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и изучает английский язык
eng.1september.ru Учебно-методический журнал Английский язык

Around the English-Speaking World

Northern Ireland

There are two traditions in Northern Ireland. There are two

main religious denominations. But there is only one true moral
denomination. And it wants peace.
David Trimble
1september.ru 2016
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Подписка на сайте www.1september.ru или по каталогу “Почта России”. Индексы: 79002 (бумажная версия), 12630 (CD-версия)
The UK-Russia Year of Language 1 раз в месяц Издание основано в 1992 г.
and Literature 2016 .......................................... 3 Главный редактор: Елизавета Богданова
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Консультанты: Stephen Lapeyrouse, Erin Bouma
Bottom-Up or Top-Down Approach Научный редактор: Г.Гумовская
in EL Teaching and Learning ............................ 4 Корректура: М.Гардер
Cognitive Dissonances ...................................... 6 Набор, верстка: Г.Струкова

Story Comes First: The Writing Readers ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКИЙ ДОМ “ПЕРВОЕ СЕНТЯБРЯ”
Генеральный директор
for the EFL Classroom ..................................... 8 Н.Соловейчик
METHODS OF TEACHING Главный редактор
Педагогика удивления: новый подход Коммерческая деятельность
к обучению иностранному языку .................... 11 К.Шмарковский (финансовый директор)
Реклама, конференции и техническое обеспечение
Holistic Grammar Teaching ..............................12 П.Кузнецов
Mistakes as a Way to Improved Производство
Language Awareness ........................................15 С.Савельев
Административно-хозяйственное обеспечение
Schemes and Scams .........................................17 Педагогический университет
В.Арсланьян (ректор)
Basic Vocabulary for Religion ...........................19
World Religions Vocabulary .............................19 ЖУРНАЛЫ ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКОГО ДОМА:
Английский язык – Е.Богданова,
Conversational Questions ................................ 20 Библиотека в школе – О.Громова,
Christian Religious Rites ................................. 20 Биология – Н.Иванова,
География – и.о. А.Митрофанов,
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Дошкольное образование – Д.Тюттерин,
Folk Tales around the World .............................21 Здоровье детей – Н.Сёмина,
Информатика – С.Островский,
Malawi: Working with Smallholder Farmers...... 22 Искусство – О.Волкова,
Mali: Trees, Microcredit and the Environment .. 23 История – А.Савельев,
Классное руководство
April Fool's Day ............................................. 50 и воспитание школьников – А.Полякова,
Scared of Being Haunted ................................ 52 Литература – С.Волков,
Математика – Л.Рослова,
LESSON PLANS Начальная школа – М.Соловейчик,
Reading for Pleasure ....................................... 24 Немецкий язык – М.Бузоева,
ОБЖ – А.Митрофанов,
TOPICAL JOURNEY Русский язык – Л.Гончар,
Northern Ireland ............................................. 27 Спорт в школе – О.Леонтьева,
Технология – А.Митрофанов,
SCHOOL THEATRE Управление школой – Е.Рачевский,
Ronia the Robber's Daughter .......................... 40 Физика – Н.Козлова,
Французский язык – Г.Чесновицкая,
TESTS Химия – О.Блохина,
Five-Minute Tests .......................................... 45 Школа для родителей – Л.Печатникова,
Школьный психолог – М.Чибисова
Подписные индексы
Northern Ireland ............................................. 45 По каталогу Почта России:
FOR YOUNG LEARNERS бумажная версия 79002; CD-версия 12630

The Time to Rhyme ....................................... 53 Учредитель: ООО «Издательский дом “Первое сентября”»
Зарегистрировано ПИ № ФС77-58393 от 18.06.14
GOOD NEWS в Роскомнадзоре
A Foreign Language as a Friend Indeed ........... 54 Подписано в печать: по графику 20.01.16, фактически 20.01.16
Отпечатано в ОАО “Первая Образцовая типография”
TEXTS FOR READING Филиал “Чеховский Печатный Двор”
ул. Полиграфистов, д. 1, Московская область, г. Чехов, 142300
Northern Ireland: Myths, Stereotypes Сайт: www.chpd.ru. E-mail: sales@chpk.ru
Факс: 8(496)-726-54-10, 8(495)-988-63-76
and Marching Bands....................................... 56
Цена свободная Заказ № Тираж 20000 экз.
Речевое развитие учащихся Адрес редакции и издателя:
ул. Киевская, д. 24, Москва, 121165
на уроках иностранного языка средствами Телефон: (499) 249-0640 Тел./факс: (499) 249-3138
E-mail: eng@1september.ru
игровой технологии ....................................... 62 Отдел рекламы: (499) 249-9870
This sign indicates that additional materials can be found in Издательская подписка: (499) 249-4758
Subscriber’s Personal Account on www.1september.ru. E-mail: podpiska@1september.ru
Unless otherwise indicated images in this issue are from shutterstock.com facebook.com/School.of.Digital.Age
Dear Reader! NEWS IN BRIEF

Welcome to April issue of English!

We continue our journey around the English-speaking
world and this time we are embarking for Northern Ireland. THE UK-RUSSIA YEAR
April 2016
In daily talks with students and colleagues, and even in
our own reflections, we have often observed a slight lack of
understanding of the difference between the two Irelands.
In October-November 2016, the British Coun-
How come there are two of them? And what is the difference
between them? cil together with CoolConnections will hold the
Getting down to making this issue, we were all full of fore- 17thNew British Film Festival, with screenings set
tasting – how great, we are going to read and write about the to take place in 30 cities across Russia for the first
fairies, about Narnia and other nice stuff! To our huge amaze- time.
ment, the materials coming to our hands suggested a different As part of the UK-Russia Year of Language
outlook. Northern Ireland, as you will discover in the Topical and Literature and to mark the 400th anniversary
Journey, even though a relatively young country, has managed of Shakespeare’s death, a special programme of
to accumulate all the possible conflicts and dramatic episodes films will be shown, including screenings of Max-
one could imagine. Not surprisingly, then, why the well-meant ine Peake’s Hamlet, staged at the Royal Exchange
course books modestly limit themselves to only mentioning Theatre in Manchester. There will be screenings
the national symbol and Belfast when it comes to talking
of a range of documentary and short films, and a
about Northern Ireland.
series of discussions and round tables on the de-
The historical reality of Northern Ireland, unfolded in all
sources, is more than thought-provoking. It made us deal with velopment of the international film industry with the
controversial topics which are usually to be avoided in the lan- participation of invited experts and Festival guests:
guage classroom (if not prohibited, at least at schools). They New British Film Festival Talks.
are religion-based conflicts, civil-right movements, and mass Details of the programme will be announced in
media reporting of events. autumn 2016 at www.ukfilms.ru.
As we decided to be consistent, we couldn’t avoid talking
about Northern Ireland. Nor were we willing to combine the Literature Seminar at Yasnaya Polyana
two Irelands together so that the Republic of Ireland could The British Council together with Russian part-
brighten the images of the issues Northern Ireland endured. ners are delighted to announce the launch of a ma-
The third option – presenting some wonderful landscapes and jor annual seminar dedicated to contemporary Brit-
no comments – was also unacceptable as we are publishing a
ish literature. In autumn 2016, the first seminar will
professional journal and not a photo album. Thus, we decided
be held at Yasnaya Polyana, the museum estate of
that the moment has come to bring up some hot issues on our
pages and equip our readers with the vocabulary needed to Leo Tolstoy. The seminar will involve leading British
talk about political correctness, religious fights and social writers, poets, critics, journalists, literary specialists
tragedies. In case it is needed. and translators. Participants will discuss how the UK
Luckily, Topical Journey is not all we are offering you this Publishing industry works, literary trends in prose
month and we do have some texts which encourage a much and poetry alongside academic approaches to the
more optimistic view of life. Among them are Dr Antoinette study of literature. This project aims to facilitate the
Moses’ article about writing readers for the EFL classroom, development of professional dialogue between rep-
Mistakes as a Way to Improved Language Awareness (an resentatives of literary and academic communities
interview with Ian Cook by Alexandra Chistyakova) and a in the UK and Russia, encouraging young special-
mesmerizing and consoling culturally-rooted text for reading ists to conduct independent research and to create
– NORTHERN IRELAND: Myths, Stereotypes And March-
platforms for knowledge and experience exchange.
ing Bands by Gary Shields.
As part of the seminar a series of presentations,
One of the peculiarities of being an English teacher is our
ability to sustain communication even when the topic under discussions and round tables aimed at wider audi-
discussion might burn some fingers. We hope that our April ences are planned. Translators, publishers, univer-
issue will come in handy in those moments when you and your sity staff, graduates, journalists, literary critics and
students face a need to talk about different denominations of those with a professional interest in British literature
Christianity in a peaceful way. will be invited to take part.

Elizaveta Bogdanova Shakespeare Lives Summer Festival

Editor-in-Chief One of the main events of the Year will be a large-
scale summer festival dedicated to Shakespeare.
Уважаемые подписчики The Festival will take place in June in one of Mos-
бумажной версии журнала! cow’s central parks, and the programme will include

music concerts, theatre productions, film screen-

Все подписчики журнала имеют возможность ings, lectures, masterclasses and much more.
получать электронную версию.
Specially for the Festival, the British Council, with
Для получения электронной версии:
1) откройте Личный кабинет на портале “Первое
the support of the British Film Institute will prepare
сентября” (www.1september.ru). a retrospective of screen adaptations of Shake-
2) В разделе “Газеты и журналы/Получение” speare’s plays. This will include classic and contem-
выберите свой журнал и кликните на кнопку “Я porary productions, as well as the very first archive
– подписчик бумажной версии”. films on the playwright’s works, produced during the
3) Появится форма, посредством которой вы silent film era. Audiences will also have access to
сможете отправить нам копию подписной кви- an extensive educational programme of lectures,
discussions and masterclasses.
После этого в течение одного рабочего дня
будет активирована электронная подписка на
весь период действия бумажной. Source: http://www.britishcouncil.ru/

April 2016 Bottom-Up or Top-Down Approach
in EL Teaching and Learning
While working at Columbia University in be American, Canadian, Australian, et cetera.
New York in the 1990s, one of my job privi- Totally incomprehensible hieroglyphics might
leges was taking a course a semester for direct us to China or Japan.
free. Since I did not need to earn any credits, I experienced the bottom-up approach my-
I had complete freedom of choice, so I used self in Hong Kong. At first glance, what I saw
the opportunity to attend several courses I all around me looked like drawings or decora-
was curious about. One of them was in psy- tions. Though a trained linguist and educator,
chology, where I learned about the two cogni- it took me a moment to grasp that all those
tive approaches, Bottom-Up and Top-Down. lovely placards in the street, and all the pretty
Today, they are also used in EL teaching and drawings on transportation were in fact words.
learning. Students are blissfully unaware of the While searching for a booklet with sample hi-
terms and the differences between them; most eroglyph writing (there is no special word for
teachers I asked do not have the faintest idea the Russian прописи in English), I noticed just
either. What are they? Let us look at a few sim- what my daughter wanted near the cashier’s
ple examples. desk, and asked them if I could buy that. The
polite Chinese clerk did not laugh at me, but
THE BOTTOM-UP APPROACH patiently explained in English that it was the
Imagine you hear a noise and realize it beautifully executed tablet simply informing
is actually human speech. You can discern customers “Please pay here”. He brought me
sounds only, and you try to understand the lots of booklets from the stock, so I was able to
situation based on them. Maybe somebody is choose one as a souvenir.
in distress; maybe they are scared or quarrel- For a listening exercise, I would play a me-
ling; maybe they are laughing. If you can make lodious song and ask my students to raise their
out individual words, even without really under- hands if/when they heard any familiar English
standing their meaning, you can deduce that sounds. The song was a long one, but it con-
some people are speaking. Once you recog- tained only one couplet which was sung in at
nize at least one word, you may figure out what least five languages in turn. Again, this was
this is all about. A place name, for example, will pure listening for sounds, as opposed to listen-
tell you that the speakers are discussing a pro- ing for gist or listening for details – the bottom-
jected or a completed trip, while proper names up approach. Once my students mastered the
will tell you who they are talking about. required skill, they had no trouble identifying
When you come across an unfamiliar text, the correct place in the song; later they could
the first step is to check whether it is in your own try to discern the words.
or in a foreign language. What tells you that a
text is in Russian, for instance? The Cyrillic al- Of the many definitions to be found on the
phabet would be the first indicator. How do we web, I chose the following one in Google:
identify that a text is in some other language? “Bottom-up processing happens when
The Latin alphabet shows us that we are to someone tries to understand language by
search among the European languages first of looking at individual meanings or grammatical
all, if we do not recognize it at once; or it may characteristics of the most basic units of the
text (e.g. sounds for a listening or words for a
reading), and moves from these trying to un-
derstand the whole text. Bottom-up processing
is not thought to be a very efficient way to ap-
proach a text initially, and is often contrasted
with top-down processing, which is thought to
be more efficient.”

Reading aloud is an activity which encour-

ages the bottom-up approach, because stu-
dents will mostly concentrate on sounds, word
forms, and grammar structures but not mean-
ings, at least at first. My students of any age
and level always loved Chain Reading, with
one child beginning to read the first sentence
from a text, and the next one proceeding to
the second sentence, until the whole text was
done. We may ensure that the whole group
listens carefully by asking them to mark down

5April 2016

any mistakes, or any difficult sounds, or maybe

just one sound each time it crops up. It is a
useful activity for the teacher, too: while chil-
dren read, slowly and carefully, with pauses
and stumbles, we may jot down any problem-
atic sounds, word clusters and grammar forms.
What seems like a slip of the tongue may turn
out to be a real difficulty if repeated systema-
tically. We shall know what needs explaining,
and what needs training or drills. Listening and
reading comprehension can benefit from both
approaches. For instance, when students see
a lot of words connected to the noun ball, like
football, baseball, volleyball, they may deduce
that the text is about sports or ball games.


We may come across a text or a paragraph
written with an indistinct handwriting, or a com-
plicated printed text which at first glance tells knows how difficult it is to teach children NOT Photos taken
us nothing about its content. It may be espe- to begin translating with the first word they see, by the author.
cially hard to grasp the meaning of a text which but rather to read at least a sentence, and then
includes a lot of diagrams, charts, formulas and try to render it into their own language. We may
illustrations. The learner’s attention becomes demonstrate the top-down approach to them
fractured, they see separate text blocks but using one of the numerous educational sites.
not one text as a whole. Rather than looking at I usually show The Free Dictionary <the-
separate words, we can try to read the whole freedictionary.com> both to children and adults.
paragraph, leaving any of the accompanying One of the daily exercises is the familiar Match
features to be worked at later. the Words one. I tell my audience that I chose
If we need to translate an article for money the Hard Level, so I may not be sure of ALL
or for our own research, we can use a dic- the words. First, I look at the words themselves
tionary and plod on until we get the meaning. on the left. Then I check their meanings on the
When we are faced with an exercise or an right: at times, I may know a meaning and con-
examination task, quite often all we need is to nect it to the corresponding word, instead of
get the gist, the essence. In some cases, we cross-correlating the words to the meanings.
simply need to determine which area of human On occasion, one word remains a mystery or
expertise is referred to. an uncertainty. I connect all the other words
An even simpler example from my psycho- to their meanings; the two halves that remain
logy course goes this way. Suppose you have form the required pair. Look at the table and
a partner whose field of research or whose see if you can connect all the words to their
job is completely different from yours. Yet you meanings correctly, then check your knowl-
want to be able to converse with him/her, or edge in a dictionary or on a site!
at least listen to them with an intelligent face,
and be able to insert some remarks to show
your understanding. “I needed to synthesize a washed-out logy
few catalysts, use them in a reaction, describe groggy rude
the results; we also wanted to get some spect- unnameable unutterable
ers”, my friend told me. Well, I know she is a overblown bleached
chemist; I understand the basics; to wit, that uncivil portentous
she needs to do some experiment which goes (Source: <thefreedictionary.com>)
in several stages. I recognize enough terms to
realize that, for instance, a specter is neither THE COMBINED APPROACH
a ghost nor the title of the new James Bond To understand a written text or an utter-
movie. I get the essential information: she ance, it is probably best to use both approach-
needs to take some substances, use them to es. At first glance, learners may try to guess
create another substance, and then obtain or the general meaning (bottom-up); reading or
describe the result. listening for details, they may understand the
In the same way, when confronted with a whole text or speech, especially if they know
text or an audio which at first may seem in- the genre and understand the task (top-down).
comprehensible, students may try to grasp
the main idea, and then work with the text to By Nina M. Koptyug, Ph.D.,
understand what it is all about. Any teacher Novosibirsk

Field Notes
April 2016

I think in our teaching practices each of us at least once, has whether the task failure was the result of language incompe-
faced a situation when a learner repeatedly failed a task for no tence and over-drilled clichés uncontrollably jumping out on
obvious reasons. You could have explained, demonstrated and paper, or something else. By this ‘something else’ I guessed
practised a certain task numerous times, but the weak students there was a gap in cognitive skills, in the ability to sequence
kept on performing poorly. mental operations in order to achieve clarity of thinking.
When working with a group, we tend to give up in this situ- When the learner handed in the essay in Russian, it became
ation. Naturally, teachers face the time limits of a lesson and an crystal clear that my hypothesis was right. The text contained
enormous workload which hardly ever provides us with oppor- the same flaws as its English precursors. Thus the problem was
tunities to cater for all learners’ needs, not to mention speciali- in the faulty way the learner was thinking, not the way she was
zed needs which are rather obscure. using a foreign language to express herself.
Still, once in a while, especially if you offer one-to-one les- In the following month we went through various rather odd-
sons, you may encounter a struggler who badly needs your ly-looking activities which I was devising and improvising to
help. illustrate the basic principles of logic. If you have A and B and
In my teaching career, there have been several instances you need to explain why A is good for B, you should start by
when I felt really perplexed by students’ performances. And going through the following steps:
all these instances begin in a nightmarish way but, surprisingly, – Describe what qualities or what components A has.
turn into rather nice-looking trophies in my teacher-hunter’s – Identify which of these qualities and components are good
box of tales. for B.
The first crucial skill was a matter of identifying the parts of
LOST IN WORDS the whole. How to do that? Let’s take apples. Green ones. They
[…] I only read one book, but it’s a good book, don’t you know, will be A. And let’s take our health. It will be B. We need to
I act the way I act because the Good Book tells me so. explain why apples are good for our health.
If I wanna know how to be good, it’s to the Good Book that I go, Step 1. Identify the qualities of apples:
‘Cos the Good Book is a book and it is good and it’s a book. 1. They contain vitamins.
Tim Minchin, a Good Book 2. They are hard.
3. They are green/red/yellow.
When working with students who are preparing for the USE, 4. They are round.
I am more and more faced with a situation when a learner de- 5. They are sour/sweet.
monstrates a limited ability to differentiate between an opinion Step 2. Which of these qualities are good for our health and
and a fact. But for the requirements of one of the essay crite- why? Obviously (never use this word with such students!) it’s
ria to provide arguments supporting different points of view, I #1 and (less obviously) it’s #2. Vitamins help our immune sys-
would leave the resolution of this problem to the teachers of tem which is good for our health. The hard skin and pulp of
other subjects, where logic seems to play an important role. the apples help us train our jaw muscles which is also good for
However, when I again meet a student who knows grammar our health. The fact that apples are green/red/yellow and round
well, with a good vocabulary, but can’t grasp the idea of an is useless in building up such arguments. The fifth fact is also
argument, I feel not only pity, but also perplexed and puzzled rather questionable, although taste could be a factor.
as well. Step 3. Which of the qualities are (or may be) not good for
Not long ago I met a young girl who is very eager and will- our health?
ing to pass the USE. No matter how hard she tried, she couldn’t Apparently, too hard apples can lead to certain dental acci-
score more than 6 points in the essay. This was because of the dents. But what is more apparent (another word to avoid) is that
mixture of ideas in the third and fourth paragraphs, where one overeating of apples can cause problems with digestion. Thus,
should present an opposing point of view with an argument or we get a counterargument (so badly needed for paragraph 4).
two and then explain why they do not agree with this point of Step 4. Use your common sense or at least appeal to it.
view. The conclusions of her essays would also leave a rather If the response to the counterargument is not straightforward
mixed after-taste, and a lot of confusion. (for example, everyone understands why it is not desirable
For example, when writing about the ways extreme sports to watch TV all the day or to smoke in front of children), the
can help build a strong character, the learner concluded that only thing left is to ‘soothe’ the counterargument saying that
‘everyone should have a hobby even if these hobbies are ‘in reasonable portions or applied reasonably, this can’t do
strange’. The body of her text contained instances of sporadic you much harm’.
medicine-related associations with adrenaline and fearlessness, What I have found out is that a clarity of ideas leads to a
which, even though true, are unrelated to the question of deve- clarity of writing, while messy ideas lead to a mixture of collo-
loping strong personality traits. cations, misused grammar and other disastrous effects. Clarity
When the quantity of failed tasks reached the limit and sig- itself can be achieved by ‘deconstructing’ the subject under dis-
nalled dire quality issues, I suggested an experiment; I asked cussion and explaining how the parts of the whole relate to the
the learner to do the same task in Russian. My decision was second subject. If we are to visualise this process it will look
intuitive, rather than well-informed. I have never tried this be- like this (you can draw, or use pencils and small figures which
fore. But as I understand now, what I was trying to find out was I did in my lessons).

April 2016

elf as I understood that, I started consulting my colleagues, speech

therapists who suggested exercises that would include work on
lengthy (or prolonged) exhaling. They kept on explaining to
me, when suddenly I realized that the last time I heard about
prolonged exhaling had been in my choir classes (which I hated
with all my heart and soul). ‘So, maybe we should sing?’ – ‘Yes,
exactly!’ answered my colleague. The only task left was to find
songs where the singer would pronounce the words quickly.
As a follow-up activity, which I highly recommend as it Luckily, one of my favourite singers is Tim Minchin (which
proved to be rather efficient, I advise doing oral essays, espe- you might have already noticed) and his pace of speech and
cially on topics that will-never-be-in-the-exam: richness of vocabulary, in my opinion, are tremendous. Need-
• Some people think that having a TV in the kitchen can less to say, that since then my learner started speaking much
improve family relationships; more fluently.
• Having plants in your house is good for your health;
• Reading a film review before going to the cinema can help TIME TO STUDY
you avoid disappointment. There is one more case I would like to share with you. And
that is of an adult learner who appeared in my life last sum-
It is important to remember that this activity aims at develo- mer and changed a lot my perception of the teaching craft. The
ping logical thinking, not language skills. That is why it is cru- learner is a 26-year-old lady who decided to study English to
cial to acknowledge the aim of the task to the students (so that be able to communicate while travelling, just for herself. She
they don’t feel puzzled) and not to interrupt them when they was a true beginner so we got started. However, in three weeks’
speak. time, I noticed that we were not moving anywhere. The mate-
rial we covered seemed to be slipping away from my learner’s
The second case which attracted and held my attention (and I also noticed some incongruities in her responses to oral
my mind in suspense) had to do with another Year 11 student. speech, both English and Russian. She was very eager to learn
The learner came to me several months ago, being at a very and I was very eager to help her in that, but I had to admit to
good elementary level and wishing to prepare for the USE. myself (and then to her) that I didn’t see any obvious solution
Despite my explanations that language learning takes time and to the educational puzzle we were facing.
that the time available was not the same as the time we needed It was again only due to my habit of sharing professional
to achieve any acceptable (not to speak about desirable) results, concerns with my colleagues that I managed to quite acciden-
the learner listened to me patiently and then said: Let’s try. tally learn from one of the British specialists, that my learner
The personal traits and commitment to the goal of this student was very likely to be experiencing dyslexia. I keep on thank-
amazed me. In just four months time, she managed to move to ing the Providence for sending me that nice specialist who not
strong pre-intermediate level, scoring 18 out of 20 in listening only came up with a brilliant suggestion, but also sent me a
and 14 out of 20 in writing. We managed to overcome the lan- link on an online self-study course (which I eagerly share with
guage barrier and the girl started actually speaking English and you http://www.dystefl.eu/) about teaching English to dyslexic
enjoying it, and even attending one of the English-speaking clubs learners. Needless to say, that the course provided me with all
in Moscow, taking part in discussions and debates. However, the the needed directions and tools, and that the learner is now hap-
moment came when we had to get down to the speaking part of pily progressing in her language development, at last having all
the exam, in particular to task 3 and task 4. the support and scaffolding she needs.
Despite all her efforts, the learner managed to cover only
half of the questions within the time limit. This happened again ***
and again, despite all the strategies I suggested. It was there The three cases I described in this issue are all a result of
and then that I applied my L1 trick asking my learner to do the my initial perplexity when facing unexplainably poor perform-
speaking task in Russian. To our huge surprise and the follow- ances or behaviour on the part of my learners. My inability to
up bewilderment, the learner, being rather intelligent and quick come up with a ready-made suggestion, to use tools from my
and even gifted in literature studies, managed to utter exactly teaching repertoire made me anxious or even angry – no one
the same number of phrases in the time give. On the one hand, I likes facing their own powerlessness. But as soon as I admit-
felt pleased that in 4 months we had managed to reach the same ted I didn’t have answers on my own and turned to the Uni-
speed of speaking English as her native Russian. On the other verse with the question ‘What should I do to help my learner?’
hand, this very quickly showed me that we would only succeed and started sharing my concerns with all my friends (not only
if I could find a method to enable my student speak English EL teachers), the answer very soon reached me. That is why
faster, faster than her natural pace of speech. I decided to praise the moments of insights and professional
The question was not one of cognitive processes. It was development that would have never happened but for the initial
more about the physicality of speech, something to do with elo- cognitive dissonances.
cution or mastery of speech, which I had no idea about. As soon By Elizaveta Bogdanova

Dr. Antoinette Moses is a Lecturer in Literature and Creative Writing at the
University of East Anglia and a guest lecturer for Norwich Institute for Language
Education (NILE). She is a playwright and author and has published over 20 read-
ers for the EFL classroom, three of which have received the Extensive Reading
Award. She is also the Producer of UEA’s Festival of Literature for Young People

Teaching English undergraduates to write plays and sto- What were these ‘readers’? Apart from the Peter and
ries and writing readers for the English Language classroom Jane stories, the first books of fiction for the English lan-
might not appear to have a great deal in common. Of course guage classroom were mostly simplified versions of novels
there is a continuity of language – English – and there are which already existed. They took classics and other popular
stories and characters in both, but there may be people who books and made them shorter and simpler. They were rather
think that one is a rather more elevated pursuit than the like fruitcakes with all the fruit and nuts and spices taken
other. This is not the case. Writing takes skill, whoever is the out, plain and serviceable. I had no intention of writing such
intended reader, and the stories in the best classroom read- books. I wanted fruit, nuts and lots of spices. I still do. I think
ers can be as compelling, contemporary and exciting as any that fiction for young people is far too important ever to think
other form of literary endeavour. of offering something that is second best. I had (and have) no
First of all, it may be helpful to outline what I mean by the intention of writing something that is less than a book that I
term ‘reader’ and how it is used in the classroom. A reader want to read myself.
is a short work of fiction, or non-fiction, written for those I was lucky. At the time I started writing readers, Philip
studying English as a foreign or second language and which Prowse, the inspirational editor of the Cambridge Readers
exists outside of the usual course books. There are a number series, had been exploring, with other EFL writers and aca-
of publishers, both in the UK and internationally, who pub- demics, the idea of reading for pleasure. As a result of this,
lish such series. he persuaded Cambridge University Press to launch a series
The readers I encountered some years back when I first of original fiction designed to be read for pleasure. Teach-
began to explore what was available for those who wanted ers would be given guidelines on how to use the books in
to read in English were like the books of the 1950s I read as such a way that students wanted to read them. They would
a child (there was an English publishing company called La- read the books for enjoyment, not in order to answer com-
dybird which specialised in them). In these books the father prehension exercises and within their reading limit of
went to work and the mother cooked cakes at home and they understanding so they could read quickly. They would read
had two perfect children and a dog. The dialogue went along for the story.
the lines of: “Hello Peter! Hello Jane! What are you doing It sounds simple. In fact, I am certain that over the years
today?” I can’t remember what it is that Peter and Jane were the series has been influential and in many cases revolution-
doing, but I imagine that they were probably playing with a ary. Teachers have enabled students to read in a time that is
bright red ball in a perfect green garden with a lawn and neat set aside for them to read. The students watch teachers read-
lines of flowerbeds. The visual images never strayed from ing. They don’t have to answer questions about the reading;
primary colours and the stories equally avoided any topic that the reading is an end in itself. How amazing! This is just how
was not similarly bright and cheerful. There was no pover- we read books ourselves.
ty, there were no wars and there was also no hint of culture And why shouldn’t the fiction we offer to students be as
or excitement. They were as dull as the stories I read when I fun to read as those we read ourselves? Yet this has not al-
was young and which I very quickly gave up reading. I was ways been the case. In the past it was as if the concept of
much more interested in making up my own stories in which reading for pleasure was ignored in the drive to teach gram-
talking animals dealt with such day-to-day problems as the mar and vocabulary. Today I feel that many more teachers
arrival of dragons and princesses who needed to be rescued. realise that we need to have both and that reading for pleas-
What I wanted then was a good story. I wanted a narra- ure should not be forgotten. With so many electronic distrac-
tive that reflected my own life and the world I knew, but also tions to lure students away from the printed page, it is surely
excited me with ideas about worlds that existed outside the more important now than ever to make every word and every
narrow focus of my own home. The same is true when I read story so exciting that students can’t drag themselves away to
for pleasure myself, and it is the advice of virtually all pub- check their phones or tablets.
lishing houses for new writers. Give us a new, exciting story Stories do that. Video games and films are all stories with
that makes our readers want to turn the page. It is what I told added movement, action and glitz. Even if the young do not
myself when I started to write readers. have the reading habit, they will almost certainly have what

