‚ÂflÂÏ˚ Ú·ӂ‡ÌËfl ‚ ÓÚ- ÌÓ¯ÂÌËË Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËË ‡·ÓÚ Ë Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚‡, ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflfl ÍÓÚÓ˚Â, ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ò ‚˚- ÒÓÍÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂ̸˛ Û‚ÂÂÌÌÓÒÚË ÔËÈÚË Í Ê·ÂÏ˚Ï ÂÁÛθڇڇÏ. ä‡Í Ò͇Á‡ÌÓ ‚˚¯Â, çËè ÔËÁ‚‡Ì˚ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌflÚ¸ ÍÓÏÏÂ˜ÂÒÍË ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl ‰Ó„Ó-

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • ç. ÑÛÔÎÂÌÒÍËÈ

Заказчик–переводчик

‚ÓÓ‚ ̇ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌË ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰Ó‚, Ì ÔÓ‰ÏÂÌflfl Ëı. çËè ÛÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡˛Ú Ú·ӂ‡ÌËfl Í ÒÎÂ- ‰Û˛˘ËÏ ÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚ‡Ï ÔÓˆÂÒÒ‡ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌ- ÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡:

– ËÒıÓ‰ÌÓÏÛ ÚÂÍÒÚÛ;

– ÍËÚÂËflÏ ‚˚·Ó‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇;

– ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲ ÒÚÓÓÌ Ñèè;

– Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËË ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡;

– ÔÂ‚ӉÌÓÏÛ ÚÂÍÒÚÛ;

– ÔÓ‚ÂÍ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ.

ç Ô‰ÔÓ·„‡ÂÚÒfl ÔËÏÂÌÂÌË çËè ‚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËË ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ ÚÂÍÒÚÓ‚ ÎËÚÂ- ‡ÚÛÌ˚ı ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËÈ. ÇÒ Ô‡‚ÓÓÚÌÓ- ¯ÂÌËfl ÔÓ ÔÂÂ‚Ó‰Û ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËÈ, Ô‰- ̇Á̇˜ÂÌÌ˚ı ‰Îfl ÔÛ·ÎË͇ˆËË, fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓÏ ‡‚ÚÓÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‡‚‡ Ë „ÛÎËÛ-

˛ÚÒfl á‡ÍÓÌÓÏ êÓÒÒËÈÒÍÓÈ î‰Â‡ˆËË «é· ‡‚ÚÓÒÍÓÏ Ô‡‚Â Ë ÒÏÂÊÌ˚ı Ô‡‚‡ı»

‹ 5351-1 ÓÚ 9 ˲Îfl 1993 „Ó‰‡ (‚ ‰‡Í-

ˆËË î‰Â‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó Á‡ÍÓ̇ ÓÚ 19.07.95

‹ 110-îá).

ë Û˜ÂÚÓÏ ‚˚¯ÂÛÔÓÏflÌÛÚÓ„Ó ËÁ˙flÚËfl, çËè ÂÍÓÏÂÌ‰Û˛ÚÒfl Í ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ì˲ ̇ ÚÂËÚÓËË êî ‚ÒÂÏË ÒÚÓÓ̇ÏË ‰Ó- „Ó‚ÓÓ‚ ÔË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËË ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ: Á‡Í‡Á˜Ë͇ÏË, ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍËÏË ÙËχÏË Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇ÏË. ä‡Í Ô‡‚ËÎÓ, Ú‡ÍË ‰Ó„Ó‚Ó˚ fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÎË·Ó ÚÛ‰Ó- ‚˚ÏË ‰Ó„Ó‚Ó‡ÏË (Á‡Íβ˜‡ÂÏ˚ÏË Ì‡ ÌÂÓ„‡Ì˘ÂÌÌ˚È ÒÓÍ ËÎË, ˜‡˘Â ‚Ò„Ó, ̇ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ„Ó Ó·˙Âχ ‡·ÓÚ), ÎË·Ó ‰Ó„Ó‚Ó‡ÏË ÔÓ‰fl‰‡, Ë „Û- ÎËÛ˛ÚÒfl, ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ, ÎË·Ó ÚÛ‰Ó- ‚˚Ï, ÎË·Ó „‡Ê‰‡ÌÒÍÓ-Ô‡‚Ó‚˚Ï Á‡ÍÓÌÓ- ‰‡ÚÂθÒÚ‚ÓÏ êî. á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍË/ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍË ÙËÏ˚ ÏÓ- „ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ çËè ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÓÒÌÓ‚˚ ‰Îfl ‡Á‡·ÓÚÍË Ú·ӂ‡ÌËÈ Í ÍÓÌÚÓβ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚‡, ÒÔˆËÙ˘ÂÒÍËı ‰Îfl Ò‚ÓËı Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËÈ. Ç Ë˛Ì 2003 „. ̇ ‡·Ó˜ÂÈ „ÛÔÔ è‡‚ÎÂÌËfl ëèê ÒÓÒÚÓflÎÓÒ¸ Ó·ÒÛʉÂÌË ‚ÚÓÓÈ ‰‡ÍˆËË ÔÓÂÍÚ‡ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ‰ÓÍÛ- ÏÂÌÚ‡, ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ ÔËÌflÎË Û˜‡ÒÚË ˜ÎÂÌ˚ è‡‚ÎÂÌËfl ëèê, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÛÍÓ‚Ó‰ËÚÂÎË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍËı ÙËÏ – ÍÓÎÎÂÍÚË‚Ì˚ı ˜ÎÂÌÓ‚ ëÓ˛Á‡. Ç ıӉ ÓÊË‚ÎÂÌÌÓÈ ‰ËÒÍÛÒÒËË ·˚ÎÓ ‚˚Ò͇Á‡ÌÓ

