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GSM

2004


.........................................................................................................................................................................1
1 GSM.................................................................................................................................5
1.1. ......................................................................................................................................................5
1.2. ..................................................................................................................................5
1.3. ...................................................................................................................................6
1.4. (GSM)................................................................................................7
GSM. GSM....................................................................................7
1.4.2 ETSI GSM ................................................................................................................................8
1.5 GSM...............................................................................................................................9
1.6. , ......................................................................................10
1.7 GSM........................................................................................................................14
AUC............................................................................................................................................................................15
1.8 SS ...........................................................................................................................16
1.8.1 (MSC).................................................................................................16
(HLR).............................................................................................................16
(VLR).........................................................................................................................................16
(AUC)................................................................................................................................17
1.9 BSS.................................................................................................................17
(BSC)......................................................................................................................17
1.9.2 (BTS).....................................................................................................................................17
1.9.3 ...........................................................................................................17
(MS).........................................................................................................................................17
1.10 GSM.................................................................................................................18
1.10.1 .................................................................................................................................................................18
1.10.2 (LA)...........................................................................................................................19
MSC (SA).................................................................................................................................19
PLMN.......................................................................................................................................19
1.10.5 GSM..............................................................................................................................19
1.11. GSM..................................................................................................................................21
1.12 ...........................................................................................................................22
2 - ......................................................................................................................24
2.1 ..............................................................................................................................................24
2.1.1 ..............................................................................................................................................................24
2.1.2. ....................................................................................................................................................24
2.1.3. .......................................................................................................................................25
2.1.4. .............................................................................................................................................................25
2.1.5. .........................................................................................................................................26
2.1.6. ....................................................................................................................................26
2.1.7. ................................................................................27
2.1.8 ...........................................................................................................................................27
2.1.9 ........................................................................................................................................................27
2.1.10. : (TDMA).........................................................................28
2.2 .........................................................................................................................28
2.2.1. .....................................................................................................................28
2.2.2. ......................................................................................................................................28
,
......................................................................................................................................28
2.2.3. ...................................................................................................................................29
2.2.4. .........................................................................................................................................29
2.2.5. .....................................................................................29
2.3. , ...................................................................................29
2.3.1. (Path loss).....................................................................29
2.3.2. (Shadowing)...................................................................................................................................29
2.3.3. (Multipath fading)...............................................................................................30
2.3.4. (Rayleigh fading).......................................................................................30
2.3.5. (Time Dispersion).......................................................................................................30
2.3.6. (Time Alignment)......................................................................................................31
2.3.7. (Combined Signal Loss).......................................................................31
2.4 , ....................................................................................32
1

1 GSM
2.4.1. (Interleaving)............................................................................................................................33
2.4.2. (Antenna Diversity) .....................................................................................................33
2.4.3. (Adaptive Equalization)............................................................................................35
2.4.4. (Frequency Hopping).................................................................................................35
2.4.5. (Timing Advance) .......................................................................................................36
2.5 GSM........................................................................................................................38
2.5.1. - . (Analog To Digital (A/D) Conversion)..............................................38
2.5.2. (Segmentation)..........................................................................................................................40
(Speech Coding)....................................................................................................................40
(Channel Coding)..............................................................................................................41
(Interleaving)......................................................................................................................................42
(Ciphering/Encryption).......................................................................................................................43
(Burst Formatting)............................................................................................................43
.............................................................................................................................................44
3 GSM .........................................................................................45
3.1. ........................................................................................................................45
3.1.1. .........................................................................................................................................45
3.1.2. (Bursts)................................................................................................................................................49
3.2. .................................................................................51
3.2.1. 0, 0........................................................................................................52
3.2.2. 0, 1........................................................................................................52
3.2.3. 0,
........................................................................................................................52
3.3. MS................................................................................................53
4 - GPRS ..................................54
4.1 GPRS.........................................................................................................................................54
4.2 (BSS)...........................................................................................................................55
(CSS)..........................................................................................................................55
4.3.1 (AUC) ......................................................................................................................55
4.3.2 (PSS)...............................................................................................................55
4.3.3 GGSN............................................................................................................................................55
4.3.4 ................................................................................................................................................56
GGSN...............................................................................................................................................................58
GPRS............................................................................................................................................................59
4.5.1 ...............................................................................................................................................59
4.5.2 SMS GPRS...................................................................................................................59
4.6 GPRS (GGSN)..........................................................................................................60
4.7 GGSN.......................................................................................................................................................60
4.8 .................................................................................................................................................60
4.9 GPRS...................................................................................................................61
5 - ........................................................................................................................................63
.......................................................................................................................................................................63
..........................................................................................................................................................63
AUC............................................................................................................................................................................63
5.2. / (MSC/VLR).............................................................63
5.2.1 MSC..................................................................................................................................................63
5.2.2 (VLR)................................................................................................................................64
5.2.3 (GMSC).........................................................................................................65
5.2.4 (HLR)....................................................................................................66
ILR..........................................................................................................................................66
AUC EIR......................................................66
5 - .......................................................................................................................................65
...................................................................................................................................70
(MC).........................................................................................................................71
6 - ..............................................................................................................73
6.1 ..................................................................................................................................................................73
...........................................................................................................73
.......................................................................................................................................................74
................................................................................................................74
6.2 .............................................................................................................................................................74
6.2.1 TRC.............................................................................................................................74
6.3 (BSC).....................................................................................................................75
6.3.1 BSC.................................................................................................................................75
2

1 GSM
6.4 ...................................................................................................................................................77
6.4.1 BS...............................................................................................................................................77
6.4.2 BTS..................................................................................................................................................78
6 - .............................................................................................................75
7 - .........................................................................................................................................80
........................................................................................................................................................................80
7.2 ................................................................................................................................80
7.2.1 ............................................................................................................................................80
7.2.2 , .................................................................81
7.2.3 (Active mode).....................................................................................................................87
7.2.4 ........................................................................................................................87
7 - ........................................................................................................................................82
7.2.5 ..........................................................................................................................88
7.3 (SIM).....................................................................................................88
7.3.1 SIM-................................................................................................................................................88
7.3.2 .............................................................................................................89
7.3.3 , SIM ...........................................................................................89
7.3.4 MS.................................................................................................................................91
8 - GSM............................................................................................................................93
8.1 ..................................................................................................................................................................93
8.2 ..................................................................................................................................93
8.2.1 (MSISDN)...........................................................................................................93
8.2.2 (IMSI)...........................................................93
8.2.3 (TMSI).........................................................................94
8.2.3 MS (IMEI)...............................................................................94
8.2.4 MS (IMEISV)
....................................................................................................................................................................................94
8.3 .......................................................................................................................94
8.3.1 MS (MSRN)......................................................................................................................95
8.3.2 (LAI)........................................................................................................95
8.3.3 CGI..........................................................................................................95
8.3.4 (BSIC).............................................................................................................95
8.3.5 LN............................................................................................................................96
8.3.6 (RSZI)...............................................................................96
8.3.7 ...........................................................................96
8 - GSM...........................................................................................................................94
9 - ................................................................................................98
9.1 : MS IDLE...............................................................98
9.1.1 MS ......................................................................................................................................98
9.1.2 ..............................................................................................................................................99
9.1.3 .......................................................................................................................................100
9.2 : MS ...........................................................101
9.2.1 ( MS PSTN)..................................................................................................................102
9.2.2 (PSTN - MS).....................................................................................................................102
9.2.3 (Handover).....................................................................................................................................104
9.3 ........................................................................................................................................107
9.3.1 IMSI (IMSI Attach).....................................................................................................................108
9.3.2 MS...................................................................................................................................................108
9.3.3 Dropback......................................................................................................................................108
9.3.4 ....................................................................................................................109
9.3.5 SMS MS.......................................................................................................................................109
9.3.6 SMS...............................................................................................................................109
10 - .................................................................................................................................111
10.1 ......................................................................................................................................................112
10.1.1 : ...........................................................................................................112
................................................................................................................................115
...................................................................................................122
..............................................................................................................................................124
10.1.5 .............................................................................................................................124
10.2 .......................................................................................................................................................125
10.2.1 ..............................................................................................................125
10.2.2 .........................................................................................128
10.3 ...............................................................................................................................................................128
3

1 GSM

1 GSM

1 GSM
1.1.
.
,
.
.
, .
(1G) ,
, . ,
.
(2G) .
,
. GSM 2G.
2G.
, 2.5 G. 2.5 G GPRS (General Packet Radio
Services) ,
.

(IN), (
) , SMS ( )
.
2G,
,
. (3G),
,
, ().
2G,
,
, , . 3G
(UMTS).
, GSM ,

.
1.2.

1906
1915
1921
1930-
1935

1940-

1947
1948

Reginald Fesseden .
.
J.A. Fleming ,
.
2
.
.
()
.
()
. ,

.
.
(FCC) ,

(DPLM). DPLM 1946 . (St. Louis). 150 . 1947
- , 35-40 .
D.H. Ring Bell Laboratories .
Shockley, Bardeen Brittain Bell Laboratories ,
, ,
.
5

1 GSM
1958
1964

Bell Systems .
AT&T
(IMTS).

1968
1969

FCC .
(, , , )

.

(Nordic Mobile Telephone - NMT),
.
NMT ,
,
. .
FCC (Illinois Bell
telephone Company).

NMT 450.
(GSM).
200 .
GPRS.
, 3G,
3G.
3G .
TDMA GSM.

1973
1979
1981
1991
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

1.3.
, :
;
.
,
, :
- ;
- ;
- .

,
. , :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- , ;
- (, ..).
2002 GSM 71%
68% .
, 1981 NMT 450,
.
,
, .
, , .
, ,
:

1 GSM
1-2.

1981

NMT 450

1983

AMPS

1985

TACS

1986

NMT 900

1991

GSM

1991

TDMA (D-AMPS)
(IS136)

1993

CDMA One
(IS 95)

1992

GSM 1800

1994

PDC

1995
2000

PCS 1900
UMTS

2001

GSM 800

( AMPS)

()

1.4. (GSM)
GSM. GSM.