April 2016

the French writer Daniel Pennac calls “a thirst for narra- one without the other because I think that a strong plot comes
tive.”1 In Reads Like A Novel, his imaginative work on how to about when you have strong characters and put them under
instil the reading habit in disaffected young French teen- pressure. If you have a good story and place your characters
agers, Pennac notes that “a novel first and foremost tells a inside it so that they exist only to enact the story, you will
story... a novel must be read as a novel, to quench, first and have a flat narrative. Characters have to be more than plot
foremost, [the students’] thirst for narrative. Whenever one devices.
reads a book, in however inhibited a fashion,” he adds, “it’s So how do I begin?
the pleasure of reading which presides.”2 The story comes I begin with a character. If I’m writing a book that is
first. Content should always precede linguistic considera- for beginners I may think of a character who would natu-
tions. As Ezra Pound put it, “Homer did not start by thinking rally have limited speech: a robot or a parrot. I have not
which of the sixty-four permitted formulae was to be used yet written a book about a parrot who learns to talk, but it
in his next verse.”3 All readers should reflect what students would be fun to do. And the language would develop along
would want to read in their own language. The stories have with the book in a way that felt natural. Another character
to be page turners. I wrote whose speech was limited suffered from amnesia
The reason that Harry Potter remains popular, whatever (John Doe). If the book is to be for advanced students, then
one might think of the quality of writing of some of the any character will work well. But if the books are aimed at
books, is because the stories are brilliantly plotted. And be- young students, then I may choose to have a teenager as a
cause children can identify with the characters. protagonist. It is often a good idea when writing fiction for
The content of these readers, therefore, is crucial. I believe young adults or children to create a character with whom
that you should never write down to a language level, but the readers can identify.
write up to the level of the student. An elementary language Once I have chosen a character, I do all the things that all
level should not be equated with lack of intellectual maturity. writers do. I start to go on a journey of discovery and find
It’s not always easy. However, I have written a reader for out everything I can about them; that is to say I do my best
beginners (with an English vocabulary of 400 words) about to make them into people and not characters. Students on
a serial killer and still managed to include a bit of metaphysi- creative writing courses are encouraged to do this by writ-
cal speculation. The language I wrote was simple, but it was ing diary excerpts, emails, school reports and notes from job
structured to fit the character. interviews. I then ask myself what is it they want and what is
The books I write are not vacuous texts, used as a me- stopping them. And then the story begins.
dium for delivering vocabulary or grammar, but novellas, Students often ask me whether I know the story before
short stories, science fiction and detective stories. Because I start to write. Often I think I do, but then the character
the aim of the books is to allow the learner to read fast and takes me somewhere completely different. Once you start
with enjoyment, vocabulary and grammar are simplified, to write, you don’t always know where it is you are going.
but they are nonetheless subservient to the content of the And that is part of the pleasure. It is like reading a really
books. In other words, the story comes first. An important enjoyable thriller: you go on reading to find out what hap-
factor for me in writing these readers is that I may be help- pens. I write to discover what happens and it is just as
ing create a new generation of people who enjoy reading exciting.
books. And this kind of excitement I think is necessary because
Yet there exists a sense that books written for the class- it creates a pace within the story and prevents it from be-
room are not meant to entertain. I found this recently in a coming flat and dull. And nobody should force a dull book
review on a popular website for one of my readers. While on to a student. Reading for pleasure is vital to the develop-
I hesitate to criticise anyone who had the perspicacity and ment of literacy (as many recent studies have proved)4. You
judgement to give one of my books five stars, I was shocked cannot read a dull book with pleasure. The word ‘dull’ in
by his/her surprise that the book was readable. I was even association with Charles Kingsley instantly takes me back
more disappointed that the reviewer thought it was ‘study to my own school days and being forced to read a Victo-
material’. It’s not. It’s a collection of short stories. The book rian moralistic tome called The Water-Babies by Charles
doesn’t exist for any reason other than to tell these stories as Kingsley.
simply as possible, taking into account linguistic and gram- Quality of language is another key factor when writ-
matical constraints. The books I write exist to take the person ing readers. I am convinced that lack of vocabulary does
reading the book into a number of different worlds and in- not mean that figurative language should be ignored. In
troduce them to different characters. And to hook them with fact it should be encouraged. In this way an appreciation
a story. Or, in this case, several stories. To take them on a of illustrative language that shows rather than tells can
journey. help students to appreciate literature in their own lan-
So when I sit down to write a reader, the first thing I think guage as well as in English. One of the greatest contem-
about is the story and the characters. And I cannot think of porary writers of children’s (and fantasy) books, Ursula

10 April 2016

Le Guin, summarises it when she observes that “great ‘Don’t eat it too fast or your tummy ache’, says Chris.
novels offer us not only a series of events, but a place, a My mother often said that. I want to cry, but I can’t. The
landscape of the imagination which we can inhabit and tears are all inside my head like a big ball of rice that won’t
return to.”5 go down.
When Le Guin uses figurative language the image burns
in the mind and this is the effect I strive for in my own writ- The story of Jojo’s journey comes from my creation of
ing. I think that this is one reason why I feel that Jojo’s Sto- him as a character in whom I believed. Everything else in the
ry6 is my most fully realised book as well as my favourite. writing of that book stems from that. So when I say that the
The book tells the story of Jojo, who survives a massacre story comes first, I am also saying that the character comes
in his village at the beginning of the story and ends up as first. Stories are their characters and for students to enjoy
a child soldier, and is told from his point of view. Restric- reading, creating characters they can empathise with is pos-
tions on vocabulary are surmounted through the style of the sibly the most important factor of all.
child narrator:
The soldiers take my family out of the house and I don’t 1
Pennac, Daniel. 1994. Reads Like a Novel. London, Quar-
want to look, but I do look. The soldiers have put blankets tet Books, p.114.
over the bodies. There is no more blood. The soldiers speak 2
very quietly. They don’t want to wake up my family. They 3
Pound, Ezra. 2010 [1934]. ABC of Reading. New York,
understand that you have to talk quietly when you are talk- New Directions, p. 204.
ing to ghosts. 4
When Jojo meets the United Nations soldiers and a jour- 5
nalist, Chris, they give him food: 6
Moses, A. 2000. Jojo’s Story. Cambridge, Cambridge Uni-
The soldiers give me some rice and beans. It’s very good. versity Press


April 2016
новый подход к обучению иностранному языку
Идея о том, что удивление и познание связаны, высказыва- зом, что при наливании в нее жидкости получаются предложения
лась еще в Античности. Известно мнение Аристотеля, развитое разного типа. На первом уровне это глаголы в повелительном на-
в дальнейшем Декартом, что познание начинается с удивления. клонении (просьбы и приказы), затем – утвердительные предло-
Действительно, наблюдая за растущим ребенком, мы видим, жения, следующий уровень – общие вопросы и, наконец, полная
что именно с удивления чем-то новым для себя следует попыт- кружка – это специальные вопросы. Кружка, изображенная на
ка исследовать предмет самостоятельно или спросить взрос- рисунке, может служить основой для составления более тысячи
лого о его природе, то есть познать его. Психологи отмечают, предложений за счет комбинации частей. Метод подачи материа-
что в случае, если вызвавшая удивление ситуация оказывается ла вызывает удивление, которое затем перерастает в интерес.
безопасной, то оно переходит в интерес, а если приятной – в Третий источник удивления – образовательная среда, в ко-
радость. Таким образом, удивление на уроке может стать от- торую попадает обучающийся, приходя на урок. По сути, учеб-
правной точкой для формирования внутренней положительной ный класс – это первое впечатление обучающегося о предмете,
мотивации к учению. если до этого он не преподавался. Особое искусство учителя
Выдвигая идею педагогики удивления, мы исходим из того, заключается в том, чтобы создать такие элементы обучающей
что в современных условиях существует противоречие между среды, которые бы вызвали реакцию удивления и в конечном
растущим объемом знаний и занижением их ценности со сторо- итоге породили бы вопрос. В контексте педагогики удивления
ны учеников. В век, когда всю необходимую информацию можно именно обучающийся, а не учитель становится источником во-
найти в Интернете, необходимость усвоения знаний подвергает- просов, задающий вопросы активный преподаватель сменяет-
ся сомнению. Наши ученики не хотят запоминать то, что можно ся инициативным интересующимся учеником. При этом роль
легко найти в сети, не готовы прикладывать усилия по самостоя- учителя заключается в том, чтобы создать ситуацию, которая
тельному поиску закономерностей и анализу явлений, если это бы вызвала этот запрос на новое знание. Урок в системе пе-
есть в готовом для скачивания виде. Действительно, на совре- дагогики удивления – это череда ситуаций, в которых с опорой
менном уровне технологического развития получать необходи- на реакцию удивления сначала происходит пробуждение любо-
мые знания гораздо проще, чем раньше, и ключевым вопросом пытства, а затем его удовлетворение.
становится не запоминание большого количества информации, а В своей практике мы используем такие элементы необычной
способность к ее отбору и анализу. Удивление как реакция на но- обучающей среды, как цепочка из скрепок, прикрепленная к по-
вое – один из механизмов такого отбора. Это признак небезраз- толку, в которой каждая скрепка символизирует одно выученное
личного отношения к той или иной информации, залог профес- слово; лексические обои на стенах и потолке, где обучающиеся
сионального и личностного роста человека. Любознательность и пишут слова на английском языке и сопровождают их картин-
способность удивляться позволяет расширить горизонт видения кой; грамматический ковер, перемещаясь по которому можно
и решать задачи на метапредметном уровне, пропуская инфор- составить предложения из комбинаций расположенных на нем
мацию через призму личностного восприятия человека. А ведь слов. Обучающиеся, удивленные такими элементами учебной
это как раз одна из целей, которые ставит перед нами ФГОС. среды, сами задают вопрос об их предназначении и включают-
Педагогика удивления в нашем понимании – это прежде всего ся в сотворческую деятельность, в ходе которой совместно с
педагогика отношений, а не педагогика требований в том смыс- учителем совершенствуют их или создают принципиально но-
ле, что эмоциональная реакция на преподаваемый материал вые интересные элементы, которые удивят других ребят.
и его носителя-учителя создает поле для совместной работы, Четвертый источник удивления – собственный потенциал
особые взаимоотношения между учеником, учителем и учеб- обучающегося. Удивление собственными силами – важный шаг
ным материалом. Это по своей сути диалогическая педагогика, в формировании мотивации. О потенциале этого источника
когда изучаемый материал становится поводом для диалога удивления емко сказал В.А. Сухомлинский: “Провести человека
между познающими и их наставником. Это также творческая через детство и отрочество по пути изумления собственными си-
педагогика, где развитие идет не на уровне как можно более лами – в этом кроется наша педагогическая мудрость. Там, где
точного повторения заданного образца, а в направлении поиска есть изумление и восторг, есть и неудовлетворенность. Человек
нового и удовлетворения возникшего чувства удивления. безграничен в своих стремлениях, и чем выше становится уро-
Мы выделяем четыре источника удивления на уроке: удивле- вень его притязаний, тем глубже испытывает он недовольство
ние фактом, удивление методом, удивление обучающей средой достигнутым. В этом чувстве заложен тот кажущийся крошечным
и удивление собственными силами. стимул, который открывает перед человеком понимание того, что
Любая область знания, учебная дисциплина или школьный надо, трудно и хорошо – из одного корня”. Применительно к уро-
предмет содержит множество интересных фактов. Учитель ан- ку английского языка мы используем этот принцип на первом же
глийского языка может использовать факты как самого языка, занятии при объяснении грамматики. Для первичного ознаком-
так и культуры его носителей. Также интересно опереться на ления с прошедшим, настоящим и будущим временами группы
метапредметный характер урока английского языка, который, Simple мы предлагаем модель предложения ГрамИК.
будучи средством общения, может охватывать материал любой Обучающиеся, впервые сталкивающиеся с иностранным
другой учебной дисциплины. Важно помнить, что удивление вы- языком в принципе, с удивлением обнаруживают, что к концу
зывают факты, которые являются новыми и личностно значи- первого урока способны составлять 364 предложения в настоя-
мыми для обучающегося. Так, на уроке английского языка мы щем, прошедшем и будущем временах группы Simple.
обращаем внимание обучающихся на то, что слова, которые Важно отметить, что по-настоящему принять педагогику
они давно знают, на самом деле имеют вполне определенные удивления и применить ее может тот учитель, который сам спо-
значения и могут быть использованы в более широком контек- собен удивляться окружающему миру и своим ученикам. Конеч-
сте. Наших учеников удивляет тот факт, что слово bounty, из- но, работа по заданному алгоритму часто является более про-
вестное по шоколадке, еще имеет значение “вознаграждение”, стой и проверенной альтернативой постоянному поиску фактов
а слово vanish, известное как марка бытовой химии, имеет зна- и методов, которые могли бы удивить обучающихся и заставить
чение “исчезать”. Эти факты мотивируют обучающихся к даль- их удивиться собственными силами, но с другой стороны, ис-
нейшему самостоятельному поиску слов, которые им знакомы, пользование шаблонных схем не способно принести того чув-
но смысл которых им непонятен. ства удовлетворения и радости, которое может испытать учи-
Второй источник удивления – удивление методом. Это то, как тель, работающий в системе педагогики удивления.
учитель представляет материал, какие педагогические техноло- Петр Анатольевич Степичев,
гии использует. Так, на своих занятиях я использую специальную к.п.н., доцент кафедры английской филологии РГСУ,
прозрачную кружку, на которой расположены слова таким обра- вице-президент MELTA

12 April 2016 HOLISTIC

Rod Bolitho views the importance of voice. equivalents in all languages. Here on pages 12 and 13 is a
What do our learners need to know about voice? Why do straightforward sequence of activities (plus keys) at upper-
so many coursebooks and teachers make such a big issue of intermediate level designed to explore this area in greater
the passive as a structure? Are we making it more difficult for depth and to get learners thinking about it instead of re-
learners than it really is? sponding mechanistically.
There is nothing structurally difficult about the passive
voice in English. Once learners have a command of the parts ***
of the verb to be and the form of the past participle (V3), Each of these activities is designed to push learners far
they have the means at their disposal to construct passive beyond the immediate comfort zone of formulaic transfor-
forms. And yet, for decades, structural syllabuses insisted mation exercises and simple rules of usage. They are de-
dogmatically on providing for teaching the passive tense by signed to be mulled over and discussed in pairs or groups in
tense, and for practicing it by asking learners to transform order to help the learners to work towards a ‘feel’ for how
active sentences into the passive. Recent coursebooks have English speakers make decisions about active and passive
begun to focus much more on the uses of the passive in use. To do this, they need to work on whole texts like those
English, and this is an important step forward as some lan- in Activities 1 and 2, where the writer has made considered
guages use the passive less than English does making use choices, but they will also benefit from becoming aware of
of other options such as impersonal constructions (German how ‘activeness’ and ‘passiveness’ underlie aspects of the
man and French on, for example, and third person plural or lexical system, as in the third activity. All this implies think-
a reflexive, as in Russian). However, very few coursebooks ing and talking about English, and if this means that some of
explore reasons for the choices of voice that writers and the discussion takes place in the mother tongue, that should
speakers make as a text unfolds and, still less, the wider not be a problem. It is the quality of the thinking and talking
notions of activeness and ‘passiveness’, which have their that counts in cases like this.

Look at the following text and answer the questions alongside it.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU PRESS 1. Why does the writer address the reader directly
Inside a copier there is a special drum. The drum acts a lot like a bal-
loon – it can be charged with a form of static electricity. 2. Why does the writer choose the passive in
Inside the copier there is also a very fine black powder known as these two cases?
toner. The drum, once it is charged with static electricity, can attract the
3. Who made it? Is it important to know?
toner particles.
The drum, or belt, is made out of photoconductive material. 4. Why ‘becomes charged’ and not just ‘is
Here are the actual steps involved in making a photocopy: charged’ here?
1. The surface of the drum becomes charged.
2. An intense beam of light moves across the paper that you have placed 5. Why the active voice again here?
on the copier’s glass surface. Light is reflected from white areas of
the paper and strikes the drum below. 6. Look at the three verbs in this sentence. Why
3. Wherever a photon hits, electrons are emitted from the photocon- does the writer switch from active to passive
ductive atoms in the drum and they neutralize the positive charges and then back?
above. Dark areas on the original (such as pictures or text) do not
reflect light onto the drum, leaving regions of positive charges on the 7. Do these adjectives imply that the toner and
the paper are charged during or before the
drum’s surface.
process? Can you see the ‘hidden passive’ in
4. The negatively charged, dry, black pigment called toner is then
spread over the surface of the drum, and the pigment particles adhere
to the positive charges that remain. 8. Can you see why this is sometimes called a
5. A positively charged sheet of paper then passes over the surface of ‘telescoped passive’? Can you find two more
the drum, attracting the beads of toner away from it. examples in the text?
6. The paper is then heated and pressed to fuse the image formed by the
toner to the paper’s surface. 9. Why is the passive used so often in this kind
And your photocopy is ready – all in a few seconds! of text?
Look at this short newspaper extract and answer the ques-
tions alongside it.
On January 7, a tiger was poisoned and bled to death by
April 2016

inhabitants of Namuk, a village 30 km from Siang district

in Arunachal Pradesh. On January 8, the tiger was brought (It may be best to do a couple of examples with the whole
to the village, where an environmental activist caught it on class to get them started.)
camera before its coat was removed and presumably sold.
There is rumoured to be a flourishing trade in tiger skins KEY TO ACTIVITIES
and other body parts in the area, but villagers refused to con- Please note that in many of these cases there may be no ab-
firm this. They claim that the tiger was killed to protect their solutely right answer. The process of thinking and discussion
farm animals from attack. The local police superintendent that learners go through is far more important than the final
promised a full investigation into this illegal activity, saying answers they come up with.
‘If smugglers are involved, they will be severely punished
under the Forest Act’. ACTIVITY 1
Over 200 tigers are believed to have been killed in 1. To attract the reader’s interest. To provide an informal and
India in the last twelve months. Activists are trying to help personal way into the description of a technical process.
local people to understand that this rate of slaughter cannot 2. Probably because the ‘agent’, or doer of the action, simply
be maintained if the tiger is to survive. Far too many cases isn’t important here.
never even get reported. 3. We don’t know and it’s not important to know.
4. It emphasizes a change of state (very common in scientific
1. Why is the passive used in the headline and in the first and technical contexts).
sentence of the report? 5. To re-engage the readers and to remind them that this is
2. What does the first sentence tell us that is not in the something they do regularly.
headline? 6. The choice here seems to be mainly stylistic; it allows
3. Who brought the tiger to the village on January 8? Who a ready sequencing of three interconnected phases in the
removed its coat and sold it? Why doesn’t the journalist process, with the electrons as the subject of the second
name these people? and third main verbs and therefore the main focus for a
4. Why does the journalist start the second paragraph with reader.
a passive construction: ‘There is rumoured to be…’? 7. They were charged before this stage. You can spot the
Would a writer in your language use the passive here? ‘hidden’ or underlying passive if you extend the noun
5. Why is there the switch to the active voice with ‘They phrase into a clause in each case: ‘The toner which has
claim…’ at the start of the next sentence? been negatively charged…’ and ‘The sheet of paper which
6. Who will punish the smugglers (second paragraph)? Do has been positively charged…’.
we need to know? 8. Sometimes also called a ‘telescoped relative’, it can be
7. ‘…are believed to have been killed…’ is this vague or readily expanded to ‘the image which has been formed
precise? Why does the journalist choose a passive con- by the toner’. The other examples are: ‘a very fine
struction here? Would a writer in your language use the black powder known as toner’ and ‘the actual steps in-
passive here? volved’.
8. ‘…never even get reported.’ Why not just ‘…are never (Note: Learners often find it difficult to build this ‘tele-
reported’? What does ‘get’ add here? scoping’ into their own writing as it is not an option in
9. Who do you think the journalist actually spoke to at first many other languages. This is why it is good to take
hand, and which parts of his report seem to be based on every opportunity to raise their awareness of it in texts
hearsay? How can you identify this difference? like this.)
10. Why do you think journalists find the passive so useful? 9. Because it is a description of a process in which the doer
of an action, or agent, is usually irrelevant to understand-
Which of the nouns and adjectives in the list opposite have
a ‘passive flavour’ about them? Try to use a passive con- ACTIVITY 2
struction to define each of them and an active construction 1. To keep the focus on the main ‘character’ in the story, in
to define the others. When you have finished, think about this case the tiger.
words like these in your own language, and how they are 2. More detail on the way the tiger died and who was re-
expressed and defined. Do you notice any differences? sponsible.
a) loot i) travel agent 3. We don’t know and the journalist doesn’t name those
b) drinkable j) addressee responsible, for any of the following reasons:
c) trainer k) soluble a) he doesn’t actually know exactly who did these
d) employee l) trainee things;
e) incredible m) payee b) he believes the names to be unimportant and irrele-
f) manager n) manageable vant to the story;
g) patient o) victim c) he knows, but he is protecting himself from legal ac-
h) unrepeatable p) tolerable tion or revenge by not revealing the names.
issue on the grounds that killing tigers has become so

14 April 2016
common as to be uninteresting.
9. He seems to have spoken to some villagers and to the
police, and has used the active voice to report what they
said, even quoting the police superintendent’s exact
words. Much of the rest of the report seems to be based
4. Possibly because he doesn’t know, or wants to protect, on second-hand information and, here, he uses the pas-
the source of these rumours. sive to protect himself and to indicate a greater degree of
5. Possibly because he is reporting exactly what the villag- uncertainty.
ers said to him. He seems to be sure of his ground here. 10. For many of the reasons stated above. It can be used to
6. There is no need to include an agent here – there is an protect sources, to protect the writer or to focus on the
assumption that every reader will be familiar with the main character or incident in the story, especially where
way the law works. the doer of an action is unknown or not relevant.
7. It is deliberately imprecise. The writer doesn’t have ac-
cess to exact statistics but still wants to make the point, ACTIVITY 3
and so covers himself by using the passive ‘are believed Some examples will suffice here:
to have been killed…’. • A trainee is someone who is being trained.
8. A difficult one to answer, but the use of ‘get’ seems to • If a substance is soluble, it can be dissolved.
make the passive more ‘dynamic’ here, almost as if he is • A victim is someone who has been attacked, hurt or killed.
accusing his fellow journalists of ignoring an important • A travel agent arranges journeys and holidays.

By Rod Bolitho, rodbol44@yahoo.co.uk

After many years leading and tutoring on Masters Programmes at the university College of St Mark & St John in Plymouth and at
Norwich Institute for Language Education, Rod Bolitho is now freelancing as a trainer and educational consultant, currently work-
ing on national-level projects in Uzbekistan and Ukraine. He remains mainly interested in Curriculum and Materials Development,
Language Awareness and Continuing Professional Development. He was until recently UK consultant to the innovative ‘English for
Academics’ textbooks published by Cambridge University Press in association with the British Council in the Russian Federation.

This article was first published in English Teaching Professional Issue 75 (July 2011) and is reprinted here by permission of
Pavilion Publishing and Media Ltd.

Mistakes as a Way 15 April 2016

to Improved Language Awareness

On Cambridge University Press Day at MPSU, Ian Cook,
Senior Marketing Manager at CUP and the key speaker at the
event, started his speech with wonderful words. He said, re-
member that “you have one mouth, two ears and two eyes.”
What might these words mean?
On the personal level, these words imply that we need to
open our eyes and ears to see and hear the world around us.
We need to listen and see twice as much as we speak. Very
often, though, we tend to do quite the opposite: in conversa-
tions, we sometimes just wait for our turn to start speaking
and often fail to hear what other people have to say to us. In
the bustle of our everyday life, we often pass by amazing
things that are going on around. So, in order to enrich our
lives and let the world in, we need to quiet the never-ending
inner and outer talk and mental noise and open ourselves up
to the life around us.
On the professional level, we, teachers, need to do exactly
the same thing – to hear and see much more than we speak.
And that doesn’t necessarily concern reducing the teacher
talk as such, but rather cultivating the ability to be mentally
and emotionally present in the lesson and be conscious of
the ever-changing mood and energy of the class. We need to
learn to see and hear the unvoiced messages that our students tion of data. For example, the online National British Corpus
unconsciously are sending to us. Added to that, we need to comprises 100 million words, the Wikipedia Corpus contains
be sensitive and flexible enough to be able to respond and ad- 1.9 billion words, and the Cambridge English Corpus con-
just accordingly. This way, not only will we build up a better sists of about 2 billion vocabulary items.
rapport with our students, but we will also be able to address Language corpora can be organized on various principles
their learning needs more effectively. and criteria. For instance, a corpus may represent all aspects
Finally, the idea of listening and seeing more can also be of a given language; alternatively, it may be designed to ex-
applied to learning languages. You may think that it’s some emplify a particular linguistic variety or sublanguage. The
sort of contradiction in terms to teach students to speak less Cambridge Learner Corpus can serve as an example of the
than they listen, or to observe, since the ultimate goal of latter as it focuses on the language use of international stu-
teaching and learning a new language is to be able to speak dents taking Cambridge exams and is based on the written
it. One would think that the more learners speak it the better. scripts of the students’ exam papers.
However, by guiding our students to be more attentive to Teachers can consult general language corpora to find the
the features of the language, to notice how language items most frequent and natural ways of using particular vocabu-
change under certain conditions, and, at large, to catch the lary, word combinations or grammar structures. They can
life and dynamics of the language, we will help our learners then create classroom language activities and tasks around
to develop that illusive but so much sought-after feeling of such material. As for a learner corpus, teachers can use its
the language and, as a result, we will help them to improve data to find out what the most common mistakes particular
their productive skills, and speaking skills in particular. groups of learners make and to focus their students’ attention
How can teachers help learners develop their language on these mistakes in the first place.
awareness? According to Ian Cook, one way of doing this is For example, according to the Cambridge Learner Cor-
to provide students with rich real-life context and numerous pus, the five most frequent mistakes Russian students make
examples of natural language use. Using English Language in their exam papers are:
Corpora in lessons is the easiest and most natural way to • the misuse of or missing a determiner (such as a/an, the),
reach this target. • wrong spelling (such as “wich” instead of “which”),
According to the online Cambridge dictionary (diction- • an incorrect verb (e.g. “wish” where “hope” should be
ary.cambridge.org), a corpus (in other words a language da- used),
tabase) is a collection of spoken or written material stored on • an incorrect verb tense (e.g. the Past Simple instead of the
a computer and used to discover and analyze how language Present Perfect),
is actually used. The characteristic features of a language • incorrect prepositions (e.g. “depend of” instead of “de-
corpus are its considerable size and the systematic organiza- pend on”).

16 April 2016

Moreover, the learner corpus can provide invaluable in-

formation on what verbs and prepositions exactly are com-
monly misused, thus enabling learners to raise their aware-
ness and considerably improve their linguistic accuracy.
There is no doubt that the error correction and the work
on accuracy is highly important for achieving a good com-
mand of a language, especially for taking tests. However, as take risks, but again to consider the context and the situ-
our students go deeper into the language and start using it ations I described earlier. If it was a work situation you
extensively in their lives, they also need to develop a healthy would be very careful about using language you aren’t
attitude towards mistakes they inevitably make every now sure about. But in less formal situations or, certainly, in
and then. learning situations, enjoy the language, have fun with it,
I was lucky to have a chance to interview Ian Cook and play with it, take risks.
ask him a couple of questions about the right attitude to mak- 3. In your opinion, what are the most effective ways of
ing mistakes and learning a foreign language in general. learning English?
Ian Cook: I think number one is motivation. If you can think
1. What attitude to mistakes should teachers help their about why you are learning English and have a reason
learners to develop? for learning, that, in my experience, is the most effective
Ian Cook: As a teacher myself, I used to tell two things to way of learning. For some people, the motivation can be
my students. One is “Don’t worry about making mistakes. to pass an exam, for other people, the motivation may be
You learn from your mistakes. And as long as you are try- because they want to watch films in English, or to read
ing to use the language, that’s the most important thing in English. More and more students tell me they want to
and you can correct your mistakes later. But try and be learn English because they want to understand music they
productive.” The other thing is “Consider the context.” If are hearing in English.
you are talking to your friends in English, mistakes don’t So, for me, the most effective way is to think of the wider
matter so much as long as the communication is not hin- reasons for studying, “why am I doing this?” instead of
dered, as long as they don’t prevent communication. Mis- focusing every day on grammar or vocabulary. And if you
takes are fine. have a passion, motivation, that makes the whole process
But where we have to be more careful is often with writ- easier. You will want to remember things, not have to
ten grammar in an academic setting or at work, or in the remember things. That’s my experience of learning lan-
exams where grammar matters much more. So it’s very guages. I hated learning French and German because I
important that you understand what correct grammar is had to do it. Later in life, I lived in Japan for a while and
even if sometimes when you are speaking informally, you I wanted to learn because I wanted to speak to people, I
worry about it less. So it’s context. Sometimes grammar is wanted to order food in restaurants, so suddenly I had the
very important, sometimes less so. Sometimes communi- motivation and it made it so much easier.
cation and fluency are more important than perfect gram-
mar. So there are three ideas about mistakes and language
2. Should learners take risks in using a new language? learning that we can borrow from Ian and pass on to our
Ian Cook: You should take risks. You should try and have fun learners. They are the communication context as the key fac-
with the language as well. Learning a language is about tor to careful or less careful use of language, the courage to
communication, about enjoying it. If you don’t enjoy it, take risks and stretch your current language skills, and the
if you don’t have fun with it, it takes all the joy out of clear understanding of the reasons for learning a language as
language learning. So I would always encourage people to a powerful motivational boost.
Coming back to Ian Cook’s opening words on hearing and
seeing more, I would also like to add, in conclusion, that
teaching students to be more observant and attentive to the
language they are learning can be a strong motivational and
energizing factor, too, which can help learners become more
independent, confident and even more adventurous users of
a new language. So why not to try this approach, too? To
paraphrase a popular motivational quote, I would say that to
be aware of a language is to care and love it, and, as a result,
to be more comfortable with it. So, let’s help our students
become more confident and aware of the language.

