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ISBN 978-5-93439-260-5
8 l 17 .09.08


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Russia Today.
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" story begins when father - who was Russian nationality, and mother Ukrainian
- volunteered to fight with Budenny's 1st army cavalry against the White Guards during the Civil
War. Just when back to his home village, Lenin signed the Brest -Litovsk treaty and
father found himself in Poland because Poland was taken away [ro the Russian Empire at that time.
If remained in Poland, he would die of hunger or disease - everything was in ruins. So
father left Poland for Canada. After World War Two got Soviet citizenship [ro the Soviet
embassy in Washington and told us: " boys, do want to back to homeland and
rebuild the war-ravaged Soviet Union?" We were very close-knit [, unlike the Anglo- Saxons,
so brother Carl and 1 could not visualize that we would part with our parents. And we to the
Soviet Union in 1952. It was still under Stalin's regime."
- , ?
"11's collision course where vector comes into contact with another vector and head
in another direction. vector is parents leaving Canada with brother and myself. Little
did we know that our command of the English language as mother tongue would in handy
in the future. During the first years in the Soviet Union, 1 started translating for myself, for own
satisfaction - to see whether 1 cou1d do that or not. There were dictionaries or anything like that.
1 tried to understand the Russian sentence, the Russian paragraph, the Russian page, and tried
to produce equivalent in English."

3
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:

meant"It injustEnglish. 1
1
from nowhere. was just reading in Russian and to myself translating what it
1
And said, ', why don't sit down and write it'. first book began 1
translating this way, was the istory of the Bolshevik Party. "
- ?
"Upon finishing the evening classes and receiving our 1 , b:t:other and 1
filed n application for entrance exams at the Moscow Foreign Languages Institute of Maurice
8 Thorez and the Leningrad Foreign Languages Institute. But since the institute in Moscow was
n to guarantee us dormitory, but Leningrad did, we borrowed some n and traveled to
Leningrad. we had n studying there for half year when the principal of the Institute called us
n;:: to her and said: ", two Canadian boys, would to change your pronunciation
z:
::zi because we teach ing's English here". Of course, we were against it. long and the short of it
was that right after the New Year, that was 1955 , brother and 1 were transferred to the Foreign

(:) Languages Institute here, Metrostroyevskaya Street, which is Ostozhenka now."

- ?
"We had very good teaching staff. There was Sasha Shweitzer, Ghelly and Mr.
Kaplan. . . , unlike those in Leningrad, welcomed brother and myself with our
pronunciation, which is quite akin to the American pronunciation.
When some of the teachers were n to deliver lecture, seminar or practical lesson, they'd
say, ' George, step in and conduct the class'. 1 did that with great pleasure. we had very strong
students, 1 n from the point ofview of linguistic capabilities. And 1 told them lots of things that
were not in the textbooks or not n in dictionaries. "
- ?
"1 very grateful to the teachers who taught us the theorY oftranslation, which is 1 think n
ofthe most invaluable subjects. n people often ask , " George, what language do think in
- Russian or English?" 1 say, neither. 1 think in images and pictures. translator's prime objective
is not to translate words. Of course, words are the bricks of n language. But try to convey
information as picture. Ifyou understand what the person is saying in Russian, it creates picture
in your mii1d and to do is to describe this picture in your mind into English. "
- - ?
"n of the students and good friend of mine was Lev Lyapin who still is top class
simultaneous interpreter. There was Vadim Melshtein, and Sergey Kuzmin, who is the author of
dictionaries of translating idioms and sayings from Russian into English. we worked very
closely. For five years kept pestering and n phoned in the middle of the night
asking: "How would translate this, George? How would translate that?" And in his
dictionary, in acknowledgements, mentions . "
- m ?
" In fact, not too long ago, while working here at Russia Today, 1 was doing simultaneous
interpretation of very high-ranking person. It was press conference, and someone asked :
"What do think about North Korea's latest missile tests?" made slip of the tongue, of
course, said, "WeH, there is nothing reaHy to worry about because the tests failed. In fact, the
range was not very long, it was about 1 ,200 meters." And at that moment, of course, 1 couldn't say
-';: ;' ,
rif!ii'1i
,

'1 ,200 meters' because there are such missi1es. Of course, had to say '1 ,200 kil0meters'. And :3
1 had about thousandth of a second to think of what to do. make [l of him saying '1 ,200
meters'? 1 had right to correct him so 1 decided to l the unit out and said '1,200'. And after
that repeated and put in the right unit - '1 ,200 kilometers ' . " ::z
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" instance ofsimultaneous interpretation, ifyou are not doing it yourself, is valuable. ';:::;
1 learn from techniques and manner of other interpreters. 1 had the good fortune to work with 8
famous interpreters l Palazhchenko and also with Viktor Sukhodrev, who was the personal ':
interpreter of hrushchev and Brezhnev at that time. 1 never met Brezhnev or hrushchev,
although 1 had interpreted them - not live air, but at some kind of conferences, here in Moscow.
1 that the style ofViktor Sukhodrev and l Palazhchenko is superb. "
'&
- , ?
" If the two of you are in the booth and see that the other person is having difficult ,
and ' got second, write down word that skipped his . Always help
teammate writing down figures, because those are the most difficult things to grasp because r"
they meaning.
And another thing. It's the prime objective of simultaneous interpreter to the author's
thoughts adequately, correctly. are not in the booth to show ot, to show how synonyms
know, to show that are smarter than the next guy. "

- ?
" responsibility here is hundreds if not thousands oftimes more because when are
going , interpreting some high-ranking person in the government or parliament, there is
virtuaHy chance for to look anything. If don't remember term precisely, use
synonym fast, to save time. are not allowed to make mistake because the whole world is
listening to . "
- ?

" One ofthe biggest jobs in life was the translation ofa medical book called " Functional and
Stereotactic Neurosurgery". Before that, 1 had translated several books diterent branches of
medicine - cardiology, diterent types of heart diseases and so . day 1 got , "Will do
another book? It's about neurosurgery. " 1 said, "No, thanks, 1 don't know anything about
neurosurgery." But finally the author, Prof. Edvard Kandel, who was the foremost neurosurgeon in
the Soviet Union at that time, talked into it. 1 studied Russian and English material
neurosurgery for half year before 1 translated one sentence. book was short , 220
pages, but little did 1 know that the author had made arrangement with the publishers in the
United States that would updating it. So it took four and half years to do it
typewriter. It to 2,200 pages. And when we took the manuscript to the copyright association
in huge bag, and they weighed it, it was 17 kilograms. And 1 the book now published. "
- , ,
?
"1 would say . should find equivalent to scale them down. There is use of dirtying
the Russian person's mind with dirty words. 1 would refrain from using them. "

5
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u - ?
::
:: "In opinion, the Russian language is more literary. I've read 10t in Russian, 1 had to.

..... Russian is more cultural language. Over the past thirty or forty years, the English language (the way
it's spoken in the United States and Canada) has undergone tremendous change with the curse
< words appearing in songs and Hollywood movies."