19821985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993

(CET)
900 .
(GSM).
,

: (FDMA)
(TDMA).
GSM TDMA FDMA.
12 (MoU),
GSM 1991 .
CEPT GSM . 5
MoU. - MoU , .
(ETSI)
GSM.
1 GSM ,
.
GSM 1800. MoU ,
, CEPT.
1.
GSM 1.
() ().
- , MoU.
MoU 70 . GSM ,
, , . GSM
7

1 GSM
. DCS
1800.
MoU 100 60 . GSM.
GSM 3 .
(PCS).
GSM, 1900 .
GSM 1900. PCS
1900.

1994
1995
1996

1998

MoU 253 100 GSM


70 . GSM
31% .
GSM 179 .
GSM ,
EDGE, AMR,
.
!

1999
2002
2003

, GSM - ,
GSM,
, GSM.
, GSM,
, , (SMS),
(IN), , (MVPN).
GSM
,
.
GSM , ,
,
.
1.4.2 ETSI GSM
C GSM . GSM
,
,
GSM .

GSM,
.
12 ETSI GSM, 1-4.
,
, ETSI.
1-2 ETSI

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12




MS - BSS


MS
BSS - MSC


1 GSM
DCS-1800 PSC-1900
ETSI GSM-900.
DCS-1800 PSC-1900 , , PSC-1900 -
, American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

1.5 GSM
1980 - GSM ,

. GSM 1.
GSM ( 2, 2+) .

. 1.1. GSM
1
1 :

;
( 9.6 /);
;
;
.
, 1

(Subscriber Identity Module - SIM).
2
2 ETSI 1996 ETS 300 522.
GSM 03.02. 1
, :
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
9

1 GSM
2+
2+. 2+
ETSI 2000 GSM 01.04, V 8.0.0.

. , 2+,
:
;
;
;
GSM 1800, GSM 1900 DECT
.

, -,
.
, :
EDGE
(Enhanced Datarates for Global Evolition);
CAMEL -
(Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic), ,
IN ;
HSCSD (High Speed Circuit
Switched Data,
()
.
1.6. ,
2G
3G
3GMS
3GPP
AGCH
AID
AMR
ANSI
AoC
AoCC
AoCI
API
ARFCN
ARIB
ASE
ASN.1
AT-command
AuC
BAIC
BAOC
BCCH
BCH
BIC-Roam
BOIC
BOIC-exHC
BTS
BSC
BSS
BSSMAP
CAI
CAMEL
CAP
CB

GSM
GSM







()
()




1






PLMN


PLMN






CAMEL

10

1 GSM
CBC
CBCH
CBS
CC
CCBS
H
CD
CDR
CF
CFB
CFNRc
CFNR
CFU
CLI
CLIP
CLIR
CM
CMIP
CMISE
CN
CNAP
COLP
COLR
CORBA
CS
CS-1
CSE
CUG
CW
CWTS
DCE
DCCH
DTE
DTMF
DTX
ECT
EGPRS
EIR
EM
eMLPP
EN
E-OTD
EP
ETSI
FACCH
FCCH
FM
GAD
GBS
GDMO
GERAN
GGSN
GLR
GMLC
GMSC
GPRS
gprsSSF
GPS
GSM
GSM-EFR
gsmSCF



CAMEL









GPRS














GSM EDGE
GPRS


MSC

GPRS


GSM
GSM
11

1 GSM
gsmSRF
gsmSSF
GSN
GT
GTP
HDLC
HE
HLR
HPLMN
HSCSD
IC
ID
IMEI
IM-GSN
IM-MSC
IMSI
IN
INAP
IP
IPLMN
IrDA
IrMC
IRP
IS
ISDN
ISO
ISUP
Itf-N
IWF
LAN
LCS
LMSI
LMU
LR
MAP
MC
MCC
ME
MExE
MIM
MIME
MLC
MM
MMI
MMS
MNC
MNP
MO
MO-LR
MPTY
MS
MSC
MSISDN
MSP
MSRN
MT
MT
NE
NITZ
NM
NRM
OACSU
ODB

GSM
GSM
GPRS

GPRS






GPRS





PLMN






ISDN
N















-






ISDN










12

1 GSM
OMG
OS
OSA
OSI
PBX
PCH

PCM
PDC-EFR
PDN
PDP
PDU
PI
PIX
PLMN
PP
PS
PSE
PSTN
RACH
RANAP
RID
RLC/MAC
RLP
RNC
RNS
RR
SACCH
SAT
SC
SCCP
SCH
SCR
SCS
SDO
SGSN
SI
SID
SIM
SIWF
SIWFS
SM
SMIL
SM-RL
SMS
SMSC
SMSCB
SMTP
SOR
SRNC
SRNS
SS
SS
SS7
SSF
T1
T1P1

MS
-
ARIB PDC-EFR 6.7 /






-






/



SIM





-
GPRS


GSM











RNS


7

T1 ( ANSI)
/
13

()

MS

1 GSM
TA
TAF
T-BCSM
TCAP
TCH/F
TDMA
TDMA_EFR
TDMA_USI
TE
TIA
TMSI
TOA
TrFO
TS
TSG
TTA
TTC
TUP
UDP
UE
UICC
UIM
UMTS
USAT
USIM
USSD
UTRA
UTRA-FDD
UTRAN
UTRA-TDD
UUS
VAD
VBS
VGCS
VHE
VLR
VMSC
VPLMN
WAP
XML





/

TIA IS-641
TIA TDMA-US1 ( 12.2 /, GSM-EFR)







()
()
( 7)


IC


USIM






-








,
WWW

1.7 GSM
GSM 2 .
, , .
:
- Switching System (SS)
- Base Station System (BSS)
. . 1.2
.

14

1 GSM

. 1.2.
, . 1.2.
A
UC
BSC
BTS
EIR
HLR
MS
MSC
NMC
OMC
VLR

Authentication Center

(
)








Base Station Controller


Base Transceiver Station
Equipment Identity Register
Home Location Register
Mobile Station
Mobile services Station Center
Network Management Center
Operation and Maintenance Center
Visitor Location Register

SS ,
. SS
:
(MSC)
(HLR)
(VLR)
(AUC)
(EIR).
SS , .
:
(BSC)
(BTS)
15

1 GSM
(OMC) , ,
, .
OMC SS, BSS.
MS , .
1.8 SS
1.8.1 (MSC)
MSC .
, .
PSTN, ISDN, , ,
.
MSC. MSC .
MSC . ,

, .
MSC ,
, (). MSC ,
.
MSC
,
.
,
(HLR) (VLR).
(HLR)
GSM ,
PLMN.
HLR. HLR
( ) ,
HLR.
HLR :
.
, .
.
.
HLR , . HLR
, HLR. HLR
.
. , HLR, MSC VLR,
, .
(VLR)
VLR ,
MSC. , MSC
VLR. VLR ,
MSC , MSC. VLR
HLR, VLR
, HLR.
MSC, VLR,
MSC, HLR,
. HLR VLR
. , VLR
, .
MSC, VLR HLR,
. HLR VLR
.
, MS / .
16

1 GSM
(AUC)

. AUC -

( ).
, . AUC
,
EIR.
1.8.4.1 (EIR)
EIR ,
. .
(EIR) , ,
.
1.9 BSS
(BSC)
BSC , GS.
, , MS,
. MSC BSC.
1.9.2 (BTS)
BTS MS. BTS ,
(-) ,
. BSC BTS.
1.9.3
1.9.3.1 (OMC/OSS)
OMC OSS ,
X.25 , , ,
MSC BSC.
.
, .
1.9.3.2 (NMC)
(NMC).
,
OMC/OSS. , NMC
,
, OMC/OSS
.
OMC/OSS NMC ,
.
(MS)
MS .
MS,
. MS ,
,
.
.
MS , ,
. , ,
17

1 GSM
, , ,
, , .
MS GSM :
();
(SIM).
GSM, ,
. - SIM. SIM
, GSM.
, ,
. ,
.

. 1. 3
1.10 GSM

. ,
,
.

1.10.1


, .
, (CGI). ,
, , , .

1.4.
18

1 GSM
1.10.2 (LA)
(LA) .
LA, . LA
VLR.
MS , LA,
LA. , MS
(Idle).
, . MS
LA, .
MS
, LA.
MSC (SA)
MSC LA ,
MSC. , MS
MSC ,
(HLR).

. 1.5 MSC
PLMN
PLMN ,
,
. PLMN,
. MS
PLMN . . 1.6
.
1.10.5 GSM
GSM ,
GSM. GSM ,
,
. GSM
.
, , MS
PLMN PLMN.

19

1 GSM

GSM
PLMN
(SA) MSC
(LA)

1.6. GSM
. 1.7, 1.8 .
. 1.7
.

. 1.7 .
. 1.8 .

20

1 GSM

. 1.8 - .

1.11.

GSM

GSM : 900, 1800, 1900 .


900

. 1.9 GSM
GSM 900 .
. ,
. E-GSM RGSM, P-GSM (primary).
P-GSM900 890-915/915-960 MHz
E-GSM900 880-915/925-960 MHz
R-GSM900 890-920/915-970 MHz
1800
1990 . , United Kingdom
GSM, 1800.
.
,
, , .
, ,
. 1800 : GSM
1710-1805/1785-1880 MHz
1997 1800 Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800 MHz,
GSM 1800.

