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1.

1.1. ,

1.2.

1.3.

1.4
1.5.

21

1.6 .

23

1.7.

25

1.8 .
1.9 , .

33

1.10 .
/.
2.

49

2.1.

50

2.2.

83

2.3. .

89

3.

96

3.1. .

97

3.2. NTSC.

107

3.3. PAL

112

3.4. SECAM.

118

4. "-" "-"

125

4.1.

126

4.2.
4.3.

135
148

5.
5.1.

167
168

5.2.
5.3.

178
187
2

5.4. .
6. ().

216
225

6.1. .

226

6.2.

232

6.3.

251

7.

268

7.1. .
7.2. -

269
274

7.3.

289

7.4.

295

7.5.

297

7.6.

302

7.7. MPEG

306

7.8.

318

7.9.

325

7.10.

345

8. .

370

8.1.

371

8.2.

409

8.3.
DVB-T

420

9. ()

425

9.1. 426
9.2.

429

9.3.

433

438
9.4.
10.

440

10.1. 441
10.2.

452

10.3.

454

10.4.

457

10.5.

461
3

10.6.

463

11.

468

11.1. -

469

11.2.

485

12. .

494

12.1. ,
12.2.

495
502

1.1 ,
1.1.1 . ,

tele - , video - . , ,
( ) ( ).
.

.
.
(). , , .
, , , . (
)
.
, , ( 2008-2015 ..). D/K
SECAM, DVB-T (
2015 ), ,
,
(IPTV).

1.1.2

:

QCIF

CIF

525/60

625/50

1125/60

1250/50



NTSC

PAL

SECAM

PALplus

MAC

ATSC

ISDB

DVB

(), , , . ,
- ,
.
7

()
625 50 ( ,
50 ) 525 /60 (
60 ). 405 819 .
() 1250 1125 50 60 . 720 () ,
ATSC,
, 1000.
() , ( ) ,
, .
() ( 64 /),
, -. CIF (Common Intermediate Format),
288 352 , , QCIF ( CIF) 144176.
. ()
.
- , . ()
, . ( S-Video,
).
, , , 8

. , .
, , . - - -
.
, - , ,
, .
,
. -
PALplus,
80- 90-
, .
3 NTSC, PAL,
SECAM.
SECAM , , NTSC PAL ,
. PAL .
3 ATSC, DVB ISDB.
MPEG-2
( ) , ,
(Dolby AC-3
ATSC, MPEG-2 Audio DVB MPEG-2 AAC ISDB).
, .
, . ,
DVB-H, , ,
.

1.2
1.2.1

, , , .

, q.
: [E] = .

, ,
( ):
( )

- ,

( 1.1)
: [ ] = , 1 = 1 /.

1.1 -
.
( ),
(1.2).
() , :

l (l ) =

(1.1)

1 2 :
10

l2

= l (l )dl

(1.2)

l1

()

1.2

(, )
, :


,
S


(1.3)
2
,
.
,
.
() () :
E
Eel (l ) = e
(1.4)
l

( 1.3).
S ,
, :
S
W = 2 , []
(1.5)
r
(
4 ).
Ee =

11

1.3
( ) , , :

,
(1.6)


, 1 1 .
, . , .
, , - , .

d d, :

Ie =
(1.7)
W

:

Ie =
(1.8)
4p

:
I
I el (l ) = e
(1.9)
l
Ie =

12


-
() , , ( ) .
, .
dS ,
:

2
,
Le =
WS 2

(1.10)

1 2,
1 /.
:
Le =


2
,
,
WS cosQ 2

(1.11)

( 1.4).

1.4
:
Lel (l ) =

Le
l

(1.12)

()
()
:
Le = const
(1.13)
13

( ), :
Le
= const
n2

(1.14)

:
-
;
- ( ).

, , . ' , ,
:
'
te =

(1.15)

, :
Le
= const
n 2t

(1.16)

t el (l ) .
, :
D = lg

1
= - lg t
t

(1.17)

1.2.2

, . ,
( - ). 14

, .
,
.
F

- ;

- ;

- ;

- ;
L

- .

,
.

- , - ( ). :
I=

F
,
W

[]

(1.18)

1 (
) (2042 ) 1/60
2.
() , . ,
.
, .
:
F = I W, []
(1.19)
1 ,
1 1 : 1 = 1 /.
:
E=

F
,
S

[ ]

(1.20)

1 1 2 1 .
:
15

[M ] = [2 ]

(1.21)


1 , 1 .
:
2

[L ] = [2]

(1.22)

1 2, 1 .
1.2.3

, .
V(X) - . ,
. V(X) - ,
, ,
X = 555 . (550-570 )
( 1.5).

1.5
Q (
, , ..)
Qel (l ) :
16

lmax

Q = 683 V (l ) Qel (l )dl

(1.26)

lmin

V() , 683 ( 1 =
= 555 683 ).

17

1.3

1.3.1

(. . ), . ( ) () , 380 780 ( 1.6).
.
, ,
.
.

1.6


: 1) ( ); 2) ; 3)
( ). ( ) .
18


( 1.7), . (),
- (), (,
, ), - ()
().
.

1.7

, , , , . . , , 1
() .
- ( ) . , , () .
, *. , , .
, 2 - .
19

, 2
.
- , , 3, .
, . . ,
. . ,
. ,
, ,
, - (.
1.6), . , , . (, , ).

.
(. 1.7), ,
, . : (, , , ) , , . .
. ,
- . ( ), ( ) . , ( ) .
, - .
, 20

. . , , , ,
, ,
: , , . . , ( ) . , . 2 .
N .
, N :
,
() . ,
500 ., N @ 108.
, , ( ), ( ) ( ), . . .
, ,

. ,
( - ). , , , .

1.3.2
,
,
, 21

() ,
.
1.7 ,
: , , , . . .
,
, j y 1 ,y 2 ,y 3
(, , , ). , ,
:
a( x, y , z , l , t )

f ( x, y, z , l , t )
Y1 ( x, y , z , l , t ) ,
Y ( x , y , z , l , t )
2
Y3 ( x, y, z , l , t )

(1.27)


. , N ,
(1.27) .
,
, ( (1.27) = 25), MN = 25 5 105 ( N ~ 5 1 0 5 ) , .
.
(1.27)
, , , (1.27) .
, - , , .
,
, 22

, : (, , t, k). ,
. - (, , t, ) = (, , t)a{k) = L(, , t),
( a(k)S(k), S(k) ).
- - Li(xi, yi t),
, , N , -
:
N

L
i= 1

(x, , t).

(1.28)


N .
- ,
. S(k) , 20 , (780380)/20
= 20. , N , , -.
L(x, ) .

.

23

1.4
( ),
( - )
, . . 1880 . .
1879 .
. 2 1 ( 1.8, ).
( 1.8, ) 3 4, 6, (), , 4.
5, ().
i RH ,

.
( )
( ). -
(1.28) .

1.8
;

24

,
, , . 1.7,
, 3 , - .
.

. , - .
, , , , - .

.
.
,

, . . .
, .
: , ,
. , - .
.

.
() (). ,

.
() () 25

. . , , , :
U S (t ) = U (t ) + U (t ) + U (t ) + U (t ) + U (t )

(1.29)

. .
( ),
(, , ).
. ,
, , . ( )
(), .
.

, ( , (1100 /2)
4648 ). , ( ) , 1624 /. ( ), ( 1.9),
.

. ,
.

2:1, (). ,
.
.
26

, f=50 , , .
f, 6 zk = 625, , 25.
.
, 50 . 1/50
, (1, 3, 5- 7-),
( 1.9, 625 , 7). 1/50
( 7-, 2, 4 6-) ,
1.9, .

1.9 () ()
, . ,
( 1.9, ),
,
, 6 . , .
, ,
, , fk= 25 , , , fk = 50 .

27

.
2: 1 :
1) :
z k = 2m + 1
(1.30)
( m=
312). , zk/2 ,
, ;
2)
:
f = ( z k / 2) f

(1.31)

:
f = z k f k

(1.32)

( ) .

1.10

28

()
(. 1.10) (), f = f ,
(1.32).
zk.
f,
(1.31), f zk/2,
( 1.30). , .
(1.31) :
2 f = z k f

(1.33)

, ( 1.10)
f = 2 f , 2 z ( ). .

(, 11 ) . . 1.11,
. , , , .
5,5 .
,
1.11, , (1.31).
T t
t . , , 1 1\ Tnx1 . , . ,
29

T1 = T 2 = 1.25T .

(1, Tnx1) , 1.11, , . (T2, 2) , 1.11, , .

1.11
1.11, , () () .
( 1.11, , ) ,
.
, , 1.11, ,
. 11 () 8,5 ,
2,5 .

30

, , 3 : 1
4:1 :
- (
4 : 1 f = 12,5 );
- , ;
- ,
( );
- .
, 2 : 1
.

31

1.5
. ( ) .
, .
, , : ; ; ;
( ).
( 1.12) ,
( 7 130 ).
, .
, ( ),
, .
: .
, .
, , ,
,
, ( ~1), . , , ,
, . ~2. , , , , .

32

, , .
, . . .

1.12
(. 1846 .),
DB =B2 - B1 , . .
( )
DE = k (DB / B1 )

(1.34)

k .
(10...1000 /2) :

d = DB / B = 0.02...0.05

(1.35)

33

, - , -

.
= 1,5 %, - 5 %,
3 % ( 40 /2).
. (1860 .) (1.34)
, :
dE = k (dB / B)

(1.36)


:
E = k ln B + c

(1.37)

k .
-, , .
,
.
( ) :
K = Bmax / Bmin

(1.38)


108 ( 0,1 /2
107 /2, ).
, ( 1.37), . , .
, ()
50...100. ,
30...40, .

34

, max Bmin , , . .
, - . , Bmin=B1, min...max :
B2 = B1 + dB1 = B1 (1 + d ),
B3 = B2 + dB2 = B1 (1 + d ) 2 .
...
Bm = Bmax = Bm -1 + dBm -1 = B1 (1 + d ) m -1

,
(1.38) :
m = 2.3 lg K / d

(1.39)

. , . 8 . , ,
( )
( ). :
g

B = kB

(1.40)

k - , ; = ,
, .
- . -
, > 1 ( 1,3), , , . = 1, .
35

() , , , , . .
, . . , , , - .
5 , , , 30
. - .

36

1.6



.
:
1) - ()
;
2) , - ;
3) , , ,
,
, .
( 1.13). (). -
, ,
(), ().

37

1.13
,
. , .
- .

38

( ) ().
.

1.14
, , (),
, (
, ) . , ,
, . (). ( ), () : , (),
(), (), (), , . , , . . , ( ) 39

() . ,
.
(),

. . .

.
() ,
, ( ) .

() (),
() .

.
.
. , ()
() .
, ( - 1.14, ;
).
, . . Un.c , .
1.14 ,
, ,
, .
(. 1.13, )
- . , .
( 1.14, ), , 0 7 %.
( ) ( 1.14, ).

40



, 1.14, .
1.14,

,
:
- , - . , , U S (t ) () (. 1.13,
1.15 - ); -,



( 1.15).

41

1.7

z.
L ( 1.16),
a = 2arctg (h / 2 L)

(1.41)

,
:
z = a / j = (2arctg (h / 2 L) / j )

(1.42)

= 1' ;
L k = b : h = 4 : 3
4...6 h .

1.16
, 8
6 - . ,
( , . .), 4 : 3.
4 : 3, 11 : 8, .
(1.42) , :
z = 2arctg (h / 2(4...6)h) /(1 : 60) =

10...14
= 600...840
1 / 60

42

D/K, B/G , , z 625 , M


N, , , z = 525.
:
, , , , . , , ( ).

. (zzk) , .
,
. : ,
.
, - ( ), - .
. ,

.
, . ,
, ,
.
,
.
( ) , (), . , 16...20 .
,
24 (/).
43

, ,
24 / .
,
( ).
, ( ) ,
f. . ,
,
46...48 .
.
( ),
24 /, ,
f
, .
48 /,
.
f
( - 40 ).
48...50 .
, 2% ,
(3 %) .
, , , . 48...50 .
, , .
, (.
1.9), ().
50 , - 25 .
- 50 , . -

44

.
60 (, , .). 60 , 30 .

45

1.8
,
, [4]. ,
, (), 625 .
50 .
.
()
- . 1.17,
:
(); ,
(); (). .
1.17, . .
, . .

.
( 1.17, ),
( 1.17, ).
2 . , ( 1.17, ). . t1 . ,
.
.
46

1.17 ,


().
( 1.17, , ).
. t2
.
2,5 ,
. . ( ), (, )
1.17, 1.1. 0,5 , 0,1 0,9 .
1 625,
. ,
. , 1- 312- 313- ,
313- 314- 625- .
64 , - 20 .

47

1.1
-

,
()

120,3


4,7+0,2
()
()
1612 (25 +12)

160 (2,5 )
()

4,7+0,2
()
2,35+0,1


,
0,3 0,1
0,20,2
0.30.1
0,20,1
0,20,1
0,20,1


( 1.18). ,
. , . , , ( ), , .
( ) (t3 t4 t5 - t6 1.18, ),
(t3-t4 t5 - t6 1.18, ) (t7 - t8 t1 - t2 1.15, ) , .
1,5 .

.
( ) ( ) .
- - .
(. 1.17) - , , -
() ,
, , ()
48

( , ) () .

1.18

49

1.9
( ) , ( ),
,
.
, , ,
()
.
. :
,
. , . ( ).
.
1.19 : (), , () :
- ( ) , A0 = Et / T (
);
-
Ak =

2 Et sin( kwt / 2) 2 Et sin( kpt / T )


=
T
kwt / 2
T
kp (t / T )

(1.43)

( ) .
,
, . ( 0) . , ,
( t = T / 2 ),

50

, , . . T = 2t , ( = 2, 4, ..., ) .
f, , ( 1.19, ), ..,
f t = 1

(1.44)

1.19

, 0...f 90 % . , , . , ,
, (1.44). , ,
.

, (1.44),
, , ,
. ,

() , . . ,
. , , , f 1. . 51

, 0,1
0,9 .
" ' :
f = 1 / 2t

(1.45)

(. ., )
. .

