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Журнал для тех,

No. 5–6 кто преподает


и изучает английский язык
eng.1september.ru Учебно-методический журнал Английский язык

What you do with your resources in this


life is your autobiography.
Randy Alcorn

RESOURCES
май–июнь
ь
1september.ru 20
017
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК П о д п и с к а н а с а й т е w w w.1s e p t e m b e r. r u и л и п о “ К а т а л о г у р о с с и й с к о й п р е с с ы ”. Ин декс: 79002
INSIDE
NEWS IN BRIEF Сдвоенные номера выходят 1 раз в 2 месяца
10 Ways to Search Google Издание основано в 1992 г.

for Information That 96% of People Главный редактор:


Don't Know About..................................... 3 Елизавета Паремузова (Богданова)
Консультанты:
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Stephen Lapeyrouse, Erin Bouma
Critical Thinking Skills................................ 4 Редактор:
Plea for V1, 2, 3......................................... 6 Е.Андросова
On the Death of a Craft .............................. 8 Корректура:
М.Гардер
METHODS OF TEACHING Набор, верстка:
Why can’t they sit and be quiet? Г.Струкова
Helping Students with Attention Deficit ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКИЙ ДОМ “ПЕРВОЕ СЕНТЯБРЯ”
Disorder in a Language Classroom ..............10 Генеральный директор
How to Gamify your English Class. Н.Соловейчик
Главный редактор
Step 3 .......................................................12 А.Соловейчик
Economics and Economy of EFL Classroom: Коммерческая деятельность
К.Шмарковский (финансовый директор)
Learning from Adjacent Fields ...................14 Реклама, конференции и техническое
TEACHERS FORUM обеспечение
П.Кузнецов
Out of My Comfort Zone ..........................16 Производство
Are You Afraid of Online Courses?............ 47 С.Савельев
Effective Time-Management Административно-хозяйственное обеспечение
А.Ушков
for Teachers: Useful Tips .......................... 50 Педагогический университет
FOCUS ON LANGUAGE В.Арсланьян (ректор)
English for Human Resources ....................19 ЖУРНАЛЫ ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКОГО ДОМА:
Vocabulary Booster ....................................19 Английский язык – Е.Паремузова (Богданова),
Библиотека в школе – О.Громова,
LESSON PLANS Биология – Н.Иванова,
Reading Rules ...........................................21 География – А.Митрофанов,
The Canterville Ghost ............................... 24 Дошкольное образование – Д.Тюттерин,
Искусство – А.Митрофанов,
TOPICAL JOURNEY История – А.Савельев,
Resourses ................................................. 27 Классное руководство
и воспитание школьников – А.Полякова,
SCHOOL THEATRE Литература – С.Волков,
The Butterfly Lion .................................... 39 Начальная школа – Е.Тихомирова,
Русский язык – Л.Гончар,
TESTS Школьный психолог – М.Чибисова
Five-Minute Tests .....................................41 Подписной индекс
По “Каталогу российской прессы”: 79002
PREPARING FOR EXAMS
Учредитель: ООО «Издательский дом “Первое сентября””
Resources..................................................41 Зарегистрировано ПИ № ФС77-58393 от 18.06.14
FOR YOUNG LEARNERS в Роскомнадзоре
Подписано в печать: по графику 05.04.17, фактически 05.04.17
The Time to Rhyme ................................. 44 Отпечатано в АО “Первая Образцовая типография”
Филиал “Чеховский Печатный Двор”
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES ул. Полиграфистов, д. 1, Московская область, г. Чехов, 142300
Сайт: www.chpd.ru. E-mail: sales@chpk.ru
Proverbs and Sayings. Linguistic Game...... 45 Тел.: 8(499)-270-73-59

TEXTS FOR READING Цена свободная Заказ №


Тираж
The Wife From the Lark’s Nest ................ 52 900 экз. (бумажная версия)
21000 экз. (электронная версия)
Voyage on the Amazon River Адрес редакции и издателя:
to the “Paris of the Tropics” ....................... 54 ул. Киевская, д. 24, Москва, 121165
Тел./факс: (499) 249-3138
The White Gibbon ....................................57 E-mail: eng@1september.ru
Отдел рекламы: (499) 249-9870
www.1september.ru
This sign indicates that additional materials can be found in Издательская подписка: (499) 249-4758
Subscriber’s Personal Account on www.1september.ru. E-mail: podpiska@1september.ru
Unless otherwise indicated images in this issue are from shutterstock.com https://www.facebook.com/digital.september/
English
Dear Reader! NEWS IN BRIEF

Welcome to the May-June issue of English!


To end our concept-based series on a major note we
decided to explore the topic of Resources – the very ba-
10 WAYS TO SEARCH GOOGLE
3
May–
June 2017
sis of our life and activities. FOR INFORMATION THAT 96%
As you will discover in the Topical Journey, this
time our curiosity brought us far beyond conventional
OF PEOPLE DON’T KNOW ABOUT
interpretations of the topic under discussion. We have
1. Either this or that
managed to take a glimpse at the Queen’s handbag – a Sometimes we’re not sure that we’ve correctly re-
resource of constant surmises – which turned out to be membered the information or the name we need to
much more than it seems at first sight. We were also very start our search. Put in a few potential variations of
eager to find out what resources a president might use what you’re looking for, and separate them by typing
to get through all the challenges his work presupposes. the “|” symbol. Instead of this symbol you can also use
What’s more, we are delighted to invite you to enjoy a “or.”
story by Olga Sventsitskaya about the teaching resources 2. Searching using synonyms
English teachers used to employ in Soviet times. And of If you need to find websites on a given subject rath-
course, if you have never heard of TED talks, it’s high er than those that include a specific phrase, add the “~”
time you fell in love with this wonderful contemporary symbol to your search.
resource, which is described in detail by Ekaterina An- For example, if you search for the term “healthy
drosova. ~food” you’ll get results about the principles of healthy
eating, cooking recipes, as well as healthy dining op-
Trying to be resourceful as ever, we are offering you
tions.
some very much practice-oriented materials such as an
3. Searching within websites
article by Maria Andrievich about the ways we can fa- Sometimes you read an interesting article on a web-
cilitate the learning of students with Attention Deficit site and find yourself subsequently wanting to share it
Disorder (ADD) and an article by Elena Peresada in with your friends or simply reread it. The easiest way to
which she explains with crystal clarity the difference find the desired piece of information again is to search
between educational games and gamification. For those within the website. To do this, type the address of the
inclined to deep rethinking of the essence of our teaching site, then a key word or entire phrase from the article,
profession, we offer a text by Vasiliy Gorbachev with a and it should come up immediately.
promising title ‘On the Death of a Craft’ and it is an ab- 4. The power of the asterisk
solute must. And to ‘digest’ all this meaningful input and When our cunning memory decides to prevent us
to keep, if not optimistically then at least realistically, from recalling that one key word, phrase, or number
evaluative, you will be helped by a baseline article by we need in order to find what we’re looking for, you
Nina Koptyug ‘Critical Thinking Skills’. can turn to the powerful “*” symbol. Just use this in the
place of the word/phrase you can’t remember, and you
We would also like to remind you about the oppor-
should be able to find the results you’re looking for.
tunity to win a free online course by Norwich Institute
5. When lots of words are missing
for Language Education (NILE). In order to learn more If it’s the lengthier half of the phrase you can’t re-
about what it feels like to go through such a professional member rather than a single key word, try writing out
development experience, we suggest you have a look at the first and last words and putting “AROUND + (the
the article by Anastasia Marina – one of the winners of approximate number of missing words)” between them.
our competition who is sharing her impressions from do- For example, “I wandered AROUND(4) cloud.”
ing an online course at NILE. 6. Using a time frame
As the so-much deserved and desired summer holi- Sometimes we urgently need to acquaint ourselves
days are coming, we wish you a full recovery from the with events that occurred during a certain period of
hardships of the finishing academic year. May you all time. To do so, you can add a time frame to your search
discover various and valuable resources to enrich and query with the help of three dots between the dates.
add colours to your autobiographies! 7. Searching for a title or URL
To help find the key words and name of an arti-
cle, type “intitle:” before the search term, without any
Elizaveta Paremuzova (Bogdanova)
spaces between them. In order to find the words from
Editor-in-Chief
a URL, use “inurl:”.
8. Finding similar websites
Уважаемые подписчики If you’ve found something you really like online and
бумажной версии журнала! want to find similar websites, type in “related:” and then
SPECIAL OFFER!

the address of the site, again without a space between


Все подписчики журнала имеют возможность them.
получать электронную версию. 9. Whole phrases
Для получения электронной версии: Framing the search term within quotation marks is
1) откройте Личный кабинет на портале “Первое the simplest and most effective way to find something
сентября” (www.1september.ru). specific and in the exact order you typed it in.
2) В разделе “Газеты и журналы/Получение” 10. Unimportant search words
выберите свой журнал и кликните на кнопку “Я To remove unimportant search words from your
– подписчик бумажной версии”. query, write a minus symbol before each one. For ex-
3) Появится форма, посредством которой вы
ample, if you want to find a site about interesting books,
сможете отправить нам копию подписной кви-
but you aren’t looking to buy them, you can write the
танции.
После этого в течение одного рабочего дня following: Interesting books – buy.
будет активирована электронная подписка на
весь период действия бумажной. Adapted from: https://brightside.me
English PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

4 May–
June 2017
CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS
Critical thinking skills, according to the many of in our school”. Many times while visiting a les-
existing definitions, include observation, inter- son I have heard a teacher reply to questions in
pretation, analysis, inference, evaluation, ex- that “Teacher knows best” categorical voice, “Im-
planation, and metacognition. This last one, as prove? It means доказать.” A colleague made
defined in The Free Dictionary, means thinking her whole class recite in a chorus, “It aches to
about one’s own mental processes. The notion move”.
is widely used in psychology. Many educators When I was a beginner teacher at the univer-
now believe that a curriculum aimed at devel- sity, I was made to visit a senior colleague’s les-
oping thinking skills in general may benefit the son. At the end of each lesson she would say
learner, the society and the world at large. Let with a nice smile, “And now ze last sin”. I politely
us look at the various ideas and stages and try tried to correct her after a session, and acquired
to understand what critical thinking may mean an enemy for life. At a school Olympiad I asked
for education. Every year during the entrance a leading teacher why she counted a correct an-
exams, I see the same large slogan hanging in swer as a mistake and subtracted points from a
the Novosibirsk State University main building: very good essay. “But I’ve never seen such an
Education is not the “We’ll teach you how to think!” Is it indeed pos- expression!” And so on. My many experiences
learning of facts, but sible to teach students not only a certain set of taught me a few things, and now I restrict my-
training the mind to think. skills, a volume of knowledge as specified in the self to listing some glaring examples of teacher
Albert Einstein national curriculum, but also to evaluate the said mistakes at every teacher refresher course or at
knowledge and to be able to apply that in real a workshop, and suggest that they use a diction-
life? Moreover, can we teach them how to think ary or an educational site. It also seems to me
about their own thinking processes? that I and many other authors have been writing
about the subject forever, and yet I get the same
STAGE 1. Learning. How to use the critical questions from parents, students and teachers.
thinking approach to oneself, the teacher. “What can I do if my grand-daughter’s teacher
How many teachers check their own knowl- says /ouwen/ when the word is oven?” Unfortu-
edge of a topic before introducing it to their nately, in most cases the only thing one can do
students? Does it even occur to a person with is teach the child at home.
several years or even decades of experience to
do it? In our system, a teacher is more or less STAGE 2. Teaching. Your students should
God. If a pedagogical university instructor mis- use critical thinking while learning.
pronounced or misused a word, most listeners If you manage to give them the basics, they
would go on into their own professional life and may use those acquired skills later in life and
do the same, perpetuating the mistakes. Heaven achieve considerable success in whatever they
forbid teachers are corrected at a lesson. are doing. For instance when you start a new
The most powerful tool in the classroom is of topic, underline all the words which have more
course the class manual, the journal. A student than one meaning, and explain to your students
may get a bad mark for “interrupting” the proc- that in English most words have more than one
ess; there may be a notation about “disruptive” meaning. For instance, when they learn the
behaviour; parents may be called. Children learn words which describe a face, you may tell them
fast. “Why should I learn the topic when there that nose may be used as a noun and a verb.
Illustration from: are so many mistakes in it?! Look, it says, “It Cheek is another word worthy of mentioning.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com; quickens my heartbreak”. Did she mean “heart “He/she has cheek” shows us that it is an idi-
http://cdn2.hubspot.net rate”? And here, “There are computers and a lot om because there is no article and the singular
form is used. Spend a few seconds on a game,
ask your students how many cheeks they have,
are they classified by size, big and small, or by
sides, left and right. Proceed to the ears, elicit
the responses: left and right. And then ask them
if they also have left and right lips which will im-
mediately result in laughter. Aha, but when you
ask them how to denote the two lips they will
flounder trying to use the familiar “up and down”
notion which clearly does not apply here. Once
you turn the sometimes boring process of learn-
ing the new lexis into a game it will become eas-
ier to remember the topical vocabulary.

STAGE 3. The main question children ask


once they learn to speak is probably “Why”.
Why do we need to learn this topic? Why
should we learn those grammar rules? Why must
I study English if I may never use it in my future
life? The answers are many and various. True,
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT English

the Internet and the ability to read in at least


two languages broadens up one’s horizons im-
mensely. But let us remember that an absolute
apply their new knowledge in life, it is equally
important to explain that critical does not mean
criticize. Many students would refuse to speak
5May–
June 2017
majority of school children in the world (85%) up and express their ideas for fear of ridicule.
list communication with their peers as the main If a teacher has a habit of scolding or making
reason for attending school. Primary school chil- fun of a child who happens to make a mistake,
dren are often brought to school by their parents, then any attempt at developing critical thinking
so they come into the classroom a few minutes will fail. Younger children would not be able to
before the bell rings. Teenagers are quite inde- formulate their resentment so they will keep
pendent. They often come to school once the silent. Teenagers would indeed internalize, as
building opens, sometimes a whole hour before they would build up whole speeches against a
the lessons begin. The sole motivation is often teacher in their heads. The feeling of resentment
the desire to meet their friends, not necessarily may only grow; it is never a good companion to
from their own classes. successful learning.
One of the ways to motivate students and to
help them develop their thinking skills is through STAGE 5. Re-thinking skills.
communication. Find an international project If we manage to teach our students how to
partner, arrange a correspondence with the think, how to approach the new data creatively
same age group in a different country or anoth- and how later to apply their knowledge in the
er region of your own country. Another way is future, we may produce some very productive
working through an individual student’s interests members of any society. Consolidation will then
and aspirations. I would bring various texts into become a life-long process of using one’s edu-
my classroom for instance and distribute them cation for the greater good. It is never possible
among students to read, understand and com- to predict which skills exactly will be most useful,
ment upon. Thus we would all benefit by listening as we have no way of knowing how this or that
to a future pediatrician, a specialist in bees, and branch of science, this or that area of human
an avid car lover at the same lesson. Watching activity may develop. Look at the Internet and
their own peers present their findings on diverse its amazing growth. The ability to think, evaluate
topics is good motivation for the whole class. and re-think if/when needed is a great skill which
we may foster and nurture even in very young
STAGE 4. Critical vs Criticizing. children.
While we may acquaint our adolescent stu-
dents with the main principles of critical thinking By Nina M. Koptyug, Ph.D.,
and help them interpret, analyze, evaluate and Novosibirsk

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London Group
обучение за рубежом
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109004, Россия, Москва, ул. A.Солженицына, 27, офис 12; Тел: +7 (495) 722 39 54, +7 (495) 777 68 43
info@londongroup.ru, www.londongroup.ru
English PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

6 May–
June 2017
PLEA FOR V1, 2, 3
Johanna Stirling is the NILE Online Academic Manager. She is responsible
for coordinating and developing all academic aspects of NILE Online.
She is a NILE Associate Trainer who teaches, trains teachers, writes ma-
terials and gives presentations about English language teaching. She has
written teaching materials for Cambridge University Press and self-published
Teaching Spelling to English Language Learners (British Council Award for
ELT Writing – Special Commendation and nominated for an ELTon Award
for Innovation in Teacher Resources). Johanna also wrote and tutors on the
Materials Development module on NILE’s Masters in Professional Develop-
ment for Language Education.
Her professional special interests are teaching spelling, materials devel-
opment, ICT and working with teachers. To find out more see her website,
The English Language Garden<http://www.elgweb.net/> and The Spelling
Blog<http://www.thespellingblog.blogspot.co.uk/>

When it comes to grammar terminology should we fol- by using the … umm … past simple’. (What was the
low those who have gone before us and use the terms that name please?). It’s enough to turn a student to Espe-
have become familiar? Doing this certainly helps teach- ranto!
ers and learners to recognise and research new language • And that leaves us with the past participle. Problem?
easily. But how about if we find this terminology lack- Most of my learners can’t say it! I’ve heard ‘past par-
ing in terms of accuracy, clarity and user-friendliness? ticle’, ‘past parcel’ (a new grammar party game?) and
Should we use it anyway? often ‘past par…..’ (the rest is an embarrassed mum-
ble). Some avoid the problem by calling is ‘pp’ but
Take the three forms of verbs, which are usually re- that of course can be confused with present participle,
ferred to as ‘infinitive’, ‘past simple’ and ‘past partici- present perfect, or past perfect.
ple’. As a teacher, I find these beset with difficulties:
• If you ask teachers (or learners) what the infinitive of So all in all this terminology does not seem to serve
‘written’ is, some will insist it is ‘write’ while others us too well. However, it is very prevalent. In a search
will be equally adamant that it is ‘to write’. And it mat- through a random selection of six (UK adult) ELT
ters if you are analysing the form of a language struc- coursebooks I found they all used this conventional ter-
ture. For example, it would be easy to make the fol- minology.
lowing two statements in a lesson: “after modal verbs For years I and many of my colleagues (and many
we use an infinitive” and “after ‘like’ we can use a ger- other teachers worldwide) have been talking about
und or an infinitive”? They can’t both be right, but are Verb 1, Verb 2 and Verb 3 (or V1, V2 and V3). Learn-
both seen. Of course we can make it clear whether ‘to’ ers are so used to seeing the three columns of irregular
is included or not by talking about the ‘bare infinitive’ verbs in the back of their coursebooks, for example,
and the ‘to infinitive’, but the truth is we often don’t that they can immediately relate to this. Even if they
specify. are initially unsure what it means, after less than 1
• So if the infinitive is ‘write’ (or ‘to write’) what is minute’s explanation they’ve ‘got it’ and in my expe-
‘wrote’? The ‘past simple’ of course. But what a dread- rience use it readily (no embarrassing pronunciation
ful name for it! As Nick Hall and John Shepheard il- problems here).
lustrated so neatly in The Anti-Grammar Grammar
Book some years ago, it is often used not to refer to Why is it so much better?
the past. Why should a teacher have to tell her pre- Verb 1 is, for example, ‘write’. If we want to describe
intermediate learners ‘So you can see we use the past ‘to write’ we say ‘to + V1’. So no confusion there: ‘make
simple to talk about the future’ (If I woke up tomor- somebody + V1’ and ‘persuade somebody + to + V1’.
row with a headache, I wouldn’t come to school.’ ‘It’s Verb 2 then is ‘wrote’. By removing any reference to
time I went home’.) Or ‘Yes, that’s right we can also the past we avoid the confusion of ‘using the past to talk
use the past simple to talk about the present’ (‘I wish about the present/future’. This neutrality makes English
my grammar was better’). Or ‘We can be more polite grammar seem so much less illogical. V2 becomes a form
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT English

7May–
June 2017

that just happens to be used for the past simple as well as the teaching materials, would be the simplest way, it is
some other constructions. Keep time out of it! interesting to note that many seem to feel it is worth using
Verb 3, as in ‘written’, is easier to say (even with the the alternatives.
tricky ‘th’ sound). I went on to ask why they used the terminology they
To find out what other teachers felt about this, I con- used. Most of those using the conventional infinitive/past/
ducted some small scale research and asked English past participle names said they did so because it was what
teachers from different countries about the terminology was in the books, what the students had learnt before or
that they used. Of the 34 respondents, only 60% said that because it was what they had learnt themselves. Some
they usually used the term ‘infinitive’, 24% used ‘Verb actually said they would prefer to use V1, V2 and V3,
1’, ‘V1’ or ‘first form’. The others used ‘base form’ or but they were worried about deviating from terminology
something different. A higher percentage, 73%, said they used in their coursebooks. It does make you wonder if the
usually referred to ‘past’ or ‘past simple’ (for ‘wrote’, cart is leading the horse here.
for example), and most of the rest (25%) said they used Following my article on this subject in another maga-
‘Verb 2’, ‘V2’ or ‘second form’. zine, I conducted a short poll on the English Language
And as for the so-called past participle, 69% used this Garden website (http://www.elgweb.net) in which I
terminology, while the other 31% preferred ‘Verb 3’, asked people to vote on this question: “Should English
‘V3’ or ‘3rd form’. language teaching materials refer to verb forms as Verb1,
So we can see that the traditional terminology still has Verb 2 and Verb 3?”. 76% said yes. I promised to pass
a clear majority. However, it seems for a significant mi- the results on to materials writers. Many teachers around
nority, over 25%, they choose to use alternative termi- the world would appreciate terminology that is clear, ac-
nology that found in nearly all coursebook and grammar curate and user-friendly, even if it is less conventional.
books (at least the ones I surveyed). Considering that fol- Please, if there are any materials writers out there, this is
lowing the status quo, that is using the terminology from what teacher would like.

:
English PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

8 May–
June 2017
ON THE DEATH OF A CRAFT
As the previous academic year was drawing to an end, I posted this text on my Facebook page hoping to see
how many of my colleagues share my feelings about, and vision of, the role in store for the English teacher in
the changing ELT landscape. It instantly triggered some positive feedback – not much – but, what was most
precious for me, responses came from the ELT professionals whom I know as innovators. The original text
bore the provocative title On the Death of a Craft, which my Facebook readers immediately renounced as
extreme and irrelevant. However, I am sticking to my guns: I believe that teaching English as a craft that we
used to possess is close to extinction. Here is why.

Today, language teachers have completely lost the three another key monopoly – their methodological knowledge.
“unique selling points”, three monopolies that have secured Nowadays, traditional, groundbreaking, original, pseudosci-
them high demand for several centuries, firstly – among the entific, and downright quackish methodologies of language
few privileged and later – for a relatively short time – among acquisition are openly available and competing for students’
the general public: brains. Now learners can enjoy choosing systems of, and ap-
1) a monopoly on the knowledge of language itself; proaches to, teaching. Their choice of a methodology is no
2) a monopoly on the methodological knowledge or the skill longer dramatic: if one system fails, just go find another one,
to teach a foreign language; and as a possible mismatch will never imply wasting too much
3) the exclusive opportunity to facilitate practice of a foreign time or money.
language. Finally, in the global world where native speakers of dif-
In other words, this profession used to thrive solely be- ferent languages move freely, and powered by a surge in
cause the learner’s success in mastering a language totally communication technologies, the English teacher’s role as
depended on the language teacher as a bearer of the three the most natural source of language practice provider has
requisites for this success. been reduced to a minimum. Faced with the dilemma wheth-
These days, however, the knowledge and skills that my er to chat in English with her Russian teacher Maria Davy-
colleagues possess have ceased to be sacred or exclusive. dovna or the Canadian Mary Davidson on Skype (or even, if
To begin with, the knowledge of any foreign language in the Mary is an expat – in the local conversation club), the learner
world no longer belongs only to a professional community. shows little hesitation. After all, knowledge yearns for pro-
Moreover, the language (and English to a larger extent than bation. Again, because of its global status, English in par-
others) has left even the broader domain of the liberal arts, ticular can be accessed more easily than any other language
let alone the formerly inherent linguistic domain. As for Eng- in the world.
lish, it consecutively transgressed the borders of Great Brit- The former English teacher has become useless, as the
ain itself and of the British Empire and ended up destroying content, the methodology, and the practice are delivered to
all global boundaries altogether. The present day status of the learner instantly once they press their touchscreen. The
English makes any claims of its unique knowledge or com- craft has passed away.
mand simply ridiculous. Having felt the cutthroat trend, the English Teaching
With the emergence of the global network, and particularly profession has switched on a self-defense mechanism. On
of the broadband connection, with digitalization of both the a global scale, it has tried to rescue itself with patched
virtual space and individual mind, English teachers have lost up adjustments rather than deep reforms: utilizing inter-
national language tests, ESP, and CLIL. In other words,
there was an attempt to substitute artificial demands for
the genuinely unique points gone for good. Now it is only
extending the agony of the craft, but a fatal outcome is
certain.
In June, I conducted another brief survey among my stu-
dents about the results achieved in the academic year. A
short questionnaire with a humorous undertone was aimed
at gathering feedback on the benefits and drawbacks of the
course I had facilitated. I conduct this activity in some form
annually; one thing remains unchanged: all the questions
on the survey are open to the great possible extent. Here is
the main trend I have seen recently: the percentage of stu-
dents appraising their substantial development of language
skills has dropped several-fold. It is happening despite the
fact that my students are learning English both for active
use in life (for example, daily academic life) and for spe-
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT English

9May–
June 2017

cific formal purposes (examinations, interviews, business classroom is primus inter pares – first among equals. Here
correspondence). is an incomplete to-do list for a language curator: 1) under-
Instead, I have observed a comparable surge in the in- stand the vector of students’ interest; 2) find and/or design
dex of learners highlighting the following aspects as strong materials with the language aims and objectives in mind; 3)
points of my courses: interesting content, broad range of motivate learners to be pro-active both in and outside the
themes, inspirational components, comfortable psychologi- classroom; 4) inspire students to make them confident and
cal background, interactivity, and extensive use of technol- avoid forming language barriers; 5) create a comfortable en-
ogy. Therefore, the development of the skills, believed to be vironment for language practice, and 6) facilitate both group
consequential among language teachers, has turned into a and individual identity. If these conditions are met, the mod-
priority for learners. It is now obvious to me that most of ern language learner is almost doomed to success.
my adult students appreciate our lessons not for the lan- However, in order to meet these conditions, the language
guage knowledge gained, and not even for the opportunity curator has to move beyond the learners’ language needs
to practice the language in a comfortable environment, but themselves. The curator will have to push the limits of un-
most importantly, for broadening their outlook on life and derstanding of the learners’ life, be aware of it in a broader
understanding themselves through the medium of the Eng- context; only then will language classes appeal to them
lish language. as relevant. Only then will learners themselves create a
This underlying transformation of learners’ needs will soon language environment in their life, will start a relationship
lead to four aftershocks critical for us, English teachers. with the language, and will see an inherent link between
• Firstly, the unconditional acceptance of inter- and multi- the language and their success, both personal and profes-
disciplinary nature of the subject and, hence, boosting sional.
your general knowledge to “the sky is the limit”. CPD Ask yourself if there has been a single occasion in your
(continuous professional development) has stopped being life when a confusion between Present Simple and Present
an advantage in the trade; now it is an indispensable re- Continuous played a vital role, e.g. disrupted communica-
quirement for success in ELT. tion, ruined a project, kicked you out of an important group.
• Secondly, we will soon have to acknowledge the death of I bet you it has not. However, one of the following may have
the baseline course book for any course as none of them been the cause of real issues in communication: you were too
is capable of meeting the diversity and unpredictable shy where your voice was needed, or you lacked confidence
change in the vector of learners’ demands and interests. or a can-do attitude, or you failed to recognize the oppor-
Publishers’ recent attempt to merely move content online, tunity by its attributes, or you ignored the (cultural or pro-
conserving the restrictive and cumulative approach to its fessional) conventions, etc. A language curator could have
organization and design, makes teaching even more for- helped you do much better in all these situations.
mal and lifeless. I would hate this text to sound like an obituary, although I
• Thirdly, ESP and EAP will pass away. Modern life has have used some strong words like ‘death’ and ‘passed away’.
become a succession of specific purposes, and CPD is no In any change, there is also an opportunity, and we should do
longer separable from personal growth. our best to see it. These days it has unveiled itself through our
• And, finally, we can forecast an approaching demise of the learners’ demands, so the ball is in our court. The challenge
language tests in the conventional format, where only lan- is to change our fundamental approach to language teaching,
guage skills are assessed either separately or only slightly especially the teaching of adults. The potential of language
integrated. curatorship is massive, and learners expect us to assume the
Under these circumstances, the role of the language teach- role, for the previous one has lost all its appeal.
er changes dramatically. Instead of instruction and teaching,
another role is being mandated by learners, namely ‘a lan- By Vasiliy Gorbachev
guage curator’. The teacher of adults in the modern language Illustration from http://2.bp.blogspot.com/
English METHODS OF TEACHING