21

1 GSM
1900
1995 PCS ( ).
,
, . PCS ,
,
. , PCS,
1900 . GSM 900
- , , GSM 1900
.
GSM 1900 GSM 900 , GSM 1900 ANSI.
GSM 800
800 TDMA (AMPS
D-AMPS). GSM 1800
,
.
2 .
2 -


P-GSM 900

E-GSM 900

R-GSM 900

GSM 1800

GSM 1900

Uplink

890 915

880 - 915

890 925

1710 1785

1850 1910

Downlink

935 960

925 - 960

935 970

1805 1880

1930 1990

1.12


,
.
.
Idle (): MS , ;
Active ( ): MS , ;
Detached: MS
Implicit Detach: MS .
3 , GSM
.
3

, MS
(Registration)

, MS
(Roaming)

, MS

. MS ,

(International
IDLE

Roaming)

MS ,
Location Updating
LA
, MS , ..
Paging
MS
MS
22

1 GSM
ACTIVE

,
MS

Handover

. 1.10
MS , Detach. MS
, GSM ,
. MS ,
, MS. ,
, .
MS , ,
IDLE. , MS
LA, MS .
MS
. MS , 1.
LA, MS.

(IDLE), S,
, .
1

23

2 -
2.1
1 GSM.
1 - GSM

P-GSM 900
E-GSM 900
,
890-915
880-915
Uplink
935-960
925-960
Downlink
, c.
~33
~33

25
35

45
45

200
200
2
125
175
,
270
270
/.

GSM 1800
1710-1785
1805-1885
~17
75
95
200
375
270

GSM 1900
1850-1910
1930-1990
~16
60
80
200
300
270

2.1.1

, .
. . 1 .
:



..

. (
). , , .
. 2.1 ,
.

. 2.1

2.1.2.
.
, . . .
( 3 10 8 /.).
1.1.
c
=
(2.1)
f

GSM 1 . .
, ,
.
24

2
, GSM 900 :
3108 /
=
0.33
900
2.1 , , .
, ,
. , ,
. FM
.
,
. ,
.
,
, .
2.1.3.
,
, , uplink MS BTS.
.
,
, , .
2.1.4.
, , .
, , /.
. 2
.
2

, FM

, , FM,
. , , ,
:
, - .
uplink,
downlink.
. 2.2 .

25

. 2.2 -
2.1.5.
(uplink, downlink),
.
.

. . 2.3,
GSM 900.

. 2.3
2.1.6.
,
3.
, .

.

. ,
. . 2.4 .

. 2.4
. 2.4 , 895.4 895.6
.
200 .
.
3

.
26

2
2.1.7.
.
,
. , ,

.
.
, ,
.
,
. .
,
.
.

. . 2.5
. . 2.5 ,
, .
,
.

. 2.5 -

2.1.8
, ,
. , /.
/, GSM 270 /.
2.1.9
, GSM 900 .
, ,
(, , ),
,
.
:
.


, : ,
. .
,
.
: 1 /.
1 . , 200
/, 200 . ,
1 / 1 .
27

2
GSM Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK)
,
270 / 200 .
GSM
, /. .
.
GSM GMSK
.
,
( NMT-450).
2.1.10. : (TDMA)
(Time
Division Multiple Access - TDMA) .
TDMA
/ .
, . TS time slots. MS TS uplink,
downlink. , TS, (burst).
TDMA GSM 8 . ,
GSM 8 . . 2.6
TDMA.

. 2.6 TDMA

2.2
2.2.1.
.
.
2.2.2.
,
.

. 2.7

28

2
2.2.3.
- .
. ,
, .
2.2.4.

. 3.8
2.2.5.
. (
), ( ).
()
. ,
, (
).
, , ,
.
. .
,
.

. 2.9
,
.
. ,
.
, ,
, .
2.3. ,
, .
.
2.3.1. (Path loss)
Path Loss (PL) , ,
- MS BS. PL
(dropped calls), ,
BS PL , , .
2.3.2. (Shadowing)
, MS BS
, , , , ..
, (signal strength).
MS MS
BS.
29

2
.
(fading dips). . 2.10 ,
MS BS.

.2.10 -
2.3.3. (Multipath fading)
,
MS BS , ,
. ,
, , , .
2.3.4. (Rayleigh fading)
,
.
, , .
, .
,
. MS
.
. , GSM 900
17.

. 2.11
2.3.5. (Time Dispersion)
,
MS BS.
,
, , ,
.
(Inter-Symbol
Interference - ISI), () ,
.

2.12,

1, 0 BTS.
30

2.12
,
1 0 .
1 0 MS ,
.
2.3.6. (Time Alignment)
MS TS TDMA.
, , MS
BS.
, ,
MS, TS.
TS, ,
, MS, TS (.
2.13).
MS BS.
.

. 2.13
2.3.7. (Combined Signal Loss)
, , ,
, .
.
MS .
. 2.14 .
PL, , ( ).
(path loss),
.
.

31

. 2.14
, 2.15.

. 2.15
,
( 2.15 ). ,
100 dBm, (-104
dBm), , . ,
, ,
dB, dB .

.
2.4 ,

. ,
, (BER Bit Error Ratio). BER

.

. ,
, ,
32

2
. ,
BER, .

. ,
, , .
2.4.1. (Interleaving)
.
,
.
. ,

.
Interleaving
.

, .
,
(1234). ,
, BER 25%,
100%. .
, 2.16,
. ,
25%.
, BER 25%.
, ,
.

2.16

. 2.17
2.4.2. (Antenna Diversity)

-
. :


2.4.2.1
BS
. 2
. 2 , ,
, ,
. 900 , ,
3 dB, 5 6 (12 18 )
33

2
25*(12 18* ) . 1800 ,
- .

.
,
, , ,
.
. 2.18 .

. 2.18

2.4.2.2

. ,
.
/ , 45.
, Rx BTS.
Tx/Rx . ,
,
- .

34

2
2.4.3. (Adaptive Equalization)
, ,
.
:
1. ,
(training sequence).
BTS, MS. BTS MS
BTS.
2. MS BTS
( . 2.19, S). ,
, (
).
3. BTS MS
. , , BTS
, MS
BTS. ,
, ,
.
4. , BTS
.
.

. 2.19

BTS

,
100% - .

. , GSM
(Viterbi equalizer).
2.4.4. (Frequency Hopping)
, . ,
.
GSM Frequency Hopping - MS BS
. MS BS
.
GSM 64
. , 63
, .
. 2.20, .
N TDMA 1, N+1
C2.
,
.
35

. 2.20
2.4.5. (Timing Advance)
,
. ,
.
GSM .
, MS BS
Uplink ( MS BS).
(AB - access burst) (RACH random access channel).

. 2.21.

, RACH,
(FACCH Fast Associated Common Control Channel).
,
(49 ) (39 )
MS BS.
(GB - guard period), 68.25 . - 252
. . 2.22.

36

. 2.22.
. 2.22 (tail bits ) ,
.
MS ,
BS, , . ,
0
, 252
, .

.
GSM 35 .
(63 ).
,
,
TA , 2.2.

R=

DRT
( TA )
2

(2.2)

TA ; DRT
,
DRT = v t
(2.3)
v 3 10 8 [ / ] ; t = 1 = 48/13 [].

37

2
2.5 GSM
. 2.23 GSM.

2.23. GSM
GSM .
- ():
- ()
-
-



()



2.5.1. - . (Analog To Digital (A/D) Conversion)
MS
: A/D Conversion.
, .

. 2.24. /
(
). :
( )


38

2
2.5.1.1 (Sampling)

.

. 2.25.
"", ,
.
. ,
,
.
, , , 300
3400 . ,
.
2*3.4 = 6.8 .
8 , .
2.5.1.2 (Quantization)
.
( ) .
,
,
- .
. 2.26. . ,
.
. , 256
, GSM 8192 .

2.26

39

2
2.5.1.3 (Coding)

1/0.
13 ( 213 = 8192 ). ,
2157 0100001101101.

2.27 2157
- 8000
13 .
104 /.
, 8 ( ),
8*104 / = 832 /.
, ( ) 1
, , 200 , , 8
832 /..
GSM
.
2.5.2. (Segmentation)

,
, , ,
GSM . :
( ), , (
). MS,
.
.
,
. , , ..
, . GSM
.
,
, 20 .
GSM
20 .

2.28
.
50 8000,
- .
4 (Speech Coding)
13 ,
- ,
260 . ,
50*260 = 13 /.
4

, ,
GSM, .
40

2
,
PSTN.

2.29
.
(waveform coders
). ,
(vocoders). GSM (Hybrid Coders),
.
GSM 13 / .
, 8
8*13 / = 104 /.
- 832 /.

.
:

()
(Channel Coding)

. 2.30.
GSM 260 ,
, , , 456 .
260 :
1: 50
2: 132 -
3: 78
, 50 , (
), 3 , ,
53 . 3
.
53 132 4
( 189 ) 1:2,
41

2
378 .
.
.
(Interleaving)
2.5.5.1.
,
456 20 . . ,
8 57 . . 2.31.
2.32 (normal burst)
( 57 ). .
, , 25 % BER
20 . (2/8 = 25%)

. 2.31. 20 .

. 2.32. Normal burst ( )


2.5.5.2.

. 2.33.

42

. 2.34.
,
25%. .
BER 12.5 %.
57 20 .
, 20
20 .
20 ., MS
20 . . (burst)
12.5% . .
(Ciphering/Encryption)
(Ciphering/Encryption) (burst)
,
. GSM 5.
- , ,
456 20 .
(Burst Formatting)
, MS/BS
( ).
( )
, (bit rate) ,
, .
GSM
456 . 136
20 ., 592
.
TDMA 0.577 .
, 156.25 (
3.7 .), 148 . 8.25
(Guard Period - GP).
MS/BS ramp up , ramp down. Ramp up
MS . Ramp down
, , , MS
, MS.
156.25 ( ) 625 (
) 20 . ,
43

2
, .
676 20 .
TDMA 8
GSM 270.4 /.

676 20 ,
, . , GSM
GSMK. (, 916.4
) .

