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( )


, ,
5 11-
(2008-2009 )

. , 2009

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

: .. ,
.

: 5 11- (2008-2009 ). - .: , 2009, 32.

:

. . 040060 21.08.96. 13.01.09
6090 1/16. . . . . . 2,0
.-. . 1,77. 1600. 13-.

-
-
( )
-
141700, . ., . , ., 9
, / (495) 408-5145
./ (495) 409-9351 -
.409-9583

E.mail: zftsh@mail.mipt.ru
: www.school.mipt.ru
, 2009

2009, . .

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

1.

.
, a b :

a
= a .
a

1. a a = a + .

2.

3. a b = (ab ) .

a a
4. = .
b
b

a > 0, a 1, a x . a. a > 1, a x R; 0 < a < 1,

a x R.
R+ . , , a > 0, a 1 , N x, , a x = N .
N a log a N . ,

a log a N = N

( N > 0, a > 0, a 1) .
, , a > 0, a 1, M > 0, N > 0 , ,
5. log a MN = log a M + log a N . 6. log a

M
= log a M log a N .
N

2009, . .

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

7. log a M = log a M .
8. , , b > 0, b 1, log a M =

logb M
.
logb a

a b. .
5 8 ( M > 0, N > 0 ) , .
, , 5 6
:
MN > 0, M > 0, N > 0. : MN > 0 , M > 0, N > 0, ,

M < 0, N < 0.

MN = ( M )( N ) ,

M > 0, N > 0 ( 5) log a ( M )( N ) = log a ( M ) + log a ( N ).



5*. MN > 0, log a MN = log a M + log a N .
9. M 0, N 0, log a M + log a N = log a MN .
,
6*. MN > 0, log a

M
= log a M log a N .
N

M
.
N
7*. M 0 , n ,
log a M 2 n = 2n log a M .

10. M 0, N 0, log a M log a N = log a

(. . ), .
2.
: -

2009, . .

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

. .
f ( x ) = g( x ) a

(a > 0, a 1)

log a f ( x ) = log a g ( x ).

, . .
.
,

x = 0,
x = x x = 1, lg x3 = lg x x = 1.
x = 1.
3

, . . .

log a f (x ) = log a g ( x ) f ( x ) = g ( x ) .
, . .
f ( x ), g( x ) , . :
11. f ( x) = g( x) f ( x ) > 0 g( x) > 0, loga f ( x) = loga g ( x).
12. log a f ( x ) = log a g ( x ), f ( x ) > 0, g (x ) > 0 f ( x ) = g ( x ).


, . . . , 11 12

f ( x ) > 0,
g ( x ) > 0,
log a f ( x ) = log a g (x )

f ( x ) = g ( x ).
f (x ) = g ( x ).

( 1)

3.

a = a x = y.

2009, . .

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

, , a > 0, a 1 ,
a x = b b 0 , b > 0 x = log a b.

.
:
1.

a f ( x ) = b( x ) f ( x ) = log a b( x ),

2.

g a f ( x ) = 0.

2 a f ( x ) = t
g (t ) = 0, , 1. ,

1 f ( x ) = g ( x ) 1 = g ( x ), 0
1. (, 1970). 4
4

3 x 2 2 x +1

42

+ 2 = 92

3 x 2 2 x

) 9(2
2

3 x 2 2 x

3 x 2 2 x

3 x 2 2 x +1

4 22

f ( x)

f ( x ) > 0,
= g ( x)
g ( x ) = 0.
3 x 2 2 x

+ 2 = 92

3 x 2 2 x

)+ 2 = 0 (2

92

3 x 2 2 x

3 x 2 2 x

+2=0
2
1

2 2 3 x 2 x = 0
4

x = 1,
3x 2 2 x = 1 3x 2 2 x 1 = 0
x = 1;

2
3x 2 x = 2 .
1
.
. 1,
3
2. 8 x 13 4 x 3 x 2 x 9 x + 13 33 x = 0.
8x 13 4 x3x 2 x9x + 13 33x = 0 23x 13 22 x3x 2x32 x + 13 33x = 0

2009, . .

