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2 2004

 2/2004

2003 .
4

3
5 OFC

:
Pennwell Corp.
98 Spit Brook Road
Nashua
New Hampshire 03062-5737 USA
.: +1 603 891-0123

7
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WDM-

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Pennwell Corp.
E-mail: info@lightwave-russia.com
:
.
.: (095) 939-3194
editor@lightwave-russia.com

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20.07.2004.
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33

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.

77-14327 10.01.2003
ISSN 1727-7248

, 2004

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2. Ethernet

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./: (095) 505-5753
nikonova@lightwave-russia.com

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Russian Edition 
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22 27 2004 , ,

OFC (Optical Fiber Communication conference and exposition)
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004



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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004




(A eff = 517 2 HE 11 1.55 ).
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

.1.
HE11

1. Fevrier S. et al. 517 m 2 Effective Area SingeMode Bragg Fibre.


ECOCIOOC 2003 Proceedings, vol. 1, pp. 23, Rimini, 2003.

www.lightwave-russia.com


10 /


Infineon Technologies (- ), 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) 300 . 1310
(VCSEL), (EDC electronic dispersion compensation).
EDC
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. IEEE 802.3 High Speed Study Group, 80% . EDC

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(EDCequipped Infineon
XPAK optical module) 2004 .

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2003 BlazePhotonics
PCF , . : . 0,7 /
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9 2004 .

Lightwave Russian Edition






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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004


:



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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

,
.

, (. 2, ).
,

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.

1. .. 
// Lightwave
Russian Edition, 2003, 1, . 4852.
2. Kritler D. Laseroptimized multimode fiber
presents standardizedtesting challenges.
Lightwave September, 2003. / :
Lightwave Russian Edition, 2004, 2, . 41
3. Koonen T., van der Boom H., Khoe G.D.
Broadband access and inhouse networks
extending the capabilities of multimode fibre
networks. ECOCIOOC 2003 Proceedings,
vol. 5, pp. 2427.

www.lightwave-russia.com

11


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1. Sakamoto A. et al. Novel Fabrication Method for Dispersion


Compensation Fiber Grating Utilizing Excimer Lamp (=172nm) and
Uniform Phase Mask. ECOCIOOC 2003 Proceedings, vol.1,
pp.1415, Rimini, 2003.

B = 2neff 
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12

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

,
4
(RZDQPSK)

(RZ-DQPSK) , 3
,
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[1].
DQPSK

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64- DWDM- 33 2000 .

. 2.  RZ
DQPSK


1. Wree C. et al., High spectral efficiency 1.6


b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25
GHz grid) over 200km SSMF using
RZ/DQPSK and polarization multiplexing //
Photon. Techn. Lett, 2003, 15(9),
pp. 13031305.
2. Morichetti F. et al. Integrated optical receiver
for RZDQPSK transmission systems. OFC
2004 on CDROM, paper FC8.

-
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

.. ,
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13


WDM
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Email: gladychevski@optictelecom.ru

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

2.
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004



STM-1
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200

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1
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15 000
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2000
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15

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10 000
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004


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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

WDM .
.

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Division Multiplexer) , 20
,
DWDM
(Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer), 0,40,8 .
CWDM DWDM , . ,
DWDM CWD. , ,
, .

1. ..  :

// Lightwave Russian Edition,
2004, 1, . 1821.
2. Optical WDM networks. Principal and prac
tice, edited by Sivalingam K.M., Subramaniam
S., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.
3. ..
// Lightwave
Russian Edition, 2003, 2.

www.lightwave-russia.com

19

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

WDM

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, CWDM .



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1990- CWDM 25

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(850 )
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Erbium doped fiber amplifier),
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14

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, 1270 1290 1310 1330 1350 1370 1390 1410 1430 1450 1470 1490 1510 1530 1550 1570 1590 1610

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

. 1. G. 694.2

www.lightwave-russia.com

21

WDM


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22

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

WDM

19" ,
(1,2
)
1,0
482 200 44 ,
0,8

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DWDM- 300500 .
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. 4
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

www.lightwave-russia.com

23

WDM

. 5. CWDM DWDM

.
. ,
CWDM- ,
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, ,
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,
/ .
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24

www.lightwave-russia.com

. , , . , CWDM, 15 DWDM 0,8 ,


8- CWDM- 120 [19]. , CWDM-
DWDM [20,21,22], 8- 64 . . 5
CWDM- DWDM-.
, . CWDM
, , ,


.