- ?
?
8 "1 answer that in word - reading, reading and reading. An profession is 10ng . Do
remember what old Confucius said, "Even the 10ngest journey begins with the first step." So the
:, first step is your book and study and read. 1 read books not only for enjoyment or to see how
:: the plot unfolds, 1 special attention to style - choice of words and especially syntax.
Z::
No translation is easy. have to very thorough, have to sure of yourself, must
...CI
1- check, double-check and triple-check before releasing your manuscript.
\.J
There is another thing 1 would highly suggest to aspiring simultaneous interpreters: usually,
: sit in front of the set, preferably alone, and are watching newscast and start
simultaneous interpretation out 10ud and see how far go before stumble. 1 do that every
day, practically."
- ?
" profession of at interpreter is of the most difficult in the world, but also of the
most rewarding. simultaneous interpreter carry discussion with interlocutor
practically subject - it philosophy, politics, banking, medicine, sports, or . is
range of knowledge is actually infinitesimal. 1 think he's well-educated person. learns
something every day, and there's limit to raising his level ofknowledge."
- - ?
" the last day of April, 1 was driving family around in car in the evening to show them
the city lights, to see Moscow getting ready to celebrate Day. traffic stops . I give
driving licence, looks at the place of birth and says, 'Canada? spy?' stupid
question, get stupid answer. 1 say, 'Yes, I' spy.' And gives back the saying,
'Drive away, drive away. '"
,
2008 .


- . . .

Lynn Visson (USA)

IfTatyana had writing to Onegin today 3) memorandum from employee


she would ro have headed for her to his personnel department explaining why
computer and typed out thorougbly prosaic this individual is requesting permission to take
mail, thus depriving the world of great literary his family with six-month
epistle. in our time, however, despite the to the US ;
widespread use of e-mails which frequently
4) letter to friend explaining that the
contain higbly condensed messages packed with writer is going to the US for week
abbreviations, and despite the continuing business, to followed another week's
in other kinds of electronic communications, it vacation to see friends.
is still vital to know how to compose literate
letter. Important e- correspondence needs 5) letter expressing sympathy and regrets
to written in acceptable and to friend who is very upset about having just
understandable form, for the recipient well 10st his job.
need to forward it or print it out. Unfortunately, The approximately twenty participants in
the art of letter-writing worldwide is the course, who ranged from undergraduates
increasingly being left to languish in the inkwells to teachers, produced higbly creative and
of history. And it is more difficult to ask impressive set of letters. the letters were
students to compose good "normal" letter in divided topic, the signatures were
foreign language when they have litt1e practice removed to ensure anonyrnity, and the results
in doing so in their native tongue. were analyzed in class. Obviously, it was not
This was the reasoning prompting the possible during the discussion - nor is it
holding of workshop master class in letter feasible here - to discuss of the
writing at Rvalent last April. Students were asked participants' errors their excellent and
to submit in advance (of course, e-m) five creative solutions. The goal of the analysis was
letters in Eng1ish, the following topics that to indicate the most frequent problems the
students, teachers, translators and others are writers encountered and the kinds of mistakes
likely to encounter: made. Some ofthese points seem relatively
1 ) application for job as obvious or elementary, but the frequency of
for large Russian firm; these errors prompt teachers of English or
translation to flag them to their students.
2) An application for job as English ( grammar mistakes in English such
language teacher at private school;

7
as misuse of the article or rs in verb tense, Modified block format:
and the minor distinctions between British and John Smith

American English in letter-writing formats wi11 123 Longworth Avenue
:;:: not discussed) . icksvi11e, 28656
:;::
Not of the students were fami1iar with February 5, 2008

the basic formats for English letter writing, in


Jane Brown (Dr. Jane Brown, Professor
00 particular with the differences from accepted

Russian style. Jane Brown)


Assistant Manager
. General format: The proper order for
Brock Fashions
formats is: 1 ) the sender's coordinates; 2) the
19 Fortune Street
i!:. date; 3) the addressee's coordinates. The
most common form for letter is known as icksvi11e, Ohio 28647
2s
t:; standard block format, in which parts of Dear Ms. Brown:
the text, including the sender's coordinates,
,the date, the addressee's coordinates, the
body of the text, and sign-off are a1igned at
the left margin. This is both the most widely
used and the easiest form, since there are
exceptions to the left margin rule.
Sincerely yours,
Standard block format:
John Smith John Smith
1 23 Longworth Avenue
icksvi11e, Ohio 28656 Semi-block is the third most commonly
used format. This is identical to modified block
February 5, 2008
aside from the five-space indent before each
Jane Brown (Dr. Jane Brown, Professor new paragraph.
Jane Brown)
Assistant Manager Semi-block format:
Brock Fashions John Smith
19 Fortune Street 1 23 Longworth Avenue
Hicksvi11e, Ohio 28647 icksvi11e, 28656
Dear Ms. Brown: February 5 , 2008

Jane Brown (Dr. Jane Brown, Professor


Jane Brown)
Assistant Manager
Brock Fashions
Sincerely yours, 19 Fortune Street
Hicksvi11e, 28647
John Smith
Dear Ms. Brown:
Another frequently used format, known as
modified block, a1so has the writer's and the
addressee's coordinates and the body of the text
aligned at the left margin, but places the date,
close and signature slightly to the right of
center. OthelWise the form is the same as for Sincerely yours,
standard block:
John Smith

8
'''J; .
/:;'.:.

. Forms of address: The sign-offshould at the left margin :3


No form of address is included in the slight1y off center, depending whether block

coordinates for either the sender the modified format is being used. Ifthe sign-off
addressee, i.e. "John Smith," "Jane Brown," contains than word, only thefirst word !2:

not ". John Smith" Miss Jane Brown." If, is capitalized. The close alway s ends with
however, the sender is medical doctor, "John . Business letters generally end with
Smith, M.D." is appropriate. The addressee is of the following:
"Dr. John Smith." If the sender is professor, Sincerely,
=
his title is not included in the coordinates, but Sincerely y ours, n! Sincerely Yours. 00

the addressee would "Professor Jane With bestjkind regards,


Brown." Yours truly,
Cordially,
Following "Dear," at the beginning of
letter, the forms ".," "Mrs. , " "Ms." and
"Dr." always abbreviated, and used only social letter the following forms
;:::
with the last , e.g. "Dear . Smith," acceptable:
"Dear Professor Smith," "Dear . and Mrs.
Smith," "Dear Dr. Johnson." The first Best,
cannot used with these forms; addressing the best,
someone as "Miss Mary" ". John" is
unacceptable. close friend:
While "Miss" is used for unmarried
women, and "Mrs." for married women, "Ms." As ,
is alway s good option when the marital status Fondly,
of the lady in question is unclear, e.g. "Dear Warmly,
Ms. Brown." Some English first names such as Affectionately,
Leslie Lindsay, however, belong to With l,
either woman, and ifthe writer is not Love,
sure whom he is addressing, it is best to make
use of the first and last , e.g. "Dear Leslie space for the signature should left
Jones." People tend to respond highly the writer's printed fuH , and it is
negatively when assigned the wrong gender! important that the signature legible.
friends those the writer knows well, the Russian letters scrawl decipherable only
first used, e.g. "Dear John." Both to the writer. Such illegible signature
the and the colon acceptable: leave the English-speaking reader with the
Dear John, impression that the writer is either not very
literate is careless in his letter writing.
Dear John:
The colon indicates slightly more formal The indication ": + of person"
relationship. The exclamation mark is never the bottom of the page (sometimes placed at
used. While ! sounds quite the top) indicates that of the letter is
normal in Russian, it has hy sterical ring for being sent to the person specified.
English speaker. The form of address is alway s
at the left margin, in the middle of the D. Problems in letter writing.
page.
Since the first two assignments involved job
applications, these two letters revealed
. The polite sign-off (also known as the
complimentary close) . similar problems. It rather tricky