ÌÂχÎÓ ÍËÚ˘ÂÒÍËı Á‡Ï˜‡ÌËÈ Ë ÔÓÎÂÁ- Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. ç ÔÓ ‚ÒÂÏ ÔÓÁˈËflÏ Û˜‡ÒÚÌËÍË Ô˯ÎË Í Â‰ËÌÓÏÛ ÏÌÂÌ˲; ‚ ˜‡ÒÚÌÓÒÚË, Ì Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓÈ Ì‡ ÚÓÚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ÓÒÚ‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ó·ÒÛʉÂÌË ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ÒÍ·‰˚‚‡˛˘ËıÒfl ÏÂÊ‰Û Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍÓÏ Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓÏ Ô‡‚Ó‚˚ı ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÈ, ÍÓÚÓ˚Â, Í‡Í ÔÓ‰Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ Ô‡ÍÚË͇, Ì ËÒ˜ÂÔ˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ͇ÍËÏ-ÚÓ Ó‰ÌËÏ ÚËÔÓÏ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÈ. ë Û˜ÂÚÓÏ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ‚ ̇Á‚‡ÌË ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ‡ ·˚ÎÓ ‚ÌÂÒÂÌÓ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËÂ, Ë ÚÂÔÂ¸ ÓÌ Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl «á‡Íβ˜ÂÌËÂ Ë ËÒÔÓÎÌÂÌË ‰Ó„Ó‚ÓÓ‚ ̇ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌË ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ. çÓÏ˚ Ë Ô‡‚Ë·». 24 ‰Â͇·fl 2003 „. è‡‚ÎÂÌË ëèê ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÎÓ ÔÂÂ‡·ÓÚ‡ÌÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÔÓ- ÂÍÚ‡ çËè Ë ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÎÓ Ì‡Ô‡‚ËÚ¸ Â„Ó Ì‡ ˆÂÌÁ˲ ‚ „ËÓ̇θÌ˚ ÓÚ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ëèê, ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍË ÙËÏ˚, Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡- ˆËË Ë Ë̉˂ˉۇθÌ˚Ï ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ‡Ï ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó, ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÌË ÏÓ„ÎË ‚ÌÂÒÚË Ò‚ÓÈ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ‚Í·‰ ‚ ‡Á‡·ÓÚÍÛ ˝ÚËı Ô‡‚ËÎ. ê‡Á‡·ÓÚ˜ËÍË çËè ·Û‰ÛÚ ÔËÁ̇ÚÂθ- Ì˚ ÍÓÎ΄‡Ï-ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ‡Ï Ë ËÌ˚Ï ÒÔˆˇÎËÒÚ‡Ï Á‡ „ÓÚÓ‚ÌÓÒÚ¸ ÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl Ò ÔÓÂÍÚÓÏ Ó·ÒÛʉ‡ÂÏÓ„Ó ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ‡ Ë ‚˚Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ Ò‚ÓË ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌ˚ Á‡ÏÂ- ˜‡ÌËfl. 3 èÓÒΠÔËÌflÚËfl ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ‡ ‚ ÓÍÓ̘‡- ÚÂθÌÓÈ ‰‡ÍˆËË Ë ÛÚ‚ÂʉÂÌËË Â„Ó Ì‡ è‡‚ÎÂÌËË ëèê ÓÌ ·Û‰ÂÚ ¯ËÓÍÓ ‡Ò- ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌ, ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚Ò ۘ‡ÒÚÌËÍË ˚Ì͇ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍËı ÛÒÎÛ„ ‚ åÓÒÍ‚Â Ë ‚ ‰Û„Ëı „ÓÓ‰‡ı (‡, ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸, Ë ‚ ÒÚ‡Ì‡ı ·ÎËÊÌÂ„Ó Á‡Û·Âʸfl), ÏÓ„ÎË ÔËÏÂÌflÚ¸ Â„Ó ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÈ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚË. êÂÁÛθڇÚ˚ ˝ÚÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ÏÓÊÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ Ò˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ Û‰‡˜Ì˚ÏË, ÂÒÎË Ì‡Ï Û‰‡ÒÚÒfl Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ Ò‚Ó‰ Ú‡ÍËı ÂÍÓÏẨ‡ˆËÈ Ë Ô‡‚ËÎ, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ‚ ÒËÎÛ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ˆÂÎÂÒÓ- Ó·‡ÁÌÓÒÚË Ì‡È‰ÛÚ ¯ËÓÍÓ ÔËÏÂÌÂÌË ÒÂ‰Ë ‚ÒÂı Û˜‡ÒÚÌËÍÓ‚ ÒÚÓÓÌ, Ë ÔÓ ÏÂ ÓÒÚ‡ χүڇ·Ó‚ Ëı ÔËÏÂÌÂÌËfl ÒÚ‡ÌÛÚ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË Ë ÔË‚˚˜Ì˚ÏË.