44

3 GSM

3 GSM
3.1.
(time slot - TS) TDMA
. GSM 8 .
, .

3.1. TDMA
.
, .
.
,
. ,
, TCH Traffic Channel,
- Traffic messages), ,
Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH).
3.1.1.
GSM ,
/ MS.
, MS ,
, ,
. , (burst),
, ,
. (burst).
3.2.

45

3 GSM

. 3.2

3.1.1.1
, BTS, . MS
, , ,
. MS ,
. , MS
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) -
.
BCCH MS, , ,
(LA), , .
MS .
,
MS, . Broadcast Channel (BCH)
.
, MS BCH,
, .
, MS ( - roaming),
, FCCH, SCH, BCCH.
MS,
Common Control CHannel (CCCH)

46

3 GSM
3.1 BCH.
Broadcast Channel (BCH) -

BTS
FCCH
Downlink

BTS MS,
.
(Frequency Correction Channel)

SCH

(Synchronization
Channel)

Downlink
BTS MS,


TDMA

( )
BS
(Base Station Identity
Code -BTSIC).

BCCH

(Broadcast
Control
Channel)

Downlink
BTS MS,


:
-

(LAI),

,
-
BCCH

.

MS
BCCH


.



,
BTS
GSM BTS
GSM, BTSIC
MS.
LAI;


,
LAI ,
SIM;



,
BCCH.
, MS

BCCH,

3.2 CCCH.
Common Control Channel (CCCH)

BTS
PCH
Downlink,

MS
BTS MS,
,
(Paging Channel)
-
MS


SMS.

,

.
RACH
Uplink, MS MS
BTS,


-
,
(Random Access

Channel)
,
SMS.
AGCH -
Downlink


BTS MS,
SDCCH MS.
47

MS
MS PCH

,

(
), .


RACH


.

3 GSM

(Access Grant Channel)

SDCCH.

MS BSS .
MS BSS - DCCH (Dedicated Control channel).

3.3 DCCH.
Common Control Channel (CCCH)

SDCCH

(Stand alone
(Uplink,
Dedicated Control
Downlink),
Channel)
-

CBCH


(Cell Broadcast
Channel)
SACCH

(Slow Associated
Control Channel)

Downlink,

BTS MS,

FACCH


(Fast Associated
Control Channel)

(Uplink,
Downlink),
-

(Uplink,
Downlink),
-

BTS
BTS
SDCCH,


.
BSC
TCH.
SDCCH

MS
SMS.



(SMS) MS,

.
MS ,

,

.

MS
MS
SDCCH,

.
MS
TCH (
)

MS



BTS
( , ,
)
BTS (
). MS

SDCCH.


.

3.1.1.2
,
MS .
TCH (Traffic Channel). TCH:
- (FR-TCH): 13 /.
TCH .
- (HR-TCH): 5.6 /.
,
.

48

3 GSM
3.1.2. (Bursts)
TDMA ,
,
(bursts):

3.4

:
BCCH,
PCH,
AGCH,
SDCCH,
CBCH,
SACCH,
FACCH,
TCH

Frequency
Correction Burst

Synchronization
Burst

MS

FCCH

MS

SCH

Dummy Burst

Access Burst

TS
C0 (1-7)
RACH,
FACCH

Normal Burst

57 ,
.
(26 ).
(Steal flags)
1 ,
, FACCH 57 .

(Tail bits) ( 000)


(Guard period)
8.25 .
1
42 .

.
: 8.25 .
39
TDMA.
6
4 .

.
: 8.25 .

,
.
4
1 .
3
6 (,
-).

.
(GP): 68.25 .
GP - ,

.

NB (Normal Burst)
NB ,
RACH. 114
(GP) 8,25 30,46 . 114
57 ,
26 ,
.
NB (Steeling Flag), ,
:
. (Traffic Channel)
, .
NB
26 , .
:
-
. RXQUAL,
. , , ,
. RXQUAL
, ;
49

3 GSM
- NB

;
-
. ,
.
,
.
FCB (Frequency Correction Burst)
FCB . 142
- , 1625/24
.
(200 ),
0,022% 900 . FCB 8,25
, . (FCB)
(FCCH).
SB (Synchronization Burst)
SB .
64 , TDMA
.
.
(SCH).
DB (Dummy Burst)
DB . DB
NB (. 3.3) 26 . DB
, . DB ,
.
AB (Access Burst)
.
.
, , .
. 8 , (41 ),
36 .
(68,25 , 252 .), (
) .

.
GSM -
35 .
233,3 .
3.1.2.1.

50

3 GSM

. 3.3.

3.2.
, .
- mapping.
,
, 1 TS.

TDMA.
,
,
.
. 3.4. , DCCH -
.

51

3 GSM

. 3.4.
3.2.1. 0, 0

. , MS , BCCH,
, .
BTS MS (downlink) BCH CCCH.
, MS BTS
(uplink), RACH. RACH , MS
.

3.2.2. 0, 1
, (1)
. ,
.
. 3.4, ,
, DCCH.
, 0 1 0.
, .

0
0 /
: BCH, CCCH DCCH. , 1
.
SDCCH 4 SACCH
. ,
8 .

3.2.3. 0,

, 0 1
, . TCH.
MS ,
, . SACCH,
TCH.

52

3 GSM
3.3. MS
. 3.5 MS
.

. 3.5. MS

MSC/VLR , LA MS.
BSC, LA.

1. BSC
LA. , PCH.
2. MS PCH,
RACH.
3. BSC AGCH MS , SDCCH
SACCH .
4. SDCCH SACCH . ,
SDCCH .
5. MS BTS TCH
. , .
, MS
SACCH.

53

4 GPRS

4 - GPRS

GPRS
GSM .
GPRS
GSM.
, .
GPRS ,
.
GPRS ,
GSM ,
GPRS .
. , GPRS
.
4.1 GPRS
GPRS. GPRS
GSM, GSM
. GPRS ,
GPRS .
GPRS
GSM, BSC,
(. . 4.1). GSM :
GPRS Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) GPRS Gateway
GPRS Support Node (GGSN).
. GPRS, , ,
GPRS, SGSN
GGSN. SGSN GGSN.
, GPRS
GSM GPRS .

BSS

CSS

SMS-G/IW
MSC

SOG

Gd
BTS

AUC

MSC/VL
R

BSC

G
s
G
b

G
r

HL
R

PSS
Gi

MS

SGSN

GGSN

Gn
BGw

ISP
Network

Gn
Backbone
Network

. 4.1 GPRS ( BSS, CSS PSS)

54

Gi
Corporate
Network

4 GPRS
SSGN BSC Gb,
ETSI.
.
4.2 (BSS)
GPRS MS,
BSS. BSS :
, .
GPRS BTS
.
BSS ,
, ,
MSC. GPRS.
(CSS)
CSS SS GSM,
(. 1, 1.7: GSM).
GPRS MSC,
GSM/GPRS, ,
MS (Attach): IMSI/GPRS.
GPRS GMSC,
GSM PSTN.
HLR , ,
, GPRS. , HLR
, .
, , / GPRS ,
(Access Point Name APN) (Internet Service Provider ISP),
, MS IP. HLR
(context subscription) PDP. HLR
5 PDP . HLR
SGSN. HLR,
SGSN.
HLR GPRS .
4.3.1 (AUC)
AUC - GPRS.
AUC GPRS ,
GPRS 5.
MSC (SMS-IW-MSC) MS
GPRS SMS GPRS. SMS-IW-MSC
GPRS.
4.3.2 (PSS)
PSS , GPRS.
(IP). ,
GSN ( GPRS).
GPRS: GPRS (SGSN) GPRS
(GGSN). SGSN GSM, , MSC/BSC,
GGSN , ,
.
4.3.3 GGSN
MS, GPRS.
: MS GPRS GSM. ,
MS (attach), , ,
.. , . MS
.
: MS GSM GPRS,
/ ,
.
55

4 GPRS
: MS , , attach.
MS GSM, GPRS,
.
.
4.3.4
(Biling Gateway BGw).
BGw GPRS ,
GPRS . ,
Advanced Processing
.
GPRS
, . ,
/ , .
GPRS ,

.
.
SGSN GGSN,
, MSC CDR
. CDR :

S-CDR, SGSN.
G-CDR,
GGSN.

CDR, , GPRS.
GPRS S-CDR G-CDR.
BGw
. BGw ,
,
,
.
, .
GPRS
GPRS SGSN GGSN,
GPRS.
.
GPRS (SGSN)
SGSN GPRS, . 4.2. BSC,
MSC/VLR, SMS-G HLR. (backbone network)
GGSN SGSN.

56

4 GPRS
SMS-G/IW
MSC
A

MSC/VL
R

BSC

Gd

HL
R
G
r

G
s
G
b

PSS
Gi

. 4.2

SGSN
SGSN


GPRS,
BGw

SGSN

ISP
Network

GGSN

Gn

Gn
Backbone
Network

Gi
Corporate
Network

SGSN. SGSN GPRS


, , MSC GSM.
, MS, ..
GPRS SGSN
.
SGSN.
GPRS SGSN .
(). SGSN MS .
, , IMSI GPRS,
, ,
, .
. MS
, SGSN ,
SGSN GPRS.
(LA) GPRS.
GPRS (Routing Area RA). RA .
RA LA.

PLMN, PLMN. SGSN
Gs MSC/VLR MS A B,
:
- / GPRS/IMSI. IMSI attach
SGSN. /
. MS.
- . MS IMSI/GPRS
, ( I), MSC/VLR SGSN.
.
,
,
, GPRS GPRS.
- ( LA
RA) GSM
GPRS. MS ,
LA MSC RA SGSN. Gs : MSC
SGSN ,

57

4 GPRS
.
.
(Session Management SM)
SM
(PDP), .
PDP
, MS GGSN.
SGSN , :
- PDP - ,
PDP.
- PDP. PDP. IPv4.
- PDP. . IPv4,
,
.
- (APN). , : wap.beeline.ru
- (QoS). QoS,
.
PDP SGSN , -
(PDU) MS MS.
SGSN PDP,
.
SGSN . SGSN
, ISP
.