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -
x
2x
3x

3 3
3

2 1 13 + 13
=0

2 2
2

3x

(*)

3
= t > 0 , (*) 1 13t t 2 + 13t 3 = 0.
2
1
1 13t t 2 + 13t 3 = 0 1 t 2 (1 13t ) = 0 t = 1; x = 0; log 3 13.
13
2

: 0, log 3 13.
2

3. 500 8 x = 8 5 x .
1

500 8x = 8 5 x 53 22 23x = 235 x 23x1 = 5 x

1
(3x 1) log5 2 = 3
x

x= ,
log 5 2 3 (log 5 2 + 3)

x=

6 log 5 2
x = log 2 5.
1
: , log 2 5.
3
1
1
4. x + x = 5. , 2
3
,
,
. , x = 1.
: 1.
5. (, 1997, . .) p
4 x + 2 x + 2 + 7 = p 4 x 2 21 x ?

2009, . .

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

4 1
+ x p = 0 42x + 4 4x 2x + (7 p) 4x + 4 2x +1 = 0.
x
2 4
x
t = 2 > 0 .
4 1

t 4 + 4t 3 + (7 p )t 2 + 4t + 1 = t 2 t 2 + 4t + (7 p ) + + 2 = 0.
t t

4x + 4 2x + 7 +

(t 1) 2 t 2 + 1 (t 1) + 2t
1
=
= 2+
y = t + , y =
t
t
t
t
t > 0 .
1 1
2
2
t + 2 + 2 + 4 t + + (5 p ) = y + 4 y + (5 p ) = 0.
t
t

z = y 2 + 4 y + (5 p )
z , y 0 2

, z (2 ) 0 4 + 8 + 5 p 0 p 17.
: [17;+ )

4.
. -, , . -, 1 ,

2009, . .

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

, (, ),
.

.
, ( , , ,
, ).
. , .
, .
. a > 0, a 1
1.

f (x ) = g ( x ),
f ( x ) = g ( x ),

( 1)
log a f ( x ) = log a g ( x )
f (x ) > 0.
g ( x ) > 0.

, .
2. g (log a f ( x )) = 0.

6. (, 1997, ) log 3 x + log 3 ( x + 1) = 1.

x > 0,
x > 0,
1 + 13
2
x=
log3 x + log3 (x + 1) = 1
.
2
log3 x(x + 1) = 1 x + x = 3.
13 1
.
2

7. (, 1998, .)

log 0,5 log 4

1
2
+ log 4 (log 2 (16 x )) = 0.
x

))

log 0,5 log 4 + log 4 log 2 16 x 2 = 0


x

log 2 x log 2 (4 + 2 log 2 x )


log 2
=0
+
2
2

2009, . .

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

log 2 x < 0,

log 2 x

log 2 (4 + 2 log 2 x ) = log 2


2

log 2 x < 0,

1
2
4 + 2 log 2 x = 4 log 2 x log 2 x = 4 4 2

log 2 x = 4 4 2 x = 24 4 2.
: 2 4 4 2 .
8. (, 1999, . ) x
x

log 7 4

+ 5 2 log 7 x 4 = 0 2 log 2 x

2 log7 x

log7 x

+ 5 2

log7 x

4=0 2

log 7 4

+ 5 2 log7 x 4 = 0.

+ 5 2 log7 x 4 = 0

) + 52

log7 x 2

5 + 41
=
log 7 x = log 2
2
log 2

log 7 4

log7 x

4=0

log 2
41 5
x=7
2

415
2

41 5

2
: 7
.
,
, .

log a ( x ) f ( x ) (a ( x ))

f (x )

5. . a ( x )
y( x ) = a( x )

f ( x)

f (x)

= a(x )

g (x)

. ,

?
, , c > 0, c 1, a ( x ) > 0

a ( x ) b ( x ) = c b ( x ) log c a ( x )

2009, . .