46

3 ĉÂÒ ˝Î. ÔÓ˜Ú˚ ëèê – spr@translators- –

‡‰ÂÒ

˝Î.

ÔÓ˜Ú˚

‡‚ÚÓ‡

ÒÚ‡Ú¸Ë

union.ru,

ndoupl@ostrov.net.

МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков

Заказчик–переводчик

Заказчик–переводчик QUALITY VERSUS TIME О качестве

QUALITY VERSUS TIME

О качестве технического письменного перевода

Å. äÎËÏÁÓ

Ç Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚ‡, ÒÎÓ‚ÓÒÓ- ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË quality versus time ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÂ‚ÂÒ- ÚË Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ë Í‡Í «ËÁÏÂÌÂÌË ͇- ˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ Ò Ú˜ÂÌËÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË», Ë Í‡Í «Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚ¸ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ ÓÚ Á‡Ú‡˜ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË», Ë Í‡Í «‡ÌÚËÚÂÁ‡ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Ó- ÒÓÍ» – ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘Â ‚ÂÏfl ‚Ò ÚË ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ‚ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚ ÔÓ- ·ÎÂÏ˚ Ó·ÂÒÔ˜ÂÌËfl ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ ÚÂıÌ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ·Û‰ÛÚ ‡ÍÚۇθÌ˚ÏË. ÑÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ, Ò Ì‡˜‡ÎÓÏ ÔÂÂÒÚÓ˜ÌÓ- „Ó ÔÂËÓ‰‡ ‚ ̇¯ÂÈ ÒÚ‡Ì ‚ÌËχÌËÂ Í Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚Û ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ÓÒ··ÂÎÓ; Ә‚ˉÌÓ Ë ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ ÒÚ‡‚¯‡fl ÔË‚˚˜ÌÓÈ ˝ÍÓÌÓÏËfl ‚ÂÏÂÌË, Á‡Ú‡˜Ë‚‡ÂÏÓ„Ó Ì‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ, ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÓÒΉ̄Ó; ̇ÍÓ̈, Ì ÏÂÌ Ә‚ˉÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÒÓÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËË ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ͇ÏË, ÓÚ‚Ó- ‰ËÏ˚ÏË Ì‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ, Ë Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚ÓÏ Ì˚̯- ÌËı ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ fl‚ÌÓ Ì‡Û¯ËÎÓÒ¸ ‡‚ÌÓ‚Â- ÒËÂ. Ç ÚÓ Ê ‚ÂÏfl ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ Á‡‚ËÒËÚ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ÓÚ ÒÓ͇ – ÓÌÓ Á‡‚ËÒËÚ Ë ÓÚ ÏÌÓ„Ó„Ó ‰Û„Ó„Ó. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ, Ò Ô‡ÍÚË- ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ ÚÓ˜ÍË ÁÂÌËfl, ËÌÚÂÂÒÌÓ ÔÓÒÏÓÚ- ÂÚ¸, ‚Ó-ÔÂ‚˚ı, ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÎË ‚ÓÁÏÓÊ- ÌÓÒÚË Û‰ÎËÌÂÌËfl ÒÓÍÓ‚ ̇ ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ë, ‚Ó-‚ÚÓ˚ı, ͇ÍË ËϲÚÒfl ˚˜‡„Ë ‚ÓÁ- ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ̇ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Ó ‚ ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëflı ÒʇÚ˚ı ÒÓÍÓ‚ ̇ ÔÂ‚Ӊ. è˘ËÌ˚ Ô‡‰ÂÌËfl ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚‡. Ç êÓÒÒËË ÔÂ‚ÓÈ Ô˘ËÌÓÈ Ì‡Û¯ÂÌËfl ‡‚ÌÓ‚ÂÒËfl ‚ ÒÓÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËË Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚Ó – ÒÓÍ fl‚ËÎÒfl ‡ÒÔ‡‰ ëëëê Ë, Í‡Í Ó‰ÌÓ ËÁ ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒ- ÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËÈ, Á‡Í‡Ú «ÒÂ·flÌÓ„Ó ‚Â͇» ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ. ÖÒÎË ‚ 70-80- „Ó‰˚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó ÒÚÓÎÂÚËfl ÂÊ„ӉÌÓ ÔÛ·ÎËÍÓ‚‡- ÎÓÒ¸ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó ÍÌË„ ÔÓ ÚÂÓËË Ë Ô‡Í-

ÚËÍ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ (Ë, ‚ ˜‡ÒÚÌÓÒÚË, Ó˜Â̸ ÔÓÎÂÁÌ˚ ÚÛ‰˚ Ú‡ÍËı ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ı ÔÂ‚Ó- ‰Ó‚‰ӂ, Í‡Í Ä.Ç. î‰ÓÓ‚ 1 , ü.à. êˆ- ÍÂ 2 , ã.ë. ŇıÛ‰‡Ó‚ 3 , Ä.Ñ. ò‚ÂȈÂ 4 , Ä.ã. èÛÏÔflÌÒÍËÈ 5 ), ËÁ‰‡‚‡ÎËÒ¸ ÊÛ̇Π«íÂÚ‡‰Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜Ë͇» Ë Ò·ÓÌËÍË ËÁ ÒÂËË «å‡ÒÚÂÒÚ‚Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡», ‚ ÒÚÓÎË- ˆ‡ı Ë ÍÛÔÌ˚ı „ÓÓ‰‡ı ÂÒÔÛ·ÎËÍ ÔÓ‚Ó- ‰ËÎËÒ¸ ÍÓÌÙÂÂ̈ËË Ë ÒÂÏË̇˚ ÔÓ Ò‡- Ï˚Ï ‡ÁÌ˚Ï ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ‡Ï ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡, ÔÎÓ‰ÓÚ‚ÓÌÓ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÎË ËÁ‰‡ÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ «åË» Ë «èÓ„ÂÒÒ», ÚÓ Ò ÍÓ̈‡ 80-ı ‚Òfl ˝Ú‡ ÔÓÒ‚ÂÚËÚÂθÒ͇fl ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ÔÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û ÔÂÍ‡ÚË·Ҹ. Ç ÒÙÂ Á‡ÌflÚÓ- ÒÚË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎË Ì ÏÂÌ ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌ˚ ÔÂÂÏÂÌ˚. åÌÓ„Ë ̇ۘÌÓ-ËÒ- ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÒÍË ËÌÒÚËÚÛÚ˚ Ë ÔÓÏ˚¯- ÎÂÌÌ˚ Ô‰ÔËflÚËfl ÂÁÍÓ ÒÌËÁËÎË Ò‚Ó˛ ‡ÍÚË‚ÌÓÒÚ¸, ‚ ÂÁÛθڇÚ ˜Â„Ó ·˚ÎË ÎËÍ- ‚ˉËÓ‚‡Ì˚ ËÎË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÒÓÍ‡˘Â- Ì˚ ‡Á΢Ì˚ ÓÚ‰ÂÎ˚ ̇ۘÌÓ-ÚÂıÌ˘ÂÒ- ÍÓÈ ËÌÙÓχˆËË (éçíà, Åíà) Ë Ô‡ÚÂÌÚÌÓ-ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍË ·˛Ó. ÇÒ ˝ÚÓ ÔË‚ÂÎÓ Í Ó·˘ÂÏÛ ÒÌËÊÂÌ˲ ÛÓ‚Ìfl ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇ÎËÁχ ÚÂıÌ˘ÂÒÍËı ÔÂ‚Ӊ- ˜ËÍÓ‚ Ë, ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ, Í Ô‡‰ÂÌ˲ ͇˜Â- ÒÚ‚‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊӂ.