By Alexandra Chistyakova

Photos from Cambridge University Press ELT, Moscow.



Финансовый кризис обострил многие проблемы; одна The name “Ostap Bender” has become an equivalent
из них – рост числа различных финансовых махинаций. for a con man in the Russian language. Его, кстати, там
В этой теме задействовано много весьма необычных и назвали “semi-fictional character” – полувымышлен-
важных слов. Давайте начнем с нескольких терминов: ным персонажем, напомнив, что прототипом нашего
swindle – обман, надувательство; любимца послужил Осип Шор, брат одного из друзей
swindler – мошенник, жулик; Ильфа.
scam – жульничество; В Америке было немало своих веселых аферистов,
scammer – мошенник; один из них явно достоин упоминания: Victor Lustig –
scheme (это слово с “широким смыслом”: план; схема; known as a man who sold the Eiffel Tower. Вот начало
но нас сейчас интересует одно, особое значение) – не- этой саги (я дам лишь частичный перевод).
честный замысел, махинация;
ponzi scheme – так называют в Америке финансовую
пирамиду (по имени итальянского эмигранта начала XX
века, который впервые осуществил ее в массовом мас-

swindle – наиболее общее из этих слов, употребляется
а scam – новомодное словечко, еще недавно оно счита-
лось сленговым.
Конечно, есть еще более общее слово:
cheat – обманывать, надувать, но оно к современным
финансовым махинациям не применяется; его сфера –
бытовая; это отношения “один на один” и, раз уж мы его
упомянули, в нем самое интересное – предлоги: In 1925, France had recovered from World War I,
She was cheating in the test. – Она списывала на экзамене. and Paris was booming, an excellent environment for
I’m afraid he is cheating on her again. – Я боюсь, он ей a con artist (прекрасная среда для афериста). Lustig’s
опять изменяет. idea came to him one spring day when he was reading
А теперь возьмем еще одно чрезвычайно популярное a newspaper. An article discussed the problems the city
и необычное слово: was having maintaining the Eiffel Tower (проблемы,
con game – афера (его появление в языке точно докумен- возникшие у города с поддержанием в исправности
тировано. В 1849 году деяния одного жулика были на- Эйфелевой башни). Even keeping it painted was very
званы в газетах confidence game, подчеркивая этим, что expensive, and the tower was becoming somewhat run
он “втирался в доверие” к своим жертвам, вымогая у них down (башня стала приходить в обветшалое состоя-
под разными предлогами часы и другие ценные вещи ние). Lustig saw the possibilities behind this article and
(впоследствии это слово просто укоротили, как это часто developed a remarkable scheme (разработал замеча-
бывает в американской речи). А для жуликов, которые тельную махинацию). He invited six scrap metal dealers
этим промышляют, придумали целых три слова: (дилеров по металлолому) to a confidential meeting (мы
Con gamer = con man = con artist – аферист. Последнее видим, что от одного слова confidence образовалось два
из них подчеркивает изобретательность мелкого афери- прилагательных: confident – уверенный и confidential –
ста; аналогия у нас возникает немедленно; поэтому я по- секретный, доверительный). Он сообщил им, что прави-
радовался, встретив такую фразу в одной американской тельство приняло решение разобрать башню (делаться
статье: это должно втайне, чтобы не взбудоражить народ) и ему
поручено выбрать подрядчика для этой работы. Один из
этих дилеров вскоре принес ему крупную взятку, а когда
жулик исчез, он побоялся заявить в полицию. Это и сгу-
било афериста – он попытался повторить затею еще раз
и был пойман.
Если вернуться к литературе, на память сразу при-
ходит еще один персонаж – благородный жулик из рас-
сказов О.Генри. Тут надо сделать небольшое отступле-
ние. О.Генри – признанный мастер сюжета, остроумный
рассказчик, но язык его произведений очень усложнен и
старомоден (в России его, как и ряд других авторов, пере-
водила плеяда блистательных мастеров, и в русском ва-
рианте он звучит лучше). В частности, упомянутый цикл
Photo: Free Wind 2014 / Shutterstock.com

18 April 2016

in New York. (Мы с Энди всегда избегали делать биз-

нес в Нью-Йорке). Catching suckers in that town, is like
dynamiting a Texas lake for bass. (Ловить ротозеев (сей-
час бы сказали “лохов”) в этом городе все равно, что глу-
шить окуня в техасском озере динамитом)”.
Итак, мы добрались до обратной стороны этой жиз-
ненной коллизии – где есть обманщики, должны быть и
их жертвы. A sucker is a person who is easily cheated.
Это колоритное американское словечко. Ему сопутству-

ют вполне понятные существительные:

sucker – леденец;
suckling – сосунок;
bloodsucker – кровопийца, кровосос.
Но вот в дополнение к этому возникло упомянутое
выше значение, которое лет сто назад закрепилось в
рассказов называется “The Gentle Grafter” – это слово афоризме, известном каждому американцу (по одной
вы сейчас вообще не найдете в большинстве словарей. из версий, кто-то спросил владельца игорного дома, не
Вот как характеризует Джефф Питерс своего напарника: слишком ли много у него игральных столов; на что он
“That man was the most talented conniver at stratagems ответил):
I ever saw. Whenever he saw a dollar in another man’s Don’t worry about that, there’s a sucker born every
hand, he took it as a personal grudge”. (Это был наи- minute. – Не волнуйся, лохов всегда в избытке.
более талантливый жулик, которого я когда-либо видел. Сегодняшний день наглядно подтвердил жизненность
Когда он видел доллар в руке у другого человека, он вос- этого тезиса. Но вот еще поразительный языковой штрих.
принимал это как личное оскорбление). Когда стало известно, что Бернард Мэдофф организовал
Возьмем еще несколько строк из рассказа “Innocents the biggest Ponzi scheme in history, один радиоведущий
of Broadway” – “Простаки с Бродвея” (в этом абзаце я в сердцах воскликнул:
привожу русский текст переводчика М.Беккер). Look how Madoff made off with the money. – Посмотри,
как Мэдофф упер денежки.
To make off with something means to steal something.
Это ж надо так подгадать: жулик по фамилии Жуликов.
Сейчас в прессе появляются тревожные статьи. Во-
преки логике люди обедневшие, потерявшие работу, не
меньше, а больше подвержены риску попасться на крю-
чок махинаторов.
Con artists follow the news closely and adapt their
schemes to whatever is the crisis of the day. – Аферисты
внимательно следят за новостями и приспосабливают
свои махинации к сиюминутному кризису.

Not only the number of potential victims is growing,

experts say, there are more scammers. – Не только стано-
вится больше потенциальных жертв, говорят эксперты,
количество мошенников также растет.
So, be on the alert – don’t get fooled! – Так что будьте на-
чеку – чтобы вас не одурачили!

“One summer me and Andy Tucker, my partner, went Виталий Левенталь

to New York to lay in our annual assortment of clothes Из книги “Занимательный английский”
and gents’ furnishings (Как-то летом мы с моим компа-
ньоном Энди Таккером отправились в Нью-Йорк, что- Продолжение следует.
бы пополнить наш ежегодный ассортимент костюмов
и мужской галантереи). We always... thought that looks
went further than anything else in our business, except
maybe our knowledge of railroad schedules. (Мы всегда
полагали, что внешность важнее всего прочего в нашем
Адрес в Москве для получения других по-
деле, за исключением разве что знания расписания по- собий В.Левенталя –
ездов)”. “Me and Andy never cared much to do business на сайте: www.EnglishMadeSimple.com

April 2016

FOR RELIGION Bahaism – A religion founded in Iran in
1863 emphasizing the spiritual unity of
An atheist – A person who does not believe that any gods exist. all humankind, incorporating Islamic and
The afterlife – What happens to a person’s soul after the body dies. Christian tenets.
To bless – To show kindness and help. It can be done by a god or Buddhism – An Asian religion that teach-
people. es that suffering is caused by desire and
A convert – A person who believes. that suffering will cease when the desire
A culture – The way we think and behave; learned from our soci- ceases.
ety. Confucianism – Chinese philosophy de-
A doctrine – The actual details that people believe about their reli- veloped from the teachings of the Chinese
gion. philosopher Confucius.
To reach enlightenment – To have a very good undestanding / The Christianity – Acknowledging belief in
final stage in a religion when you no longer suffer. Jesus Christ or following the religion based
To have faith – To believe in something even though you can’t see on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
it; to trust. Faith – Confidence or trust in a person,
To fast – To not eat any food for a period of time (10 hours or one thing, or the supernatural that is not based
day/week). on scientific proof.
A founder – A person who started a religion; organization; school. Hinduism – The dominant acient religion
Holy – Sacred; pure and good. of India consisting of the beliefs, customs
An idol – A picture, statue or thing that is worshipped like a god. and values based on the worship of many
Incense – A substance that has a pleasant smell when it is burned. gods.
To meditate – To quietly and calmly think about life, god or to just Islam – A religion practiced by Muslims
breathe slowly. as a faith regarded as revealed through
Monotheism – Belief that there is only one God. Muhammad, the Prophet of Allah.
Nirvana – Supreme (highest level of) happiness/enlightenment. Jainism – An ancient Indian religion that
Polytheism – Belief that there is more than one God. practises non-violence toward all living
To practice – To follow; To live our lives according to the rules of things and teaches self-reliance.
a religion. Judaism – The Jewish religion based on
To pray – To speak to God in order to give thanks or ask for help. laws revealed to Moses and recorded in the
Rebirth – Life continues in a cycle / starting over in a new way/re- Torah/ Old Testament.
incarnation. Prophecy – Supernatural messages recei-
A religion – Belief in something or someone greater than our- ved by a prophet communicated to others.
selves. Ritual – Actions performed for symbolic
A ritual – Ceremonies/actions that are repeated often/a fixed pat- spiritual value including traditions of a re-
tern. ligious community.
A sacrifice – Willingly give up or offer something to a god (money, Religion – A collection of beliefs and cul-
life, etc.). tural systems that answer the mysteries of
A sect – A smaller group of believers that is part of a larger group of life and relate to human spirituality.
the relision. Example: Islam – religion; Sunni – sect. Symbols – Visuals and objects that repre-
Secular – NOT about religion. Example: a country’s legal system sent something else.
which is not a religious court. Sacred – Dedicated as holy; set apart from
Secular Humanism – Belief that people can use their intelligence to ordinary life as pertaining to deity.
live; they don’t need to rely on a religion. Shintoism – An ancient religion of Japan
A soul – Part of the person that isn’t physical. It contains our establishing a connection between present
feelings, thoughts and character. Many believe it exists after day and ancient Japan.
death. Sikhism – An Indian religion founded in
To worship – To show feelings of love, respect and admiration to the 15th century with principal beliefs of
god. / To attend a meeting for this purpose. faith and justice.
Source: www.AACE-English.com
Source: http://www.teach-nology.com

20 April 2016
communion – причащение
Father (deacon) – Отец (диакон)
CONVERSATIONAL QUESTIONS inauguration – инаугурация
Scripture(s) – Священное Писание
• Where is Northern Ireland? alliance by marriage – брачный союз
• Is Northern Ireland beautiful? annul a marriage – аннулировать брак
• What is another name for Northern anoint/anointing – миропомазывать/миропомазание
Ireland? assumption – вступление (в должность)
• What is the capital of Northern Ireland? baptism – крещение
• What other cities do you know in North- baptismal name – имя, данное при крещении
ern Ireland? baptistery – баптистерий
• What do you know about the geography best man – шафер
of Northern Ireland? bishop – епископ
• What kind of land is Northern Ireland? bride/bridegroom (fiance) – невеста/жених
• How many counties are there in Northern bride’s maid – подружка невесты
Ireland? burial – похороны
• What do you know about Northern catechumen – новообращённый; готовящийся к крещению
Ireland’s history? chrism – елей, миро (благовонные масла в церковных обрядах)
christening – крещение (церковное таинство)
• Do you know about the Northern Ireland
civil wedding – гражданская церемония бракосочетания
conflict between the Catholics and the
coffin – гроб
conversion – обращение в веру
• When did the conflict between Protes-
delubrum, shrine, font – крестильная; храм, церковь, святилище
tants and Catholics in Northern Ireland duty – долг, обязательство; почтение, уважение, повиновение
start? emerald wedding – сорокалетие супружеской жизни
• Do Irish people speak Irish? engagement – помолвка
• What are the state languages in Northern font basin – купель
Ireland? funeral – похороны
• What is Northern Ireland associated with? funeral home – помещение для гражданской панихиды
• Where and when was Titanic ship built? funeral repast / feast – поминки
• What are the most popular sports in godparent – крёстный родитель
Northern Ireland? godparenthood – статус крёстного родителя
• What exactly is Gaelic football? grave – могила
• What is Northern Ireland famous for? headstone – надгробие
• What is the Giant’s Causeway? hearse – катафалк
• What do you know about Northern inaugural address – инаугурационная речь
Ireland culture? making one’s communion – причащение
• What is the emblem of Northern marriage lines – свидетельство о браке
Ireland? marriage of convenience – брак по расчету
• What is the national holiday in Northern marriage of unequals – неравный брак
Ireland? married – женат, замужем
• What is the most famous holiday in memorial service – поминальная служба
March? newly-wed – новобрачный
• Who is the patron saint of Northern obituary – некролог
offertory – проскомидия, церковные пожертвования; деньги, собран-
ные во время церковной службы
• What is the Ulster Fry made with?
original sin – первородный грех
• What currency is used in Northern
passed away – умерший, покойный
priest – священник
• Who are the most famous people of requiem service – отпевание
Northern Ireland? sacrament – таинство
• Would you like to go to Northern swearing-in – приведение к присяге при вступлении в должность
Ireland? sympathy card – открытка с выражением соболезнований
• What sights would you like to see? unction – миропомазание
• What places would you like to visit in wedding – свадьба
Northern Ireland? wedding ceremony – обряд бракосочетания

Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina Source: http://lingvotutor.ru/religion-en-ru


April 2016


SOUP OF THE SOUP f. The stranger looked the evening meal.
Sufi Tale from Iran g. I will prepare between two bowls.
One evening Nasrudin Hodja and his wife were just sitting down h. I brought you plenty of rice left.
to dinner when there came a knock on the door. Hodja opened the
door to find his good friend Hassan from the next village standing on B. Match the word on the left with the word on the right from the
the doorstep. In Hassan’s hands was a fine rabbit. text:
“We will cook the rabbit and make a pilaf. We will have a feast.” a. clear meal
And they did. Hodja’s wife was a very fine cook so the rabbit and b. unusually familiar
everything was delicious. Hodja told stories and Hassan laughed. And c. fine voice
when Hassan went home, Hodja said to his wife, “There is plenty of d. evening cook
rabbit and plenty of rice left. We will have rabbit pilaf tomorrow.” e. hot quiet
But the next evening, just as they were sitting down to this fine f. faintly liquid
meal, there was a knock at the door. When they opened it, there was g. friendly water
Hassan’s neighbour with empty hands. “Greetings, Hodja,” he said.
“I am a friend of Hassan from the village.” Now, Hodja knew how C. Language
to be hospitable. “Come in,” he said. “We were just about to eat our The friend of a friend = the friend’s friend.
evening meal.” A. The brother of my mother = ___________________= my uncle
The meal was very good, but Hodja did not tell as many stories B. The boyfriend of my sister = ___________________________
and there was not as much laughter. The guest left soon after dinner. C. The ____________ of my _____________ = ______________
Hodja looked at the plates. “There are still the bones of the rabbit,” he D. The ____________ of my _____________ = ______________
said, “and plenty of rice and vegetables to make a fine soup.”
All the next day the house smelled of the wonderful soup that was D. Number and write clues for the words in the crossword.
cooking. In the evening Hodja and his wife sat down to eat it. But just F
as they picked up their spoons, there was a knock at the door. Hodja S T R A N G E R V ____________
opened it, and saw a man who looked faintly familiar. “I am a friend M BON E S ____________
of the friend of Hassan from the village,” he said in a friendly voice. I G ____________
Hodja thought how he wanted to eat two bowls of that good soup. L F E ____________
However, hospitality is a duty: so he said, “Come in. We were just S N I F F E D T ____________
about to eat our soup.” The guest enjoyed the soup very much, but P A T F E A S T ____________
Hodja was unusually quiet and he did not object when the man left as O R C B ____________
soon as he had eaten. He looked into the soup pot and found one large O H O S P I TAB L E ____________
spoonful of soup. “Tomorrow,” he said to his wife, “I will prepare the K N O C K I E ____________
evening meal. I will take care of everything.” F O L R S ____________
The next day there were no good cooking smells and Hodja and U O R AB BI T ____________
his wife did not sit down to eat at their usual time. But there came a L K F C ____________
knock on the door. Standing there was someone he had never seen E ____________
before. But the man smiled, “I am a friend of the friend of the friend
of your friend Hassan,” he said. “Really?” said Hodja. “Well, you E. Can you fill in the Story Chart?
must come in and share my meal.” “I would like that very much,” Food Guest Atmosphere
said the stranger. So Hodja led him to the table as the man sniffed 1. First Night Rabbit Hassan Lots of stories,
the air. Rice & vegetables laughter
“Don’t worry,” said Hodja. “I was just going to fetch the food.” 2. Second Night Rabbit Pilaf _________ _________
He went into the kitchen and scooped the spoonful of soup from the 3. Third Night _________ _________ _________
bottom of the pot. He carefully divided it between two bowls, filled 4. Fourth Night _________ _________ _________
each bowl up with hot water and carried the bowls to the table. He set 5. Fifth Night _________ _________ _________
one in front of the stranger and one in front of himself. Then he sat
down and smiled happily at the man. F. What do you think?
The stranger looked into his bowl. It was filled with a clear liquid 1. What is hospitality? ___________________________________
with two grains of rice and a shred of carrot floating in it. Hodja said: __________________________________________________
“O friend of the friend of the friend of my friend Hassan, here is the 2. How important is hospitality? ____________________________
soup of the soup of the bones of the rabbit.” __________________________________________________
The next night Hodja and his wife sat down to eat alone, in 3. What duties does the host have?__________________________
peace. __________________________________________________
4. What duties does the guest have?__________________________
ACTIVITIES _________________________________________________
A. Complete the sentences from the tale: 5. What kind of hosts do you like best? ______________________
a. Hospitality is to fetch the food. __________________________________________________
b. We will a gift. 6. What kind of guests do you like best? ______________________
c. I was just going into his bowl. _________________________________________________
d. There is have a feast.
e. He carefully divided it a duty. By Erin Bouma

22 April 2016

The British Council is celebrating the diversity of Africa by bringing you this series of articles from
around the continent to help you with your English language studies. Today we visit Malawi.

Malawi: Working with

smallholder farmers Malaw


Malawi depends on agriculture for most of its foreign trade as well as food security. Maize is the staple
food, while tobacco, tea, cotton and coffee are the main cash crops. About 80 per cent of farmland is
worked by smallholder farmers who live off their land and sell their crops at the market. Isaac Mambo
from the University of Malawi works with farmers helping them to improve their productivity and their
income. He agreed to talk to us about his work and his hopes for the future.

Can you tell us about your work buy farm‘inputs’such as fertilisers Can you give some examples of
at the University of Malawi? and chemicals. improvements have you seen?
I teach agricultural extension and Yes. Their income has increased.
What are the main issues facing
rural sociology.‘Agricultural extension’ Through collective marketing farmers
smallholder farmers in Malawi?
involves helping farmers with knowledge can sell their crops direct to the factory
Smallholder farmers are facing many
and information to improve their farming. at a higher price instead of selling to
challenges, but I will attempt to pick what
This knowledge and information can intermediaries who often exploit them.
I think are the main ones. First, I would
come from academic research or from Farmers can process and package their
say, limited access to good fertilisers and
the farmers themselves. crops to sell at local and international
chemicals – mainly due to high prices.
markets. Then there is what we call
So what first encouraged you to Second, farmers are worried about
‘farmer empowerment’. Smallholder
work in this field? changes in the climate: rainfall is erratic
farmers have gained a voice and can
My motivation is to work with smallholder and unpredictable, so sometimes there’s
lobby for better policies.
farmers. If I remember well, it all started drought and sometimes there’s so much
when I was at high school. I used to tell rain there is flooding. Third, the problems Are you optimistic about the future
people that I wanted to work with a non- of soil erosion and loss of soil fertility. And for Malawi’s smallholder farmers?
governmental organisation (NGO) in rural one final problem, partly as a result of the The main threats to smallholder farming
development. So when I went to college others, is low levels of production. are climate variability, soil degradation
I chose to study Rural Development! and inadequate infrastructure, so policy-
Can you describe your students
makers and development experts need
And then what did you do? and study programme?
to come up with mechanisms to address
I worked with a local NGO called the My students are undergraduates
these threats. I must also add that
National Smallholder Farmer Association both straight from high school and
farmers themselves need to see farming
(NASFAM), which helped organise mature students. The programme
as a business. But with a smile,
farmers into associations. By working teaches the theory of agricultural
I would say I do see a brighter future for
together they could sell their crops extension, field work and practicals,
smallholder farming – though as you can
collectively and we could assist them to and student research.
A smallholder farmer. Photo credit: Isaac Mambo see, a lot of work still needs to be done.


Activity 1: True or false Example: Through collective
Malawi’s farmers face (market) __marketing__ farmers C O F F E E X O F U
many problems. can sell their crops directly.

According to the article, are these 1. We help farmers with (know)

sentences true or false? ______ and information to
improve their production.
1. Rainfall is unpredictable leading 2. An NGO is a non-governmental MALAWI
to drought or flooding. (organise) _________
POPULATION: 14,901,000
2. The soil is poor and needs to 3. We help small scale farmers to CAPITAL CITY: Lilongwe I C D Z J T S R T C
be improved with fertilisers and buy (fertilise) ______ for the soil. AREA: 118,484 km2
chemicals. 4. Farmers are (worry) ______
3. Farmers often put too much about changes in the climate. C M W I E T E R L O
fertiliser on the soil. 5. We help them to bypass
4. If farmers avoid intermediaries intermediaries (buy) _________ E Y Q B O H Z A Y T
(= middle men) they can make and sell direct to the factory.
more profit. W V W H E A T O J T
5. By working together it is easier Over to you
to lobby for (= demand) better After drought and serious shortages O S O R G H U M G O
policies. of food in the past, Malawi’s farmers
6. Smallholder farmers must not are doing much better. Talk about F O O R H U G R R N
think of farming as a business. the different ways that farmers,
experts and politicians can work
Activity 2 Find these crops in the grid.
towards better food production for
Put the word in brackets into a country.
the correct form.
tobacco maize rice
cotton tea wheat
coffee sorghum plantain
Activity 2 1. knowledge; 2. organisation; 3. fertilisers/fertilizers; 4. worried; 5. buyers
Answers: Activity 1 1. true; 2. true; 3. false; 4. true; 5. true; 6. false

23 April 2016

The British Council is celebrating the diversity of Africa by bringing you this series of articles from
around the continent to help you with your English language studies. Today we visit Mali.

Mali: Trees, microcredit

and the environment iStoc



Kayes, in Mali, is reputed to be one of the hottest towns in the world. The average daytime temperature is
about 35 degrees, sometimes reaching up to 46 degrees in April and May. With a population of more than
100,000, it is located on the Senegal River. Kayes and southwestern Mali are at the edge of the Sahara
Desert. Many people who live there now remember times when there were many more animals and many
more trees. Now the desert is taking over and action is needed, as we hear.

Why is the desert taking over trees because they are poor and need Microcredit is the provision of small
in southwestern Mali? the money for food, not because they loans for people who don’t have much
There are many reasons, including want to destroy the environment. To money. They are short-term loans made
global warming, but a very important save the trees, there has to be less to the women when they most need
factor is that there are fewer and fewer poverty. For example, an organisation the money.
trees in the area. called Aliniha has turned to women
How does that work?
for their help in protecting trees.
Why are trees important to stop Each woman is given a microcredit
Each woman in the programme plants
the desert from taking over? facility, a savings account and three
three trees and looks after them. In
Again, there are many reasons: the small trees which they must plant
exchange Aliniha helps the women by
leaves and branches of trees stop the and look after. The women must go
providing microcredit.
wind from blowing more sand into the to training courses, such as learning
area, while the roots of the trees hold What is Aliniha and what to read and write or managing a
soil together and keep the moisture. If is microcredit? small business, while learning about
there are no trees the soil turns to dust Aliniha is a not-for-profit organisation women’s rights and the protection of
and blows away. which works in three countries and the environment. The idea is to move
is run by three social entrepreneurs: to sustainable businesses. Alou Keita
Why are there no trees? Alou Keita from Mali who specialises in says that Aliniha has also been showing
People are the main reason. People cut microcredit, Ini Damien from Burkino films around the country to raise
down trees. In Mali many people cut Faso, specialising in building women’s public awareness of how humans are
down trees to burn them and sell as organisations, and Jean Goepp from destroying the environment and how to
charcoal in the market. But now they Senegal, a specialist in the environment. stop this process.
have to go further and further away to The purpose of Aliniha is to fight
find trees. Ten years ago women found Does it work?
poverty by helping women. For a
wood a few metres from their homes. So far more than 6,000 women have
woman to get help from Aliniha, she has
Today it can be a journey of days to signed the Aliniha charter. That’s 18,000
to promise to save money and to help
reach the trees. new trees and a lot of knowledge shared
improve the environment (that’s where
on preventing erosion. By itself, that
What can be done? tree-planting and other environmental
won’t stop the Sahara Desert, but as the
Women at work on an Aliniha project. Photo credit: Alou Keita Aliniha A lot can be done. People cut down activities come in).
word spreads, it’s a very good start.


Activity 1
Identify the missing words: C H A R T E R S K D
1. The ______ stop the wind from blowing sand into the area.
2. The ______ of the trees hold the soil together. E W D E R O S I O N
3. People ______ down trees to burn them and make ch______.
4. The soil turns to ______ and blows away. C H A R C O A L T I
5. There are now ______ trees in the area. MALI C K F R D Z J H R L
POPULATION: 14,517,176
Activity 2 CAPITAL CITY: Bamako
Are these statements true or false? K C Z H M E C O E O
AREA: 1,240,192 km2
1. Kayes is in the middle of the Sahara Desert. N B R G Q I S A E A
2. People in Mali now travel long distances to find trees for firewood.
3. Aliniha wants women to keep back the desert by planting trees. WESTERN
4. 600 women have signed the Aliniha charter.
5. Each woman plants and cares for three trees and is given microcredit. MAURITIANIA

Over to you THE GAMBIA

Microfinance has been effective in many countries around the world to BENIN

help poor people start small businesses. Do you know any examples in your LEONE
country? Discuss ways it can be used to help fight poverty. CAM

Find these words from the article in the grid.

desert charcoal erosion trees

warming loans charter credit

4. dust; 5. fewer/no Activity 2 1. false; 2. true; 3. true; 4. false; 5. true

Answers: Activity 1 1. leaves/branches; 2. roots; 3. cut and charcoal;


Series of Lessons
Reading for pleasure is a type of reading strategy, the main LESSON 1
goal of which is to develop students’ motivation to read in a BOOK REVIEW. INTRODUCTION
foreign language. The essential conditions for this type of Lesson objectives:
reading are the following: SWAT (students will be able to) understand what a book re-
• The books should be interesting to students, which means view is;
students should be given a chance to choose books on SWAT understand and identify the structure of a book re-
their own; view;
• The language of the books should be easy for students, so SWAT read a short story critically;
a teacher should help students to choose an appropriate SWAT begin to write a review of the short story in correct
level of reading; book review genre;
• Students should be monitored regularly; SWAT use appropriate language to express opinions in a
• Students should be given time in class for silent reading; piece of writing.
• Students should have a chance to share with their peers
what they are reading. 3 minutes. Teacher elicits from students if they read books
All the activities were planned by a team of EFL teachers in their mother language. In class, gather a few names of
before the start of term 4. books they have enjoyed. If any students don’t read books,
ask them why. (They may have a good reason!) Elicit the
Age of students: 15-17 years old idea that reading is a good way to learn a language (whole
Level of English: Intermediate – Upper-Intermediate class activity).
Number of students in a group: 10-15 5 minutes. In pairs or groups, students discuss a book they
Outline of Reading for Pleasure section. have read. Let the discussion proceed naturally but monitor
that English is being used (group activity).
№ Theme Resources, notes Teacher tells students they will write a book review by the
1. Book re- As the 4th term is mainly devoted to reading, stu- end of the term. A book review is a genre of writing and
view. In- dents should write a good book review by the end therefore there is a distinct process and format (whole class
troduction of the term. In the first lesson we should explain
what a book review is and show its structure.
7 minutes. Students are given the handout on writing a fiction
2. Book re- Reading and analyzing a short story. If it is pos-
view prac- sible, we can find one story but on various levels book review (A Walk To Remember by Nicholas Sparks) and
tice for differentiation. read it. Students brainstorm what parts a book review should
3. Book exhi- Together with the librarians, we present the consist of (individual, group activity).
bition books that students can choose to read during
the term. Then students return to the classroom A WALK TO REMEMBER (By Nicholas Sparks)
and, using laptops, find info about the author, A Walk to Remember will make you cry, laugh, and fall in
the genre, the plot and other details. love with it over and over again. The novel is by an American
4. Reading Every week 1 lesson should be devoted to writer Nicholas Sparks and was released by Warner Books
for pleas- checking students’ reading. Students should in October 1999. Sparks has written a number of bestsellers
ure have reading diaries to write their summaries, that have been made into films, including his books, Mes-
new words, book review drafts, etc. Teachers
sage in a Bottle and The Notebook.
should make notes about the books students are
reading and their progress. Set in 1958–59 in Beaufort, North Carolina, A Walk to Re-
5. Book re- Here we can practice some parts of a book member is a story of two teenagers who fall in love with each
view review, for example character description or other despite the differences in their personalities. The story
information about the author. begins in High School with Jamie and Landon. Jamie, a girl,
6. Reading In some of the lessons students can read, dis- and Landon, a boy, believe that they have nothing in com-
for pleas- cuss their books with each other and do other mon and that they are very different from each other because
ure activities based on their reading and reviewing of the way they dress, act and the people they hang out with.
the books. They soon find out that they are meant to be together.
7. Creating Students should be given some time in the class- Landon is the type of guy described as “cool”. Jamie, on the
a book re- room to create their written book review, plan other hand, is sweet, caring, and very religious, as her father is
view their poster and speech and be assisted by a
the Reverend of their hometown. Landon and his friends make
teacher or classmates.
fun of Jamie because of the way she dresses and because she is
8. Book re- Gallery walk. Students attach their posters to
view pres- the walls, jury (teachers) and other students
still so old-fashioned. The reason Jamie is still old-fashioned
entation walk around, presenters present their books and is because her mother passed away when she was born. Jamie
posters. Also they submit their written reviews has learned the hard way that it was not her fault for her moth-
to their teachers. er’s death but that it was God’s decision.