(01)

10

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

a( x )

f (x )

g (x )

= a(x )

: a ( x ) > 0.
f (x )
g (x )
a(x )
= 10 f ( x )lg a ( x ) , a( x )
= 10 g ( x )lg a ( x ) ,

10 f ( x ) lg a ( x ) = 10 g ( x ) lg a ( x ) f ( x ) lg a(x ) = g ( x ) lg a( x )
lg a ( x )( f ( x ) g ( x )) = 0
lg a( x ) = 0,
a( x ) = 1,


,
f ( x ) = g( x ).
f ( x ) = g( x ).
a( x )

f ( x)

= a( x )

g( x)

a( x ) = 1,

.
f ( x ) = g( x ).

a(x )

f (x)

= a(x )

g (x)

a ( x ) = 1,

a ( x ) > 0,
f ( x ) = g ( x ).

( 3)

( 3*)

( 2)x

= 8 ,

12

( 2)3 ( 2) 4 , , ( x , -

!). , ( 2 ) = 8 ,
n

, n ( ! , ,

8 ( 8)3 , . . , ).

9. x x = x 2 3 x .
: x > 0.
2

x x = x 23 x 10 x

lg x

= 10 (23 x ) lg x lg x x 2 + 3 x + 2 = 0

lg x( x + 2 )( x + 1) = 0 x = 1.

2009, . .

11

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

1, 2 . , ,

( 1)1 = ( 1)1, ( 2)4 = ( 2)4 .


: {1} .
10. (, 1998, .) a

( x 3ax + 8 +
2

) ( x 3ax + 8
x

x2 3ax + 6 +

) ( )
x

x 2 3ax + 6 = 2 2

?
. ,

x 2 3ax + 8 x 2 3ax + 6

t =
:

(x

)x =

2x

x 2 3ax + 8 + x 2 3ax + 6

)x

3ax + 8 + x 2 3ax + 6 ,
2

x
x
x
x

2x
2
x
2
2
2
2

t+
= 2 2 t 2 2 t + 2 = t 2 = 0 t = 2
t

( x 3ax + 8 +
x lg( x 3ax + 8 +

) = 2 ( 3),
3ax + 6 ) = x lg 2

x 3ax + 6
2

x2

x
2

x = 0,
2
2
x 3ax + 8 + x 3ax + 6 = 2 .

(*)

, a
x = 0 ,
, .
(*): x 2 3ax + 6 0.
x 2 3ax + 6 > 0,

x 2 3ax + 8 + x 2 3ax + 6 > 2 .

x 2 3ax + 6 = 0,

x 2 3ax + 8 + x 2 3ax + 6 = 2 .
( x = 0
a !),

2009, . .

12

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

x 2 3ax + 6 = 0 ,

2 6 2 6
.
;

3
3

, 9a 2 24 < 0 a

2 6 2 6
.
;
3
3

6. .
log a ( x ) f ( x ) = log a ( x ) g ( x )
y ( x ) = log a ( x ) f ( x ).
, c > 0, c 1

log a ( x ) f ( x ) =

log c f ( x )
log c a( x )

(02)

. . y ( x ) ,
() X ,

f ( x ) > 0, a ( x ) > 0, a ( x ) 1.

log a ( x ) f ( x ) = log a ( x ) g ( x ).

: a ( x ) > 0, a( x ) 1, f ( x ) > 0, g ( x ) > 0.

(02 )

log a ( x ) f ( x ) = log a ( x ) g ( x )
f (x ) = g (x ) .

lg f ( x ) lg g ( x )
=
lg f ( x ) = lg g ( x )
lg a(x ) lg a( x )

log a ( x ) f ( x ) = log a ( x ) g( x ) f ( x ) = g( x ) .