10 May–
June 2017
WHY CAN’T THEY SIT
AND BE QUIET?
Helping Students with Attention Deficit
Disorder in a Language Classroom
This article deals with learners displaying signs of ADD, However, although ADD is commonly associated with
Attention Deficit Disorder (or Difference). Although this term fidgety individuals who are restless, but quick to react, there
is now widely used not only by medical professionals but also is the other side. Learners who take longer to produce any
by educators in general, it seems important to understand right kind of reaction and generally seem “lazy” and unrespon-
from the beginning that used in reference to a student, this sive, usually also can be expected to have ADD. This slower
label is more of an umbrella term to refer to a generally recog- mode of behavior is explained by hypodynamic processes in
nized type of learners’ behavior, rather than a diagnosis. Very individuals’ physiology, once again to remind us that typical,
often we, as teachers, have limited access to our learner’s pro- repeated behavior is very often defined by a person’s physi-
files and in absence of a document from a neurology specialist cal state, not their will. Without further neurological detours,
might wish to deter from announcing this or that has ADD. let us keep in mind this duality of ADD and continue to look
However, being able to recognize certain patterns of behav- at approaches that could prove to be helpful with this educa-
ior to plan more suitable learning procedure for a student is tional difficulty.
an essential part of a teacher’s job. In this case, using a term
might help with teacher research, professional discussions and So what can a teacher do to help?
generally sharing experiences – the latter being the purpose of Classroom management with ADD learners usually seems
this article. rather challenging: they are likely to react impulsively, inter-
rupt, make silly comments, move around the class, ask to
What kind of behavior are we talking about? repeat instructions again and again and generally are slow to
Commonly, in professional literature students who might follow up with the classwork. All of the above can turn out
have ADD are described as those who have difficulty staying to be distracting for other learners in the group as well, so in
(sitting, mostly) still and concentrating, that is, keeping their planning classroom management for such groups, it is worth
attention on one item for a given amount of time and control- keeping in mind not only the educational support necessary
ling their impulses (hence over-emotional reactions). Such for SEN learners, but also the way for them to interact with
learners can be easily spotted in class where they shout out their peers throughout the class to ensure productive work
answers out of turn, impulsively get up from their places and on both sides.
move around the room, constantly ask to repeat instructions In cases of both hyperactive and hypodynamic children,
or miss out whole chunks of lessons not being able to write a general recommendations will typically include routines.
single letter in their notebooks. Clearly, sustaining attention, These might take form of a fixed lesson form for younger
as the name of the condition suggests, is the main challenge learners or a repertoire of learning activities familiar to learn-
for such learners. ers for older students. Knowing what comes next or how cer-
tain tasks are done can help reduce anxiety in hyperdynamic
learners and will also support hypodynamic students by pro-
viding a familiar framework for a task.
However, at the same time, teachers dealing with ADD
learners will need to be prepared to show sensitivity and
flexibility while carrying on with their established routines.
Most professionals who have worked with ADD learners
typically observe that this SEN group might at times display
uncommon behavior and either refuse to complete tasks or
carry them out quickly and efficiently in the same condi-
tions for no particular reason. This could be the result of a
variety of factors, such as weather outside, amount of sleep
a learner gets, family issues or late breakfast. Typically, if
an ADD learner seems to be struggling with the lesson or
refusing to complete a particular task, a teacher might wish
to try negotiating the issue mildly but if unsuccessful from
the first or second attempt, it is recommended to offer an al-
ternative task or even let a learner rest for several minutes.
METHODS OF TEACHING English
Insisting, confronting or disciplining such learners is very
unlikely to bear any productive results: if their nervous sys-
tem requires a little break, such students will physically not
be able to proceed with your instructions. To go around this
problem, a teacher might offer help and actually engage
11May–
June 2017
in doing the task with the learner (firstly, modeling it
themselves and then shifting the initiative to the student) or
provide a micro “plan” for work: please, copy these words
here. Done? Now, copy this and that. Very good, and now,
let’s read this question and write the answer here. However,
if a learner is refusing to complete a task, it might be bet-
ter for everyone to let them switch to another exercise or
simply clean the board.
To aid their active learners “survive” till the end of the
lesson, a teacher might wish to offer them opportunities to you can do is remind yourself what to focus on. For example,
move during the class without distracting others: distribute “I should raise a hand before shouting things out”. Do you
copies, sort out pencils from pens, bring that book from the agree? Can you repeat it, please? Then, during the class, a
shelf and similar small tasks. Doodling, even playing with so teacher can remind the learner to repeat the “rules” they have
called “fidget toys” like hand gum or squeeze balls can help discussed before – perhaps, quietly and to themselves.
such individuals recharge and stay seated. Praise in such cases plays a great role. It is important
Situations when an ADD learner overtly, repeatedly and to support your ADD students in every effort (conscious or
sometimes even aggressively refuses to complete a task are not) to sustain their attention and to behave in a way that
not rare – it generally means that their nervous system is will allow others to study productively. Every time an ADD
exhausted and is currently unable to cope with any input. learner produces work in time and successfully completes a
However suspicious this might look, especially with younger task without disturbing anybody deserves praise. When they
learners, I personally prefer to let the student take some rest. are struggling, encouragement is also known to be extremely
It usually happens towards the end of the lesson, but basi- efficient.
cally signals the amount of productive time this ADD student Another way to introduce quieter moments in your class-
is able to spend on task. This amount of time will be seen room with ADD learners is to offer breathing exercises.
growing during the school year and while short and rather These do not have be sophisticated yoga-like sequences, but
unproductive in primary, in secondary school it is typical to simple exercises for children which will help them switch
see even ADD learners sitting (however fidgety, but sitting!) attention, recharge and change pace. If you see your class
through the whole lesson. and ADD learners in particular are struggling to focus, you
In the light of what has been discussed in the previous might suggest they stand up, slowly breathe in and raise their
paragraph, it is clear that observing classroom rules is arms, stretch and close their eyes, perhaps. You can look for
one of the biggest difficulties for such learners: waiting for “mindful breathing” on the Internet to get more ideas, but
their turn, raising a hand to speak, staying in the same place basically trying it out with your class and looking at their
throughout a lesson are a challenge. From my experience reaction is a great start.
with ADD learners – young children or teenagers – disciplin- Drama activities are a great way to vary classroom dy-
ing them or introducing any sort of “punishment” such as ex- namics and allow ADD learners to take up roles and express
tracting points from a group, not rewarding their work with their emotions in ways that throughout regular activities
a sticker or even giving them bad marks has never proved would be distracting to others. Drama activities can be in-
to be effective. Logically, it is the behavior that suffers as a cluded into practically any lesson at different levels and with
result of ADD, so although all attempts are made to support different ages, whether it’s acting out a song or a story with
learners and help them develop their self-control skills, it is younger children, or role-playing a dialogue from a course
clear that very often they still fail to stop themselves from book. More ideas can be taken from a book by S. Hillyard
disruptive behavior. Monitoring such learners throughout the “English through Drama” (Hellbling, 2016).
class and directing their energy (eitter on a task, if you think
they are still within their productive slot of attention, or on Resources
something else, when attention is exhausted) in a friendly, Learning more about ADD and ways to interact with and
but directive manner and a calm voice usually seems to be support such students can significantly empower a teacher
working better. Confrontation might cause hysterical reac- and help them build professional and effective approach to
tions which will generally take more time and attention from teaching such individuals. The author highly recommends
a teacher to resolve, than a reminder to get back to their place looking at the following two titles to enjoy an informative
or raise a hand. and highly practical read on the subject: “Special Educa-
To help a learner with ADD start learning about classroom tional Needs” by Marie Delaney (OUP, 2015) and a Russian
rules and appropriate behavior, you might want to introduce book (“Дети-тюфяки и дети-катастрофы”) by Ekaterina
“self-talk”. If a student is known to behave disruptively be- Murashova (Samokat, 2014).
cause of ADD, you can briefly but convincingly explain that
everyone needs working atmosphere in class during the les- By Masha Andrievich,
son, and to contribute to it, the learner will need to practise teacher trainer and English teacher,
watching their own behavior. It is not very easy, but one thing Lyceum No. 1524, Moscow
English METHODS OF TEACHING

12 May–
June 2017
HOW TO GAMIFY YOUR
ENGLISH CLASS. Step 3
In the previous articles we talked about two approaches to game. If a player doesn’t feel that his actions affect the flow
motivating millennial teens. When you apply gamification to of the game, they lose both interest and motivation.
your lesson, it is a good idea to start with extrinsic motiva- When I analysed the games that I found on the Internet
tion and introduce PBL (points-badges-leaderboard) first. for the query ELT games, most of them turned out to be dif-
To maintain a long-term interest in our lessons, we employ ferent activities, not real games. Let’s have a look at some
intrinsic motivation. According to D. Pink, intrinsic motiva- really popular games and activities which are used at English
tion consists of Autonomy, Mastery and Purpose, which we lessons.
discussed in the second article, as well as the ways of apply- Role-play In a café. This is an activity where one student
ing them to our lessons. performs the role of a waiter and another is a guest. They act
So gamification helps us to reconsider the traditional les- out a conversation in a café. Unfortunately, this type of simu-
son plan and it demands a lot of energy and dedication from lation activity will not engage anyone older than 4 years old
the teacher. Can we find a less stressful and time-consuming unless you add elements of strategy to this simulation.
method of motivation? By adding some extra rules and players’ goals, you turn
a simple simulation into a game, which is interesting for
EDUCATIONAL GAMES AND GAMIFICATION teens and adults to play. For example, a student has a cer-
Very often when teachers hear the word gamification they tain amount of money and he needs 2000 calories; he goes
think that we will talk about playing educational games at to a café and tries to buy a more nourishing meal for less
the lessons. Which is not correct. Gamification is the use of money.
game elements and game principles in the classroom. It is a Various crosswords are also very popular. Is a crossword
long-term process, which takes a series of lessons. puzzle a game? In fact, it is not a game, it is just a puzzle. As
Unlike gamification, educational games are normally em- there is only one correct answer and the player can not make
ployed to practise target language at some point at the lesson. any meaningful decisions which influence the outcome, you
Educational games are easy to find and they don’t need lots either know the correct answer or not. That’s why cross-
of preparation. words are not very engaging for teens and adults along with
Gamification has become a buzz word over the last six word searches and other puzzles, unless you add some game
years or so, while educational games are a mainstream teach- elements to them.
ing technique. The first researches on the association between The most obvious thing is to add a competitive element
games and learning date back to the mid-twentieth century. when you divide the group into two teams and the group who
The benefits of games are obvious: they enhance motivation, completes the task first is the winner. Or you can set a time
provide authentic output for the language, all while improv- limit and the person who could come up with the greatest
ing students’ social skills. Still many teachers try to mini- number of correct answers within, let’s say, two minutes is
mize the use of games at their lessons. the winner.
I conducted a survey among my colleagues regarding The truth is that competitions as well as puzzles are not
the frequency they used games at their lessons. The results real games. Actually they just measure the intellectual abili-
showed that, on average, English teachers spend about 10% ties of our students. The good thing is that they are anyway
of their lesson time playing games, mostly as warming up much more enjoyable than boring exercises from course-
activities, or as a rewarding activity in the end of the class. books.
In answer to the question why they don’t play in the class-
room, teachers say that their students are too adult to play. HOW TO GAMIFY YOUR COURSEBOOK
But if you ask the same students how they spend their per- If you are not ready to go into full gamification or only
sonal free time, you’ll definitely receive an answer – play- want to enhance your gamification framework, try to turn the
ing video games, card and board games with their friends. most common exercises from your coursebook into games
An average young adult in the UK spends 22 hours a week and competitions.
playing computer games. So I strongly believe that it’s our Let’s have a look at the most popular exercises and how
preconceived ideas that prevent us from playing games at we can transform them. Video illustrations to these activities
the lessons. can be viewed on Youtube.

GAMES VS ACTIVITIES Match a word and a picture exercise is often found in the
There is another category of teachers, who after a few at- beginning of the vocabulary section in the coursebook. Here
tempts, have come to the conclusion that their students don’t are some activities to be used instead of matching exercises.
like games. The problem here lies in the common miscon- 1) Print the new words on separate stripes of paper and put
ception that any interactive activity is called a game. One of them on the table face up. Ask your students to walk round
the best definitions of a game states that the game is a series the table. You show them a flashcard and they have to slap
of meaningful decisions which influence the outcome of the the corresponding word card on the table.
METHODS OF TEACHING English

13
May–
June 2017

Illustration from http://slideplayer.com


2) Put wordcards and picture flashcards into two separate 3) Fast Train Bomb. Put students in a circle and start a bomb
piles on the table face down. A student turns over the first timer, show a flashcard, name it and send it round the
wordcard and flashcard and if they match, they can keep circle. While the bomb is ticking, students pass round a
them. The winner is the person with the largest number of flashcard and repeat the word on it. Students as a team
wordcard/flashcard sets. get a point for each flashcard which returns to the teacher
3) Bingo. Ask your students to write down any 5 words from before the bomb explodes.
your target vocabulary. When your students are ready, start
showing them the flashcards one by one. When a student Unscramble the words as stated above is a puzzle. How
identifies the flashcard which matches one of the words can we turn it into a game?
they have got on their list, they cross it out. The first per- Print out the words from your Unscramble the words ex-
son to cross out all the words and to cry out “Bingo” is the ercise on separate stripes of paper and put them on the walls
winner. around your classroom. Divide your students in pairs where
Although the activities above refer to competitions, stu- one student is a writer and another is a runner. The runner
dents like playing them. looks for the words, comes back to the writer and spells the
Pelmanism is an example of a real game, based on mem- words. The first pair to spell 5 correct words is the winner.
ory mechanics, which we can use to replace a matching ex-
ercise. Make true sentences about yourself.
Put wordcards and flashcards on the table face down. Stu- Basketball. Place a line of flashcards on the floor and a
dents take turns to play. At their turn they open two cards, basket far away. To shoot the basket from far away is hard, so
one flashcard and one wordcard, of their choice from the lay- students need to say a sentence with the word from the card
out. If they match, a student keeps these two cards. If they do and make their way closer and closer to the basket. When
not match, a student turns them face down, without changing they feel comfortable throwing and hitting the basket, they
their position in the layout, and it is the next students’s turn. make their attempt. If they make a mistake, they throw the
The winner is the person with the largest number of match- ball standing next to the last flashcard where they produced a
ing pairs. correct sentence. Give one point for each successful hit.

Repeat the words is another boring exercise from the Comprehension check questions after the text.
coursebook. How can we spice it up? The teacher cuts a worksheet with questions to the text
1) Line up the students in two teams. Give the two students into stripes (one stripe – one question) and puts them on the
at the front each a flash card. When you say go, the first blackboard/desk. Students in turns pick up a question and
in line says the word and passes the flash card over their answer it. If they answer it correctly, they get a point. If they
head, the next student says the word and passes the card make a mistake a point is taken from them. The question
under between their legs, etc. The last student in line races they couldn’t answer is put back.
to the front to hand the flashcard to the teacher and says After each round let students go back to the texts and read
the word. The first team to complete the activity gets a them once again. Set a time limit. With each round give less
point (submitted by Sarah Litwin-Schmid). time for reading the texts.
2) Clever parrots. The teacher shows a flashcard and names As you see, any coursebook exercise can be turned into an
what is on it (teacher may say a different word deliber- exciting game or activity. After some practice you’ll be able
ately). Students should repeat the word if it matches the to come up with dozens of games at the click of a finger and
flashcard and keep quiet if it doesn’t. Eliminate the stu- become the teacher over 9000 level!
dents who have made a mistake. The last student who is By Elena Peresada
left is the winner. to be continued
English METHODS OF TEACHING

14 May–
ECONOMICS AND ECONOMY
June 2017
OF EFL CLASSROOM:
Learning from Adjacent Fields
PART 3 ing and prompting the language to help the student ver-
The other extreme of the potential meaning quantity balise their thoughts and exchanges.
continuum would be a classroom with very little con- The most dangerous traps of this lingvonomic system are
trol on behalf of the teacher and no planned input for fossilized mistakes and low development of the cognitive
the lesson. The teacher’s intervention is ‘just enough to potential – limited exposure due to restricted contact with the
maintain a minimum of discipline to guarantee safety out-of-the-classroom world. Another negative consequence
in the lesson’ (a comment by an anonymous teacher on is the phenomenon of drop-outs – learners who choose to
a teachers’ forum http://www.efl.ru/forum/teaching/). leave the classroom and stop learning the language. The
This kind of lingvonomy can be compared with the so- principle ‘use it or lose it’ is at work.
called laissez-faire ‘economic system with only enough The listed above disadvantages are used by “traditional-
government regulation sufficient to protect property ists” to criticise communicative teaching and make proph-
rights against theft and aggression’ (Wikipedia: http:// ecies like this, ‘Students will speak pidgin English, on the
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laissez-faire). Examples of such level of gastarbeiters and market vendours’.
a lingvonomy could be a kind of conversational club These dangers are illustrated in the table below. The arti-
session: students come just to talk about anything, the facts are taken from the times of the Great Depression in the
teacher’s role is to maintain this conversation by listen- United States in the period between 1929 and 1939.

Having little contact with the target language


and lacking corrective feedback (as long as
the message is clear, the form doesn’t really
Organised crime (mafia):
matter), the learner ends up speaking broken
English full of fossilized mistakes that be-
come systematic.
Al Capone: a Chicago gangster convicted of tax
evasion in 1931.

A great number of neurons in the brain turn


out to be extra, they get pruned, and as a
result, the language connectome doesn’t
Unemployment: develop to its full potential due to the lack
of sufficient exposure to the target language
which may be confined to the teacher talk
only.

Great Depression. New York City. May 1936.

Students leave the classroom as they do not


see their expectations met. The “flesh” of the
language, the declarative knowledge of lexis
Emigration/migration:
and structures, is not presented systemati-
cally, something they expect a proper class-
room should always do.

Dorothea Lange photographs of the Dust Bowl Mi-


gration (from the Oakland Museum Archives).
METHODS OF TEACHING English
It should be noted that similar processes were in their prime
in the 90s (‘the time of troubles’) in Russia – organized crime,
a huge wave of emigration, and rocketing unemployment.
Such classroom lingvonomies a-la laissez-faire might
be able to exist, though the very nature of language, i.e. the
15
May–
June 2017
norm-referenced identity of its elements which ensures un-
derstanding of a word by all members of a language commu-
nity (Bakhtin, 1998), and the necessity to align to the existing The market sector should be responsible for creating a
norms in order to be understood, assumes the teacher’s active motive to act verbally under “the given circumstances” (Sta-
intervention and monitoring students’ output with corrective nislavsky’s expression quoted in Leontiev 2014), supplying
feedback. Nevertheless, they will always stand outside the the required form-meaning composites as ‘consumer goods’
mainstream educational establishments, either private or and selling them through ‘retail trade’ of focus-on-form ac-
state: with no expected outcomes specified by national min- tivities.
istries of education or international exam syndicates, making In conclusion, by using the concept of complex systems
them an alternative “underground” methodology. and drawing an analogy between seemingly unrelated areas
Yet, the most successful economies in the world are those of economics and EFL methodology, it is possible to trace
which are able to find the proper balance between the state how a classroom situation may reflect a country’s econom-
and the private sectors. They are so-called mixed economies. ic policy. It also allows us to work out an optimal balance
The examples are: between carefully planned input and spontaneous demand
• USA: substantial market regulation, agricultural subsi- for more language in the course of the lesson. In the long
dies, extensive government-funded research and develop- run, this should ensure a maximum interaction in the les-
ment, Medicare. son among the students, the teacher, the materials and the
• France (“Thirty Glorious Years” under Charles de new language. The interaction is stirred by students’ activity
Gaulle): transportation, energy and telecommunication to use the new language as a tool to express their potential
infrastructures. meanings. This interaction turns the lesson into a never-end-
• Germany: public services, welfare, proper working con- ing polyphonic dialogue, a microcosm condition for creating
ditions, employment regulation (Wikipedia). a language.
The regulation of certain sectors in the economies in all If the student has a chance to convert his potential mean-
these examples is planned by state authorities and supported ings into the target language at any point in the course of the
with tax collections for the reason that these branches are lesson, this lesson can be rightfully called communicative.
essential for an economy’s mere survival and existence. Sec- The approach the teacher claims to adhere to is irrelevant as
ondly, scientific research work, police and army, welfare sys- long as there is a demand for more language input on behalf
tems, environmental protection are too costly for the private of the student and this demand is met. The true difference
sector. It may take a long time for a private enterprise to ac- between a traditional lesson and a communicative one can be
cumulate sufficient capital to launch a research project, for measured by the quantity of students’ realised meanings that
example space exploration, and besides, the accumulation of the lesson generated.
revenues may take a century for something like transporting
References:
natural resources from the Moon. Council of Europe. Common European Framework of Refer-
But what is given to the market is production of consumer ence for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge:
goods, retail trade and services because “the only way to de- Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Dornyei, Z. The Psychology of Second Language Acquisition.
termine what society actually wants is by allowing private
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
enterprise to use their resources competing to meet the needs Ellis, R. Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford:
of consumers” (Wikipedia). Oxford University Press, 2009.
To reconcile the two extremes, I would suggest creating Larsen-Freeman, D. and L. Cameron. Complex Systems and
Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
a mixed lingvonomic system in which both the teacher and
Richards, J. C. and T. S. Rodgers. Approaches and Methods
students direct the study process, combining both planned in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
and market systems. Analysing the real mixed economies 2014.
existing in today’s world we may define the following areas Thornbury, S. and P. Wilkins. The CELTA (Certificate in English
Language Teaching to Adults) Course. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni-
for the planned sector:
versity Press, 2007.
• ‘investing into scientific research work’ and developing Willis, J. A Framework for Task-Based Learning. Longman,
learners’ cognitive abilities; 1996.
• ‘building a welfare system’ by creating a non-threatening Бахтин, М.М. (под маской). Маска третья. Волошинов В. Н.
Марксизм и философия языка. М., 1998.
atmosphere in the classroom;
Глухов, В.П. Психолингвистика. М., 2016.
• ‘maintaining high employment standards’ by regulating Зимняя, И.А. Психологические аспекты обучения говорению
student participation and selecting topics and tasks that га иностранном языке. М., 1984.
will engage students to participate; Леонтьев, А.А. Язык, речь, речевая деятельность. М., 2014.
Английский в начальной школе (Retrieved in November 2011
• ‘developing infrastructure’ by establishing rapport and
from http://www.efl.ru/forum/threads/51904/)
shortening the social distance among the group members;
• ‘constructing heavy industry’ by helping students to detect By Svetlana V. Zhavoronkova,
language patterns, raise their language awareness and thus Moscow State Pedagogical University,
‘solve the riddle of the new language’ (Bakhtin, 1998); chair of Foreign Languages in Primary School,
• ‘maintaining competition’ through dynamic assessment. Institute of Childhood, senior teacher
English TEACHERS FORUM