9
to strike the proper balance between either producing high quality translations"
avoiding false modesty in "selling oneself' - would make the point.
the feeling that it is to toot one's own Another ro emerged with misuse of
s:: rn - and engaging in excessive "boasting"
the words "enough" or sufficient" to describe
about one's qualifications. skills. Several students stated that " skills are

ideal first paragraph should state where enough" or "are sufficient" for the position.
the applicant saw announcement for this job These rather damning statements could
opening, and then immediately and concisely reworded as " two yeaci experience in
explain why believes is qualified for this scientific translation beenjprovided good
;;:;' position. If the applicant is writing to firm preparationjtrainingj background for this
;:. that has not put out announcement, position" or " skillsj qualifications
::ZS should set out clearly his reasons for assuming
1-
enhancedjenriched two years of
'-' that the need the services of translating XjY," or "Two years of doing
someone with his qualifications. In the make confident that Ij qualified for this
ovelWhelming majority of the students' letters, positionjhave the skills to with and ."
however, nearly every sentence began with "1." In describing skills there was also problem
In English this repeated use of "1" at the with the use of "certain" to translate
beginning of sentences is considered bad form. "." number of students wrote
In Russian, however, the case endings and "1 certain experience (in interpreting,
impersonal expressions - " ," translating, etc.) rather than "1 had some
" " make it easier experience interpreting" or "1 done some
to avoid this issue. interpreting..."
Naturally, students referred to their Several students mistranslated
education and field of specialization. when talking about using knowledge or
students misused the English word "course," skills. "1 will to take good advantage of
which does not always serve to translate French" is very awkward. "1 will to
Russian "." sentence "I' in the make (good) use of (knowledge !)
interpretation course at the university" should Frenchjput knowledge of French to good
read "program" instead of "course," and the use" would more idiomatic.
"first course" at five-year Russian university
is the "first year" at four-year American . Instead of leaving the next step to the
employer, of the students tended to
In describing skills the students frequently somewhat categorical regarding follow-up to
tended towards hyperbole. "Excellent writing the application. Statements such as "1 will
skills" is fine, but "superb" is not. "Extensive to arrange for interview" or "1 will
interpreting experience" is fine, while "vast" is coming in next week to talk to about this"
not." "Ijam fluent injhave excellent German" in fact impose the applicant the prospective
is fine; "1 perfect knowledge of employer. formulations allowing the
German" is overstatement, as , employer to take the lead in arranging for
native speaker, "perfect" subsequent communication could include "1
knowledge of language, which is in constant will glad to answer questions
state of flux. Another ro was havejsupply additional information
awkward translation f , as in "1 need," "Ijlook fOlWard to hearing from
successfully working for General Motors youjhope we will to discuss these
as translator." "1 working questions in person."
productively" or "performingjdoing well" or "1

10
ifj-;' ;:;

Many students had difficulty referring the "Unfortunately, 1 obliged to let know :
addressee to the enclosed resume. "indly find that ... " )
,.,
enclosed" is clumsy; standard form is
6) Don't end sentences with prepositions. d
" resumejCV is attachedjenclosed." This occurred frequently in the letters, as in the
In concluding the letter number of sentence "This is the post 1 applying for" uv
students incorrectly substituted "thankful" for rather than the post for which 1 applying."
"grateful," as in "1 very thankful for your As Tatyana wrote, "
time." that is needed, however, is the ?" There is of course great deal more
standard cliche, "Thank for your kind to said about letter writing. This article

consideration." deals with very limited sample of letters, while


Students find it useful to remember dozens of books and manuals address this very
short series of "Don'ts" regarding specific important subject in detail. Some of the points
words and expressions that continually made here seem relatively insignificant,

in English letters. The following "Don'ts" are but in writing letters questions of format and
based the students' most errors. style - let l lexicon and grammar -
1) Don't begin sentence with "," as in make huge difference in how letter is
" this letter 1 applying for..." This very perceived and in the results it yields. Perhaps
common mistake results f an attempt to teachers of English and translation early
translate the instrumental case, e.g. " focus attention these issues to assist students
... " standard expression is "1 in getting their message across learning how
hereby applying for..." to write letters that will produce an appropriate
2) Don't begin sentence with "Besides," response.
e.g. "Besides, 1 worked as translator." The
sentence could read "In addition, 1 workedjl
also worked as..."
?
3) Don 't start sentences with "But," as in
"But, 1 would grateful if... " smoother ..
rendering could "1 will, however,
grateful..." ? .

4) Don't begin sentences with "So," as in , ,


"So 1 will awaiting reply;" the sentence ,
could read "1 look forward to hearing f , .
, ,
." sentence "So 1 would like to take her gateau , ,
and our son to Vienna with ,"
reworked as "1 would therefore like her and our . -
son to accompany to Vienna." "So, it is , , , "uh" (<<
lot more responsibility" reads better as "this ) . ,
, , ,
therefore involvesjentails considerably more .
responsibility." - - "uh", " Kuch e".
,
5) Don't overuse the word "must," as in
:
"1 must notify that husband should go "gateau ", "uh".
with , otherwise 1 have to decline the offer." , , '
More courteous versions would , "1 feel -
1 must advise , however, that ... " j .
.

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"1' m sure if it was not fo such good friends 1 do not
know what would of her. For she is ill
- indeed, and suffes geat deal though with the
. greatest patience in the world."
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" dea . Bennet, " replied his wife, "how
you so tiesome! You must know that 1 thinking
of his marying of them."

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. : They were interrupted Miss Bennet, who
, to fetch he mother' s tea.
. "This is paade, " cried he, "which does
good; it gives such elegance to misfortune."
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14
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", Ihal is jusl like lormality d disli. -1
You Ihoughl Ihe wailer musl l hea, as il he caedl 1 c:r

dare say he ft hears worse Ihigs said Ih 1 . , =

going 10 say. l he is ugly lellow! < . . . > And Ihal


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made Ihe suspecl somelhing, d Ih Ihey s - -->.

found l whal as Ihe matter."