( ,
SMS), ( /,
PDP) .
GPRS
ETSI S-CDR (SGSN), G-CDR (GGSN) SMS CDR.
CDR :
- S-CDR: MS, RA, ,
, SGSN ,
, , .
- G-CDR: , ,
, .
- CDR , CDR,

PDP,
. CDR GPRS.
CDR GPRS ,
15 , .
,
72 .
:
- (, );
- CDR;
- CDR;
- (RAM);
- (RAM);
- .
GGSN
SGSN GGSN ( )
(PDP), (APN) .
(Domain Name Server) SGSN,
APN. SGSN GPRS
(GTP) GGSN .
58

4 GPRS

PSS
ISP
Network
SGSN

wap.beeline.ru

Gi

GGSN
Gn

Gn

GTP
Tunne
l

Gn
Backbone
Network

Gi

4.3

Beeline.ru

DNS
GGSN

GPRS
4.5.1
: SGSN GGSN.
IP
, .
IP, GPRS.
GPRS ETSI,
GPRS. GPRS

. GPRS : RIP v2, OSPF v2, BGP v4 (
).
GPRS.
OSPF v2.
4.5.2 SMS GPRS
SGSN Gd SMS-GMSC SMS-IW-MSC.
SMS GPRS
SMS.
SMS GPRS
, SMS
.
MS, GPRS,
GPRS. MS,
GPRS, IMSI,
GPRS. MS, GPRS,
IMSI, GPRS,
GSM. SMS GSM,
MS SMS SGSN.
SMS GPRS:

59

4 GPRS
1. SMS-C , MS. SMS-C
2.
3.

4.
5.

SMS-GMSC.
SMS-GMSC
HLR SMS.
HLR ,
SGSN, MS,
MSC .
SGSN, , HLR , MS
SGSN SGSN.
MSC, SMS GSM.
SGSN, SMS-GMSC SMS
SGSN.
SGSN SMS MS, SMS-C.
4.6 GPRS (GGSN)

GGSN IP
. GGSN , ,
ISP RADIUS, . IP
GGSN IP , GPRS.
SGSN
GGSN.
4.7 GGSN

GGSN GSPR:
IP. GGSN IP
. RADIUS
IP.
IP.
SGSN GGSN ( Gi).
GPRS (VPN).
GPRS .
IP .

, .
,
IP.
IP SGSN,
GGSN ( , ).
Opv4 IPSEC, MD5
(ESP),

(DES-CBC). (,
..)
. SGSN.
. GGSN (
, PDP).
SGSN. .
. GGSN CDR
MS. CDR
,
.
4.8

GSM 10 .
. , , PCH
, BCCH
. GPRS .
,
GSM. , Packet
60

4 GPRS
, , GPRS. , ,
GPRS PPCH Packet Paging Channel.
GPRS PTCCH (Packet Timing advance
Control Channel). TA,
. GSM , ,
SACCH.
GPRS
(PS). , GPRS ,
(CSD), PDCH. PDCH
(PSD). PDCH
TCH, PS.
PDCH CS.
PDCH PCU.
PSD PS PDCH.
PS (TBF),
: uplink downlink. MS TBF,
uplink, downlink.
TBF MS PDCH. PDCH
PDCH, PSET PDCH PSET
MS. ,
PSD PDCH.
4.9 GPRS
PBCCH
PBCCH , BCCH GSM,
.
PBCCH,
BCCH.
PCCCH
,
, .
PPCH
downlink.
MS . PPCH
,
. PPCH
GPRS I.
PRACH Packet Random Acces Channel, uplink. PRACH
MS uplink
.
PAGCH Packet Access Grant Channel downlink
. MS
.
PNCH Packet Notification Channel downlink.
PTM-M (Point-to-Multipoin Multicast) MS
PTM-M. PNCH DRX.
DRX GPRS 1.
PCCH - Packet Associated Control Channel ,
MS. , ,
. PCCH
.
PDTCH, MS. ,
MS,
, , MS .

61

4 GPRS
PTCCH/U - Packet Timing advance Control Channel uplink.

MS, .
PTCCH/D - Packet Timing advance Control Channel downlink..

MS. PTCCH/D PTCCH/U .
PDTCH
. PTM-M,
MS . ,
MS PDTCH
. ,
PDTCH/U uplink, PDTCH/D
downlink.

62

5 -

5 -

. 5.1

5.1
5.1

MSC/
Mobile services Station Center/ /

VLR
Visitor Location Register

GMSC
Gateway MSC
MSC
HLR
Home Location Register

ILR
Interworking Location Register

AUC
Authentication Center

EIR
Equipment Identity Register

DTI
Data Transmission Interface

MC
Message Center

5.2. / (MSC/VLR)
5.2.1 MSC
MSC GSM.
MS.
:

. MSC
: ,
,
(). MSC
, , MS ,
PSTN.

. MSC
. MSC ,
, ,
.

. MSC
. (SMS)
MSC.

HLR. ,
MSC HLR MS. HLR
63

5 -
MSC5. VLR.
.
.

MSC.
, MSC.

BSC. BSS
MS SS, BSS BSC,
MSC. MSC
MSC BSC. MSC BSC
, ,
BSC.

. MSC
(ISP - Internet Service Provider) , PSTN.
MSC ,
.
, , , TIGRIS Ericsson.
MSC, .

. 5.2 GSM/PSTN ( )

. 5.3
5.2.2 (VLR)
VLR GSM
, MSC. ,
MSC VLR. , MSC HLR
( ) ,
.

MSC . MSC
HLR .
64

5 -

. 5.4 HLR VLR

MS :
1.
VLR () , ,
MS ( IMSI).
2.
, VLR MS, HLR
.
3.
HLR VLR MS
. HLR VLR,
.
4.
VLR ,
MS (IDLE).
VLR MS MSC MS,
:

(,
)

MS (IDLE)

MS (LA)
5.2.3 (GMSC)
5.2.3.1 GMSC
MSC (GMSC) , MSC.
MSC HLR MS.
MS - ,
MS. , (PSTN),
GSM, PSTN GSM
GMSC. GMSC, , HLR
, MSC/VLR
. MS MS.
5.2.3.2 GMSC
MSC ,
HLR ,
. MSC GMSC
, HLR.
GMSC:
1. HLR .
2. .

65

5 -
5.2.4 (HLR)
5.2.4.1 HLR

HLR (), .
HLR ,
. HLR
, . , HLR, :
( IMSI, MSISDN);
;
(, MSC - SA);
.
HLR :
,
. HLR ,
,
. HLR
. .
MSC. HLR MS
MSC, MS,
. MSC MSISDN , HLR,
GSM,
.
GMSC. GMSC MS
HLR MS, HLR
. MS (DETACHED),
HLR GMSC ,
. IMSI, GMSC , HLR ,
MS.
AUC. HLR , -
,
AUC.
VLR/ILR. MS MSC,
VLR MS HLR,
, MS. HLR VLR ,
VLR,
, .
HLR , MSC/VLR,
. .
ILR
5.2.5.1 ILR
ILR ERICSSON,
. ILR - CMS40 (1800)
AMPS GSM 1900 (PCS, ). ILR
HLR AMPS VLR GSM
.
AMPS, AMPS- HLR
ILR. GSM 1900, HLR VLR
ILR, , .
AUC EIR
,
. , GSM ,
:
.
.
66

5 -
, . ,
MS, . MS
, MS.
MS.
GSM, MS. , MS,
, .
. ,
MS MS (IMSI)
, , .
() ,
, " " (TMSI),
(LA).
TMSI. (,
),
(IMSI).
TMSI .
TMSI .
, TMSI
(LAI), TMSI .
AUC EIR. , MSC/VLR

5.2.6.1 AUC
AUC ,
MSC/VLR
, MS.
, AUC,
:

1. Random Number (RAND);


2. - Signed Response (SRES);
3. Ciphering Key ().

( )
(Ki). AUC
IMSI.
. SIM.
AUC :

1. RAND;
2. RAND Ki SRES Kc
A3 A8 .

3. RAND, SRES K HLR .

AUC

RAND

Ki

REND

D
A3

IMSI Ki

A8


HLR
(IMSI)

SRES

Kc

67

5 -

RAND
SRES

Ki
IMSI

- ;
- ;
- ;
-
-
. 5.5 AUC


1. MSC/VLR RAND MS.
2. MS, RAND, SRES, A3 -
Ki.
3. MS, Ki., Kc RAND, A8. Kc
MS .
4. SRES MSC/VLR, ,
, SRES, MS, SRES,
AUC. MS ,
.

. 5.6
.
. :
- ;
-
-
- .

,
, BS MS, .
,
TDMA, 5.
,
, , ..
.
().

68

5 -

. 5.7

1.
2.
3.

M Kc MSC/VLR BTS.
M MS.
, ( , SRES
) TDMA,
5.
4.
BS.
5.
BS , TDMA
5.
6.
,
MSC. ,
, .
5.2
GSM.

5.2 -
GSM.


( SIM)

(SIM)

3
4

(AUC)
(HLR)

(VLR)

6
7

(MSC)
(BSC)


5
A3; 8; IMSI; Ki;
TMSI/LAI; Kc
A3; 8; IMSI/Ki
IMSI/RAND/SRES/Kc
IMSI/RAND/SRES/Kc,
IMSI/TMSI/LAI/Kc/CKSN
5, TMSI/IMSI/Kc
5, TMSI/IMSI/Kc

5.2.6.2 EIR
MS IMEI.
:

69

5 -
TAC Type Approval Code. .