( 3)

2009, . .

13

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

loga( x )

f (x) = g (x), f (x) = g (x),


a(x) > 0,
a(x) > 0,

f (x) = loga( x ) g (x)


a(x) 1,
a(x) 1,
f (x) > 0.
g ( x) > 0.

( 3*)

11. (, 1981)

2 log x 4 + x = 2 log

2.

2 log x 4 + x = 2 log

2 log x 4 + x = 1 log x 2

4 + x = 2 x 2 x 8 = 0,

log x 4 + x = log x x > 0,


2
x 1,

x = 4 x = 16.
: 16 .
.
10-
:
f ( x ) [a; b] 0

(a; b), f ( x )
[a; b].

: f ( x ) f ( x )

, .
7.
a f ( x ) > a g ( x ).

2009, . .

14

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

f ( x ) g ( x ) f x
g x
X , a > 0. a ( ) , a ( ) -

f x
g x
X a ( ) > a ( ) .
, a > 1 a < 1.

1) a > 1, f ( x ) > g ( x ) (a 1)( f ( x ) g ( x )) > 0.

(a 1)( f (x ) g (x )) > 0.

2) 0 < a < 1, f ( x ) < g( x )


:

1. (a 1)( f ( x ) g ( x )) > 0, a > 1 f ( x ) > g ( x )


a f ( x ) > a g ( x );
2. 0 < a < 1, f ( x ) < g ( x ) a f ( x ) > a g ( x.).
,

a f ( x ) > a g ( x ) (a 1)( f ( x ) g ( x )) > 0

( 1)

f x
g x
a ( ) < a ( ) ( 1), ,
f x
g x
a ( ) a ( )

( a 1) f ( x ) g( x )

( 2)

12. (, 1999, .)

3 4
3 22

2 x

2 x

10 2

2 x

3< 0 2

2 x

+ 3 < 10 2

+3< 0 2
2 x

2 x

3 2

2 x

2 x

1
<0
3

< 3 0 2 x < log 2 3

0 2 x < log 22 3 2 log 22 3 < x 2.

: 2 log 22 3;2 .

2009, . .

15

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

13. (, 1999, .).


2
1
3 x 2 + 27 2 x +3.
9
2
2
2
2
1
3( x + 3 ) + 3 x 2 + 27 2 x +3 3 x + 6 x + 9 + 3 2 3 x 2 + 3 6 x +9
9

3( x +3) +
2

3 x (3 6 x +9 3 2 ) (3 6 x + 9 3 2 ) 0 3 x 3 0 (3 6 x +9 3 2 ) 0
2

x = 0,
( 2), x (6 x + 9 + 2 ) 0
x 11 .
6

: ;

11
{0}.
6

14.

(3

x2 + x 2
x

)(

1 2 x 16

(3

x2 + x 2
x

)(

1 2 x 16

) 0.

) 0 ( 2),
x 2,
x (0;1] (2;+ ).
x 1
0
x( x 2 )

(x + 2)(x 1) 0

(x 0)(x 2 4)

: (0;1] (2;+ ).

15. (, 2000, .) 2 x 3 x < 6.


2

2 x 3x < 6 2 x 2

x log2 3

< 2log2 6 2 x + x log2 3 < 2log2 6

x 2 + x log 2 3 log 2 6 < 0 (x 1)(x + log2 6) < 0 log2 6 < x < 1.


: ( log 2 6;1).

2009, . .

16

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

16.

(3

)(

x2

)(

3 2 x 23 4 x 4 x
x 2 5x + 6

+ 2 x 2

) > 0.