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"How letters have occasion 10 wrile in . -, -
Ihe course 01 Ihe ! Letters 01 business '! How
odious 1 should Ihink Ihem ! "
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Elizabelh would l oppose such injunclion. ).
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01 Darcy il was now matter 01 anxiety 10 Ihink . - -
well. , -
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in possession 01 good lorlune musl in wanl $:::
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"Oh ! dear, 1 do believe il will wel, " boke ' , ,
her in mosl desponding '. , , ,
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- , , w
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w . (Oxford English
Dictionay), in want 01
"Do l so dull, dearesl crealure, " she
whispered. " will quile break heal." "in need of; not having, or
having in insufficient measure". 3
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"We could l belore; Ihe old devil 01 magistrate or judge admonish the unnatural outcasts of
coachmaker was such elernity linding l Ihing society; unnatural in brutal habits, unnatural in want of
lil lo gol inlo, and now il is ' Ihousand 10 l decency, unnatural in losing and confounding all
Ihey break down belore we l 01 Ihe slreel." distinctions between good and evil; unnatural in ignorance,
in vice, in recklessness, in contumacy, in mind, in looks, in
- , everything." ("Dealings with the Firm of Dombey and
- . Son"), " so much in want of airing that he had blue
mould him, sat watching this dark place [ hole
"When has Ihe means 01 doing kind Ihing
in corner, like spider" ("Little Dorrit"). ,
Iriend, 1 hale 10 pililul." .

15
. .. (

(- " sigl ) ""
:: in possession of good fortune") "" 1 830- .
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"What the meaning of that emphatic
), exclamation?" cied he. " Do you conside the foms
of intoduction and the stess that is laid them, as
V . nonsense?"

4 " "
XVIII , "" ( I 884 .) : " " ,
"" ,
, "" , "" , ""
,
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. .
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, ,
XVIII . , . :
XVIII-XIX . , .: - , 2000
- - . 2, . 299.

16
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father suppoted m ! school, d afterwards
-. " ! Cambridge; - most imrtt ssist, as his
" " "? , , w father, a lways fom the tvg of his
" "?5 wife, would have to give him
, , gentleman's education.

1 8 1 3 : , , "extravagance" :::.-
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: ( ) If gratitude and esteem good foundations of
, , affection, Elizabeth's change of sentiment will
. neither improbabIe faulty. But if otherwise, if the
regard springing from such sources is unreasonabIe
5 , unnatural, in compari50n of what i5 50 often de5cribed
-, 5 arising fif5t interview with its object, and
> " sec or two " . before two WOfd5 have exchanged, nothing
6 .. . 2- . - . : said in her defence, ! that she had given
, 1 990 - . 2, . 472.
7 .. . .: ,- 7 .. . - .: ,
2007, . 1 3 1 . 2007, cTp. l 3 1 .

17

somewhat of tial to the latte method, in he ),
:t:
patiality fo Wickham, and that its iII-su ss mi ht
:::!
pehaps authoise he to seek the othe less Itstlg
8 XIX ,
mode of attachment . ,

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"1 ask only comfotabIe home; and considering
Q::\ . . Collins' 5 character, connections, and situation in
, life, 1 am convinced that chance of happiness with
:!:5 . . l l : him is as fair as most people boast entering the
- , - , - marriage state " .

:> . , ,
, ,
':: , >, ()>>, >,
z::
2s . -
t:; . (
"Well, " said Charlotte, "1 wish Jane success with
all my heat, and if she were married to him tomorrow, .
1 should think she had as good chance of happiness
as if she were to studying his character for - ).
twelve-month. Happiness in marriage is entirely , ,
matter of chance." . .
- -
.
1 0 .. . - . //
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, 1 987, . 1 5 1 .
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. 28 1850 .
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23
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,
peritted use verification certificates,
,


.
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24
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.......
, , -1
!2:
permitted use verification certificate ::z

V Certificate V. , :U
, , , , -
, , unified ( imputed income.
, , - 8
u u
- severance (
. ( ( sever - , ) ,
- Rl, - - -
, ().
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()
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public - ....
utilities) .
TU severance tax, -
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.
, . , ,
, .
m - projit ( ( -
income () , - land (, , ,
- property (.
site selection
- securities trading ( ( statement land plot selection statement.
securities transaction () .

25
,>i.
. ,
':1 .
slle ,
seleclion slalemenls .
,


t:: . .

, ,
00 , - , 10 aZZocale,
8
<'J - 10 ZZl 10 provide. , ,
' , ..
;:;:=;
;!. . >,
. , .
v'

. plol o/land l o/land,


piece o/ land portion /
, land, site,
,
. . -
,
, - brownjield sites greenjield
. sites. ,
, , ,
, .
, , , ,
, , ,
, , gnjild-. -
. , , ""
. , ,
-
. -
. www.lenobl.ru
,
:
: , , , . . . . ,
- .
. ,
, ,
l ( ,
), - .
passport.
. -
. ,
- ,
, .
. - greejield sites
, , browjield sites

26
",';

o,, :- ,
,

__ _

deve/oped undeve/oped , , - :
piece/p/ot/parcel o/land. .
land lease
tract / /and, , Aerican agreement. - sz:::

, - UJ
Heritage Dictionary, Fourth Edition, 200 1 ,
n expanse o/ land, :
specified ,
limited o/land, - lease 8
00
. agreement/ /ederally-owned plot o/land.



. , ? : -
- .
, ( .
;>::


) , m .
site ,
land plot. , , , ...
,
, . ,

- ,
brownjield site greejield site. ,
Land Allocation Regulations Land
Allocation Rules .
,
,
,
,
,


. :
.

-
1 6 , ____
. . .
( - ) . . . :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ru les for lllig land plols 10 foreign inveslors
for developmenl in ...
,
1 ,
. ,
Fllwig up your requesl, we have reviewed
the dumls llig 10 Ihe 1 6 ha plol of ld

localed in (hereinafter referred 10 as Ihe
"Site" ) . . . . ,
Addilional informalion . . . . . may derived from , rules
the documenls allocation to Company of piece procedure(s) . Order
of land out of which land plol Of 1 ha was crealed , ,
and subsequenlly ild in Ihe Sile. ,
,

, , order

. , .

27
' )'",

, ,
, , , , ,
, ,
i5 , ,
::< .
, -

.
. :
-..: , ,
, regulation -


00 land
8 regulation.
, ,
"'-J

, land regulation
.
,
;;:::;- ,
,
:t!!. regulation o/land relations
, ,
2s . -
1- ,
\....' , relations

. regulation
,
,
.
. ,
land, water, /orest, oil, gas

. -
intention to create legal relations -
, The Need [or
.
Water Use Management Regulations in

Michigan (http://michigan.gov).
( ) :
position ,
The relations of the parties shall governed
and construed in accordance with the laws of . . .
,
... -
:
,
The provisions of G do, however, per.mit the
adoption enforcement of measures gultlg the
. conservation of exhaustabIe natural resources.