1.20
,
f = 1 / T = n

(1.46)

- .
, , ( 1.20, ),
f, 3f, 5f, ..., nf, , (1.43),
.

, .
52


().
, , , , , ( ,
). , , . .
(
)
. , .
1.12, , , , .
,
( ).
.
- ( 1.20,
), /4,
2f. , 2f, 32fk, 52fk . .
, 1.20, ,
, : f, 3f . .; 2f, 32f, 52f . . ,
.
, ,
. , , .
f ,
, a = h/z ( 1.21).
( f1
) f1 = 1 / T1 = 1 / 2t = 1/2 N, , t = 1 / N c , , f1.
53

Nk = kzkzk = kzk2.
, , , N c = kz k2 n ,
:
f1 = 1 / T1 = 1 / 2t = N c / 2 = kz k2 n / 2

(1.47)

, . ,
( ) .

1.21
. (1.47)
f, :
kz k2 n (1 - b )
f = p

2 (1 - a )

(1.48)

- ; k = 4/3 - ; z - ; - ; =0,18 =0,08 - ,



.
f (1.46),
,
.

54

(1 - a )T . , .
, . . f, (1.48), 1/(1-) .
zk ,
625 575 . , , , 1/(1-) .
. , (1.48),
( ),
, . ( ) .
, 1 0,5 . . 0,64, 0,8...0,9.
(1.48) ,
z = 625 fk = 50 ,
, f = 12... 13 . ( f = 50
f = 13 ) , .
, , zk, ,
. ,
. 2 ( 25) .
?

, . 55


( ) . ( ) (. 1.20, ), :
f xy = xf yf k

(1.49)

0 .
,
, yfk..
= 0, y 0, ,
(. 1.20, , ). x 0, = 0,
, (.
1.20, , ).
0 0
, 1.21. : 1)
; 2)
; 3) , 4...6 50...70 , 1.21, ,
.
, . . ,
,
,
, , .

:
f xy = xf yf

(1.50)

,
, f.

56

1.21 :
; .
, ( f = z k f k )
( z) ( 1.21, ), (
) ( 1.21, ).
, , .
(-1)f f .
(-1)f
(+1)fc ( 1.21, ).

57

?
, 0,5 , . . v =
= 2h /. ,
(yf) .

Df = f (v / v ) = 2n(2h / 2nh) = 2 ,
v = 2nh .

.
, ( 2 ) () , . .
( 1.21, ). , , ,
, .
( 0 2...3 )
. , ,
. ,

,
.

Unc, , ,
. 1.22

.

58


( 1.22, ),
, . ()
.
, .
. 1.22, (. .
) ,
. , .

,
, .
( 1.23) ,
. ,
.
( f nc 3 ) ( ) , f 10 f nc 30 .

,
(15 625 ).
(
)
,
.

1.23 -

59

(, )
, . , , - .

- ( 1.22, )
.
() ,
.

60

1.10
1.10.1
, , , (), , .. 1.
.
. - . . , ,
, ( ). ( - )
*
*
(t) = U (t) r(t), r(t) U
(t) = = U (t)+U(t), U

, (, , ).
: , () .
. ,
, . , ( ), ..
,
,
, ,
, ().
1

(..
) /.
61

()
, .. .
, . -,
, ; , .
, .
. ( ) U

U ( U) , [4, 7, 8]:
= 20 lg U / U ,

(1.51)

= 20 lg U / U .

(1.52)

, : , .
, -
[3, 4]. ,
.
, ,
,
.
( ): , ( , ) [3, 4].
.
f , f f - (m n ):
62

f < f
;
f < f , f = nf ;
f < f , f nf ,
;
f > f , f = mf ;
f > f , f mf , f = nf
;
f > f , f mf , f nf
, .
, ,
. , . 1 .
= ( f ) - 1.24, ; 1.24, .
, f = f ,
14 , ; f = f (68) ,
= 43 ( 1.24, ).

( 1.24, ).
, 46 .
, ,

f = (2n+1)(f / 2)

(1.53)

20 , f = nf [7, 8].
(,
) ( ) . , (1.53), (n + 1/2) ( ) , 180
. 63

. , (1.53),
,
c : ,
. ( )
, ..
. ,
, , , , .
() .
. , ,

.
. (
,
). ,
.
- . , .
, .
.
.
.
: ,
. , . .
, ( ) , , , ,
( ). , ,
, . ,
,
.
64

,
.
() , ( f ),
[3, 7, 8]. -
- ,
, :
( f ) = 1 / [1 + (2f)2] ,

(1.54)

, ;
f , ,
, ( 1.25, 1)
( f ) = 10 lg 1/( f ) = 10 lg [1 + (2f)2] .

(1.55)

- ( ) = 0,33 ,
, R = 0,17 , B = 0,15 , G = 0,21 .

G( f ):

P=

G ( f )df , ,

(1.56)

f f .
, ,
(1.56), P , (P , ). ,

f

P = P = G( f ) ( f )df , ,

(1.57)

P.

65

1.24

66

1.25

1.26

, G( f ), P .
67

, , P (1.55)
P (1.57):
f

P
A = 10 lg
= 10 lg
P

G( f )df

f
f

, ,

(1.58)

G( f )( f )df

.
( 3
6 ) .
. , (F 01,3 ) , ,
,
, .

[3, 7, 8]:
( f ) = [1 + (2f/)2] / [1+(2f)2(1+1/)2],

(1.59)

= 0,245 , = 4,5.
(. 3.2, 2) ,
(1.55): f , (1.57), 0, 14,8 .
(1.59) , , - . .
A,
:
= + A.

(1.60)

68

,
, , , ,
[7].
1.10.2
, (1.51), (1.52), [7, 8].
, , , U
U ,
U:
=20 lg U / U .

(1.61)


, ,
. , U ,
. U U -:
= U/U .

(1.62)

- =
= 6,57 (1617 ).
U U ,
(. 1.24):

p (u ) =

1
U

U
.
exp - 0,5

2p
U

u = 0

p (0) = pmax =

(1.63)

1
U 2p

, u = U

69

p (U ) =

1
U 2p

exp( -0,5) ,

p(U ) / p(0) = exp( 0,5) = 0,607 = L / Lmax ,

(1.64)

L Lmax
u = = U u = 0.
,
, . U (1.64) , .
(1.61), , (1.62), (1.51) :
= 20 lgU /(U /) = 20 lgU /U + 20 lg = + (1617), . (1.65)
, - , ,
. , =
= 40 ( ) , 50 , 0,5 ,
3,5 .

1 , 6 .

. ,
, , , (

). [7, 8].
. ( ),
(, ). ( ),
70


A .
,
. . ,
(1.60), A , , (1.58), G ( f ) ( f ).
, G ( f )
( ) . , , . ,
G ( f ) ,
, G ( f )
.

.
. :
, .
[4, 7]. ,
,
46 (200 ); (
) 4146 ; ( - ) 3040 . ,
40 , 20% ,
. : 5 40 ; 4,5
36 ; 4 30 ; 3 24 ; 2 19 1 14 .

71

2

.

72

2.1 .


(. 2.1)
() 380
780 *. . , ,
.
. , .
. ,
, .
. ,
(. 2.1), ( , ).
. 2.1 , . , ,
. ( ) : 150 250.
. .

( ), . . . - .
, ,
, , (). (,
73

, , ),
.

( ) ( ), () . ,
() , ,

,
.


.
() -.
. ,
, , . .
.
,
( ) .
. , l
.

, l (. 2.1).

l , , .
( ) l , l . l .
74

2.1 , :
; ; ;

( F) (
%) ( Fl ), .

p = Fl / F =Fl /( Fl + F )

(2.1)

F .
F = 0, p = 1 (100%) ;

( ). ( ) = 0, Fl = 0
,
( ) ( %).

. , , . , (,
).

. 1.6 . I , .

. 75

L ( 1 /2) . ,
, .
() 1924 . (). n (l ) .
555 .
( ) . ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
.
, . . , . , ( ) , . , , ,
, -.

. . , 1756 . () . , (), (), () () .

1807 ., 1852 ., , .
, .

, , 76

.
, ,
.

. ,
, , (
). .
,
, . ,
,

.
, ,
.
, ,
,
. (),
,
, , .

: , .
, .
() , .
, .
, :
, . , , , ,
77

.
.

. - (. 2.6),
, , U R , U G U B , , . () ,
, . .
(, ) , . , , , . (DLP-).
, 1.6, . ,
, , , , .
, .
. ,
, () ,
. , (. 4.3).
, . ,
.

78

, .
, .

() ,
. , . , . ,
, .
, , , .
, - , , ,
,
. ,
.
, .

( ), . .
() , , , , , , .

,
. ,
, .
79

, .
480 640
( ) 500 600 (- ), 1 .
.
.
150 30 .

. ,
.
. .
. 4
400...530 ,
620...700 1,5 .
,
, . 1.6
- .
.
, .
(). () - , . , ,
, . , , , , .
: , . ,

, ().
80

12...20' , , . ( 3')
-.
1950 . . () - , 1,
.

-
-
-
-

1
0,94
0,9
0,26

-
-
-

0,4
0,23
0,19

,
, , 1 ,
, 2,5 , 5 . .
, , . . - () .
,
, .
,
,
.
, 4 , . . - , 90 %
.
6 ( ), 4
, . . 1,5 . 1,5 , ,
81

, , . (, NTSC) , ,
(-),
( ) (
, ).


. , -
, -,
, , , . , , , , .
, , .
. .
, .

, T ( ).
()
, ,
, .
. ,
(, ), ,

,
.
82

, T ,
(, ) 50100
(, ) 1000

25002700
2980
3500
5500
6000
6500
6500
1900024000

1931 . - , , ,
D S.
(. . 3.2).

,

2848

( )
4800


(
)
6500



( )
.
5700


.
6500
D
( ).
6500

.
25 000
S
.
83

. , ,
,
,
.
.
,
( ) .
(,
R, G ), . . , .
,
? ,
, . , ?
() , .

. 2.3.
R, G, B
.
(. 2.3, ) ,
(, ), () ,
84

,
. .
, , , , .
, .
(
100%- ) .
() .
(. 2.3, ) ,
, ,
, .
,
, .
, . . , , ,
. .
. 550 780 . , , .
, , :

= m() = r (R ) + g (G ) + b(B)

(2.4)

() ; ,
; (R), (G), ()
85

R, G, , r', g' b' , , .


, .
m

m = r + g + b

(2.5)

(2.4) , m ( ), (
) r' R, g' G b'
.
,
(R), (G) () , , , . .
.
, , , (2.4)
(, - ).
, () .
, :

m( ) + r (R ) = g (G ) + b(B)

m( ) = -r (R ) + g (G ) + b(B)

(2.6)

,
(2.4) (. . r', g' b').

1853
. .
, , .

86

,
(2.4), ,
. , , , , . r', g' b'
( )
R, G, . (R), (G), () , (3.1) .
. , :

r=

b
g
r
;
; b=
; g=
r + g + b
r + g + b
r + g + b

(2.7)

r + g + b = 1.
, (2.4) m (2.5) (2.7),
():

m( ) / m = () = r (R ) + g (G ) + b(B)

(2.8)

r, g b , . , . , r, g b () ().
, (3.4), g=l-(r + b).
( ), , r, g, b .
l . :
, . , ,
. .
87

1 2 , R, G :
m1 (1 ) = r1(R ) + g1 (G ) + b1 (B)

m 2 ( 2 ) = r2 (R ) + g 2 (G ) + b2 (B)
, . :
= m1 (1 ) + m 2 ( 2 ) = (r1 + r2 )(R ) + (g1 + g 2 )(G ) + (b1 + b2 )(B),
(2.9)
. (2.9)
.
.
,
(2.4).

( ). , , .
,
.
,
, . .
,

, (. 2.9).
, .
.
88

(,
. 2.3) . , .
() 1931.
*: R 700, G 546,1
435,8. (RGB XYZ)
[12, 14].
. (. 2.3) ,
:

(l ) = r(l )(R ) + g(l )(G ) + b(l )(B)

(2.10)

r (l ), g (l), b(l)
( 5) .
(3.1) (3.7) . .
,
.
, F( R ) , F(G ) , F( B) R, G, , , :

F( R ) : F(G ) : F( B) = 1 : 4.5907 : 0.0601

(2.11)

(R), (G), () R, G,
,

F( R ) = 1 , F( G ) = 4.5907 , F( B) = 0.0601 .
(2.11) ,
, 1 l 1 / v(l ) .
(2.11) -

89

v(l) 700 , 546,1, 435,8


(. . 0,0041; 0,9756; 0,0173), :
1 R =243,9; 4,5907 G = 4,663 ; 0,0601
=3,384.
(2.12)
(2.11) (2.12) ,
, ,
, .

2.4 ( RGB)
, (2.12), . .

(R ) = 1R = 243.9 R (700);

(G ) = 1G = 4.663 G (546.1 );
(B) = 1B = 3.384 B(435.8 );

(2.13)

E = m(E) = 1(R ) + 1(G ) + 1(B)

(2.14)

(2.10). () (l ) 1, r (l ), g (l), b(l) (3.7) ( ) r (l ), g(l ), b(l ) (. 2.4).


(3.7) (l ) :

1 (l ) = (l ) = r(l )(R ) + g(l)(G ) + b(l)(B).

(2.15)
90

(2.10) (2.15) (1), (l ) . r (l ), g (l), b(l)


,
( 3.10), (l ) 1 R, G, ,
r (l ), g (l), b(l) .
, .
RGB .
(. . 2.4).
, , : v(l) , r (l ), g (l), b(l)
(, 2.13).
, r (l ), g (l), b(l)
p (l) :

r
(
)
p
(
)
d
,
l l l

l1

ln

g = g ( l ) p ( l ) dl ,
l1

ln
b = b ( l ) p ( l ) d l.

l1

r =

ln

(2.16)

( ) (2.16)
() .
, ,
n Dl ,
.
91


r = Dl r(l i )p(l i ),
i =1

g = Dl g (l i )p(l i ),
(2.17)
i =1

b = Dl b(l i )p(l i ).
i =1

, RGB ( ) . , ( ) , ,
(. . ) (
(2.17)
). RGB.
r'(R), g'(G) b'(B) ().
1931. XYZ,
, .
n

x (l ), y(l ), z(l )
.
. y F , ,
(F), F, m F , B F = y F m F .
', ' z' XYZ , (2.16) (2.17), .
( , , )
(XYZ) (RGB) [12].