April 2016

2. Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview

of the story, including its setting, time period, genre, main
characters, and plot. State who tells the story (point of view)
and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of
Landon is soon to be put in a difficult situation where, suspense or a light-hearted adventure?
in order to graduate, he has to get one more credit and the 3. Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main
only class open is Drama. He has to join a school play in characters and identify the major conflict or problem
order to get the credit that he needs to graduate. Since Jamie the main characters are trying to solve. If there are many
is in Drama and she is a good actor, Landon decides to ask relevant characters in the book, you can also write another
her for help. She accepts but has one promise that she needs paragraph about them.
him to make, “Don’t fall in love with me”. Landon finds this 4. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to
funny but agrees. However, he does not know what the fu- tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main se-
ture holds. quence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the
For me, A Walk to Remember is a really emotional story. rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution.
I never thought that I could actually cry reading a book. I 5. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion: You will like writ-
loved how Sparks wrote the book and the way that he de- ing the final paragraph because it is here that you will be able
scribed each character made the book so alive. With passages to offer your own opinion of the book. What are the book’s
like, “I held her close to me with my eyes closed, wondering strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest?
if anything in my life had ever been this perfect and knowing What did you learn from the book? How did the book affect
at the same time that it hadn’t. I was in love, and the feeling you? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your
was even more wonderful than I ever imagined it could be.” statements with examples from the book. Give your honest
I actually felt I was experiencing and feeling what they were opinion of the book and whether or not you would recom-
going through. I really recommend this book to those who mend it to others.
are young now or those who want to remember how love felt Source: http://www.time4writing.com/writing-resources/
when they were young. writing-a-book-report/
Source: http://highland.aps.edu/library-booktalks
10 minutes. Students match sentences taken from reviews
15 minutes. Students are given an outline of a book review with the correct section of a review. More than one answer
(The process of writing a fiction book review), read it and may be possible. After doing this individually, compare with
compare with their own ideas (individual, group activity). a partner (individual, group activity).
1. Even though Hazel & Augustus are both riddled with
The process of writing a fiction book review cancer, somehow they never let it beat them.
Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. 2. This is a book peopled with a group of characters that
Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: you really care about. At its core are the star-crossed lov-
1. Introduction ers, Hazel (with terminal cancer) and Augustus (a cancer
2. Summary of Book survivor).
3. Book Details: Characters
4. Book Details: Plot
5. Evaluation and Conclusion

1. Introductory Paragraph
Many book reports begin with the basic information about
the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication in-
formation (publisher, number of pages, and year published).
The first paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest
by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the
writing of the book or about the author. Was the book a best-
seller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject?
Book reports are personal too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to
state why you chose to read it.
1. What is the book about? In the body of the book report –
paragraphs 2, 3, and 4 – you will describe what the book is
about. This is your chance to show you have read and under-
stood the book.

26 April 2016

3. It is definitely a moving, entertaining and thought-pro-

voking book.
4. John Green is an award-winning, New York Times best-
selling author whose many accolades include the Printz
Medal, a Printz Honor, and the Edgar Award.
5. This is a story suitable for all ages.
6. JRR Tolkien’s The Hobbit is, of course, one of the great-
est children’s books to have been written in the twentieth
7. I must make it clear from the start that I will not review
the story of The Hobbit, but just this hardcover edition
published by HarperCollins, revised edition released on sled The men put their food and equipment on a sled and
7 April 2003. pulled it across the ice.
8. It follows the adventures of one Bilbo Baggins, as he sets mate I have been married to my mate for 20 years.
off with thirteen dwarves and a wizard to recover a great magic He made the rabbit disappear. It must be magic!
treasure stolen from the dwarves by Smaug the dragon. witchcraft I am sure that woman can cause illness just by
9. Tolkien wrote this book for his own children. looking at you, or saying some secret words, or other
10. I found the beginning of the story a little confusing. kinds of witchcraft.
11. The Dursleys return also and still treat Harry like dirt; evil spirits Don’t go into the forest! You can’t see them but there
even on his own birthday. are lots of evil spirits there who will hurt or kill you.
spy I will follow that man and find out where he goes. He
5 minutes. Teacher asks students if any of them have read won’t see me because I can spy very well.
The Fault in Our Stars or The Hobbit which these review growl The dog didn’t like it and growled at me angrily when
sentences are about. If they have, elicit information about I tried to take his food away.
them using vocabulary encountered – character, plot, con- whale The whale is not a fish. It is the biggest animal in the
flict, problem, summary etc. Note contributions on board sea.
(whole class activity).
Based on the sentences above, guess the Kazakh and Rus-
Reading. The Story of Keesh by Jack London sian meanings of the words. Do not use a dictionary!
Pre-reading activities English Kazakh Russian
15 minutes. Teacher gives students a handout on new words council
for the story and has them guess the Kazakh and Russian igloo
meanings for them. No dictionaries! (Individual work) spear
New words from The Story of Keesh sled
council The village council of elders decided to build a new
meeting house.
igloo Although it is made of ice, an igloo is quite a warm
house. witchcraft
spear The hunter threw the long, sharp spear and killed the evil spirits
lion. spy

20-25 minutes. Students read The Story of Keesh in class. (In-

dividual work) (http://www.online-literature.com/london/97/)
Home assignment: students write a brief review of The Story
of Keesh based on the handouts and guidance already given.
(Written works are assessed formatively. It means that no
marks are given, the teacher only writes notes and recommen-
dations for students, indicates language mistakes. If there are a
lot of mistakes, students should rewrite the reviews).

By Valeriya V. Golovintseva,
Nazarbayev Intellectual School, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan
Photos taken by the author.
To be continued.

Northern 27
April 2016

Ireland Anyone born and bred in Northern Ireland

can’t be too optimistic.
Seamus Heaney

A person from Northern Ireland is naturally cautious.

Seamus Heaney

The reality of life in Northern Ireland is that if you were

Protestant, you learned British history, and if you were
Catholic, you learned Irish history in school.
James Nesbitt

The basis on which the Good Friday agreement was

constructed was in addressing those problems
in the history of Northern Ireland, the social
and constitutional problems as well as the military
“ When I told the people of
Northern Ireland that I was
an atheist, a woman in the
audience stood up and said,
‘Yes, but is it the God of the
Catholics or the God of the

problems that have been unaddressed for centuries.
John Reid Protestants in whom you don’t
Obviously one of the things that poets from Northern Quentin Crisp
Ireland and beyond - had to try to make sense of was
what was happening on a day-to-day political level.
The Troubles ................................... 28
On the other hand, at some level the mass of unresolved History in Brief................................ 28
issues in Northern Ireland does influence the fact that Why is Northern Ireland Part
there are so many good writers in the place. of the United Kingdom? .................. 29
Paul Muldoon
Political Correctness ........................ 30
Introducing Euphemisms
to Language Learners....................... 30
Word and Their Euphemisms ............31
Catholicism vs. Protestantism ........... 32
Religion Glossary............................. 32
Titanic ............................................ 34
Contemporary Belfast ...................... 34
Northern Ireland in Two Poems ........ 36
The Cities and Towns
of Northern Ireland .......................... 32

28 April 2016
The Trou
The Troubles refers to a violent thirty-year conflict framed by a civil rights
HISTORY IN BRIEF march in Londonderry on 5 October 1968 and the Good Friday Agreement
Northern Ireland is a constituent unit on 10 April 1998. At the heart of the conflict lay the constitutional status of
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland in the northeast of the is- The goal of the unionist and overwhelmingly Protestant majority was to
land of Ireland. It is variously described remain part of the United Kingdom. The goal of the nationalist and republican,
as a country, province, region, or “part” almost exclusively Catholic, minority was to become part of the independent
of the United Kingdom, amongst other Republic of Ireland.
terms. Northern Ireland shares a border It was a territorial conflict, not a religious one. At its heart lay two mutually
to the south and west with the Republic exclusive visions of national identity and national belonging. The principal dif-
of Ireland. In 2011, its population was
ference between 1968 and 1998 is that the people and organisations pursuing
1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the
these rival futures eventually resolved to do so through peaceful and democratic
island’s total population and about 3% of
the UK’s population. Established by the means. This ascendancy of politics over violence was not easily achieved.
Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the During the Troubles, the scale of the killings perpetrated by all sides even-
Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ire- tually exceeded 3,600. As many as 50,000 people were physically maimed
land Assembly holds responsibility for a or injured, with countless others psychologically damaged by the conflict, a
range of devolved policy matters, while legacy that continues to shape the post-1998 period.
other areas are reserved for the British
government. Northern Ireland co-operates
In 1968, the Northern Ireland parliament had been dominated by unionists
with the Republic of Ireland in some ar-
eas, and the Agreement granted the Re- for over 50 years. Its attempts to solve social and political ills, such as institu-
public the ability to “put forward views tional discrimination against Catholics, were too slow for nationalists and re-
and proposals” with “determined efforts to publicans and too quick for many unionists. This gave rise to growing tension
resolve disagreements between [the two and violence between the two communities.
governments]”. The scale of the disorder led successive UK governments to intervene. In
Northern Ireland was created in 1921,
1969, the situation was so grave that British troops were sent to help restore
when Ireland was partitioned between order. By 1972, things had deteriorated so badly that the British government
Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland suspended the Northern Ireland parliament and imposed direct rule from Lon-
by an act of the British parliament. Unlike don. Relegated to the margins of UK politics for half a century, Northern Ire-
Southern Ireland, which would become land had suddenly reclaimed centre stage.
the Irish Free State in 1922, the major- THE ‘LONG WAR’
ity of Northern Ireland’s population were
At this time, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) – the main re-
unionists, who wanted to remain within
the United Kingdom, most of whom were
publican paramilitary organisation in Northern Ireland – was uninterested in any
the Protestant descendants of colonists solution short of British withdrawal and Irish unification. The ‘Provisionals’ had
from Great Britain; however, a significant split from the ‘Official IRA’ in 1969 and are referred to here as the IRA.
minority, mostly Catholics, were nation- For them, the ‘long war’ was the only option. This strategy had been gaining
alists who wanted a united Ireland inde- traction since the introduction of internment (imprisonment without trial) in
pendent of British rule. Today, the former 1971 and the killing of 13 people on Bloody Sunday the following year.
generally see themselves as British and When secret talks with the UK government in 1972 collapsed, the IRA lead-
the latter generally see themselves as ership resolved to erode the British presence in Northern Ireland through a war
Irish; some people from both persua- of attrition. The major loyalist paramilitary organisations of the Ulster Defence
sions describe themselves as Northern Association (UDA) and the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) had resolved to use
violence to resist republican paramilitaries and to oppose Irish unification. It
For most of the 20th century, when was against this backdrop of violence and increasingly entrenched positions
it came into existence, Northern Ireland that moves to find a lasting solution began.
was marked by discrimination and hostil-
ity between these two sides in what First SUNNINGDALE’S FROSTY RECEPTION
Minister of Northern Ireland David Trimble Direct rule by British ministers was viewed as a short-term measure and a
called a “cold house” for Catholics. In the process to restore self-government to Northern Ireland was soon underway. The
late 1960s, conflict between state forces first attempt was the 1973 Sunningdale Agreement, which provided for both a
and Protestants, and Catholics, erupted devolved, power-sharing administration and a role for the Irish government in
into three decades of violence known as the internal affairs of Northern Ireland – the so-called ‘Irish dimension’.
the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 Together with the UK and Irish governments, just three Northern Ireland
lives and caused over 50,000 casualties. political parties participated in the Sunningdale talks – the Ulster Unionist
The 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a Party (UUP), the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) and
major step in the peace process, including
the centre-ground Alliance Party. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) was
the decommissioning of weapons, although
wholly opposed and did not participate. Representatives of the ‘extremes’ –
sectarianism and religious segregation still
remain major social problems and sporadic loyalist and republican – were not invited.
violence has continued. Sources: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/troubles

Sunningdale’s political institutions collapsed in early 1974, toppled by the
April 2016

Ulster Workers Council (UWC) strike, a near-insurrection spearheaded by a WHY IS NORTHERN IRELAND
coalition of unionists and loyalists that effectively brought Northern Ireland to a PART OF THE UNITED KINGDOM?
standstill. Although Sunningdale was ultimately a failure, it contained the seeds Ireland became part of the United King-
of the much more successful Good Friday Agreement twenty-five years later. dom in 1801. But Ireland’s sectarian divi-
sions, which had opened up during religious
THE ANGLO-IRISH AGREEMENT wars in the 17th century between Protes-
As the cycle of violence escalated, further efforts were made by succes- tants and Catholics, were exacerbated by
sive UK governments to devise a political settlement that was “legitimate” and economic problems in the 19th century.
The Anglo-Irish Agreement in 1985 was an attempt to achieve a political
accord to resolve the “Irish question”. It gave the Irish government an advisory
role in the affairs of Northern Ireland and determined there would be no change
in Northern Ireland’s constitutional status – no Irish unification in other words
– without the consent of its people. Nonetheless, the treaty broadly alienated
the unionist community, which opposed Irish involvement and rejected the
proposal for a devolved, power-sharing government.
Sinn Féin, the “political wing” of the IRA, was as vociferously opposed to
the agreement as unionists. The party had grown in prominence and influence.
It adopted the strategy known as “the armalite and the ballot box” in which the
IRA would continue the “armed struggle” while Sinn Féin contested Northern
Ireland elections.
Crucially, when the IRA announced a ceasefire in 1994, mainstream repub-
lican leaders had recognized that the ‘long war’ was unwinnable. Sinn Féin’s Britain’s shift to free trade from the
commitment to politics and the electoral process enabled it to enter negotia- 1840s onwards mainly benefited the indus-
tions aimed to end the Troubles and restore self-government. trial northeast of Ulster, where Protestants
PEACE PROCESS made up a majority of the population. But
the rest of the country, which was more
Cross-party talks began in 1996. In almost all quarters, a combination of
reliant on agriculture, suffered badly from
political realism and war-weariness cleared the path to negotiation. Negotiat-
falling global food prices and the Irish Fam-
ing with Sinn Féin was unpalatable for many unionists and loyalists. The UUP ine of 1845-50. The result was the rise of
agreed to participate. Representatives of loyalist paramilitaries also agreed Irish nationalist movements, drawing much
to take part. By contrast, DUP, abandoned the talks, opposed the subsequent of their support from the Catholic south,
agreement and viewed the whole process as unacceptable. which wanted a new Irish Parliament and
Nevertheless, the Good Friday Agreement marked a shift in Northern Ire- to re-introduce protectionist measures.
land’s political landscape. The UUP and SDLP agreed to accept power-sharing.
All signatories to the agreement endorsed the “consent principle”. This
meant that any change in Northern Ireland’s constitutional status – Irish uni-
fication – would happen only if popular majorities voted in favour in separate
referendums held at the same time on both sides of the border.
If the Good Friday Agreement and the return of self-government to North-
ern Ireland had been an enormous challenge for all concerned, so was its fit-
ful implementation. Many significant issues remained unresolved in 1998, not
When William Gladstone, then Britain’s
least the decommissioning of republican and loyalist weapons. prime minister, proposed Irish legislative
These and other matters were now susceptible to the force of argument rath- independence (called Home Rule) in 1885,
er than the argument of force. the northeast exploded with sectarian riot-
Even so, the first phase of devolved power-sharing was to prove fragile and ing against his proposals. Ulster Protes-
short-lived, requiring the re-introduction of direct rule from 2002 until 2007. tants feared that “Home Rule means Rome
Only then had sufficient trust been developed between the communities to en- Rule”, thinking they would lose the religious
able the restoration of devolution. and economic freedoms they enjoyed as
When government returned to Stormont buildings in Belfast, this time it part of the United Kingdom by becoming a
minority in a mainly Catholic Ireland.
involved a fully inclusive power-sharing arrangement that embraced both the
When the rest of Ireland gained independ-
DUP and Sinn Féin – now the dominant parties within their respective elector- ence as the “Irish Free State” in 1922, north-
ates. east Ulster did not want to join them. The Brit-
This partnership of constitutional opposites is perhaps the most remarkable ish government was forced to partition the six
outcome of the Troubles, and one that underlines the triumph of politics over most northeastern counties of the new Irish
violence in post-conflict Northern Ireland. state to form Northern Ireland, in fear that Prot-
estant civil unrest in Ulster would otherwise
Submitted by Tatyana Makhrina
turn into a civil war against the new state.

30 April 2016
Political Cor
Political correctness (PC) is a term used to describe language, ideas, poli-
INTRODUCING EUPHEMISMS cies, or behaviour seen as seeking to minimize any offence to gender, racial,
TO LANGUAGE LEARNERS cultural, disabled, aged or other identity groups. The term “politically incor-
The Purpose of Euphemisms
rect” is used to refer to language or ideas that may cause offence or that are
Euphemisms are words we use to sof-
ten the reality of what we are communicat- unconstrained by PC orthodoxy.
ing to a given listener or reader. They are The Political Correctness movement is an intellectual effort to use language
a universal feature of language usage; all to allow and encourage social progress. It has suffered from a great deal of
cultures typically use them to talk about ridicule and scorn, and it has also been confused by many.
things they find terrifying (e.g., war, sick- The theoretical foundation of the PC movement is this: language creates
ness, death) because, anthropologically, categories for thought, and words can create either opportunities or bounda-
“to speak a name was to evoke the divinity ries. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis is a widely accepted part of this theory. All
whose power then had to be confronted” of language is a construct that attempts to signify abstract meaning, and any
(Neaman & Silver, 1983, pp. 1–2). Similar-
construct will be lacking. The language we use affects not just the messages we
ly, we use euphemisms to express taboos,
as we feel, on some instinctual level, that communicate, but the fundamental ways that we think and act. The problem
the euphemism keeps us at safe distance arises when the linguistic constructs we use influence our way of thinking in
from the taboo itself. Another use of euphe- negative ways. These negative influences from language can be called politi-
misms is to elevate the status of something cally incorrect.
(e.g., using “educator” for teacher, “attor-
ney” for lawyer); but in general, we use The three categories of this kind of language:
euphemisms to express what is socially 1. Subtle: Words like policeman, mailman, fireman; referring to all people
difficult to express in direct terms. as man; referring to an androgynous individual as “he”. These exclusionary
words subtly influence our way of thinking. The first three imply that these are
Latinate Roots of Euphemisms
A great number of euphemisms in Eng- roles for men only. This kind of language can keep women from being com-
lish come from words with Latinate roots. fortable aspiring to these positions. The other general references of “man” and
Farb (1974) writes that after the Norman “he” are simply inaccurate and unnecessarily exclusionary. They imply that
Conquest of England in 1066, “…the com- masculinity is the default and superior gender trait.
munity began to make a distinction be- 2. Offensive: Words like “gay” or “retarded” to refer to something undesir-
tween a genteel and an obscene vocabu- able; words like “fag” or “retard” to refer to people. The first set shows how
lary, between the Latinate words of the these descriptions inherently link certain types of individuals to anything bad
upper class and the lusty Anglo-Saxon of by using terms that refer to them as insults for other undesirable concepts. The
the lower. That is why a duchess ‘perspired
second set is offensive because of the pejorative connotations implied by these
and expectorated and menstruated’ – while
a kitchen maid sweated and spat and bled.” slurs. There are appropriate ways of referring to individuals that does not un-
(p. 80) necessarily demean them.
The linguistic differences between 3. Blatant: The “n-word” to refer to black people or the “c-word” or “b-
earthy, direct Anglo-Saxon words and word” to refer to women. These words are highly offensive and indicate a great
elegant, often euphemistic Latinate words deal of disdain. They objectify and belittle entire groups of people based on
have been largely ignored in language one trait.
learning, despite the fact that knowledge
of these differences is essential to natural, At its core, the PC movement is not about censorship. People should be
native like use of English. Similarly, euphe-
allowed to use almost any kind of language that they want to. But the much
misms themselves – Latinate or otherwise
– have been ignored in language learning, more important question is what kind of language they should use. The PC
even though they are usually semantically movement operates well within the open marketplace of ideas, as enlightened,
opaque to learners and continue to be in- tolerant people shoot down politically-incorrect speech because of its detri-
vented and employed. mental effects. We need to be able to recognize language that can be subtly or
Below is a short glossary of common openly offensive and oppose the usage, but choose to use language in precise,
words with some of their current, popular effective, and non-offensive ways.
euphemisms. (Some euphemisms, it will The terms ‘politically correct’ and ‘political correctness’ entered the lan-
be seen, have become euphemized them- guage via the U.S. feminist and other left-wing movements of the 1970s. The
use of ‘PC’ language quickly spread to other parts of the industrialized world.
The terms had been used previously, though the meaning was ‘in line with pre-
vailing political thought or policy’. i.e. the terms previously used ‘correctness’
in its literal sense and without any particular reference to language that some
might consider illiberal or discriminatory.
The use of, or even the definition of, ‘political correctness’ as seen by the
liberal left is strongly disputed by those of other political views. Some view
the very term ‘politically correct’ to be pejorative in that it portrays a political
stance that they oppose as ‘correct’.
Sources: https://aggslanguage.wordpress.com; http://iteslj.org

There are strong views on both sides. It isn’t difficult to find examples of
April 2016

moves to modify language that are clearly misguided. For example, the at- WORDS
tempt by some in the UK to discourage the use of the term ‘nitty-gritty’, which AND THEIR EUPHEMISMS
was mistakenly thought to be disparaging to black people. On the other side of accident, crisis, disaster – incident
the coin there are many examples of gender biased language – e.g. chairman addict; addiction – substance abuser; sub-
used when the person chairing a meeting is female – that are linguistically in- stance abuse, chemical dependency
adulterous – extramarital
correct (although some would dispute that, too). This topic of gender neutrality
arrest (v) – apprehend
is possibly the area that is most contentious. Some would argue that any use beggar – panhandler, homeless person
of the word ‘man’, e.g. manhole, is biased and should be avoided. Others are bombing – air support
quite happy with female chairmen. break-in – security breach
According to the theory behind Political Correctness, using “inclusive” and brothel – massage parlor
“neutral” language is based upon the idea that “language represents thought, cheap – frugal, thrifty, economical
and may even control thought”; per the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, a language’s coffin – casket
grammatical categories shape the speaker’s ideas and actions. Other cognitive complaint form – response form
psychology and cognitive linguistics works indicate that word-choices have confinement – detention
criminal (adj) – illegal
significant “framing effects” on the perceptions, memories, and attitudes of
criminal (young) – juvenile delinquent
speakers and listeners. crippled – disabled, physically chal-
The relevant empirical question is whether or not sexist language promotes lenged
sexism, i.e. sexist thought and action. As well as are the rights, opportunities, custodian – building maintenance staff
and freedoms of certain people restricted because they are reduced to a stereo- dead – departed, deceased, late, lost,
type? gone, passed
Stereotyping largely is implicit, unconscious, and facilitated by the avail- death insurance – life insurance
ability of pejorative labels and terms. Rendering the labels and terms socially death penalty – capital punishment
unacceptable, people then must consciously think about how they describe death – demise, end, destination, better
world, afterlife
someone unlike themselves. When labelling is a conscious activity, the de-
deaths – body count
scribed person’s individual merits become apparent, rather than his or her die – pass away, pass on, expire, go to
stereotype. heaven
Critics argue that political correctness is censorship and endangers free drugs – illegal substances
speech by limiting what is considered acceptable public discourse. Other crit- drunk (adj) – intoxicated, inebriated, tipsy
ics say that politically correct terms are awkward euphemisms for truer, origi- exploit (land) – develop
nal, stark language, comparing them to George Orwell’s Newspeak. fail – fizzle out, fall short, go out of busi-
Some critics of political correctness claim it marginalizes certain words, ness
phrases, actions or attitudes through the instrumentation of public disesteem. false (adj) – prosthesis
false teeth – dentures
Others argue that it is a form of coercion rooted in the assumption that in a
Fat, obese – overweight, chubby, portly,
political context, power refers to the dominion of some men over others, or stout, plump
the human control of human life. This argument holds that correctness in this fire (v) – lay off, release, downsize, let go,
context is subjective; they claim that by silencing contradiction, their oppo- streamline
nents entrench their views as orthodox, and eventually cause it to be accepted garbage collector – sanitation engineer
as true, as freedom of thought requires the ability to choose between more garbage dump – landfill
than one viewpoint. Modern Political Correctness has often encouraged social genocide – ethnic cleansing
hyper-sensitivity and can be carried to ridiculous extremes. It also has a way of hyperactive – Attention Deficit Disorder
silencing open public debate and readily labeling anyone daring to use certain (ADD)
illegal worker – undocumented worker
terms as “racist”, “anti-woman” or “homophobic”.
imprisoned – incarcerated
Some conservatives refer to political correctness as “The Scourge of Our informer – confidential source
Times.” jail – secure facility
Critics of political correctness have been accused of showing the same jungle – rain forest
sensitivity to choice of words they claim to be opposing, and of perceiving juvenile delinquent – problem child, at-risk
a political agenda where none exists. For example, a number of news outlets child
claimed that a school altered the nursery rhyme “Baa Baa Black Sheep” to kill – put down/away/out/to sleep
read “Baa Baa Rainbow Sheep.” The spurious claim was widely circulated and kill on a mass basis – liquidate
later amplified into a suggestion that similar bans applied to the terms “black killing of innocents – collateral damage
lawyer – attorney
coffee” and “blackboard.”
lazy – unmotivated
So we have seen that the phrase «political correctness» is on everyone’s lie (n) – fib, fabrication, cover story, story,
lips. It is a highly complex topic with many aspects, sources, influences, and untruth, inaccuracy
manifestations. A simple definition and outlook are not really possible, since make love, sex – sleep with
the phrase encompasses a whole range of attitudes which have undoubtedly money – funds
affected both behaviour and language. mortuary – funeral home/parlor
Submitted by Tatyana Makhrina See more in additional materials.