16 May–
June 2017
OUT OF MY COMFORT ZONE
IF EVERY CHILD IS PRECIOUS SHOULD THEY ALL conversation days were always very stressful to prepare and to
RECEIVE GOOD GRADES? conduct but at the end of the day we all left with raised spirits
Everybody is different, nobody is the same. This is the due to the positive tone of the conversations.
motto of the innovative German school pilot project on which Positive language was a very important part of our assess-
I worked for the past two years. In the past two issues I have ment culture. Instead of simply marking the mistakes made
described the specific nature of this school and the specific in tests or talking about skills or behaviour that had to be im-
materials which we developed. This final article will take a proved, we focused on the achievements and what the chil-
look at the ultimate challenge of how to live up to our aspira- dren were able to do already. This was very effective for shy
tion of individual support for every single child in their indi- and quiet children but it could be odd to praise an impetu-
vidual skills and talents and at the same time providing a fair ous and lazy student once more for the good start they made.
assessment. In order to enable meaningful and holistic learn- Talking about expectations for the proper behaviour of the
ing processes we were trying to do without the pressure of the children or about basic limitations to the freedom of learning
meritocracy around us that would favour the gifted children was rather difficult. For once if every child was different and
but discourage slower learners. was learning in their individual way and along their individual
There is a famous German cartoon by Traxler which il- ways then it became almost impossible to reprimand them for
lustrates the dilemma of a fair assesment brilliantly. In an an unacceptable work attitude because what should be the
outdoor classroom a teacher is addressing their students, a standard they should be measured against? The entire notion
group of several different animals, amongst them a bird, a of age-appropriateness lost every meaning in our multi-age
monkey, an elephant and a goldfish: „In order to guarantee a learning groups where we encouraged individuality.
fair selection the examination task is the same for all of you. Of course, there were some standards after all. In my pre-
Climb up the tree!“ Some have interpreted this cartoon in vious article I have described the competence grids which
favour of the tripartite school system. The elephant and the we developed in order to label the differentiated exercises
goldfish are neither able to nor should they be expected to within the task-based projects we worked on during the year.
climb on the high tree of a university entrance qualification We had taken all the skill descriptors from our state curricu-
so their achievements should not be judged against the high lum and created a matrix with labels from A1-B4. B4 would
standard of the A-levels (Abitur). The monkey on the other be the level which grammar school students should reach at
hand should be trained at climbing trees from a very young the end of year 10 in order to enter the final two years of the
age onwards in order to achieve his full potential and should sixth form. B3 would be the level of 10th graders at a mid-
be graded accordingly. Others have interpreted the cartoon dle school, B2-10th graders at basic school and B1 the lowest
in favour of a comprehensive school system. Because all the possible diploma to be attained at the end of the 9th grade at
different animals have different strengths and cannot be rea- basic school. This way we were able to translate the tasks our
sonably allocated into a single swimming school (duck and students were working on in their mixed-aged groupings back
goldfish), a single running school (elephant and leopard) into regular school year levels. If the tasks were well designed
and a single climbing school (monkey and cat). They like- or chosen, that is. Generally, we rejected every idea of sorting
wise cannot be expected to work on the same tasks at the our students in ready-made boxes of the traditional regular
same time. The answer would be an individualised learning school system. On their report card the students would find
culture with an individualised assessment. The same cartoon full moons, half moons or crescents to visualise how many
has been used by proponents and opponents of the compre- of the skills on the different levels had already been acquired.
hensive school reform alike which shows the inherent prob- What made this system very intransparent though is that some
lems of a fair assessment. subjects would give a general feedback on the skills that the
There were several ways in which our school broke fresh children could have worked on in theory and mark them as
ground in assessment. Most importantly, we did not give any successfully achieved, others were mainly commenting for
grades from the first grade to the ninth grade. Instead we of- the quantity of tests that had been written and others would fo-
ten had feedback conversations with the students to reflect on cus more strongly on the quality. In English, we indicated the
their work and future goals. Twice a year these conversations different levels which we were able to attest for the listening,
were held on a larger scale in front of the student’s parents. writing, reading and speaking skills but we would not be able
The students prepared for the semester and the end of the year to give any feedback on the quantity of topics and thus vo-
conversation a week in advance and reflected on their work cabulary areas or even grammar topics a student had worked
ethics and their social skills and on their achievements in the on. That meant that our students scored high on skill-based
lessons in other projects or free time activities. The students tests, which were content-independent, even though they had
and the teachers evaluated whether they had reached their covered substantially less content than students at a regular
goals and what they wanted to work on in the coming semes- school would have.
ter, how their success would be measured and what help they Because our school focused on skills instead of content
might need. Another interesting part about these conversa- learning, we had to rethink the way in which we would give
tions was that we usually started with the personal highlights feedback on the quantity and quality of the learning outcomes.
of the semester. Many great memories were revived and beau- When you assess content you can define a certain scope of
tiful work products or excellent tests were looked at. These content as 100% and then count the percentage students were
TEACHERS FORUM English
able to reproduce. If you are assessing skills such as ‘I can ask
for directions’ instead of content, it becomes more difficult. It
was one of the core beliefs of our management that the mas-
tery of skills was a binary concept; you were either able to get
the directions or you were not. If you were thus considering
17May–
June 2017
the problem-solving aspect of the skills concept, then the lin-
guistic quality of your way to getting the directions would be of shops, products and shopping phrases’ we opened up the
content-fixed and pedantic. After all, what was it worth to be door for entirely content-based descriptors such as ‘I can do
able to perform well on a vocabulary or grammar test if you task 3 on page 4’.
could not make yourself understood in a communicative situ- What many of were in denial about was that most of our
ation? If we held up the old standards and the beauty of being testing culture was build upon testing content and then label-
able to communicate correctly, we were considered antiquated ling it as competences. This also lead to the construction zone
and conservative. signs being misused for quality indications instead of indica-
Another problem of percentage-based feedback is that tors for autonomous learning. A lot of the time we used closed
it shifts the focus of attention to the deficits instead of the and form-based test items so that it was not even possible for
achievements and fosters a competitive environment where us to do anything but count mistakes and give feedback on the
individual learning progress and the supportive community quantity of correct answers rather than the mastery of skills.
spirit of the learning group are likely to be replaced by an Another major obstacle for our realization of the new learn-
individualistic trial of strengths which creates a community ing culture were external regulations and frameworks. Ger-
of winners and losers. Therefore we tried to evade summaris- man school law is very definite about the amount and dura-
ing our assessment at all times possible and aimed to provide tion of exams that are to be held in every subject and in every
an assessment as detailed as possible concerning the different year and the final examinations are highly regulated as well.
skills that were mastered. Part of the examination grades are the grades that are achieved
An important pillar of our school which is connected to the during the final year and of course measured against the level
learning of skills was our culture of autonomous independ- that the state curriculum has determined for that school year.
ent learning. If you consider the assumed binary nature of But how do you treat a student who is still working on a lower
the mastery of skills and the independent learning culture, we level? Our management tried to work out conversion tables
were fostering, our solution might seem brilliant to you. In but they would not work out because the complicated system
order to give appropriate feedback on the mastery of the in- of state regulations and our own assessment were incompat-
dividual skills our checklists contained two construction zone ible with each other.
signs after every skill descriptor. One for the self-assessment During these years I thought a lot about the purpose of
of the students – an important part of any independent learn- grades. After being a harsh critic of excessive and unreliable
ing environment – and one for the teachers. If the construc- grading I no longer have those same qualms about the grading
tion zone sign was crossed out completely this meant that you process. I remember when I stepped in to substitute for a sick
were able to apply this skill completely on your own. If it French teacher and was using traditional teaching materials and
was crossed out halfway this meant that you were able to ap- how happy the students were when they found the vocabulary
ply this skill with a little help. A sign in brackets meant that lists and even begged me to write a test about these. Or the ninth
you still needed a lot of help with applying this skill and an graders who were approaching their first ever exams and who
unmarked construction zone sign or one that was highlighted were so worried because they did not know where they stood
with an exclamation mark meant quite literally that this was a and they told me ‘Please, just tell us how bad we are so that we
construction site for you. The theory is very plausible but the can face it’, which shocked me a lot because these were actually
trouble starts when it comes to applying it. Assessing indi- the few students who were actually doing really well.
vidual learning processes which in a classroom of 25 students Even though I might never get used to the selection pur-
you were hardly able to monitor in an appropriate reliable way pose of my grades, I have come to appreciate the benefits of
to then afterwards is impossible if you do not limit your as- grades. A lot of children are motivated by the competition for
sessment to individual work products or tests. But how can good grades. For some children and parents grades can act
you possibly assess the degree of independence if you are not as a wake up call and help to give an orientation of the kid’s
looking at the process but at the product or test only? academic performance. Even more importantly, I have also
One major issue for us, English teachers, were the tradi- come to believe that the learning progress requires constant
tional vocabulary tests. On the one hand. handing out vocabu- feedback and that the more precise the feedback is the better
lary lists was against the spirit of individual learning paths but it is for learning. If you have to assess achievements in an
our experience showed that the active and the passive lexicon environment where you have no reliable standards because
of our students was insufficient – also in the eyes of students everything is individual and if you do not have the language
and parents alike. Vocabulary tests can encourage learning and to reprimand children for bad behaviour or idleness, you deny
provide quick feedback, at least on the rote learning skills. But children of any sense of achievement.
there is no arguing with the content-based and competitive No assessment is perfect and no teaching is either. The
nature of these tests. Even if we were not allowed to note any same is true for schools and workplaces. For me working
points, we would still count the correct words and use percent- out of my comfort zone though was an incredible experience
ages for feedback such as ‘a great test’, ‘well done’ or ‘you’ve though, one which made me grow much more than I would
made the first step’, and of course students and parents were have ever imagined.
able to count as well and would bluntly mock this untranspar-
ent system. It also paved the way to a broad definition on skill Eva Drees,
descriptors. With ‘skill’ descriptors such as ‘I know the names Nelson-Mandela-Schule, Berlin
English РЕКЛАМА

18
FOCUS ON LANGUAGE English

ENGLISH FOR HUMAN RESOURCES


absentee рабочий, отсутствующий на работе без уважительной причины
19
May–
June 2017
absenteeism/absenteeism rate неявка на работу/коэффициент невыхода на
работу
accident at work, industrial injury производственная травма VOCABULARY BOOSTER
application form анкета, заполняемая поступающим на работу
to apply for a job подавать заявление о приеме на работу PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOUR
to appoint a person утвердить человека в должности
apprenticeship обучение; стажировка
It is a fact that, regardless of age or
aptitude test тест для проверки способностей culture, we have far more words in our
to ask for a rise просить об увеличении зарплаты vocabulary that express negative rather
assessment of applicants оценка кандидатов
back pay плата за ранее выполненную работу
than positive emotions. Cross-culturally,
bargaining power возможность диктовать свои условия there are five to seven basic emotions that
basic salary основной оклад show up in every language and seem to
to be dismissed/to be fired/to be laid off быть уволенным/быть уволенным
(временно) have the same meaning. They are joy (the
to be on probation, to be on trial быть на испытательном сроке only positive one!), fear, anger, sadness,
business hours, office hours рабочие часы disgust, shame and guilt.
clerical work, office work конторская работа; канцелярская работа
company bargaining/ company negotiation совещание компании Some scholars believe that it has to do
compensation for permanent disability пособие по инвалидности with the negativity bias, also known as the
concealed work; moonlighting незаконная работа по совместительству; нео- negativity effect, which refers to the notion
фициальная подработка
contractual situation договорная основа that, even when of equal intensity, things
cost of living allowance надбавка за рост стоимости жизни of a more negative nature (e.g. unpleasant
credentials документы, характеристики thoughts, emotions, or social interactions;
direct labour труд производственных рабочих; живой труд
disability pension пенсия по нетрудоспособности harmful/traumatic events) have a greater
disciplinary measure, disciplinary sanction мера дисциплинарного взы- effect on one’s psychological state than do
скания
neutral or positive things. In other words,
to dismiss, to fire уволить
part-time неполная занятость; полставки something very positive will generally
partial disability частичная нетрудоспособность have less impact on a person’s behaviour
pay formula, retribution diagram расчет заработной платы
pay increase for merit увеличение заработной платы за определенные
and cognition than something negative.
заслуги The scarcity of positive words can also
payroll/payroll ledger/payslip платежная ведомость/расчетный листок be accounted for by the fact that negative
pension/pension fund пенсия/пенсионный фонд
period of notice срок уведомления; срок извещения
words, like fear or anger, signal a threat or
permanent disability инвалидность; постоянная нетрудоспособность a danger. Over the centuries people have
permanent job, steady job постоянная работа developed more words to describe nega-
personnel department отдел кадров
personnel requirements требования к персоналу tive emotions because survival and their
prevention предупредительные меры; меры предосторожности quality of life may be at stake. That makes
public holiday (GB), national holiday (US) официальный выходной день sense from an evolutionary standpoint.
purchasing manager менеджер по закупкам
re-employment восстановление на работе When it comes to describing human
redundancy payment пособие по безработице behaviour, negative vocabulary seems to
refresher course курсы переподготовки; курсы усовершенствования prevail. Whereas positive behaviour can
relationship management управление по связям
remuneration оплата труда be easily rendered with the help of “act
resign (chairman); to give notice (employee) уволиться, отказаться от долж- + adverb” pattern (e.g. act kindly/gener-
ности; делать предупреждение об увольнении ously/graciously etc.), bad behaviour vo-
to retire уволиться; выйти на пенсию
dismissal отстранение от работы; расторжение трудового договора по ини- cabulary is characterized by more subtle
циативе работодателя distinctions. What follows is a selection
dismissal for cause увольнение по причине
of English verbs and phrases, together
dismissal without notice увольнение без уведомления
early retirement досрочный выход на пенсию with their Russian equivalents, that I offer
employment agency агентство по трудоустройству; биржа труда my students at our lessons devoted to pat-
employment card, working papers разрешение на работу
employment contract, labour contract договор найма на работу
terns of behaviour.
exit permit разрешение на выезд to fawn on/over someone – подлизы-
family allowances пособия для семей ваться, подхалимничать
to fill a vacancy заполнить вакансию; занять должность
freelance работающий не по найму (внештатный сотрудник)
I hate waiters who fawn over you.
full-time employment постоянная работа; полная занятость to put on airs – важничать, зазнаваться,
have an accident at work получить производственную травму задирать нос
to hold a position занимать должность
independent unions независимые профсоюзы The new boss put on airs by lying to his
index-linked wages индексированные заработные платы employees about things he had done in
indirect labour труд вспомогательных рабочих; непрямой труд ª the past. ª
English FOCUS ON LANGUAGE

20 May–
June 2017
industrial relations (GB), labour relations (US) производственные отно-
шения
industrial tribunal; labour court промышленный трибунал; суд низшей инстан-
ции по трудовым спорам
retirement/retirement age выход на пенсию/пенсионный возраст
VOCABULARY BOOSTER to risk indemnity страховать от убытков
role clash конфликтная ситуация
salary заработная плата; жалованье; оклад
to sneer/jeer (at) – издеваться, насме- secondary job совместительство
хаться senior clerk, senior employee старший служащий
severance pay, dismissal pay компенсация при увольнении
She’ll probably sneer at my new shoes short-term employment кратковременная занятость
because they’re not expensive. sick leave больничный лист
to get on one’s nerves – действовать на skilled labour/work квалифицированный труд
social costs социальные издержки
нервы social insurance, national insurance социальное страхование
Stop whining. You’re getting on my sole director единственный директор
nerves. staff costs, personnel costs затраты на содержание персонала
to take measures принимать меры
to nitpick – придираться к мелочам temporary disability временная нетрудоспособность
You’re always nitpicking – it’s so total disability полная нетрудоспособность
annoying! trade-union (GB), labour union (US) профсоюз
international regulations международные правила
to mock – издеваться, насмехаться irregular work, discontinuous work непостоянная работа
He’s mocked as a mama’s boy. job application заявка о поступлении на работу
to do something out of spite – делать job description должностная инструкция
job evaluation оценка служебных обязанностей
назло, в пику job security гарантия занятости
I broke up with Sally last week, so labour disputes трудовые споры
yesterday she returned all the gifts I gave labour force, manpower трудоспособное население
labour mobility текучесть рабочей силы
to her out of spite. labour retraining переподготовка рабочих
to intimidate – запугивать, внушать learning by doing, learning by practice обучение на практике
страх letter of appointment приказ о назначении
lockout временное отстранение
He intimidates his competitors into management training подготовка руководящих кадров
thinking that they have no chance to win. minimum rate of pay минимальный размер оплаты труда
motivation мотивировка; заинтересованность
to condemn – осуждать night shift ночная смена
I condemn rude language and behav- office manager офис-менеджер
iour. office staff, office personnel офисный персонал
on the job training стажировка
to put somebody down – принижать outsourcing внештатные работники
He put me down in front of my own training period период обучения
friends. trial period испытательный срок
under contract по контракту; по договору
to tell on someone – ябедничать underemployed занятый неполный рабочий день
You ate the cookies, so I’m telling on unemployment/unemployment benefits безработица/пособие по безработице
you! unjustified dismissal неправомерное увольнение
unpaid leave неоплачиваемый отпуск
to push someone around – третиро- unskilled labour неквалифицированный труд
вать unskilled worker неквалифицированный рабочий
When we were kids, my elder brother wage-cost spiral повышение/понижение затрат на зарплату
wage-earning workers работники, получающие оклад
liked to push me around. wage-packet (GB), pay envelope (US) конверт с заработной платой
to brag – хвастаться, похваляться wage bargaining, pay negotiations переговоры о размере заработной платы
He bragged that he was sure of victory. wage ceiling предельный уровень заработной платы
wage claims требования увеличить заработную плату
to put up with – мириться с... wage dynamics динамика заработной платы
I won’t put up with your insolence any wage freeze замораживание заработной платы
longer! wage indexation scale индексация заработной платы
wage pressures требование повышения заработной платы
to look up to somebody – относиться с welfare contributions пособия по социальному обеспечению
уважением to work at home работать на дому
work overtime работать сверхурочно
He needed a role model, someone to look work sheet листок учета работы
up to. worker, blue-collar worker производственный рабочий
to comport oneself with dignity – дер- working day рабочий день
working hours рабочие часы
жаться с достоинством workload рабочая нагрузка
Comport yourself with dignity, remember workplace место работы
what family you come from. workshift рабочая смена

Submitted by Tatyana Makhrina


By Yulia Shcherbinina
LESSON PLANS English

READING RULES 21
May–
June 2017

Технологическая карта урока для 5-го класса


Школа Всероссийского детского центра “Орлёнок” – Метапредметные:
это часть педагогической системы всего центра со сво- Познавательные: развивать исследовательские учебные
ими традициями и особенностями, поскольку к нам на действия; организовывать поиск и выделение нужной
обучение приезжают дети с разным уровнем знаний информации; обобщать и фиксировать полученную ин-
и обученности, в том числе обучающиеся националь- формацию.
ных школ. Смена в детском лагере длится 21 день, а в Регулятивные: проводить самонаблюдение и самокон-
школе дети обучаются всего лишь 10-12 дней, однако троль, а также самооценку.
это обязательная часть программы пребывания детей в Коммуникативные: развивать умение слушать и выска-
ВДЦ “Орлёнок”. Специфика временного ученического зывать свое мнение.
коллектива, отсутствие домашнего задания означают, Личностные: формировать мотивацию к изучению ино-
что образовательная деятельность требует особой ор- странных языков.
ганизации, учитель работает в режиме “педагогической Межпредметные связи: русский язык (фонетический
поддержки” ученика и интенсивного обучения, чтобы строй).
приблизить учебный процесс к индивидуальным осо- Формы деятельности: фронтальная, индивидуальная.
бенностям школьников. Формы обучения: смешанная.
Основная форма обучения – образовательное за- Ресурсы: ПК учителя, проектор, плакаты, дидактиче-
нятие. Знание современных технологий, методов и ские карточки, кукла, раздаточный материал.
приёмов организации образовательной деятельности Тип урока: урок “открытия” новой темы.
позволяет учителю моделировать урок с учётом осо- Цель урока: формирование навыков правильной арти-
бенностей смены, школы, предмета, контингента обу- куляции и чтения буквосочетания TH.
чающихся.
Публикуемая методическая разработка ориенти- ХОД УРОКА
рована на обучающихся 5 класса со слабым уровнем
владения английским языком, поэтому данное занятие Этап 1. Организационный момент
представлено в виде игровой модели и может быть ис- Задача этапа: настроить учеников для работы на уроке.
пользовано как в начальной школе, так и в среднем зве- Методы, приемы обучения: Диалог.
не при условии, что английский язык изучается первый
год. T: Good afternoon, boys and girls! I am very glad to see
you. Sit down please.
Задачи урока: Who is on duty today?
Общеобразовательные: познакомить обучающихся с Who is absent today?
особенностями произношения английских звуков; акти- Сегодня к нам на урок пришел наш старый знако-
визировать познавательную деятельность школьников в мый Mr. Tongue. Он сегодня продолжит вам расска-
условиях временного ученического коллектива. зывать истории о своих путешествиях и поможет
Воспитательные: совершенствовать навыки общения нашим органам речи подготовиться к работе на
со взрослыми и сверстниками. уроке.
Развивающие: совершенствовать навыки анализа и обоб- P: Good afternoon, teacher!
щения, умение сопоставлять; развивать умение приво-
дить примеры. Учащиеся взаимодействуют с учителем во время при-
Планируемые результаты: ветствия.
Предметные:
Аудирование: воспринимать на слух и понимать речь Формируемые УУД и предметные действия:
учителя и одноклассников; понимать различия в произ- Коммуникативные: слушать собеседника.
ношении английских звуков. Познавательные: осуществлять актуализацию получен-
Чтение: уметь применять правило чтения буквосочета- ных ранее знаний.
ния TH; совершенствование навыков работы со слова- Личностные: формирование ответственного отношения
рем. к обучению.
Говорение: уметь фонетически грамотно оформлять
свою речь. Этап 2. Фонетическая зарядка
Письмо: совершенствовать умения, используя изученное Задачи этапа:
правило, при выполнении письменных упражнений по • подготовить органы речи детей для работы на уроке;
образцу; формировать коммуникативную компетенцию; • совершенствование произносительных навыков.
развивать целеустремленность, инициативность, трудо- Методы, приемы обучения: фонетическая зарядка, ре-
любие и дисциплинированность. чевая зарядка с использованием кукольного театра.
English LESSON PLANS
P: Reading rules.

22 May–
June 2017
T: Молодцы! Тему урока выяснили и если тема нашего
урока правила чтения, то какова же будет цель урока?
Что нам надо сегодня научиться делать?
Давайте вспомним, как жужжала наша пчела? А как
шипела змея?
Ребята, а как вы думаете, какое буквосочетание дает
T: Путешествуя однажды по волшебной стране, нам эти звуки?
встретил наш язычок англичанку – пчелу Жужжу. P: TH.
Она жужжала [ð]. Попробовал наш язычок пожуж- T: Правильно, буквосочетание TH дает нам два этих
жать – не получается, решила тогда пчелка помочь: звука
“Положи кончик языка между зубами и произнеси
“ззз” получится английский звук [ð].” Формируемые УУД и предметные действия:
Ребята, давайте мы тоже попробуем произнести этот Коммуникативные: слушать собеседника.
звук. Повторяйте за мной: Познавательные: развитие языковая догадки, вниматель-
У зайки зубки болят, ности.
Зубки у зайки болят. Регулятивные: научиться читать; узнать, как какая бук-
Пожужжала пчелка и довольная полетела дальше. По- ва читается.
шел язычок дальше. Шёл, шёл и заблудился в лесу, а Личностные: формирование уважительного отношения
навстречу ему злая змея. Когда кто-либо приближал- к мнениям одноклассников.
ся к ней, она страшно шипела: “сссс”. А сегодня змея
была грустной. Язычок пожалел ее и решил научить Этап 4. Поиск решения проблемы (изучение новой
произносить добрый английский звук [θ]. темы)
Ребята, давайте пофантазируем. На что похож этот Задача этапа: вывести правило чтения буквосочетания
звук? TH.
Пусть верхние и нижние зубы будут у нас хлебом, а Методы, приемы обучения: поиск способа решения
язык – сыром. Положите язычок-сыр между зубами- учебной задачи.
хлебом и чуть-чуть прикусите, чтобы сыр не упал. А
теперь скажите “ссс”. T: На доске буквосочетание схема:
Сколько стоит стакан семечек? TH
Сколько стоит стог сена?
[θ] [ð]
Ребята совместно с учителем повторяют звуки.
Хоровая отработка звука [ð]. Ребята, а какие слова вы знаете, где встречается это
Ребята хором повторяют. буквосочетание?
Хоровая отработка звука [θ].
Обучающиеся называют слова: the, then, that, mother,
Формируемые УУД и предметные действия: brother, thank you, three, weather.
Коммуникативные: слушать собеседника; понимать раз- Слова записываются в два столбика в зависимости от
личия в произношении английских звуков. звука.
Познавательные: активизация познавательной деятель-
ности обучающихся. T: Ребята, а теперь давайте попробуем вывести правило,
Личностные: формирование интереса к особенностям когда же TH читается как [θ], а когда как [ð].
фонетического строя иностранного языка; воспитание That, those, the – это какие слова?
уважительного отношения к гостям. Обратите внимание на такие слова: mother, weather.
Этап 3. Целеполагания, постановка проблемы Буквенное сочетание TH имеет два звуковых значения:
Задачи урока: глухое [θ] и звонкое [ð].
• развитие языковой догадки; В английском языке звонкий [ð] встречается в служеб-
• развитие умений самостоятельно выделять тему и ных словах (артикль, местоимение, предлог и т. д.) и в
формулировать цель урока. середине других слов в результате озвончения глухого
Методы, приемы обучения: оформление доски – Гномы- [θ] окружающими его гласными, т.е. между гласными в
звуки. значимых словах.
В остальных случаях TH указывает на глухой звук [θ].
T: А теперь наш Mr. Tongue отдохнет и посмотрит на то, Между гласными в значимых словах.
как вы будете работать.
Попробуйте назвать тему нашего урока? Формируемые УУД и предметные действия:
Коммуникативные: слушать собеседника; полно и точно
Учащиеся проявляют познавательную инициативу. Вы- формулировать свою мысль.
сказывают предположения о том, какая тема. Познавательные: развитие умений анализа и синтеза по-
лученной информации; умения проводить аналогию; уме-
T: На доске зашифрована тема: GNIDAER SELUR. ние грамотно фиксировать полученную информацию.
LESSON PLANS English
Регулятивные: способность выделять основную инфор-
мацию.
Личностные:
формирование уважительного отношения к мнениям
одноклассников.
23
May–
June 2017

Этап 5. Физкультминутка
Задачи этапа: Обучающиеся работают со словарём. Ищут слово, чи-
• снятие напряжения; тают. Выставляют оценки
• смена деятельности;
• предупреждение перенагрузки. Формируемые УУД и предметные действия:
Коммуникативные: умение фонетически грамотно
T: Oh! I am so tired! Let’s relax! оформлять свою речь.
Stand up, please. Познавательные: развитие умений применять полу-
Turn left, turn right. ченную информацию; уметь применять правило чтения
Hands down and sit down. буквосочетания TH; уметь различать английские звуки
Hands up, hands down. и письменно их оформлять; совершенствование навыков
Hands on the hips. работы со словарем.
Don’t sit down. Регулятивные: умение объективно оценивать себя и
своих одноклассников.
Учащиеся встают и повторяют за учителем слова и Личностные: формирование уважительного и толерант-
действия физкультминутки. ного отношения к ошибкам одноклассников, умения спо-
койно относиться к полученной оценке и отметке.
Формируемые УУД и предметные действия:
Коммуникативные: умение четко говорить рифмованный Этап 7. Рефлексия (итог урока)
текст физ. минутки. Задачи этапа:
Познавательные: развитие памяти. • формирование способности объективно оценивать
Регулятивные: умения объективно оценивать степень меру своего продвижения к цели урока;
своей усталости. • умение сопереживать в связи с успехом или неудачей
Личностные: формирование уважительного отношения к товарищей.
физической культуре, спорту и здоровому образу жизни. Методы, приемы обучения: записывают на дольках,
слушают аудиозапись.
Этап 6. Применение нового знания (закрепление)
Задачи этапа: T: Ребята, что нового вы сегодня узнали?
• формирование умения применять полученные знания; Осень – время урожая. Autumn is the harvest time.
• формирование умения объективно оценивать. Мы с Mr. Tongue хотим вас угостить дольками апельси-
Методы, приемы обучения: работа с упражнением, на и попросить, чтобы вы написали ваше имя и самое
карточки со словами на доске, индивидуальная работа, любимое слово, в котором встречается TH.
взаимопроверка, работа со словарем. У кого-то возникли трудности при написании имени?
Правил чтения еще очень много и мы продолжим их
T: And now open your copybooks, write down the date and изучение на следующих уроках.
our rule. А завершим мы наш урок песней “Everything at once”,
А теперь закрепим наше правило, выполнив упраж- обратим внимание на слова, в которых встречается
нение. На доске даны слова, в которых встречается TH.
буквенное сочетание TH. Ваша задача – написать эти Thank you for the lesson. Have a good day!
слова в 2 столбика: 1 столбик слова, в которых TH
дает звук [θ], 2 столбик – [ð]. Ученики используют формулу “Мы сегодня узнали....”.
Давайте мы поменяемся тетрадями и будем прове- Пишут свое имя и слово. Поют песню. Прощаются.
рять. Один из вас будет выполнять упражнение у до-
ски. Формируемые УУД и предметные действия:
Какое слово вызвало затруднение? Давайте найдем Познавательная: осознанно и произвольно строить ре-
его в словаре. чевое высказывание в устной форме.
Коммуникативные: строить высказывания, понятные для
Ребята получают словарь с закладкой. партнеров; рефлексия над своими действиями.
Личностные: осознание возможности самореализации
T: Теперь не осталось сомнений. средствами иностранного языка.
Выставим оценки: 1 – ошибка – very good, 2–3 – good, Регулятивные: выделять и осознавать то, что уже
больше 4 ошибок – not very good. усвоено.

Резеда Данисовна Латипова,


Дети записывают число и правило с примерами. Ребята
ФГБОУ СОШ ВДЦ “Орлёнок”,
самостоятельно выполняют упражнение в тетрадях. п. Новомихайловский,
Взаимопроверка работ. Birthday. Туапсинский р-он, Краснодарский край
English LESSON PLANS

24 May–
June 2017
THE CANTERVILLE GHOST
Урок домашнего чтения в 6-м классе
(по 1 главе книги О.Уайлда “Кентервильское привидение”)
Цели урока:
общие: совершенствование навыка работы с текстом;
формирование интереса к изучению культуры стран
изучаемого языка; формирование умения выражать свое
мнение на иностранном языке.
развивающие: развитие навыков аудирования с целью по-
нимания общей информации; развитие умения строить и
вести беседу на заданную тему; развитие навыков чтения
с целью понимания общей и конкретной информации.
воспитательно-образовательные: формирование и
развитие у учащихся мотивации к изучению языка с ис-
пользованием литературы; формирование культуры об-
щения в диалоге.

Задачи урока:
• отработка фонетических навыков;
• развитие умения воспринимать текст с общим его по- ХОД УРОКА
ниманием, а также извлечением конкретной информа-
ции; Приветствие
• отработка введенных грамматических структур и по- T: Good morning! How are you today?
вторение ранее изученных; Ss: I am in a good mood/tired/happy today, thanks. And
• развитие навыков монологической и диалогической you?
речи с использованием введенной лексики и изучен-
ных грамматических структур; Организационный момент
• употребление введенной грамматической структуры и T: Do you like the weather today? What’s the date? Who is
поиск ее примеров в тексте. absent today?
Тема урока: Ss: Today the weather is quite…/Today is the …. of …./…
Лексика: классификация художественной литературы, is absent today.
страны и национальности, погода.
Грамматика: время Past Continuous. Фонетическая зарядка
Let’s repeat together: /w/: we, when, weather, why, want,
Оснащение урока: книга по домашнему чтению: Оскар William, twins, require, quite, quiet, questions, writer.
Уайлд “Кентервильское привидение”, гл. 1, стр. 1–7 (из- Tongue twister: “What, when, where and why are the words
дательство Oxford University Press); диск к книге по до- we require quite often when we want to ask questions”.
машнему чтению с главами текста; доска; раздаточный Students repeat it together with the teacher.
материал: а) список слов по теме “Погода” + карточки с
ними; б) копия упражнения на время Past Continuous. Презентация целей урока
T: Today we are going to discuss the first chapter of the sto-
ry, which was written by a famous writer Oscar Wilde.
What do you know about him? Have you ever read any
of his stories? Did you like them?