, . . , (),
UR, UG UB,
. , . (R, G, ). ,
92

.
, , R, G,
(. . 3.6). , ,
.

. , , . . , , . ,
,
.
, .
. , ,
, . . .
.
,
. ,
.

(. . 2.6), NTSC ()
, .

NTSC

0.67

0.33

0.21

0.71

0.14

0.08

EC

0.64

0.33

0.29

0.60

0.15

0.06

D 6500 K
y

0.31 0.316

0.313 0.329

93

, R l (700 ), G l (546,l ) Bl (435,8 ), , 1:4,59:0,06 .


() :

UY =

1
4.59
0.06
UR +
UG +
U B = 0.177 U R + 0.812 U G + 0.01U B
5.65
5.65
5.65

(2.18)

(2.18)
, 1,
U Y = U R = U G = U B = 1 .
, , . , NTSC
(. . 3.6), (
: l R = 610 , l G = 532 , l B = 470 . ),
[12, 14]:

U Y ( NTSC ) = 0.299U R + 0.587U G + 0.114U B 0.3U R + 0.59U G + 0.11U B

(2.19)

. .
:

B R : BG : BB = 2.63 : 5.15 : 1

(2.20)


( ) (2.20)
1 ( (2.11) : B R : BG : BB = 16.6 : 76.5 : 1 ).
(2.19) .

, . . ,
U R = U G = U B (. .
). . ,
, .

.
94

U R , U G U B , (
, ).
,
() , . .

SR (l) = r (l); SG (l) = g (l ); SB (l ) = b (l);

(2.23)

r (l), g (l) b (l) XYZ


R G B . (3.20)
( ), . .
.

. , NTSC, ,
. 3.4. ,
( ) . , , .
( ,
) ,
( . 3.4), U R , U G U B . ,
.
( )
.
, NTSC, (. . ),
, .
95

, ,
, . .
, ( ) ().
, (, XYZ), . .
, .
.
, (, ), ,
. , - U R , U G U B , , , , , .

96

2.2 ,


, (
- ). ( 6 )
(). , , .
,
() - .

, ,
. . (. 1.5).
(NTSC, PAL ). .
. , U R , U G U B , , , . ,
, .

() FR , FG FB , (. 2.5).
, , O1 ( )
31 32,
. .

97

31 ; 32 ; 33 34 ; 1 , 2 3 ; 2, 3, 4 .

2.5 (RGB)


() ,
.
( ,
() )
, .

,
U R , U G U B . , ,
(), .
, U*R , U*G U*B UR, UG UB ,
.
( 20) .

98

, , ,

.


() (), , .
, ( g
2,8),
- ,
, . . 1 / g .

U1R/ g , U1G/ g U1B/ g , UR , UG UB . - ,


( g = 1 ).
() ()
().

D 6500 .
UR , UG UB
(2.21), . .:

UY ( EC) = 0.22UR + 0.71UG + 0.07UB

(2.24)


, . ,

(2.19),
NTSC , . .

UY = L R UR + L G UG + L B UB = 0.3UR + 0.59 UG + 0.11UB

(2.25)
99

LR, LG, LB .
. , ,
- - . , -
, . . . RGB
, , . - .
. , , ,
0,3:0,59:0,11. - ( ) .
,
.
.
, .
,
:


UR = 1
UR = 0
UR = 0
UG = 0
UR = 1
UG = 0
UB = 0
UB = 0
UB = 1

(2.26)

(2.25) , . , 50... 100 . , (2.26),


, , .

(2.25)
. 100

, , (
).
UY UR , UG UB . ,
, ,
.
() , :

U1R/ g - U Y = UR - Y = UR - (0.3U R + 0.59U G + 0.11U B ) =


= 0.7 U R - 0.59U G - 0.11U B
U1G/ g - UY = UG - Y = UG - (0.3UR + 0.59UG + 0.11UB ) =
= -0.3UR + 0.41UG - 0.11UB
U1B/ g - UY = UB - Y = UB - (0.3UR + 0.59 UG + 0.11UB ) =
= -0.3UR - 0.59UG + 0.89UB

(2.27)

(2.28)

(2.29)

( ), () 1,5 .

2.6
() ().
U'Y 6 , 1,5 . II III ,
. (2.27)(2.29) -

101

, . . ,
.
UR - Y UB - Y ()
U , UY
U . (), (. 1.2).
.
(. . 2.6) : 6 , 1,5 3 ,
.
() ,
0,7 .

102

3
.


NTSC
PAL
SECAM

103

3.1

, , , . .
. ()
[2, 5, 12].
, ,
. .
, ? : ,
( DF ) , -
( DF . ), . .,

DF =DF . = 6

(3.1)

.
, . .
- -
, - - . , (U )
- ( U Y ) - -
, U :

U = UY + U

(3.2)

104

(3.1) U
U Y . - . , ,
, ,
,
- .
.

.
,
UR , UG UB (. 1.9, .
1.21). , (. (2.24) (.
2.27...2.29),
UR , UG UB , .
,
' . ,
- ,
, :
, [20].
. , f ( 3.1).
, ,
().
NTSC, PAL
-;
NTSC PAL , . .

105

3.1-


NTSC, PAL . ,
.
f
. ,
.

106

3.2 NTSC
NTSC , NTSC-4,43,
(NTSC-3,58), .
U UY, U U.
f, UY. NTSC-4,43 0 , 1,
() U = kUB-Y,
90 - V = kUR-Y. :

= k BU B -Y sin(2p f t ) = U sin(w t ) ,

(3.3)

= k RU R -Y sin( 2p f t + 90o ) = V cos(w t ) ,

(3.4)


( 90) U B U R . . ( 3.2),
U
V 0 90 . U , (3.3, 3.4):

U = U sin( w t ) V cos( w t ) = S sin( w t + j ) .

(3.5)

,
- , S j

S = U 2 + V 2 ;

(3.6)

j = arctg(V/U ) .

(3.7)

107

90
V
S
jC
U

3.2 NTSC
:
f = (2 k + 1) f / 2

(3.8)

k .
NTSC 4,43
5 U
. M N,
, , NTSC
4,43. f
(1.21) 455- :
f = 455 f / 2 = 3,579545 .

(3.9)

F NTSC-3,58
4,2 . ,
URgk, UGgk UBgk, UY U V
fC, 2fC, 3fC, ..., FB. 1,3 . xfC
yf. f U,

f = f ( xfC / 2 yf / 2 ) .

(3.10)

108

, U UY.
3.3 .
U

f
f

U Y

225f

226f

f/2

U Y

227f

U
U Y

228f

229f

3.3 - NTSC

NTSC-3,58 FB,
. () [7].
, - .
U . ,
U , . U
.
, ,
, .
,
.
,
-.
109

NTSC FB = 0,6 , -
( 3.4). Q 33
B-Y. I FB = 1,3
( 123 B-Y).
.

3.4 - NTSC-3,58
UI UQ UR-Y UB-Y :
UI = 0,877 UR-Y cos 33 - 0,493 UB-Y sin 33 =
= 0,737 UR-Y - 0,268 UB-Y;

(3.11)

UQ = 0,877 UR-Y sin 33 + 0,493 UB-Y cos 33 =


= 0,478 UR-Y + 0,413 UB-Y.

(3.12)

NTSC-3,58

U = U I sin( w t ) + U Q cos( w t ) = S 1 sin( w t + j 1 ) , (3.13)


S1 j1

110

S C 1 = U I + U Q

j 1 = arctg( U I U Q ) .

(3.14)

(3.15)

NTSC, NTSC-3,58, . I Q
.
NTSC
. NTSC
[7].
NTSC U () (), () UY U. . .
UY U
S (. .
), () . UY,
, .
(
) . (), .
( )
. NTSC
( ),
,
.

111

3.3 PAL
PAL . 19621966 . Telefunken
().
PAL () f () U R -Y U B -Y , , () , 90 270
, ..
. 180 (90 270) [3, 4, 6].

.
:
U B -Y

= k BU B -Y sin(2p f t ) = U sin(w t ) ,

(3.16)

U R -Y , , (j = 90)

= k RU R -Y sin( 2p f t + 90o ) = V cos(w t )

(3.17)

(j = 270)

U R = k RU R -Y sin( 2p f t + 270o ) = -V cos(w t ) ,

(3.18)


1, 0.

( 90) U B U R . . ( 3.5),
U
V 0 90 (270) .
112

U , (3.16)(3.18):

U = U sin(w t ) V cos(w t ) = S sin(w t + j ) .

(3.19)

,
- , S j

S = U 2 + V 2 ;

(3.20)

j = arctg(V U ) .

(3.21)

90
V

U
jC

S
jC
U

V
270

3.5 PAL:
V jV = 90;
jV = 180

- , ,
. , .
PAL.
V 180 .
f . ,
[3]
,
113

(nf , n =0, 1, 2, ).
, U

( f nf ), -

2m + 1
f ). 2
180
.
f (2k +1) f /2 ( NTSC [3, 6]) , ,
U
( f

fU =

2k + 1
2l + 1
f nf =
f ,
2
2

(3.22)

, , V, ,

fV =

2k + 1
2m + 1
f
f = lf ,
2
2

(3.23)

.
PAL
[3, 6]:

1
1
f = (n - ) f + f .
4
2

(3.24)

n = 284 , f = 15625 , f = 50 , :

1
f = (284 - ) 15625 + 25 = 44361875 .
4

(3.25)

(3.24)
, , . ,
- -

114

(
), ( ) [6].
(3.24) U R U B .
PAL U U R U B
( NTSC) [6, 11].
U V,
, [11].

U = U cos j ,
V = U sin j ,

(3.26)
(3.27)

U
, (. 3.5). , . (),
f , . ,
,
V,
135 ( U) V

jV = 90 225 jV = 270.
PAL. PAL, 3.6,
PAL [3, 6]. 1 U R , U G U B
U Y U R -Y U B -Y :

U Y = 0,299 U R + 0,587 U G + 0,114 U B ;

(3.28)

U R -Y = U R - U Y = 0,701U R - 0,587 U G - 0,114 U B ;

(3.29)

U B -Y = U B - U Y = -0,299 U R - 0,587 U G + 0,886 U B .

(3.30)

115

U R -Y U B -Y
kR kB
, 3 4
PAL V U

V = k R U R -Y = 0,877 U R -Y ;

(3.31)

U = k B U B -Y = 0,493U B -Y .

(3.32)

U V Z1 Z2, 1,3 ,
UB1 UB2, 0 90 ( 270) . 7
.
U Y 2
() Dt .
.
8 ,

PAL.
f , (3.24), G2 (). UB1 U
, UB2 V
S1, .
U1 U2 S1
90 270 (90 + 180) .
,
, U V BF,
V ,
U . 5 6
PAL.
116

G1

U4

BF

U3

A8

A3

Z1

A2

A1

UR

UG

UY

UR-Y

G2
G

U2
0

90

UB2

U1
0

A7
A6

UB-Y

UB1

Z2

A4

UB

A5

180

S1
SW

3.6 PAL
117

3.4 SECAM
SECAM 1966 .
SECAM . Seguentiel couleur a memoire , ,
.
SECAM : UR-Y
UB-Y .
,
[3, 6].
( 3.7) ( )
. SECAM, , A1, kR kB. SECAM DR DB:

DR = -k R U R -Y = -1,9U R -Y ,

(3.33)

DB = k B U B -Y = 1,5U B -Y .

(3.34)

kR kB DR DB
75%- 100%- .
UR-Y () 0,53, UB-Y
() 0,67. :
1
1
=
= 1,9 ,
kR =
(3.35)
U R-Y (max) 0,53

kB =

1
U B-Y (max)

1
= 1,5 .
0,67

(3.36)

118

Z9

Z7

A2

UR1/
UR-Y

UG1/

UY

A1

UB-Y

Z1

A4 DR

f
Z2

A5

A3

UB1/

Z10

A6

Z8

A8

A9

S1
Z3

UB1

Z4

SW

Z5

U3

Z6
SW

S2

f
DB
D1

U1

A7

G2

f
G

CT2

U4

U5

G1
G

f/2

U2

3.7

119

, UR-Y UB-Y [3].


, , UR-Y .
A2 A3 DR DB , () ( : 7- 15- 320- 328-
). DR DB Z1, Z2, ( f ) (
3.8) :
( f ) = 10 lg

1 + ( f 85000 )

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.
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+

U (t ) = U 1 os w 1t + m U (t )dt ,
-

(5.9)
(5.10)

U , U 1 -

U , U

;
;

;
m ;
= 2p f
;

w 1 = 2p f 1 ().
, :

U (t ) = cos W t .

(5.11)

U (t ) = U 1 os[w 1t + m sin W t ]

(5.12)

(t ) ,
U (t ) = [U (t ) + U (t )] U

(5.13)

U (t ) = 2 cos (w t + j 0 )
.
196

, .

(t ) = U (t ) U (t ) = U 1 - MU (t ) cos(w t + j 0 )
U

2 cos(w t + j 0 ) = U 1 - MU (t ) cos(2w t + j 0 + j 0 ) +

(5.14)

+ U 1 - MU (t ) cos(j 0 - j 0 ).
2w Z1,
:

(t ) = U 1 - MU (t ) cos (j 0 - j 0 ) .
U

(5.15)

, U ,
(j 0 - j 0 ) () 0o ( ) 180 o (), U (t ) :

U (t ) = kU 0 U (t ) .

(5.16)

(t ) = U (t ) U (t ) = U 1 cos(w 1t + m sin Wt )
U
2 cos(w t + j 0 ) = U 1 cos[(w 1 + w )t + m sin Wt + j 0 ] +
+ U 1 cos[(w 1 - w )t + m sin Wt - j 0 ]

(5.17)

(w 1 + w ) Z1.
,
(t ) = U 1 cos(w 2t + m sin Wt - j 0 ) ,
U

(5.18)

w 2 = (w 1 - w ) .
(5.16) (5.18), (
Z1).