, ,

,
,
.
,
,
What's Good [or Water is
,
Good [or the m,


. . . .
(Michigan Land Use Institute)
,
www. mlui.org:

Since Nestle Waters began doing business here in
2 00 1 , Michigan lawmakers introduced more than 3 0
, legislative proposals 10 regulale water use ...


.
.
-
,
:
(, , ..), -

28
t:'

,. , - - :
. -
,......
, , , - --1
sz::
, , , ::z

. . , . ::U
, , ()
-
, . - , '
.

-
?
. i;I::
, I: (payments in kind)
Wate Resouce Regulation in the Moscow -
Region
Wate Ma nagement Reg u l ation in the
(in-kind contributions) , -
Moscow Region
...
.
,
, ,
, , , .
management -

, ,
, (nature , -
management - ) ,
, (waste ,
management - ). .
, water management
, ,
. . lack's Law Dictionary
specijic peiformance
, :
. The emedy of equiing exact pefomance of
, contact in the specific fom in which it was made,
accoding to the pecise tems a g eed . The
( actual accomplishment of contact paty bound
to fulfil it. The doctine of specific pefomance is that,
) whee money damages would inadequate
Property Ministry. compensation fo the beach of ageement, the
contacto vendo will compelled to pefom
specifically what he has ageed to do.

,
water resource regu/ation
,
.
. water management
regu/ation
-

29
' :';::1l!i
r I
!
" - ,_'!ff!i$

, ,

8 . - ,
(;j ( ) - .
:, ?

....... , , - :
I:::i 1 99 ...
&..; . . (
to determine/to identify the
200 . . . .
boundaries / /and p/ot.
= :
"'-J to mark u! the
boundaries / piece / /and I n 1 9 9 .. . . the land plot was ! physica l ly
'
demarca.ted (according to the land survey file, its
rY"""I to mark u! piece / /and. boundales were marked out / identified on-site only
,
z:: , - in 200 ... ) .
- to demarcate.


,
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
. -
.
. -
-
,
,
.

residential land
, ,
.

.

m
/and holding.
,
, ) ho/ding
. ,
,
.
Q /and holding,
,
land holding. , land holding,

:
.
,

, .
,



,
,
,
. ,
,
,
,
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, :


( , ,
.
,
,
land use) ;
residential land

. Residential land, ,
.
.

30
,:-: :'
"" ,!$; ,. -

:
, , - -
, 1 ,
!2:
, . . Popu/ated ::z
(area) /and , ::,
residentia/ /and. /and(s) oflunder
, settleents, , . -
, , popu/ated area /and. 8

, -

:--3
, ,
. -
, ? -
, , never (//. land(s) '"g
popu/ated /and. oflunder settleents - 8
CI:\
. .

,
. , ,
- population centre land.
- .
,
.
.
,
, , .
-
, ,
residentia/ /and. .

, .
, sett/eent /and(s) /and(s) oflunder
settleents. ,
. , .
sett/eents )
m - ,
, , ,
. , .
- ( identify
, /and(s) oflunder sett/eents (
boundaries) ,
,
, : ( identify land plots corresponding ( land
. , shares. ,
. ,
, 1 1 2007 r. ,>
.

31
, ,:;\
"" j ,

field Ihal reads a s l o f Ihe flal


c:s counlryside surrounding Ihe village. The objeclor
-
proposes in effecl 10 l l piece of land 10 'square
, off' Ihe developmenl here and il is anlicipoled Ihal 4
, dwellings could buill il.

::t:
-
( pinpoin(. ,
(Land Use Report) ,
,
,
, -


-, :
(, ,
) ,
www.psomas.com:
' efforts 10 revive Meadowbrook Golf Course and
(") relieve Ihe county of debl, 5all Lake County is working
-:f!:. , - wilh developes 10 l piece of land 10
:: , - conslrucl 200 lown homes, 84 single-fa mi ly homes,
1-
, - and 75 reliremenl- living condominiums,

, to carve out,
. land, , ,
, . ,
, ,
. :
1I is unacceplabIe for us Ihal elhnic minority
. ( divide, l piece of land fom counlry. (
( split ' - I nsighl Cenlra l
www. incenlaleuope.radio . cz)

number of Bago polilicians seek 10 l
to l (into smaller units/holdings/pieces / piece of land in Ilocos Su and " il Bago Province
land) . (
- The Manila Times
www. manilalimes.nel)
. ,
, Who in Iheir ighl mind is going 10 l
piece of land 10 organizalion Ihal is occepled as
lerroisl IhroughoUI mony counlies in Ihe world? (
out2 . ,
, http://holzone.yahoo.com)
,
,
. ,
to cut out to carve out. ,
,
. - , , ,
,
ro .
, , ,
(www. selby.gov.ukjuploadj68ulleskelf.doc): .
There easlen soulhen boundaries 10 Ihe
objeclion sile which is l of much larger
2
.

,

32
.> "

',i;\ l< I<

'Ienepb nterest in popety. . U nlike joint tenancy... , the


. Interest of tenant , does ! terminate -'"
his her death (i.e., there is right of
-t
suvivorship). !2:
, ,
. - rZ
. right / survivorship ,:::
Oxford Dictionary of Law:
U d er joint ten ? ncy, the right of suvivorship '-J
,
,
applles: thus ownerhlp of the entire interest in the
property passes automatically the death of

( joint tenant to the suvivor(s).


!) , tenancy in "each co-owner
( sell dispose of his share will, and share

) does ! pass a utomatically the right of


?;
suvivorship the death of co-owner but forms rl
( of his estate" .
( )

g

). with the right o/survivorship
, right /survivorship -
. . ,
,
, - . ,

. , .
joint (nn,

, tenancy in ,
,
, .
(
, ,
undivided
interest),
. ,
( !) lack's
Law Dictionary: ,
Joint tenancy - type of ownership of i
.
personal popety two persons in which
each owns undivided interest in the whole and lack's Law Dictionary ,
attached to which is the right of suvivorship. .
Right / survivorship , (nn(
.., owner), tenancy
,
, .. 'nn! - . nn ! will (
. 'nn that terminated the landlord
; - { of ownership the 'nn! at n tie) tenancy at su.fference (
whereby each tenant . ., owner) holds undivided 'nn that arises when (nn! is holding
and the landlord has n! indicated whether n!
3 / property -
.
he agrees ( the tenant's continued un) -


. . :"--
;., -" >1'

, ,

) ( Oxford .
8 Dictionary of Law). : , joint tenancy (nn in

( :

)
. . m
, . . . Barron's Dictionary of Real Estate
. Terms joint ownership.
(nn :
? , Joint ownership - ownership two
Barron's Dictionary of Real Estate Terms: people.
- the right of possession of real popety. joint
i!:. refer to ownership occupancy. ownership : counity property,
, Oxford joint tenancy tenancy in .
Dictionary of Law, (nn -
: , ,
: jint ownership ,
. Broadly, the interest of who holds ajoint tenancy tenancy in
land right title. -

.
, , ,
tenancy
, , : joint tenancy -
. , tenancy in -

, , .
( -
) .. ,
joint .. .. .
ownership shared ownership, -
,
Oxford Dictionary of Law, ,
tenancy, interest, right, title - , joint tenancy
. tenancy in
: ,
- , .
, m
. (nn - ,

, , indejinite tenancy, head
, tenancy, tenantfor years tenantfor life.