(
)
(3 3)(2 2 )(4 4 ) > 0 ( 2),

(x 5x + 6)
(x 1)( x 3)(x x 2x + 2) > 0 (x 1) (x + 1)(x + 3)(x + 2) > 0
x2

x 2 +2 x2

(x 2)(x 3)

(x 2)(x 3)

+
3

+
2

+
1

+
2


: ( 3;2 ) ( 1;1) (1;2 ) (3;+ ) .
17. (,1973, ) a,
4 x a 2 x a + 3 0
.
2 x = t > 0, t 2 at a + 3 0.
, , , . .

D = a 2 + 4a 12 = (a + 6 )(a 2 ) 0 a ( ;6] [2;+ ).

a D

a+ D
= t1;
= t2 .
2

2
, a, t. -

, t 2 at a + 3 0 t

, , . .

t2 =

a + a 2 + 4a 12
>0
2

2009, . .

17

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

a > 0,
a 2;
2
a
4
a
12
0
,
+

a2
a 0,

;
a 2 + 4a 12 a 2 > 0,
: [2;+ ) .

8. a ( x )
a( x )

f ( x)

f (x)

> a( x )

> a(x )

g( x)

. : a( x ) > 0 .

g (x )

, a( x ), f ( x ), g( x )

c e ( ).
f x ln a x
g x ln a x
e ( ) ( ) > e ( ) ( ) . ( 1),

(e 1)( f (x )ln a(x ) g (x )ln a(x )) = (e 1)( f (x ) g (x ))ln a(x ) > 0,

, ( 5),

(a(x ) 1)( f (x ) g (x )) > 0.

a( x )

f ( x)

> a( x )

g( x)

( a( x ) 1)( f ( x ) g( x )) > 0 . ( 5)

a(x )

f (x)

> a(x )

g (x )

a(x ) > 0,

(a( x ) 1)( f ( x ) g ( x )) > 0.

( 5*)

a( x )

f ( x)

a( x )

)(

g( x)

a( x ) 1 f ( x ) g( x ) .

2009, . .

( 6)

18

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

( 6) , , a( x ), f ( x ), g( x )
, .
18.

(56 x x )

3
2
2 x 2 x

56 x x 2

2 x 2 +5 x

: 56 x x 2 > 0 x 2 + x 56 < 0 x ( 8;7 ).

, ( 6), 56 x x 2

)(

x3 2 x 2

56 x x 2

2 x 2 +5 x

55 x x 2 x 3 2 x 2 2 x 2 5 x 0

1 221
1 + 221
x
x( x + 5)(x 1) 0
x

2
2

+
8

: 8;

221

1
2

+
1

x
5 1+ 221 7
2

1 + 221
1 221
[ 1;0] 5;
.
2
2

9. .
log a f ( x ) > 0 log a f ( x ) > log a g ( x )
f ( x ) > 0, f (x ) (c; d ) , log a f (x )

(c; d ) ,

log a f ( x ) > 0 -

.
f ( x ) .
, . .

2009, . .

19

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

log a f ( x ) > 0(< 0 ) , a , a 1 .


: f ( x ) > 0.
,
log a f ( x ) > 0(< 0) (a 1)( f ( x ) 1) > 0(< 0)

( 4)

,
1. a > 1 , log a f ( x ) > 0(< 0 ) ,

f ( x ) > 1( < 1) , . . (a 1)( f ( x ) 1) > 0(< 0 ).

2. 0 < a < 1, log a f ( x ) > 0(< 0 ) ,

f ( x ) < 1( > 1) , . . (a 1)( f ( x ) 1) < 0(> 0 ). , .

(a 1)( f ( x ) 1) > 0(< 0 ),

1. a > 1 f ( x ) > 1(< 1) , log a f ( x ) > 0(< 0 ),

2. 0 < a < 1 f (x ) < 1(> 1) , log a f ( x ) > 0(< 0 ).

,
log a f ( x )

(a 1)( f ( x ) 1)

( 5)

, :

f ( x ) > 0,
log a f ( x ) > 0(< 0)
(a 1)( f ( x ) 1) > 0(< 0).