(t ) + U
(t ) = kU 0 U (t ) +
U = U
+ U 1 (t ) cos (w 2t + m sin Wt - j 0 )

(5.19)

,
.
197

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(5.20)

200

j C (t ) = m U (t )dt ;
-

()
w (t ) = w 2 + j C t t .

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(5.21)

U ;

w ;
j 0 .

U (t ) = U (t ) U (t ) = U 2 cos[w (t )] U cos[w t + j 0 ] =
U (t ) U (t )

2
{cos[(x (t ) + w )t + j 0 ] + cos[(w (t ) - w )t - j 0 ]}
= K

, (5.22)

.
Z5

U (t ) = K

U (t ) U (t )
cos[(w (t ) - w )t - j 0 ] .
2

(5.23)

G1,
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1
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205

(
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5.14
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U n = U sin (w t ) + V cos(w t ) ,

(5.26)

(n + 1)-

U ( n +1) = U sin (w t ) - V cos(w t ) .

(5.27)

206

UR1

S1
SW

UR3

DT1

U3

-UB-Y

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S3

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34

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5.15
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(5.28)

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(5.29)

: U

U U n = U max sin (w t ) ,

(5.30)

U U ( n +1) = U U n ,

(5.31)

V ( 180
)

U V n = U max cos(w t ) ,

(5.32)
207

U V ( n +1) = U max cos(w t + 180 o ) = -U max cos(w t ) .

(5.33)

U V :
- U, n-

U U n = U n U U n = U sin(w t + a ) + V cos(w t + a )

U max sin(w t ) = 0 ,5 U U max cos (a ) - cos(2w t + a ) -

(5.34)

- 0 ,5 V U max sin (a ) - sin(2w t + a ) .


- U, (n + 1)-

]
U max sin(w t ) = 0 ,5 U U max [cos (a ) - cos(2w t + a )] +
+ 0 ,5 V U max [sin(a ) - sin(2w t + a )].

U U ( n +1) = U ( n +1) U U ( n +1) = U sin (w t + a ) - V cos(w t + a )

(5.35)

- V, n-

U V n = U n U V n = U sin (w t + a ) + V cos(w t + a )

(5.36)

]
[- U max cos(w t )] = -0 ,5 U U max [sin (a ) + sin (2w t + a )] +
+ 0 ,5 V U max [cos(a ) + cos(2w t + a )].

(5.37)

U max cos(w t ) = 0 ,5 U U max sin(a ) + sin(2w t + a ) +

+ 0 ,5 V U max cos(a ) + cos (2w t + a ) .


- V, (n + 1)-

U V ( n +1) = U ( n +1) U V ( n +1) = U sin (w t + a ) - V cos(w t + a )

, (
) k . , k = 0,5U max ,
:
- U, n-

U n = k U cos(a ) - k V sin(a ) ;
U

(5.38)

- U, (n + 1)-

U ( n +1) = k U cos(a ) + k V sin (a ) ;


U

(5.39)
208

- V, n-

V n = k V cos(a ) + k U sin (a ) ;
U

(5.40)

- V, (n + 1)-

V ( n +1) = k V cos(a ) - k U sin(a ) .


U

(5.41)

, U V :

U n + U U ( n +1) = k U cos (a ) - k V sin(a ) +


U = U
+ k U cos(a ) + k V sin (a ) = 2k U cos (a );
V = U V n + U V ( n +1) = k V cos(a ) + k U sin(a ) +
+ k V cos(a ) - k U sin(a ) = 2k V cos(a )

(5.42)

(5.43)

, ,
( U V V U), , 1/ cos(a ) . , (, ) PAL , NTSC,
.
, DT1 (DT2) U3 (U4) U
(V).
:

K S ( jw ) = K + K Dt = 1 + e - jwt = 1 + cos(wt ) - j sin (wt ) ,

(5.44)

K = 1 ;

K Dt = e - jwt ;

t = Dt = T .
,

K S ( jw ) = K S (w ) = (1 + cos(wt )) 2 + sin 2 (wt ) =


= 2(1 + cos (wt )) = 2 cos(wt /2)

(5.45)

209

,
, 2, f = nf , 0, f = (2n + 1) f / 2 .
DT1

U1

K ( f )
2

2f

3f

nf

5.16 -

SECAM

(
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210

UR1

UR2
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U7
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U5

U1

f /Ident

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5.17 SECAM

211

UR3, Z2, U1, 3


G1.
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4,43 PAL.
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f = f0.R = 4,406 ( f = f0. = 4,406 ). ,
:
U.R = K (f - f0.R)

(5.46)
U. = K (f - f0.),

K ;
f .
, (5.46) , U.R . ,
, U1
U.R = U.R U. = U., . ,
:
U.R = K (f - f0.R) - U.R = 0,
U . = K (f - f0.) - U. = 0.

(5.47)

, 4,406
4,250 , .. .
f0.R (f0.), , -

212

U.R = K (f - f0.R) - U.R 0 ( U. = K (f - f0.) - U. 0),


.
S3 .
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DT1, DT2 U6, U7.
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SECAM
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213

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-SECAM, SECAM ,
. .
-SECAM (03,5 )
(3,54,5 ) . 5,56,5 .
3,54,5 , ,
.

. .
3,54,5 ,
04,5 . /
/.
238

SECAMplus
SECAMplus PALplus. , SECAM , f0R f0B
,
, - . SECAMplus . ( PALplus)
. (-)
- ,
.
SECAMplus
, SECAM,
, ( PALplus ) , , , SECAMplus
. -SECAM .

.
6.2.2
(-)

- . .

.
;
; . :
239

- - -;
- ( ) (
);
- ( );
- (,
) ;
-
;
- (
);
-
.

, .
6.4.

208 (105 ); b 4 ( ); 15 ( (0,5 ); d 11


( ); 348 (349 ); g 6
( ); h 696 (697 ); j 8 ( ).

6.4

240

4 : , ;
; ; .
. . ,
.
-
, , , .

, 1,5 ,
3 .
- 5 : , D, D2 (
- 625 ) ( 625 525 ).
625- . , D, D2 13,5 6,75
R-Y B-Y. 13,51,5 = 20,25 , Y 1,5
, R-Y B-Y 3 . 525
l,54f = l,54227,5f = 136515734 = 21,477 .
625
, 525 :
136515625 = = 21,328 . f
NTSC, a f 525 . .

Y
R-Y B-Y,
. 6.3
, D D2. 1296
20,25 ( ).
(0 ) (1 ).
0,5 . .
241

696 ( 697 ), 348 ( 349 ) . 15


(0,74 ). 410 (0,2 0,5 ). ; 7/8, 1/8, 1/2, 1/2, 1/8,
7/8. , .
625 /50 .
52 . 13,5 702 . , 696 , . .
1,5 3
. 5 , 5,5 6 ( B/G, I D/K, L)
7,5 , 8,25 9 . , D D2 8,4 , 5,6 .

2,8 , 3 8,4 .
2,4 . .
, SECAM PAL.

R-Y B-Y, SECAM. ,
SECAM ( )
R-Y B-Y, MAC .
,
R-Y, ( SECAM) , 242

.

.
SECAM


.
.

.
.

.

(, ) , . -
.
1 ,
77 %, 98 %.
V = 0,927UR-Y, U = 0,733UB-Y.
574 ( 287
)
, 575.
- , D D2 6.5.
.

.
.
, .. .
243

6.5
D D2
.
. D2 10,125 /, D
20,25 /. : 4 D2 8 D. . , D D2 .
. D2 - 82 , D 282 ,
751 .
623 99 D2 299
D;
. D ,
299 .
1,54 / ( 2050 /) D2
3,08 / (22050 /) D.
D2 751 . 23 : 10
244

, 1024 ; 2 , ; 11
. 91 (728 ) . 623-
(4 ) 82- , 95 . 624- 67
, 32
(, ), .
6 ,
624 105 (
). 625-
( 6.6) (102 ): 6
, 32 64-
.
(5 ), (71 ) 5 ( 94 ) . 14
.

6.6 625-
5 25 . 57
( 0 99), ( 179 180),
, , (, , , ), (-
, ),
(
) .

( 256), , 245

( ), (
) .
( ) 6 37 .

3 : , (
15 ) ( 7 ).
32 , 16 . 14 /.
2 :
14 / 10 /; . 2 .
14- 11 .
6 . 11 6 .
64
15 / ( 120 )
11 /
( 90 ). 90 , 91 , . 120
4 . D2
4 ( 2 )
2 , 3 , 3
. 2012 . D .
(.. 2 22 314 334, 16) 246

.
()
( ,
) ,
. , ..
.
, . , .
.
, (double-cutcomponen rotation) (single-cut-in-colour-differenceline
rotation). .
.



H(jf) =A[1+j( f/f1)]/[1+j( f/f2)],

(6.1)

= 1/2; f1 = 0,84 ; f2 = 1,5 .


6.7. 0 1,37 , 13,5 1 .
9,54 ( , - ). ,
().
D D2
, ,
. 247

80 %
. (2-4 ) . +90, -90.

6.7

( 6.1). -, D-, D2-
, , , (, D-MAC/packet). . - , . -
. -
, .
D-MAC, , ,
, D2-MAC 248

. D-MAC (), 0 , 1 .
, 2 , . D2-MAC , , 4 8 D-MAC. D-MAC D2-MAC . H(jf) (6.1). ,
, 25 , ,
- 4 .
C-MAC D- D2-MAC
, , , D2-MAC ( D-MAC)
, , .
.
B-MAC
.
, (f1 = 1,87 , f2 = 3,75 ).
6.1



: / ,

D2MAC

625/60/2:1/4:3

C-MAC

D-MAC

5,6/2,4

B-MAC
625

B-MAC
525
525/60/2:1/4:3

5,0/2,1

4,2/2,1


: /

3:2/3:1
249

6.1

, :


,

MAC,

C-MAC

B-MAC
625

B-MAC
525

13,5
6,75

14,218
7,109

14,318
7,159

20,25

21,328

21,477

D-MAC

D2MAC

1269
8,4

1365
7,5

6,3


8
4
6 3

17 -
(14 /)



-
(10 /)




-

20,25
10,125
7,11
7,16
,
,

10,0
5,0
7,11
7,16
,

299
99
102 51

(751 /)

6 6
282
82
, /
203 / 204,5 /

3,08
1,54
1,59
1,6
,



20



27
24
,
:

24

,
13,5
16,5
17,5
250

6.3

6.3.1
. (), 625/50/2:1,
,
625/100/2:1 625/50/1:1 . , .
50
. ,

.
, .
. , , 2 . .
1
U

U*
2

1
2


1, 2 ( 6.8).
6.8

1 , 2 . 2, 251

1 ( 6.9). ,
. . .
U
i-1

Ci

Ci+1

Ci+2
t

T
1

2
t

1
t

U*
i-2

i-2

i-1

i-1

i+1

i+1
t

i i-

6.9

.
.
6.10. oe .
, 1 2. i 'i, , , 1 2,
( 6.11).
1/50 = 20 .
, ,
.
252

U*
2

2
6.10
U
i-1

Ci

Ci+1

Ci+2
t

U
Ci-1

Ci+1

Ci+2

Ci+3
t

2
t

U*
Ci-1

i-1

Ci

Ci+1

i+1

Ci+2

i+2
t

i i-
i i-

6.11

,
. ,
. , .
,
.
, 625/100/2:1, , 50 100 .

.
253

, .
,
. , .
. ,
.
, , , , .
,
,
. **,
( 50 ), * *
.
. * *
,
: () ().
* , * ( ). * , *
( ).
, .
.
:
{ax, y} = {ax, y};
* {b*x, y} = {med(ax, y ; ax, y+1; bx, y)};
* {*x, y} = {med(bx, y ; bx, y+1 ; ax, y+1)};
{bx, y} = {bx, y},
, b*, *, b , *, *, ;
, ;
med .
. 254

, .
, , * * :
{ax, y, i} = {ax, y, i};
* {b*x, y, i} = {med(bx, y, i-1 ; bx, y, i)};
* {*x, y, i} = {med(ax, y, i, ax, y, i+1)};
{bx, y, i} = {bx, y, i },
i .
, ( ), .

,
. ,
6.12. : - (); ; ( ); - .
: .

, , , . ,
, , .
, ,
.
,
- .
() () .
255

U*

6.12
. . ,
.
. , .

.
. . R, G, B.
, R, G, B.
, .

( )
, Y
R-Y B-Y .
,
2 .

256

6.3.2
(I)
.
I , , . I 16:9 (
),
.
I
.
.
- I.
.
I : , ( ), - ( ), , ,
, ..
I.
.
. R, G, B Y, U V
. Y, U, V , . .
.
: 1)
; 2)
, . Y, U, V .

13,5 , .. 702 , . , 4:2:2
257

Y1, U1, Y2, V1, Y3, U2, Y4, V2, ... .


Y 13,5 ,
, ..
, 27 , .
. I
SSC.
, , 1/4 1/3 (1/16 1/9 ). . 52 .
f = 13,5 ,
NCTP = . x f = 52 x 13,5 =
= 702 . I 1/3 NCTP(1/3) = 702/3=234, 1/4 NCTP(1/4) = 175. m 5 8. , , .
. ,
. , ( 3
).
( 8.1).

(6.2)
, : 1 = = 0,25; 2 =
0,5. 1, . ,
. 1 = 2 = .
258

6.13 :
;
. ZA 1/3 ZA = 287,5 ZA(1/3) = 95.
, , .
.
( ). 6.14.
1 2, ,
1 2.
. .
1 2 1. U' = 1U1; U' = 0;
U = K1U1. 2.
U' =K2U2; U" = K1U1; U = 1U1+K2U2. ,
1 1, 2 2.
U' = 1U3; U" = K1U1+K2U2; U = K1U1+K2U2+K1U3.
, . 1
= 0,25; 2 = 0,5, 1 = 0,25; 2 = 0,5; = 0,25.
259

. ,
1/3 9
-. 1/4 16 .

6.14 -
. PIP
.
. , , .
13,5 , 1:3
6 Y
VY(1/3) = NCTP(1/3) ZA(1/3) m = 234 95 6 =22230 6 = 133 .