, ,
, ,
, ,
, - > ,

34
,/;.'Il';'::-
\;! ' "J" -

, :
. , - commonhold. -
"""'
, , . -i
!2:
, , 1 925 ! , ::z
. - :u
-
C.D
, ';:::::;
. - 8
. , :
, . , -
. commonhold,
. - -
, estate in remainder estate in , ,
reversion. . -g
, , 8
- - .
( Black's .
!) ,
.
, -
, , 2004
Commonhold and Leasehold
( ownerhsip) , Reform Act 2002. .
(common joint .
ownership) ( shared .
ownership) , joint ownership -
, Wikipedia www.answers.com:
, joint Commonhold is system of property ownership
(nn - in Englond ond Wo les. It wos introduce d ... os os
o lternotive to leosehold ...
(
) tenancy in - It involves the freehold tenure of port of mu lti
occuponcy building (typicolly flot) with shored
( ownership of ond responsibility for areos
) . ond services.
It is similor to the condominium system, which exists
in the U nited Stotes.
Wikipedia - ,
(nn, ,
ownership.
,

. ,
:
This entry is from Wikipedio, the leoding user
estate in fee simple estate in fee tail contributed encyclopedio. It not hove
, reviewed professionol editors.
. ,

35
- -:;i .
".


, ,
commonhold .
. ,
2005 News , Commonhold
t::i , and Leasehold Reform Act
-..: (Royal Assent) ,
(www.news.bbc.co.uk) . , . ,
, . 2003 .
,
: 2004 .
Commonhold, new way of owning popety in comonho/d
:l!:. England and Wales, has law. The change
::2s allows leaseholders 10 dispense wilh Iheir landlord
1- and oblain share of Ihe freehold. . Oxford
'-" Dictionary of Law 2003. ,

: )
Las! new type of popety ownership, .
Commonhold, inlo exislence . .. Commonhold is
new kind of freehold ownership. The system was , ,
devised 10 gel rid of the leasehold syslem which is Ihe - ,
most form of ownership for properties such , ,
as bIocks of flals . . . Under Ihe commonhold system, l l . m, ,
fla! owners will automatically members o f
- Ihe Commonhold Associalion - Ihal owns ,
the freehold and thus the bIock.
, .
,
, , ,


(
,

,
) , ,


,
:
Commonhold Leasehold Reform Act,
.. : as form of com m u n ily ownersh ip.
commonhold brings with it various tensions. Commonhold and Leasehold Reform , ..

, m ,
, .
(Factsheet), ,
( Letting Centre)
www. letlink.co.uk. ,
: , ,
Commonhold is type of freehold eslale ... Each
individual flal unil wil l se p arale freehold and
Ihe remaining elemenls of building will ( ,
" part" . The " parts" will owned ,
Ihe Commonhold Associalion, which will ) .
privale limiled guara nlee, and each flal commonhold . Ihird way o f owning land, in
unil owner will of Ihe Commonhold addilion 10 freehold and leasehold, Ihal is expecled 10
Associalion. inlroduced in England and Wales in accordonce


wilh the Commonhold and Leasehold Reform Bill. 1I is Law) , commonhold - :
inlended for developmenls i n which individual /reehold,
pro peties, such as Hals, houses, shops, owned "'""
and occupied separale person5, bul Ihere : -1
!2:
pat5, such 5 slaiways and walkways, Ihal () - ::z

need 10 remain in cenlral ownership and 10 '0

UJ

-
mainlained. Previously, such p opeties were usually
held unde long leases, bul Ihi5 had p oved
unsalisfaclory. commonhold /reehold (Oxford -;::::;
Each 5epa rale p operly in commonhold Dictionary of Law, ,
development will unit, the owne will unit commonhold third way % wning land, in

holder. The bod y owning Ihe pa ts wil l addition tofreehold and leasehold) , -
Ihe commonhold a5socialion, privale
limiled g uaranlee. Each unil- holder will :
member of thal . The commonhold -
aS50cialion wil l al50 need 10 creale Commonhold (\)

Community Statement (CCS) selting oul Ihe rules



and reg ulalions of Ihal paticular community.. It wil l
.

possibIe for leasehold developmenls 1 0 conyet 10 8


commonhold, bul only Ihe consenl of all paties. .

, , - .

commonhold. .
. -
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complete / % wnership o/land: legal estate
held in fee simple absolute possession - , ,
Oxford Dictionary of .

37
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C h a LLe n ges a n d Co m pro m i ses


i n th e Tra n s Lati o n of Pastern a k
Lydia Razran Stone (USA)

Abstract: This article discusses the challenges faced in translation of Boris


Pastemak and the compromises they compelled the translator to make. It is suggested that being
poetic translator is something like being philandering husband, in that the translator's self-respect
rests being to find (self-)persuasive excuses for ll infidelities. The author invites readers to
correspond with her about this translation.
Recently 1 was asked to translate Boris Pasternak. Some time after 1 had
started, the project was cancelled. But that time 1 was too involved to quit - 1 was nearly as
fascinated the challenges and compromises of the translation process, as the itself and
decided to use the experience for article illustrating the choices inherent in poetic translation.
The Russian and translation appear below.

In Holy Week
Boris Pasternak

1 . . 1. So early - night mists hover sti1l.


2. , 2. So early everywhere,
3. , 3. With stars untold the sky is filled
4. , , , 4. The light of each -- daylight distilled.
5. 1(1 , 5. If Earth's own wish could fulfilled,
6. 6. She'd sleep day for good or ill
7. . 7. Easter chants and prayer.

8. . 8. So early - night mists hover sti1l


9. , 9. And Earth still sleeps in nighttime chill.
1 0. 1 0. It seems eternity's cast
1 1. , 1 1. Upon the square; as if there will
1 2. 1 2. dawn warmth again u
1 3. . 1 3. Mi1lennia have passed.

1 4. -, 1 4. These nights the Earth has nothing left


1 5 . 1 5 . wear when church bells ring.
1 6. 1 6. And yet, though naked and bereft
1 7. . 1 7. She joins when choirs sing.

38
>: ' ,

18. 1 8 . Until this night l Week ::


19. 1 9 . We've heard spring's maelstroms ro. >
,....,
20. 20. This st v they've reached their peak
!2:
21. . 2 1 . And batter every shore. :z
"

22. , 22. this most holy night of


23. , 23. The forest is unclothed and
24. , 24. And pines line , erect and tall,
25. . 25. Like congregants at .

26. , 26. And in the town these Holy Days,


27. , , 27. leafless stand of birch
28. 28. Assembled here attempts to gaze
29. . 29. Through windows of the church.

30. . 30. Dismayed they see and hear.