Students answer these questions sharing the information


with each other.

Проверка домашнего задания


T: Your home task was to think of different kinds of publi-
cations and tell us about your favourite one…

Students give the answers: novel, detective story, autobiog-


raphy, play, science fiction, comic, article in a newspaper or
magazine, poem, fairytale, horror story.
LESSON PLANS English

25
May–
June 2017

T: Let’s read the text together representing different char-


acters of the story and answer the questions at the end of
the book (page 45).
Where was Mr Otis from? (America)
What other countries and nationalities do you remem-
ber?
Look at the board please, you can see 16 countries. Write
the nationalities please:

Board (countries+nationalities):
T: The name of our story today is The Canterville Ghost. Argentina – Argentinian
What do you think about this kind of story? Is it fright- Brazil – Brazilian
ening or funny? Detective or science fiction? China – Chinese
Egypt – Egyptian
Развитие навыков аудирования England – English
T: Let’s listen to the first chapter of the story. Listen to it France – French
and try to understand where the story takes place and Greece – Greek
how many characters there are. Hungary – Hungarian
Italy – Italian
Students listen to the CD (Chapter 1) and give the answers Japan – Japanese
after listening. Mexico – Mexican
Portugal – Portuguese
Before-you-read Activities Russia – Russian
Students do the exercises at the end of the book (page 44) in Spain – Spanish
pairs, trying to guess the main events of the story and choos- Turkey – Turkish
ing either YES or NO. The USA – American

Чтение первой главы с целью общего понимания


T: Look through the first chapter and answer the question:
What and why did Mr Otis buy? What happens after
that?

Чтение текста с целью извлечения конкретной ин-


формации, повторение названий стран и националь-
ностей
Учащиеся читают вслух главу по ролям и отвечают на
вопросы в конце книги (страница 45).

Работа с лексикой по теме “Погода”


Лексическая разминка (5 мин.)
T: Which words do you usually use to describe good
weather? Which words do you usually use to describe
bad weather?

Введение и отработка новых лексических единиц


T: What was the weather like when the Otis family got
off the train and later when they arrived at Canterville
Chase?
English LESSON PLANS

26 May–
June 2017

Students answer the questions and find the answer in the


text.
Затем учащимся предлагается список слов и словосоче-
таний на тему “Погода”, которые им нужно распре-
делить в таблице в колонки: rain, wind, thunderstorm,
describing the weather conditions:
• a breeze • foggy
• a shower • a gale
• drizzle • to pour
• icy • a hurricane
• a heatwave • humid
• to blow • lightning • I _________ (read the story) when it _________ (start to
rain).
T: Let’s check together. I’ll give you the cards with the • James _________ (study for the test) while I _________
words. Now please use the words to describe the weath- (talk to my friend).
er and get rid of the cards. • We _________ (have breakfast) when you _________
(call us).
Введение и употребление Past Continuous • I _________ (cut my finger) when I _________ (cook
a) salad for you).
T: Let’s read the beginning of the story again. What was the • Andy _________ (wash the dishes) when he _________
Duchess of Bolton doing when two skeleton hands were (hear the noise).
put on her shoulders? How can you translate She was
dressing for dinner? T: Are there any other examples of Past Continuous in the
story? (answer: page 3 “An old woman in a black dress
b) Презентация времени Past Continuous и случаи упо- was standing in the doorway of the house, waiting to
требления. meet them”.)

c) Монологическое высказывание по теме


T: Answer my questions please: What were you doing: T: Are there any characters in the story that you find amus-
• yesterday at 5 p.m.? ing or frightening?
• on Monday at 8 a.m.?
• a week ago at this time? Students discuss the questions in pairs and share in class.
• when I came into the class?
Подведение итогов урока и домашнее задание
d) T: Today we started reading the first chapter of the story by
T: Let’s do the exercise. Oscar Wilde. What episode in the chapter did you like
most of all? Why? Share with a partner.
Учащимся раздается копия упражнения на употребле- What will happen in the next chapter in your opinion?
ние времени Past Continuous. Fill in the gaps: We also learnt some words which are used to describe
the weather and worked out the Past Continuous tense.

As your home task I will ask you to:


• write 3 questions for your classmates “What were you do-
ing…?
• 2 examples (positive statements) using Past Continuous.
• 3 sentences using new vocabulary (weather).

T: Do you have any questions?


Our lesson is over, thank you!
Have a nice day!

By Ekaterina Smirnova,
IQ Consultancy, Moscow

Pictures from http://www.multfilmy.org/


TOPICAL JOURNEY English

27
Resources May–
June 2017

Requests will always exceed resources. Doing good


is imperative. Doing everything is impossible.
J. Grant Howard

Common sense is one of the most unused


commodities available to man.
“ Human behaviour
flows from three
main sources:
desire, emotion,

Craig D. Lounsbrough
and knowledge.
Daydreaming is one of the key sources of poetry –
a poem often starts as a daydream that finds its way into
Plato
language – and walking seems to bring
a different sort of alertness, an associative kind
of thinking, a drifting state of mind.
Edward Hirsch

XinWey’s Doctrine states that the most essential


morality of mankind is to create the greatest amount
of happiness among the greatest number of people while using
the least amount of resources.
Brandon Sanderson

The difference between ideas and resources


is that resources have their limits.
Santosh Kalwar

God has hidden in each and every one of us so many


abilities, gifts and resources that could only be activated by
work.
TOPICAL JOURNEY
Sunday Adelaja Natural Resources .......................28
Resource Recovery ......................28
Pollution is nothing but resources we’re not harvesting. We
allow them to disperse because we’ve been ignorant of their Let’s fall in love with TED,
value. shall we? .....................................30
R. Buckminster Fuller
Role Models
Do you want to be in your own story or on the outside and Emotional Resources .............30
writing about it? Everyone battles fear and uncertainty every
day. However, the only failure in life is believing that your value Obama’s Books ...........................32
relies on other people’s approval or resources. The reality is Discrete Signals and Clarins Lipstick:
this: When you are living your authentic self and not how
people want you to act, then you are free to use the full spec- the Secrets of The Queen’s
trum of your creativity and gifts. People don’t need resources Handbag Revealed ......................34
to get out of any life situation. They need creativity to create
Soviet Days .................................36
resources. When you realize that, becoming stuck is impossible.
Shannon L. Alder Morning Star (1966–present) .....36
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

28 May–
June 2017
Natural Re
INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL RESOURCES (NR)
RESOURCE RECOVERY Ever since the earth was inhabited, humans and other life forms have depended
In recent years, waste has been viewed on things that exist freely in nature to survive. These things include water (seas
as a potential resource and not something and fresh water), land, soils, rocks, forests (vegetation), animals (including fish),
that must end up in the landfill. From paper,
fossil fuels and minerals. They are called natural resources and are the basis of life
plastics, wood, metals and even wastewater,
experts believe that each component of waste
on earth.
can be tapped and turned into something very All these mentioned above are natural, and they exist in nature. No human cre-
useful. ated them. We tap into their supply to survive and also to function properly. Natural
Fossil fuel used by the pulp and paper indus- resources are all connected in a way. Therefore if one is taken away, it will affect
try in the United States of America declined by the supply or quality of all others. For example, if water is eliminated from an
more than 50% between 1972 and 2002, largely area, the vegetation, soils, animals and even the air in that area will be affected
through energy efficiency measures, power re- negatively.
covery, through co-generation and increased
Natural resources can be consumed directly or indirectly. For instance, humans
use of biomass.1
Resource recovery is the separation of cer-
depend directly on forests for food, biomass, health, recreation and increased living
tain materials from the waste we produce, with comfort. Indirectly forests act as climate control, flood control, storm protection and
the aim of using them again or turning them into nutrient cycling.
new raw materials for use again.
It involves composting and recycling of ma- RAW MATERIALS
terials that are heading to the landfill. Here is
Sometimes, natural resources can be used as raw materials to produce something.
an example: wet organic waste such as food
and agricultural waste is considered waste after
For instance, we can use a tree from the forest to produce timber. The timber is then
food consumption or after an agricultural activ- used to produce wood for furniture or pulp for paper and paper products. In this sce-
ity. Traditionally, we collect them and send them nario, the tree is the raw material.
to a landfill. In Resource Recovery, we collect Every item in your home was made from a raw material that came from a natural
and divert it to composting or anaerobic diges- resource. The tea mug, electricity at home, bread, clothes, you name them: each of them
tion to produce biomethane. We can also re- came from a natural resource.
cover nutrients through regulator-approved use Natural resources come in many forms. It may be a solid, liquid or gas. It may also
of residuals.
be organic or inorganic. It may also be metallic or non-metallic. It may be renewable
or non-renewable.

TYPES OF NATURAL RESOURCES


All natural resources fall under two main categories: renewable and non-renewa-
ble resources. Information below will help us understand this better.
The concept can be applied in household set-
tings too. Many communities have places that
• Renewable Resources
residents can drop off waste that they have al- Renewable resources are those that are constantly available (like water) or can be
ready sorted in their homes. This makes it easy reasonably replaced or recovered, like vegetative lands. Animals are also renewable
for waste recovery organizations to pick them up because with a bit of care, they can reproduce offsprings to replace adult animals. Even
for further processing. though some renewable resources can be replaced, they may take many years and that
Recovering waste is not an easy task. It in- does not make them renewable.
volves good planning, education, community If renewable resources come from living things (such as trees and animals), they can
participation, and use of technology. But it has
be called organic renewable resources.
huge environmental and economic benefits and
must be seriously considered.
If renewable resources come from non-living things (such as water, sun and wind),
Resource recovery benefits us because it they can be called inorganic renewable resources.
reduces our need to tap into new raw materi-
als, thereby saving the environment. For ex- • Non-Renewable Resources
ample, by separating and collecting all paper Non-renewable resources are those that cannot easily be replaced once they are
products from the waste we create, we can destroyed. Examples include fuels. Minerals are also non-renewable because even
recycle them to reduce the need for new pulp though they form naturally in a process called the rock cycle, it can take thousands
which comes from timber. Less energy is also
of years, making it non-renewable. Some animals can also be considered non-renew-
used in recycling old materials than new raw
materials.
able, because if people hunt for a particular species without ensuring their reproduc-
Think of wastewater and stormwater as an- tion, they will be extinct. This is why we must ensure that we protect resources that
other example. The demand for potable water are endangered.
can be greatly reduced if we can divert all waste- Non-renewable resources can be called inorganic resources if they come from non-
water and stormwater for treatment and re-use. living things. Examples include include, minerals, wind, land, soil and rocks.
We can use it for gardening, agriculture, sanita- Some non-renewable resources come from living things – such as fossil fuels. They
tion (cleaning) and even heating by energy pro- can be called organic non-renewable resources.
ducers.
In Victoria, Australia, reclaimed water is used
to irrigate vineyards, tomatoes, potatoes, and
• Metallic and Non-Metallic Resources
other crops in addition to traditional landscape Inorganic resources may be metallic or non-metallic. Metallic minerals are those
irrigation.2 that have metals in them. They are harder, shiny, and can be melted to form new prod-
In Mexico City, nearly 46 million gallons (174 ucts. Examples are iron, copper and tin. Non-metallic minerals have no metals in them.
million liters) per day of reclaimed water is used They are softer and do not shine. Examples include clay and coal.
for irrigation of green areas, recharge of recre-
ational lakes and agriculture.3 Sources: http://www.eschooltoday.com
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

Resources 29
May–
June 2017

WHY ARE NATURAL RESOURCES SO IMPORTANT?


Natural resources are available to sustain the very complex interaction between liv- CONSERVATION
ing things and non-living things. Humans also benefit immensely from this interaction. OF NATURAL RESOURCES
All over the world, people consume resources directly or indirectly. Developed coun- To have an environmentally sustainable se-
tries consume resources more than underdeveloped countries. cure future where we can still enjoy natural re-
The world economy uses around 60 billion tonnes of resources each year to produce sources, we urgently need to transform the way
the goods and services which we all consume. On the average, a person in Europe con- we use resources, by completely changing the
sumes about 36 kg of resources per day; a person in North America consumes about way we produce and consume goods and ser-
90 kg per day, a person in Asia consumes about 14 kg and a person in Africa consumes vices.
about 10 kg of resources per day.1 The case of high resource consumption oc-
In what form do people consume natural resources? The three major forms include curs primarily in the bigger cities of the world.
Cities worldwide are responsible for 60-80%
food and drink, housing and infrastructure, and mobility. These three make up more
of global energy consumption and 75% of car-
than 60% of resource use.
bon emissions, consuming more than 75% of the
• Food and drink: This includes agricultural products as well as naturally occurring
world’s natural resources.
foods such as game, fish from fresh water and seas, seeds and nuts, medicines, herbs To turn this unfortunate way of life around, we
and plants. They also include drinking water, as well as water for sanitation and house- all have to play a role.
hold use. Think of ceramic plates, silverware (spoons, forks and knives), cans, milk
packages, paper and plastic cups – they are all made from raw materials which come
from our natural resources. EDUCATION
• Mobility: This includes automobiles, trains, water vessels, airplanes, together with AND PUBLIC AWARENESS
all the fuel that powers them. Can you imagine where all the raw materials used in their All stakeholders must aim to provide informa-
production came from? tion and raise public awareness about the won-
• Housing and infrastructure: Think about all the houses, public places, roads and derful natural resources we have and the need
constructed objects you have in your city or town. Think about all the energy for heat- to ensure its health. Even though there is a lot
ing and cooling that we consume in our homes – can you imagine where all the wood, of information in the public domain, campaign-
metals, plastic, stone and other materials came from? ers must try to use less scientific terms, and
Beyond these three major areas of resource consumption, we consume much more avoid complex terminology to send the message
across. Once people understand how useful our
resources from our environment on a daily basis. The role of natural resources in sus-
natural resources are, they will be better placed
taining life on earth is extremely important and we must ensure that we protect the
to preserve it.
environment and also make it easy for it to replenish itself naturally.
INDIVIDUALS, ORGANISATIONS
THREATS TO NATURAL RESOURCES AND NATIONS
A. Overpopulation. This is probably the most significant, single threat that natural People and organisations in developed na-
resources face. The world’s population is increasing at a very fast rate. In the USA, a tions with high resource consumption rates must
baby is born every 8 seconds, and a person dies every 13 seconds. The increase in popu- be aware of the issues of natural resources.
lations mean there will be pressure on almost all natural resources. How? People should understand that it is OK to en-
• Land Use: With more mouths to feed and people to house, more land will need joy all the items and gadgets at home, but also,
give back to the environment by way of reducing
to be cultivated and developed for housing. More farming chemicals will be applied
waste, recycling waste and becoming a part of
to increase food production. Many forest or vegetative lands will be converted to the solution. We can achieve this in our homes
settlements for people, roads and farms. These have serious repercussions on natural and workplaces by reducing waste and also by
resources. recycling the waste we create.
• Forests: Demand for wood (timber), food, roads and forest products will be more.
People will therefore use more forest resources than they can naturally recover. GOVERNMENTS AND POLICY
• Fishing: Fresh water and sea food will face problems too as we will continue to Governments must enforce policies that pro-
depend heavily on them. Bigger fishing companies are going deeper into sea to catch tect the environment.
fish in even larger quantities. Some of the fishing methods they use are not sustainable, For example, a part of the Ross Sea in the
thereby destroying much more fish and sea creatures in the process. Antarctica is to be protected beginning from De-
cember 2017.
• Need for more: Human’s demand for a comfortable life means more items (com-
They must ensure that businesses and
munication, transport, education, entertainment and recreation) will need to be pro- industries play fair and are accountable to
duced. This means more industrial processes and more need for raw materials and natu- all people. Incentives must be given to busi-
ral resources. nesses that use recycled raw materials and
B. Climate change: The alteration in climate patterns as a result of excessive an- hefty fines to those that still tap from raw
thropogenic CO2 is hurting biodiversity and many other abiotic natural resources. Spe- natural resources. Businesses must return a
cies that have acclimatized to their environments may perish and others will have to portion of their profits to activities that aim
move to more favorable conditions to survive. at restoring what they have taken out of the
environment.
C. Environmental pollution: Land, water and air pollution directly affect the health
of the environments in which they occur. Pollution affects the chemical make-up of Sources:
soils, rocks, lands, ocean water, freshwater and underground water, and other natural 1. UNEP. MANAGING AND CONSERVING
phenomena. This often has catastrophic consequences. THE NATURAL RESOURCE BASE FOR SUS-
TAINED ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOP-
MENT. February 7, 2014
Sources:
2, 3. RESOURCE RECOVERY & REUSE
1
UNEP (2013) City-Level Decoupling: Urban resource flows and the governance of SERIES 4. Global Experiences in Water Reuse
infrastructure transitions. A Report of the Working Group on Cities of the International by Jonathan Lautze, Emilie Stander, Pay Drech-
Resource Panel. Swilling M., Robinson B., Marvin S. and Hodson M. sel, Allegra K. da Silva and Bernard Keraita
CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and
Submitted by Tatyana Makhrina Ecosystems. ISBN 978-92-9090-791-6
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

30 May–
Let’s fall in love
shall we?
June 2017

ROLE MODELS
AND EMOTIONAL RESOURCES
What is the importance of a role model As they say, you must have been living under a rock if you still haven’t
and what part do they play in the develop- heard about TED.com and the wonders and educational joys that the site has
ment of our emotional resources?
to offer to a wandering eye. As the advertisement goes: ‘If you find yourself
We know through our studies that to be- bored with day to day chores and the never ever changing routine; if the joys of
come a functioning adult, one moves devel- teaching have become monotonous and even tedious at times; if the trustwor-
opmentally from being dependent to being
thy and reliable coursebook starts to feel heavy and predictable with the tasks
independent to being interdependent. John
Bradshaw refers to it as becoming whole. that are dull and mechanical; if more than ever you tend to notice your learners,
Simply put, we should move from being de- unfocused roving glances and yawns here and there, and if even the air feels
pendent on others to being able to work to- heavy and grey … then it is high time you invited TED into your classroom to
gether with other adults, each independent spice things up and get your learners motivated!’
of the other, but jointly as partners. Let’s start with the basics that are often overlooked: TED stands for Tech-
Often, someone operating in a dysfunc- nology, Entertainment and Design. The whole endeavour began in 1984 as
tional setting is often forced to take an adult a conference which since 1990 has been an annual event spread throughout
role early, and gets caught somewhere the whole globe. Simple math will provide you with the unyielding numbers
working between dependence and inde- to support the success – TED has been annually running for 27 years. This is
pendence. Children build their emotional already a number to impress. (To add more numerals into the text – it has been
resources from the role models that they
operating for 33 years since its first startup.) Next let’s move and learn about
observe. Sometimes the child is forced to
guess at what “normal” or appropriate is
the heart and the main slogan of the organization that is “ideas worth spread-
due to the fact that the role-model respons- ing”. Thus the goal lies in the distribution of knowledge and data to everyone
es are not appropriate. who is eager and is looking and longing for it. Even though the primarily em-
phasis was directed at technology, design and education, the focus has been
shifted across all domains that are of concern and interest nowadays. The range
Question: Why would emotional resourc-
es have such importance in school and at is vast starting with popular business topics, moving into science and finishing
work? with global issues. If you are not hooked yet then the marvels continue as the
Answer: Emotional responses dictate be-
content is available in more than 110 languages with subtitles (if required), in-
haviour and, eventually, determine achieve- teractive scripts, options to download the video, speakers’ footnotes and speak-
ment. ers’ reading lists as well as … wait for it … bonus features of actually sharing
the idea via all possible social networks. The accessibility is free of charge as
TED has been established as a non-profit media organization. So there is abso-
Ruby Payne says that in order to move
from poverty to middle class or from middle lutely nothing to lose here, only endless opportunities to gain and acquire.
class to wealth, one must trade off some At this point the delivered proof should have spiked your interest, how-
relationships for achievement at least for a ever, the justification for any extra implementation of outside content should
period of time. In order to accomplish this, be provided. With TED videos the advantages include the length of videos to
one needs all their emotional resources begin with. Time is priceless and limited at a lesson when every minute counts,
and stamina. so a video has no moral right to devour every precious grain of it unaccount-
What exactly is Ms. Payne saying? ably. Thus in order to make the content enjoyable and not so time-consuming
the maximum of a video is 18 minutes as regulated by the organisation itself
meaning that there is an abundance of videos with the length agreeable to your
teaching context (be it 2 or 5 or 10 or 18 minutes tops). Now that time restraints
have been lifted, we can proceed to the speakers as they are the faces that learn-
ers should be inspired by. The list is humongous with the roaring examples of
Bill Clinton, David Cameron, Bill Gates, Bono, Sergey Brin, etc., to name a
few. As of now TED has become so popular and validated that it is considered
honourable and rather privileged to speak at a conference, to share your re-
search, practice, bright ideas. However, the vibe of the talks is usually aimed at
engagement and participation; you might see colourful presentations, videos,
music, interactions with audiences and a bunch of jokes to create a welcoming
and comfortable environment for information intake.
So now, I hope, you feel ready, your hands are itching and you want to im-
press and surprise your learners. However, any teacher anywhere always and
forever has no time. Simply never. So even if you have this readiness to expand
the boundaries of your lesson and classroom and welcome the world … you are

Picture source: http://ngl.cengage.com/


TOPICAL JOURNEY English

ve with TED, 31
May–
June 2017

We all have an emotional memory


bank, which is comprised of the emotions
that are accessed habitually and “feel
just tired to create and compile the tasks to check all the possible skills you can right.” When a relationship is traded off for
juice out of a video, be it understanding the text, vocabulary, grammar, listen- achievement, this emotional memory bank
ing, etc., and if you are as human as a human can be then Morpheus will win. must be held in abeyance, which could
However, the good news is that with TED you actually do not need to sacrifice take years. How do we accomplish this?
your hours of beauty sleep! The magic lies in ready-made lessons based on It happens because of one of the following
four reasons:
TED videos! Hooray! Here is a win-win situation finally. With a database that
has inherently been created for the purposes of teaching, you have it all. Just 1. The current situation is too painful for
the individual to stay.
go to ed.ted.com and explore the assortment that has been shared by educators,
teachers, and trainers around the world. But your learners are unique, they are 2. A compelling goal or vision of the future
not ordinary and require special tasks and maybe a little bit more than what drives the individual.
is offered, so a ready-made lesson might not suit their exquisite tastes. That 3. A talent or skill takes the individual into
might have been an issue and the reason to stop and return to the coursebook new surroundings, or
bearing the momentum deep into the ground, but not with ed.ted.com as there 4. A spouse or mentor provides an emo-
you can customize your own lessons. If you are feeling creative, then you have tional comfort level while the individual
learns the new skills/knowledge.
the tools to bring your ideas to fruition. The steps are simple: 1. find a video;
2. add questions, discussion prompts, and additional resources; 3. share your
lesson with your students; 4. track their progress. Here you have it; everything How do you provide emotional resourc-
is at your disposal to make it your own for your educational world. es when the student has not had access to
Isn’t TED great already? What else can one desire when opulence and plen- appropriate role models?
tifulness are so obvious and alluring? Well, it is not over yet, far from being 1. Through support systems.
over. You have a coursebook. Indeed. Your eyes are not betraying you. We 2. By using appropriate discipline strate-
have come full circle. Not so long ago National Geographic Learning in part- gies and approaches.
nership with HEINLE Cengage Learning came up with a 4 level series based 3. By establishing long-term relationships
solemnly on TED talks. So if your soul demands the warmth of paper, you can with adults who are appropriate.
have it as well. The title is catching – 21st Century Reading, Creative Thinking 4. By teaching the hidden rules.
and Reading with TEDtalks. When you open a coursebook the statement on the 5. By identifying options.
first pages apprises that ‘21st Century Reading develops essential knowledge 6. By increasing individuals’ achievement
and skills for learners to succeed in today’s global society. The series teaches level through appropriate instruction.
core academic language skills and incorporates 21st Century themes and skills 7. By teaching goal setting.
such as global awareness, information literacy, and critical thinking.’ Now you
are completely enticed and seduced. It is a must to get it as the pages are col-
What do we need to do in the school or
ourful and nice to the touch. Also the structure of each unit is very easy and
work setting to help provide students with
effortless to follow with three core parts: 1. read about a 21st century topic, the needed emotional resources?
then 2. learn more about the topic by viewing an authentic TED Talk and finish
• Schools need to establish schedules and
with 3. explore the topic further by completing a collaborative research project.
instructional arrangements that allow
Easy and simple, yet so efficient and productive. The pages of the book will students to stay with the same teachers
be calling and appealing to you, the audio CD which accompanies the book for two or more years if mutually agreed
features narrations of each reading passage and TED speaker profile, while a upon.
DVD accompanying the series contains each adapted TED talk, though if you • Teachers and administrators are much
do not want to buy the DVD, adapted videos are available on the website. In more important as role models than has
order to aid learners’ comprehension of the TED Talk studied in the book, you previously been addressed.
may work with a Summary Worksheet that is provided in Teacher’s Guide. • The development of emotional resourc-
This series intends to inspire learners as they develop their essential global and es is crucial to students success.
cross-cultural awareness alongside creative and critical thinking skills with
information and media literacies. The greatest free resource available to
So now you know everything there is to know about the luxury and splendor schools is the role/modeling provided by
that TED is able to offer right now (who knows where and how it will grow!). teachers, administrators, and staff.
TED is global. It is limitless. It has touched, influenced and opened doors. It is
time we all jumped in and joined the movement. You are in possession of end-
By Norma Meek,
less capabilities, possibilities and options. The question is how intellectually
National Trainer,
inquisitive are you? Anyway, let’s explore TED, shall we?)
School of the 21st Century