(6.3)

, ,
.
( f.Y f.U f.V ) 4:2:2

V(1/3) = VU(1/3) + V V (1/3) = (f.R-Y + f.B-Y)/f.Y NCTP(1/3)ZA(1/3) m =


= (2+ 2 )/ 4 2 3 4 9 5 6 = 222306 = 133 .

V(1/3) = VY(1/3) + V(1/3) = 266 .

260

(6.4)

4:1:1, UV V(1/3) = (1+1)/4 2 3 4 9 5 6 = 66,69


V(1/3) = VY(1/3) + V(1/3) = 200 . , PIP YUV 4:1:1
RGB, 4:4:4.
,
. PIP
. ,
, . 6.15.
, ,
.

PIP Philips, Siemens Micronas.
PIP Siemens. Siemens PIP. : SDA9087, PIP SDA9088 (
) SDA9086. 1:3 1:4.

6.15
6.16 SDA9087. YUV , TDA4650 . 261

, 13,5 .
, 12 13. ( 0 1,18 148 ).
(+/-), , , 3,375 .
, 8.5. U V.
0,5. 4:1:1. 13,5 .
,
, ,
864 ( 13,5 15,625 ) . .
SSC . R-,
26 .

6.16 SDA9087

262

6.17 - SDA9087
UV PIP SDA9088.
( 6.18) , .
1/3
, 6.19. o 234
, U, V 58 . 95. 88,
Y U - 212 53. . (). (
) [(21288)+(5388)] 5 = 116600 .
167,9 .
1:4,
.
. NTSC (525 , 60 )
76 ( 57 1:4).
25 , .

263

6.18 - SDA9088
( ). 13,5 (UTB),
(UCB) (UKB). () . (UT, UC UK), .
13,5 .
SDA9086,
,
.

6.19 -
1/9

264


. U, V 6,75 .
.
RGB YUV. , , I2.
. . .
,
15,7 . , . . . I2.
6.20
PIP SDA9087 SDA9088.
(1 2), (, , ) AV.

1 2, (, TDA8540). , RGB. SSC . , SDA9087,
SDA9088, SDA9086. SSC
PIP.
, 13,5 , SDA9086.
, SDA9088, RGB .
RGB
. FB, SDA9088.

265

PIP

6.20 - PIP

PIP SDA9087/9088/9086
100
31,25 . , ,
SDA9088. 27 . SDA9086,
, SDA9088 I2C.
1993 . Siemens
PIP. SDA9187-2X SDA9188-3X. SDA9086 . 20,48 .
- .
. :
1) 5 6;
2) 4:3 16:9.
266

1994 . PIP Siemens. , ,


.
SDA9187 SDA9188. SDA9288X.
, Siemens PIP
SDA9189X. SDA9187
SDA9188. ,
169,812 329,184 . , 1/4 .
1/16
1/36. , .
16:9 ( POP)
19 .
288 72. .
. , 4096. SDA9189 ( SDA9288)
.

267

7




-





MPEG


268

7.1


(, , ) , ..
. , , , , (. 1.1).

, , , ,
. , .
,
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
- 6 , 1500
4 , .
:
C=120 ...500 / (
U
UY, UR-Y, UB-Y) C= 64 /.
C .
, . , , , . ,
269

30-100
2-8 .

( 200 / )
(
500 ).
(625/525 ), 1,2 / ( 1125/1250 ).
( ) ,
( 90- ) .
, .. , , C ( 2...10 )
.
,

ITU, ISO, IEC, EBU, CEPT, CENELE, ETSI .
MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)
1990 . () , MPEG .
,
JPEG .
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) . M-JPEG
.
MPEG-1, 1992 .
( 1,5 /) ,
MPEG-2 ( 1994 .), MPEG-4 MPEG-7,
.
, (D-5, Betacam SX, Digital
270

Betacam, D-7 (DVC PRO), DVC PRO50, D-9 (Digital S), DVCAM, MPEG IMX
.), (D5-HD, D6, CAM-HD, DVCPRO-HD .).

. MPEG-2 (QAM, QPSK, VSB, COFDM .)
(27 36 ) (6, 7 8
M, N; B, G, H I, D, K, K1, L ) .
ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute) DVB
(Digital Video Broadcastings) ,
, , -. .
1998 .
ATSC (Advanced Television System Committee ).
NTSC. ATSC 18
480, 720 1080, (f=24, 30
60 ) (f=60 ). 480 (525 ) .
720 , 1080 f = 60 . 2009 .
NTSC.
,
, 625/50/2:1/4:3
16:9 .
DVB
DVB-H.
, 2015 .
, , , . (
271

..)

.
,
, . ,
,
.

.
.

,
.
- . - -
( 7.1),
.

272

BL1.1
*

UR

UR

m*

BL1.2
U*G
G

A1.2

BL1.3

A1.3

U1.2
U*G.

UG

m*
UB

UB

UR.

U5

UG.
m*

mY.
U7.1

Z1.1

UB.

m*

D1

m*

U1.3
U*B.

U1.1
U3
*
U R.

A1.1

m.

m*

m.

m.
Z1.2

U7.2
n

m.

m.

MUX

Vid_ES

m.

f.

D3
Aud_ES

MUX

PS_1
D4


BF2.1

U2.1

A2.1

U4

U .1

U*.2

U2.2
U.2

A2.2

BF2.N
U*.N

U2.N

A1.N

MUX

UC.2
m

TS

U.N
m

D2
UC.1

m
BF2.2

U6

U.1

MUX

PS_N

UC.K
m

f.

7.1
( )
273

7.2 -


: ( ), (
) . - ()
() .
.
:
FB ( 0 FB) (), ,
() f
f 2F

(7.1)

,
f, F . - , ( 7.1,), ( 7.1,) t . - (), . . () . ,
( 7.1,), . . . t , ( -), .
,
, . ( 7.1,) t1 , t2, ..., t7 (- -2).

.
274

( 7.1, ).
, 7.1,, ()
, f =1/ ,
2f=2/ . . - ( 7.1,)
0 - FB,
f, 2f . ., , . .
f ...(f FB) , 2f ...(2f FB) . .
f f (f FB). 7.1, ,
f 2FB, F f
F ( D f)
() . - (f) ,
, , .
, f
. ,
, f, 2f , 3f .. .
(7.1) ( 7.1,k)
. (..
) , , . ,
, . f < 2FB
:
f < FB f = (2+1)(f /2) ,

(7.2)

f ;
1,2,3

. 275

[5]. NTSC, PAL SECAM


.
,
.
f < 2FB .


. ( 7.1, 16
DU , (6,9; 9,4; 13; 14,5; 4,6; 1,0; 2,7 7.1,) (7, 9, 13, 15, 5, 1 3 7.1,).
()
. D
(

D 0,1; 0,4; 0; 0,5; 0,4; 0; 0,3)


DU / 2), ,

.
(
7.1, ), ( ). . , , .
.
D U,

276

( D

15
10

FB

T
U(t)

15
10

U(f)

(f)

f 2FB

2,7

1,4

U(t)

13

FB

f+F

2f f

f-

10

10

2f f

4,8

0
15

13,5

10
5

5
3

3
1

0
U(t)

t
T

FB

U(f)

0 01 1 0 10 1

1 01 0 1 10 1 0 11 0

0 00 1 0 01 1

FB

2f

3f f

- - ; ,
; ,
; - ;
; ;

, f>2F f <2FB ; u

.
7.1 -
277

(
) m : m
= log 2 M. ,
. = 16 (), 0 15 4- (m = 4) , 2m = , 24 = 16.
1/16 6,25 %.

-
(). -2,
( 7.1, ) .
. 7.1,,
( ) , fT,
fT= 1/(/m) = mf= 1/T T ,

(7.3)

. . m .
f
m :
= f * log 2 M= f * m , /.

(7.4)

. .
DU ,
,
.

2
12 , U .. =
P. = D U

P. = D U

12

(7.5), (7.6)

, U
(
278

).

U c = DU ,

(7.7)

- .
(7.6) (7.7) -

/
U
DU M
= 20 lg

= 20 lg
DU / 12
U .

2m

( 12 )-1

= 6,02m + 10,8 ,

(7.8)

m- (/ /).
(7.8) 7.1.
7.1 - /
/,
m

/
,

68+10.8=58.8

69+10.8=64.8

10

610+10.8=70.8

11

611+10.8=76.8




(), , .
>2F=13,5 625/50

279

525/60*. . Z
()
=(Z/2)

(7.9)


625/50: .1=62525=15625

(7.10)

525/59,94: .2=52559,94/2=15734,25 .

(7.11)

. -, (7.1), .. 12
. -,
= n1 .1 = n2 .2 .

(7.12)

(7.12)
15625 ( PAL SECAM) 15734,25 (
NTSC)
, . . , . ,
()
625 525 .
15625 15734,25
=k115625=k215734,25=14415625=143*15734,25=2,25

(7.13)

, (7.1) (7.12), ..
2F = n,
=k3 ,
k3>5 (7.1).
,

280

(7.14)

=6 =62,25=13,5

(7.15)

.
(7.12) n1 n2:
n1= / .1=13,5106/15625=864;

(7.16.1)

n2= / .2=13,5106/15734,25=858 .

(7.16.2)

864 ( 858)
625/50 ( 525/59,94).
864 (858) .
-R .601 720. f f .


-: (), ( ) L, Lmin Lmax [2, 5, 22, 25]

M = ln K ln (1 + d ) ,

(7.17)

K , = Lmax /Lmin ,

d - . ,
, 0,02 0,07.
, (),

281

( Li+1 - Li ) < DL ,

(7.18)

Li, Li+1 , ;
D L - , ,

2%.
( ) - :

d = DL L = const

(7.19)

L i +1 - L i = D L , L - , .. Li.

(7.17) =100

=0,02, -

, 230,
=2m=28=256

(7.20)

m , ,
0 257.
,

=0,02

, .
=27=128 .
- - ( Li+1 Li)
.
. .
,
1
() . , 27 , ,
, 28 .
.
282


, 6-, 7-
8- 10- .
,

. -

,
(7.17), , ()
. , .
,
- ( )
M

= =

p(L )log p( L ) = log


i

M (/),

(7.21)

p(Li)=1/M - .
d 2

DS , .
, , (
- ) (, (1-2) - ; - ). d 3-
: d = 0 ,02 0 ,05 ; d = 0,2 0,5 ; d = 0 ,8 1,1 .
M (7.17) (7.20)
:

d = 0 ,02 0 ,05

M = 256

H = 8

d = 0,2 0,5

M = 8 14

H = 3 4

d = 0 ,8 1,1

M = 4 5

H = 2 3 .

(7.22)

, d = j( D S ) () / =2,7 / =4, ..
283

3 ,
3 ,
/3, . 7.2
. .
,
, .. ..

, ,
, . 7.3 4 128
. =128
. , 7.3, 128 .

(Y) () (. 7.2).
. 3,375 , , :
O. = k4 = 1,52,25=3,375 .

(7.23)

7.2 -

284

f.Y

f. (- )

4:4:4

13,5

13,5 (2)

4:2:2

13,5

6,75 (2)

4:1:1

13,5

3,375 (2)

4:2:0

13,5

6,75 (1)

, ; ;

,,
7.2

, 4 128 ;
,
7.3
.

285

4:1:1 525/60,
4:2:0 625/50. , (525/60), 625/50 .

. 4:4:4:4 (R,
G, B Y ),
, , Y
.
3:1:1, ( 4:1:1) 720 540
.

CIF, ( 4:1:1)
Y,
. 288 352 144 176 .
MC-R .601-5 f=13,5 4:2:2 4:4:4 f.Y.=18 f. =
9 ,
16:9. .
625/50 4:2:2 (
) 1152 (960) Y 576 (480)
. Y ( R,G,B)
0,025 0...7,33 0,05 7,33 ...7,67 12 9,0...10,67 40
10,67 .

0,05 0...3,67 6
4,60..5,33 40 5,33 . 4:4:4

f .

286

NTSC PAL , f=4 f.


(
), .
NTSC 910 , 768 . PAL
. ( ) 1135 , 1137, f 25 [5]. SECAM
f=13,5 , .. f, f f.

=f m (1.4), / , (), , :
R = 1/t,

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t .
R ( . , ). R, .

/, , /.
C 4:2:2,
nY=864 n=432 ,

n= nY+2 n=864+2432=1728

(7.25)

287

,
m- .
1440 . , n / 1

C..= n C.1=172815625=27 . /.

(7.26)

8 (10)- ( 256 (1024) )



C=C.. m=27 8 (10)=216 (270) /.

(7.27)

4:1:1 4:2:0 ,
4:1:1 = 13,58 + 3,3758 + 3,3758=162 / 4:2:0 = 13,58 + + 6,758 =
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288

7.3

7.3.1
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n
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1
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(7.28)

0.5, m = 0,
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298

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299

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300

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301

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302

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303

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304

7.10 -
, 7.10,
7.9. : -
; - , ; - ; - .
,
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. .
( )
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. [12].

305

7.7 MPEG
7.6.1 MPEG -1
MPEG
MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) 80 [8]. MPEG
( Iframe ), . ( , P-frame) .
(B-frame), ,
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MPEG . ,
.

, . MPEG .
. . . ISO 13818 - 2
.
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7.3

1440

306

7.3
SNR

1440

1440

. , , DBS (Direct Broadband Satellite)


(Main Profile)
(Main Level), MP@ML. DBS , , (High Profile).
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.
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. ,
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;
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;
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307

(,
) [2, 7].
MPEG-1 1993 .
[8].
MPEG-1 1.5 / CIF.
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MPEG-1 25
PAL 30 NTSC. MPEG-1 . 16 x 16 , 4 8 x 8 CR CB .
I- , , , .
, .
,
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.
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.
[16].
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308

7.7.2 MPEG-2
MPEG-2 1994 .
MPEG-1,

. , MPEG-1 , 4 1616 . 25
PAL 30 NTSC, , MPEG-1 [9].
, ().
: (red),
(green) (blue). RGB
. ,
(Y) (Cr b). Y , - . , RGB .
(RGB) 3x3.
Y 0.299 0.587 0.114 R
Cr = -0.169 -0.334 0.500 * G


Cb 0.500 -0.419 -0.081 B

(7.32)

,
(Y, r, b) [R, G, ]
.
0
1.404 Y
R 1.000
G = 1.000 -0.3434 -0.712 * Cr


B 1.000 1.773
0 Cb

(7.33)

MPEG-2 : ( 7.11).
309

7.11
8x8 , - ().