31. . 31. N wonder they're so worried!
32. , 32. Their world's foundations shake; they fear
33. 33. Some cataclysm's drawing
34. . 34. For God is being buried.

35. , 35. The l Gates have opened wide,


36. , , 36. The dark candlelight's defied,
37. - 37. As l weep aloud.
38. 38. Then, through the door that leads outside,
39. , 39. They the sacred shroud.
40. 40. Birch standing there must move aside
4 1 . . 4 1 . make ro for the crowd.

42. 42. As round the church the faithful go,


43. , 43. Into the church there seems to blow
44. 44. tale of spring, its savor.
45. , 45. Intoxicating vapors flow
46. 46 . And mix with candles' flickering glow
47. . 47. And taste of sacred wafer.

48. 48. And then the beggars the porch


49. , 49. dusted with the snow of March
50. , 50. As if to them there in the dark
51. , , 5 1 . Someone has rn the treasure ark
52. . 52. And given each share.

53. , 53. The chants go till break of day,


54. , , 54. And strained sobs and
55. 55. The voices tend to fade away
56. 56. So just the faintest sounds still stray
57. . 57. Beyond the central square.

39
58. , 58. Yet life grows still so hear
59. , 59. And heed Spring's soft inflection,
60. - , 60. Implying when she comes this
6 1 . 6 1 . We'H both death and fear
62. . 62. Through strength of Resurrection.
(1946)

First of , this struck as e.g. , "inner" and "win her. " 1 certainly
00 masterpiece, and 1 approached it with feeling acknowledge this as fault in translations
of extreme respect both for the religious and when the original has regular pattern of
S spiritual mood it expressed, and for its sheer altemation of feminine and masculine, as this
beauty-both of which 1 felt could easily
...,...,
does. There seems to difference in the
:::. shattered heavy-handed approach. 1 do extent to which native speakers of Russian fee!
:: not trans!ate poetry of classical form into free this as marked discrepancy in the
t:; verse anyway unless forced to do so at gunpoint, translation-some do not notice and some
but in this case 1 felt strongly that the immediately dismayed.
"music" had to retained if the English was Rhyme is the next formal aspect of
going to approximate the essence of the that has to reproduced. In the ideal, and this
. is achievable much ofthe time, not nl should
This said, it is simp!y not possible to translate rhymed originals rhyme in translation, but the
, taking account of both meaning and same lines that rhyme in the former should
form, without making kinds of compromises. rhyme in the latter. In the l , 1
In genera!, 1 try to keep as closely as possible have deviated from this twice: in stanzas two
to the exact form of the original ; and nine, consoling myself with the
however, when in order to do so 1 forced justification that the rhyme scheme of the
to distort English syntax usage to the point various stanzas differs in the original as weH.
where screams "amateur poetry; " 1 prefer Thus, this kind of variation, 1 cou!d argue, is
minor deviation in form. 1 in fear that countenanced the poet if needed for other
abuse might lead to the revocation of poetic reasons. This is not sufficient
license. And then what would 1 do for excuse, but in the case of the deviant stanzas,
recreation? the meaning fit so much better into the deviant
form of formal fidelity 1 frequently scheme. Note the fact that in the 1 3 lines ofthe
compelled to dispense with is the use of first two stanzas, ni have the same rhyme.
"feminine rhymes" (i.e., ending the This is such unusual and distinctive feature
unstressed syHable) , which also leads to of this particular that 1 was at great pains
minor discrepancy in length where the to reproduce it.
Russian lines with feminine endings have Next there is the question of inexact
syHable than English. In this 1 rhymes. 1 try not to use them unless they
have to retain the use of feminine earmark of the original; mainly because 1 do
endings in the appropriate l in l 3 out of not know the rules for them in English and
the 1 1 stanzas. Because ofthe stress structure of find to explain them to . the
English, feminine rhymes much other hand, 1 frequently find that what to
difficult to than they in Russian. It seems l minor inexactitude (March
is not that they cannot found, but that and porch, for l) sounds 10t better
frequently in English they sound, at least to , than pair that is true rhyme but is forced in
forced sometimes Ogden Nash-like, some other respect. 1 bolstered in this

40
;1:
"'M
,

practice when 1 notice that the original lines. The use of more general paraphrases, :
contains what to ear seem to inexact "chants, " " l Week, " "into the church, "
rhymes, as tbls does (e.g., / seemed to at least to fit in better with the
) . (1 gather, however, that Russian simplicity of the language and to make the SZ:

versification rules al10w these as exact.) One of more accessible to those not familiar L.U

the aspects of poetry translation that continues with Orthodox or igh Church terminology. 1
to strike is how often the Rhyme God also left out certain physical details, for
smiles , ifyou blm/her the tribute of l, that beyond the square was pustyr 8
your respect and attention-consider the (what we in NY used to an empty lot) to :
fortuitous rhyming of birch and church in tbls wblch the street light reached, that the t--<
case. the other hand, 1 would consider it procession walked at the edge of the sidewalk,
extremely foolish not to use rhyming etc. coHeague, Volodia Kovner, whom 1 i:;.
dictionary and/or thesaurus when they are such invariably consult, suggest that . these details ?
useful adjuncts to the aging brain. give rise to particular image of provincial
Now for meaning, against wblch the poetic Soviet city to Russian readers ro similar
translator commits the most numerous, and to what was in Pasternak's mind's . the
some would say the most serious, sins of other hand, another trusted adviser, Anastasia
(':>

commission and omission. Of one thing 1 Koralova, says she disagrees with Volodia, and
absolutely convinced: have to understand Pasternak is simply talking about the square
virtually every aspect of before itself, wblch is now deserted. Creating tbls
translate it. When there are some lines 1 not image for native English speakers would require
sure of, 1 bombard Russian-born literary much more explanation, which cannot fit
friends or the clients thernselves for information. within the restriction of the syHable count and
However, there are always cases when there ro has l in poetry either.
comes that 1 understand in general and Pasternak is evoking, not giving detailed
90% of the particulars but there are l of description. 1 have changed cripple to beggar
things that evade , and literary friehds for two reasons: 1 have daughter who is an
throw their hands as wel1. In such cases, 1 advocate for the handicapped, and she has
either give the whole or somehow accustomed to the idea that the word
gloss over or omit the details 1 do not cripple is insulting; thus it grates
understand. most grievous sin is the embedded in this 1l . Secondly and
omission of any equivalent for the line: less personally, those who are not familiar with
. If anyone explain to Orthodox Easter ritual are likely to
what tbls line specifical1y conveys in the context distracted wondering why there are cripples
ofthe , 1 would very grateful and will try the church porch-the use of the word
to render it. (The idea was suggested that, as beggars makes this much clearer and facilitates
Roman Catholics do Palm Sunday, Orthodox the connection with the mention of
Christians carry branches Easter , but 1 distribution of treasure.
have not yet confirmed tWs.) Leaving sometblng As 1 , and others, have said,
out, as 1 did with this line, is the coward's translating poetry involves nothing but
solution, but it avoids the risk of injecting compromise and there is such thing as an
sometWng extraneous, jarring, or misleading, absolutely perfect poetic translation.
wblch to mind is an even worse sin. Compromise implies 10ss. Whether any
Next, 1 had difficulty getting the specific particular translation is "good enough" is )
equivalent Church terms Book of the Epist1es, completely subjective and ) matter of
Maundy Thursday, and narthex into the poetic whether ways contrived of improving it.