32 April 2016
Catholicism vs.
Catholicism and Protestantism are two of the largest religions in the
RELIGION GLOSSARY world. One rich in tradition and unwaveringness, the other in diversity and
A.D. Anno Domini. The term Anno Do- modernity. Both have the same basis, but at the same time are vastly dif-
mini is Latin for In the year of the Lord. It ferent.
is sometimes specified more fully as Anno
Domini Nostri Iesu (Jesu) Christi (“In the Both Catholicism and Protestantism are based on the belief that Jesus Christ,
Year of Our Lord Jesus Christ”). Son of God, was born of the Virgin Mary, died on the cross, rose from the dead,
Advent: The period of approximately four and ascended into heaven where He is now with God the Father. They also
weeks before Christmas. believe in the Holy Trinity, that is three persons in one, God the Father, Jesus
All Saints Day: The day on which Catholics
the Son, and The Holy Spirit.
remember all the saints of the Church. It is
celebrated on November 1st and followed The first, and maybe the most radical, difference between the two religions
by All Souls Day on November 2nd. is the beliefs of the afterlife, or more simply put, “who’s going to heaven.”
Amen: A Hebrew word meaning “it is so;” Both Protestants and Catholics believe that Jesus died on the cross to enable us
“let it be done.” to have the chance at eternal life – “For God so loved the world that he gave
Annunciation: The visit of the angel
his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him might not perish but might
Gabriel to the Virgin Mary to inform her that
she was to be the mother of the Savior. The have eternal life.” John 3:16. However, Protestants believe that all one must do
feast day is March 25. is believe in Jesus and he/she will receive eternal life. Good deeds are not con-
Apostle: means “one sent.” sidered meritorious; rather, they are a result of divine grace. This is because,
Ash Wednesday: The first day of Lent. By they say, humans are free to do only evil, and good acts are inspired by God.
tradition Catholics have ashes (are made In contrast, Catholics believe that one must also act according to Gods word
by a mixture of Holy Oils and Ashes from and his or her good deeds, along with Jesus’ sacrifice, will ensure them eternal
burnt palms) sprinkled on their foreheads life in heaven. Good acts are meritorious because man has freewill to choose
to mark repentance. good or evil.
Atheism: The denial that God exists.
Ave Maria: Latin words meaning; “Hail A second difference between Catholicism and Protestantism is the struc-
Mary”. ture of the churches. Catholicism is comprised of one holy, Catholic, and
Bishop: From the Greek word episcopos apostolic church. Roman Catholicism is considered by most people to be
meaning overseer who is in charge of the the only Catholic church, but some other churches, such as the Eastern and
Church in a local area.
Russian Orthodox Churches, consider themselves to be Catholic, however,
Blasphemy: Speech, thought, or action
insulting to God or the Church, or persons the respective church’s origins and belief systems suggest otherwise. The
or things dedicated to God. Blasphemy is Roman Catholic Church is headed by the Pope, currently Pope Francis.
a sin. The church has a set order of leaders, from priests to deacons, bishops and
Blessing: A short prayer, usually accompa- cardinals. On the other hand, the Protestant church is not one church, but
nied by the sign of the cross, asking God’s many denominations. These denominations have come about from splits
favor on persons or objects. within the Protestant church, and have resulted in over 34,000 separate
Canonization: The process by which a de- denominations that are still considered Protestant. The church has no over-
ceased catholic becomes a Saint. arching leader. Instead, each individual church has its own pastor, and the
Cardinal: Appointed by the Pope and con-
congregation under the guidance of the pastor makes the decisions within
stitute a kind of senate of the Church, and
aid the Pope as his chief counselors. the church. In the Catholic Church, the church’s Archdiocese makes the
Cathedral: The Greek word cathedra decisions.
means chair or throne; the bishop’s “Chair” Another difference between the two faiths is the authority of beliefs.
symbolizes his teaching and governing au-
Catholics look to both the Bible and to tradition, tradition such as a
Catholic: Greek word for universal.
Pope, sets of rules and guidelines handed down through the ages. Protes-
Clergy: A term applied to men who have
been Ordained for ministry within the
Church (e.g. Bishops, Priests and Dea-
Conclave: The meeting of the Cardinals in
complete seclusion, when they assemble
to elect a Pope.
Confession: A private statement to a priest
about the bad things that you have done.
Convent: The place where a community of
Nuns live.
Creed: From the Latin word credo – “I be-
Crucifix: A cross with the figure of the cru-
cified Jesus upon it.
Disciple: Those who accepted Jesus’ mes-
sage and follow his teachings. Sources: http://www.teenink.com

. Protestantism 33
April 2016

Ecclesiastic/Ecclesiastical: From the

Latin: ecclesia – church.
Eternal Life: Living forever with God in the
happiness of heaven.
Fruits of the Holy Spirit: The perfect gifts
that the Holy Spirit gives us (twelve fruits
of the Holy Spirit: Charity, Joy, Peace, Pa-
tience, Goodness, Kindness, Long-suffer-
ing, Humility, Faithfulness, Modesty, Con-
tinence, & Chastity).
Gospel: The “good news” of God’s mercy
and love revealed in the life, death, and
resurrection of Christ.
Hierarchy: The food chain within the Cath-
olic Church: Pope-Cardinal-Bishop-Priest-
Deacon-Lay Ministers.
Holy Trinity: Three persons in one God: God
the Father-God the Son-God the Holy Spirit.
Incarnation: The fact that the Son of God
tants believe in “Sola Scriptura”, or the Bible alone, as the basis of their was born and lived on the earth.
beliefs. Last Supper: The last meal, which Jesus
In Catholicism, the Bible contains the Apocrypha, a set of books that were ate with his disciples before he died.
Lent: The season of forty days which be-
added by the Church after the completion of the Scriptures because it believed
gins with Ash Wednesday and ends with
that they would help better guide members of the Church to leading a holy life.
the Paschal Mystery (Easter Triduum).
Protestants disavow the Apocrypha because they believe it was not divinely Liturgy: The set prayers, readings, and
inspired, and therefore does not have a place in the totally-divinely inspired rites for the Catholic Masses and services.
Bible. Lord’s Prayer: The prayer of petition for
both daily food (for Christians means the
A major difference between Catholicism and Protestantism concerns
Eucharistic) and the forgiveness of sins.
Saints and Mary, mother of Jesus. Many people mistakenly think that Catho- Martyr: A person killed for being faithful to
lics worship Saints and the Mother Mary the same way they worship Jesus. God.
This is simply not true. Catholics ask the Saints in heaven as well as the Mortal Sin: Has three conditions: serious
Virgin Mary to pray to God for them, to intercede on there behalf. Catholics matter, full knowledge of the act, and full
also believe that Mary, mother of Jesus, is higher up than any other saint consent of the will.
in heaven and is also ever virgin. In contrast, Protestants do not believe in Original Sin: The sin by which the first hu-
having saints, but that only God and Jesus should be asked for help. They man beings disobeyed the commandment
also believe that Mary was not ever-virgin, but only virgin before the birth of God and followed their own will.
Prophet: One sent by God to inform the
of Jesus.
people of the coming of Jesus.
Transubstantiation means the change of the substance of bread and wine Psalm: Latin word meaning song.
into the body and blood of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist. Catholics believe in Relic: Any part of the physical remains of
transubstantiation; Protestants believe that the change from bread to body is a saint or items that have touched the body
of a saint.
only figurative and not literal.
Requiem: A Mass for the dead. In Latin
The priesthood is a major difference between the Catholic and Protes- “Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine.”
tant religions. Protestantism teaches that the faithful are a “priesthood of (Lord, give them eternal rest.)
believers”, and therefore each congregation is lead by a pastor, or spiritual Sacrifice: The act of giving up something
for another person.
guider of the people. In Catholicism, Priests are selected members of the
Saint: The “holy one” who leads a life in
faith who must go through 8+ years of schooling and dedicate their lives union with God through the grace of Christ
solely to God and His Church. The other members, or lay people, are just and receives the reward of eternal life.
as important to the church as clergy, or ordained members, but have dif- Salvation: Being saved from sin and its’
ferent roles. consequences.
Sanctuary: That part of the church where
In conclusion, Protestantism and Catholicism are based around the same,
the altar is and the Mass is celebrated.
monotheistic beliefs. They both worship Our Lord, Jesus Christ, and worship Stigmata: “tattoo” or “branding” (Greek).
him fully and truly. However, since the split in the Church and the creation Wounds of Christ appear on one’s body.
of the two religions, both faiths have been fighting over their differences and Temptation: Giving into sin when it is pre-
ignoring their similarities. These differences we must learn to put aside and sented.
worship together, as one. “Jesus said unto him, Forbid him not: for he that is Theology: The study of God.
not against us is for us.” Luke 9:50 Vow: A deliberate and free promise made
to God.
Submitted by Tatyana Makhrina Worship: Adoration and honor given to God.

34 April 2016

Belfast has been a port for nearly a
thousand years. Its name – Beál Féirste in
Irish – means ‘mouth of the sandy ford’.
A mixture of sand and silty mud known According to some views, The Royal Mail Steamer “Titanic”, the product
as ‘sleech’ forms rather wobbly foundations of intense competition among rival shipping lines in the first half of the 20th
of the city itself. century and the largest movable manmade object in the world for that time,
Much of Belfast’s architectural charac- was doomed from the start by the design so many lauded as state-of-the-art.
ter comes from the 19th century industrial
The Olympic-class ships featured a double bottom and 15 watertight bulk-
boom, when shipbuilding, engineering, rope
works and linen made it Ireland’s industrial
heads equipped with electric watertight doors which could be operated indi-
heartland. The wealth and confidence of vidually or simultaneously by a switch on the bridge. It was these watertight
this era is reflected in its buildings. The City bulkheads that inspired Shipbuilder magazine to deem them “practically un-
Hall takes centre stage, but there are a host sinkable.” But the watertight compartment design contained a flaw that may
of other wonderful civic buildings, such as have been a critical factor in the Titanic’s sinking: while the individual bulk-
the Custom House, the exquisitely opulent heads were indeed watertight, water could spill from one compartment into
Grand Opera House and the architectural another. Several of the Titanic’s Cunard-owned contemporaries, by contrast,
gem, the Crown Bar. already boasted innovative safety features devised to avoid this very situation.
The city itself can be divided into four
Had White Star taken a cue from its competitor, it might have saved the Titanic
quarters, each with their own unique stories
to tell. The Queen’s Quarter, is filled with
from disaster.
charm and is named after the renowned The second critical safety lapse that contributed to the loss of so many lives
Queen’s University. Richly endowed with was the limited number of lifeboats carried on the Titanic. Those 16 boats,
architecture, shops, bistros and cafés, this along with four Engelhardt “collapsibles,” could accommodate only 1,178
area has a vibrant nightlife and attractions people. The Titanic, when full, could carry 2,435 passengers, and a crew of
to suit all tastes. approximately 900 brought her capacity to more than 3,300 people. As a result,
It also boasts a lively calendar of cultural even if the lifeboats were loaded to full capacity during an emergency evacu-
events throughout the year, the best known ation, there were available seats for only one-third of those on board. While
being the Belfast Festival at Queens which
unthinkably inadequate by today’s standards, Titanic’s supply of lifeboats ac-
provides a range of theatre, dance, music,
literature and visual arts and is the largest
tually exceeded the British Board of Trade’s requirements.
of its kind in Ireland. On a smaller scale,
the Queen’s Quarter also has some of the THE TITANIC SETS SAIL
city’s funkiest bars, comedy venues and The largest passenger steamship ever built, the Titanic created quite a stir
pubs with live music and traditional Irish when it departed for its maiden voyage from Southampton, England, on April
music sessions. 10, 1912. After stops in Cherbourg, France, and Queenstown (now known as
The Gaeltacht quarter of Belfast centres
Cobh), Ireland, the ship set sail for New York with 2,240 passengers and crew
around the Falls Road where Irish language
and culture has flourished since the 1960s.
– or “souls,” the expression then used in the shipping industry, usually in con-
This area offers much to those who have an nection with a sinking – on board.
interest in people who have shaped local his- As befitting the first transatlantic crossing of the world’s most celebrated
tory. The Cultúrlann provides a varied pro- ship, many of these souls were high-ranking officials, wealthy industrialists,
gramme of music, dance and drama through- dignitaries and celebrities. First and foremost was the White Star Line’s man-
out the year and Féile an Phobail (West Bel- aging director, J. Bruce Ismay, accompanied by Thomas Andrews, the ship’s
fast Festival), Europe’s biggest community builder from Harland and Wolff.
The wealthiest passenger was John Jacob Astor, IV. Other millionaire pas-
sengers included the elderly owner of Macy’s, Isidor Straus, and his wife Ida;
industrialist Benjamin Guggenheim; and widow and heiress Margaret “Molly”
Brown, who would earn her “unsinkable” nickname by helping to maintain
calm and order while the lifeboats were being loaded and boosting the spirits
of her fellow survivors.
The employees attending to these esteemed First Class notables were
largely traveling Second Class, along with academics, tourists, journalists and
others who would enjoy a level of service equivalent to First Class on most
festival, with its Spring and August Festivals, other ships. But by far the largest group of passengers was in Third Class: more
provides a huge opportunity for visitors to tap
than 700, exceeding the other two levels combined. Some had paid less than
into the rhythms which define this vibrant,
creative and unique quarter of the city.
$20 to make the crossing. It was Third Class that was the major source of profit
Titanic Quarter focuses on the shipyard, for shipping lines like White Star and Cunard, and the Titanic was designed to
where the giant twin cranes of Harland and offer these passengers accommodations and amenities superior to those found
Wolff stand guard over the city. One ship is in Third Class on any ship up to that time.
synonymous with Belfast: RMS Titanic. Spe-
cialist Titanic and Maritime tours take you Sources: http://www.history.com/topics/titanic; Photo above: LMspencer / Shutterstock.com
The Titanic’s departure from Southampton on April 10 was not without TOPICAL JOURNEY English
some oddities. A small coal fire was discovered in one of her bunkers – an
alarming but not uncommon occurrence on steamships of the day. After assess-
ing the situation, the captain and chief engineer concluded that it was unlikely
it had caused any damage that could affect the hull structure, and the stokers
were ordered to continue controlling the fire at sea. Another unsettling event
April 2016
took place when the Titanic left the Southampton dock. As she got underway,
she narrowly escaped a collision with the America Line’s “S.S. New York”. through the shipyard where she was built.
Superstitious Titanic buffs often point to this as the worst kind of omen for a See the slipway down which Titanic was
ship departing on her maiden voyage. launched and the dock where she was fit-
ted out, virtually unchanged since May 1911
when Titanic sailed away from Belfast.
That encounter took place roughly four days out, at about 11:30 p.m. on
April 14. The Titanic was equipped with a Marconi wireless, and there had
been sporadic reports of ice from other ships, but she was sailing on calm seas
under a moonless, clear sky. A lookout saw the iceberg dead ahead coming out
of a slight haze, rang the warning bell and telephoned the bridge. The engines
were quickly reversed and the ship was turned sharply, and instead of making
direct impact the iceberg seemed to graze along the side of the ship, sprinkling
ice fragments on the forward deck. They had no idea that the iceberg’s jagged The city’s oldest quarter is called Ca-
underwater spur had slashed a 300-foot gash well below the ship’s waterline, thedral Quarter. It takes its name from St.
and that the Titanic was doomed. Anne’s Cathedral, the ecclesiastical heart
By the time the captain toured the damaged area with Harland and Wolff’s of the city and is full of fascinating architec-
Thomas Andrews, five compartments were already filling with seawater, and ture, ranging from distinguished banks and
the bow of the ship was alarmingly down. Andrews did a quick calculation and public buildings to cosy pubs and ware-
estimated that the Titanic might remain afloat for an hour and a half, perhaps house restaurants. Some of these, such
slightly more. At that point the captain, who had already instructed his wireless as the Custom House, occupy a prominent
public location, but other equally interest-
operator to call for help, ordered the lifeboats to be loaded.
ing buildings are tucked away down narrow
Exceeding Andrews’ prediction, the Titanic stubbornly managed to stay cobbled streets and alleyways that give this
afloat for close to three hours. Those hours witnessed acts of cowardice and area its intimate feel. Cathedral Quarter
bravery. Hundreds of human dramas unfolded: men saw off wives and chil- has also become the focus of Belfast’s bur-
dren, families were separated and selfless individuals gave up their spots to geoning arts and craft scenes and is home
remain with loved ones or allow a more vulnerable passenger to escape. to many visual and performing artists.
The ship’s most illustrious passengers each responded to the circumstances For a more formal introduction to the
with conduct that has become an integral part of the Titanic legend. Ismay, City of Belfast there are guided tours to ca-
the White Star managing director, helped load some of the boats. Although ter for every interest – historic pub tours,
open top bus tours, boat tours along the
no women or children were in the vicinity when he abandoned ship, he would
shipyard and walking tours. Visitors can fol-
never live down the ignominy of surviving the disaster while so many others low in the steps of the literary greats; Louis
perished. Thomas Andrews, the Titanic’s chief designer, was last seen in the MacNeice, Seamus Heaney, CS Lewis and
First Class smoking room, staring blankly at a painting of a ship on the wall. Jonathan Swift. It also boasts an altogether
Although offered a seat, Isidor Straus and his wife refused any special consi- different type of artistic endeavour - the
deration, retired to their cabin and perished together. Benjamin Guggenheim descriptive wall murals throughout the city
and his valet returned to their rooms and changed into formal evening dress; have their own story to tell and have been
emerging onto the deck, he famously declared, “We are dressed in our best and listed as the UK’s best tourist attraction by
are prepared to go down like gentlemen.” The Independent newspaper in 2007.
There’s a good range of pubs and restau-
The Titanic, nearly perpendicular and with many of her lights still aglow,
rants catering for every taste with local spe-
finally dove beneath the icy surface at approximately 2:20 a.m. on April 15. cialities such as champ, potatoes, Irish stew
Throughout the morning, Cunard’s “Carpathia”, after receiving the Titanic’s and specialty breads available. At the other
distress call at midnight and steaming at full speed while dodging ice floes all end of the culinary scale, chefs Paul Rankin,
night, rounded up all of the lifeboats. They contained only 705 survivors. Michael Deane and Nick Price have placed
The ship historian John Maxtone-Graham has compared the Titanic’s story Belfast firmly on the gourmet map.
to the Challenger space shuttle disaster of 1986. In that case, the world reeled Throughout the city on the first Thursday
at the notion that some of the most sophisticated technology ever created could of each month, various Belfast art galleries
explode into oblivion along with its crew. Both tragedies triggered a sudden stay open in the evening giving visitors a
chance to explore at their leisure, using a
and complete collapse in confidence, revealing that we humans are vulnerable
dedicated map and brochure, the vibrancy
despite our modern presumptions of technological infallibility. of Belfast’s visual art scene. For further
information on public and private galleries
and to obtain the dedicated map and bro-
chure visit www.belfastgalleries.com.
Today, Belfast is a city transformed. Visi-
tors from every continent can be found in
its streets, drawn to a city with heart, where
people have time to smile.
More information on www.discovernorth-
Submitted by Tatyana Makhrina
ernireland.com or www.gotobelfast.com

36 April 2016 Northern Ireland

Since the state of Northern Ireland was created in 1922, its literature formally in-
SEAMUS HEANEY cludes writings produced in that part of Ireland prior to that date and later. It is also
Seamus Heaney (1939-2013) is the best- literature written by authors who were born there but emigrated elsewhere. The literary
known of modern Irish poets. He won the languages of Northern Ireland are English, Irish and Ulster Scots.
Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995, and served as The literature of the Republic of Ireland is not considered to be British, while any
Boylston Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory and
Emerson Poet in Residence at Harvard, and as
fiction or poetry written in Northern Ireland can be called Irish or British. The naming
Professor of Poetry at Oxford. of the territory has always been a politically charged activity. The identity of Northern
A Catholic from Northern Ireland, Heaney, Ireland itself has been questioned again and again, so its Irish writings are not quite
however, rejected his British identity and lived in Irish, British are not quite British, and Scottish are not quite Scottish. It is believed that
the Republic of Ireland for much of his later life it should be possible ‘to found a national literature on this scutching1 vernacular’.2
until his death in 2013. The outbreak of the Troubles in the 1960s provided a theme for writers: some were
engaged in the social and political background, others reacted against the tensions by
looking at nature. Prose as well as poetry reflects the confusion and frustration of the
These two poems tell us about Northern Ireland more convincingly than any mass
LIMBO (By Seamus Heaney)
Fishermen at Ballyshannon
Netted an infant last night
Along with the salmon.
An illegitimate spawning,
A small one thrown back
To the water. But I’m sure
As she stood in the shallows
Ducking him tenderly
Till the frozen knobs of her wrists
Were dead as the gravel,
He was a minnow with hooks
Tearing her open.
She waded in under
The sign of her cross.
He was hauled in with the fish.
Now limbo will be
A cold glitter of souls
Through some far briny zone.
Born in County Derry, Ireland, Heaney insist- Even Christ’s palms, unhealed,
ed that he was an Irish poet, not British. Even Smart and cannot fish there.
today he has the reputation of being “the most
important Irish poet since Yeats.” He received
According to the Roman Catholic Church, Limbo is the region between Heaven and
the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1995 for what Hell where the un-baptised and illegitimate babies go after death as they were born
the Nobel Committee described as “works of lyri- “sinful”, though they have not actually sinned themselves. As Heaney was raised as a
cal beauty and ethical depth, which exalt every- Roman Catholic, he would have been familiar with this idea.
day miracles and the living past”. In the first stanza, the voice of the poet is that of an indifferent reporter who informs
In his Nobel lecture, Heaney said: “The us of an event and a place. The word Ballyshannon3 tells us at once that the poem is set
American poet Archibald MacLeish affirmed that in Northern Ireland. A child has been brought with fishers’ nets as the word “infant” can
‘A poem should be equal to/not true.’ As a defi- mean only a human child, not an animal. The night-time setting makes the scene sinister,
ant statement of poetry’s gift for telling truth but
’telling it slant,’ this is both cogent and correc-
and the fact that the infant was found along with salmon, makes the atmosphere even
tive. Yet there are times when a deeper need more dramatic as though the infant is not human and its death is not extraordinary.
enters, when we want the poem to be not only However, the scene recalls ‘the fishers of men’ from the New Testament. When Jesus
pleasurably right but compellingly wise, not only asked the apostles to follow him, and help him preach the word of God, they told Jesus
a surprising variation played upon the world, that they could not, because they were but humble fishermen. To this, he replied, “I will
but a re-tuning of the world itself. We want the make you fishers of men”.
surprise to be transitive like the impatient thump A lot of words are connected with fishing: fishermen, netted, night, salmon, and
which unexpectedly restores the picture to the spawning. This semantic field continues throughout the entire poem and structure.
television set, or the electric shock which sets
the fibrillating heart back to its proper rhythm.
In the second stanza, the poet tells us the infant was thrown back into the water as if
We want what the woman wanted in the prison it was too small a catch, of no use to anybody. To imitate the action of throwing ‘back’
queue in Leningrad, standing there blue with and ‘To’ are placed on different lines.
cold and whispering for fear, enduring the ter- ‘Ducking him tenderly’ sounds paradoxical. It conjures the image of the mother,
ror of Stalin’s regime and asking the poet Anna although killing her child, still loved him. The act of ducking might be associated with
Akhmatova if she could describe it all, if her art the act of baptism. Perhaps, the mother was baptising the baby as well as killing it? She
could be equal to it. … poetry can be equal to was sending him to Limbo which seemed less terrible than the troubles that were in
and true at the same time, an example of that store for him in life as an illegitimate, sinful child.
completely adequate poetry which the Russian
woman sought from Anna Akhmatova and which
Then the speaker’s tone grows more emotional. The words sound frightening: fro-
William Wordsworth produced at a correspond- zen, dead, gravel. The consonants ‘z’, ‘s’, ‘r’ and ‘d’ produce an effect of something
ing moment of historical crisis and personal dis-
may almost exactly two hundred years ago. Photo sources: http://navigatingtheglobal.weebly.com; http://inside.umf.maine.edu

nd in Two Poems 37
April 2016

unbearable. As the killing of her baby was so painful, the mother was morally hurting
herself and killing a part of her. CIARÁN CARSON
The use of the word ‘waded’ suggests the resistance of the water. Besides, we learn Poet and novelist Ciarán Carson was
that the Christian mother is killing her child; the words ‘her cross’ promise her much born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, in 1948.
agony. There is a cruel question: did she kill her child to protect it or to protect herself He was a young man in Belfast when the
from future hardships and accusations, being unmarried? Troubles began in1969.
The poem goes on and again we see contrasting words: ‘cold’ which suggests empti- ‘The Troubles’ refers to almost 30 years
ness and loneliness, whereas ‘glitter’ suggests something rather sparklingly beautiful, of violence between the nationalists (main-
like gold or jewels. Perhaps, human souls are precious even in Limbo. ly Roman Catholic) who wanted independ-
In the line, ‘Through some far briny zone’, we imagine the people in Limbo floating ence from the UK and the unionists (mainly
in a sea of tears, as brine is salty. Protestants) who believed in strengthening
The poem ends on a rather poignant note as the souls in Limbo are beyond the help the political ties between Northern Ireland
of Jesus. and Britain. Armed paramilitary groups,
The first reaction might come as anger at the rigorous Catholic rules condemning including the Provisional Irish Republican
women who have children out of wedlock. However, the readers in Northern Ireland Army (IRA), made Belfast a terrifying place
have also interpreted the word Limbo as a description of the situation in their country to live between 1969-1997and much of the
where the Catholics and the Protestants are suspended between peace and war, without violence took place around the Protestant
any understanding what the future result will be. Shankill Road and Catholic Falls Road ar-
Belfast Confetti is a poem about the aftermath of an IRA bomb by Ciarán Carson. eas. The British government claimed that
The poem won the Irish Times Irish Literature Prize for Poetry. its forces were in Northern Ireland to keep
BELFAST CONFETTI law and order, but Irish republicans object-
Suddenly as the riot squad moved in, it was raining exclamation ed strongly to the presence of the British
marks, soldiers.
Nuts, bolts, nails, car-keys. A fount of broken type. And
the explosion
Itself – an asterisk on the map. This hyphenated line, a burst
of rapid fire...
I was trying to complete a sentence in my head, but it kept
All the alleyways and side-streets blocked with stops and

I know this labyrinth so well - Balaclava, Raglan, Inkerman,

Odessa Street –
Why can’t I escape? Every move is punctuated. Crimea Street.
Dead end again.
A Saracen, Kremlin-2 mesh. Makrolon face-shields. Walkie
talkies. What is
My name? Where am I coming from? Where am I going?
A fusillade of question-marks.
This poem describes the explosion of a homemade bomb in Belfast, and the British
Army riot squad moving in. It is unclear who the speaker is: an innocent resident? a vic-
tim of the explosion? a police suspect on their own or in a group? Or a terrorist himself?
According to the poet’s explanation, ‘he is an eye on the scene’.
The poem explores the reality of urban warfare – fear, confusion and violence. We
are thrown into the action with the opening word ‘Suddenly…’ ‘Nuts, bolts, nails, car-
“I write in English, but the ghost of Irish
keys’ are falling down from the sky like ‘exclamation marks’. The poem ends in ‘a
hovers behind it; and English itself is full
fusillade of question-marks’. The whole scene looks and feels like an incoherent text.
of ghostly presences” – the poet says and
The poet is trying to escape the area but finds it impossible. Here, the idea of the
suggests two influences on his poetry: his
mythological ‘labyrinth’ is a key image. Every time he tries to escape, his attempts are
bilingual upbringing, and an unusual alert-
thwarted by security forces and confusion. The language changes from past to present
ness to language. He shows language be-
tense between the first and second stanza to show the narrator’s inability to escape. The
ing used to enforce, to spy, and – broken
short sentences and broken lines give a sense of being trapped. He is lost for words and
into its almost meaningless constituent
nearly forgets his own identity.
parts – to commit physical violence, when
Throughout, the punctuation metaphor is central to the poem. The title itself is multi-
the bombing ‘Belfast Confetti’ is loaded
layered. Confetti is usually associated with festivities, but in this context it could suggest
with not only ironmongery but “a fount of
the uncomfortable marriage of Protestants and Catholics. The phrase refers to the bomb’s
broken type.” Violence, or its effects, often
shrapnel which is pictured as punctuation. The confusion of the blast is mirrored by the
makes an appearance in Carson’s poetry,
narrator’s unfitted sentence in his head ‘stuttering’ almost like a machine gun fire.
whether this is found in historical warfare
NOTES: or the more recent conflicts of Northern Ire-
scutching – shaky, vague, uncertain land.
A quote by Tom Paulin - a Northern Irish poet and critic of cinema, music and literature. The poet also explains: “…I see those
Ballyshannon (Irish: Béal Átha Seanaidh, meaning “The Mouth of Seannachs ford”) is a town poems as being very much just as if I were
in County Donegal, Ireland. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballyshannon) an eye on the scene. As if I were alert to the
sounds of the time and what was going on
See glossary for the poem Limbo in additional materials. By Olga Sventsitskaya at the exact time.”

38 The Cities and Towns

April 2016

of Northern Ireland
1 I
2 R
3 E
4 L
5 A
6 N
7 D

1. A town situated in the northeastern part of Northern Ireland. It lies on Belfast Lough. Its name means rock
of Fergus;
2. The second largest city in Northern Ireland. It is usually called Derry by its Roman Catholic population;
3. The fourth largest city in Northern Ireland and the eighth on the island through which the Clanrye River
4. The capital city of Northern Ireland;
5. A large town near the mouth of the River Bann in County Londonderry;
6. The third largest city in Northern Ireland. It lies on the southern side of Belfast Lough;
7. A town in County Down. It lies on the shore of Belfast Lough. The town hosts an annual blues and jazz

Key: 1. Carrickfergus; 2. Londonderry; 3. Newry; 4. Belfast; 5. Coleraine; 6. Bangor; 7. Holywood

By Tatyana Ivanova


40 Ronia the Robber’s Daughter

April 2016

(Based on Astrid Lindgren’s book)

Количество участников: 30–50 человек Разбойники мечутся, разбегаются по краям сцены. Все
Длительность: 60 минут стихает. Звучит спокойная музыка.
Уровень владения языком: от beginner до intermediate. Вбегает Мэтт, он раскрасневшийся и запыхавшийся.
Действующие лица:
Мэтт Разбойники Мэтта: Matt: My child is born! Do you hear me – I’ve got a child!
Ловиса Ноддл-Пит Bumper: What sort of a child is it?
Роня маленькая Шэгги Matt: A robber’s daughter, joy and gladness! A robber’s
Роня-подросток Пель daughter – here she comes.
Берк-подросток Фулокс
Борка Джеп Входит Ловиса со свертком в руках. Она осторожно
Ундиса Наклз держит его, любуется им. Мэтт осторожно берет
Разбойники Борки Нотт сверток из рук и поднимает над головой, потом прижи-
Серые гномы Тэппер мает к себе крепко-крепко.
Друды Торм
Неземные существа Бампер Torm: What will you call her?
Папа лис/Мама лисица Малыш Снип Lovis: Ronia, I chose the name a long time ago.
Лисята Knott: What if it had been a boy?
Lovis: If I decide my baby is to be called Ronia, it will be a
СЦЕНА 11 Ronia!
На сцене экран для театра теней. На экране силуэт Matt: You, baby, you are already holding my robber heart in
замка. Вылетают горные друды (Harpies) поют и those little hands.
танцуют (“Nemo” by Nightwish (http://www.youtube.com/ Knuckles: Now, to Ronia!
Все разбойники поют:
Harpy 1: We love stormy weather like this. Shrieking and Ronia the robber’s daughter
hooting in the storm is so much fun. Yo-ho-oo-oo! Yes, it’s your name now, dear
Harpy 2: Those stupid goblins and grey gnomes in Matt’s Ronia the robber’s daughter
forest are creeping in terror back to their holes and Welcome to this world.
hiding places. Ha-ha-ha! Ronia the robber’s daughter
Harpy 3: Guess what I just heard, sisters. There, in Matt’s You have come to stay here
forest, Lovis is singing. She is having a baby! Ha- Ronia the robber’s daughter
ha-ha! You’ll be brave and bold!
Harpy 4: Matt’s going to have a baby tonight! That beast of
a man! That horrible robber we like so much! Слышится детский плач. Ловиса поет колыбельную
Harpy 1: Ho-ho-ho! A thunder and lightning baby, small (“The Voice” by Celtic Woman, http://www.youtube.com/
and ugly it’ll be, ho-ho-ho! watch?t=12&v=iSf_9hpymu8) и уходит за сцену.
Matt (голос из-за сцены): Be off with you, harpies!
Друды разлетаются. Появляются разбойники. У них в Ловиса появляется с маленькой девочкой. Та видит Мэт-
руках кубки. Они веселы и радостны. та и выбегает к нему на встречу, бросается ему на шею.