( 5*)

log a f ( x ) > log a g ( x ) , a > 0, a 1 .

f ( x ) > 0,
g ( x ) > 0.

2009, . .

20

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

log a f ( x ) > (< ) log a g ( x )

(a 1)( f ( x ) g ( x )) > 0(< 0 )

( 6)

f ( x ) > 0,

log a f ( x ) > (< ) log a g (x ) g (x ) > 0,


( 6*)
(a 1)( f (x ) g (x )) > 0(< 0 ).

,
log a f ( x ) log a g( x )

( a 1) f ( x ) g( x )

( 7)

, ,
( 4) ( 6). , ( 4) (6)
, .
19.

lg 3x 2 3x + 7 lg 6 + x x 2
0.
(10 x 7 )(10 x 3)

3x 2 3x + 7 > 0 x R,
: 2
x ( 2;3).
x + x + 6 > 0 x ( 2;3).

lg 3x 2 3 x + 7 lg x 2 + x + 6
0 , ( 7),
(10 x 7 )(10 x 3)
3x 2 3x + 7 + x 2 x 6
(2 x 1)
=
0
7
3
3
7

x x
x x
10
10
10
10

3 1 7
3 1 7

x ; ;+ x 2; ;3
10 2 10
10 2 10

2009, . .

21

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

: 2;

1
2

3
10

7
10

3 1 7
;3 .
10 2 10


x =

1
, .
2

.
20. (, 1998, .)

x 3
11 x
log 2 x + + + 1 log3 2 x x 2 log3 + log 2 2 x x 2 .
2 2
3 2

x + 5,5 0 x 5,5;

x+2

> 0,
x ( 2;0).
: x + 5,5 +
2

2 x x 2 > 0 x( x + 2) < 0 x ( 2;0).

x 3
11 x
log 2 x + + + 1 log 3 2 x x 2 log 3 + log 2 2 x x 2
2 2
2 2

x 3
11 x
log2 x + + + 1 log2 ( 2x x 2 ) log2 + log2 ( 2x x 2 )
2 2
2 2

x 3
11 x
log 2 2 x x 2 log 2 x + + + 1 log 2 + 0

2 2
2 2

, ( 5) ( 7),

( 2 x x

x 3
11 x
1 x + + + 1 0
2 2
2 2

2009, . .

22

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

11
1
2
( x + 1) x + + x 0 ( x = x )
2
2

11 1
1

2
( x + 1) x + x 0 . . x > 0
2 2

2
2

21
7
3
2
2
( x + 1) x 2 + 2 x + 0 ( x + 1) x x + 0
4
2
2

3 7

x ( ; ;+ { 1} ) . :
2 2

(x + 1)2 x + 11 1 x

3
2

7
2

: 2; { 1}.
2

1
9

log 7 2 7 x > 1 .
2

x
9
9
4
: 2 7 x > 0 7 x 2 > 0 x > log 7 .
2
2
9
1
1
9
x
9

log 7 2 7 x > 1 log 7 2 7 x >



2

x
x
2
x
21. (, 1992)

9
log 7 2 7 x x log 7 2 7 x log 7 7 x

2
>0

x
x

2009, . .

23

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

, ( 7),

9
9
7x 4 7x
2 7 x 7 x
7 2x 7 x + 2
2

2
2
>0
<0
<0
x
x
x
1
log 7
x
log 7 4
x
2

7 7
7 7

< 0 ( 2),

x
(x log 7 4) x log 7 1
1
2

< 0 x ; log 7 (0; log 7 4 )


x
2

4
1

, x log7 ; log 7 (0; log 7 4).


9
2

4
1

: log 7 ; log 7 (0; log 7 4 ).


9
2

10.
log a ( x ) f ( x ) > 0, a ( x ), f ( x ) X .
: a ( x ) > 0, a ( x ) 1, f ( x ) > 0. ,
log a ( x ) f ( x )

)(

a( x ) 1 f ( x ) 1

( 9)

log a ( x ) f ( x ) > 0(< 0) (a ( x ) 1)( f ( x ) 1) > 0(< 0) . ( 10)


, .