1. .., ..

// ,
1983, 10, . 245264.
2. 45.286 2002, 

. .
3. CWDM, Technology, Standards,
Economics & Applications, white papers of
RBN Inc, 2002. www.rbni.com
4. .., ..,
.. .  

1,3 // ,
1979, 6, . 24872490.

5. .., ..,
.. . 
 
1,3 // , 1982,
9, . 16981700.
6. ITUT Recommendation G.694.1 Spectral
Grids for WDM application DWDM Frequency
Grid, May 2002.
7. ITUT Recommendation G.694.2 Spectral
Grids for WDM application CWDM Wavelength
Grid, Jun 2002.
8. ITUT Recommendation G.695 Optical
interfaces for coarse wavelength division multi
plexing applications, Nov 2003.
9. Light Reading News, CWDM Gets a
Boost, 05.11.2003, www.lightreading.com
10. Don Kim, Andrew Coombe, Michael
Kunigonis, Mark Lundergan, Seung Oh,
Richard Vodhanel, 16channel coarse wave
length division multiplexing transmission over
70 km of low water peak fiber with 40 Gb/s
aggregate capacity, Corning incorporated,
Science and Technology Division, 2002.
11. Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing
(CWDM): Innovations for the MetroAccess and
Enterprise, white papers of Sorrento
Networks, 2002. www.sorrentonet.com
12. Characteristics of CWDM, white papers
of RBN Inc, 2002. www.rbni.com
13. McMullin J.N, DeCorby R.G., Haugen C.LJ.
Theory and Simulation of a Concave Difraction
Grating Demultiplexer for Coarse WDM
Systems // Jnl of Lightwave Technology, vol.
20, No 4, pp.758765, April 2002.
14. Planar Device Boosts GratingsBased
WDM Performance, Photonics Spectra, vol.
36, No12, p.33, December 2002.
15. Das S.K., Mysore S.M., Villa R. A., Thomas
J.J., Thiele H.J., Jiao L. and Nelsen L.E. 40 Gb/s
(16x2.5Gb/s) full spectrum Coarse WDM trans
mission over 75 km Low Water Peak Fiber for low
cost metro and cable TV applications, OFS, 2002.
16. Alcatel 1692 Metro Span Edge (8Channel
Metropolitan CWDM System), www.alcatel.com
17. Alcatel 1686 WM Wavelength Multiplexer
32channel DWDM System, www.alcatel.com
18. Lucent Technologies, LambdaXtreme
Transport, www.lucent.com
19. Aldridge Jim . The best of both worlds //
Lightwave Europe, September, 2002, pp.4547.
20. Finisar Corporation, CWDM Mux/demux,
www.finisar.com
21. ADVA Optical Networking, FSP 2000,
www.advaoptical.com
22. Transmode Systems AB, CWDM
Mux/demux, www.transmode.se

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

WDM

PON
2. ETHERNET
.. , .. , ..,
, info@tt.ru

PON.
APON.
EPON (Ethernet PON).
IEEE 802.3.

EPON?
(PON)
,

.
1995
FSAN (full service access network),
,
ATM [1]. ATM ,
(QoS), , .
Ethernet,
.
,
Ethernet
.
Ethernet
CSMA/CD (Carrier sense multiple access with
collision detection), [2].
Ethernet
. -,
, 10 /, . 1. -,
Full Duplex Ethernet

,

. Gigabit
Ethernet,
10 Gigabit Ethernet. , Ethernet,
,
, .
Ethernet
, :
Ethernet PON
Ethernet?
APON GPON
EPON (Ethernet PON)
IEEE 802.3?!
2000 EFM