Noddle Pete: That robber baby had better come soon. I am Ronia: Daddy! Good morning!
old and rickety, my robbing days will soon be over. It Matt: Ronia mine, my little pigeon. You’ve grown even
would be fine to see a new robber chief here before since yesterday. Lovis, our child must learn what it’s
I’m finished. like living in Matt’s forest. Let her go!
Shaggy: I want to raise my glass to our chieftain who is soon Lovis: And so you’ve seen it at last. It would have happened
to be a father! To Matt, the greatest robber chieftain! long ago if I’d had my way.
All robbers: To Matt! Matt: You may wander at will, Ronia, but first I have a cou-
ple of things to say. Watch out for wild harpies and
Разбойники поют и пляшут. Танец разбойников. Слышен grey dwarves and Borka robbers.
звук грома, замок распадается на две части. Ronia: Who are the Borka robbers?
Noddle Pete: Borka robbers are all dirty devils! And it’s a
Jep: The castle is breaking down. good thing that soldiers hunt for him in the woods and
Jutto: It’s breaking into two parts! Help! not for us. Ha-ha. Borka is an old scoundrel!

April 2016

Little Snip: And remember, that this is Matt’s daughter!

Grey dwarves
Grey dwarves, we must now release her
We cannot keep her here any longer.
But we’ll remember forever,
And we’ll look for her everywhere,
And if we find her scared to death,
We’ll sing together.
We must leave now
All robbers: That’s true! Right, Noddle Pete! The robbers are here.
Ronia: How will I know which are wild harpies and grey We must leave now
dwarves? But we’ll be back again!
Matt: You’ll find out. And watch out you don’t tumble into And if we smell then,
Hell’s Gap. Your horror and fear,
Ronia: What shall I do if I tumble into Hell’s Gap? Then you’re ours –
Matt: You won’t be doing much of anything. Forever and a day!
Ronia: All right, I shan’t fall into Hell’s Gap. Is there any-
thing else? Серые гномы уходят.
Matt: There certainly is. But you’ll find out bit by bit. Go
now. Matt: Now you know what grey dwarves are.
Ronia: Yes, I do.
Роня уходит, прощаясь с родителями. Jutto: What you don’t know, though, is how to deal with them.
Fooloks: If you are frightened, they can feel it a long way
СЦЕНА 3 off. That’s when they become dangerous.
В лесу Мэтта. Звучит таинственная музыка. Shaggy: Yes, it’s true about all sorts of things. So the safest
Роня гуляет по лесу с полотенцем, пьет воду из родни- thing is not to be frightened in Matt’s Forest.
ка, прыгает в озеро (со сцены), вылезает обратно, от- Ronia: I’ll remember that. I think I’ll start practicing not be-
ряхивается, встряхивает волосами, как будто только ing frightened right now.
что искупалась, вытирается, потягивается и ложится Little Snip: I suppose you should wait for tomorrow, right
спать. Сзади подкрадываются серые гномы. Matt?
Matt: Little Snip surely knows what he’s saying. Your mom
Grey dwarf 1: Grey dwarves all! Human here in grey is waiting for us with a good supper.
dwarves’ wood.
Grey dwarf 2: Grey dwarves all, bite and strike! СЦЕНА 4
Вылетают маленькие друды и поют “Little Harpies”
Grey dwarves, come here, Grey dwarves come here (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWMS3y9ywGMRobin).
The human is here. The human is here.
Grey dwarves, come here, Grey dwarves come here, Harpy 1: Sisters, have you ever seen a child like this before?
Let’s tear her flesh apart. Let’s bite to see her blood. She’s been told to be careful not to fall into the river!
And do you know what she does? She hops, skips
Гномы поют, топают ногами, тянутся к Роне руками, and jumps over the most slippery stones very close
как будто хотят разорвать. Роня от них уворачивает- to the river!
ся, пятясь. В какой-то момент ей становится некуда Harpy 2: Yes, and she chooses the place where the river
пятиться, и она начинает кричать. rushes most fiercely. The more dangerous the better!
Harpy 3: Not long ago I saw her near the waterfalls. At first
Ronia: A-a-a-a! Help! she was frightened but bit by bit she became more
daring. I heard her saying she “was practising not be-
Услышав крик, гномы прекращают топать, они мечутся ing frightened”!
из стороны в сторону. Появляются вооруженные луками Harpy 4: She was so small and fragile! But she has grown
и стрелами разбойники Мэтта. into a healthy little animal, strong and agile.
Harpy 5: You’re right, she’s afraid of nothing. Neither of
Knuckles: Be off, grey dwarves! Go, before we slaughter you! grey dwarves, nor of getting lost in the forest, and nor
of falling into the river.
Появляется Мэтт с мечом. Он разгоняет оставшихся Harpy 6: And what is worse, she’s not afraid of us, wild
гномов. Роня бросается ему на шею. harpies!

42 April 2016

Harpy 1: She is a tasty lump that girl. But I’m afraid there’s
no way to get her.
Harpy 2: Wait and see. Someday she must make a mistake,
and that’s when we shall act!
Harpy 3: Someone is coming, let’s get out of here! Come
on, sisters.

Ronia: Daddy told me to watch out for Hell’s Gap. That’s
what I am going to do now. That’s the only way to
practise not being frightened of it. I shall lie on my
stomach… like this… (Ложится на живот и под-
ползает к краю сцены, заглядывает вниз.) Oof!
It’s much worse that I thought!

Роня смотрит вперед и видит, что по другую сторону

пропасти кто-то сидит.
Ronia: Oh my! (Заглядыает в пропасть.) Oh, thank god
Ronia: Oh my! Someone is sitting there! About my own you’re still there! Hang on!
size… It must be another child. I think it’s the one Birk: Well there’s not much else I can do here.
who will turn into Matt when he is big.
Birk: I know who you are! You are that robber’s daughter Роня развязывает веревку, обвязывает ею себя, а сво-
who runs in the woods. I saw you there once. бодный конец бросает Берку.
Ronia: Who are you and how in the world did you get
there? Ronia: Get this around you so you can then climb up. Now!
Birk: I am Birk Borkason, and I live here. We moved in last
night. Берк выбирается из пропасти.
Ronia: Who’s we?
Birk: Borka and Undis and me and our twelve robbers. Ronia: Done enough jumping now?
Ronia: Do you mean that the whole of North fort is full of Birk: No, I’ll have to jump once more to get home to Bor-
dirty devils? ka’s keep.
Birk (смеется): No, there are only decent Borka robbers Ronia: Not until you take off my rope. I don’t want to be tied
here but over there, where you live, it’s stuffed full of to you any longer than I have to.
dirty devils. That’s what they always say.
Ronia: Death and destruction! You wait until Matt hears Берк развязывает веревку.
about this and then you’ll see all the Borka robbers
scattered with one blow! Birk: Here. But after this, perhaps I am tied to you all the
Birk: That’s what you think! (Делает вид, что собирается same. Without a rope.
прыгать на ее сторону.) Ronia: Not on your life! You and your Borka’s keep, get out
Ronia: If you come here I’ll give you such a punch your of here! (Убегает.)
nose will fall off! Birk: Hey, robber’s daughter, I’ll be seeing you around!
Birk: Ha, ha! (Прыгает.) Follow that if you can.
Роня очень злится, но разбегается и перепрыгивает на Разбойники Мэтта сидят за едой, кто-то играет в
другую сторону. карты, кто-то пьет и ест, кто-то играет на гитаре.
Мэтт и Ловиса сидят в центре, перед ними Роня.
Birk: You are not so bad! But you were going to punch me,
why didn’t you? I am coming! (Прыгает обратно к Shaggy: Your daughter, Matt, has a good sense of humour!
Роне.) Pelle: A bit of pretending may be fun sometimes.
Ronia: So I see. (Не дожидаясь, прыгает от него.) Jutto: Borka robbers in Matt’s fort? What rubbish!
Matt: It makes my blood boil enough, though I know it’s a
Они прыгают через пропасть несколько раз, все время lie!
оказываясь друг напротив друга. Берк поскальзывается Ronia: It’s not a lie!
и соскакивает в пропасть. Matt: You are lying! In the first place Borka hasn’t got a
boy. He can’t have any children! That’s what they al-
Birk: A-a-a! ways said!
Fooloks: Well, chieftain, but they do say he has a boy all
the same.
Jep: They say Undis gave birth to him in sheer terror on
the night there was such a bad storm. When Ronia
was born, too, remember?
April 2016

Matt: And no one had told me! (Швыряет тарелку.) And

he and his dog of a father have moved into the North СЦЕНА 7
Fort with the whole of his robber scum? (Швыряет По обе стороны от разлома собрались разбойники –
чашку.) Борки с одной стороны, Мэтта с другой.
Knuckles (в страхе): Yes, and Ronia says now it’s called
Borka’s keep! Borka: It’s a good thing you came uncommonly fast.
Matt: I would have come before but there was something I
Мэтт швыряет еще что-то. Ловиса встает и уходит. had to finish first.
Она возвращается с корзиной яиц. Borka: What sort of thing?
Matt: A poem that I was writing early this morning. It’s
Lovis: Here you are. But you’ll have to clean up after your- called “Lament for a Dead Borka Robber”. Undis
self, remember! might get a bit of comfort from it when she becomes
a widow.
Мэтт начинает швырять яйца во все стороны. Ловиса Undis: You should be thinking more about comforting Lovis,
выпроваживает разбойников. Мэтт исступленно бро- who has to put up with your big mouth all the time.
сает яйца, потом вдруг останавливается и начинает Borka: Now you listen to me. There was no staying in Bor-
реветь. ka’s Wood any longer. Soldiers are swarming there
like flies and I had to take my wife and child and all
Matt: I was safe here like an eagle in its nest! And now… my robbers somewhere.
(Он бросается на пол, проклинает все и кричит.) Matt: Maybe, but occupying someone else’s place without
Lovis: Now that’s enough. If you’ve got lice in your coat, asking is called stealing!
roaring won’t get rid of them. Get up and do some- Borka’s Robber 1: Strange talk from a robber. Haven’t you
thing about it. always taken what you liked without asking?
Ronia: Don’t be sad. All you have to do is to kick them out! Borka’s Robber 2: Luckily now we live here, and our Chief-
Matt: And that may be hard. tain knows this Fort even better than you do.
Jep: How can you know it better than we do? That’s non-
Разбойники осторожно возвращаются. sense!
Borka: Your chieftain must remember how we used to catch
Knott: What I don’t understand is how they managed to get rats in the old pigsty when we were kids. That was
into the North Fort without a single one of us noticing before his father found us and taught me with his fists
anything. that every member of Matt’s clan was my enemy,
Tapper: Everyone who wants to reach Matt’s fort has to pass dead or alive.
through the Wolf’s Neck and we all know that a watch Matt: We belong to different clans and I don’t care what
is kept there night and day, isn’t it, Torm? happened between us when we were silly kids. Now
Torm: What are you hinting at, Tapper? you will leave Matt’s fort by the way you came.
Bumper: He’s saying that we were on the watch yesterday, Borka: I’ve made a home in Borka’s keep now and here I’ll
when those snakes crept into the fort. But I swear Matt, stay.
we didn’t blink an eye, nobody passed us there! Matt: We’ll soon see how things turn out.
Torm: I can swear too!
Little Snip: No one saw hide or hair of a Borka robber. Разбойники грозят друг другу кулаками, замахиваются,
Noddle Pete: Well, what did you think, idiots? They’d come но расходятся.
strolling through the Wolf’s Neck and tell the guard
sweet as you please, “Step aside, friend, we are plan- Notes:
ning to move into the North Fort this very night!”? 1
Текст сценария – адаптация книги “Ronia the Rob-
They came from the north side, of course, where we ber’s Daughter” by Astrid Lindgren (Oxford University
don’t have a guard! Press). Перевод со шведского выполнен Патрисией
Shaggy: Why should we keep a guard there? There’s no Крэмптон.
entrance to the fort and just sheer rock wall besides. 2
Здесь и далее приводятся названия песен, использован-
Pelle: Do you think they are flies who can climb straight up ных в постановке “Лингвастарт” со ссылками на со-
into the air? ответствующие ресурсы Интернета.
Matt: That Borka’s too nervy. One day he’ll come rushing
over the Hell’s Gap like a wild bull and drive us out By Anna Beregovskaya,
of Matt’s fort, lock, stock and barrel. But now enough Linguastart Language Learning Centre
speculating! I am going to bed now, to think and to
curse. Illustrations by Ilon Wikland.
Fooloks: Borka’s sent a messenger. He’s waiting for you at
Hell’s Gap. See continuation in additional materials.
Министерство образования Московской области z Издательский дом «ПЕРВОЕ СЕНТЯБРЯ»

Электронные учебники –
каждому ученику!
Дорогие коллеги! практику, давая и учителю, и ученику воз- ской области может попросить своего
В самом конце 2015 г. стартовал проект можность учить и учиться по-другому. педагога выдать электронные учеб-
с крайне длинным, но конкретным назва- Проект Министерства образования ники на принесенное из дома устрой-
нием «Оказание услуги по обеспечению Московской области позволит выяснить ство.
доступа обучающихся общеобразователь- желание и готовность учеников учиться с За два с небольшим месяца с начала
ных организаций Московской области к использованием современных образова- проекта доступ к электронной форме
электронным учебникам и электронным тельных подходов не только в школе, но учебников по иностранным языкам по-
приложениям к учебникам». и дома. лучили 17372 ученика и учителя. (Доступ
Инициатором проекта выступило Ми- У электронного учебника много преи- к учебникам английского языка получили
нистерство образования Московской об- муществ: 10229 человек, к учебникам немецкого –
ласти. Исполнитель – Издательский дом • наглядность (этот важный принцип 3509, к учебникам французского – 3628 и
«Первое сентября». обучения реализуется при демонстра- испанского – 6.)
Как следует из названия проекта, его ции иллюстраций, проведении лабора- Использование новых технологий в
целью является предоставление электрон- торных работ, интерактивном модели- образовании открывает перед учителем
ных учебников всем учителям и ученикам ровании изучаемых процессов); новые методические и дидактические
Московской области. Для этого в течение • мультимедийность (учебный материал возможности. Но чтобы воспользоваться
2016 г. (до 31 декабря 2016 г. включи- подается комплексно, например, тер- этими возможностями, чтобы задейство-
тельно) ученики 5–11-х классов обще- мин или слово можно прочитать и по- вать их в повседневной работе с учени-
образовательных организаций Москов- слушать, как оно произносится); ками, нам всем нужны некоторая доля
ской области могут бесплатно получить • интерактивность (например, трениро- бесстрашия перед новым и готовность
электронные учебники на свои устройства вочные тестовые задания с моменталь- делиться друг с другом своим опытом,
(компьютеры, ноутбуки, планшеты), ра- ной обратной связью); который, особенно на первых порах, у
ботающие на популярных платформах: • гипертекстуальность (каждый специ- каждого свой.
Windows, Android (Google), Apple (iOS). ально обозначенный термин в тексте Расскажите о своем опыте работы с
Сегодня трудно представить инфор- параграфа можно снабдить подроб- электронными учебниками:
мационно-образовательную среду шко- ной дефиницией, открывающейся по • об опыте получения учебника на свои
лы без цифровых образовательных ре- клику) устройства и на школьные устройства,
сурсов. Компьютеры, проекторы, ноут- • удобная навигация. • об опыте раздачи электронного учеб-
буки, планшетники, собственный инфор- А ещё: портфель ученика становится ника на устройства учеников,
мационный контент в школе становятся значительно легче. Все нужные учебники • об опыте использования учебников на
делом обычным, привычным. С недав- и вспомогательные материалы помеща- уроке,
них пор частью среды стали электронные ются в одном планшете. • об опыте использования ЭУ учениками,
учебники. Это достаточно новое явление С января этого года каждый ученик • об опыте использования ЭУ дома – вне
постепенно внедряется в школьную 5–11-х классов любой из школ Москов- стен школы.

Более подробная информация и страница для обмена опытом на сайте digital.1september.ru/etutorial


April 2016

Five-Minute Tests
1 I
I. Six sentences in the text are incomplete. Choose from the list A–F Read the texts below and think of the word
the one which fits each gap (1–6). There is one extra letter in the list which best fits each space. Use only one
which you don’t need to use. word in each space.
In ancient Ireland the shamrock
Northern Ireland consists of six counties:
(1)________ thought to have magical
• County Antrim power. It was probably made most famous
• County Armagh (2)________ St. Patrick, the Patron Saint of
• County Down Ireland. He used (3)________ to help explain
• County Fermanagh the mystery of (4)________ Holy Trinity to
• County Londonderry the pagans in his quest (5)________ bring
• County Tyrone Christianity to the country.
These counties are no longer used for local government purposes; Key: 1. was; 2. by; 3. it; 4. the; 5. to.
instead there are twenty-six districts of Northern Ireland which have
different geographical extents, even in the case of those named after 2 I
the counties from (1)__________. Fermanagh District Council most
closely follows the borders of the county from (2)_______________. Open the brackets.
Coleraine Borough Council, on the other hand, derives its name from Years ago, all Irish people (1)_________
the town of Coleraine in County Londonderry. (speak) Gaelic, and this language still
Although counties are no longer used for governmental purpose, (2)__________(speak) in some parts of
they remain a popular means of describing (3)_______________. Ireland, although today all Irish people
(3)__________(speak) English as well. Evi-
They are officially used while applying for an Irish Passport, which
dence of Gaelic still__________(find) in
requires the applicant to state their ‘County of Birth’ – which then place names, for example ‘bally’ (town),
appears in both Irish and English on the Passport’s information page, ‘slieve’ (mountain), ‘inis’ (island), ‘drum’
(4)_____________ in the United Kingdom Passport. (mountain top).
The county boundaries still appear on the Ordnance Survey of
Northern Ireland Maps and the Phillips Street Atlases, among others. Key: 1. spoke; 2. is still spoken; 3. speak; 4. is still
With their decline in official use, there is often confusion surround-
ing towns and cities (5)____________, such as Belfast and Lisburn, 3 I
(6)__________ between counties Down and Antrim (the majorities of
both cities, however, are in Antrim). Use the word given in capitals to form a
word that fits in the sentence.
A. which lie near county boundaries If one asks an (1)_________(IRISH)
B. where places are away from home what he misses most
C. which are split about Ireland, he will probably tell you
“the (2)________ (GREEN)”. Irish poets
D. which it takes its name
put it in a different way when they call Ire-
E. which they derive their name land “the Emerald Isle”. Is the grass really
F. as equivalent to Northern Ireland (3)________(GREEN) in Ireland? The fact is
G. as opposed to the town or city of birth that the winds usually blow in from the Atlan-
tic Ocean and make the air and soil warm and
II. Read the article about the problems facing schools in Northern dump. Grass grows (4)________ (GOOD) in
Ireland and mark the sentences as T (True), F (False) or NS (Not such a climate and it makes the island look so
stated). (5)______(BEAUTY).
1. An ‘open market’ for GCSEs means that England, Wales and North- Key: 1. Irishman; 2. greenness; 3. greener;
ern Ireland have several exam boards. _____ ª 4. well; 5. beautiful. ª

46 April 2016
2. All exam boards operating in Northern Ireland give their results
using the letters A* to G. _____
3. English examining boards are going to give their results in the
form of numbers. _____
4. English examining boards will agree to operate a separate alpha-
betic grading system for Northern Ireland. _____
Five-Minute Tests 5. Education Minister John O’Dowd believes that his decision to
4 I continue with the established practice of awarding using letters
allows to avoid needless intricacy. _____
Write the prefix dis-, mis-, non- or un- in 6. Irish young people work hard and have remarkable achievement.
front of each word to chande it in to the op- _____
posite meaning.
1. ________aware 7. English boards like AQA and OCR have agreed to operate a
2. ________certain separate alphabetic grading system for Northern Ireland because it
3. ________lead is in their best interests. _____
4. ________order 8. New practice of awarding using a string of numbers is a challenge
5. ________loyal for CCEA only. _____
6. ________even
7. ________please
8. ________obey Unusually, England, Wales and Northern Ireland have several
9. ________behave exam boards, with schools and colleges able to freely choose be-
10. ________permanent tween them on a subject-by-subject basis. Currently, there are five
11. ________spell exam boards, all of which offer a broad range of qualifications:
12. ________cork
13. ________necessary • AQA (Assessment and Qualifications Alliance);
14. ________toxic • CCEA (Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment);
15. ________connect • Edexcel (a UK company);
• OCR (Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations);
Key: 1. unaware; 2. uncertain; 3. mislead; 4. dis-
order; 5. disloyal; 6. uneven; 7. displease; 8. dis- • WJEC (Welsh Joint Education Committee).
obey; 9. misbehave; 10. nonpermanent; 11. mis-
spell; 12. uncork; 13. unnecessary; 14. nontoxic;
15. disconnect.
5 E Education Minister John O’Dowd has decided there will be no
change in GCSE grades in Northern Ireland.
Fill in the correct word.
Everyday Yesterday He said that all exam boards operating in Northern Ireland must
0. I think I thought give their results using the letters A* to G.
1. I ________ I sought In 2017, English examining boards will give their results in the form
2. I ________ I fought of numbers, where nine is the highest grade and one the lowest.
3. I ________ I brought
4. I ________ I bought
Around one in four GCSEs in NI is studied through an English
examining board.
Key: 1. think; 2. seek; 3. fight; 4. buy. There is currently an ‘open market’ for GCSEs where schools can
6 E choose which examining board to use.
If schools in Northern Ireland want to continue operating through
Match up the syllables in box 1 with box 2
English boards like AQA and OCR, those boards will have to agree
to form double consonnent words.
Box 1 Box 2 to operate a separate alphabetic grading system for Northern Ire-
les hap per tic land.
at bon mer pen There is no indication yet that they will agree to do so.
sum zip net son

1. _______________
2. _______________
3. _______________
4. _______________
5. _______________
6. _______________
Key: 1. lesson; 2. happen; 3. attic; 4. bonnet; 5.
summer, 6. zipper.

By Youdif Boyarskaya,
School No. 814, Moscow

The local examining body, CCEA, will continue to

award GCSEs from A* to G only.
Mr O’Dowd said the decision he had made would
April 2016
present “challenges” for awarding bodies.
“I believe that it will be in the best interests of learn-
to sit a small number of more advanced examinations
ers here to continue with the established practice of
and Scottish students tend to sit a larger number of
awarding using letters, and I believe we must avoid un-
(5)_______ advanced examinations.
necessary complexity as far as possible,” he told the
In general, the cut-off point for ages is the end of
August, so all children must (6)_______ of a particular
“I appreciate that there is anxiety around the per-
age on the 1st of September (7)_______ order to begin
ceived risk to our young people going out into the world
class that month.
with a GCSE certificate that is anything other than a
string of numbers like their English counterparts.
III. Complete the text using words in the box. There
“I have confidence in our education system, and I
are two words which you don’t need to use.
have confidence in the hard work and attainment of our
young people.”
however, or, as, so, probably, furthermore,
By Robbie Meredith,
especially, then
BBC News NI Education Correspondent
Believe it (1)_______ not, the colour of St. Patrick
I. Use the word given in capitals to form a word or a
was not actually green, but blue! In the 19th century,
proper tense of a verb that fits in the sentence.
(2)_______ , green became used (3)_______ a symbol
For seven centuries Ireland was a colony of Britain.
for Ireland. In Ireland, there is plentiful rain and mist,
Due to the colonial policy of Great Britain the Irish
(4)_______ the ‘Emerald Isle’ really is green all year-
nation was (1)_________ (FORCEFUL) partitioned.
round. The beautiful green landscape was (5)_______
As the result of the hard struggle of the Irish people
the inspiration for the national colour.
for (2)_________ (INDEPENDENT), the larger part
Wearing the colour green is considered an act of pay-
of Ireland (26 counties) gained the status of a British
ing tribute to Ireland. It is said that it also brings good
dominion in 1921. Much later, in 1949 it (3)_________
luck, (6)__________ when worn on St. Patrick’s Day.
(PROCLAIM) officially an independent state, the Irish
Many long years ago, playful Irish children began
Free State of Eire. The (4)_________(INDUSTRY)
the tradition of pinching people who forgot to wear
north-east (Northern Ireland with its 6 counties) was re-
green on St. Patrick’s Day and the tradition is still prac-
tained by Great Britain as its smallest component. But
ticed today.
certain forces of both the Irish Republic and Northern
Ireland are for the (5)_________(UNIFICATION) of
IV. Use the word given in capitals to form a word or a
the country, against social (6)__________(DEPRIVE)
proper tense of a verb that fits in the sentence.
which is at its (7)_________(BAD) among Catho-
lics. They believe that British (8)_________(WITH-
DRAW) from Ireland is the only way to achieve peace.
Have you noticed the harp (1)________
The Protestants in Northern Ireland wish to retain her
(APPEAR) on Irish coins? It even graces
links with Britain.
the Guinness, a popular Irish beer, bottle
labels. Centuries ago, the Irish were some
II. Read the text below and think of the word which
of the (2)__________(MAGNIFICENT)
best fits each space. Use only one word in each
harp players, sough after by (3)_______
(NOBLE), kings and queens. To suppress
the Irish culture, Elizabeth I had many instruments
Education in Northern Ireland may differ (1)_____
destroyed and harpists executed. These symbols of
the system used elsewhere in the United Kingdom. Ba-
Ireland remain (4)_______(STRENGTH), even if
sically, there are two systems: one covering England,
the traditionally trained harpists died out (5)______
Wales and Northern Ireland and (2)______ covering
(LENGTH) ago.
Scotland. The two education systems have different em-
phases. Traditionally the English, Welsh and Northern
Irish system (3)______ emphasised depth of education
You may hear a legend during
whereas the Scottish system has (4)________ breadth.
your Ireland tour that says that
Thus English, Welsh and Northern Irish students tend
St. Patrick (6)______(DRIVE)

48 April 2016
We couldn’t write about the symbols
of Ireland without a mention of the lep-
rechaun, meaning sprite or fairy. The
(21)_________(MYTH) creatures are
all the snakes out of Ireland. In fact, there (7)______ traditionally shoemakers. If you catch
(EVER) were snakes on the Emerald Isle. He did en- one, you get three wishes and a pot of
courage many pagans to become (8)______(CHRIST). gold. During your trip to Ireland, make sure you try to
The traditional sign for evil in (9)_______(CHRIST) spot one. It’s like hitting the lottery, only a way more
is the snake. unique story to tell your friends.

CELTIC CROSS CROSSWORD. Find 9 Irish symbols.