2009, . .

24

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

log a ( x )

a( x ) > 0,

f ( x ) > 0(< 0) f (x ) > 0,


(a ( x ) 1)( f ( x ) 1) > 0(< 0 ).

( 10*)

-.

a( x ) > 0,
a( x ) 1,

log a ( x ) f ( x ) 0( 0)
f ( x ) > 0,
(a( x ) 1)( f ( x ) 1) 0( 0).
lg f ( x )
,
, , log a ( x ) f ( x ) =
lg a( x )

( 11)

a( x ) > 0, a( x ) 1, f ( x ) > 0.

( 5),
lg f ( x ), lg a(x ) f ( x ) 1 a( x ) 1
.

f ( x) 1

a( x ) 1

lg f ( x )

lg a( x )

)(

, a( x ) 1 f ( x ) 1 .

log a ( x ) f ( x ) > log a ( x ) g ( x ) , a ( x ),

f ( x ), g ( x ) a( x ) > 0, a(x ) 1.
lg f ( x ) lg g ( x )
, log a ( x ) f ( x ) log a ( x ) g ( x ) =
, , lg a( x )
( 5) ( 7),

log a ( x ) f ( x ) log a ( x ) g ( x )

)(

a( x ) 1 f ( x ) g( x ) .

2009, . .

( 12)

25

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

log a ( x ) f ( x ) > (< ) log a ( x ) g ( x )

(a(x ) 1)( f (x ) g (x )) > 0(< 0)

( 13)

, ( 12) , a ( x ) 1 ,

a ( x ) 1

,
.

log a ( x )

a( x ) > 0,
f ( x ) > 0,

f ( x ) < log a ( x ) g ( x )
( 13*)
g ( x ) > 0,
(a ( x ) 1)( f ( x ) g ( x )) < 0.


,
. , ,
.
,
, ,
.
22. (, 1980) log x 2 3 (4 x + 7 ) > 0 .
( 10), log x 2 3 (4 x + 7 ) > 0

7
4 x + 7 > 0 x > 4 ,

x 2 3 > 0 x ; 3 3;+ ,

3
x 2 3 1 (4 x + 7 1) > 0 ( x 2)( x + 2) x + > 0
2

) (

2009, . .

26

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

x ; 3 (2;+ ) .
4

2
:

7
4

3
2

7
; 3 ) (2;+ ) .
4

, ,
. ,
. ,
.
23. (, 1994).

x
3

log 8 x log 1 x > log 2


.
2
2 x+ 3

1
3

3 2x +

1
1

3 x > 0 x ; 3 ,

1
1

2 x + 0 x .
3
6

:
1
3 1
1 2

2 x + 3 1 x 6 x 3 , 3 .

2 2 1 1 1

x ; ; ; ; .
3 3 6 6 3

2009, . .

27

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

x
3

log8 x log 1 x > log 2

2
2 x+ 3
3

1
3

3 2x +

1
1
1

1
2
log 2 x log 1 x > log 2 x log 2 2 x +
2 x+ 3
3
3
3
3
3

1
1

log 2 2 x + log 2 1 x 3 log 1 x + 2 > 0

2 x+ 3
2 x+ 3
3

3
3

(. . t 2 3t + 2 = (t 1)(t 2 ) )

1
1

1

log 2 2 x + log 1 x 1 log 1 x 2 > 0

2 x+ 3
2 x+ 3
3

3
3

1
1
1

log 2 2 x + log 1 x log 1 2 x + log 1 x

x
+
x
+
x
+
2
2
2
3
3
3
3

3
3
3
1

log 1 2 x +
2 x+
3
3

)> 0

, ( 12),
3

1
4
1
1
1 1
2 x + 1 x 2 x + x 4 x 2 x > 0
3
3 3
3
9

3
1
x > 0)
(. .
3

1
1
1
2 x + 1 x 2 x + 36 x 2 + 21x 2 < 0
3
3

2009, . .