IEEE 802.3,
. -,

, :
IEEE 802.1Q (VLAN)
;
DiffServ (differential services)
OSI ISO,
,
QoS;
MPLS (multi protocol label switching)


, .
Ethernet
.
Ethernet
. ,
95%

320 .
. 1. Ethernet
Ethernet [3]. Ethernet -

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

www.lightwave-russia.com

25

WDM

IEEE 802.3

1.1

10BASE-FL

IEEE 802.3u

2.1

100BASE-FX

IEEE 802.3z

(/)

TX 
()

RX 
()

()

ONT/OLT1

10

02

2 / MMF2

850 LED

850

9,0

ONT/OLT

100

02

2 / MMF

1300 LED

1300

11,0

00,22

2 / MMF

8503

850

7,5

00,22 (0,55)

2 / MMF
1310

1310

3.1

1000BASE-SX

ONT/OLT

1000

3.2

1000BASE-LX

ONT/OLT

1000

()

05

2 / SMF4

7,5
8,0

IEEE 802.3ae

4.1

10GBASE-S

ONT/OLT

10 000

00,3

2 / MMF

850/1310

850

7,3

4.2

10GBASE-L

ONT/OLT

10 000

010

2 / SMF

1310

1310

9,4

4.3

10GBASE-E

ONT/OLT

10 000

040

2 / SMF

1550

1310

15,0

ONT/OLT

100

010

2 / SMF

1310

1310

10,0

1490

1310

/ ()6

1310

1490

14,2 ()6

1310

1310

1490

1310

/ ()

1310

1490

14,2 ()

1490 (1550)

1310

21,0 ()

1310

1490 (1550)

23,0 ()

1490 (1550)

1310

26,0 ()

1310

1490 (1550)

26,0 ()

5
5.1

IEEE 802.3ah P2P


100BASE-LX10
100BASE-BX10-D

OLT

5.2

100
100BASE-BX10-U

5.3

1000BASE-LX10

ONT/OLT

1000BASE-BX10-D

010

2 / SMF

00,55

2 / MMF

010

1 / SMF Bi-Di

1000

OLT
1000

1000BASE-BX10-U

ONT

10,0

IEEE 802.3ah P2MP (PON)


1000BASE-PX10-D

OLT

6.1

1000
1000BASE-PX10-U

ONT

1000BASE-PX20-D

OLT

6.2

1000
1000BASE-PX20-U

010

020

1 / SMF Bi-Di

1 / SMF Bi-Di

ONT

:
1 ;
2 50/125 62,5/125 ;
3 .. 36 ;
4 ITU G.652c/d ( )
ITU G.652;

(Ethernet in the first mile) Ethernet , IEEE


803.3ah [4]. 2001
EFMA (Ethernet in the
first mile alliance Ethernet ), ,
,

EFM [5], . 1
.

26

1 / SMF Bi-Di

ONT

5.4
6

010

www.lightwave-russia.com

5 Bi-Di (bidirectional)
. : 1490
1310 ; 1310 1490 .
6 OLT (TX)  ONT (RX), ONT (TX)  OLT (RX)

EFM 802.3ah
EFM 802.3ah
:
EFMC (EFM copper)
. G.SHDSL;
EFMF (EFM fiber) ,
- :

, ;

EFMP (EFM PON) , EPON, - . , , APON


GPON.
802.3ah, EFMP, , 2004 .

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

WDM


Ethernet
1
Ethernet.
.
14 . 5, 6 IEEE
802.3ah EFMF (P2P) EFMP (EPON), . 1.

EFMF (P2P)
, EFMF, ,
100 /
, FDDI
Fast Ethernet 100Base-FX,
1 / Fibre
Channel FC-0 FC-1.

.
, ,
/ .
(510 ) [6].
100Base-FX
1000Base-LX 5 ,
EFMF 10 .

IEEE 802.3ah
1 /
8B/10B
WDM :
1490 (1550 )
1310
BER 1012
FEC ,

PON:
1 1000BASEPX10D OLT 1000BASEPX10U ONT
2 1000BASEPX20D OLT 1000BASEPX20U ONT
:
EPON 1 / 21/23
EPON 2 / 26/26
( OLT ONT):
EPON 1 10
EPON 2 20


PON . EPON,
DFB- -,
PIN .