1 Ä.Ç. î‰ÓÓ‚. éÒÌÓ‚˚ Ó·˘ÂÈ ÚÂÓËË ÔÂ‚Ó- ‰‡. àÁ‰. «Ç˚Ò¯‡fl òÍÓ·», å., 1968.

2 ü.à. êˆÍÂ. íÂÓËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒ- ͇fl Ô‡ÍÚË͇. àÁ‰. «åÂʉÛ̇Ó‰Ì˚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl», å., 1974. 3 ã.ë. ŇıÛ‰‡Ó‚. üÁ˚Í Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ. àÁ‰. «åÂʉÛ̇Ó‰Ì˚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl», å., 1975

4 Ä.Ñ. ò‚ÂȈÂ. èÂ‚Ӊ Ë ÎËÌ„‚ËÒÚË͇. «ÇÓ- ÂÌËÁ‰‡Ú», å., 1973.

5 Ä.ã. èÛÏÔflÌÒÍËÈ. óÚÂÌËÂ Ë ÔÂ‚Ӊ ‡Ì„ÎËÈ- ÒÍÓÈ Ì‡Û˜ÌÓ-ÚÂıÌ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛ˚. àÁ‰. Äç ëëëê, å., 1961.

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МОСТЫ журнал переводчиков • Å. äÎËÏÁÓ