By Ekaterina Androsova Source: http://medicine.yale.edu


English TOPICAL JOURNEY

32 May–
June 2017
Obama’s
OBAMA’S SECRET TO SURVIVING
CONTEXT IN PRESIDENTIAL THE WHITE HOUSE YEARS: BOOKS
BIOGRAPHIES (an excerpt from the Not since Lincoln has there been
article “Obama’s book”) a president as fundamentally shaped
Presidential biographies also provided – in his life, convictions and outlook
context, countering the tendency to think on the world – by reading and writ-
“that whatever’s going on right now is ing as Barack Obama.
uniquely disastrous or amazing or difficult,” Seven days before his departure
he said. “It just serves you well to think from the White House, Mr. Obama
about Roosevelt trying to navigate through sat down in the Oval Office and
World War II.” talked about the indispensable role
Even books that books have played during his
initially picked up presidency and throughout his life –
as escape read- from his peripatetic and sometimes
ing like the Hugo lonely boyhood, when “these worlds President Obama in the Oval Office during
Award-winning that were portable” provided com- an interview with Michiko Kakutani on Friday
apocalyptic sci-fi panionship, to his youth when they
epic The Three- helped him to figure out who he was, what he thought and what was important.
Body Problem by During his eight years in the White House – in a noisy era of information overload,
the Chinese writer extreme partisanship and knee-jerk reactions – books were a sustaining source of ideas
Liu Cixin, he said, and inspiration, and gave him a renewed appreciation for the complexities and ambigui-
could unexpect- ties of the human condition.
edly put things in “At a time when events move so quickly and so much information is transmitted,”
perspective: “The he said, reading gave him the ability to occasionally “slow down and get perspective”
scope of it was and “the ability to get in somebody else’s shoes.” These two things, he added, “have
immense. So that been invaluable to me. Whether they’ve made me a better president I can’t say. But
was fun to read, partly because my day- what I can say is that they have allowed me to sort of maintain my balance during
to-day problems with Congress seem fairly the course of eight years, because this is a place that comes at you hard and fast and
petty – not something to worry about. Al- doesn’t let up.”
iens are about to invade!” The writings of Lincoln, the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., Gandhi and Nelson Man-
In his searching 1995 book Dreams dela, Mr. Obama found, were “particularly helpful” when “what you wanted was a
From My Father, Mr. Obama recalls how sense of solidarity,” adding “during very difficult moments, this job can be very iso-
reading was a crucial tool in sorting out lating.” “So sometimes you have to sort of hop across history to find folks who have
what he believed, dating back to his teen- been similarly feeling isolated, and that’s been useful.” There is a handwritten copy of
age years, when he immersed himself in the Gettysburg Address in the Lincoln Bedroom, and sometimes, in the evening, Mr.
works by Baldwin, Ellison, Hughes, Wright, Obama says, he would wander over from his home office to read it.
DuBois and Malcolm X in an effort “to raise
myself to be a black Like Lincoln, Mr. Obama taught
man in America.” himself how to write, and for him,
Later, during his last too, words became a way to define
two years in college, himself, and to communicate his
he spent a focused ideas and ideals to the world. In fact,
period of deep self- there is a clear, shining line connect-
reflection and study, ing Lincoln and King, and President
methodically reading Obama. In speeches like the ones
philosophers from delivered in Charleston and Selma,
St. Augustine to Ni- he has followed in their footsteps,
etzsche, Emerson to putting his mastery of language in
Sartre to Niebuhr, to the service of a sweeping historical
strip down and test vision, which, like theirs, situates President Obama in the Oval Office in 2012
his own beliefs. our current struggles with race and
To this day, reading has remained an injustice in a historical continuum that traces how far we’ve come and how far we have
essential part of his daily life. He recently yet to go. It’s a vision of America as an unfinished project – a continuing, more-than-
gave his daughter Malia a Kindle filled with two-century journey to make the promises of the Declaration of Independence real
books he wanted to share with her (includ- for everyone – rooted both in Scripture and the possibility of redemption, and a more
ing One Hundred Years of Solitude, The existential belief that we can continually remake ourselves. And it’s a vision shared by
Golden Notebook and The Woman War- the civil rights movement, which overcame obstacle after obstacle, and persevered in
rior). And most every night in the White the face of daunting odds.
House, he would read for an hour or so late Mr. Obama’s long view of history and the optimism (combined with a stirring re-
at night – reading that was deep and ecu- minder of the hard work required by democracy) that he articulated in his farewell
menical, ranging from contemporary literary speech last week are part of a hard-won faith, grounded in his reading, in his knowledge
fiction (the last novel he read was Colson of history (and its unexpected zigs and zags), and his embrace of artists like Shake-
Whitehead’s The Underground Railroad)
to classic novels to groundbreaking works Sources: https://mobile.nytimes.com
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

’s Books 33
May–
June 2017

speare who saw the human situation entire: its follies, cruelties and mad blunders, but
also its resilience, decencies and acts of grace. The playwright’s tragedies, he says, have of nonfiction like
been “foundational for me in understanding how certain patterns repeat themselves and Daniel Kahne-
play themselves out between human beings.” man’s “Thinking,
Mr. Obama taught himself to write as a young man by keeping a journal and writing Fast and Slow”
short stories when he was a community organizer in Chicago – working on them after and Elizabeth Kol-
he came home from work and drawing upon the stories of the people he met. Many of bert’s The Sixth
the tales were about older people, and were informed by a sense of disappointment and Extinction”
loss: “There is not a lot of Jack Kerouac open-road, young kid on the make discovering
stuff,” he says. “It’s more melancholy and reflective.” Such books
That experience underscored the power of empathy. An outsider himself – with a were a way for the
father from Kenya, who left when he was 2, and a mother from Kansas, who took him president to shift
to live for a time in Indonesia – he could relate to many of the people he met in the mental gears from
churches and streets of Chicago, who felt dislocated by change and isolation, and he the briefs and poli-
took to heart his boss’s observation that “the thing that brings people together to share cy papers he stud-
the courage to take action on behalf of their lives is not just that they care about the ied during the day,
same issues, it’s that they have shared stories.” a way “to get out
This lesson would become a cornerstone of the president’s vision of an America of my own head,”
where shared concerns – simple dreams of a decent job, a secure future for one’s chil- a way to escape
dren – might bridge differences and divisions. After all, many people saw their own sto- the White House
ries in his – an American story, as he said in his keynote address at the 2004 Democratic bubble. Some
National Convention possible “in no other country on Earth.” novels helped him
to better “imagine
In today’s polarized environment, what’s going on in
where the Internet has let people in- the lives of people”
creasingly retreat to their own silos across the country
(talking only to like-minded folks, – for instance, he
who amplify their certainties and found that Mari-
biases), the president sees novels lynne Robinson’s novels connected him
and other art (like the musical Ham- emotionally to the people he was meeting
ilton) as providing a kind of bridge in Iowa during the 2008 campaign, and to
that might span usual divides and “a his own grandparents, who were from the
reminder of the truths under the sur- Midwest, and the small town values of hard
face of what we argue about every work and honesty and humility.
day.” Other novels served as a kind of foil –
He points out, for instance, something to argue with. V. S. Naipaul’s
that the fiction of Junot Díaz and President Obama reading novel A Bend in the River, Mr. Obama re-
Jhumpa Lahiri speaks “to a very Where the Wild Things Are to children at the calls, “starts with the line ‘The world is what
particular contemporary immigra- White House in 2014. it is; men who are nothing, who allow them-
tion experience,” but at the same selves to become nothing, have no place
time tell stories about “longing for this better place but also feeling displaced” – a in it.’ And I always think about that line and
theme central to much of American literature, and not unlike books by Philip Roth I think about his novels when I’m thinking
and Saul Bellow that are “steeped with this sense of being an outsider, longing to about the hard-
get in, not sure what you’re giving up.” ness of the world
Mr. Obama entered office as a writer, and he returned to a private life as a writer, sometimes, par-
planning to work on his memoirs, which will draw on journals he’s kept in the White ticularly in for-
House (“but not with the sort of discipline that I would have hoped for”). He has a eign policy, and
writer’s sensibility – an ability to be in the moment while standing apart as an observer, I resist and fight
a novelist’s eye and ear for detail, and a precise but elastic voice capable of moving against some-
easily between the lyrical and the vernacular and the profound. times that very
At the beginning of January he had lunch with five novelists he admires – Dave cynical, more re-
Eggers, Mr. Whitehead, Zadie Smith, Mr. Díaz and Barbara Kingsolver. He not only alistic view of the
talked with them about the political and media landscape, but also talked shop, asking world. And yet,
how their book tours were going and remarking that he likes to write first drafts, long there are times
hand, on yellow legal pads. where it feels as
Mr. Obama says he is hoping to eventually use his presidential center website “to if that may be
widen the audience for good books” – something he’s already done with regular lists of true.”
book recommendations – and then encourage a public “conversation about books.” Writing was key to his thinking process,
“At a time,” he says, “when so much of our politics is trying to manage this clash too: a tool for sorting through “a lot of cross-
of cultures brought about by globalization and technology and migration, the role of currents in my own life – race, class, family.
stories to unify – as opposed to divide, to engage rather than to marginalize – is more And I genuinely believe that it was part of
important than ever.” the way in which I was able to integrate all
these pieces of myself into something rela-
tively whole.”
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

34 May–
June 2017
Discrete Signals an
the Secrets of The Queen
The Queen is rarely seen in public without her handbag by her side. Indeed,
along with her favourite Anello and Davide block heels, it is her steadfast sar-
torial signature. From Sunday church visits to official engagements, private
audiences and official portraits, it is rare that Her Majesty is not accompanied
by her patent top handle bag.
But despite the ubiquity of the Queen’s handbag, we know very little about
what she carries around with her – and the meaning behind it. Here, we take a
look at what we do know...
Her Majesty’s personal bag is used as much to send secret signals to staff
as it is to carry personal items. If the Queen places her handbag on the table
at dinner, it signals that she wants the event to end in the next five minutes. If
she puts her bag on the floor, it shows she’s not enjoying the conversation and
wants to be rescued by her lady-in-waiting.
The Queen is said to own more than 200 Launer handbags. Her preferred
styles are the Royale and the black patent Traviata (23 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm).
The bag has a longer handle to ease the process of handshaking. But what does
she carry round with her?
Surely the usual clutter of coins, keys and ticket stubs would be unneces-
sary for Her Majesty – after all, she doesn’t own a passport, has no use for bus
The Queen carries her beloved Launer handbag dur- tickets and keys aren’t particularly handy when you have a doorman at hand.
ing a recent church visit. Credit: REX But perhaps the Queen does succumb to human needs on occasion – surely
even Her Majesty can rummage around for a stray mint.
In 2012, a royal biographer disclosed that buried alongside everyday items
such as a mirror and lipstick is always a crisply folded £5 note to donate to the
church collection on Sundays.
The monarch’s church donation sometimes increases to £10 but apparently
that is as generous a donation as she chooses to make.
Sally Bedell Smith, author of Elizabeth the Queen: The Woman Behind The
Throne, claims that among the bag’s other secrets are a portable hook, which is
used to hang it discreetly under tables.
Bedell Smith suggests that there is “no more familiar symbol” of the Queen
than the classic Launer handbag that dangles from her left arm on public occa-
The Queen’s official portrait to mark her 90th birth- sions from informal walkabouts to state dinners.
day. Her great-granddaughter Mia Tindall holds her
handbag. Credit: Annie Liebowitz Her inside knowledge has been pieced together from anecdotes of those
who claim to have snuck a peek inside the royal bag and ladies-in-waiting.
Bedell Smith, writing in The Lady magazine, disclosed that the handbag
usually contains reading glasses, mint lozenges and a fountain pen, although
rarely cash, except for the “precisely folded” £5 or £10 note on Sundays.
A dinner guest at the Berkshire home of Jean Wills, the Queen’s cousin, is
said to have been surprised to see the Queen spitting into a plastic suction cup
before attaching the hook under the table.
“I watched the Queen open her handbag and remove a white suction cup and
discreetly spit into it,” the guest is quoted as saying.
“The Queen then attached the cup to the underside of the table. The cup had
a hook on it, and she attached her handbag to it.”
Bedell Smith alleges that the most important items in the Queen’s bag are a
small mirror and lipstick which she has been known to apply whilst still sitting
at the table.
“At the end of a luncheon or a dinner, even a banquet set with silver gilt and
antique porcelain, she has the somewhat outré habit of opening her bag, pulling
out a compact and reapplying her lipstick,” she writes.
“When First Lady Laura Bush made a similar cosmetic fix during a Wash-
ington ladies’ luncheon, she cheerily commented, ‘The Queen told me it was
all right to do it.’”
The future Queen Elizabeth in 1933, at the age of
seven – with handbag. Credit: Getty Images Sources: http://www.telegraph.co.uk
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

nd Clarins Lipstick: 35
May–
June 2017

een’s Handbag Revealed

The Queen touches up her lipstick at the Royal Corn-


wall Show. Credit: Paul Armiger

The Queen meets wellwishers near Windsor Castle on her 90th birthday. Credit: PA

In 2000, the Queen was spotted reapplying her lipstick at the Royal Corn-
wall Show and in 2014, she did the same at the Commonwealth Games in
Glasgow.
The lipstick looked like Clarins, which is known as one of the Queen’s
favourite brands – the make up company wouldn’t comment on her choice of
lipstick, but revealed the Queen is a fan of the brand’s Hand and Nail Treat-
ment Cream.
Bedell Smith claims that ladies-in-waiting are responsible for carrying ne-
cessities such as extra pairs of gloves, needles, thread and safety pins for emer-
gency repairs.
However, one long-serving member of staff described the Queen as “a very
practical, down-to-earth lady”.
“She needs a comb or lipstick or Kleenex, and if she hasn’t got it, what does
she do?” she said.
The Queen’s handbag has often been described as her “comfort blanket”.
She has been said to use it to indicate to subtlety communicate with her
staff.
Does she have a mobile phone? The idea of those white-gloved hands swip-
The Queen takes her glasses out of her handbag
ing an iPhone screen sounds ridiculous, but royal biographer Penny Junor in- during her Golden Jubilee tour in 2002. Credit: Ian
sists that she might well carry a mobile. “She does have a mobile and she Jones
speaks to her grandchildren on it,” says Junor. “I don’t know whether it’s a
smartphone though.”
Another royal handbag investigator, Phil Dampier, claims that the Queen’s
bag is filled with more personal items.
A collection of good luck charms given to her by her children, includ-
ing miniature dogs, horses and saddles, clutter up the bag, Dampier wrote in
What’s In The Queen’s Handbag: And Other Royal Secrets. Family photos are
also tucked inside, including one of Prince Andrew on his safe return from the
Falklands in 1982.
The bulk of the Queen’s clutter is carried by her ladies-in-waiting, who
travel with spare tights and gloves, as well as a moist, lavender-scented cloth
in case of heat.
And so the Queen’s compact leather handbag paints a fitting portrait of the
British monarch. Practical, discreet, and with strong family bonds – we should
have known all along.
The Queen is presented with flowers on the day before
By Victoria Ward and Juliet Eysenck her 90th birthday. Credit: Reuters
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

36 May–
June 2017
Soviet D
MORNING STAR (1966–present) “Say not, ‘Why were the former days better than these?’ For it is not from
History wisdom that you ask this.” Ессlesiastes, 7:10
The first edition of the Morning Star ap- “Don’t these new ways of teaching based on high technology beat the old
peared on Monday, 25 April 1966. South ones? – I expect they’re all much of a muchness.”
African exile Sarah Carneson worked for
the paper in the late 1960s.
HOW WE TAUGHT ENGLISH IN THE SOVIET DAYS
By the late 1970s, the paper and the
Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB)
When I came to a prestigious English language school as a teacher, I was
were beginning to come into conflict with disappointed to learn that English literature had just been cancelled as a sub-
each other, as the Eurocommunist trend in ject. Still, every class (in the Russian meaning) was divided into three groups
the CPGB grew, while the Morning Star at for English, there were up to six English lessons a week and English was con-
the time retained a pro-Soviet stance and sidered the primary subject, with mathematics following. It was a school of
opposed eurocommunism. An editorial in distinction and strict discipline. The administration was ambitious and did eve-
The Guardian, however, reported in 1977 rything to keep the reputation of a model institution. Ostentatious would be
that the paper was giving coverage to dis- another proper characteristic.
sidents in Czechoslavakia and elsewhere
The English head had a unique personality. I am going to call her L.N. Her
in the Soviet bloc to the consternation
of about a third of CPGB members who
unfailing enthusiasm and dedication worked wonders. She did everything to
wanted a reversal to a strictly pro-Kremlin introduce authentic language into the classroom as early as possible. At the
line. “The Morning Star is open for genuine time when all course books were written by Russians and the author of the
debate about the future of the Left”, it as- largest Russian-English dictionary had never been abroad, such aspirations re-
serted. A demonstration outside the East quired great effort.
German embassy against the imprison- She composed a syllabus for every level herself and made it as intensive as
ment of reform communist Rudolf Bahro possible. There was to be a poem to learn by heart and a song to sing. Home
was organised by the Morning Star that reading, or abundant reading, was an essential component of every course.
year. Also in 1977, editor Tony Chater per-
The youngest learned a lot of songs and nursery rhymes. As there were
suaded the Labour government to begin
running advertisements in the newspaper,
no recordings, the teachers or students had to play the piano themselves, if
previously absent because of a lack of au- they could. L.N. was very musical and sang and played the piano beautifully.
dited circulation figures. She used to go to music classes and conducted lessons together with the mu-
In December 1981, when the Polish sic instructor. She beamed with pleasure listening to kids singing in English.
Solidarity trade union movement was sup- Popular Russian songs were sung in English: “Let pedestrians hurry with their
pressed and martial law declared, the pa- eyes full of worry, In the pools picking out their way, They’re surprised at my
per criticised the Executive Committee of folly – Why I am so jolly On this gloomy and dull rainy day. I am playing my
the party for condemning the acts of the garmoshka For all passers-by to hear...”
(then communist) Polish government. In
The choice of nursery rhymes was not big either, as Demurova’s precious
1982, the Morning Star attacked the atti-
tudes of Marxism Today, the party’s month-
book of Mother Goose Rhymes was published by Raduga only in 1988.
ly journal, which was controlled by the eu- As for recordings, the staff were proud to possess one or two vinyl records.
rocommunists. One had two lovely funny stories on it and the third one read Reminiscences by
The newspaper attracted some wider Anna Ulyanova about her younger brother, Vladimir Lenin. All these records
media attention in September 1981 when passed from classroom to classroom with awe and were handled with utmost
the BBC paid to place six advertisements care. The texts haunt me to this day.
for its Russian-language service in the L.N. was authoritative, uncompromising and very abrupt. She had enough
Morning Star, which was the only English- energy to visit and observe classes every week at least; sometimes you could
language newspaper that the USSR’s
see her in your classroom twice a day; then you had to wait for the time when
government allowed to be circulated in
the country. Four of these advertisements
she was ready to talk to you and she was always ruthlessly critical while ana-
were printed as agreed, but the last two of lyzing your work. Not everybody could stand her pressure and bad manners,
the six were not printed. A spokesman for that was the reason I got a position unexpectedly in November when one of the
the newspaper said that the advertising de- teachers had left after a row.
partment had not properly consulted with I joined my new colleagues who were teaching 8 and 10-year students (the
other teams before making the agreement, 10th year was the highest in those days) and was surprised to see the books
and that the BBC’s broadcasts were part appointed for home reading: it was The Path of Thunder by Peter Abrahams
of Cold War propaganda. The paper sup- (a South African-born Jamaican novelist) and Say No to Death by Dymphna
ported the National Union of Mineworkers
Cusack, an Australian author. The first seemed to have too crass anti-racism
during the miners’ strike of 1984–1985, but
the party had become critical of Scargill’s
propaganda, and the other was sickeningly sentimental. The explanation was
strategy towards the end of the strike. very simple: “We read what we can find in required numbers. When we read,
Meanwhile, in March 1984 the CPGB for example, To Kill a Mockingbird, two pupils have to share one copy. Each of
Executive Committee (EC) issued a seven them has to do the reading in two days.” Surprisingly, they really did!
page document which was heavily critical of
editor Tony Chater, in particular because he Pictures source: http://68.media.tumblr.com; http://a2012.kiosko.net/
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

t Days 37
May–
June 2017

When a new book came out, one of the teachers, the youngest, naturally, had refused to print an article which com-
was rushed to the bookshop in Kuznetsky Most in order to buy as many copies memorated the 60th anniversary of the death
as possible. (The weight of transporting The Young Shakespeare sent me to of Lenin. The EC put forward candidates to
hospital for a few days.) challenge those loyal to Chater at the 1984
AGM of the People’s Press Printing Soci-
When The Adventures of Pinocchio appeared in an English translation, L.N.
ety (PPPS) and called for Chater’s replace-
got it bought for every ten-year-old and was overjoyed with the idea that the ment. He was expelled from the CPGB in
kids would start reading a text in the original, not adapted for learning pur- January 1985, along with the assistant edi-
poses. ‘The original’ turned out to be a crushing difficulty, as every other word tor, David Whitfield, reportedly because the
was unfamiliar; the private teachers found themselves helpless and agonized, attempts to remove him as editor had failed.
the parents rebelled and complained; the school principal had to interfere and A statement by the party’s EC asserted that
L.N. had to give up. Pinocchio died as a source. the paper was “being systematically used
Another fountain of authenticity in Soviet days was the Morning Star, a to attack and undermine congress policy,
newspaper of the British Communist Party, which was in great demand among support factional activities in the party, and
help sectarian minority groupings in their
the Moscow intelligentsia as a legal source of information coming from abroad.
opposition to the party majority”. In June
L.N. made a deal with a news agent and supplied the English staff regularly. 1985, however, AGMs of the PPPS held in
L.N. was not a member of the Communist party, but she shared the ideology Glasgow, Manchester and London voted by
without a shade of doubt. She approved of the content of the British newspaper about 60 to 40% for candidates backed by
and insisted that ‘they are no less communist than ours’. She enjoyed the lan- the management committee of the Morning
guage, scrutinizing every preposition and every idiom, and tried to apply the Star. Chater remained editor of the paper
new knowledge in her own classes. until 1995 when he retired.
The Moscow News was also used widely On the day before the Berlin Wall began
in classes, as its copies were easier to get in to be dismantled in 1989, under a headline
reading “GDR unveils reforms package”,
great numbers and pupils could have them
the newspaper commented that “The Ger-
on their desks. There were special newspa- man Democratic Republic is awakening”,
per lessons when students were taught to read and quoting material supplied by East
articles for ‘resumes’, or for the gist. Those Germany’s ruling Socialist Unity Party: “A
sources proved to be most productive as they revolutionary people’s movement has set
were topical and because of the success of hu- in motion a process of serious upheaval...
man interest stories. The newspaper was a real The aim is dynamically to give socialism
window to the world, no matter how Moscow- more democracy”.
like was the language. Successive annual general meetings of
the PPPS have agreed that the policy of
Listening skills were harder to practise.
the paper is founded on Britain’s Road to
With the advent of smaller tape recorders, Socialism, the programme of the Commu-
programs of Moscow Radio were sometimes nist Party of Britain.
recorded and played in class. The students In the 1990s, the publication’s circula-
were to get down one or two sentences that tion fell to 7,000, following the end of bulk
were offered again and again but it did not help much. The listeners were near- sales to the now defunct Soviet Union, and
ly crying: “They speak too fast, too fast!” in 1998 many of its workers went on strike.
When the Beatles invaded the world of teenagers, listening skills as well as These strikes were provoked by the sack-
idiomatic English rocketed to the sky. Those teachers who could not compete ing of John Haylett as editor. During the
protest a breakaway from the Morning Star,
lagged behind; their students were becoming really fluent.
the Workers’ Morning Star was formed,
Most enthusiastic teachers kept hunting and published by a small group of journal-
for contemporary idioms tirelessly. ists who worked for the Morning Star at the
Once I was listening to the BBC and same time. This paper was discontinued
heard a program about contemporary Eng- before the end of the decade. Haylett was
lish poets. Stevie Smith was one of them eventually reinstated as editor and the pro-
and she read her own poem which enchant- tests stopped, as the circulation saw a mod-
ed me and I got it recorded. Unfortunately, erate increase. “Our political relationship is
there were some words I could not hear still with the Communist Party of Britain”, he
said in 2005, pointing out that only about
well, and nobody could, no matter how
10% of readers were members of the party,
hard they tried. A miracle happened. The “but now we represent a broad movement”.
next day I bought a copy of the Morning Although the paper is normally pub-
Star by chance, unfolded it and could not lished from Monday to Saturday, on Sun-
believe my eyes: there was that very poem day 13 September 2015, the Morning Star
by Stevie Smith! I love it even today: was issued for the first time on a Sunday
to cover the election of Jeremy Corbyn as
leader of the Labour Party.
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

38 May–
June 2017

Nobody heard him, the dead man, visitors came to the school to observe. What some of us felt
But still he lay moaning: was worse than sea sickness. It was moral humiliation, and
I was much further out than you thought it hurt.
And not waving but drowning. The results of learning were excellent. Once it so hap-
pened that three students with satisfactory marks for English
Poor chap, he always loved larking moved with their families to another school and impressed
And now he’s dead its teachers by their language skills so greatly, that the Eng-
It must have been too cold for him his heart gave way, lish head found time and energy to visit L.N. with a question:
They said. “What is happening? What are you doing here? What are
your methods? Teach me.”
Oh, no no no, it was too cold always When we, teachers, got access to British courses, we were
(Still the dead one lay moaning) thrilled. That was real English, authentic and idiomatic. The
I was much too far out all my life recordings of native speakers sounded natural, the conversa-
And not waving but drowning. tions were funny, grammar parts were not as dry as dust, and
you could believe the examples. The subjunctive of “Long
That was the poem to hear, to read, to discuss and enjoy! live the Soviet Army!” was quite correct as well, but it was
Grammar presented special difficulties as there were no a relief to forget it.
decent practice books. I am not sure when Golitsinsky got [L.N. had not lived to see those happy tidings as she had
his first collection of exercises published (let all his books been killed in a car accident. She would have loved the nov-
be burned at last!), but there was much treasured Bonk with elty!]
a lexicon good for interrogations: Where was Petrov yester- Couldn’t one be happy and satisfied? Today, there seems
day? Did Petrov work well [sic!]? With whom did Petrov go nothing much to do except to grab the student book, the work
yesterday? Did Petrov go to the library? book and grammar book and use them thoroughly, put on
The Bonk books were hard to get. Learners borrowed disks – no, there are no more disks, the sources are online,
them from friends and never returned them. audio and video – and just sit and be beautiful. Oh no.
The most precious was a four-part course of Essential Sometimes I miss the content of the Soviet courses with
English by C.E. Eckersley, the only English-born author in those wonderful short stories by the best English authors,
Russia at that time. It was entertaining and lively. The stories poems by Byron and Keats, and texts about musicians and
and grammar presentations are still a good read even today. artists. Today we cannot avoid discussing food and fashions,
L.N. had her own ideas of teaching grammar. Long before shopping and extreme sports. They have pushed off fine fic-
Ilya Frank, she introduced her own method of bilingual stud- tion, poetry, everything that could sound ‘too refined’. Thank
ies. Students received cards with short extracts from popular the Lord, we have freedom to add and to choose. We have
authors which they had to translate into Russian, compare an abundance of sources: videos, the Internet, which is the
the differences and learn the original. At the exam at the end best library in the world, and everything that’s on it – songs,
of their eighth year, they had to do back translation from films, information…
Russian into English and name all grammar points. But the phrase ‘tyranny of choice’ comes to my mind too of-
There were no written tasks at the exams. The school ten. Too many options sometimes make you feel that all of them
principal kept reminding teachers: “Remember, English is are wrong and you are wrong if you choose any of them.
an oral subject!” Limitation has its advantages: it stimulates creativity and
It is needless to say that all the cards with extra activities brings new possibilities.
were written by hand and multiplied with the help of carbon Basically, the teaching process for English is still the
paper. Long texts were to be written on the class board in chalk same. Here is the child that drops ‘s’ at the end of the verbs
and the students diligently copied them out. When I got a type- (‘third person singular’) and here is another that will never
writer with Latin keys, it made a revolution of a sort. use the past perfect properly. How can I help them? We can
Looking back, I sometimes can’t help smiling. Once a hear any poet reading their verses online, even the dead, ow-
student got a topic to speak on: ‘The son of a teacher, he ing to dubbing, but will it help to improve fluency? Wouldn’t
became a teacher of humanity.’ Lenin was meant. The boy it be better to get them read on their own?
said he could not speak about Lenin sitting and was allowed Pity, there is only ONE girl among thirty-two ninth grad-
to stand up. ers who has read Ivanhoe... None of them have heard of Rob-
Another boy was asked if he thought Robert Scott and his ert Burns before our lesson. In the Soviet days (let they never
immortal men were heroes. He answered that only Soviet be repeated!) all English language schools sang Burns every
people could be heroes, and no other nationality. January.
When Brezhnev ‘wrote’ his book about his war time ex- But: “Say not, ‘Why were the former days better than
periences, it was immediately translated into English and these?’ For it is not from wisdom that you ask this.”
all English language schools were to give special classes
to study the text and admire the ‘author’s’ heroism. Official By Olga Sventsitskaya
SCHOOL THEATRE English