.


EPON
, PON -

Ethernet ,
APON.

EPON
Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
EPON APON (. 1). EPON
OLT (optical
line terminal), ONT*
(optical network terminal) , . 2.
* ONT
ONU (optical
network unit).

a)

EFMP (EPON)
EPON , . Gigabit Ethernet, EPON
1250 / 8B/10B.
EPON
, WDM 1490
1310 . 1550
( ).
EPON PMD (physical medium
dependent) : 1
( 10 1:16)
2 ( 20
1:16). -

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

. 2. EPON

www.lightwave-russia.com

27

WDM


() OLT Ethernet 802.3, 1xN
ONT, . 2.
1550
1490 , 1. , , 1490 ,
1550
. Ethernet ,

MAC- .


()
ONT
1310 , . 2.
, ONT, OLT. ,
EPON -.
- EPON , ,

ONT. EPON,
PON,
OLT ONT
, ONT,
.
EPON (
ONT)
CSMA/CD
. .
-,
Gigabit Ethernet
, EPON
20 . CSMA/CD, , ,
.
-, , CSMA/CD,


TDM- (, ), ,
QoS .

28

www.lightwave-russia.com

, , .. , .
MPCP, . ,
,
OLT ONT
EPON.
ONT

OLT.

(-). -,

OLT, Ethernet, . 2. ,

-, ONT , .


,
(full duplex) Ethernet IEEE
802.3X, 64 ,

. Fast Ethernet (100BASE-FX/TX),

( Ethernet
10 /), (12 ),
(8 ) .
EPON . , Ethernet
EPON .
, . Ethernet, . 3, , . 3:
SOP (start of packet) 1 , .
, 4 .
LLID (logical link identificator) 2 , EPON. :
ONT ?
LLID
- -

EPON.
(unicast multicast).
15 EPON.
CRC (circle redundancy check)
1 , .
, 802.3
EPON EPON- ( P802.3ah).
EPON . , OLT
PON 802.3, ,
LLID. ONT,
. ONT
, ..
,
, LLID LLID.
EPON
Ethernet*:
DA (destination address) 6 ,
MAC- .

(unicast), (multicast)
(broadcast).
SA (source address) 6 , MAC- .
L/T (length/type) 2 ,
.
, .
PAD ()
.
FCS (frame check sequence) 4 , ,
,
.
EPON
(), . 3. 64 .

EPON . :
L/T 2 ,
08809.
EPON
.
* EPON
IEEE 802.1Q.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

WDM

T0, OLT.
3. ONT
GATE. ONT GATE,
( TS, . 3)
T0
.
4. ONT
T1, ONT REPORT.
REPORT MAC- ONT
T1.
5. T2 OLT
REPORT ONT, MAC- T1
, . 4.
. 3. Ethernet EPON

opcode (optional code) 2 ,


. ,
: GATE, OLT, REPORT, ONT.
TS (time stamp) 4 ,
.
message 40 ,
, MPCP.

MPCP

IEEE 802.3ah MPCP (multi-point
control protocol).
(): GATE REPORT. GATE
OLT ONT.
, ,
.. ONT OLT REPORT, .
REPORT OLT .
MPCP :
()
.

. , OLT
ONT.

RTT = (T2 T0) (T1 T0) = T2 T1

LLID ONT, RTT (round trip


time) ONT
. .


1. OLT ( OLT T1 + RTTmin) T,
. OLT
,
ONT, .. OLT

. T
RTTmax RTTmin + TREPORT,
RTT

OLT-ONT-OLT, . 4,
TREPORT
REPORT.
2. OLT T0 GATE,
.
GATE T1 REPORT.
MAC, OLT MPCP
TS -

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004


ONT REPORT GATE,
. ONT, REPORT , . ONT , ? ONT
,
- , , ,
,
GATE.

,
. ,
IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD.
6. , OLT GATE- MAC- ONT
LLID. ( LLID , EPON
2 .)
7. GATE, ONT
.