28

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

1
1 1
1 1
1
1

2 x + 1 2 x + + 1 x 2 x x + 2 x + x
3
3 3
3 3
3
12

x + < 0
3

1
2
1

x x x + x > 0
3
3
12

2 1 1

x ; 0; ;+ .
3 12 3

1
6

2
3

1 x
3

1
12

2
3

1
.
12

: ; 0;

24. (, 1996).

log 3 x 3 25 x 9 x < log 3 x 3 5 x + 3 x + log 3 x 3 5 x 1 + 3 x 1 .

)(

log 3 x 3 5 x + 3 x 5 x 3 x < log 3 x 3 5 x + 3 x + log 3 x 3 5 x 1 + 3 x 1

3x 3 0 x 1,

x
x
5
x
5 3 > 0 1 > 0 x > 0,

4 x 4 x
x
x
x 1
x 1
( 3x 3 1)(5 3 5 3 ) < 0 ( 3x 3 1) 5 3 < 0.
3
5

( 5) ( 6),

2009, . .

29

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

2
3

4
3

x > 0,

x 1,

x 1
0
(3 x 4 )(3 x 2) 5 5 < 0 x 4 x 2 ( x 1) < 0
3

3
3
3

2 4
: 0; 1; .
3 3

1(2). log a17 a

3
5

15

, log a b =

1
.
5

3
sin 2 x > 0 . 4
log tgx

2(2). tg 2 x =

tg

( )

3(2). 9 log 2x x + log 2y y , log x x 9 = log


y

y
.
x

4(2). 4 log 25 5 x + log 25 x 5 = 0 .


5(2).

log 5 ( x 2 ) + log 5 ( x + 3) = log 5 6 .

6(2). ( , )
log 2 ( x 8) + log 2 ( x 4 ) = log 2 x + log 2 6 .

2009, . .

30

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

7(2).

lg 2 ( x + 1) = lg( x + 1) lg( x 1) + 2 lg 2 ( x 1) .

8(2).

log 0,5 log 4 + log 4 (log 2 (16 x 2 )) = 0.


x

9(2).

x log 7 4 + 5 2 log 7 x 4 = 0.
10(2).

log 4 (x 2 ) + log 2 ( x + 5) = 2

11(3).

9 2 x 5 y 5 3 x + y = 3 x 5 y ,
x 2 y x +1 1 y
2 3
5 = 1.

1(2). ,

(2

64 ) ( x 8 ) ( 3x 36 )
2x

1
1

2
2

0.

2(2).

2x 3

1
.
2 1
x

3(2). ,

31 4 x

3 4 x 2 9 x 0. .

4(2).

25 x 28
3 40 + 3x x 2 0 .
x
5 6

5(2). ,

2009, . .

31

2008-2009 . . 5, 11 . . . -, , -

log 1 log 8
2

x2 2 x

0.

x 3

6(2).

log 7 12
log 5 (x 2 + 8 x + 12)

.
log 7 (x 2 9)
log 5 (x 2 9)

7(2). ,

log 2 x 3

1
70 x
2 0 .
8
6 log x 2 1

8(2).

log 0,5

5 x x + 1 > 3 .

9(3).

16

log10 x2 x x 2 < 1 .
5

10(3).

log x +1 ( 2 x 2 3x + 1) 2 .

11(3).

(25 x

50 x + 21)log 4 x 2 +12 x 8 4 x 5 < 0 .

12(3).

log x 2 18 x +91 5 x 0 .
10

90
13(3).

log 7 x 4 3 +

1
1

.
2
log 2 (7 x 4) log 6 (9 x 2 x 2)

2009, . .

32

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