. [1].
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0
255 . 8x8 . 8x8 ,
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, (0,
0) 64 . . - ,
,
, .
NxN :
N -1 N -1
2
F ( u , v ) = * C ( u ) * C ( v ) * f ( x, y ) *
N
x= 0 y = 0

( 2 * x + 1) * u * p
( 2 * y + 1) * v * p
*cos
* cos

2* N
2* N

(7.34)

, v, , 0, 1,...,7, , v ,

1/ 2, _ u, v = 0
C (u ) , C ( v ) =
.
1, _ u, v 0

310

(7.35)

8x8, N = 8.

, .
.
.

8x8. . , .
MPEG-2, DBS , :
Intra-, Intra-. 7.4 7.5.
7.4 I-
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

8
16
19
22
22
26
26
27

16
16
22
22
26
27
27
29

19
22
26
26
27
29
29
35

22
24
27
27
29
32
34
38

26
27
29
29
32
35
38
46

27
29
34
34
35
40
46
56

29
34
34
37
40
48
56
69

34
37
38
40
48
58
69
83

6
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16

7
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16

7.5 I-
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0
16
16
16
16
16
16
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1
16
16
16
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2
16
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3
16
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4
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5
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311


, .
.
,
.
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: (Residual Image coding).
.
. , , , ,

Intra, - .
(,
) ,
.
.
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[1].
7.7.3 MPEG-4
MPEG-4 MPEG-2.
MPEG-4
MPEG 1993 , 1998 . , 1999

ISO/IEC (ISO/IEC 14496).

312

"" MPEG-1
MPEG-2, MPEG-4 .
,
.
. ,
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[1].
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. , MPEG-4 . ,
,
. ,
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7.12 MPEG-4, 1
(); 3 - (); 5 (); 7 (); 8 (); 9
- (); 11
(); 12, 13,14 ().
313

7.12 MPEG-4
314


( ) (
8x8 ).
, ,
, .
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;
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zerotree wavelet,
.
.
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. -

315

:
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MPEG-4, [10].
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7.6.4. Motion-JPEG, MPEG-2, MPEG-4
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. , , . , -
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, , . Motion-JPEG , QVGA , .
/ ,
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).
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M-JPEG, ..
( bit-rate).
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2.5 7 . /, ,
( 3-4 ) .
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, . Motion-JPEG,
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, , . ,
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,
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317

7.8

7.8.1 DivX
7.6
.
,
,
Internet. Web, , on-line . , - on-line.
(), .
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DivX MPEG-4.
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DivX): ) , )
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) . : (
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318

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319

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MPEG-7 : , , 3D , , , , . .
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MPEG-7, MPEG, , . MPEG-7 [1].
MPEG-7 , .
MPEG-7 ,
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MPEG-4. MPEG-4, , () ( ),
() ,
[18].
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321

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JPEG,

MPEG-2),

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322

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; ,
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[22].
MPEG-7 ,
( , , )
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MPEG-7 :
1. MPEG-7 - ,
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.
.
2. MPEG-7 -
, , .
3. MPEG-7 Audio - , .
4. MPEG-7 Visual - , .
5. MPEG-7 Multimedia Description Schemes - , .
6. MPEG-7 Reference Software - MPEG-7.
7. MPEG-7 Conformance - MPEG-7 [18, 19, 20, 21].
, MPEG-7, (, , , 323

, . .). MPEG-7
WEB , .
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324

7.9

7.9.1
.
.
.

.
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10-12 .

- , ( ) . - , , .
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:

325

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- 6.5e-0.6( f / 1000-3.3) + 10-3 ( f /1000) ,


2

(7.36)

(f)- , ;
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500

500
398

T(f)

296
194
92

- 10 10
10
10

100

1 .10
f

1 .10

1 .10
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326

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,
.
7.6 -

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

50
150
250
350
450
570
700
840
1000
1170
1370
1600
1850
2150
2500
2900
3400
4000
4800
5800
7000
8500
10500
13500
19000


,
20-100
100-200
200-300
300-400
400-510
510-630
630-770
770-920
920-1080
1080-1270
1270-1480
1480-1720
1720-2000
2000-2320
2320-2700
2700-3150
3150-3700
3700-4400
4400-5300
5300-6400
6400-7700
7700-9500
9500-12000
12000-15500
15500-22500

100
100
100
100
110
120
140
150
160
190
210
240
280
320
380
450
550
700
900
1100
1300
1800
2500
3500
7000

7.6 , .
( 100 ) 500
20% 500 :
327

100 , f < 500 ,


Df ( f ) =
0,2 , f 500 .

(7.37)

(7.37) , 500
,
, 500
Df(f).
( 7.15) (7.38):

Df ( f ) = 25 + 75 1 + 1.4( f / 1000 )

5000

2 0.69

(7.38)

5000
4000

Df ( f )

3000
2000
1000

0
10
10

100

1 . 10
f

1 . 10

1 . 10
10

7.15
7.15 ,
. , .
100
( 1000 40 ),
. .
(1 =100 ), . 1 .
( 7.16) :

328

z ( f ) = 13arctg (0.00076 f ) + 3.5arctg ( f / 7500) ,


2

(7.39)

z(f) .
30

30
20

z(f)
10
0

0
10
10

100

3
1 . 10
f

4
1 . 10

5
1 . 10

10

7.16


. ,
.
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329


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330

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2400
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7.17

: , 1800 dN ~15 ,
2000 dN = 25 .. , ()
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331

dN
.

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:
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332

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7.19 .

7.19

333

, :
10 (.. ) 10. , 1000
40
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= 51 . 50 , 68 7 = 61 .
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334

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2

(7.40)

x SF(x) .

, , .

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335

, ( ), .
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5 - 50 50 - 200 .
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7.20 ( )

336

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70 ; ()
1000 , 10 . t ()
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:

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337

10
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7.21
:
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338


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339

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).
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340

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.
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2.
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341

,
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). ,
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342

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MUSICAM ( );
MPEG-1, Layer 1 2 ( );
MPEG-1, Layer 3 ( );
MPEG-2 ( / );
MPEG-2 AAC ( );
MPEG-4 ( / );
Dolby AC-3 ( ).
7.23 .
( , , 343

, . .).

NICAM

MPEG-1, 2
Layer I

MPEG-1, 2
Layer II

+

(VLC-)
+

DTS

ATRAC

Dolby AC-3

MPEG-1, 2
Layer III

MPEG-2 AAC

7.23
344

7.10
7.10.1 MPEG 1(2) Layer I-III
MPEG-1 ISO (ISO 11172).
1992 . 1993 .
32,
44,1 48 Video-CD.
VHS
- . , -
1,5 /, CD-ROM .
MPEG-
( . perception - ). , . . , ,
MPEG. MPEG- " ",
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MPEG-1 : Layer
I, Layer II, Layer III). Layer III ,
.
Layer I , ,
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Layer II ,
, ( 128

345

K/ ). Layer III
,
6496 / . , mp3.
7.7 -

,
K/

Layer I

192256

1 : (34)

Layer II

128...192

1 : (6...8)

Layer III

64...96

1 : (10...12)

MPEG-2 MPEG-1 5 (subwoofer).


- 16, 22,05, 24 .

, .
: NMR (Noise to
Mask Ratio - /), PAQM (Perceptual Audio Quality
Measure) PERCEVAL (PERCeptual EVALion).
NMR, .
. , , NMR
, .
n -, SMR(n).

, . 346

SMR(n), , ,
.
MPEG-1 MPEG-2 Layer 1
Layer 2 1.
(), ,
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N=512 (Layer 1) 1024 (Layer 2).
DF = f / N , f - .

f =48 N=1024 ,

DF =46,875 .

h(n) , . :
96 .

Esb (n ) , , -

n, . () , (-1),
(+1) .
X tm (k ) ()

X nm (k ) .

, .
{X (k )}tk , , , 7 .

X tm (k )
(-1) (+1). -

{X tm (k )}tk . , .

347

() {X nm (k )}nk .
, .
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348

, , 20
. ,
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126 ( 512
).

K M 1[z (i )] K M 2 [z (i )] ,

M [z (i ), z ( j )] . z(i) ( ); z(j) - -

. X tm [z (i )] X nm [z (i )]
N tm [z (i ), z ( j )] N nm [z (i ), z ( j )].

, , : N (i )
-

; N (n )

n, - SMR(n) n.
1
()
. SMR(n)
n, .
MPEG ISO/IEC 11172-3 13818-3
Layer 3 2,
MPEG ISO/IEC 13818-7 AAC 14496-3.
:

b, ( ); 62 44,1 59 32 ;

349

( -

), ;

(N=1024), (N=256) .
- SMR(n) n .
1. ,
Yw = a w + jb w

rw = Yw j w , w () .
s(n), 1, h(n).
2. ru j u
w ;
MPEG
t-1 t-2,
.
3. C w w .
t t-1 t-2 . b
, , , .
2 C w : 0 w<6 C w ; 6 w<206 w 206
0.4.
4. eb

c b b.
5. (i,j), , 350

. ,
1,
, .
( ecb ct b ) eb c b
(i,j) .
6. SNRb
b a b
TNM b NMTb . TNM b -
, , ,
, b 29 ( ISO/ IEC 11172-3) 18 (
ISO/IEC 13818-3); NMTb - ,
, b NMTb , 6 ( ISO/IEC 11172-3 Layer 3 ISO/IEC 13818-3). a b cbb , ct b ecb . a b 0 < a b < 1.
, 1,
1, , , .
7. thrb ( ) b,
.
Layer 3
b. thrb
athrb , nbb , nbb (t - 1) = h1 nbb

nbb (t - 2 ) = h 2 nbb , athrb - b, , . -

b; nbb (t - 1) nbb (t - 2 ) - ,
b , 351

h 1 =2 h 2 =16 , .
8. ( ) thrn n. b (

f Layer 3 59, 62 63) n ( 32) ( , 1/3 ) .


9. e n n.
10. e n thrn ( - SMRn ),
MPEG n.
(N = 256) ISO/IEC 11172-3 Layer 3
-.
b ,
. ,

bcb = 10 - SNRb / 10 SNRb ( ) MPEG,


, .
thrb b
nbb = enb bcb athrb
thrb = max (athrb , nbb ) . , , . .

352

7.10.2 Dolby Digital (-3)


Dolby Digital ( -3)
,
( ATSC), (DVD-) . . ATSC (ATSC A/53).
Dolby Digital 5.1- :
20-20000
- 20-120 .
Dolby Digital AC-3
( 12:1)
. AC-3, ,
, .
Dolby AC-3
, (
). : ( )
:

X [k ] = A[k ] 2- B [k ] ,

(7.41)

[] []- -
.
. ( ).
.

[]. :
1.
.
[]
PSD[] , 3072 , :

353

PSD [k ] = 3072 - B[k ] 128 .

(7.42)

.
,
, 6 , 24.
Dolby AC-3
24*6=144 . 128 , 6/128= 0,046875 ,
.
, 0 3075
0,046875 , ,
.
Dolby AC-3 .
. .
2531 , . , f = 48 N=512 93,75 . 2531
28 .
, 3, 6, 12, 24 . 256
, 50, 023900 .
2. .
Dolby AC-3 :

log (a + b ) = max [log (a ), log (b )] + log[1 + exp (d )] ,

(7.43)

d = log (a ) - log(b ) , : log[1 + exp(d )]; log(a), log(b) ( 354

) .
:
. ,
.
.
()

. . ,
.
3. .
MPEG . , E.
Zwicker, R. Ehmer, L. Fielder E. Benjammin.

,
. . , ,
, 0,5 .

:

N RNT (F ) = N NT (F ) - N MT (F ) , ,

(7.44)

N RNT (F ) -
, N NT (F ) - ,
, N MT (F ) - .

.
4. .
.
. Dolby AC355

3 .
: Fast Upwards Masking - Slow Upwards Masking - .
Dolby AC-3 ,

:
Slow Decay , 0,70 0,98 / ;
Slow Gain ,
49 63 ;
Fast Decay , 2,95 5,77 / ;
Fast Gain
, 6 48 .
5. .
Dolby AC-3 , .
( )
. ,
:

x0 = [x0 (k ) - d 0 (k )] [Ec (k ) - g 0 (k )] ,

(7.45)

x1 = [x1 (k ) - d1 (k )] [Ec (k ) - g1 (k )] ,

(7.46)

EM (k ) = max ( x0 , x1 ) ,

(7.47)

Ec (k ) - -

; d 0 (k ) d1 (k ) - ,

356

; g 0 (k ) g1(k ) - -
, ; - , Dolby AC-3
max.

EM (k ) -

. .
,
. - SNRn , ,
, . -

. SNRn (k ) ,
SNRn (k ) = SNRn / k ,
n- .
,
, . , , ,
.

- (SNR), , , .
.
CSNR FSNR.
3/16 FSNR,
3 CSNR. -

357

(SNROFFSET) :

SNROFFSET = [(CSNR - 15) 16 + FSNR ] 4 .

(7.48)

SNROFFSET, CSNR FSNR , .


FSNR Dolby AC-3 , CSNR
.
6. .
.
FSNR CSNR .
3 , . CSNR 1 .
, , . .
, .
3/16 ,
FSNR 1 .
, , ,
.

, Floor.
, , 358


.

. - , - , - .
.
7.10.3 MPEG-2 AAC
MPEG-2 AAC (MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding
- ) Fraunhofer,
AT&T, Sony, NEC Dolby 1998 .
MPEG4.
MPEG-2 AAC MP3, . 8 160 / . MP3 AAC . AAC , . MPEG-2 AAC
,
.
AAC , AC-3 ,
AAC , 48 , 15
, 15 .
: Main (), Low Complexity (
) Scaleable Sampling Rate ( ).