THE BUTTERFLY LION


39
May–
June 2017

Boy: Butterflies live only short lives. They fly and flutter
for just a few glorious weeks, and then they die. To
see them, you just have to be in the right place at
the right time.
Woman: No, you are not seeing things. It’s not magic. He is
real enough. He is our lion, Bertie’s and mine. He
is our butterfly lion.
Boy: What do you mean?
Woman: I’ll tell you if you like. Would you like to know?
Would you really like to know?
Boy: Sure I would.
Woman: Have another scone first and another cup of tea.
Then I’ll take you to Africa where our lion came
from, where my Bertie came from too. Bit of a
story I can tell you. You ever been to Africa?
Boy: No.
Woman: Well, you are going. We are both going.
Boy: I want to keep him. I can’t just throw him to the
hyenas.
Woman: So the white lion cub came to live amongst them
in the farmhouse. He slept at the end of Bertie’s
bed. Wherever Bertie went, the lion cub went
too.
Boy: We were never apart. The lion cub was all the broth-
ers and sisters I could ever want, all the friends I
could ever need.
Woman: The two of them would sit side by side on the sofa
on the veranda and watch the great red sun go
down over Africa.
Boy: It was the best year of my young life. But when it
ended, it ended more painfully than I could ever
have imagined. Woman: Up till now it’s been just Bertie’s story. He told it
Woman: A boy needs a proper education, a good school. to me so often that I almost feel I was there when
The parents have found just the right place for Ber- it happened. But from now on it’s my story too.
tie, a school near Salisbury in England. His Uncle Woman: Whilst Bertie was growing up on his farm in Af-
George and Aunt Melanie who lived nearby prom- rica, I was growing up at Strawbridge, for the most
ised to look after him in the holidays, and to visit part alone.
him from time to time. Girl: Who are you? What do you want?
Boy: But the lion, what about the lion? Boy: Bertie Andrews.
Woman: His father had met a Frenchman, a circus owner Girl: You are from the school up the road, aren’t you?
from France. He was over in Africa looking for li- Boy: You won’t tell on me, will you?
ons and elephants to buy for his circus. Girl: Been in the wars, have you?
Frenchman: Incroyable! Magnifique! And white, white like Boy: I’ve run away. And I am not going back, not ever.
the snow and tame too. He will be the star of my Girl: Where are you going?
circus. I shall call him Le Prince Blanc, the White Boy: I don’t know. In the holidays I live at my Auntie’s
Prince. in Salisbury, but I don’t like it there.
Boy: No! No! You can’t send him to a circus! He’ll Girl: Haven’t you got a proper home?
be shut up behind bars. I promised him he never Boy: Course I have. Everyone has. But it’s in Africa.
would be. And they will point and laugh at him. Woman: That whole afternoon we sat together on Wood Hill
Frenchman: No, no, no! I love my animals, you know. They and he told me all about Africa, about his farm,
are my family, and this lion of yours, he will be my about his white lion.
favourite son. Have no fear, my friend. As God is Boy: I’ll find him. I’ll find him somehow. But the trou-
my witness, I promise it. ble is, even when I do find him, I won’t be able to
Boy: I will find you. Always remember that I will find take him home to Africa.
you. I promise I will. Girl: Why not?
English SCHOOL THEATRE

40 May–
June 2017

Boy: Because my mother died. She had malaria, but I Frenchman: Many animals are dead because of the shells.
think she really died of a broken heart. Then my He keep only the elephants, the monkeys and the
father sold the farm and married someone else. I lion, the White Prince.
never want to go back. I never want to see him Woman: Everyone loves the White Prince.
again. Never. Frenchman: But there is no food for the animals. So Mon-
Girl: What are you going to do now? Won’t you get into sieur Merlot had to shoot them. No more circus.
trouble at school? You’ve got to go back before Finish. Triste, tres, triste.
they miss you. Woman: All of them?
Boy: Maybe you are right. But if I go back, could I come Frenchman: No, not all. He keep the White Prince. He could
again? Would you let me? not shoot the White Prince, never! Most famous
Girl: So it was arranged. He would meet me every Sun- lion in all France. He made Monsieur Merlot a rich
day afternoon. man. But he is not rich anymore. He lost every-
Woman: Bertie and I lived for our Sundays. In those next thing. Now he has nothing, just the White Prince.
two years we became first good companions, and Bertie: I told you I would find him, didn’t I?
then best of friends. We both grew up too quickly. Frenchman: “The British Lion Comes Home”, roared the
The love between us stayed unspoken. Then he newspapers the next day.
went his way to his college and I went my way to Woman: So we came back here to Strawbridge, Bertie, The
the convent. White Prince and me. We never had children of our
Frenchman: Then the storm of war broke. Bertie found him- own – just the White Prince – and I can tell you he
self in hospital lying in a bed, with the two friends was enough of a family for anyone.
he had rescued on either side. Some weeks later Frenchman: The old lion lived on into a ripe old age. He
he was awarded the Victoria Cross for his bravery spent his last days stretched out asleep at Bertie’s
under fire. feet.
Woman: It was not entirely by accident that I found him. Woman: When he died we buried him at the bottom of the
I was reading a magazine, the Illustrated London hill. And we carved the White Prince out of the
News when I turned the page and saw a face I chalk on the hillside.
knew at once. And there was his name Captain Al- Boy: So he’ll be there forever? And he’ll be white for-
bert Andrews. ever too?
Frenchman: There was a whole article about what he had Woman: It was just after we had finished that the butterflies
done and how he was still recovering from his first came.
wounds in a hospital. Frenchman: When the sun comes out after the rain in the
Woman: The next Sunday I cycled over. They said I could summer, the butterflies – Adonis Blues, they are,
take him out in his wheelchair. It was on one of our – come out to drink on the chalk face. Then the
Sundays that I noticed the poster across the street. White Prince becomes a butterfly lion.
It was in French. Woman: So now you know how Bertie’s white lion became
Frenchman: Cirque Merlot. Le Prince Blanc – the White the White Prince and how the White Prince became
Prince. our butterfly lion. Keep him white for us, there’s a
Woman: We found him in the mill house, just over the dear. We don’t want him forgotten. And think of us
bridge. sometimes, won’t you?
Frenchman: The circus is finished. The soldiers, you under- Boy: I will, I will!
stand, they want beer and wine and girls maybe.
They don’t want the circus. No one comes. Mon- By Julia Raskina,
sieur Merlot has to close the circus. But what can School No. 1567, Moscow
he do with all the animals? Illustration from http://findpik.com/
PREPARING FOR EXAMS TESTS English

41
May–

RESOURCES June 2017

1. Seven sentences in the text are incomplete. Choose from the list a-h the
one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra letter which you do not
need to use.
Five-Minute Tests
PSYCHOLOGICAL RESOURCES, POSITIVE ILLUSIONS, 1 A
AND HEALTH
Psychological beliefs such as optimism, personal control, and a sense Use the word given in capitals to form a
of meaning are known (1)____________. Are they protective of physical word or the proper tense of a verb that fits
health as well? The authors present a program of research on positive illu- in the sentence.
sions for the relation of positive beliefs to disease progression among men
infected with HIV. The investigations have revealed that even unrealistically ORE RESOURCES ON MARS
optimistic beliefs about the future may (2)____________. The ability to find Mars may contain ores that would be very
meaning in the experience is also associated with a less rapid course of ill- useful to potential (1)__________(COLO-
ness. Taken together, the research suggests that psychological beliefs such NY). The (2)___________(ABUNDANT) of
as meaning, control, and optimism act as resources, which may not only volcanic features together with widespread
(3)____________ in the context of traumatic or life-threatening events but cratering are strong (3)_______________
(4)____________ as well. (EVIDENT) for a variety of ores. While
nothing may (4)______________(FIND) on
Mars that would (5)______________(JUST)
the high cost of transport to Earth, the more
necessary ores future colonists can obtain
from Mars, the (6)_________________
(EASY) it would be to build colonies on the
Red Planet.
Key: 1. colonists/colonization; 2. abundance;
3. evidence; 4. be found; 5. justify; 6. easier.

2 A
Read the text and think of the word which
best fits each space. Use only one word in
each space.

FUTURE DETECTION
FOR ORES ON MARS
Theoretically, ore resources exist on
The psychologically and physiologically (5)____________ of positive Mars. Moreover, sensitive equipment can
beliefs are only beginning to be understood. Rigorous research investiga- predict (1)___________ to look for them,
tions from a variety of laboratories have now provided evidence, however, such (2)___________ around craters and
that such resources as meaning, a belief in personal control, and optimism near volcanic regions. As more images
not only help people adapt to stressful events more successfully but actually (3)__________ gathered, more information
(6)____________. Although, as yet we do not fully understand the biopsy- (4)___________ be gathered which will help
chosocial pathways by which such protective effects occur, the evidence is to better map the locations of ore resources.
strong enough to justify considering these resources important weapons in Later, flying unmanned craft (5)__________
the arsenal of (7)____________. gravity and magnetic measuring devic-
es will (6)_________ able to determine
a) preserve mental health (7)____________ exact locations of mineral
b) be protective of physical health deposits. These devices (8)___________ em-
c) to be protective of mental health ployed in Afghanistan by American scientists
d) prevention is better than cure to discover (9)__________ of iron, copper,
e) protective functions niobium, lithium and gold.
f) be health protective
g) protect health Key: 1. where; 2. as; 3. are; 4. will; 5. with;
h) prevention of disease ª
6. be; 7. the; 8. were/have been; 9. deposits.
ª
English TESTS PREPARING FOR EXAMS

42 May–
June 2017
2. Seven sentences in the text are incomplete. Choose from the list a-h the
one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra letter which you do not
need to use.

BUILD YOUR INTERNAL RESOURCES


A law of nature is that the human body and mind need time for rest and
Five-Minute Tests recovery after times of exertion. Especially when facing circumstances
beyond your control that deplete your resiliency reserves, it is essential
3 A (1)____________, both internal and external.
Research tells us that integrating intermittent practices of renewal into
Complete these sentences using one of the your day builds your inner resources and capacity (2)____________. When
words: health, inner, human, mental. you become inundated with demands and a long “to do” list, practise one of
1. Your _________ resources had shrivelled the following:
years ago. 1. Redirect your thoughts to what is going well when your mind wants
2. In a company or other organization, the (3)____________, or an “us against them” mindset.
department of ________ resources is the 2. Remind yourself of your efforts and strengths, even when you don’t see
department with responsibility for the re- results.
cruiting, training, and welfare of the staff. 3. Read a favorite quote or meditation book that gives you inspiration. Bi-
3. He is well equipped. He has the appropriate ographies of those who have overcome incredible odds can shift your
________ resources for such a difficult task. perspective from all that is wrong to what is working.
4. He has no ______ resources of character. 4. Record what you are grateful for. Writing has a way of cementing new
5. In response to the crisis, the government ways of thinking and behaving.
assumed a leadership role in coordinating 5. Resolve to take care of yourself. Two things are working against you
________ resources. every day – the brain’s natural tendency to focus on the negative and
Key: 1. inner; 2. human; 3. mental; 4. inner; 5. health.
demands beyond your control. Resolve (4)____________, even in the
smallest of ways.
4 A 6. Pause for at least 10 seconds after something positive has happened, al-
lowing it to sink in. Resist the temptation (5)____________. By taking
Complete the text using the words from the
this time to dwell on the positive, you are decreasing stress hormones and
box. There are two extra words which you
rewiring your brain with inner strengths such as resiliency, confidence,
don’t need to use. Words: available, robust,
patience, and emotional balance.
expeditionary, essential, fairly, stockpile, as-
7. Reach out to family/friends who give you genuine support. These are the
tronauts, manufactured, practical, shielding,
people who do not judge and are there for you no matter what.
present, exploration.
8. Maintain a sense of humor without becoming cynical or sarcastic. Laugh-
The resources of Mars
ter relieves tension and gives perspective.
for human settlement
These suggestions are not about positive thinking or pat answers
Spacecraft exploration of Mars has shown
(6)____________. Rather, they involve taking action towards building your
that the (1)__________ resources neces-
inner resources, especially when things are outside of your control. Though
sary for life support are (2)________ on the
your circumstances may not change, you can integrate healthier ways of
martian surface. The key life-support com-
responding by being intentional (7)____________.
pounds O2, N2, and H2O are (3)_________
Make the conscious choice to build your inner resources and you will
on Mars. The soil could be used as radiation
face demands, distractions, and disappointments with more resolve and
(4)__________ and could provide many
resilience.
useful industrial and construction materials.
Compounds with high chemical energy, such
as rocket fuels, can be (5)________ insitu on
Mars. Solar power, and possibly wind power,
are available and (6)_________ on Mars.
Preliminary engineering studies indicate
that (7)________ autonomous processes
can be designed to extract and (8)________
Martian consumables. The ability to uti-
lize these materials in support of a human
(9)________ effort allows missions that are
more (10)________ and economical than
would otherwise be possible.
Key: 1. essential; 2. present; 3. available;
4. shielding; 5. manufactured; 6. practical; 7. fair-
ly; 8. stockpile; 9. exploration; 10. robust.
By Youdif Boyarskaya,
School No. 814, Moscow
PREPARING FOR EXAMS English

A. to handle challenges better


B. to challenging situations
C. to develop practices that give you intermittent replenish-
ment
43
May–
June 2017
D. to protect your mental health
E. to build your inner resources throughout your day
4. Think of the word which best fits each space. Use only
F. to rehearse negative events, interactions
one word in each space.
G. to replenish your resources
H. to move on to the next thing on your “to do” list
ARE YOU A RESOURCEFUL PERSON?
Resourcefulness (1)_____ definition means that you are
3. Use the word given in capitals to form a word or a proper
(2)_____ to meet the needs of a situation and can develop
tense of a verb that fits in the sentence.
the necessary means to accomplish a task. Being resourceful
1. Resources Quotes
is a highly valuable trait, so consequently those (3)______
In Israel, a land (1)____________(LACK) in natural resourc-
are very high in the trait of resourcefulness often lead very
es, we learned to appreciate our greatest national advantage:
successful lives.
our minds. Through (2)____________(CREATE) and inno-
vation, we transformed barren deserts into (3)____________
(FLOURISH) fields and pioneered new frontiers in science
and technology.
Shimon Peres

Never forget the three (4)____________(POWER) re-


sources you always have available to you: love, prayer, and
(5)____________(FORGIVE).
H. Jackson Brown, Jr.

“Fifth wheel (6)____________(EMPLOY) are those who are


a result of the mistake made by the human resources wing,
i.e. by recruiting the wrong person to the wrong job just to fill
in the (7)____________(VACANT) and then expect a better
performance. (8)____________(FAR) such an employee is
(9)____________(ABLE) to put in his (10)____________
(GOOD) and is just an (11)____________(ADDITION)
You are a resourceful person if you are the one that:
mass available within the organization.”
• Others turn (4)_____ in a time of need or struggle;
Henrietta Newton Martin
• Is able to find ways to get things (5)_____ that others
might (6)______ thought impossible;
Our (12)__________(UNIQUE), our individuality, and our
• Finds resources (7)______ there were none;
life experience molds us into fascinating (13)__________
• Gets help when others were turned (8)______;
(BE). I hope we can embrace that. I pray we may all challenge
• Can rally any number of people to the cause.
(14)__________(WE) to delve into the (15)__________
Most importantly, you have a great combination of inner
(DEEP) resources of our hearts to cultivate an atmosphere of
and outer resources.
understanding, (16)__________(ACCEPT), tolerance, and
Your inner resource examples are creativity, intelligence,
(17)_________(COMPASS). We are all in this life together.
confidence, courage, or passion. Your (9)______ resources
Linda Thompson
are people, money, or technology. When used together, you
(10)_____ accomplish anything.
I don’t think love is a tricky issue at all. Love (18)_________
best ____________ (UNDERSTAND) when we share: share
Key:
time, energy, food, resources, insights, information, whatev-
1. 1. c; 2. f; 3. a; 4. b; 5. e; 6. g; 7. h.
er. It’s usually thought of as (19)____________(SOME) that
2. 1. G; 2. A; 3. F; 4. C; 5. H; 6. B; 7. E.
exists between two people, but that’s just because it’s easier
3. 1. lacking; 2. creativity; 3. flourishing; 4. powerful;
to see and feel in the space between them. Each person is
5. forgiveness; 6. employees; 7. vacancy; 8. Further; 9. un-
sharing a lot with the other.
able; 10. best; 11. additional; 12. uniqueness; 13. beings;
Jason Mraz
14. ourselves; 15. deepest; 16. acceptance; 17. compas-
sion; 18. is best understood; 19. something; 20. anything;
I have a low tolerance for people who complain about things
21. are never translated.
but never do (20)____________(THING) to change them.
4. 1. by; 2. able; 3. who; 4. to; 5. done; 6. have; 7. where;
This led me to conclude that the single largest pool of un-
8. down; 9. outer; 10. can.
tapped natural resources in this world is human good inten-
tions that (21)____________ never ____________(TRANS-
By Youdif Boyarskaya,
LATE) into actions.
School No. 814, Moscow
Cindy Gallop
English FOR YOUNG LEARNERS

44 May–
June 2017
THE TIME TO RHYME
ЗАПОВЕДНЫЙ НАПЕВ Я все-таки опасался, что в первые дни после травмы
Привет! Меня зовут Валентин Valentine ['vxlqntQIn]. в состоянии волка может наступить ухудшение decline
Недавно меня назначили assign [q'sQIn] начальником [dI'klQIn], и решил позаботиться о нем. Я отнес волка к
охраны в большом природном заповеднике. Для сохра- себе в сторожку, стал кормить его и обрабатывать раны.
нения природы в первозданном виде в нашем заповедни- А через девять nine [nQIn] дней отпустил его, сытого и
ке установлены строгие правила. К нам нельзя попасть здорового, обратно в лес.
без специального разрешения и без сопровождающего Вот такая история случилась в нашем заповедном
экскурсовода. Предупреждающие о недопустимости лесу. Об этой истории даже написали в местной газете.
самовольного вторжения знаки sign [sQIn] установле- Заголовок headline ['hedlQIn] статьи “Спасение волка”
ны на всех подступах к нашему заповеднику. Террито- привлек внимание многих читателей. А мой шеф, кото-
рия заповедника ограничена confine [kqn'fQIn] высоким рый до публикации собирался отправить меня в отставку
забором, а нарушители правил посещения заповедника resign [rI'zQIn], сменил гнев на милость. Он не только не
платят немаленький штраф fine [fQIn]! уволил меня, но даже прибавил мне жалованье.
На территории нашего природного заповедника вы Хочу подчеркнуть underline ['AndqlQIn], что помогая
никогда не увидите ни тарахтящие комбайны combine волку, я не преследовал никаких корыстных целей, не
['kPmbQIn], ни выбирающихся из шахты mine [mQIn] ждал ни похвалы, ни поощрения. К тому же я нарушил
шахтеров. Любые виды хозяйственной деятельности правила природоохранной зоны, согласно которым нель-
тут строго-настрого запрещены. Нельзя даже убрать зя вмешиваться в судьбу ее обитателей. Однако я уверен,
поваленные бурей стволы деревьев или посадить ря- что поступил правильно, по совести, ведь сильный всег-
дом со сторожкой небольшую виноградную лозу vine да должен помогать слабому.
[vQIn].
Я очень люблю свою работу. В прекрасную fine [fQIn] align [q'lQIn] выравнивать,
солнечную погоду после обхода охраняемой мною тер- присоединяться
ритории я располагаюсь под старой раскидистой со- assign [q'sQIn] назначать
сной pine [pQIn]. Щуря глаза, я долго любуюсь окрест- brine [brQIn] рассол
ностями. Божественный divine [dI'vQIn] вид! Солнце China ['CQInq] Китай
сияет shine [SQIn], и в свете его лучей наш заповедник combine ['kPmbQIn] комбайн
представляется сказочным лесом. В такие моменты я
confine [kqn'fQIn] ограничивать(ся)
чувствую себя героем романа Рея Бредбери “Вино wine
consign [kqn'sQIn] предавать, обрекать
[wQIn] из одуванчиков”, изобретающим “машину сча-
стья”. А потом солнце клонится к закату. Когда оно decline [dI'klQIn] снижение, ухудшение,
касается линии line [lQIn] горизонта за соленым как спад
природный рассол brine [brQIn] озером, я иду к себе define [dI'fQIn] определять, обозначать
в сторожку. design [dI'zQIn] дизайн
Однажды я сидел в своей сторожке, обедал dine dine [dQIn] обедать
[dQIn] и рассматривал привезенную моими друзьями divine [dI'vQIn] божественный
из Китая China ['CQInq] красивую вазочку. Чем бы еще fine [fQIn] прекрасный
кроме вазочки, улучшить дизайн design [dI'zQIn] моей
fine [fQIn] штраф
сторожки? Может, стоит повесить картины? Или начать
с того, чтобы выровнять align [q'lQIn] стены и пере- headline ['hedlQIn] заголовок
клеить обои? line [lQIn] линия
Темнело. Я уже было задремал, как вдруг из чащи mine [mQIn] шахта
леса донесся невообразимый визг whine [wQIn]. Схва- nine [nQIn] девять
тив фонарь, я ринулся на звук. Сначала мне даже сложно pine [pQIn] сосна
было определить define [dI'fQIn], откуда доносится звук. resign [rI'zQIn] уходить в отставку
Наконец, через полчаса метаний я добрался до места
shine [SQIn] сиять (о Солнце)
происшествия. Оказалось, что молодого волка придави-
sign [sQIn] знак
ло упавшее дерево.
По правилам нашей природоохранной зоны я не имел spine [spQIn] позвоночник
права вмешиваться в судьбу обитателей заповедника. Од- underline ['AndqlQIn] подчеркивать
нако оставить волка без помощи означало обречь consign Valentine ['vxlqntQIn] Валентин
[kqn'sQIn] его на медленную и мучительную смерть. vine [vQIn] виноградная лоза
Так поступить я не мог. Приложив огромные усилия, я whine [wQIn] визг
сдвинул упавшее дерево и освободил волка. К счастью, вино
wine [wQIn]
у животного были только раны и царапины, позвоночник
spine [spQIn] вроде бы не был поврежден. Ксения Зайцева
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES English

PROVERBS AND SAYINGS 45


A Linguistic Game
May–
June 2017

READING and SPEAKING


Classroom activity: whole class interaction
Language level: elementary, pre-intermediate, intermediate
Age: 12+
Time: 30-45 minutes
Target: enlarging vocabulary, reading and speaking practice, discussing cultural and historical
differencies and similarities between Russian and English proverbs and sayings.
Procedure: The class is divided into two teams. Each team gets two big cards with Russian
proverbs and sayings and small cards with English ones. The students have to set up a correspondence between English and Rus-
sian proverbs and sayings. The winner is the team that will do it correctly and quicker than the other team. Then the teacher may
organise a discussion and ask students to share their thoughts of differencies and similarities between Russian and English proverbs
and sayings.

A bad compromise is better than a good lawsuit. Худой мир лучше доброй ссоры.

A burden of one’s choice is not felt. Своя ноша не тянет.

Better one small fish than an empty dish. Лучше синица в руках, чем журавль в небе.

Barking dogs seldom bite. Лающие собаки редко кусаются.


(Кто много грозит, тот мало вредит.)

Dance to smb’s pipe. Плясать под чужую дудку.

Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth. Дареному коню в зубы не смотрят.

Don’t trouble troubles till troubles trouble you. Не тревожь беду, пока беда не потревожит тебя.

East or west home is best. Восток или запад, дома лучше всего.
(В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше.)

Every bullet has its billet. У каждой пули своя цель.


(Чему быть, того не миновать.)

Glutton: one who digs his grave with his teeth. Обжора – это человек, который роет себе могилу
собственными зубами.

Hard words break no bones. Жестокие слова костей не ломают.


(Брань на вороту не виснет.)

When Queen Ann was alive. При царе Горохе.

Hell is paved with good intentions. Благими намерениями вымощена дорога в ад.
English CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

46 May–
June 2017

If life gives you a lemon, make lemonade. В каждом свинстве можно найти кусочек ветчины.

It is not work that kills men, it is worry. He работа убивает людей, а забота.

Least said, soonest mended. Чем меньше сказано, тем быстрее исправлено.

Money spent on the brain, is never spent in vain. Деньги, потраченные для развития ума,
никогда не потрачены зря.

Train hard fight easy. Тяжело в ученье, легко в бою.

Time heals all wounds. Время лечит все раны.

Trust but verify. Доверяй, но проверяй.

When at Rome do as the Romans do. В чужой монастырь со своим уставом не ходят.

Hungry bellies have no ears. У голодного брюха нет уха.

Great talkers are little doers. Большой говорун – плохой работун.

The dogs bark, but the caravan goes on. Собака лает – ветер носит.

The leopard cannot change its spots. Волк каждый год линяет, а все сер бывает.

The more the merrier. Чем больше, тем веселее.

He works best who knows his trade. Лучше всех работает тот, кто знает свое дело.
(Дело мастера боится.)

Neck or nothing. Эх, была не была.

Neither fish nor flesh. Ни рыба, ни мясо.

To roll in money. Купаться в деньгах.

Well begun is half done. Хорошее начало полдела откачало.