, MPCP
ONT. MPCP -

www.lightwave-russia.com

29

WDM



IEEE 802.3 Ethernet.


CSMA/CD.

. 4.
Ethernet
RTT ONT
,

ONT OLT Ethernet, . .

DBA (dynamic bandwidth alloca tion) .
, 1. OLT DBA
-
MPCP GATE-
ONT :

, ONT
802.3x. ,
, .
,
2. MPCP

OLT
ONT , ,
GATE-.
.
3. ONT, GATE (uni
cast), , ,
,
. , OLT , ONT .
RTT
EPON
. ONT OLT, GATE-
Ethernet

, . , ONT , . , , .
CSMA/CD,
Ethernet 4. , .
, ONT,
10 Gigabit Ethernet ,

. .

Ethernet. .
, Ethernet , 2 -, .
P2PE (point-to-point emulation), -

30

www.lightwave-russia.com

SME (shared-medium emulation).


EPON
,

- . MAC
802.3.
Ethernet c LLID
, . 3.


- P2PE
OLT N LLID ( ONT) MAC- ,
ONT. PON.
OLT  ONT.
802.3 OLT ONT, . 5.
P2PE OLT
LLID (
unicast), ONT,
MAC- .
PON ONT, ONT,
LLID
, MAC . MAC OLT ,
.
EPON OLT ONT.
ONT  OLT. ONT, ,
( ) LLID unicast.
P2PE OLT, LLID, MAC-, LLID, . 5.
ONT  ONT. ONT ONT
OLT. 2 , P2PE ONT, . 5.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

WDM


SME ,
(OLT ONT), .
OLT  ONT. OLT
LLID,
MAC ONT, . 6.
ONT  OLT, ONT.
SME ,
SME OLT
(), ONT, . 6. , .. ONT,
,
MAC,
. SME,
LLID, ,
, ,
LLID .

P2PE SME

. ,
P2PE N
( ONT),
ONT. ,
, ,

EPON
, N unicast
.
SME, ,
.

,
.
,
EPON , . 7.
EPON (c N ONT)
N+1
MAC-: ONT ( P2PE)
. ONT
MAC-, -
.
, -

a)

. 5. 

(
MAC) ,
.
, IEEE 802.1D
IEEE 802.1Q/p.
2
OLT.

a)

. 6.

EPON


OLT 13 ONT , 2.

, GATE REPORT. ONT
(20

32 ) .
OLT OLT . OLT, . GATE
ONT
,
ONT


REPORT
.
OLT
. 7. P2PE SME

ONT . -

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

www.lightwave-russia.com

31

WDM

, ,
.
RTT ONT
(20 )
0,2 . OLT 0,02% (0,2/1c).


, ,
,
, ( , ), .

Ethernet EPON 2

EPON
Ethernet ( ), 1526

12

,
GATE ( ), 72
32 ONT , 32 x 0,6

13
0,6
20


RTTmax, 20

200

( )
(),
ONT, 2 GATE

EPON QoS
EPON : , ,
. EPON, Ethernet, IP-, Ethernet ,
Internet.
.
APON

APON Ethernet. ,
Ethernet
ATM ,
ATM- . ATM-.
ATM.
Ethernet 64 1518 , .
-
Ethernet
13% [7].
, -

32

www.lightwave-russia.com

< 2%
> 1
>200,6
1,2
0,02%


APON. , EPON
(jitter), ,
, , ATM. EPON 20 2 ,
SDH.


EPON [8].

,
,

EPON. ,
Ethernet , .
,
EPON IP,
E1.

APON
, -

622 /c APON 1 /
EPON, APON
.
ATM
.
APON , Ethernet
. ATM Ethernet
[3].
EPON. EPON


,
.
EPON,
Ethernet - ,
.

( )
.