Irish travelers love these symbols N O R C V M X U T A W F U S L E
of Ireland. In the history of St. Patrick L O G E A Q U P Y M D Y K H K S
when he converted the pagans, he wanted
(10)_______(THEY) to adopt the Chris-
tian cross. To help the pagans, traditional E U N C I E D I L I S E A O E I
(11)__________ (WORSHIP) of nature, identify with C I T K N O R U G S T M A C J G
the Christian cross, he had a sun, a (12)_______(HIGH) H S U N M C J N O E P Q M K A I
revered pagan symbol, incorporated into the cross. A R R O C H I R [ K A U A C N D
The claddagh is a traditional P H I W I G W I C J I E E D W O
Irish ring given as a token of A O L T T A A C O M C K L D L S
(13)__________(FRIEND) or Y L L M J L V U P A K A O A U S
love or worn as a wedding ring.
The design features two hands
clasping a heart, and usually surmounted by a crown. KEY:
The elements of this symbol (14)_______(SAY) often READING
to correspond to the qualities of love (the heart), friend- I. 1. E; 2. D: 3. B; 4. G; 5. A; 6. C.
II. 1. T; 2. T; 3. T; 4. NS; 5. T; 6. NS; 7. F; 8. F.
ship (the hands), and (15)_________(LOYAL) (the USE OF ENGLISH
crown). The origin of the Claddagh ring is one of the I. 1. forcefully; 2. independence; 3. was oficially proclaimed; 4. in-
(16)___________(TRADITIONAL) Irish love stories dustrial; 5. reunification; 6. deprivation; 7. worst; 8. withdrawal.
II. 1. from; 2. one; 3. has; 4. emphasised; 5. less; 6. be; 7. in.
you’ll ever hear. III. 1. or; 2. however; 3. as; 4. so; 5. probably; 6. especially.
IV. 1. appearing: 2. most magnificent; 3. nobility; 4. strong; 5. long;
6. drove; 7. never; 8. Christian; 9. Christianity; 10. them; 11. wor-
ST. BRIGID’S CROSS shipers; 12. highly; 13. friendship; 14. are often said; 15. loyalty;
Taking a trip to Ireland on 16. most traditional; 17. were created; 18. is not clearly defined;
February 1? That’s St. Brigid’s 19. continuing; 20. endless; 21. mythical.
Feast Day. A contemporary of St.
Patrick, St. Brigid converted her L O E P H K S
father to Christianity. The cross- E R L R A T
es, woven from thrush, (17)__________(CREATE) at P T A N M B
the beginning of spring to help protect a farmer’s hold-
ing. You’ll notice these symbols of Ireland in promi- C K R S T C G
nent places on farms, like the house and barn. H N N O P K I
A O R x A C D
These symbols of Ireland have I I E D O
no beginning and no end, like T C L D S
nature. It (18)__________(NOT L K A S
DEFINE) clearly where they C H D
came from or what they mean,
1. Leprechaun; 2. Celtic Knot; 3. St. Patrick; 4. Shamrock; 5. Cladd-
exactly. Suffice to say, they agh; 6. St. Brigid Cross; 7. Harp; 8. Celtic Cross; 9. Snake.
sometimes ward off evil. They sometimes signify the
(19)__________(CONTINUE) life cycle. Regardless, By Youdif Boyarskaya,
they are always (20)_________(END). School No. 814, Moscow

Английский язык – Первое сентября

2-е полугодие 2016 года
на сайте www.1september.ru и в почтовых отделениях РФ

1 месяц 6 месяцев
в полугодие

Ката- Под- Ката- Под-

Индекс Название издания ложная писная ложная писная
цена цена цена цена
(ру .) (ру .) (ру .) (ру .)
блока (499)249-31-38
в разделе
79002 Английский язык – Первое сентября. Бумажная версия 3 750.00 2250.00

(-) 160 г 64 стр.

cайт Английский язык – Первое сентября. Электронная 3 – – 300.00
1september.ru версия

Подписку принимают во всех отделениях связи Российской Федерации, а также на сайте www.1september.ru
При подключении школы к проекту «Школа цифрового века» (см. digital.1september.ru) каждый учитель получает доступ ко всем журналам
Издательского дома «Первое сентября». Стоимость подключения школы на год – 18 тыс. рублей независимо от количества учителей в школе.
(При оплате до 30 июня 2016 г. – 16 тыс. рублей.) В указанную стоимость также включены электронные учебники, курсы повышения
квалификации, вебинары, предметно-методические брошюры для всех учителей школы.
При оформлении подписки на сайте оплата производится по квитанции в отделении банка
или электронными платежами on-line

50 April 2016 APRIL FOOLS’ DAY

American author and satirist Mark Twain summed up the
nature of the holiday thus: “The first of April is the day we
remember what we are the other 364 days of the year.” It
is a day for harmless tricks and good laughs. The origin of
April Fools’ Day or All Fools’ Day goes back to the dilemma
faced by many Europeans in 1562 when Pope Gregory in-
troduced a new calendar, one which shifted the start of the
new year from its traditionally warm nesting place of April 1
to the cold and dreary date of January 1.
This change was so dramatic, and, considering the su-
preme power of the church, so universal in its sweep, that
very soon those who hadn’t heard of or didn’t believe in Called myself on the telephone.
the calendar change, and continued to celebrate the new year Just to hear my golden tone.
on April 1st, were christened “April Fools”. They became Asked me out for a little date.
the targets of ridicule and the brunt of some pretty serious Picked me up about half past eight.
jokes and pranks. In fact, one must judge for oneself just
how merry and fun those first April Fools’ days must have CHORUS
been, and in what other ways people were “encouraged” to
conform. While it is not officially recognized as a holiday, Took myself to the movie show,
many celebrate by pranking, or pulling practical jokes on Stayed too late and said, “Let’s go,”
their colleagues or by organizing larger-scale hoaxes. Took my hand and led me out,
However, the tradition of practical jokes had been well es- Drove me home and gave a shout.
tablished by 1632, when legend states that the Duke of Lor-
raine and his wife escaped a prison at Nantes by dressing as CHORUS
peasants, walking right out the front gate. When the guards
were alerted to the escape, they laughed at what they thought Hunt-the-Gowk Day is Scotland’s version of the holiday,
was an April Fools’ prank. One of the first April Fools’ pranks where one sends a messenger back and forth between two
occurred in 1698, when citizens of London were tricked into people, each time saying that they need to contact the other
attending the lion-washing ceremony at the Tower of Lon- before the issue can be resolved. However, this practice is
don, a ceremony that did not actually exist. dying out in modern times. The Persian New Year falls on
April 1st, which is marked in Iran with one of the oldest
I’M A NUT pranking traditions that still exist. This is actually another
I’m an acorn, small and brown theory as to the holiday’s origin.
Lying on the cold, cold ground. There are a few other theories as to the precursors to the
Everyone steps on me. holiday tradition. Hilaria, a Roman festival, which celebrated
That is why I’m cracked, you see. Cybele, an Anatolian goddess, was celebrated around March
25th. The Feast of Fools was a term given to many medieval
CHORUS: festivals celebrated during the 5th–16th centuries in Europe,
I’m a nut (knock, knock) but particularly at the end of December. These celebrations
I’m a nut (knock, knock) developed a tradition of practical jokes, especially when ob-
I’m a nut! Yeah! served in Spain.

April 2016


CHORUS: I told the witch doctor I was in love with you,
Ay, yai, yai, yai! I told the witch doctor I was in love with you,
China they never grow chile. And then the witch doctor he told me what to do, he said,
So sing me another verse
That’s worse than the first verse. CHORUS:
Be sure that it’s foolish and silly. Oo ее oo ah ah, ting tang, walla walla bing bang. (4 times)

A canner exceedingly canny I told the witch doctor you didn’t love me true,
One morning remarked to his granny, I told the witch doctor you didn’t love me nice,
“A canner can can anything that he can And then the witch doctor he gave me some advice, he said,
But a canner can’t can a can, can he?”
You’ve been keeping love from me just like you were a miser,
A tutor who tooted the flute And I’ll admit I wasn’t very smart.
Tried to tutor two tooters to toot, So I went out and found myself a guy that’s so much wiser,
Said the two to the tutor “Is it tougher to toot And he taught me the way to win your heart.
Or to tutor two tooters to toot?”
My friend the witch doctor he told me what to say,
CHORUS My friend the witch doctor he told me what to do,
I know that you’ll be mine when I say this to you.
A certain young fellow named Beebee
Wished to marry a lady named Phoebe. CHORUS
“But,” he said, “I must see what the minister’s fee be,
Before Phoebe be Phoebe Beebee.”


Today in the United States, both children and adults play

little tricks on each other. Among some common tricks are
trying to convince someone that their pants or skirt has a rip
down the center back seam, or pointing down to a friend’s
shoe and saying “Your shoelace is untied.” Putting salt in
the sugar bowl is another common prank, so beware. If the
trickster is still around he or she may take credit for his deed
by shouting “April Fool!” but probably not before you’ve
spoiled your cup of morning coffee or tea. If you are the in-
nocent victim of such mischief, your first reaction may be to By Meline Vardanyan,
“wring the scoundrel’s neck.” However, in the interests of Gymnasium No. 1476, Moscow
allowing a cultural tradition to survive at least one more year,
please consider the date and “take it with a grain of salt.” Photos taken by the author.


Reading + Speaking Activity
Classroom activity: whole class
Language level: intermediate, up-
per-intermediate, advanced
Age: 15+
Time: 30–40 minutes
Target: speaking practice, back-
ground knowledge of haunted
places, ghosts, Northern Ireland
Anticipated problems: As far
as the activity involves the whole
class at a time the teacher might be
short of time to follow all the mis-
takes the students might be making
during the discussion. Therefore, it
is advisable that the teacher should
take notes while listening to what
the students say.

Before the activity starts, the teach-
er must read a pre-story – some
interesting fact about the haunted
castle in Northern Ireland. The
students express their mind about
what they hear and then get the
cards with questions connected to
the topic of ghosts. The activity is
aimed at speaking – students are
supposed to share their thoughts
and show their background knowl-
edge about the subject.

Picture Resources:
1. http://www.graphicsfactory.
2. http://www.freestockphotos.
3. http://www.clipartof.com
4. http://www.clipartclipart.net
5. http://www.clipartpal.com
6. http://reillynichole.weebly.
7. http://www.deguisement-mag-
8. http://it.123rf.com
9. http://joyfulpublicspeaking.
10. http://www.z31.net
11. http://halloween.phillipmartin. By Anastasia Pozhidaeva, Moscow
12. https://www.pinterest.com See full-scaled cards in additional materials.


April 2016

МОЙ ЧЕМПИОН завоевать последнее из призовых пятое место и получить

Привет! Меня зовут Эдвард Шоул. Я родился и вырос свою первую наградную розетку из разноцветных атласных
на ферме в пригороде Белфаста, Северная Ирландия. У нас лент. Конечно, нашей единственной sole [sqVl] целью goal
на ферме всегда были лошади. Они играли в нашей жизни [gqVl] всегда будет первое место, но, думаю, для первого
очень важную роль role [rqVl] – помогали обрабатывать зем- раза и такой результат можно считать достойным.
лю, а также перевозить урожай, каменный уголь coal [kqVl] Еще целый whole [hqVl] год мы с Чемпионом трениро-
для печи, другие тяжести. Поэтому я с детства люблю ло- вались, прежде чем снова решились принять участие в со-
шадей и знаю, как за ними ухаживать. А еще, сколько себя ревнованиях по конкуру. Перед соревнованиями мне при-
помню, я всегда мечтал о породистом скакуне. Я представ- снился странный сон, будто я, размахивая лыжной палкой
лял, как мы с ним будем тренироваться для участия в со- ski pole [skJ pqVl], скачу на Чемпионе по льдинам прямо
ревнованиях, как мы будем завоевывать престижные призы к Северному полюсу pole [pqVl]. К чему бы это? Сон ока-
и прославимся. И для покупки породистого жеребенка foul зался счастливым предзнаменованием, ведь на этот раз мы
[fqVl] я не один год откладывал небольшие суммы с каждой заняли… первое место! Под звуки барабанной дроби drum
зарплаты payroll ['peIrqVl]. roll [drAm rqVl] нам вручили большой золотой кубок bowl
Наконец моя мечта стала сбываться. Мне предложи- [bqVl], почетную грамоту в виде свитка roll [rqVl], scroll
ли прекрасного породистого полугодовалого жеребенка. [skrqVl] и солидную денежную премию. Премия оказалась
Палево-пегий, рослый, быстрый, и в то же время забавный очень кстати, ведь последние месяцы нам приходилось вы-
droll [drqVl], с умными глазами и родинкой mole [mqVl] на живать на мое пособие по безработице dole [dqVl]. Теперь
морде. Долго не раздумывая, я приобрел его, назвал Чем- я смогу купить себе новые ботинки вместо старых, с истер-
пионом и стал заботиться о нем денно и нощно. За нашим шимися до дыр подошвами sole [sqVl]. А Чемпиону куплю
домом я подготовил для моего любимца небольшое паст- новую упряжь и лакомства – он их заслужил!
бище – леваду. Для этого пришлось засыпать землей мно-
жество ямок, дырок, норок hole [hqVl]. То ли кроты mole bowl [bqVl] кубок, миска
[mqVl] перерыли здесь всю землю, то ли сказочные тролли coal [kqVl] уголь, каменный уголь
troll [trqVl] приходили из леса и перекопали весь участок в console [kqn'sqVl] утешать; консоль, пульт
поисках клада, но потрудиться мне пришлось изрядно. Вы-
control [kqn'trqVl] контроль, контролировать
ровненный участок земли я обнес оградой из соединенных
dole [dqVl] пособие по безработице, раздавать
друг с другом шестов pole [pqVl] и засеял сочной травой.
droll [drqVl] забавный
Левада готова!
Прошел год, мой Чемпион подрос и окреп. Мы с ним drum roll [drAm rqVl] барабанная дробь
начали готовиться к соревнованиям по конкуру. Конкур – enroll [In'rqVl] записываться, регистрироваться
это бег с препятствиями. Наш сосед-поляк Pole [pqVl] – extol [Iks'tqVl] превозносить, восхвалять
опытный берейтор – помогал мне тренировать Чемпиона. foul [fqVl] жеребенок
А ветеринар регулярно контролировал control [kqn'trqVl] goal [gqVl] гол, цель
здоровье моего любимца. Я привязался к Чемпиону hole [hqVl] отверстие, дырка, нора
всей душой soul [sqVl]. Нас связывали не только трени- mole [mqVl] крот
ровки. Чемпион разделял мои радости и утешал console mole [mqVl] родинка
[kqn'sqVl] в горестях. Нередко мы с ним неспешно про- patrol [pq'trqVl] патруль, дозор
гуливались stroll [strqVl] по окрестным полям. Иногда на payroll ['peIrqVl] зарплата
прогулках нам составляли компанию мой друг Чарльз и поляк (гражданин Польши)
pole [pqVl]
его конь по кличке Головастик tadpole ['txdpqVl]. Чарльз
pole [pqVl] шест
с Головастиком не участвовали в соревнованиях, но они
pole [pqVl] полюс
состояли на службе в конном патруле patrol [pq'trqVl]
местного отделения полиции. poll [pqVl] опрос, голосование, анкетирование
Когда Чемпиону исполнилось три года, я впервые решил role [rqVl] роль
принять с ним участие в соревнованиях по конкуру. По Ин- roll [rqVl] рулон, свиток, булочка
тернету я зарегистрировал enroll [In'rqVl] нас как участни- scroll [skrqVl] прокрутка, свиток
ков и перечислил небольшой обязательный сбор toll [tqVl] ski pole [skJ pqVl] лыжная палка
на счет организаторов соревнований. Я редко пользуюсь sole [sqVl] подошва
Интернетом, поэтому придумывание паролей, заполнение sole [sqVl] единственный, исключительный
строк в опросах poll [pqVl] для наездников и прочие фор- soul [sqVl] душа
мальности отняли у меня много времени. stroll [strqVl] прогулка, прогуливаться
Но вот все трудности регистрации позади, в указанное tadpole ['txdpqVl] головастик
время мы прибыли на поле для конкура, расположенное
toll [tqVl] пошлина, сбор, потери, урон
рядом с ипподромом. Соревнования начинаются. Так вол-
troll [trqVl] тролль, блесна
нительно первый раз участвовать в них! Столько зрителей,
whole [hqVl] целый
столько лошадей с наездниками! И каждый из присутству-
ющих расхваливает extol [Iks'tqVl] своего фаворита на все
лады. На этих соревнованиях нам с Чемпионом удалось Ксения Зайцева


The motto of the event was “A foreign language is your
road to a career.” The Academy trains students for profes-
sions needed for sea and water transport, shipbuilding, and
maritime law. It is 35 years old and has branches in Ufa,
Rostov, Rybinsk, and Veliky Ustyug. The number of students
is more than 8,000.
About 300 participants assembled in the main hall of
the Academy: students, teachers and professors, as well as
guests. They came to see and judge video clips sent by stu-
dents from different regions, cities, schools, and universities
of Russia. Their short films are in English and German. In
their clips students tell about their life and learning foreign
languages, they show their skills, talents and demonstrate the
need to master foreign languages for achieving success in
their working careers.

Приветственное слово и.о. ректора МГАВТ А.Г. Галая

On November 27, 2015 the third festival of foreign lan-

guages took place in Moscow State Academy of Water Trans-
port (WSAWT). It was arranged by the department of foreign
languages for the students who love foreign languages, who
seek the opportunity to express themselves, and who want to
show their skills, ability and even dreams.

Е.Л. Куницын

Before starting the program, the Rector of the Academy,

Alexander Galay, Vice-Rector for Scientific Research Oleg
Solyakov, and Ambassador-at-large of the Foreign Affairs
Ministry of the Russian Federation, Sergey Gubarev, took
the floor. All of them spoke about the importance of master-
ing foreign languages which are used today in nearly every
Knowledge of a foreign language is like gold stock in per-
son’s life. Currently, international relations are widely de-
veloping and the English language has become the means of
international communication so it is very important to study
it thoroughly. Foreign languages are included in universal
Роберт Тэйлор, Британский Совет knowledge and are not any longer a dead weight.

April 2016

Ведущие фестиваля языков

They then gave their opinion about 14 video clips. Thir- I told the audience about my 35 years of working with the
teen judges were chosen and I was among them. The assess- Baltic Shipping Company (Leningrad, St. Petersburg) when
ment criteria were: our company was very big and strong. We had 172 cargo
1. Time (3–4 min.) vessels and 10 passenger ships. I worked on board passenger
2. Development of the subject ships as purser and chief purser.
3. Good foreign language The ship’s officers spoke English fluently. They studied
4. Creativity the language at maritime institutions. As to the crew, espe-
5. Acting (1–3 pers) cially waitresses and stewardesses, we had a problem. We
6. Directing taught them almost daily the English they needed for their
At first seven video clips were shown and we had to put professional duties.
marks from 0 to 5 and give our data to the Chairman of Jury, When going ashore, our seamen were representatives of
Robert Taylor (Deputy Director Russia and Cultural Atta- their country, people’s ambassadors of Russia. In all the for-
che of the British Embassy in Moscow, The British Coun- eign ports, local people judged our country by the conduct
cil). While he and his assistants counted the marks, amateur of our crewmembers. I was pleased to hear from a British
singers and dancers of the Academy were performing for the customs official that the most disciplined seamen were Rus-
audience. sians. They never broke the customs rule. The worst smug-
Then, there was another session of viewing the clips and glers were Polish and English sailors.
again the interval for tallying the marks. During that break, Perfect knowledge of foreign languages allows one to
the floor was given to the members of the Jury. I was the first quickly learn the new culture, the way customs work and
speaker. rules of the host country, and avoid culture shock.
In conclusion, I said that in all countries strangers who
try to speak the country’s language are treated with respect.
After my talk, five of the other judges spoke, wishing the
students to be proficient in mastering foreign languages.

At the end of the festival, Robert Taylor announced the

winners taking the three first places! Samara (1), Moscow (2
and 3). Certainly the most important thing was participation
in that festival.
That competition demonstrated that the number of en-
thusiasts who are interested in studying foreign languages
thoroughly is growing. They were from places not connected
with the Academy: Kaluga, Tambov, Lipetsk, Stavropol and
others. Next year some foreign countries such as Poland,
England, Germany want to take part in the fourth festival of
foreign languages in the Academy.

By Evgeny Kunitsyn
Участница художественной самодеятельности. Photos taken by the author.

56 April 2016
Myths, Stereotypes an
Northern Ireland is a land full of mythological tales, its over the past number of years it has become apparent that
people often shrouded in misconceptions and stereotypes – both communities are intrigued with each other’s traditional
victims or agitators of the violent ‘troubles’.1 Take for in- instruments and the ways in which these skills are passed on
stance, the Protestant tradition of ‘Marching Bands’; these to the next generation. Whether it is a young Protestant with
are often portrayed in the media as creating occasions for their first Bb marching band flute, or a young Catholic with
conflict and the bandsmen as angry men trying to pick a fight their first traditional Irish ‘D’ flute against their lips, certain
with their neighbour. skills have to be learnt and the methods of teaching are simi-
In mythological terms, a re-enactment of the conflict lar across the religious divide.
between Finn MacCool and Benandonner: Finn (the Irish
giant) was worried that Benandonner (the Scottish giant) was
encroaching upon his territory and so he grabs chunks off the
Antrim Coast and throws them into the sea – intent on build-
ing a causeway to Scotland in order to teach old Benandon-
ner a lesson. Upon hearing the Scot’s booming voice in the
distance, he starts to worry that his neighbour must be much
bigger than he is and terrified, he retreats in haste. Luckily
his wife is quick-witted and disguises him as a baby so that
when the angry Scot arrives he decides that if the child is that
big, the father must be massive, and quickly departs home.

Normally a senior player would be given the task to pass

on their skills and experience to those who have come for-
ward to learn the instrument. However, many novice flutists
supplement this by listening to recordings of others playing
the pieces they are learning – this is as true of marching band
students as it is of the Irish flute player. The difference in
these two types of flute players is simply a question of per-
sonal perspective. While the Protestant band member sees
himself as distinctly British and the martial spirit as heredi-
tary, the Irish flutist is normally Roman Catholic by religion
and has a closer affiliation with traditional ‘Irish’ methods
of music-making. This is very clear when we examine the
particular percussion instruments which each uses to accom-
pany the flutes. The flutes in a Protestant marching band are
The point is, ‘stones were thrown’ and this not only marks accompanied by military style snare and bass drums, while
the geology of the ‘Antrim Coast’, Northern Ireland’s land- the Irish flutist uses the traditional bodhrán. In both tradi-
scape at the Giants Causeway, but is reflected in divided tions, while a larger proportion cannot read music, a signifi-
communities that sporadically engage in stone throwing. cant change has occurred in that some are reaching a higher
However, most are not as intolerant of the other’s culture level of musical education as more opportunities for univer-
and beliefs as stereotypical representatives would suggest. sity study have opened up.
In certain ‘troubled’ areas and among embittered individu- I belong to this category, having both began my musical
als who hold fast to extremely sectarian viewpoints, tensions apprenticeship in a marching band that placed some im-
can and do flare up. portance on becoming musically literate and advancing to
Across every political and religious divide, music-making university studies, completing both Honours and Masters
abounds throughout Northern Ireland and in the current pe- degrees. While I have travelled to conducting Masterclasses
riod of ceasefires, disbanded paramilitary organisations and both in Budapest and London and gained a great deal from
bridge building, it is not unheard of to have both a traditional directing professionally orchestras, I gladly return to help
Irish musician and a loyalist 2 marching band perform at the educate and improve the standard of playing within the ama-
same venue. The significance of this rests in the fact that in teur band scene in my own country. This is not always an
the heat of the ‘troubles’ the idea of getting Catholics and easy task as often poor methods and misconceptions of flute
Protestants together to make music would have been difficult, playing have been passed on, creating preconceived notions
to say the least – most staying within their own communities of what constitutes a good performance and good flute play-
and fearing to travel into the other’s territory. Nevertheless, ing. Without question, the flute is one of the central sounds of

April 2016

and Marching Bands

music-making in Ireland, however the types of flutes that are as the competitive element of these parades is concerned, it
played in both traditions are simple system flutes and come can be a simple matter of the band who organized the event
with their own inherent problems. At the top of the list of dif- awarding prizes to bands who they are especially friendly
ficulties have to be ‘Intonation’ 3 problems. Within the ranks with or adjudicator led results based on a supposed knowl-
of marching band members this is often overlooked and un- edge on the part of the judge. Each type of parade displays
fortunately even by adjudicators who seem to have replaced a great deal of pageantry and each band member takes per-
a higher level of competence on the instrument with simple sonal pride in their own band’s style and appearance. Here
entertainment value. Within melody part bands we have the the stereotypical view of the Ulster bandsman as an untidy
added difficulty that many of the bands have evolved from drunken thug parading to intimidate Roman Catholics is
the typically robust ‘Blood & Thunder’ 4 bands, with their seen to be without any real substance. This is not to deny
emphasis on volume of sound and little respect for musical that certain individual band members have sometimes dis-
finesse. graced themselves by having too much to drink and getting
too hot-headed. The fact is that under circumstances like
this they have more often fought among themselves than
with those of a different religion.
The marching band parade in Northern Ireland is not
about provoking or intimidating any member of a differ-
ent religion but is a disciplined affair which displays both
marching skill and the ability of band members to perform
well as a unit. This pageant of colour, rhythms and sounds
that move steadily forward in a well staged procession re-
veals something about the intrinsic nature of music and pa-
rading to the Ulster Protestant – musical parading is part of
a shared identity. The band uniforms are military in style,
some almost identical to regimental bands of the British
Army and other uniforms resembling American military
styles. To members of these marching bands, putting on a
As you will by now have realized, there is much diversity uniform and marching is part of a long tradition in the North
in the types and styles of marching bands whose sounds pen- of Ireland and is in their blood. Each band practices on a
etrate the air each marching season in Northern Ireland. This weekly basis, some even twice a week to hone their skills in
brings us back to the recurring myth that Protestant marching preparation for these parades. Not only is the band’s play-
bands are only interested in coat-trailing.5 While it is evident ing scrutinized but also their marching skills. As prizes are
that the parades which bands take part in are an expression also awarded for style and appearance, the quality of the
of the performer’s cultural identity, it is also obvious that procession becomes as important as the music. On these
these are not organized with the intention of provoking those occasions the marching band would generally perform mil-
of another religion. If a broader picture of the activities of itary marches. These could be British, American, Austrian
marching bands in Ulster is examined, we will learn that or German, however the repertoire is more diverse than is
throughout the year these musicians are engaged in a wider often assumed. Loyalist songs, music from the movies or
range of music-making than is often understood – from street television shows, pop songs and jigs are interspersed with
fares to indoor contests. If we consider a melody-part band the traditional march.
like Lisburn Young Defenders, who themselves evolved from
a traditional ‘Blood and Thunder’ band to become repeated
winners of the Northern Irish Band Association’s champion-
ship, we will discover that there is much more to the typical
marching band than is often perceived.
In the spring and summer months, Lisburn Young De-
fenders like every other loyalist flute band in Ulster, spends
a vast amount of time participating in street parades. This
can range from those organized by Lodges of the Orange
and Black institutions6 and for which the bands receive pay-
ment, to road contests and other parades which flute bands
organize themselves. The latter is participated in freely and
shows a great deal of mutual cooperation between march-
ing bands to ensure that these parades are a success. As far
tant Shankill Road began their concert with fellow musicians