FAC Final Assembly Code. ,


.
SNR Serial Number. .
TAC FAC
spare . .
MS, 0.
IMEI
1. MSC/VLR IMEI MS.
2. MS IMEI MSC.
3. MSC/VLR IMEI EIR.
4. IMEI, EIR :
.
,
. IMEI,
GSM.
. ( ) IMEI ,
.
5. IMEI MSC/VLR, ,
.

. 5.8

5.2.7.1 DTI
DTI GSM (Inter-Working Function IWF). ,
, GSM
. :
/ PSTN. .
DTI
.
/ ISDN. ISDN
, MSC/DTI ISDN GSM
.
/ PDN. DTI ,
(PDN - Public Data Networks), ,
, (Packet Switched PDN - PSPDN).
. PLMN
DTI ,
.
HSCSD. (HSCSD)
(2, 3, 4) (1 TS - 9.6
/).

70

5 -

(MC)
5.2.8.1 MC
, ,
, MC, :

(Short Message Service - SMS);

(SMS Cell Broadcast - SMSCB)




.
, .
,
. MS
, ,
, ..
, . , ,
( ).

, . ,
,
.

.
(SMS)
160 -
(MS), . SMS
GSM.
, MS .
, SMS , SMS.
SMS , , .
, .
SMS GMSC.
.
MS.
SMS Cell Broadcast (SMSCB)
SMSCB 93
MS, .
, ,
(, ..) - MS
.

71

5 -

72

6 -

6 -
6.1
(BSS), ,
. :
MS;
MS ;
.
. 6.1 BS

. 6.1
BSS ERICSSON,
:
(BSC): ,
.
(TRC): .
,
MSC/VLR. - 33.8 /,
MSC/VLR 64 /.
(RBS): BS ERICSSON RBS
(Radio Base Station) MS . RBS
, .

BSC TRC:
BSC TRC. ,
. .
, .
1024 . BSC/TRC
15 BSC.
BSC TRC.
. ,
. 500
. TRC , MSC/VLR
.

73

6 -

. 6.2 TRC

GSM ( ERICSSON) BS.
, BS , ,
BS:
BS ( BS)
BS ( BS)
BS ()
BS


,
. :
(). ,
MS BS. BER,
.
(Leaky Cable). ,
. . ,
BS. , , Leaky Cable
.
6.2
6.2.1 TRC
:
;
.
74

6 -

,
(- )
GSM. MS, BSS.


, MSC/VLR
64 /, , BSC 16 /. ( ). 16 /. 13 /. 3 /.
.
. 4
. .
16 /. .
:
64/. : 16/. = 4.
TRC ERICSSON ,
. TRAU (Transcoder and
Rate Adaptation Units).
( ), , BSC,
TRC, TRAU.
TRC .
TRAU MSC/VLR.
6.3 (BSC)
6.3.1 BSC
BSC . ,
. :

BS
TRC

BSC
MS

:

( , BCCH,
, BS.)

( / ,
, , BCCH
).

(,
, ,).

, ,
.

(, ,
, , ).

MS. BS ,
, .
.
BS
BS BS,
, BTS.
75

6 -
BS:
.
.
BS:
.
BS.
BS.
TRC
, TRAU TRC, BSC,
GSM, TRAU .
BSC TRC
TRAU . ,
, TRC . ,
TRAU BSC.
6.3.1.4

MSC/VLR BS. :
. ,
, BS. BSC ,
, 64 /. ,
BS.
( ).
6.3.1.5 - BSC
- BSC BSC,
OSS. - BSC
:
TRH: BSC , ,
TRH (Transceiver Handler). TRH .
TRH RPG . RPG
. BSC RPG.
BSC: ,
BSC .
(, ), .
, .
, , .
6.3.1.6 MS

Paging. BSC ,
(LA) (paging).
BSC.
.
MS BSC SDCCH. MS
, BSC .
.
. SDCCH
BSC
TCH. BSC
, MS . TCH , MS
TCH .

BSC :
76

6 -

MS BS. BSC
MS BS uplink downlink.
MS BS
480 .
(Locating).
MS , ,
. ,
MS BS , .
. Locating
, BSC ,
.
BSC, MSC/VLR .
MSC/VLR BSC. MSC
,
.

. BSC :

: ,
.

: ,

6.4
6.4.1 BS
BS ,
.

. 6.3 BS RBS 2000 ( ERICSSON)


GSM ( ERICSSON) BTS.
BTS , ,
BTS:
BTS ( BS)
BTS ( BS)
BTS ()
BTS
BTS GSM: 900/1800/1900 M.
77

6 -
6.4.2 BTS
BS :






6.4.2.1
BS MS .
:
.
BSC , :

(BSIC)
.
.
BSC.
.
BS MS
(, ).

. 6.4
BS ,
Uplink
6.4.2.2
BS
:


(Adaptive equalization)


6.4.2.3
BS BS BSC, ,
.
78

6 -
6.4.2.4
BSC
BS. BTS
TDMA.
6.4.2.5
BS -
BSC. BS,
.
6.4.2.6 BTS
BS .
BS, , BSC.

79

7 -

7 -


:
SIM -
ME Mobile Equipment ( )
SIM- - , ,
.
( ).

. 7.1
7.2
7.2.1
2,
. .
7.2.

80

7 -

. 7.2
7.2.2 ,
, MS,
. MS
MS ( IDLE ACTIVE).
7.2.2.1 IDLE ( )
MS BCCH
. ,
.
MS:
1. MS .
2. MS RACH ,
.
3. , LA MS ( MS)
( IDLE) MS 4 :
PLMN (PLMN selection)
(Cell Selection)
(Cell Reselection)
(Location updating).

81

7 -

. 7.3 IDLE

PLMN
MS PLMN PLMN.
MS . MS ,
PLMN (registered PLMN).
MS . , MS
PLMN , .
, .
PLMN,
SIM- ,
. MS PLMN.
PLMN , MS . ,
, - PLMN.
(location updating). MS
, MS .
, MS , MS
LA, PLMN,
.
82

7 -

MS PLMN (
), PLMN, MS PLMN. PLMN
:
1. PLMN ;
2. - PLMN, SIM-
;
3. PLMN
-85 dBm;
4. PLMN .

, PLMN , MS
PLMN.
PLMN, MS
PLMN. PLMN
. , PLMN ,
PLMN. , PLMN ,
MS.
(Cell Selection)

, .
:
Stored list selection. , BCCH BA
(BCCH Allocation list). .
Normal cell selection. .
, BA .

. (Normal cell selection)


normal cell selection MS
.

83

7 -

. 7.4
:
PLMN.
. ( , MS
IDLE, MS ( ),
);

.
LA,


.
MS IDLE 1.
: 1>0.
:
84

7 -
C1 = A B
C1 = A 0

B >0
B < 0,

A = RXLEV ACCMIN
B = CCHPWR P
7.1

RXLEV
ACCMIN
CCHPWR
P


MS BTS (downlink). .
MS,
MS (downlink). .
, MS,
(uplink). .
, MS,
.

dBm.
(Cell Reselection)

(Cell reselection measurements)


, , MS
. ,
.
MS BCCH ,
BA, BCCH , .
5
.
BA.
,
BCCH, 30 . , MS
, 5 ,
BCCH. , .
BCCH ,
. , , ,
, BA.
MS BSIC ,
( 30 ) ,
. BSIC :
BSIC=NCC+BCC
NCC - National Color Code ( );
BCC - Base Station Color Code ( ).
BSIC, MS ,
BCCH .
PLMN, , .
(Cell reselection criteria)

.
Locating . ,
, MS IDLE. ,
, , ,
. CRO, TO, PT,
BCCH . , MS
, offset,
. BCCH
.
2.
2.
2
C 2 = C1 + CRO + TO * H ( PT T ) PT 0
85

7 -
C 2 = C1 + CRO

PT = 31 ,

0 x< 0
.
H ( x) =
1 x 0

CRO, TO PT RLSBC (BSC)


CRO Cell Reselection Offset , [dB];
TO Temporary Offset. , [dB];
PT Penalty Time. .
T ;
2 , GSM 2.
2.
MS C1, C2 .
, MS
.
, MS :
.
MS , downlink .
1 (1<0) 5 ,
, MS .
2
5 ;
MS (
).
7.2.2.2 (Location updating)
MS , .
, MS.
Location Updating.
Location Updating:
Normal Location Updating ( );
Periodic registration ( );
IMSI attach ( MS)
Purged in VLR ( MS VLR)
MS .
IMSI detach.
(Normal Location Updating)
MS , ,
(location area). MS ,
BCCH , LAI LAI,
SIM- MS. , Normal Location
Updating SIM LAI.
(Periodic Registration)
MS
, ,
.
MS BCCH, ,
, .
, , MS .
T3212 BSC.
BSC RLSBC.
IMSI Attach/Detach
IMSI attach/detach
, / . MS,
86

7 -
MSC/VLR IMSI attach. MS MSC/VLR
IMSI detach. VLR ,
MS. MS, ,
.
Implicit detach
MS MSC detach (implicit detach). ,
MS , BTDM (MSC)
GTDM.
MGIDI MSC. -
.
BSC ( T3212). MS
, .
Purged in VLR
MS Purged in VLR ( MS VLR) - ,
,
, TDD MSC.
MGADI.
7.2.3 (Active mode)
MS
SACCH . MS BS.
BSC .

. 7.5 BCCH
MS IDLE
.