Заказчик–переводчик

Ç ÚÓ Ê ‚ÂÏfl ÔÓÚ·ÌÓÒÚ¸ ‚ ÚÂıÌ˘Â- ÒÍËı ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ı ‚ÓÁÓÒ·, ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ÔÓ- fl‚Ë·Ҹ χÒÒ‡ ÒÓ‚ÏÂÒÚÌ˚ı ÓÒÒËÈÒÍÓ- ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ı ÔÓÂÍÚÓ‚. Ç ÂÁÛθڇÚ ÔË Ó·˘ÂÏ ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌËË ‡ÏËË ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ- ̇θÌ˚ı ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚, ‡·ÓÚ‡˛˘Ëı ‚ „Ó- ÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı Û˜ÂʉÂÌËflı, ÔÓfl‚ËÎËÒ¸ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍË, ÛÒÚÓË‚¯ËÂÒfl ‚ ËÌÓÒÚ‡Ì- Ì˚ ÙËÏ˚, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ̇ÔflÏÛ˛ ‡·ÓÚ‡˛- ˘ËÂ Ò Á‡Û·ÂÊÌ˚ÏË ÙËχÏË «Ò‚Ó·Ó‰- Ì˚ ıÛ‰ÓÊÌËÍË», ËÎË ÙË·ÌÒÂ˚ (free lancers). é· ˝ÚÓÈ Í‡Ú„ÓËË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ Ë ÔÓȉÂÚ ÔÂʉ ‚ÒÂ„Ó ˜¸. ÖÒÎË ‚ ‰ÓÔÂÂÒÚÓ˜Ì˚È ÔÂËÓ‰ ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰˜ËÍË ÒÚÂÏËÎËÒ¸ ÔÓ‚˚ÒËÚ¸ Ò‚ÓÈ ÔÓ- ÙÂÒÒËÓ̇ÎËÁÏ, ‚ˉfl ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Â‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÛ˛ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ͇¸ÂÌÓ„Ó ÓÒÚ‡ ÎË·Ó ÔË- ‡·ÓÚ͇, ÚÓ Ò ‡Á‚ËÚËÂÏ ˚ÌÓ˜Ì˚ı ÓÚÌÓ- ¯ÂÌËÈ ÌÓ‚Ó ÔÓÍÓÎÂÌË ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍÓ‚ Á‡ıÓÚÂÎÓ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ «‚ÒÂ Ë Ò‡ÁÛ». ÇÒ Ëı ÛÒËÎËfl ̇Ô‡‚ÎÂÌ˚ „·‚Ì˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ Ì‡ ÔÓËÒÍË Ë Û‰ÂʇÌË ‚˚„Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ‡·ÓÚÓ‰‡- ÚÂÎfl. ëÂȘ‡Ò ÛÊ Ì ͇ÊÂÚÒfl ۉ˂ËÚÂθ- Ì˚Ï, ÍÓ„‰‡, ̇ÔËÏÂ, ÏÓÎÓ‰‡fl ‚˚ÔÛÒÍ- Ìˈ‡ ÔÂËÙÂËÈÌÓ„Ó Ô‰‡„ӄ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ËÌÒÚËÚÛÚ‡ ÔËÂÁʇÂÚ ‚ ÒÚÓÎËˆÛ ‚ ÔÓËÒ͇ı β·ÓÈ, ÌÓ ‚˚ÒÓÍÓÓÔ·˜Ë‚‡ÂÏÓÈ «Ò‚flÁ‡Ì- ÌÓÈ Ò flÁ˚ÍÓÏ» ‡·ÓÚ˚, ËÎË ‡ÒÒ˚·ÂÚ ÔÓ ‚ÒÂÏÛ ÏËÛ ÂÁ˛ÏÂ Ò Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ ÔÂ- ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍËı ÛÒÎÛ„. 燘Ë̇˛˘Ë ÙË·Ì- ÒÂ˚ „ÓÚÓ‚˚ ‚ÁflÚ¸Òfl Á‡ β·Û˛ ÚÂχÚËÍÛ Ë Òӄ·¯‡˛ÚÒfl Ò Î˛·˚ÏË ÒÓ͇ÏË, ÍÓÚÓ- ˚ ÓÚ ÌËı Ú·ÛÂÚ Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍ, Ô˘ÂÏ ıÓӯ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ Î˯¸ ÔÓ‰‡- ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl ËÎË (‚ ÎÛ˜¯ÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â) ÛÔÓÏË- ̇ÂÚÒfl Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍÓÏ. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ ÌË Á‡Í‡Á˜ËÍ (Í‡Í Ô‡‚ËÎÓ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÒ‰Ì˘ÂÒ͇fl ÔÂÂ- ‚Ó‰˜ÂÒ͇fl ÍÓÏÔ‡ÌËfl), ÌË Ò‡Ï ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ËÍ Ì ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË ÓÔ‰ÂÎËÚ¸, ˜ÚÓ Ú‡ÍÓ ıÓӯ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Ó, ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ÌË ÚÓÚ, ÌË ‰Û„ÓÈ Ì ӷ·‰‡˛Ú ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏ˚ÏË ‰Îfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌ˚Ï ÓÔ˚ÚÓÏ Ë ÚÂÓ- ÂÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏË Á̇ÌËflÏË. lj¸ ÂÒÎË Ì‡˜Ë- ̇˛˘ËÈ ÍÓÏÏÂÒ‡ÌÚ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚ÒÚÓ ‰Ó·˚Ú¸ ̇˜‡Î¸Ì˚È Í‡ÔËڇΠ(Ì ·Û‰ÂÏ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ó· ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÏ˚ı ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Ò‰ÒÚ‚‡ı), ÚÓ ÔÂ‚Ӊ˜ÂÒÍËÈ Ì‡˜‡Î¸Ì˚È Í‡ÔËڇΠӷÂÒÚË ‚ Ó‰ÌÓ˜‡Ò¸Â Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ÌË͇ÍËÏË Ò‰ÒÚ‚‡ÏË. óÚÓ Ê ڇÍÓ ıÓӯ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ Ë Í‡ÍÓ‚