58 April 2016
from across the world, in a joint project against racial attacks
among ethnic communities who had set up home in Northern
The feelings and concerns expressed by the band’s
chairman, David Thompson, as they headed into central
An examination of the repertoire for ‘Road Work’7 is par- Belfast in full uniform and Shankill Road Defenders clear-
ticularly revealing in an effort to dispel the myths surround- ly visible upon their bass drum, highlight the misunder-
ing the marching bands of Ulster.8 Among the most popular standing and prejudice that the Northern Ireland marching
pieces performed in the outdoor arena is ‘Penny Arcade’ and band community often has to deal with. Mr. Thompson
‘The Yellow Rose of Texas’ both of which could not in the relates that the band was decidedly nervous and worried
slightest be referred to as sectarian. ‘Penny Arcade’ is of that they would be viewed with suspicion, even though
course a Roy Orbison hit, which shot him back to the top they were performing along with musicians from over-
of the charts in 1969. Its theme centres around the colourful seas. Relating the story of the band’s involvement in a
lights of arcade machines in an amusement park: community project that had the band playing for eight
months alongside people, including Muslim musicians,
“Step up and play” each machine seemed to say from a wide range of countries across the world, such as
As I walked round and round the penny arcade Jamaica, India, Slovakia, Ghana and Kurdistan, the band’s
Just ring the bell on the big bagatelle chairman comments, “The way the present situation is go-
And you’ll make all the coloured lights cascade. ing with the loyalist bands – we can’t walk here and we
can’t walk there – we feel our culture is in danger. We
The song has been adopted by Glasgow Rangers football are misinterpreted. We thought Music Unite9 would be an
fans in Scotland and as a consequence loved by football opportunity to show that we are not a sectarian mob and
fanatics in Northern Ireland. Many of the members, both we are not racist. We are working-class people who go
young and old, within the Ulster flute band scene are avid to work and then try to express ourselves through music.
football fans. Given the songs popularity, I was asked to We can feel sympathy with the multi-cultural people who
arrange it for Lisburn Young Defenders a couple of years live here and who are fighting the same battles as we are
ago. This required some rewriting as the song in its original against bigotry and stereotyping.”
version is in quadruple time (4 beats in a bar) and needed to It is clear from the proceeding comments that there is
be in duple time (2 beats in a bar), otherwise it could not be much frustration among Northern Ireland’s marching bands
performed at parades with the necessary two-step required due to the negative image that is perpetually portrayed in
for marching. It is characteristic of the pieces performed by the media. This is always disappointing to this writer, as
flute bands in Northern Ireland that they have been adopted it overlooks the skills and discipline that these musicians
for use in ‘road work.’ There are many fine music arrangers display on a regular basis. This brings us to a discussion of
among Northern Ireland and Scotland’s flute bands. This the contests that melody bands organize and participate in
has come about by necessity as the need for new pieces after their busy marching season. In October Shankill Road
to perform is constant and the supply of music from rec- Defenders hold their annual indoor10 contest for melody
ognised music publishers is non-existent. The basic rea- bands followed in March by Lisburn Young Defenders an-
son for this is due to the peculiar instrumentation which is nual indoor contest.
employed in melody-part bands, this will be discussed at
a later stage. Much of it has to do with having a suitably
pitched flute that can be heard during a street parade with
surrounding noise from weather conditions and over exu-
berant crowds of spectators.
‘The Yellow Rose of Texas’ is a traditional American
folksong which first appeared in Christy’s Plantation Melo-
dies No.2 in 1853, it is a firm favourite among flute bands
in Northern Ireland and has recently been used by a loyalist
flute band in tackling racism against ethnic communities in
Belfast. The choice of this song to combat racism has par-
ticular resonance, given the original lyrics of the song and
subsequent changes. The words are written in the first person
perspective and describe an African American, (who refers to
himself as “Darkey”) in his longing to find the “Yellow girl,”
presumably a bi-racial sweetheart, whom he had left. The
song became popular during the American Civil War when
the coloured protagonist was replaced by a soldier who had
gone to war leaving behind his yellow haired Rose of Texas Although there are many other smaller indoor contests
but longed to return to her. The song was popular among throughout the province, these two are the biggest and at-
Confederate forces, many of whom believed that slavery was tract both local melody bands and those from across the
an integral part of Southern society. This was the first piece Irish sea, with bands from Scotland attending these events.
on the playlist, when a flute band from the staunchly Protes- In the banding community this creates a great deal of ex-
citement and anticipation but more importantly a great
deal of serious rehearsal on the part of each band com-
peting in the contests. ‘Adjudication’ however, is often a
concern among performers and conductors alike, this is
often a result of marking systems that are not adequate
April 2016

for the job or personal preferences over musicality and

informed decision making. The limited focus of the com- The latter depends on the size of the band at the time. The
ments and lack of clarity often point to adjudication that is usual ensemble of flutes in Lisburn Young Defenders both
not based on a solid and well thought-out criteria. Unfor- for ‘Road’ and ‘Indoor’ performance are the above flutes
tunately, loyalist bands have not been willing to take seri- with the exclusion of Bb Bass, this is similar to other bands
ously the need for qualified and well-trained adjudicators within the melody-part band scene. The band’s instruments
that have their aural skills well tested. Perhaps a model are made of blackwood by Peter Worrell of Norwich, Eng-
based on the criteria used by examiners of the Associated land. The density of this particular wood gives the instru-
Boards of the Royal Schools of music would provide a ment a great clarity of sound. The function of the flute within
more consistent level of adjudication. Two contests that Ulster’s marching bands means that they are produced at a
have always showed a greater level of adjudicatory skills higher pitch than the standard UK pitch of A = 440hz. For
are those run by the Northern Ireland Band Association example, Worrell’s model is a Hawkes Crown AZ flute at A
(NIBA) and the Flute Band League. In the typical North- = 452.5hz. Here the necessity of being heard in an outdoor
ern Irish flute band contest, a very wide range of music venue is paramount to the choice of instrument which is se-
can be expected. lected by melody bands throughout the North of Ireland.
Before considering this wider repertoire, it is necessary The 1st Bb flutes make up the bulk of the band and they are
to understand the instrumentation. The modern melody-part pitched a sixth higher than the standard orchestral flute. The
band consists of an Eb Piccolo, 1st & 2nd Bb flutes, and F 2nd Bb consists of 4 or 5 players and tend to play harmonies
flutes, occasionally Bb Basses are added. Some bands don’t to the 1st’s melody line. The F flutes are pitched a fifth lower
use F flutes, but their use is becoming much more the norm than the Bb flutes and are really the bass instruments of the
in the melody-part bands of Northern Ireland. The reason four-part instrumentation. These tend to play counter-melo-
why the word ‘melody-part’ band is used, has to do with the dies, along with harmonisations. Above everything sings the
history of melody bands in that they originated from bands Eb Piccolo with its pitch another fifth above that of the Bb
that merely played the melody line but have subsequently flutes, when played well, these can be a very effective addi-
developed into part playing bands. This evolution within tion to any melody band but are often abused by being over-
melody bands has occurred partly as a result of the member- blown. This is not the case among Lisburn Young Defender’s
ship of music readers who had learnt their trade from mu- ranks with a female piccolo player who plays with control
sically literate bands and then moved to the melody band and sweetly balances with the band. Of course, these flutes
scene, as well as the desire of other members to introduce are accompanied in performance by side drums, cymbal and
parts into their bands, this has also often meant the intro- bass drum, with the occasional addition of tenor drum and
duction of conductors who are able to direct and solve any other percussion instruments for concert work.
ensemble problems. Returning to the question of band repertoire it might be of
The instrumentation as used by Lisburn Young Defenders interest to our readers to learn that Lisburn Young Defenders
consists of: have performed a piece called ‘The Cossack Patrol’ (Poly-
An Eb Piccolo, ushko Pole) by Lev Knipper, which has been performed by
many a Russian artist. A few years ago the band also per-
formed a composition by their conductor in the melody sec-
tion of the flute band league contest entitled ‘The Battle of
Poltava’ which depicted one of the decisive victories of Peter
the Great. Below is a picture of the band performing this
work and gaining second place in the Flute Band Association
of Northern Ireland’s Annual contest.
1st & 2nd Bb Flutes,

F flutes,

and occasionally Bb Bass.

As you will notice from the picture, the band performed

with the addition of Tubular Bells, Timpani, Tenor and the
to the band’s repertoire. Simon was certainly the main insti-

60 April 2016
gator of the title ‘Marching to the Cavern’ which both hinted
at ‘the Beatles’ early performance history in Liverpool at the
Cavern Club and of a marching band’s adaptation of their
music. I certainly didn’t make it easy for both the band and
myself with changing tempos that had to be worked into a
usual snare drum. The unusual ‘Thunderer’ (pictured below) march routine. In the end, the piece went down with spec-
was also added to help create the noise of canons sounding tacular success and was a credit to all involved and showed
in the distance. the band’s ability to adopt to challenges placed upon them.
‘Marching to the Cavern’ commences with ‘A Hard Day’s
Night’, moves to the slower ‘Let it be,’ then a slight lift in
the tempo for ‘When I’m Sixty-Four’ before slowing again
with the familiar strains of ‘Hey Jude’ which itself develops
into a climactic return of ‘A Hard Day’s Night’ in the form
of a coda.
The band also performed the ever popular ‘Penny Arcade’
which was mentioned earlier in our discussion. The band
captain, (Robert Geddis) was particularly keen to have this
number performed due to its popularity and the cheers from
the crowd as the band entered the arena, with the strains of
Orbison’s hit echoing in the ears of 5,000 odd spectators,
As you will by now understand, contesting is very impor- affirmed that a good choice had been made. Many of the
tant within the band movement in the North of Ireland. The spectators had never heard an Ulster melody band perform
pride with which individual members feel as they mount a such pieces and the expectation would have been that the
stage to perform with their band cannot be underestimated band would play military style marches, especially given the
and creates not only a sense of tradition but also of being marching arena in which the performance took place. Preju-
part of the culture of music-making within loyalist bands. dices and stereotypes seem to have been shattered among the
While each band is strongly competitive, there also exists a audience during Lisburn Young Defender’s performances at
comradeship among bands and a joint desire to promote the the Belfast Tattoo given the feedback that emerged over the
cause of the marching band throughout Ireland and beyond. following weeks. In terms of the type of music that melody-
A significant honour was given to Lisburn Young Defenders part bands perform and the disciplined nature of the Loyalist
this year in being asked to represent the melody-part bands marching band, many myths were broken.
at the Belfast Tattoo. This is a prestigious event held in the
Belfast SSE Arena. When a band has the privilege to perform
at this venue they will be among some very top class bands
indeed. An international line-up with some 600 performers
taking to the floor, showcases some of the finest marching
bands, musicians and dancers from across Northern Ireland
and beyond. In the 2015 Belfast Tattoo Lisburn Young De-
fenders had the privilege of performing alongside the Band
of HM Royal Marines in a two-hour show that concluded
with a grand finale that saw all the artists come together
with Massed Pipe and Drums to bring the show to a grand

Returning to the subject of band captains within melody-

part bands. This office is important in melody bands and not
only highlights the discipline that the bands maintain but
also the necessity of good working relationships between the
conductor and official representatives of the band. A differ-
ent perspective from outside the musical director’s closed
world of sitting arranging music at their computer can be
a useful one. This was confirmed to me a few months ago
when I had arranged the theme from the television fantasy
series ‘Game of Thrones’ for SRD’s11 indoor contest. I had
Lisburn young Defenders are pictured above performing written a gentle ending, which faded away on a diminuendo,
‘Marching to the Cavern’ at the Tattoo. Simon Toole, who but the band captain suggested that I write a different con-
plays an F flute in the band (beside his father, Alan) is a big clusion which ends with a crescendo. After setting about on
‘Beatles’ fan and I had promised him an arrangement of some this the inspiration came and although the ending wasn’t as
‘Beatles’ Medleys for some considerable time. With the Tat- simple as his suggestion, both myself and the band approved
too looming it seemed to be the right time to add such a piece of the final result.

April 2016

In conclusion, while this “insiders” view of the tradi- United Kingdom and support Northern Ireland remaining
tion of marching bands in Northern Ireland has focused within the United Kingdom.
upon some of the stereotyping and myths that bands regu- 3
‘Intonation’ has to do with a musician’s realization of
larly encounter, it has not drawn attention to some of the pitch accuracy and his ability to produce musical tones
underlying causes. This would require further research in relation to the pitch of notes within a particular key or
and a more detailed analysis than the pages of this short harmony.
article would allow. Nevertheless, the mainly negative 4
‘Blood & Thunder’ refers to a genre of marching band
image in which the media have chosen to portray Loyal- that is characterized by brash, thundering drums, (often
ist marching bands and the difficulty of ‘Irish’ Catholics, the bass drum is beaten with such force that it is not un-
(whose culture does not possess a marching tradition) to common to see blood smears across the drum skin) and
understand the Protestant martial spirit, is at the heart of overblown flutes, that produce a seriously shrill sound.
the problem. Unfortunately, most have only heard and 5
‘Coat-trailing’ refers to behaviour that is deliberately pro-
seen the selected prejudicial clips that are shown on tele- vocative.
vision and know nothing of the wide repertoire and var- 6
The ‘Orange’ and ‘Black’ institutions are loyal orders of
ied work which the Ulster marching band engages with. an international Protestant fraternal organisation based
It is also true that in a divided community which is still primarily in Northern Ireland but which extends through-
coming to terms with the challenges of co-operating and out the globe.
co-existing together, there are some who will simply not 7
‘Road Work’ is an expression used by Ulster bands to
want to understand or reassess Ulster’s marching bands. refer to street parades.
However, it is the hope of this writer that many will come 8
‘Ulster’ is a term often used by Protestant band members
to understand that it is not music that divides us but rather but refers to more than the six Counties of Northern Ire-
that music-making should be appreciated in its own terms land. The nine Counties of ‘Ulster’ include Cavan, Don-
as a way of expression and of a shared humanity. In a egal and Monaghan, which after territorial divisions re-
land of breathtaking scenery, scattered with Norman cas- sides under the jurisdiction of the Republic of Ireland.
tles, Christian and Celtic monuments, beautiful coastlines 9
‘Music Unite’ is a project developed by Beyond Skin and
with valleys and mountains resplendent in ‘fifty shades’ the Centre for Democracy and Peace Building to engage
of green, Northern Ireland can be an idyllic place but one Loyalist flute bands.
that needs to rise from the mythological debris of past 10
‘Indoor’ is a term used by marching bands to distinguish
prejudices and stereotyping.12 between types of contests, some of which are held out-
doors and are part of their ‘Outdoor Work.’
‘SRD’ is a shortened form of the name Shankill Road
‘The Troubles’ refers to a violent thirty-year conflict in Defenders. Melody bands often shorten their name to the
Northern Ireland framed by a civil rights march in Lon- first letter of each word, hence Lisburn Young Defenders
donderry on 5th October 1968 and the Good Friday Agree- becomes ‘the LYD’.
ment on 10th April 1998. 12
Two typical flute players from Northern Ireland expressing
The term ‘Loyalist’ in Northern Ireland is typified by a their culture in music at the 11th July bonfire celebrations.
strong opposition to Irish republicanism and is a politi-
cal ideology found primarily among working class Ulster By Gary Shields
Protestants. Loyalists are attached to the monarchy of the Photos taken by the author.


April 2016

на уроках иностранного языка средствами игровой технологии

(на примере УМК FORWARD под ред. Вербицкой М.В.)
Зажечь искорку интереса в глазах ученика, сделать учение • обогащается и активизируется лексический запас;
посильным и радостным – непростая задача для каждого учи- • ликвидируются пробелы грамматических структур;
теля. При подготовке к уроку я тщательно продумываю, чем се- • осваивается новый грамматический материал коммуника-
годняшнее занятие будет отличаться от вчерашнего. Меняются тивным путем;
в зависимости от возрастных особенностей учащихся исполь- • корректируется произношение и интонация, формируется
зуемые мной приёмы и виды работ, направленные на развитие фонематический слух;
интереса и потребности в занятиях. • улучшаются аудитивные навыки путем погружения в языко-
Выбор игровой технологии предшествовал моим разду- вую среду;
мьям: • развиваются все виды речевой деятельности;
– Как учить, чтобы вызвать у детей желание войти в культу- • повышается языковая компетенция.
ру изучаемого языка? Драма близка ребенку, так как динамична, действенна и на-
– Как организовать процесс обучения, чтобы в его центре поминает мир игры, в котором он живет. Это то, во что мы во-
оказался ученик? влечены в повседневной жизни, когда сталкиваемся с разными
– Как добиться, чтобы ученик творил, был честным, силь- ситуациями. Соприкосновение с игрой и искусством делает
ным, умел удивляться, чувствовал мир, радовался жизни? общение ученика с учителем ярким и запоминающимся. Зани-
Ответ на эти вопросы я нахожу в УМК серии “Форвард”, маясь одним общим делом, учитель и его ученики становятся
где значительное место уделено формированию ценностных единомышленниками, а значит:
ориентиров и эстетических идеалов в соответствии с ФГОС. • разрушается непонимание между учителем и учеником;
Деятельностный характер предмета “Английский язык” соот- • учитель становится менее доминантным;
ветствует природе младшего школьника, воспринимающего • создается атмосфера доверия, и улучшаются отношения
мир целостно, эмоционально и активно. Это позволяет вклю- учителя с учениками;
чать иноязычную речевую деятельность в другие виды дея- • дети становятся свободнее, увереннее в себе;
тельности, свойственные ребенку данного возраста (игровую, • дети учатся работать в команде, терпимо относиться друг к
познавательную, художественную, эстетическую и т.п.), и дает другу;
возможность осуществлять разнообразные связи с предмета- • формируется чувство взаимопомощи и ответственности за
ми, изучаемые в начальной школе, и формировать общеучеб- свои знания;
ные умения и навыки, которые межпредметны по своему ха- • ситуация успеха побуждает ребенка к дальнейшей деятель-
рактеру. ности;
Это значит, что, прежде всего, нужно создать – мотив, то • игра будит творческую фантазию
есть, поставить учащегося в такие условия, чтобы у него по- Драма, несомненно, помогает развить у учеников языко-
явилась необходимость, потребность и желание включиться в вую компетенцию, даже если языковая подготовка детей на-
работу на английском языке. Применение игровых техноло- ходится не на самом высоком уровне. Поэтому для поддер-
гий эффективно решает эту проблему. В игре человек пробует жания интереса к языку, внимания детей на уроке, я исполь-
свои силы, в ней происходит процесс самоутверждения. Игра- зую занимательные сюжеты, игровые ситуации. Участвуя в
ющие получают удовольствие от игровых действий и процесса спектакле, дети слушают, слышат и понимают друг друга. А
общения. Несмотря на условность ситуации в игре, чувства в ведь аудирование - один из самых важных и сложных видов
ней обычно являются подлинными, реальными. Увлекатель- речевой деятельности. Именно поэтому любая дополнитель-
ный мир спектаклей, песен, игр, импровизаций, имитаций, ная возможность в практике аудирования может быть полезна
представленный в УМК “Форвад”, может оказать учителю нео- ученикам. Ведь сценическое действие помогает понять смысл
ценимую помощь в формировании и развитии языковой компе- происходящего, и в результате у зрителей развивается языко-
тенции, решении задач эстетического воспитания, в развитии вая догадка.
творческих способностей детей. Учителя не должны бояться показаться непрофессиональ-
Важным моментом в развитии произношения и фонемати- ными с точки зрения режиссуры и драматургии, так как конеч-
ческого слуха является использование музыки и песен. Музы- ная цель постановки не создание театрального шедевра, а во-
ка дает настрой спектаклю, а песни способствуют развитию влечение детей в творческий процесс обучения языку.
у школьников чувства языка, помогают активизации лексики. При использовании игр на уроке улучшается дисциплина,
Музыкальный ритм помогает легче усваивать грамматические появляется заинтересованность ребят в работе, концентриру-
структуры. Разучивание коротких и несложных песен с часты- ется их внимание, повышается активность, так как в урок вно-
ми повторами помогает ребенку закрепить не только слова, но сятся элементы соперничества и соревнования.
и правильную артикуляцию, правильное произношение звуков, Для учителя развитие способностей школьников – трудная
ударения, ритм. Следовательно, музыка, являясь одним из наи- задача и большая нагрузка психологического характера. Я де-
более эффективных способов воздействия на чувства и эмоции лаю однозначный выбор: сделать учение посильным и ра-
детей, служит в спектакле сильнейшим психологическим побу- достным для каждого ученика.
дителем. Сцена приучает детей к четкой, правильно оформлен-
ной грамматической, интонационно фонетически речи. Через Г.М. Бувдевская,
ролевую игру, моделированную ситуацию и физическое дей- учитель английского языка
ствие коммуникативным путем: ГБОУ СОШ № 210, г. Санкт-Петербург
Издательский дом «ПЕРВОЕ СЕНТЯБРЯ»

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Министерство образования Московской области l Издательский дом «Первое сентября»

«Новые средства – только добавление

возможностей, а не замена дидактики
и имеющегося опыта»
Электронные формы учебников (ЭФУ) • контент учебника должен быть избы- • тренажеры,
используются в школах страны относитель- точным и вариативным (чтобы отвечать • «плитки» – мультимедийные наглядные
но недавно. Сейчас – период приобрете- нуждам и потребностям как слабого, так объекты.
ния, накапливания личного опыта в работе и сильного ученика); Рассмотрим возможности их использо-
с ЭФУ. Важны общие усилия в этом направ- • учебник должен быть интерактивным и вания на уроке.
лении всего педагогического сообщества. мультимедийным; Словарь терминов – это не новшество
Необходимо пробовать, анализировать и • учебник должен содержать разнообраз- ЭФУ. Словари есть и в печатных учебниках.
обобщать полученный опыт, обращая осо- ные виды КИМов и домашних заданий; Их можно открыть, термин можно найти,
бое внимание на трудности в использова- • учебник должен позволять интеграцию прочитать, выучить, запомнить, выписать в
нии ЭФУ – как технические, так и дидакти- или встраивание других материалов, в тетрадь… И все-таки электронный учебник
ческие. т.  ч. из открытых источников, собствен- позволяет интенсифицировать процесс ра-
Сегодня уже трудно представить шко- ных. боты со словарем, поскольку термин и его
лу без информационно-образовательной Существующие ЭФУ вполне покрывают дефиницию не обязательно переписывать
среды: без компьютеров, ноутбуков, план- спектр пожеланий и требований учителей. в тетрадь, а можно просто скопировать и
шетов, интерактивных досок, проекторов. Главное – найти верный ход и использовать поместить в заметки. Каждая заметка при-
В этих новых условиях перед учителем сто- то, что в ЭФУ уже заложено, чтобы новые вязывается к соответствующему параграфу,
ит задача найти баланс в триаде «устрой- формы, новые технологии служили под- но есть возможность просмотреть все за-
ство – содержание – методика». При этом спорьем мастерству и творчеству педагога. метки сразу. Этот удобный инструмент реа-
нельзя пренебрегать и вопросами здоро- В электронные формы учебников встро- лизован в каждом электронном учебнике
вьесбережения. ены: всех издательств. Кроме того, в заметки
Исследования использования ИТ в клас- • словарь терминов, можно вносить свои комментарии, записы-
се показывают, что учащиеся, пользующие- • заметки, вать формулы, термины, тезисы, домашние
ся компьютером умеренно (до двух часов
в день), учатся лучше своих сверстников,
использующих компьютер часто (до шести
часов в день). У ребят, сидящих перед экра-
ном свыше шести часов в день, могут даже
возникнуть психологические проблемы.
Следовательно, оправдан умеренный
подход в использовании технологий.
Эффективное использование ИКТ-среды
позволяет лучше вовлекать ученика в рабо-
ту с учетом его образовательных возмож-
ностей и потребностей для достижения
новых образовательных результатов.
Электронный учебник, развиваясь, все
больше выходит в центр образовательной
ИКТ-среды. Методические требования к
Э л е к т р о нн ы е у ч е б ни к и – кажд о м у у ч е ни к у !
Министерство образования Московской области l Издательский дом «Первое сентября»

(пусть даже и безотметочного) тестирова-

ния, но и для тренировки, например, когда
нужно довести до автоматизма какие-то
навыки, решить некоторое количество по-
хожих, однотипных задач или примеров.
Использование технологий позволяют по-
добные, по своей сути скучные, задания
превратить в захватывающее, увлекатель-
ное действие. Использование технологий
делает возможным создание на уроке так
называемой win-win-situation, ситуации
без проигравших. Отметки за выполнение
заданий не выставляются, но оценивание,
фиксация верных и неверных решений про-
исходит. К примеру, на планшетах учени-
ков, правильно выполнивших задание, мо-
жет появиться сообщение «Молодец!» (как
это было реализовано на уроке алгебры в
7-м классе гимназии № 1520 им. Капцовых
учителем А.В. Дорониным. См.: http://www.
youtube.com/watch?v=NOFhYThwEyM). Уча-
щиеся, не получившие такого сообщения
задания и обращаться к ним в случае не- гих заданиях ответ может быть введен в или получившие сообщение «Есть ошиб-
обходимости. С помощью заметок ученик соответствующее поле с клавиатуры. ки», понимают, что что-то выполнили не
создает свой конспект учебника в соответ- В электронном учебнике после каждого так, сами ищут ошибку или повторно вы-
ствии со своим собственным пониманием. параграфа имеется некоторое количество полняют задание. В подобной ситуации
Для ученика это возможность осознанного проверочных или контрольных вопросов. ученики учатся оценивать себя, находить и
учения, отбора важной информации, ее Из них для каждого ученика формируется исправлять свои ошибки. Ученик анализи-
классификации. Заметки – инструмент, по- свой набор из трех-пяти вопросов, ответ на рует свои шаги, действия – проводит реф-
зволяющий подстроить содержание учеб- которые позволяет понять уровень усвое- лексию.
ника под себя, индивидуализировать учеб- ния материала. В конце урока ученики уже Мгновенная обратная связь, которая
ный процесс. могут не подвергаться заключительному возможна при использовании ЭФУ, – это
Электронный учебник ценен наличи- фронтальному опросу. Каждый из них про- один из ключевых моментов в сегодняш-
ем тренировочных тестов (в профес- сто выполняет свои задания и тут же полу- нем обучении. Она позволяет этап рефлек-
сиональном сообществе их уже называют чает результат. сии на уроке сделать более осознанным,
«тренажерами»). За выполнение этих те- Важно отметить и эмоциональную со- осмысленным. Ученик видит, с чем он
стовых заданий отметка, как правило, не ставляющую такого быстрого тестирова- справился или какой учебной цели он пока
выставляется. Но ученик сразу видит ре- ния. Ученик получает мгновенную обрат- не достиг, и пытается найти путь для ее до-
зультат тестирования, видит свои сильные ную связь, получает подтверждение или стижения.
и слабые стороны, понимает, что нужно опровержение своих представлений об ЭФУ дает большие возможности для
выучить или повторить. Тренажер помо- успешности своего обучения на данном работы с иллюстративным материалом.
гает выявлять дефициты в знаниях учаще- уроке (несколько модифицируется этап Наглядность важна при работе как с юны-
гося. Выполняя тесты, фрагменты тестов рефлексии). Кроме того, неуспевающий ми обучающимися, так и со старшекласс-
или отдельные задания, ученик «трениру- ученик имеет возможность не выставлять никами. Мультимедийность ЭФУ и любые
ется», лучше запоминает материал. Мож- свое незнание на всеобщее обозрение, как другие технологические возможности
но какие-то вещи, факты запомнить или это могло бы быть при заключительном электронных учебников – не самоцель. Все
выучить, обращаясь только к тренажеру, фронтальном опросе. Еще один положи- имеет смысл в ракурсе достижения цели
идя к правильному ответу через ошибки, тельный момент подобного тестирования: урока и методических задач, решаемых
задумываясь, почему тот или иной вари- в отличие от фронтального опроса, когда учениками самостоятельно.
ант ответа неверный. возможно охватить лишь некоторое число В заключение хотелось бы пригласить
Следует отметить, что в ЭФУ предлага- учащихся, в тестировании с помощью тре- коллег-учителей попробовать приобрести
ются разные виды закрытых и условно от- нажера принимают участие все ученики. электронный учебник, открыть его и для
крытых тестовых заданий. Это и задания с Стопроцентный охват с обратной связью за начала не искать, чем он отличается от того,
множественным выбором правильного от- пару минут! чего вы от него ждали, а найти в нем то, что
вета, и задания на выстраивание последо- Как отмечалось выше, тренажер мож- могло бы помочь в проведении умных, ин-
вательности, на поиск соответствий. В дру- но использовать не только как инструмент тересных, захватывающих уроков.

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Э л е кт р о н н ы е у ч е б н и к и – кажд о м у у ч е н и ку !
Министерство образования Московской области l Издательский дом «Первое сентября»

Bring Your Own Device

Электронный учебник – это содержание плюс устройство

Для воспроизведения электронных либо уже есть планшеты, ноутбуки, лэпто- ния электронных учебников ученикам сво-
учебников требуется устройство (план- пы, либо родители готовы их приобрести, его класса за счет бюджета области.
шет, ноутбук, лэптоп, стационарный ком- особенно для нужд учёбы. Успешность подхода «������
br �� � �-
пьютер и т.п.). Так или иначе, современный сценарий vice�����������������������������������-
Современные электронные формы централизованного предоставления элек- тов у учеников и от их готовности использо-
учебников проигрываются на широком тронных учебников ученикам в классе мо- вать эти устройства не только в игровых, но
спектре устройств и практически на всех жет выглядеть следующим образом: шко- и в учебных целях. Проверка актуальности
популярных операционных платформах. ла закупает лицензии на использование такого подхода и составляет одну из целей
Таково требование Министерства образо- электронных учебников, а учитель в классе проекта по обеспечению учеников Мо-
вания и науки РФ, выполнение которого объявляет, что теперь есть возможность сковской области электронными учебника-
необходимо для внесения электронного передать ЭФУ на устройства тем ученикам, ми (электронными формами учебников) в
учебника в Федеральный перечень. кто готов использовать личные устройства 2016 году. Проект инициирован Министер-
И если обеспечить школу электронными в учебных целях. ством образования Московской области и
учебниками (лицензиями на пользование) В рамках проекта Министерства обра- реализуется в сотрудничестве с Издатель-
в любом необходимом объеме (любой ти- зования Московской области «Оказание ским домом «Первое сентября».
раж) не составляет проблем, то снабдить услуги по обеспечению доступа обучаю- Какое количество устройств на руках
всех учеников класса мобильными устрой- щихся общеобразовательных организа- учеников в классе является достаточным
ствами, соответствующими нормам Сан- ций Московской области к электронным для успешного урока? Это предмет ис-
ПиНа и техническим спецификациям про- учебникам и электронным приложениям к следования и опыта. В следующих статьях
граммного комплекса, – непросто. учебникам» был создан сайт-витрина элек- мы рассмотрим сценарии уроков, когда
Это проблема не только нашей стра- тронных учебников, который поддержива- устройства с электронной формой учебни-
ны, это всеобщая проблема, пришедшая к ет такой сценарий передачи электронных ка есть:
нам вместе с новыми технологиями. Где- учебников ученикам. То есть задача ви- 1) только у учителя,
то эту проблему пытаются решить через трины ibook.1september.ru – предоставить 2) у малого количества учащихся,
централизованные закупки необходимых электронные учебники для использования 3) у половины учеников,
устройств хотя бы в пилотные школы, но не только на школьных устройствах, но и на 4) у всех учеников,
нарастающий всемирный тренд решения личных устройствах учителей и учеников. 5) когда устройства есть у учителя и всех
этой проблемы – технологического обе- Пошаговая инструкция на сайте – текстовая учеников, и эти устройства связаны в еди-
спечения работы с электронными учебни- и видео – позволяет каждому учителю Мо- ную технологическую сеть.
ками – получил говорящее название «Bring сковской области в течение всего 2016 года
Your� ����� �������������������������������- реализовать такой сценарий предоставле-
ский язык означает: «принеси в школу, в
офис своё собственное устройство».
Гипотеза состоит в том, что универсаль-
ные мобильные устройства во всё в боль-
шем количестве приобретаются пользова-
телями для собственных нужд: личный ор-
ганайзер, игры, чтение книг, электронная
почта, интернет, соцсети.
Практически все устройства, входящие
в класс «планшет», достаточно функцио-
нальны не только для обслуживания лич-
ных (персональных) задач пользователя
в повседневной жизни, но и для учебных
целей, включая воспроизведение элек-
тронных учебников или обслуживание
электронной образовательной среды. Ис-
следования рынка подтверждают, что у всё
большего количества старшеклассников

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