1. ITUT Rec. G.983.1, Study Group 15,


Broadband Optical Access Systems based on
Passive Optical Networks (PON), Oct., 1998.
2. Part 3:Carrier sense multiple access with
collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method
and physical layer specifications IEEE Std
802.3, 2000 Edition, pp.11554
3. Kramer G., Mukherjee B., Maislos A.
Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON).
http://wwwcsif.cs.ucdavis.edu/~kramer/publica
tions.html
4. IEEE 802.3ah Working Group,
http://www.ieee802.org/3/efm/
5. EFM Alliance, www.efmalliance.org
6. Gagnaire M. Broadband local loops for high
speed Internet access. Artech House, 2003,
p. 419.
7. Claffy K., Miller G., Thompson K. The nature
of the beast: Recent traffic measurements from
an internet backbone, in Proceedings INET 98,
(Geneva, Switzerland), July 1998.
http://www.isoc.org/inet98/proceedings/6g/
6g3.htm
8. Pesavento G. Ethernet Passive Optical
Network (EPON) architecture for broadband
access // Optical Network Magazine, 2003,
January/February.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004



.. , ...,
,
rtcom@ssktb.ru


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www.lightwave-russia.com

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2. .. 
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Lightwave. Russion Edition, 2003, 2, c. 3537.

www.lightwave-russia.com

37

,

, (Francis Audet), EXFO,
Email: francis. audet@exfo.com


. ,

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

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www.lightwave-russia.com

39

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004


,


(DAVID KRITLER),
 Photon Kinetics Email: dave.kritler@pkinetics.com

IEEE 802.3ae 10- Ethernet ,



(VCSEL) 850 . , ,
,
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DMD
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004


IEEE GbE.
,
TIA IEC, 10- Ethernet 10-GbE IEEE 802.3ae.
, ,
10 /, , 300 ,

, 1GbE.
, , , 62,5
FDDI
50 ,
ISO/IEC 11801
,
.
-,

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850 .
, Infineon Technologies
( ),

1300
10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE)
-
300 . . // Lightwave
Russian Edition, 2004, 2, . 10.
.

www.lightwave-russia.com

41

RML
, 10 / 300
.
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,

42

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

DMD;

/ ,
50 850 2,5 /.

-
(Ti:Sapphire)

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004


,
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IEEE 10GbE.

: D. Kritler
Laseroptimized' multimode fiber
presents standardizedtesting challenges,
Lightwave, September, 2003

www.lightwave-russia.com

43


-
(PCF)

. 1.


. PCF ( 2000 ),
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, .
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CWDM .
, ,
plug-n-play, ROADM (Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexing)
,
.

44

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004


.. ,
, mail: nolatech@mail. magelan.ru, http: www. nolatech. ru


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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

. 2. 

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1. . 
, .: ,1989.
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, 1992, 19, 7, . 674.
3. .. // 
, 1992, 34, 40.
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Connect , 1999, .1, 8, . 8891.
5.  (,
, ) / . ..
, .. , ., 2000.
6. .., . // 
, 31, 6 (2001), . 529530.

www.lightwave-russia.com

45

Mini DP

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46

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004


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Lightwave Russian Edition

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[1].


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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

www.lightwave-russia.com

47

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48

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

..
.
WDM 1270
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004


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www.lightwave-russia.com

49



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50

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 2 2004

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www.lightwave-russia.com

51

. 11.

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52

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1. ..  // 
, 2000, . 30, . 659.
2. .. 
// Lightwave Russian
Edition, 2003, 1, . 4852.
3. .. //
Lightwave Russian Edition, 2003, 2, . 4851.
4. .. 
 // Lightwave
Russian Edition, 2004, 1, . 5051.
5. Weiershausen W. Will We Need 40G in
German WDM Networks? // ECOC_IOOC 2003
Proceedings, vol.5, pp. 8895, Rimini, 2003.
6. ..

// Lightwave Russian Edition,
2003, 2, . 4851.
7. .., ..

// ,
1983, 10, . 245264.
8. .. . 

1,3 // 
, 1982, 9, . 16981700.
9. .., .. 
PON. 1. 
// Lightwave Russian
Edition, 2004, 1, . 2228.
10. ..
EDFA // Lightwave Russian Edition,
2003, 1, . 2228.
11. .., .. 
 // Lightwave
Russian Edition, 2003, 1, . 1419.


. ..






1,5



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