7.2.4
7.2.4.1 Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
MS. MS DTX ()
87

7 -
ON .
, MS . MS ,
, Post ,
TCH. , MS , Pre,
ON TCH. Post
() , TRC .
, ,
.
MS Post , ,
BTS (update) .
7.2.4.2 (DRX)
MS Discontinuous
Reception (DRX). , BS ,
. MS . MS
.
MS sleep mode. MS .
7.2.5
MS , , MS
. ,
. ,
MS. MS GSM .
MS.
MS:
7.2 MS

1
2
3
4
5

(Hand-Held)

(Hand-Held)

(Hand-Held)

GSM900
20
8 (39 dBm)
5 (37 dBm)

GSM1800
1
(30 dBm)
0.25 (24 dBm)

GSM1900
1
(30 dBm)
0.25 (24 dBm)

4
(36 dBm)

2
(33 dBm)

2 (33 dBm)
0.8 (29 dBm)

MS , . MS,
, MS,
.
7.3 (SIM)
GSM Subscriber Identity Module SIM-. SIM ME,
GSM. SIM- MS ,
.
SIM- :
: ,
IMSI, , .
: LA, PLMN.

, .

7.3.1 SIM-
2 SIM-. ID-1 SIM
Plug-in SIM. SIM-.
ID-1 SIM

88

7 -
ID-1 SIM ISO Integrated Circuit (IC)
).

. 7.6 SIM- ID-1


Plug-in SIM
SIM- SIM- ID-1.
ME.

. 7.7 SIM

7.3.2
GSM , SIM. :
, 3
, Ki
, A8
, Kc
, SIM-
7.3.3 , SIM
SIM GSM.
, GSM PLMN. , SIM,
: .
7.3.3.1

: SIM, ,
( ).
IC : , SIM.
ICCID - . (
). .
IccID=89701+99+010000000001 19 ;
:
. ITU-T .118:
89 -
7 - (. ITU-T E.164)
01 - GSM-900
99

89

7 -
01 -
SIM: , SIM
( , , PLMN).
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI): ,
. IMSI=MCC+MNC+MSIN=250+99+91X1X8;
: LAI, .
()

,
PLMN

: ,
, Kc Kc
.
SIM
:
Personal Identification Number (PIN) PIN
/ PIN
PIN
PIN Unlock Key (PUK) - PUK
PUK
(Ki)
, . 7.8, , SIM-.
TEMS Investigation ERICSSON

90

7 -

. 7.8 , SIM-
7.3.4 MS
, (Mobile Equipment)
SIM- MS.
PIN PUK .
7.3.4.1 PIN-
PIN 4 8 . PIN
. PIN-
. PIN-.
PIN- .
PIN- SIM . ,
PIN- SIM- , SIM-
PIN-.
7.3.4.2 / SIM
SIM- , GSM . SIM
PIN- (Unblocking Key) PUK. PUK 8-
. PUK , . 10
PUK , MS. MS
.
91

7 -

92

8 - GSM

8 - GSM
8.1
, GSM
.
MS. ,
.
8.2
8.2.1 (MSISDN)
(Mobile Station ISDN number - MSISDN)
PSTN.
.

8.1 MSISDN
CC (Country Code) -
NDC (National Destination Code) -
SN (Subscriber Number)
PLMN NDC. , NDC 086
087, PLMN. PLMN
NDC. MSISDN .
15 , (+7).
Beeline +7 903 XXX XXXX.

8.2.2 (IMSI)
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) .
.
PLMN. IMSI SIM, HLR VLR.
IMSI :

8.2 IMSI

MCC (Mobile Country Code) -


MNC (Mobile Network Code)

MSIN (Mobile Station Identification Number) MS


GSM IMSI 15 .

93

8 - GSM
8.2.3 (TMSI)
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) - IMSI, MS
.
,
.
TMSI ( MSC/VLR)
(Location Update). TMSI
, 8 . TMSI
, IMSI, ,
.
8.2.3 MS (IMEI)
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI)
.

. GSM IMEI 15 :
TAC (Type Approval Code) - .

FAC (Final Assembly Code) - ,


.
SNR (Serial Number) - .
TAC FAC
Spare - . .
MS, 0.

8.3 IMEI
8.2.4 MS
(IMEISV)
International Mobile Equipment Identity Software Version number (IMEISV)
MS,
, MS, .

, , MS,
. , , PLMN
MS (, half rate/full rate,
.). IMEISV.
IMEISV :

8.4 IMEISV

SVN (Software Version Number) - ,


MS
MS. SVN 99 , .
8.3

94

8 - GSM
8.3.1 MS (MSRN)
Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) - ,
MS, . MSRN :

8.5 MSRN

SN MSC/VLR.

8.3.2 (LAI)
Location Area Identity (LAI) ,
. :
1. . LAI MSC LA,
MS.
2.
LAI :

8.6 LAI

Location Area Code (LAC) - , LAC


16 , 65536 LA PLMN.
8.3.3 CGI
Cell Global Identity (CGI) LA.
Cell Identity (CI)
LAI. CI 16 .
CGI :

8.7 CGI
8.3.4 (BSIC)
95

8 - GSM
Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) MS .. BSIC :

8.8 BSIC

NCC - National Color Code ( ). ,


,
.

BCC Base station Color Code ( ). ,


, .
8.3.5 LN
Location Number (LN) LA,
MSC/VLR. /
.
LN :

8.9

LSP Locally Significant Part.

8.3.6 (RSZI)
/.
Regional Subscription Zone Identity (RSZI).
RSZI :

8.10 RSZI

ZC - . - 2 .

8.3.7
, MS (LU,
) MSC/VLR TMSI. IMSI MSC/VLR TMSI
MS, SIM-. MSC/VLR MS
TMSI. , IMSI . TMSI
IMSI, ,
. IMSI , Location Updating
TMSI.

96

8 - GSM

97

9 -
9.1 : MS IDLE

9.1 MS IDLE
1. , IMSI (IMSI attach)
2. (Location updating)
3. LA
4. MSC/VLR
5. MSC/VLR
6. , - .
7. (IMSI detach)
8. (
MS)
(Implicit detach)

9.1.1 MS
9.1.1.1 IMSI Attached
MS ( MS), IMSI attach,
:
1.
MS IMSI attach ,
IDLE.
2.
VLR , MS. , VLR
HLR, MS, .
3.
VLR MS
IDLE.
4.
MS .

98

9.2 IMSI attach


9.1.1.2 (LU), - IMSI attach
MS L OFF, IMSI attach
MS. VLR IMSI attach
, LAI LAI,
SIM- MS. , VLR LAI .
9.1.2
9.1.2.1 LA
MS .
MS Location Area (LA)
VLR. MS LA,
. , LA,
BCCH . BCCH LAI . MS
LAI LAI. LAI , ,
.
9.1.2.2 MSC/VLR
MS LAI ,
BCCH, . MS
, MSC/VLR , VLR,
MSC/VLR MSC/VLR.

9.3 MSC/VLR

1.
MS BCCH , LAI. LAI
. , .
2.
MS SDCCH. .
3.
, MS
.
99

9
4.
LU
.
9.1.2.3 MSC/VLR
(LU) , MS LA.
, LA MSC/VLR. VLR
LU, :

9.4 , MSC/VLR

1.
. , VLR
, , .
2.
VLR MS, HLR
VLR.
3.
HLR VLR
MS.
4.
VLR MS,
IDLE. VLR MS.
9.1.2.4 , -
, MS
. , MS
, MS (detached).
, MS ,
. ,
,
BCCH.
acknowledgment message. MS ,
.
9.1.3
9.1.3.1 IMSI (IMSI Detach)
IMSI , MS . MS
. VLR,
, IMSI . HLR .
MS .
9.1.3.2 (Implicit Detach)
MS
, MS. MS
,
.

, MS . VLR ,
MS . (Implicit Detach).
, MS
, MS Implicit Detach.
100

9
9.1.3.3 VLR MS (MS Purging)
, HLR
MS VLR. VLR HLR
, , MS MS .
,
.
, MS
MSC/VLR GSM .
. . MS
. MS
(MS Purging), HLR
MS
MSC/VLR GSM .
MSC/VLR GSM HLR , .
MS (MS Purging)
MSC/VLR
HLR , MS , , MSC/VLR
.
9.2 : MS
MS , ,
(, )
( ).

. 9.5 MS MS

1. MS ( : , ,
SMS).
2. MS ( : , , ,
SMS (cell broadcast)).
3. BSC
4. BSC MSC
5. MSC
101

9.2.1 ( MS PSTN)
,
MS . .

. 9.6 MS .

a.
b.
c.

MS RACH .
BSC/TRC AGCH.
MS SDCCH MSC/VLR .
, ,
SDCCH. :
i.
VLR MS (IMSI Attach).
ii.
.
iii.
.
iv.
- ( ).
v.


(/).
d. MSC/VLR BSC/TRC TCH. BS MS
TCH.
e. MSC/VLR - PSTN .
f.
.

9.2.2 (PSTN - MS)



, MS
. , MS,
() MS.

PSTN . MS MS .
, MS MSC/VLR
GMSC, PSTN.

102

. 9.7 (PSTN- MS)


1 PSTN MS (MSISDN). MSISDN PSTN,
, . GMSC,
MS.
a. GMSC MSISDN, , HLR MS.
GMSC HLR ,
MSC/VLR.
b. HLR MSISDN IMSI , MSC/VLR
MS . HLR ,
. , GMSC
.
c. HLR MSRN MSC/VLR.
d. MSC/VLR MSRN HLR GMSC.
e. GMSC MSRN MSC/VLR
f. MSC/VLR , LA MS.
BSC, LA.
g. BSC BS,
LA. BS , .
IMSI TMSI, MSC/VLR.
h. MS , ,
SDCCH.
i. BSC SDCCH, AGCH ( AGCH
SDCCH, MS).
j. SDCCH .
TCH, MS
.
103

9
k. . ,
.
9.2.3 (Handover)
GSM .
MS BS. MS
,
( Mobile Assisted HandOver).
9.2.3.1 (Locating)
MS
.
dawlink, MS . BS
SACCH . BS, MS
, .

. 9.8 , BSC
BS MS (Measurement Reports).
, BSC .
BSC , ,
. (locating).
, - , ,
.
().
, .
MS .
MS , BS MS
. , .
MS LA,
.
.
MS
, .
:

, BSC;
104

, BSC MSC/VLR;
MSC
.
.