By Youdif Boyarskaya, School No. 814, Moscow


Photo taken by the author.
TEACHERS FORUM English

ARE YOU AFRAID 47


May–

OF ONLINE COURSES?
June 2017

MY LUCK The approach that is used as a basis of the course has


Have you ever in your life won anything? I’ve never! changed my mind completely about online courses. In Rus-
Actually I’ve never even tried. I’ve never believed that an sia, people are used to another type of information gather-
ordinary person can get anything for free in our so econom- ing. I thought that participants would be given some materi-
ically-oriented world. But for the first time in my life, I was als to study and finally should pass a test or something. On
lucky. Being just an ordinary English Language teacher in the NILE online platform it’s just the opposite. Participants
a regional school in Russia, I have won a real online course are given questions to generate ideas and search for the in-
from NILE, one of the most appreciated British institutes for formation. Surprising, isn’t it?
teachers. And it’s all thanks to my favourite magazine Eng- At the end of Unit 1, we were gathered on our first online
lish for EL teachers. webinar that demonstrated what a global classroom actually
After visiting their website www.nile-elt.com I chose the means. When we started the webinar in Russia it was already
“Classroom Activities, Interaction and Motivation” course 10 p.m. while in Mexico it was only 2 o’clock. I was ex-
as the most interesting and helpful for me. To my mind, it’s tremely excited to see everyone I’d met virtually the week
very important to create effective interaction between stu- earlier. We communicated for almost an hour and developed
dents in order to enlighten them with learning motivation a list of ideas how the teaching context may affect the choice
and engage in proper classroom activities. of activities we provide to our students. As it’s said in Russia
“Two heads are better than one”.
ORGANISATION To crown it all, I should say that it was an incredible ex-
At the very beginning, Johanna Stirling, designer of many perience!
courses, provided an orientation webinar to all new members
of the courses. She actually showed us the NILE learning UNIT 2 BRINGS SURPRISES
platform which has an easy navigation bar and many unique After the first such inspiring week all of the participants
collaborative activities for participants. For example, there were eager to work together even more.
is a Messaging System, Community Walls, Forums, Notes, a Unit 2 came up with the topic “Good classroom activities
Chatroom for synchronous communication and others. for vocabulary recycling”. We were taught to understand the
Could it be more obvious that I liked all of them? aims of different activities and create our own. One task was
For all members of any course the NILE Library and Glos- a collaborative one where we were supposed to find a partner
sary are available. To my mind, they are absolutely treasure communicating synchronously in a Chatroom.
chests. Later we understood the importance of vocabulary re-
We were informed that our course will last for 8 weeks viewing, thanks to Johanna Stirling’s presentation on the
with a mid-course break for a week. At the end of the course, subject. It was a total surprise for me that the first 24 hours
participants are supposed to complete an assignment that are the most important to memorize new vocabulary. Such
leads them to a certificate. Moreover, all activities for course activities as Fill in the Gaps, Odd One Out, Wordsearch, Per-
members are given time estimates in order to show how sonalisation, and Storytelling are very good for vocabulary
much they may take. recycling. Another good one, and new for me, was a Vocabox
idea. As we say in Russia “Everything genius is simple”. A
FIRST WEEK IS OVER teacher needs to get a real box to collect cards with target
Obviously, the first week and the Unit 1 seemed quite language vocabulary.
difficult for me because participants were supposed to ac- Surely, there are plenty of activities with Vocabox and a
quaint themselves not only with the learning platform, but teacher can choose the most suitable for his or her teach-
also get to know each other. For me it was such a pleasure ing context. We came to the conclusion that any kind of
to meet very experienced teachers from all over the world – deep processing activities like categorisation, comparison,
Mexico, Italy, Algeria, and Turkey. The tutor of our course, or analysis helps our students to memorise words more ef-
Susi Pearson, is from the UK and used to work all around fectively. What is more, I liked the idea from my Italian
the world for almost 26 years. Now she is a teacher-trainer coursemate, Jacqeline, to jot down new words alphabetically
at NILE. in address books as they have things divided according to
The first week was very motivating for me. Just imagine the fist letter.
how difficult it would be to create your own metaphor to To sum up, I would like to share a quote by Wilga Rivers
describe a lesson of a classroom activity! Definitely it needs (from Communicating Naturally in a Second Language, CUP,
brainstorming in some way. “A good lesson is like a good cited in Thornbury S, Teaching Vocabulary 2002; 144):
meal – it should have a light starter, a meaty main course and “Vocabulary cannot be taught. It can be presented, ex-
finish with something sweet” is my favorite one. Another plained, included in all kinds of activities, and experienced
task was to make a list of the aims of different classroom in all manner of associations... but ultimately it is learned by
activities. It made me think and formulate a lot. the individual.”
English TEACHERS FORUM

48 May–
June 2017
tion to our students. I find it necessary to outline some points
here:
• Any activity needs a clear aim and good instructions;
• It should be relevant to the learners’ level – not too dif-
ficult and not too easy;
• It should be personalised somehow and give learners an
UNIT 3 WAS ABOUT INTERACTION element of choice;
Time flies and the third week is over. It was dedicated to • It should contain some mystery and guessing, e.g. infor-
one of the most important issues of second language teach- mation gap;
ing: interaction and speaking activities. • It should be more kinaesthetic, competitive and interac-
What do we mean when we say interaction? tive;
How often do your students interact? • A teacher should develop a system of rewarding students
What interaction patterns do you know? – young learners always want to please a teacher, while
What makes a good speaking activity? adults are able to follow long-term goals, receiving a reg-
What are the criteria for it? ular reward on each stage of their development.
I now have clear answers to these questions. We were ac-
quainted with so many good speaking activities in this unit The next issue in this Unit 4 was writing activities and
that it’s hard to choose the best one. how a teacher can make them more motivating. It is quite
Needless to say, interaction is a key point in teaching Eng- obvious that students don’t like writing and, especially, writ-
lish as a second language due to its communicative nature. ing in a second language.
Moreover, interaction builds confidence and practice for real How do you feel when you are asked to write some kind
life in the safe environment of a classroom where students of a report or an article in English? You feel nervous but
can make mistakes and then try again. excited, don’t you?
Besides, students learn a lot from each other and have a All course participants shared their ideas on motivating
peer feedback or cooperation in some activities that inspires writing activities: start writing from the very beginning of
them. Learners use and activate their knowledge and speak- EL education, use fun writing tasks (menus, posters, stories),
ing skills, exchange ideas and learn to accept and respect get students writing collaboratively, e.g. circle writing, have
other people’s opinions. a noticeboards to display examples of good work, and use
As education becomes less teacher-centred and more media to make writing more attractive to learners.
student-centred, interaction develops higher-order thinking On top of that, we were introduced to several engag-
skills, critical thinking and communicative competence. ing writing activities like Collaborative Story, Essay Team
Haven’t you promoted interaction in your classroom yet? Writing, Snowball Fight, Write-or-Die, and Sentence Gen-
Meanwhile, some problems with student interaction can erator.
be prevented in advance: the instructions aren’t clear, the ac- In addition, we discussed international collaborative
tivity isn’t the right level of challenge, students are afraid to projects where students from different countries work on the
make mistakes, and for these, the teacher needs to plan and same task and exchange products. Of course this may need
monitor interaction carefully. lots of time and self-devotion of a teacher, but what could be
I would like to mention several interaction patterns we more motivating?
looked at in this Unit. They are:
• whole class mingle and plenary, UNIT 5 AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
• open and closed pairs, The 5th Unit was very interesting in terms of classroom
• small/large group work. management and the teacher’s role. We took a closer look at
We use whole class mingle to conduct a survey, for stu- how to give instructions, required with almost any activity,
dents interviewing each other, “Find somebody who...”, more effectively. Here are the most essential points:
while we do whole class plenary to reflect on a lesson, to • Instructions must be clear, concise and simple;
give instructions and gain feedback from our learners. We • They must include gestures, examples of action;
use pair work to develop speaking and listing skills, to per- • A teacher should check the understanding of given in-
form dialogues. Teachers need to organise group work care- structions via proper questions.
fully to teach students to collaborate, inspire real commu- Have you ever thought over the instructions you usually
nication within groups, develop social/teamwork skills and give?
give them a real sense of achievement. Later we were introduced to two brilliant activities like
“Hotseat” and “Irregular Walk”.
UNIT 4 MOTIVATES! I bet, you’ve never heard about them. Could you guess
This unit was dedicated to the most important part of any the aims of these activities from their names?
education or even action, that is motivation. It is something It was amazing to adapt them to the specifics of my teach-
that makes people do certain things, a psychological reason ing context. For example, our tutor Susi helped me to adapt
for their behaviour. Motivation can be of two types – intrin- the Hotseat to young learners’ classes with mime guessing.
sic and extrinsic. A teacher puts a word of an animal on the blackboard and
The key question was what a teacher can do to motivate the students demonstrate movements and sounds of it to the
their English language learners. After some discussion on the single student sitting on the “hot seat” with their back to the
Forum, we created a list of issues that can add some motiva- word. What a marvellous idea, isn’t it?
TEACHERS FORUM English

The next step in the unit was to classify different types of


activities like warmers, fillers, stirrers and settlers. What a
shame for me I’ve never even heard of them. But that is the
reason I am here on the course to get more experience in EL
49
May–
June 2017
teaching.
For sure, every teacher needs warmers or as they are also
called ice breakers(starters). The aim of warming students up UNIT 7: THE LAST BUT NOT THE LEAST
unites all these activities. Put a word “Congratulations” on We have come to the last content unit in this course and
the blackboard and ask your learners to find as many words immediately I started to feel so sad because of the course
as possible based on these letters only. I liked “Ball Pass” ending. This week was dedicated to receptive skill-based ac-
when students pass a ball from one to another and speak ei- tivities that are reading and listening.
ther about themselves or on a target language topic. Why do we give our learners reading and listening ac-
Sometimes a teacher needs fillers to namely fill in for sev- tivities?
eral minutes between the activities or before a class ends. What are the specific reasons to use them?
For example, “Chinese Whispers” or “Broken Telephone” as Why do you think learners may find listening or reading
it called in Russia. A teacher gives students a phrase or a activities difficult?
sentence to whisper around the class to see how it changes Ask yourself these questions and you will get more under-
by the end. standing of the subject.
These and many other brilliant activities require no prepa- A teacher should always know why he or she uses certain
ration and no equipment but are extremely useful when your activities in order to set specific aims and later analyse if they
class is going wrong or a colleague is ill and you’ve been work toward meeting those aims.
asked to cover. Sometimes we need to improve reading and listening
Stirrers are a special type of activity that help teacher skills of our learners; very often we help them to be better at
to activate learners, while settlers are to cool them down a gist or scan reading; from time to time we can introduce or
little. Though different students are stirred or settled by dif- revise particular language; occasionally we ask students to
ferent activities. read for enjoyment; etc.
Considering all the above, I must confess that I definitely Needless to say that every time a teacher puts forth differ-
need to start my own collection of useful activities. ent aims and finds that different tools work toward meeting
them.
UNIT 6: BUILDING AND SHARING A BANK The last task of the Unit was to create one’s own listen-
OF ACTIVITIES ing or reading activity with a brief profile of the class and
In this unit, we took a look at the importance of building necessary explanations. Do I need to say that it was very
a big bank or repertoire of classroom activities. Also, we dis- very difficult?
cussed both paper and digital resources where a teacher can I did my best and it was such an exciting experience.
get new activities and ideas. Later we focused on grammar
activities, where we ought to find and adapt some of them in UNIT 8 AND A FAREWELL PARTY
order to satisfy certain grammar learning aims. What a great course! Every participant admitted that it
We also looked at some new ways of storing and organis- was a unique one. I will never forget the NILE platform with
ing classroom activities, using apps like Evernote, Scoop It, its nice activities. I will definitely miss our close interaction,
and Padlet. comments, webinars and precious cross-cultural exchange.
Have you ever thought of any online sharing of activities? We made good friends with everyone on the course and
During this week I had the opportunity to download Ever- promised to stay in touch with colleagues maybe for future
note and try this app for storing my many activities. I found collaborative projects.
it extremely useful even for personal planning and collecting Unit 8 came up with two important activities. The first one
ideas. A teacher can create different Notebooks within this was to analyse our personal teaching context. The second
app and store activities as articles, including webpages, any one was to try a pre-assignment task and receive feedback
multimedia materials such as videos, music, audio-files, or from the tutor.
pictures. Any part of Evernote resources could be shared via
e-mail. At the end of Unit 8 there was our last webinar – a so
I really liked this app because it is simple and helps me a called Farewell Party. We even shared our virtual gifts with
lot almost every day. everyone. It was so touching and sincere that I can’t help
However, there is one more useful technology I found smiling all the time.
nowadays especially for teachers. That is cloud technol- Now I have four weeks to fulfil the Final Assignment that
ogy. Such platforms as Google.Drive, OneDrive Microsoft, promises to become my real achievement.
Dropbox and others provide a huge storage space and many In conclusion I would like to thank my favourite maga-
activities useful for teachers like testing forms to create quiz- zine English for providing me with such a marvellous oppor-
zes, tests, and questionnaires. What could be more helpful for tunity to develop my teaching skills. Big thanks to the whole
a teacher? NILE team for such an unforgettable experience!
To sum it up, I would like to say that it’s never too late to
make your teaching easier and more interesting due to mod- By Anastasia Marina,
ern digital opportunities. So start today! Ermish State School, Ryazan Region
English TEACHERS FORUM

50 May–
June 2017
Effective Time Management
for Teachers: Useful Tips
Nowadays many teachers have to work under pressure Standards of Education, to estimate how much time is need-
of a heavy workload, which leads to being stressed and de- ed to study one unit or module and when it is time to relax
pressed. The quality of work declines, the enthusiasm wears a bit and do some creative tasks. However, even if the plan-
off. How to keep up with the curriculum? How to find time ning is OK and prepared, teachers still feel stressed because,
to prepare paperwork on time? How to stop feeling stressed? unfortunately, lesson planning doesn’t include paperwork
How to find the time to actually live your life but not work and some extra job. What I would like to mention is personal
around the clock? Here are some useful tips from my per- planning. The best way to get organized is to write a daily
sonal experience. plan in a notebook. My advice is to buy a notebook without
dates printed in it, so that you won’t feel stressed when you
LIFE VS. WORK look into your notebook and see that you have failed to do
The first thing every person and especially a teacher has to something according to the plan and thus left some blank
understand that work is not life. People work to earn money pages. Instead write the date on the top of the page. Every
to live a life they want to. That is why one has to determine activity during the day should have a set beginning time and
what they want in life. Do you want to work extra time in- a set end time, e.g. checking tests 14.00–14.30, checking e-
stead of spending some precious time with your family or mails 14.30–14.50, report 14.50–15.20, etc. Determining not
friends? Do you really wish to spend time freaking out be- only the beginning, but also the end time of an activity helps
cause of deadline at work or take a moment of peace at home to understand how much clock time is spent on every task.
or just take a walk in a park? At first sight these questions are Besides that the cover design of your notebook is essential.
simple to answer. But do you really leave work at your work- The design should encourage you to be positive about your
place and not think about it at home? It goes without saying life and work.
that an efficient specialist wants to be successful at work, By the way, this planning may include not only work mat-
but that doesn’t mean ruining your personal life because of ters, but also household duties, shopping, etc. If you include
stress at work. your personal life matters into your planning, you’ll be able
to cope with all the duties you have. Using such integrated
SETTING GOALS AND TAKING STEPS planning can help you to stop being disorganized and stressed
What can be even more important than planning your as a consequence.
time? I believe it is setting goals. Let’s take a simple ex-
ample. An average teacher in a state school works for ap- CLOCK TIME VS. REAL TIME
proximately 20-25 academic hours. Practice shows that An interesting aspect to think over is the difference be-
most teachers don’t feel stressed working these hours and tween clock time and real time. We are not speaking about
achieve academic goals of their subject quite effectively. But lessons, as every lesson has a set duration of clock time.
what about checking homework, tests, preparing reports for What I am speaking about is the difference of speed with
the administration, etc.? All this adds about 10-15 hours of which we carry out tasks. Teacher A can check their students’
work. homework in 30 minutes, teacher B will do the same work in
My idea is to set a goal and then to take small steps to
reach it. The goal may be to get the paperwork done by the
end of the week, as the new week brings new tasks. We de-
cide that the steps to reach that goal will be: 1) to check the
student’s work, 2) prepare cards or tests for the next lessons,
3) find interesting information to motivate students to learn
better, 4) monitor students’ success and set goals for them to
improve in your subject, 5) learn something for yourself, be-
cause a successful teacher has to learn all the time. As simple
as it can be, these steps can be easily taken day by day dur-
ing the five-day working week. If you do all this on Friday,
you may forget about the weekend if you are a responsible
teacher, or sacrifice the quality of your work and education
of your students to your personal life. When you have a goal
and realize how to achieve it, the next step is to plan your
time.

PLANNING
Every teacher has to plan lessons and curriculum in ad-
vance. This helps to set goals in accordance with Federal
TEACHERS FORUM English

51
May–
June 2017

(reports, test analysis, etc.) You’d better not leave paperwork


until the beginning of the new term, as first, you won’t have
time to do that, and second, psychologists recommend be-
ginning some new stage of work without any neglected or
unfinished duties from the previous stage. You’ll never feel
fresh and ready for something new, unless you finish all past
accumulated work on time.

TIME MANAGEMENT AT THE LESSON


It goes without saying that a qualified teacher knows
everything about effective time management at the lesson.
What I wanted to add is that many teachers leave check-
1 hour. So we have to bear in mind that we have to manage ing homework or dictations till after the lessons. However
the real time which is in our heads and depends on our skills you could check simple work at the lesson, e.g. while your
and abilities, but not the clock time. As soon as you under- students are doing some written task and you have a couple
stand the difference between these two times, you won’t be of minutes to check some cards or simple tests. This can
stressed anymore. Eventually, planning your time helps you save a lot of time after the lesson. Besides that, students
to achieve your goals; it is only a mean of planning, but not would love to know their marks for homework or dictation
the most essential thing. on the spot.

DISTRACTIONS VS. BREAKS EFFECTIVE VS. EFFICIENT


How often do other people or less important tasks or Before speaking about being a successful teacher let us
phone calls distract you from your work? Most people are decide on the definitions of the words ‘effective’ and ‘ef-
distracted all the time. However, there is a simple solution ficient’. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Diction-
to this problem. You need to learn to say ‘NO’ to distractors. ary ‘effective’ means producing the result that is wanted or
Don’t give people your attention immediately when you are intended, producing a successful result, whereas ‘efficient’
working on an important task. Don’t answer the phone just means doing something well and thoroughly with no waste
because it is ringing (we are not speaking about some urgent of time or energy. The difference between being an effective
calls which certainly have to be answered). Don’t read e- teacher and an efficient teacher seems huge to me. In my
mails every time they arrive. And forget about social media opinion, it is not enough to be effective; our ideal is to be ef-
as this is the most dangerous distractor of all. ficient. That means a teacher does not spend a lot of time do-
On the contrary, breaks are very useful to change brain ing their work, but instead has a skill to do the work in such
activities and to give your mind some rest. When checking a way that it is done quickly and without a waste of time.
homework, you may stand up and have a walk around the We can spend the time we save on self-development in our
classroom, look out of the window, admire nature, etc. Don’t professional sphere, or just on relaxing. This paragraph is the
open Facebook or Vkontakte, don’t check e-mails, and don’t most essential in my article because all the things mentioned
phone your friend to have a chat. All these actions are dis- above can help you become not just a successful teacher, but
tractors, not breaks. Also starting another task before you also a successful teacher in a good mood with a lot of free
have finished the previous one is a really bad idea. Multitask- time.
ing is actually a complicated thing; most people practicing it I understand perfectly well that obviously it is not that
simply leave the tasks unfinished or make their schedule a the way easy to change one’s attitude to work and a teach-
mess instead of reaching goals. er should do their work. However, take my advice and try
to follow the steps I have mentioned above, and I am sure
USING VACATIONS EFFECTIVELY things will get easier for you. A happy teacher makes his
From my personal experience I can tell that many teach- students happier, so may you make your students better
ers take leaves without pay to go on holiday and to have and give them a great example on how to be an efficient
rest from the school routine. I approve of that, but only once worker.
a year. And I’m not speaking about summer vacations. In
summer it is a must for every teacher to leave everything By Maria Titova,
concerning work out of their thoughts and just relax. What Lyceum No. 1158, Moscow
I’m trying to say is that you shouldn’t waste time during
autumn or spring vacations. Make a plan for the oncoming Illustration from
term, redecorate your classroom with new posters, print out http://www.timetamer.com.au/;
cards with tasks in advance or do whatever job you have to https://mindyummy.files.wordpress.com
English TEXTS FOR READING

52 May–
June 2017
The Wife from the Lark’s Nest
Japanese Fairy-tale
A poor man lived alone in a wooden hut. He worked hard The next day it rained heavily. The poor man stayed
from early morning till late evening, but he didn’t have much at home. By midday the sky cleared and the man went
to eat well. In the evening he often thought about how to out to gather some wood for the fireplace. Suddenly, he
better his life. noticed a young beautiful woman in the woods. She was
One day he returned home from his work late in the eve- also gathering wood. The woman smiled and spoke to
ning and immediately went to bed. At midnight a terrible him.
thunderstorm began. The wind was so strong, that the trees “I wanted to meet you!” she said.
were creaking. The man heard a distant voice crying “Help! “Who are you?” the poor man asked shyly.
Help!” That night he couldn’t sleep well. She laughed but didn’t respond.
“Well, where are you from?” he inquired.
When the sun came up, he left his hut to look for the per- The pretty woman kept silent and continued gathering
son who he had heard calling for help. The storm had passed, wood.
however, a large tree had been broken. At the top of the tree Then the man said, “That’s enough wood for today, it’s
there was a lark’s nest. When it split off and fell, the tree time to go home.”
branch had injured the little bird inside and she was quietly “I’ll go with you,” offered the woman.
crying for help. The poor man explained, “My hut is very poor; it’s shame-
The poor man approached the bird and saw that she could ful for me to have guests!”
hardly breathe. He broke the branch of the tree to release her But the beautiful woman objected, “Never mind! I have
and said, “Poor bird! Now you are free, so fly up in the sky, no home, so let me settle down in yours.” And she followed
and I’ll go to work. Bye!” him to the hut.
But the bird’s wing was hurt, so she couldn’t fly. The man
took her tenderly in his hands, put her on the green grass and Once in the hut she took a leather bag from her belt, put
told her, “I must be off right away and you, my pretty birdie, two grains of rice in her palm and asked for a pot. Then
as soon as you can, fly anywhere.” When he had gone a few she put these grains into the pot, poured some water and
steps, he turned back and saw that tears streamed down from put the pot on the fire. When the woman took it from the
the bird’s eyes. fire, it was full of wonderful white rice. They both ate and
went to bed.
Ever since that day, the woman cooked rice three times a
day using two grains of rice each time. Though they ate their
fill every time, some rice remained in the pot.
The poor man used to say to his mysterious companion,
“In our village there isn’t a man poorer than I am. Soon you
will grow tired of living with me. That’s why, you know,
you can leave me any day you want. Why do you suffer with
me?”
But the woman stayed with the poor man. They gathered
wood together, spent long summer evenings in front of their
wooden hut, and when she was alone at home, she wove
cloth.
So the man worked hard every day. The beautiful woman
married him. Every day she wove at home. Nine months
passed quickly and she gave a birth to a daughter. They start-
ed living as a small family.

Three years passed. One day the woman told her hus-
band, “Please, go to the market and sell everything I’ve
woven.”
“How much shall I ask for such soft, fluffy and wonderful
cloth?” he asked and thought to himself, “Who knows if I
could even sell it?”
“I used all my skill and heart and soul to make it,” his
wife answered, “but you can sell it for three hundred golden
yen.”
TEXTS FOR READING English

53
May–
June 2017

weave (wove, woven) ткать

EXERCISES

1. Answer the questions:


1. What was the weather at midnight?
2. Who did the poor man discover when he went out of
his hut?
3. What was the man doing when he met a beautiful
woman?
4. How did the woman cook rice?
5. What did the woman do every day while her husband was
at work?
6. How much did the cloth cost?
7. What happened at the end of the story?

2. Give the English equivalents:


деревья трещали; на вершине дерева; журавлиное
гнездо; слёзы капали с глаз птицы; они собирали
хворост; пора идти домой; мне стыдно показать тебе
свой дом; муж засомневался; богатейший купец в
городе; ткань была мягче и легче пуха; расставаться;
превратиться в журавля; на птице осталось всего лишь
несколько перьев.
The husband was in doubt. Three hundred golden yen was
a large sum of money! He went to the richest merchant in 3. Vocabulary Work. Words with several meanings
the town. Read these sentences and explain the meaning of the un-
“Do you agree to buy it?” he asked. derlined words. Translate them into Russian.
The merchant examined the cloth in surprise, touched it 1. a) The man went out to gather some wood for the fire-
and asked what the price was. place.
“Three hundred golden yen.” b) We went into the wood and saw a lot of birds there.
“All right! Here’s your money! I’ll keep an eye on such 2. a) She put two grains of rice in her palm.
a precious piece of cloth that is the softest and lightest I’ve b) I noticed quite a big palm near the beach which was
ever seen.” taller than the others.
The poor man took his money, returned to his village, and 1. a) A poor man lived alone in the wooden hut.
since that day his family lived well. b) Michael’s geography exam result was poor.
2. a) He broke the branch of the tree.
One day his wife told him, “Our daughter has already b) There are three branches of our company: in Spain,
grown up, she can cook and take care of you. So don’t worry Italy and France.
about me. It’s time for us to part.” 5. a) It’s time for us to part.
The husband didn’t believe his ears. b) Our teacher told us to read the second part of the story
“Oh, my darling! What has happened? What are you say- at home.
ing? I love you!” he exclaimed.
“I did a lot for you, my dear husband, and now it’s time 4. Retell the story as if you were:
for me to turn back into my original self. Please, do know a) the man; b) the woman.
that I’m not really a woman. I’m that lark you once saved.
I wanted to pay you for your help, but I can’t stay here with 5. Research Work
you any longer. I pulled out all my feathers so the cloth you Are there any similar fairy-tales in Russian literature?
sold would be extra soft and fluffy.” Find one and tell it to your classmates.

Just then she turned back into a lark, and her husband no- By Alexander Derbaremdiker,
ticed that the bird had just a few feathers left. The lark rose Polytechnic College No. 8,
high up into the sky and disappeared in the mountains. Moscow
English TEXTS FOR READING

54 May–
June 2017
Voyage along the Amazon River
to the “Paris of the Tropics”
We started our cruise from Genoa. About 200 German not a popular drink; genuine coffee drinkers drink in Santos
tourists, most of them elderly men and women, flew from and Sao Paulo.
Bremerhaven and embarked on the m/s “Estonia”. The next morning we sailed from Belem. Three new per-
After Genoa, the vessel called at Tangiers, Dakar, and sons joined us on the ship: Anne-Marie Krueger, a German-
Cape Verde Islands, then crossed the Atlantic Ocean and Portuguese speaking guide, a lady in her 50s and two pilots,
headed for Belem, a big Brazilian port situated on the delta Guilhermo Rebello a 57-year-old man and Leonidas de
of the Amazon River. The travelers were looking forward to Silva 17 years his junior. Both men had learned their pro-
making a fascinating voyage on the Amazon River. fession at Belem maritime school. They had to sail between
The cruise director, Fritz Wagner, a man in his early 60s Belem and Manaus and back 48 times. The distance is 1700
delivered a lecture for the passengers about the world’s larg- kilometers one way and is navigable for ocean liners with
est river by volume of water it carries. It flows eastwards deep draft. Then they passed their exams and received pilot
from Peru through Brazilian rain forests towards the Atlan- diplomas. Their task was to advise and assist the master
tic Ocean. Its length is 7000 kilometres, the longest river in to navigate the vessel through the twisting fairway of the
the world. The river has about 200 tributaries. Amazon river.
We arrived at Belem at the end of January, to a very hot On the second day after leaving Belem, the ship came to
29 degrees centigrade. In Belem the passengers went on a anchor near a place famous for its white sand and beaches –
sightseeing bus tour, the usual practice when a ship calls at Alter de Chao. The Amazon River is home to numerous types
a foreign port. The ship’s agent, Gilberto Costa de Oliva, a of fish including piranhas, a meat-eating type of fish with
middle-aged Brazilian, invited me for a drive round the city. sharp teeth. Piranhas are known to attack large animals.
Belem is a large place, with a population of about two mil- Our cruise director and Anne-Marie convinced the pas-
lion people. The streets were wide and straight with many sengers that Alter de Chao beaches were safe for bathing,
mango trees on them. The most famous building was the but only twenty travelers dared to go to the beach when we
Opera House, but it was covered in scaffolding and under launched a boat.
reconstruction. Very remarkable was the local market “Ver- Anne-Marie, the ship’s doctor and I joined the brave per-
o-Peso” (“Watch-the-Weight”). The market itself is a must, sons. Everything was marvelous: white clear sand, warm
in order to view the incredible variety of typical products of water and bright sun. We spent four hours at the beach and
the Amazon region, especially exotic fruits which, according safely returned to the ship. In the evening we set sail and
to their hucksters, are capable of working miracles. heading for Manaus. It would take us three days to reach this
I put down the names of unknown fruits in my notebook: very famous port and city in Brazil. Now and then we met
guarana, acai, bacaba, buriti, taperoba and many others. The ships heading in the opposite direction, including canoes,
market is open from 11 a.m. till 2 p.m. Before noon almost small and big river ships and one Italian ocean liner. Along
nobody buys anything. In the afternoon the prices start to the river banks on port and starboard sides we saw several
drop because in the heat, fruits begin spoiling. This is when small wooden landing stages for canoes.
experienced buyers start bargaining. I asked our pilots to tell me the story of Manaus and why
In Belem, I had a culture shock. I wanted to taste real Bra- the city was nicknamed the “Paris of the Tropics”. I spoke
zilian coffee. But in all the bars coffee machines were out of to them separately because one of them was always to be on
order. I was told that in this part of the country, coffee was duty at the captain’s bridge. And here is their story.
Manaus is situated at the confluence of the Negro and
Solimoes rivers. It is in a very favourable geographical posi-
tion, Manaus is also surrounded by vast plantation of natural
rubber trees. The rubber tree is also known as a tree gum,
Indian rubber and caoutchouc, which comes from the rubber
tree in tropical regions. A white liquid called latex is extract-
ed from the rubber tree and contains rubber particles.
The local businessmen began developing rubber produc-
tion and sell it abroad. Rubber made Manaus the richest city
in South America at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th cen-
tury. Brazil’s plantation barons were looking for conspicuous
ways of spending their money. They began construction in a
new-classical style and started building, the Amazon Thea-
tre – Opera House in 1884. The barons imported materials
from across Europe. The roofing came from Alsace, the fur-
nishings from Paris, the marble from Italy and the steel from
Manaus Port
TEXTS FOR READING English

55
May–
June 2017

Leonidas da Silva,
a pilot (left)