359

AAC MP3, ,
MPEG-1(2) Layer I-III. MPEG-1 , , 5-
MPEG-2. AAC " ".
MPEG-2.
: 8; 11,025; 16; 22; 24;
32; 44,1; 48; 64; 88,2 96 ; : - : ,
2048 256 , , 50% . ,
, .
Layer 3
: .
, ,
( TNS Temporal Noise Shaping);
; , , /S ,
L R ,
=(L+R)/2 S=(L-R)/2.
,
.
. 2, Layer 3.

ISO/IEC 13818-7 .
(Main profile).

360

, . PQMF-.
2048
50- .
TNS 20.
(Low Complexity profile).
PQMF-, , ,
, TNS
20 12.
(Scalable Sampling Rate).
PQMF-, -
, TNS 12. ,
2020000 ,
,
, . , : 20
6000 , 20 12000 , 20 18000 .
7.10.4 DTS
DTS (Digital Theater System) Dolby Digital. AC-3 (
, 48 , 24
), 1536 /. DTS, , . ,
, 4
. DVD-
AC-3, DTS.

361

DTS,
, , . ,
( 10.1)
192 24 /. , ,
.

() , 24 .
,
()
. ,
. , , ,
.
, ( 7.8.).
7.8. -
,
8;11,025;12
/.
0 512
512 - 1024
1024 2048

1024

,
16; 22,05; 24

32; 44,1; 48

2048

4096

1024

2048

64; 88,2; 96

1024

2048 4096

128;176,4;192

2048
1024

2048

. ,
. , , .

362

48
32 .

().
: (PR) ( NPR) . ( ),
.

()
. () . . , , , ()
, ,
PR- . , ,
, ,
,
NPR-.
, . , . , ,
().
.
, , , . , -

363

, .
,
:
, ,
, .
. . , .
.

. .
.
, . ,
,
.
,
(SMR) .
.

364

( ), .
SMR - .
,
( ) .

.
, .

,
.
( 128 /) , , .

, .
(128 512 /) , SMR,
.. .
,
. , .
( 512 /) ,

, . () , ,
. ,

365

,
.
. 20%, , .
() , .
64- 128- ,
150 80 . 8- . .

().
,
. ()
. , , . 256 (5,3
48 ).
:
- , ;
- , ;
- 16 , 5.1 ;
- , , -;
- .

- .
32 (0,67 -

366

48 ),
, , .
( 64 /)


. , - ( 2,5 ) , , .
.
, , , .
,
.
.
. , .
, (0
1500 ), .
, (64
128 /), , ,
10 20 .
,
.
DTS , ,
- (CD-audio). . 7.9.

367

7.9. - DTS

, /

8 32

24

16

32 96

48

20

96 256

96

24

256 512

192

24

>

512

192

24

>

7.10.5 ()

() , ,
-, 7.9.

368

7.9


ATRAC

MPEG-1,
Layer 1 2

, /

32; 44,1; 48

256

1:5

MiniDisk

32448

1:4

32; 44,1; 48;


Layer 1

1; 2

48
MPEG-1,
Layer 3

MPEG-2

MPEG-2 AAC

Dolby AC-3

DTS

32; 44,1;48

16; 22; .. ; 48

16; 22; .. ; 48

32; 44,1;48

8; .. ; 192

1;2

1 5.1

1 5.1

1 5.1

1 10.1

(Layer 1)

(Layer 1)

32384

1:6

(Layer 2)

(Layer 2)

32320

32384

16576

32640

646144

1:9

>1:9

1:15

1:13

1:41:10

DAB (Layer 2, 128..256


/), DBS (Layer 2,
224 /), DCC (Layer
1, 384 /)
Internet-



,
HDTV,
,
HDTV,

8




DVB-T

370

8.1

8.1.1 DVB-T
EN 300 744 (Digital Video
Broadcasting (DVB); Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for
terrestrial television): , , ; ,
. EN 300 744 . ,
. DVB-T -
MPEG-2. ,

. DVB-T , ,
MPEG-2
,
. ,
, , , , .
,


(.6.20). DVB-T MPEG-2

OFDM. .

371

. 8.1.
,
DVB-T,

. 6.21.

372

. 8.2. DVB-T
8.1.2
DVB-T , ,
, PAL/SECAM.
, ,
,
. DVB-T - . .
DVB-T OFDM.
FDM (OFDM),
, , .
FDM, OFDM 373

. 6.22
OFDM( ).

f0+(n-1)* f/2

f 0+3f/2

B0 / n

B0

f 0+f/2

B0 / n

f 0-f/2

f 0-3f/2

f0-(n-1)* f/2

. 8.3. OFDM-.
, B0 / nf, f0.
,
1/B0.. , n
. B0/n
,
f.
n/B0.
OFDM . -,
, .
( DVB , , -, -

374

COFDM), .
, OFDM
(ISI) . ISI , ( ) . OFDM n , n .
, ,
OFDM n.
. n
, n .
,
OFDM . , , .
OFDM QPSK (Qudrature
Phase-Shift Keying ) Q (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation ). OFDM . ,
. ( ) .

.
-
,
, , .
. DVB-T - ,
,

375

( , , ).
(. 6.21) 2*10e-4,
MPEG-2 10-11, ( ).


, .
, , . , , , .
OFDM COFDM (Coded
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex). COFDM
, ?
,
( /), , . , , , ,
. COFDM .
OFDM . , , , ,
.

376


. , ,
. , - , . ,
( , - , ).
,
.
8.1.3
OFDM , .
- .
, . ,

.
.
,
. , .
, , .
,

377

, 250 . .
250
, 1 .

, ,
1 . 8 1
8000.
, . , .
20 /, 1 ( ) 20 , 3
. 8- ,
.

OFDM. . , OFDM ,
- . .
, , 2. , ,
N=8192=8k N=2048=2k ( k=210=1024).
, ,
. 6817 1705 ,

378

8k OFDM 2k OFDM.
8.1.4
DVB-T -
. MPEG-2 (. 6.20), . , ( . 6.20 ) -
.
.
. ,
, - , . .

. .
, , ,
. .
DVB-T , , , . , -
.
. ,
,
. DVB-T
: 2k 8k. 2k -

379

, 8k , .
DVB-T .

.
. ,
,
, (1/4, 1/8, 1/16
1/32 ). , ,
: 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8. DVB-T
4 64.

(, 8, 7 6 ), .
DVB-T
.
,
,
, ,
.
DVB-T : (DVB-C) (DVB-S).
8.1.5 DVB-T
, DVB-T (. . 8.1). - . -,

380


(
). -,
( ,
, ).
, .

. 8.4. MPEG-2
,
MPEG-2
(. 8.4). , 188 (, 47 01000111 - ,
187 ), .
, 101110002 =
B816. 2,
" " (XOR) PRBS
(Pseudo Random Binary Sequence).

381

. 8.5.
PRBS 15-
, (. 6.24). ,
,
PRBS
100101010000000. PRBS
, . . PRBS ,
( ) . ,

1503

(187+188*7=1503).

PRBS, ( ).
8.1.6
188 ( ) -.
188 16
(. 8.6).
382

204
.

. 8.6. - RS (204, 188)



, . , 6.26, ,
1
. ,
( ) . . , .
0, .
204 (12x17=204, ,
-). ,
.

,
. , ,
, -. -

383

,
.
,

(. 8.7).

0.

. 8.7.
8.1.7
DVB-T . , . ,
, . , ,
" ".

384

.
, ,
.
, ( , , " ").

. ,
.

. 8.10. ( -
R=1/2, - , - )
DVB-T 1/2.
385

, X Y ,
(. 6.27). , ,
, (
1/2, ).
X Y (
6.27). , 2/3 (X1,
Y1, Y2), X2 . ,
7/8, (X1, Y1, Y2,
Y3, Y4, X5, Y6, X7).
8.1.8
DVB-T
. , , . , OFDM DVB-T. .
. .
8.1.9
(QPSK - Quaternary Phase Shift Keying) (QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).
, (, -

386

), , , , "". QPSK
, (00, 01, 10, 11), .
, ,
, (. 6.28). 16- 16-QAM
4- ,
. .
64-QAM 6- , .
DVB-T 1/2.
, X Y ,
(. 6.27). , ,
, (
1/2, ).

387

. 8.11.
( - QPSK, - 16-QAM)
v (v=2
QPSK, v=4 16-QAM, v=6 64-QAM). X0, X1, X2, X3, v (. 6.28). QPSK X0 X1
, b0,0 b1,0,
X2 X3 - b0,1 b1,1 .. 16-QAM 4- : X0 - b0,0, X1 - b2,0, X2 b1,0, X3 - b3,0, .. 64-QAM 6- .
8.1.10
,
. 126 (.

388

6.28). ,
( ) . B(e)=(be,0, be,1, , be,125), A(e)=(ae,0, ae,1, , ae,125),
ae,w=be,He(w) ( He(w) - , e=0,1,,v-1,
w=0,1,2,,125).
. , I0
H0(w)=w, , I1 H1(w)=(w+63) mod 126.
8.1.11 OFDM
, v
( y'w, w=0,1,2,,125) , I0 : y'w=(a0,w, a1,w, , av-1,w). 2k 12 ,
1512 (126x12=1512), OFDM. 1512 1512
OFDM ( OFDM TS). 12 126
, , Y'=(y'0, y'1,, y'1511). 8k 48 , 6048
(126x48=6048), 6048 .
Y'=(y'0, y'1,, y'6047).
8.1.12
.
Y=(y0, y1,, yNmax-1) :
yH(q)=y'q yq=y'H(q) (

389

q=0,,Nmax-1, Nmax=1512 6048). H(q)


.
1512 ( 2k) 6048 ( 8k) .
8.1.13
y v ( y'): yq'=(y0,q', y1,q',
, yv-1,q'), q' - . y
. z , yu,q'. yu,q'
6.29 (QPSK 16-QAM) 6.30 ( 64-QAM).
,
. ,
-
( ),
. ,
.
DVB-T . , QPSK y0,q'=0 y1,q'=0 z=1+j (
9). . , I Q
1. ,
( ) ( ) .
y0,q'=0 y1,q'=1.
z=1-j, , ,
180.

390

. 8.10. QPSK 16-QAM (u,q' , Z)


,

, 2 45 ( ,
6.29). -

391

2 -45. ,
,
90,
QPSK ( ).

.8.11. 64-QAM
, ,

392

. , 16-QAM
y0,q'=0, y1,q'=0, y2,q'=1, y3,q'=0 0010 z=1+3j ( 1, - 3),
10 60. 0111,
y0,q'=0, y1,q'=1, y2,q'=1, y3,q'=1, z=1-j, 2 -45.

z, c. ,
. , QPSK
c=z/2,
16-QAM - c=z/10, 64-QAM (
=4) - c=z/108.
8.1.14

, ( ,
9 10).
- (x'0, x'1, x'2, x'3, ) (x"0, x"1, x"2, x"3, ).
(x'0 - b0,0,
x'1 - b1,0), - (v-2) (x"0 - b2,0, x"1 b3,0 16-QAM, x"0 - b2,0, x"1 - b4,0, x"2 - b3,0, x"3 - b5,0 64QAM).

393



.
(16-QAM)
6.31.
, y0,q'
y1,q'
,
y2,q' y3,q' - .
,

. 8.12. 16-QAM

394

. ,
. y0,q' y1,q'.
,
,
. ,

16-QAM y2,q' y3,q'.
, DVB-T a. . DVB-T
.
1, : a=2 a=4.
8.1.15 OFDM
OFDM
. DVB-T ,
.
, , - ,
,
, .
OFDM. , .
. (QPSK
QAM) () , Re{c}=cI,
,

395

Im{c}= cQ.
. ,

cI, - cQ, . . , ,
. ,
( , )
. ,
, ,
,
.
( , ),
k fk, ck,
ck , fk:
sk(t)=Re{ck exp(j2pifkt)}=Re{ck exp(j2pikt/TU)}
(8.1.1)
fk k- 1/TU,
, . OFDM, , , :
s(t)=sk (t) = Re{ck exp(j2pkt/TU)}
(8.1.2),
k kmin kmax.
, . - , -

396

t nT ( T -
, n - ):
s(nT)= sn = Re{ck exp(j2pknT/TU)}
(8.1.3)
(6.6.3) :
xn = Xk exp(j2pkn/N)
(8.1.4)
, xn nT Xk ( N - ( ),
, k 0 (N1)).
, , .
, (8.1.3) (8.1.4) , OFDM . ,
OFDM , N=TU/T OFDM
0 (N-1),
. ,
(, ).
OFDM ? , , . , , OFDM . OFDM
(, ),
OFDM
-

397

. ,
.
, - (
), . OFDM, , DVB-T,
OFDM.
TU/N=T ( N - ), (6.6.3),
DVB-T. 1/T .
, T.
DVB-T, 8 ,
1/T=64/7 .
-
.
DVB-T 8 , .
. 7
8 .
( ), 7/8 . 6
(13,5x8192)/(858x19) .
, , . ( sQ(t), sI(t) s(t)):
ck exp(j2pifk t)= sI(t)+jsQ(t).

(8.1.5)

398

.8.13. OFDM
F0 ( ""), -
( 90). OFDM,
F0. ,
:
s0(t)=sI(t) cos(2piF0t) - sQ(t) sin(2pF0t)={cIk cos[2p(fk +F0)t] cQk(t) sin[2p(fk +F0)t]}.

(8.1.6)

OFDM (. 8.13).
8.1.16 OFDM
OFDM

(. 8.14). ,
, OFDM
, , , .
, OFDM (7,608258 8k 7,611607

399

2k) .
.

.8.14. OFDM (
Tu/4, fc - )
8.1.17
- ,
. , , , ,
, - , , ,
. (
), . , ,
.

.8.15.
c OFDM

400

. , , , - , (. 8.15). ,
, . . , , ( - 0 ). , . -,
, OFDM (. 8.16). , . COFDM
, . , ,
,
. OFDM , .

.8.16. 0 OFDM

401

COFDM , . (. 6.35), , /. , , ,
- .
"" .
- 0 , 1/4 , , .
, , , ,
, . , ,
.
, , ,
.
8.1.18
, , , OFDM
,
. , OFDM,
- 2 , 4 16-QAM 6
64-QAM.