, BSC ,
, , ,
. BSC ()
, , MS .
: BSC
. , , .
, BSC
MSC/VLR ,
BSC. MSC/VLR .
LA,
, .

9.9 , BSC
1 BCS BTS TCH.
2 BSC BTS MS ,
(TS) ,
. MS FACCH.
3 MS
. MS ,
( 8 ).
4 BTS , ,
, FACCH.
5 MS BSC BS.
6 BSC BTS
.
, BSC, MSC/VLR
BSC,
BSC MSC/VLR.

105

9.10 BSC, MSC/VLR


1 ( BSC) MSC ,
, ,.
2 MSC , BSC
BSC.
3 BSC BTS .
4 BSC MS MSC BTS.
5 MS ,
.
6 BTS .
7 MS MSC BSC.
8 MSC BSC
.
, MSC
, MSC,
LMN. , MSC/VLR, , BSC.

106

9.11 MSC/VLR
1 () BSC
MSC (MSC-A) .
2 MSC-A , MSC (MSC-B) .
3 MSC-B .
BSC.
4 BSC BTS .
5 MSC-B MSC-A .
6 MSC-B PSTN.
7 MSC-A MS BSC.
8 MS
.
9 BTS ,
().
10 MS MSC BSC
MSC.
11 MSC-A
.
12 BSC, ( .
8.11 ).
MSC (MSC-A) ,
. ,
, .
MS , LA
MSC. HLR VLR-B
, VLR-B, , VLR-A
.
9.3
GSM

. ,
,
, .
.

, . , ,
, .
107

9
9.3.1 IMSI (IMSI Attach)
MS , :
1. MS GSM
(GSM 900). . MS ,
.
.
2. MS PLMN,
SIM. ,
. , MS, ,
MS .
3. MS , ,
. MS ,
IMSI (IMSI Attach).
4. IMSI ( ).
, HLR .
9.3.2 MS
MS ,
, MS
. ,
GMSC HLR , MSC/VLR
.
9.3.3 Dropback
dropback.
. , :

, MS
MSC.


, MS MSC/VLR-A.
1. . .
2. , MSC/VLR-A
.
GSM .

9.12 , dropback.

dropback: GMSC

dropback:

MSC/VLR-A, .
108

9
9.3.4
(SMS)
, 160 - . SMS-C (SMS nter)
, .
SMS :
SMS: SMS-C MS
SMS: MS SMS-C
MS IDLE. MS ,
SACCH. , ,
.. .
9.3.5 SMS MS
SMS MS SMS-C,
, , , .

9.13

MS ,
, RACH, AGCH, SDCCH..
, MS
SDCCH SMS-C MSC/VLR. SMS-C
. MS , .

9.3.6 SMS
SMS - SMS-C MS.

9.14

109

9
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

SMS-C .
SMS-C SMS-GMSC.
SMS-GMSC HLR .
HLR SMS-GMSC
SMS-GMSC MSC/VLR.
MS , , ,
.
7. , MSC/VLR MS,
SDCCH.
8. , MSC/VLR SMS-C. ,
MSC/VLR HLR, SMS-C.
, SMS-C HLR VLR ,
MS. HLR SMS-C , MS .
SMS-C , , ,
, .

110

10

10 -
-
. 9.1.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


1.
(-)
2.


1.
2.
3. .
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

1.
2.
3.

1.

2.
.
3.
BSC.

. 10.1

111

10
10.1
10.1.1 :
10.1.1.1
.
.
, , ,
-, , ,

.
10.1.1.2

.
,
.
10.1.1.3 ( )
,
, .

(GoS - Grade of Service) -
, ,

.
, ,
:

B . =

AN
AZ
N !
Z =0 Z !
N

, N ; A , ;
:

A=

n T
3600

, n - , , 1 3600 .; T , ;
,
5%,
0.015 . , ,
( + ) 0.025
2%. , ,
, (0.007 0.016) .
,
,
, 10.1.

112

10
10.1 -


113

10

,
() BSS.
:
;
.
,
BSS
() ,
.
,
.

.

. ,
,
, .

.
:
(GOS);
RX Quality
SQI

, ;

PSTN PLMN.
.
BSS .
.
3 :
(3.5 35) ;
6 (0.5 3.5) ;
0.5 .
, ,
.

PLMN :

.
, , ,
;

.
, , ,
.

,
.
114

10


, .
BS , .
BS

, :
;
.
,
. ,
. BS ,
GSM 1800 ,
.
,
1 3- .
BS
. Ericsson
GSM 900/1800.
10.2
GSM 1800
,
.
2.7
5

BS, .
4.0
7.5

GSM 900

,
3.7
8.1

BS, .
5.6
12.2

22
33
27
41

BS
.
, BS
, .

, ,
,
, . 10.2.

115

10

. 10.2
,
.

, ,
, .

.
,
,
"-", . , , :

;
:

BS;

BS;

.
.
,
, 10.3.
10.3 Allgon 7331.06.
116

10

3
3

16 dBi
450
90
650
300

. 10.3 .

. 10.3
Allgon 7331.06 900

().
, ( , ,
..). , ,
.
117

10
, 10.4, ,
. . 10.5.

. 10.4

. 10.5
, , GSM
. .
C/R Carrier-to-Reflection (
R).

. -
.
, GSM 35 .
(Time Alignment). ,
, , Extended Range,
TDMA TA, , ,
72 .

,

. ,
, ,
.
118

10

,
. ,
, - . -
. ,
(/I, /A).

/I - Carrier to Interference. .

. 10.6
/A Carrier to Adjacent. (+/- 200, 400 ).

. 10.7
, GSM:

: C/I < 9 dB;

, (+/-200 ): C/A < -9 dB;

, (+/-400 ): C/A < -41 dB;

119

10

() .
.

.
, ,
GSM.
:
1.
-
;
2. ,
.
GSM 900

.
.
, ,
.
, ,
, .
,
.
,
, D, " ".

.
,
.
, 21 , . 10.8
, 1/21 .
1, 2, 3, G1, G2, G3
1, 2, 3, G1, G2, G3,
, . 1, 1,
1 2,
.
,
,
. 7/21
10.8.
:

N
Nc

- ;

- .
, 1/3.

120

10

10.8 7/21, k=4.58



D,
C/I. C/I
. ETSI GSM ,
C/I 9 , Ericsson,
GSM , 12 .

:
k - ( );
qs - , R,
:

qs=

Ds
= 3 k
R

D ,
C/I.
, ,
.
GSM qs

qs=

D
= 3 k
R

=3


3R. , C/I 12 ,
6 . C/I :

1
/ I = 10 log( qs ) ,
j
j ;
qs - ;
- MS BS

121

10
10.4 .

4
3.5
3

, 7 ( = 7), 6 (j = 6 ),
D1 = 4.58 R1 . ,
;

1
1
/ I = 10 log( q s
) = 10 log( ( 3 k
j
j

1
) ) = 10 log( ( 3 7) 4) = 18.6
6

,

k > 3 , . 10.8.
6 ,
C/I
.

.
.

, , ,
BS,
- .

:




GPS
( , ).

.
TEMS ERICSSON.
:










,
(,
). , , ,
. ,
.
, .
, , ,
:
(, );
;
;
122

10


, ,
, - , ..
("
45.162-2001").
:

, , .

,
. , ,
20 40 . .
, , 15%
, , .
,
.
,
( ).
, , ,
, , , 0, 120, 240.
, ,
, , -
- .

:


2 :

1.

. 12 18 4 5 GSM 900 2 3 GSM 1800/1900.

2. .
12 18
5, 20 25 GSM 900 10 15 GSM
1800/1900.


GSM 900 :
0.4 .
0.2 .


.
, ,
. GSM 900 5
.
123

10
, , , , , , , ,
.
, - ,
, , 35 50 .

,
, .
, .
, , .
, , ,
, ,
.


, .
,
.

GSM BTS BSC.


BTS BSC :
;
;
.

, -
,
. - .


, :
;
;
MSC;
BSC;
.
,
, (BTS, BSC, MSC).
BSC (Cell Design Data).
.
10.1.5
,
.
, BTS.
. ,
,
BTS.

124

10
, ,

.

10.2
10.2.1
, ,

,
.
, .
, , ,
, , ,

.

. , ,
, , , .
,
( , , ).
, - ,
, , - ,
.
,
.

,
:

,
;

();
,
;

;

.



( ) .
:
.
, ( ,
);
.
() ,
: (
125

10
) ; ,
, ;
.
.
, .
,
,
, , ,
(BTS, BSC, MSC).
10.2.1.3 TEMS Investigation
10.5 TEMS


, dBm


, dBm

TEMS 98
(Ericsson GH 688)

5 33

110 -47

TEMS 3.2
(Ericsson R520m)

5 33

110 -47


/
,
890 - 915/
935 - 960
890 - 915/
935 - 960,
1710-1785/
1805-1880

TEMS, ,
.

Ericsson GH688, Ericsson R520m ETSI.
TEMS, Test Mobile System,
(Test Mobile Software) (Test Mobile Station). TEMS
, MS
GPS. , TEMS
,
MS BTS.

, ,
.
,
, . 10.9.

126

10

10.9 TEMS Investigation 3.2


,
:

2- S;
, 2, 3- ;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
S;
SIM ;
;
SMS- ;
RxQuality ;
, FER;
127

10

, Cl C2;
SQI, Speech Quality Index;
C/I C/A;
;
,
, ;
MS BS ;
- .

10.2.2
- ,
, . ,
TEMS,
. :
1. (TCH) (SDCCH);
2. (congestion) (TCH) (SDCCH);
3. ;
4. .
, , .
,
.
10.3

, , ,
.
GSM 1800
GSM 900
, , .
GSM 900/1800
.

128