41
-. '};'"
"'. !'i F ""1;" ""'

As 1 reread this essay, 1 wonder if readers will compromises that must made and accepted in

think that, in addition to compromises per se, this enthralling but innately imperfect
translating poetry rests being to find enterprise. As husband, who usually [1
(self-)persuasive excuses for ll one's almost anything mechanical or electrical says:

N infidelities. (Why is poetic translator like "The secret of doing anything is to start." 1
.
....... chronicaIIy straying husband?) reached at lydiastone@verizon.net and 1 do
After completing 1 virtually always not take offense at civilly worded criticisms of
send it to others who are interested in poetry poetic efforts.
and, 1 have learned, are wi1ling to provide 1 velJ' grate/ul to Eidelman,
critique. This group always includes friend Anastasia Koralova, and Vladimir Kovner/ the
and coIIaborator, Volodia Kovner. In this case, help they gave in understanding and
;:;' he is largely responsible for the current version translating this . This essay was originaZly
ofthe stanza starting Ii , as well as some included in column in the Spring 2008 issue 01
:i!:. other smaIIer but important changes. SlavFile, the publication o/the Slavic Languages
..CI 1 invite readers who have improvements to Division / the American Translators Association.
1-
....., suggest here to send them to . Really! The readers invited to read this and other

remarks technique have included issues / SlavFile at www. ata-divisions. orgj


mainly for the of those who would like to SLD/slavfile.htm.
embark poetry translation, not as proscriptive
rules but as illustration of the particular


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conversational woman old woman, matchmaker

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Vorobyovy/Sparrow Hills . - ,



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idealism of Herzen's youth

57
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observations and stinging retorts suilabIe 10 Ihe cutting observations .
occasion you person of resource."
So the Libraian went into the woods and gathered ,
goodly seleclion of highly argumenlalive rods and
swilches, and Ihen proceeded 10 reason wilh - (
Vespaluus Ihe folly and iniquity and all Ihe -
unseemliness of his conducl. His reasoning left deep
,
impression Ihe young prince, impression which
losled for many weeks, during which lime nolhing
wos heord oboul Ihe u nforlunole lopse inlo ).
Chrislionity.


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. AII right, ladies and gents. . . comical p oems
suitabIe for the occasion ... extemporized and thought
. up before your eyes. AII right, here we go!
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Oh, it's jolly holiday with ! ::
makes heat so light. . -
When the day is g ey and ordinay, r"I

makes the su shine bright.


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, . lady needn't fear when ,
sweet gentility is cystal clea.

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. It' 5 su p ercalifagilisticexp ialidocious.
, , though the sound of it is something quite atocious,
If you say it loud enough you' lI always sound precocious:
Supecalifagilisticexpialidocious.
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: foreclosure ( ) , - ,

chattels () , trust deeds (- -


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We're cleoly soldiers in petticoats : m
And dau ntless crusaders for women's votes. .
Though we adore individ ually,
We agree that as group they're rather stupid .
Cast off the shackles of yesterday, oBKa. () :
Shoulder to shoulder into the fray!
daughter's daughters will adore us
And they'll sing in g ateful chorus: : " , ! " .
"Well done, sister suffragette! "

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When you' e with sweep, you' re in glad company.


: Nowhee is thee more ' appier crew
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68
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about { (., )

above above the weld


above the ln ( , )
abreast: stay abreast / ;
absence: n the absence o/(e.g. oxygen) (., )
absent -
absorption absorption / movement /heater tubes

abundantly 1) abundantly clear / 2)
abundantly clear
academic (Il) 1) (., ) 2) 3) /
academic community ; 4) ;
5) academic qualijication
accept 1) 2) accept the permit - ()
3) the theory has n widely accepted
/; It is generally accepted that
; ; , 4)
f!10-. ! the challenge
acceptabIe 1) 2) cannot acceptable

acceptance: gain acceptance /

accepted
access ready access ; unhindered access to
; The shall permitted/ree access ' the Sli's/ty

accessories: standard accessories ;
accident 1 ) scene /accident ; ! the scene /accident
2) [. ,
n .
, accident, ,
() -
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78
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accidental l ) 2) (., /
) 3) The safety lock prevents the accidental engagement ofthe
transmission /

accommodate 1) -. 2) - . 3) (-.
, ) 4) ; 5) ;
(., ) 6) ; unless there is n ojJsel
10 accoodate Ihe expansion , ,
/ 7) ;
(., ) 8) accoodate smb. 's request
-. ; ifthe is ( accoodate n employee's request ( work less
than full time
9) ;
accoodate traffic between the project localions
1 0) 1 1 ) (.) 1 2)
accoodates 1 3) - . . .and developing special housing
where the center distance varied to accoodate n manufacturing errors . . .
[] ,

accommodated (., ) ;

accommodation 1 ) (., ) 2) pl.
(., , .. )
accommodation module (., , ..)
accompanied: accopanied . . . ; as well as accopanied . . .
. . . ; this being accopanied improvement in phase permeability 10 oil

m 1 ) (., , ) 2)
(-, ) 3) ( , -.)
accompanying 1) / (, ,
) 2) () 3) / (., )
4) (., ) 5) ; ;

accomplish in order ( accoplish
accomplishment 1 ) (, ) 2) pl. 3) pl. ;
(.
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accord: its own accord
accordance (.. , )
according 1 ) (, ) 2) 3)
. . . ; . . . 4) according ( good intemational practice

accordingly 1 ) , . . . 2) . . . , . . . 3) ( . ) ;
; ;
account, n 1 ) ; 2) unt f - . ;
-. 3) taking inlo account

79
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account for 1 ) 2) 3 ) ;
(., n) 4) (., )

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personnel site accounted/or
5) ( ) that the driver has accounted/or ! times including
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:f!:. acknowledge 1 ) (., ) 2) /


The Special Recognition Award program enables managers and supervisors
to acknowledge outstanding achievements their stff
-

acquire acquire competency -.
across ; ( ; n., , ..)
pressure differential across Ihe diaphragm
act, n ;
act, v: 1 ) act as / (, ) 2) act to (
-.; n., ) ; acting to
action, n ( - !) 1 ) ; 2) (. .
) 3) (.)
n condition throughout the production /ty requiring operator atlention n
m ,
4) ( . . . ) ( -. )
action - ( .
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) ; action list (n ,
)
action, v -. The boss has actioned ' establish the needs o/the users and
progress provision o/work clothing with Jack

action items (
)
activate ( - .') 1 ) (. .
initiate) ; 2) (., ) 3) /;
(., , , ) activated
(., , ..) 4)
activated (, )

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