Guilherme Rebello,
a pilot (right)
England. The interior was decorated by the Italian painter a big crowd of visitors. He opened the main entrance and
Domengo de Angelis. The first performance with Italian ten- we found ourselves in a typical opera theatre with the stalls,
or Enrico Caruso took place on January 7, 1887. dressing circle and three balconies. All the chairs were cov-
Local traders began to dress in French fashions despite ered with dark red velvet.
the local heat. Rich people from all over Brazil used to visit “There are 701 seats in the theatre,” said the attendant.
Manaus and its Opera House. They started to call the city Anne-Marie was talking with the gentleman for about five
the Paris of the Tropics. The big rubber boom influenced minutes in Portuguese and then translated into German:
the economic, social and cultural life of the Amazonian re- “The government of the province determined that the
gion and encouraged the growth of such cities as Belem and city needed high-quality operas, ballets, and orchestras. The
Santarem. But it is the unexpected that always happens. Se- government allocated money and the theatre will resume its
cretly, the seeds of rubber trees were smuggled out of Brazil performances in about two-three years. Entrance will be free
by the English. The English then began to plant rubber trees of charge except for select performances. The Opera House
in Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and tropical Africa. New plantations which has been closed for about 80 years will again attract
were able to produce latex with greater efficiency and pro- thousands of tourists.”
ductivity and with lower cost and a lower final price. The Many years later, I read in the media that the Amazon Op-
British Empire assumed control of the world rubber market. era House resumed its performances, and was very popular
Brazil’s economic decline also influenced its cultural de- in this big city of more than 1.5 million inhabitants and at-
velopments. As the saying goes, misfortunes never come tracting many foreign guests.
alone Half of the opera artists died of yellow fever. The Am- It was very hot and the elderly tourists asked Anne-Marie
azon Opera was forced to end its performances. to shorten the sightseeing tour and bring them back on board
“For how long?” I asked my interlocutors. the ship within one hour. In the evening, Anne-Marie in-
But they did not know. formed the passengers that they had organized a very unu-
The ship docked at the passenger pier. Two officials came sual trip to the small Indian village, Bokada Valeria, located
on board: the ship’s agent, Mr. Erick Bently, a thin, elderly in the jungle. They would go there by the ship’s boats. The
man, and an officer from the Federal Police who took the inhabitants of the village were brown-skinned descendants
passports of the passengers and crew to his office ashore and of the Portuguese sailors who married local women. Next
promised to return the documents within an hour.
While waiting for the police officer, I asked Erick Bently
to inform me about Manaus. He told me that Manaus is the
capital of Amazon state. In 1987, they established Free Eco-
nomic Zone there that made the city a centre for big industry.
It is home to 600 factories, which provide half a million jobs.
Its manufactures include electric, chemical productions, and
ship construction industries. Manaus port exports Brazilian
nuts, rubber, and jute.
“Many foreign guests come to our city, but they complain
that cultural life is rather dull. They heard about the famous
Opera in Manaus and hope that it will resume its perform-
ances. Nowadays it is a museum.”
He showed me the site of the famous Opera House on the
city map.
Then the police officer brought all passports back. Anne-
Marie invited me to go on a sightseeing bus tour with the
tourists. “First of all we’ll visit the Opera House!” she said.
In ten minutes the buses arrived at St. Sebastian Square
and stopped near a magnificent beautiful building. An eld-
erly attendant in a smart light grey suit was glad to see such
Manaus. The Amazon Theatre – Opera House
English TEXTS FOR READING

56 May–
June 2017

day the ship came to anchor near a very narrow tributary. On


portside we saw a thicket of cane and a narrow strip of wa-
ter. Only about fifty travelers ventured into the unknown and
mysterious place. We launched two boats. The master asked
me to accompany our passengers. We sailed for about twenty
minutes along a narrow tributary and saw a small wooden
pier and a gang of children who cried with enthusiasm:
“Tourists! Tourists!”
They showed us the way to the village. We saw wooden
houses standing on stilts protecting them from rising river
waters, because the entire village was located very close to
the banks of the Amazon. We met many women and children
but not a single grown man. At last we came to the centre of
the village and saw two barns. On one of them, constructed Inhabitants of Boka da Valeria
with glass-less windows we read the inscription: “School of get a teacher to their community. Nobody wanted to come to
St. Francisco”. Opposite stood a wooden church, St. Rita. this out-of-the-way place.
We entered the school. There was not enough room for eve- It became very hot and the Germans wanted to go back to
ryone. The classroom was small and most of the people had the ship. Walking to the boats, we saw many sleeping dogs
to stand. We were welcomed by an old grey-haired man, Jao lying in shady places and not paying attention to the people
– the head of the village. Anne-Marie translated his narration walking past.
from Portuguese into German. East or West – home is best. All the travelers were happy
“There are 75 families in our village and the population is to return to “Estonia”, to see their friends and tell them about
about one thousand.” The local women objected and began the excursion to the jungle.
calculating the number of kids in each family. So, the real In the evening, the ship headed for Santarem, located mid-
figure was more than 1200 inhabitants. way between Manaus and Belem. This is the place for organ-
“We did not see any men, where are they?” asked the tour- izing rainforest cruises, and it is very popular with travelers.
ists. The port is very busy, exporting rubber, minerals, and Brazil-
“All the men are working at timber cutting,” replied Jao. ian nuts.
He was asked to write the name of the village. Jao re- In the port, I saw small cargo ships. In the city, there were
plied that he was illiterate. One of the women looked through many single-storeyed houses with red tiled roofs. The town
the window and called to an old man who was passing the seemed very quiet with a population of about four hundred
school. people.
“Come here!” she called to him. On the second day, we arrived back in Belem. Our old
“He can write the name,” said other women. acquaintance, the ship’s agent Costa de Oliva, smiled and
The old man fulfilled their request and wrote: Communa said to me: “Unfortunately, the coffee problem in Belem is
de Valeria. the same.”
The tourists asked about the children’s education. Offi- But this time I was more interested in visiting the Opera
cially, elementary education was free, but it was difficult to House and comparing it with the Manaus Theatre.
The building was still covered in scaffolding. Near the
main entrance was a middle-aged lady wearing spectacles.
She happened to be the director of the Peace Opera House,
Dilegnida Nader. She let me enter the premises and explained
that the theatre had 1000 seats and was bigger than the Man-
aus Opera House. She told me that Anna Pavlova had danced
there in 1918.
According to the plan, the reconstruction was due to be
finished in about three years. The weather was not so very
hot and almost all passengers went ashore on their own and
roamed about the streets of the city.
We thanked Anna-Marie and the pilots for their work dur-
ing almost a fortnight’s voyage on the Amazon River.
All the travelers and crew looked forward to crossing the
Pacific Ocean and returning to Europe.

By Evgeny Kunitsyn,
Former purser s/s Estonia
Belem. “Ver-o-Peso” Market
continued from No. 3-4/2017 TEXTS FOR READING English
18+

THE WHITE GIBBON 57May–


June 2017

GLADYS AND JACK stand them in good stead when the war came and food grew
My mother’s side of the scarce.
family story gripped me so For children, Newmillerdam was an Eden compared to the
much that I grew impatient back streets of the city. Gladys and her siblings knew every
to hear what Gladys and inch of the woods, where they crept among the bluebells or
Jack had to say. Uncle Jack kicked the fallen leaves, and depending on the season, they
had never spoken much made various uses of the dam. Arthur loved swimming. Gla-
about his war experiences. dys caught tadpoles with her older sister Doris, a brain-box
I thought the reason was and bossy-boots who turned this simple pleasure into a biol-
probably because he found ogy lesson. Only never on a Sunday. That was the Sabbath,
the subject too traumatic when they had to attend chapel and for the rest of the day, sit
but in fact it was that, on quietly at home.
returning from the Far Eva Copley of Primrose Hill was not alone in thinking
East, he saw people’s eyes that sobriety was the key to progress. The mining commu-
glaze over when he tried nities were deeply divided between the “pub miners”, who
to tell them what had hap- lived for the present and felt that at the end of a backbreak-
pened and so gradually, he ing day’s work, they were entitled to slake their thirst, and
stopped talking about it. the “chapel miners”, who looked to the future and believed
Auntie Gladys, as wife of that only through self-discipline and education would they
the returned “war hero”, ultimately improve their lot. Among the “chapel miners”
had said even less about were the regular Methodists and the stricter, more radical
her own experiences. Primitives. Dressed in a black suit and a stiff collar, William
I went to stay in Wake- Elvidge marched his family to the Primitive Chapel at the
field, the town where I top of the hill.
was born and where my William was teetotal. The family drank nothing stronger
aunt and uncle still live than ginger ale. One Christmas when Arthur, by then a young
in a small bungalow. Gla- man, brought home a bottle of sherry, his father said to him:
dys potters about the gar- “Either the bottle goes or you do.” Arthur backed down then
den, pruning the roses that and stayed for his dinner but the incident sowed in him the
shade her beloved cat Cin- seeds of rebellion.
dy’s grave. Jack goes into William had the best intentions: to give his children a bet-
town occasionally, taking ter life than he had, crawling on his knees through tunnels
a taxi to the off-licence. He can afford that luxury at least and coming up after each shift black with coal dust. He was
and spare himself the wait for the bus. Neither of them ven- proud when Arthur, after doing well at school, joined the
tures out after dark for fear of teenagers on the estate. They Post Office engineering department, which was a significant
are frail. Gladys takes pills for her blood pressure while Jack step up from mining. As for the girls, Edith went into service
hobbles from arthritis. They can manage as long as they have in the posh spa town of Ilkley in the Yorkshire Dales while
each other. They are no trouble to anyone and none of the Doris started training to be a teacher.
busy people around them has any idea of the lives they have On leaving school, Gladys got a job as an assistant in
lived, the things they have seen. Drake’s ironmonger’s shop, which meant she had to take the
bus every day into the metropolis. A cheerful personality, she
*** was ready for some adventure and fun. She put her sandy
“My maiden name was Elvidge,” said Gladys, “and I hair in curlers and went out dancing. Her father grumbled
grew up in the mining village of Newmillerdam, just outside about this but her mother, who had been young once, said
Wakefield.” Today, Newmillerdam is considered a desirable she could go provided she did not leave her homeward jour-
area and its old stone cottages change hands for large sums of ney to the very last bus. It was at a dance at the Embassy
money but then it was a working community in which almost Ballroom that she first saw Jack. He was handsome, with the
all depended for their livelihoods on the nearby Nineveh Pit. striking combination of black hair and blue eyes, but he was
Gladys’s father, William, was a collier and the head of a large in no hurry to invite her to take the floor with him.
family. A wiry man, he stares out of a sepia photograph with “Well, you were dancing with Ernest Wrigglesworth,”
his wife, Alice, swathed in lace on her wedding day. Their Uncle Jack interrupted Auntie Gladys in mid-tale.
children were Edith, Doris, Arthur, Gladys and Leonard. “Well, I was only dancing with Ernest Wrigglesworth be-
The miners led hard lives but when they were not under- cause you didn’t ask me,” she shot back.
ground, they breathed the fresh air of the countryside. Some “Well, I didn’t ask you because you were dancing with
men went out shooting rabbits. Other local people had small- Ernest Wrigglesworth.”
holdings where they kept pigs and chickens, which would It was a wonder but they did eventually start courting.
English TEXTS FOR READING

58 May–
June 2017

They saw Hollywood and British films at the pictures. At


first, Jack tried to impress Gladys by paying for the best seats Japanese, and righted old wrongs with a defiant gin sling in
at the Regal but later they went to the Carlton, which every- Raffles Hotel.
one called the “flea pit”. On the pretext of visiting Edith, they Showing me the holiday photos from this trip, Uncle Jack
also cycled over to Ilkley. A photo in the family album shows gave me some tips for my own approaching journey to the
them arm in arm on the moor and they kissed under the Cow Far East. Then he cast his mind back to the icy January of
and Calf rocks but they did not go any further than that. 1941.
Gladys took Jack for a walk around Newmillerdam and It was a bitter winter across the whole of Europe, as Nature
afterwards to tea with her parents. seemed to conspire with the Nazis to make life miserable for
“He’s got a wonderful bass voice,” she told her father. all the struggling Allies. Anticipating conscription, Jack had
“He sings in the church choir, you know.” taken matters into his own hands and gone to the Labour Ex-
“He seems a decent sort of lad,” came the reply, “but it’s change to volunteer for the Royal Corps of Signals in which
a pity he’s not a chapel-goer.” Gladys’s brother, Arthur, was already serving. Now he was
Jack invited Gladys home to Flanshaw Grove. “Mmm, at the station in Wakefield, waiting for the train to take him
we’ll see,” said his mother, although Jean, Gladys’s prospec- to Catterick garrison for basic army training on the parade
tive sister-in-law, was friendlier. ground and gale-blasted moors of North Yorkshire.
Jack had not bought Gladys a ring or publicly announced “Left, right, left, right, left, right, about turn…”
their engagement but between themselves they had a private “Get going, you ’orrible little men, over those hills before
understanding that they were betrothed. From the newsreels I give the farmer permission to shoot you…”
that preceded the films at the cinema, they could see that Jack did not mind the physical exertion. Anything was
war was looming. When it broke out, they understood that better than real shooting and he enjoyed the feeling of his
their wedding plans would have to be postponed indefinitely. muscles hardening as a result of the outdoor exercise and
“Mrs. Miniver”, the new movie starring Greer Garson, was work in the gym. The drill sergeant played the obligatory
showing at the movies. It conveyed a chocolate box image role of swine but there was no real bullying; on the contrary,
of rural England, the skies suddenly darkened by waves of much mutual support and care. All the men took pride in the
German bombers. fact that they were preparing to defend Britain. They knew
Gladys had to say goodbye to her brother Arthur first. they were heading for a rough ride together and that was a
Because he had played weekend war games in the Territo- sobering thought.
rial Army, he was involved almost as soon as the real war For a short time, before Arthur set off for Malaya, Jack
started. He joined the Royal Corps of Signals and with his overlapped with his future brother-in-law at Catterick but
background as a Post Office electrician, quickly rose to be- they only nodded to each other. Arthur and his best friend
come a foreman in charge of servicing communications. He Ginger were both sergeants, like senior boys at a school
was destined for Malaya. Gladys was upset but as is usually where Jack had just entered the first form. He would have to
the way, a little less concerned for the brother she had known sink or swim on his own.
since childhood than for the man with whom she was madly In the barracks, over cards, or the canteen, over sausage
in love. Then it was Jack’s turn to go away to war. and mash, Jack made friends easily enough, for although he
was quiet, he did not lack self-confidence and he enjoyed
JACK a good laugh. When he learnt to fathom their strange ac-
When my Uncle Jack retired from cent, he found that some of the cheeky Cockneys were on
his job at the engineering works, he his wavelength. They called him “Yorkie” and the nickname,
took Auntie Gladys on a trip to the though hardly original, stuck.
Far East, back to the places where Jack worried constantly about his loved ones back in
40 years earlier he had suffered as Wakefield. The Londoners, with greater reason at that point,
a prisoner. They rode through the were concerned about how their families were faring in the
Thai jungle on a surviving sec- blitz. Anxiety brought the young men together in friendship
tion of the old railway that he had and then they had to learn one of the first bitter lessons of
helped to build and at the Wampo army life, that they would be split up and dispatched to dif-
Viaduct, a precarious wooden struc- ferent places, probably never to see each other again. Of
ture hugging a cliff, he even recog- course, there were many other chaps in the army whom a
nised some of the supports he had lad just had to tolerate – the loud mouths, the dirty-minded,
erected with his own hands. Then those who snored and the ones whose feet stank.
they travelled on a tourist coach After five weeks of basic training, Jack began an eight-
down through Malaysia to Singa- month course to learn his trade as a signalman. He had to
pore, scene of the soldiers’ humili- master the arts of telephone line laying and become profi-
ation when they surrendered to the cient at operating a wireless. Like a small boy, he was crazy
TEXTS FOR READING English

59May–
June 2017

with desire to drive one of the communications cars. He was colours, so he and his mates assumed they were heading for
motivated by the thought that when he qualified, not only the deserts of the Middle East.
would he receive extra pay but the army would also increase They were granted embarkation leave. Jack’s holiday was
the widow’s allowance it paid to his mother, Eva. marred by the fact that his paternal grandmother, Rose Cop-
Jack wrote to her regularly, more often even than to Gla- ley, was ill. After his leave ended, her condition worsened but
dys. One afternoon, he and his mates received passes to go although Jack asked for permission to make another quick
into the nearby town of Richmond, where the substitute trip home to see her for the last time, he was not allowed out
mothers of the Salvation Army doled out tea and cakes to again. The soldiers’ departure for an unknown foreign desti-
boys far from home. The local photographer was doing a nation was too imminent. Rose’s dying thoughts were of her
roaring trade in pictures that the soldiers could send to their departing grandson.
families. Jack had a formal portrait taken of himself with his The whole family in Wakefield had waited keenly for
hair oiled back and his cap slightly tilted and this he sent to Jack’s embarkation leave but when it came, they learnt how
his mother. Gladys received a different snap of him, grin- agonising brief joy can be and almost wished it were over.
ning with a group of friends. Jean was not forgotten but re- Jean had laughed to see Jack’s rifle but his mother was
ceived from her brother a matchbox. It contained a preserved not amused. The agitation only increased as the final hours
dragonfly that he had caught on the moors above Catterick, a ticked by and nobody touched the pie on the table.
delicate alien for an urban girl. Jean had to return to school just before Jack left in the
And then, halfway through his trade training, he was al- early afternoon. His mother chose to part with him quietly at
lowed a weekend off. For the men from Scotland or down- home. It was left to his Granddad Sharp from the working-
south, 48 hours did not give them enough time to travel men’s club to see him off at the station.
home and back and all they could do was kick their heels in “I wasn’t allowed the time off work,” chipped in Auntie
Richmond but for Jack, it was a relatively short journey to Gladys.
the West Riding.
He comforted Gladys when the all-too-brief weekend
came to an end. “At least we’re still in the same country. We
must try to be brave. The Londoners are having a far harder
time than we are.”
Jack returned to Catterick and completed his course to
become Signalman Copley, however still only with the rank
of private. He was disappointed to discover that although
his pay went up from 10 shillings a week to twelve and six-
pence, his mother’s allowance was reduced by a correspond-
ing amount, so that his raise did no more than maintain the
family’s meagre standard of living.
Once qualified, he moved from his trade-training group
to a holding battalion to await news of his future. There fol-
lowed more weeks of running on the heather-clad moors,
which to men eager for action felt like running on the spot.
Finally, Jack received word that he was being posted to the
reconnaissance battalion of the 18th East Anglia Division,
stationed at Stoke-on-Trent.
The men of the “recce” battalion were all drivers, whose
job was to move in little armoured cars, quickly delivering
the first infantrymen to the front and then ferrying backwards Behind the counter at the ironmonger’s shop, Gladys
and forwards to support them. Attached to this rapid reaction begged her boss, Mr. Drake, for a few hours off so she could
force was Jack’s unit of 30 signalmen under their own ser- see Jack at the station but he refused. She took the time off
geant. They all began exercising together. anyway and stood on the windy platform, whispering with
Jack learnt how, with another wireless operator like him- Jack until the last minute. Their motto was “mizpah”, a Bib-
self and two motorbike dispatch riders, he would set up a lical expression and saying of the day, which meant: “May
station a fairly safe distance from the action and maintain God watch between thee and me while we are parted one
communications between the frontline troops and the offic- from the other.” Then the train pulled out and Gladys went
ers at HQ. He fell in love with the beautiful Humber station back to Drake’s, fully expecting to get the sack. The old man
wagons that carried the large wooden speakers and other ra- said nothing as she went into the back room and very bitterly
dio equipment. The vehicles had been camouflaged in sand began counting boxes of nails.
English TEXTS FOR READING

60 May–
June 2017

THE HIGH SEAS The vessels docked at Halifax, where the locals crowded
The operation was top secret. “Keep your traps shut,” the quay, waving. “This looks alright,” said Jack but they
barked the sergeant, although even if the men had been in- were not to enjoy any Canadian hospitality. Lorries roared
clined to talk, they could not have revealed anything. All they straight up to the British flotilla and took the men, twenty-
knew for certain was that the Division was going abroad, five to a truck, half a mile up the dockside to an immense
nothing more than that. Half of them were transported to new troop ship, the USS Mount Vernon. “What’s going on
the docks at Liverpool. Jack and the boys of the reconnais- now?” “Why are we going on this one?” the soldiers asked
sance battalion went to Glasgow, where their troop ship was as they squatted on their kit bags at the feet of the gang-
moored on the Clyde. planks.
There was much laughter in the railway carriages on the The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, which was to bring
way up. It might have been the bravado that masks fear or the United States fully into the war in December 1941, was
the high spirits of young men, setting off on an adventure still some weeks away but already that autumn, the Ameri-
together. Few of them had been beyond the limits of their cans were giving moral and practical support to the British.
own counties before, let alone on a trip overseas. They did “So that’s why we’re going on this Yank boat,” said the ser-
not know the pity or horror of war. They were excited to cut geant, “but keep your traps shut because it’s all very hush,
free from the apron strings of the universal mother, who only hush.”
ever wants peace. Senior British officers went on board the Mount Vernon
Jack shared a compartment with some of his fellow sig- while the men continued to wait and whistle on the dockside.
nalmen. Newly qualified, they were pleased with themselves Eventually, the top brass disembarked again and through
and glad not to be in the boots of the farm lads from Norfolk the sergeant, the message filtered down to the ranks: “We
and Suffolk, who made up the infantry regiments of the 18th have examined the furnishings and they’re too ritzy for you
East Anglia Division. Those poor sods they called the “tur- lot.” The Americans, thinking to make room for 5,000 men,
nip bashers”. Even, or perhaps especially among the working had converted double cabins, normally occupied by couples
classes, there were gradations. They boarded the ship togeth- on civilian cruises, into units that would sleep four. But the
er but it was a while before they understood that they were British, who wanted to pack 7,000 onto the ship, told their
all in the same boat. hosts that Englishmen were not used to that level of comfort.
She was an old cruise liner, painted grey and converted in- Overnight, the ship was further gutted until six men would
side to take row upon row of bunks. Six thousand men piled fit into each cabin. The last of the unnecessary gilt and plush
on and threw down their kit bags to claim their narrow beds. was stripped away.
Led by their captain, all the signalmen arranged themselves For Jack, who had grown up in a “one-up, one-down”
together. It was a rare occasion when the whole group gath- or one-bedroom terrace house and slept in the attic while
ered because in action, they were always parted and attached his mother and sister shared the only proper bedroom, the
in twos or threes to the fighting units. They enjoyed a strong cabins were still luxurious, even after the second American
esprit de corps and took good care of each other. attempt to make them suitably Spartan. They were pleas-
As if remembering her old duties, the liner took her pas- antly decorated and
sengers on a stately cruise down the Clyde before introduc- each had an en suite
ing them to the choppy waters of the Irish Sea in October. shower and a little
There they met up with the rest of the Division, coming bath. Jack was allo-
from Liverpool. Half a dozen troop carriers sailed with an cated a cabin on “B”
escort of two destroyers and several smaller warships. They deck. There, he found
headed northwest, almost up to the Arctic, making wide zig- he was sharing with
zag movements to avoid the German U-boats that prowled five blokes who were
the Atlantic. Then on the other side of the ocean, they came tolerable, although he
down again towards Nova Scotia. would have preferred
“This does nae look like the Middle East,” said a Scots to be with Tom, down
voice, wryly. Jack was up on deck with his new friend, the next corridor. Any
Tom Nugent, who came from Glasgow. Tom was trained slight dissatisfaction
as a motorbike dispatch rider. The two of them would he may have felt,
probably be operating together often, once they went into however, evaporated
action. For Jack, a sensitive youth whose main pleasure when he saw how, in
had been singing in the church choir, Tom was perhaps an comparison with the
unlikely friend. Red-haired and stocky, he was a bruiser signalmen, the “tur-
with a passion for boxing. But he was also the only son of nip bashers” from
a poor, widowed mother. They both knew the strain and East Anglia were ac-
sadness of that. commodated. For
TEXTS FOR READING English

61
May–
June 2017

them, the ship’s swimming pool had been drained and bunk as well, they could have thought themselves on a proper
beds erected to a height of 10 feet up the walls of the deep cruise.
end. The sight of these racks of men disturbed Jack in a By November, they were somewhere off Florida. They
way he could not quite explain to himself; he did not know were excited because they were about to celebrate Thanks-
it but he was seeing a fleeting vision of their common fu- giving, courtesy of their North American supporters. Back
ture in the camps. in Canada, they had taken on a load of frozen turkeys to be
With much fanfare, the ship set sail. At this time, Brit- enjoyed with cranberry sauce and all the trimmings when the
ain was fighting a desperate battle for survival and had only big day arrived. They were licking their lips in anticipation
been able to provide a modest escort for the troops when when the sergeant said:
they crossed the Atlantic. But the Americans, showing off “I’m afraid we’ve got a bit of a disappointment for you
their might, laid on a great armada of battle cruisers, destroy- lot. The turkeys have all gone rotten. “We’ve had to throw
ers and support vessels to protect the Mount Vernon and her them overboard.”
even bigger sister ship, the USS America, as they moved in “Oh well, too bad,” thought Jack.
convoy south down the coast. Still the troops had no idea of He and a group of other men were standing wistfully at
their final destination. the stern when suddenly they saw a long line of turkeys,
They exercised on deck to maintain their fitness and floating out behind the ship as far as the horizon. The birds
played cards or sang to entertain themselves. Some of the were floating because they were putrid. The convoy had
songs were ribald, for bawdiness is a way of keeping fear at gone to great lengths to protect itself from German subma-
bay, but men facing the unknown also look for meaning and rines and here it was, loudly advertising itself with a trail
sincerity. “Sing that song about friendship,” Tom would say of foul fowl. A school of sharks could hardly be far behind.
and Jack would sing: The men split their sides with laughter. It was so funny that
they no longer regretted missing the Thanksgiving dinner.
“When you are happy, friend o’ mine They found this an appropriate moment to part from the
And all your skies are blue, Yanks, whom they still considered irritating show-offs and
Tell me your luck, your fortune fine poor allies.
And let me laugh with you, By the time the flotilla had reached the blue and British-
Tell me the hopes that spur you on, held waters of the Caribbean, the American escort had peeled
The deeds you mean to do, off, leaving the troop ships to continue their odyssey unpro-
The gold you’ve struck, the fame you’ve won tected. They docked in Trinidad. The men would have loved
And let me joy with you. a little shore leave in that paradise but they were kept cooped
up on the vessel. All they could do was to sunbathe on the
“When you are sad and heart a’cold decks and make the most of the coconuts and mangoes that
And all your skies are dark, appeared in their rations.
Tell me the dreams that slipped your hold, On the dockside, the Trinidadians laid on a kind of carnival
The shafts that missed the mark, to wish the troops a safe passage over the Equator. Jack was
Am I not yours for weel or woe, able to get a letter to his family into the post but he sounded
How else can friends prove true? less than enthusiastic about the tawdry display: “There were
Tell me what breaks and brings you low some chaps dressed up as Americans and some others with
And let me stand with you.” trumpets. The foghorns went off. Then they brought on the
old fellow with the fork.”
Then he would hum the melody and take it from the top He meant Neptune, dread god of the sea.
again. He did not want his mates to hear the third verse. After they had crossed the Equator, the wind began to
The ships continued to hug the coast of America. Hang- blow colder and they had to don shirts again. Transported
ing over the rails, the lads had a distant view of the dream like beasts and kept in the dark about what was happening
country most of them knew only from cinema. As they ap- to them, the men sniffed the very air for clues as to their
proached the southern states, the temperature began to get destination, although where they were going remained a
warmer, perfect for deck sports. A boxing competition was complete mystery. The ship turned eastwards. In the De-
organised. Jack sat with the spectators, shouting himself cember, it docked at Cape Town, where they were to spend
hoarse as he urged Tom on through the rounds. In the final, a week.
the Scotsman knocked out an opponent from Newcastle to
win the middleweight title. By Helen Womack
Jack had to concede that he would only ever be mediocre
at sports. He was flattered and happy when Tom chose him Photos taken by the author.
as his partner to run in the three-legged races up and down
the deck. If only they had had gin and tonic and quoits to be continued
Лицензия 77Л01 №0007183, рег. №036377 от 23.07.2015, выдана Департаментом образования г. Москвы

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