402

.8.17. DVB-T
(. 8.18). 68 OFDM, 0 67.
.
204 (
MPEG-2, -).
TS 1705 2k 6817 8k. TS
: TU,
, ( TU ""), T . , , (. 8.18).
OFDM ,
, .
, "-", . .
OFDM,
,
. : .
403

.8.18. OFDM
OFDM

-
OFDM, -
. -
, -
.
- , ,
.

, :
- , ,
, , 2k 8k, . . 68 OFDM, OFDM.
OFDM , .
, OFDM, 68 , :
404

1 - ;
16 - ;
37 - ;
14 - , .
37 23, 14
. -. , , . ,
,
(DBPSK - Differential Binary Phase Shift
Keying),
, , , .
, 1705 6817
, OFDM
2048 8192 ? , , -
, :
2k 8k;
;
;
-
;
, ,
OFDM;
MPEG-2 ,
, .
8.1.19 DVB-T
,
DVB-T, 8.1 (, , -

405

). , , 1512 2k 6048
8k. ""
. , , ,
RS,

6,75

(RS=1512/224=6048/896=6,75= =6,75/).
RS, DVB-T:
RSU=RS b CRI CRRS (TU/TS) ( b - ,
, CRI - ; CRRS - -, 188/204;
(TU/TS) -
. 8.1.
8.1. DVB-T

8k

2k

6817

1705


896
Tu,

224


224, 112, 56, 28
T,

56, 28, 14, 7

1116

4464

7,61
,

7,61

QPSK, 16-QAM, 64- QPSK, 16-QAM, 64QAM


QAM

1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8

406

8.2. DVB-T
R

C/N,
, /
( T/Tu=1/4 T/Tu=1/8 T/Tu=1/16 T/Tu=1/32
)

QPSK

1/2

3,1

4,98

5,53

5,85

6,03

QPSK

2/3

4,9

6,64

7,37

7,81

8,04

QPSK

3/4

5,9

7,46

8,29

8,78

9,05

QPSK

5/6

6,9

8,29

9,22

9,76

10,05

QPSK

7/8

7,7

8,71

9,68

10,25

10,56

16-QAM

1/2

8,8

9,95

11,06

11,71

12,06

16-QAM

2/3

11,1

13,27

14,75

15,61

16,09

16-QAM

3/4

12,5

14,93

16,59

17,56

18,10

16-QAM

5/6

13,5

16,59

18,43

19,52

20,11

16-QAM

7/8

13,9

17,42

19,35

20,49

21,11

64-QAM

1/2

14,4

19,91

22,12

23,42

24,13

64-QAM

2/3

16,5

19,91

22,12

23,42

24,13

64-QAM

3/4

18,0

22,39

24,88

26,35

27,14

64-QAM

5/6

19,3

24,88

27,65

29,27

30,16

64-QAM

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20,1

26,13

29,03

30,74

31,67

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( C/N
, , ). , / , , , 2x10-4,
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8.2, DVB-T
: 4,98 31,67 / (
,
).
407

4,98 /, QPSK
, 1/2, (
/ 3,1 ).
31,67 / ( 64-QAM
7/8 /
20,1 .
6.6 .
QPSK. 16-QAM
, QPSK,
64-QAM - 16-QAM.
8.1 8.2 DVB-T.
, , , .

408

8.2

()
(. 8.19).
01.05.2008 . 10 .
4 (.1-4):
DVB , ,
;
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, ISDB DMT . ATSC
DVB , ISDB DMB DVB/

5 (1-5):
(SDTV), (EDTV),
(HDTV), (LDTV), (DCDM)
(SuperHiVision). (interlasing)
(progressive).

HDMI (Higt Definition Multimedia Interface ) DisplayPort. HDMI
2560
1600/120/8:S. -

- ,
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, , ,
, , . (
) SCART RCA.
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: Type 19 ; Type 29;

409

, , . Type
,
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4,9 10 / 4,5 , 15
.
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Interface) ,
VESA , DisplayPort.
DisplayPort
,
. DisplayPort

.

2005 ., 2006 . VESA DisplayPort, 1.1.
DisplayPort AMD,
Apple, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Lenovo, Molex, NVIDIA, Philips Samsung
Electronics, .
VGA, LVDS, DVI HDMI.
.
DisplayPort
,

,
, .

410

, .
DisplayPort :

;

, ;

;
;
;

;
;

.
DisplayPort XGA
(1024 768 ) 16 2, 20 8 UXGA (1600 1200 ), (. . 1).
, DisplayPort , ,
2,7 / 1,62
/, 4
10,8 /. , DisplayPort
. ,

411

. 8.19.
412

. 8.19. ()
413

. 8.19. ()
414

DVD-Audio, Dolby TrueHD Dolby Digital Plus. DisplayPort


8-
192 , 24 6,144
/.
Dolby TrueHD Dolby Digital Plus , . Dolby TrueHD Dolby Digital Plus
HD DVD Bluray. Dolby Digital.
DSDM (Digital
Distribution Master) : 40962048 (42), 24 / 2:1;
SuperHiVision 76804320 (84)/60/16:9.
( )
, DTB. DVB, ATSC, ISDB
DMB. - 3G 4G, ( xDSL - )
(Wi-Fi, WiMAX .),
IPTV.
,
( ) 10 : () QAM-COFDM-- ( ); () QAM- - () QAM--DWDM- ( ()
(DWDM) (), QAM--DWDM QAM--CWDM-.
( )
, : MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.264, Windows media DIRAC, .

415

, -, DVB-S2-.
. -.
, 20.
-.
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, .
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, .) - , , . . - ,
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140 /, 2 (
), 612 F
(-, , ).
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1
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(DTV) .

25 . .
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416

). 2006 . 1,5%. ( 3G 4G ) 15 105,6 . , 2,8


. .
.

,

.
.
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Electronic Communications Services ),
,
. , , ,
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.
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. ,
.
=5/(510)=(10,5) /, ..
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6) , , .

417

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. .
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.
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(SFN) (FN), .
11)
. , ,
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. ( , ,
), , / , .
12) (DVB-H) (DVB-SH) .
13)
DSL.
14) (LDTV) (GSM CDMA)
-3G 4G. SDTV.

418

15) () Wi-Wi Wi-MAX. , 2009 . 4- (4G)


OFDMA.
16) IPTV.
17) , .
18)
.
19) .
20)
() (, , -NGN, , , WLAN
.) , (FMC). , . , ,
.
, , .

419

8.3
DVB-T
() , ,
.
DVB-T, H, C, S, S2, SH
60 , :
QPSK; 16-, 32-, 64-, 128- 256-QAM, COFDM;
T /T ; R - 1 / 2 ,
2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8; , ,
.
; ; (, -, ); 2, 4 8; ; () ; (, , ) . DVB-S DVB-C ,
, DVB-T H
6817 ( 8) 1705 ( 2, =1024), 4 ( DVB-H) ( 8,0; 7,0 6,0
D/K, K1, I, L, B/G, B/H M,N ).

.
DVB-T
, .
DVB-H, DVB-S, S2, SH ( ).
,
,
,
.

420


.
E M , PC (.)

E M = PC - g . + 20lgf P + 165 ,05, /.

(8.3.1)

f P - ; g . -
.
PC = P , ,
, / () r :

P. = r + 10lg (kTC Df ), ,

(8.3.2)

r - - ,
( -)
(b ) , ;

k - , 1,3810-23, (/);
TC - () , ;
Df - , Df C ,
, .
Df C 7,61 ,

lg Df = 68,8 . TC :

TC = T0 exp[0 ,23(g + a . + n )], ,


T0 - , 290;

421

(8.3.3)

g - , ,
( , ), ;
a . - , ;
n - , .
,
(, ). . , b , :

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r . = -12 ,9 + 10lg
+ Dri ,
2
(1 + T /T )(1,25 - RCK )

(8.3.4)

Dr i -
( Dr1 =1,5 QPSK, Dr 2 =2 16-QAM Dr =2,5 64-QAM.
/ Dr . ,
:

M + 1 - RCK
, .
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2
(
)(
)
1
1
35
T
/T
,
R
+

CK

(8.3.5)

(8.3.2)(8.3.4), (8.3.1)

EMH = r - D + 20lgf P + 5,26 , /.

(8.3.6)

D g . , a . n .
.
- D + 20lgf P + 5,26 ,

A1 ( f ) = 17 ,2 + 13,5 f P , .

(8.3.7)

422

, (8.3.6)

EM = r + A1 ( f ) = r + 17 ,2 + 13,5 f P , /.

(8.3.8)


95 70% [1]. 9 95%
2,9 70%.
E = r + A1 ( f ) + DE (L ). ,
48 (610 ),

E (70 ) = r . + 28,33, /,

E (95) = (70 ) + 6 ,1, /,

(8.3.9)
(8.3.10)

, ( -1546),

. , ,
a . g . , .

= + D , /,

(8.3.11)

D = 0
, , .
, = 0 , g . =8 a . =4,
D = 4 , = 4 . , 8 RCK=3/4, 16-QAM T /T =1/16,

B0 = 6 ,22 3 4 / (4 (1 + 1 / 16 )) = 17 ,56 /.

(8.3.12)

1
4,35/, 8 4 .
423


- .
. .

424

425

9.1

,
, (1940- .), .
(525/60/2:1, 625/50/2:1 4:3) 2-3
.
,
: 50 ; 25 , (, .);
; 20-30% , .
- ,
- , .
4
. , , , ( ; 4
;
).

-
() High Definition Television (HDTV).
, - , 426

,
. ,
3 , .
1967 . , ,
. 1970 NHK 500
. (
700 ),
, NEC.
, .
( ) 4 ( MUSE). 1980
.
1987 . ,
(1125/60/2:1 16:9, ),
.
20-
NHK. 1988 . .
( ), 8- ( )
MUSE (Multiple Syb-Nyiquist Sampling Encoding ).
40
.
(, , , ,
)
(1250/50/2:1/16:9), -95, 1986 . 32
9 . HD-MAC (MAC
Multiplexed Analog Components ), , ( 20 )
427

,
(1250/50/1:1/16:9), 60 . ,
1250/50/1:1/16:9. -MUSE,
1992 . HD-MAC.
, 3- ( ) . : 2 ,
45 ;
; . , 16:9
.
35- .
High Vision (Video) Hi-Vi
Hi-Fi, .
, , .
30
.
1,2 /. .

( ) ,
, .

, , .

, ,
428

, , , , , .
9.2

70- , NHK , . , ,
,
. , , ,
.
,
, NTSC. NHK , , , , .
,
, , ( , )
, ,
.. 27- 10 (3 ).
NTSC 525/60/2:1/4:3 .
NTSC 10
. .
(, ).

, . , " " 429

, - . ,
. , ,
NTSC, PAL SECAM. , 9.1. 10 ,
3
"" . "". "" () .

9.1
,
. 3 ,
,
, 75
. , "" 27 NTSC ( PAL/ SECAM). , 9.2, 30 , . 10 ( 9.1).
430

9.2
()
, , , .
10 , 30
, " ".
,
. ,
. , . ,
525 ( 625) ,
( )
. 1080 (,
) ( ), :
,
9.1.

. .
431


.
.

:
75 ,
.
4:3 , , . .
, ,
, . , . , , .
.
16:9 ,
.
, 4:3 (1.33); 2.35, 35- ; 2.2
70- ( 9.3).

9.3
432

HDTV SDTV ( 4:3) (DTV),


( 16:9).
DTV 4:3. ,
,
DTV, ;
,
.. , , ,
.
,
.
. ,
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16:9 4:3.

9.3

(DTV Digital Television)


. ,
. , ,
, .
NHK , ,
, , . , 1000
. ,
433

, ,
2000 .
, 40 "" NHK,
. 9.1, 18 , 6 HDTV ( 2 16:9). 9.2 ,
.
, ,
. 1991 CBS, NBC, DirecTV 19201080 ()30 /, ABC 128072060
/. CBS , 1920108060
/, .
9.1
ATSC

/,

640
480
4:3
60(59.94);
(SDTV) 30(29,97);
24(23,98);
30(29,97)/60(59.94)
720
480
4:3
60(59.94);
(SDTV) 30(29,97)
24(23,98)
30(29,97)/60(59,94)
720
480
16:9
60(59.94);
(SDTV) 30(29,97)
24(23,98)
30(29,97)/60(59.94)
1280
720
16:9
60(59.94);
(HDTV) 30(29,97);
24(23,98)
1920
1080
16:9
30(29,97);
(HDTV) 24(23,98);
30(29,97) /60(59,94)

434

720 1080i .
.
. 720 1280
921600 . 1080 1920
, 2073600. , 60 ,
30. ,
- 720
1080i.
9.2
() - ,

30i
640480 (800525)
30p
60p
30i
720480 (858525)
30p
60p
30p
1280720 (1650750)
60p
30i
19201080 (22001125)
60p

(),
/
184(252)
184(252)
368(504)
207(270)
207(270)
414(540)
553(742)
1106(1485)
1244(1485)
1244(1485)

,
1/60 ,
1/60 .
. - , , 24 /, 48 72 /. , 100 .
, , ,
70% .
, . 435

.
, . .
, .
1/60 , ,
. ,
, ,
. .
, , .
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3 /.
, , ,
. (, CCD),
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1/60 60. , ATSC .
, , , (DSP) .
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,
,
. - ,
, 436

. 480/60p
480/60i 480/30p. 720/60p .
Sony 1080/24p ( 23,97)
1080i HDCAM,
.
.
.
, PCI
,
500 . 18 ATSC DTV , .
SXGA 19 21 , 12801024 , , ,
TV- 720. ,
,
, . ,
16001280, 19201080
. ,
,
.
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, ,
. ,
1080 ,
.
437

9.4
. ITU-R .709-3 . .
100 .
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( ) 1920- () ( ).
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, , 24 , . 24 / . ,
. "" .
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438

9.3

/
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1) ,

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30/
30/PsF I 50/ 25 25/P 50
24/
24/PsF
60/1

/
sF
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,
1
1125
60
(60/1,001)

60
(60/1,00
1)

1:1
60
(60/1,001)
67500
(67500/1,
001)

- R, G, , Y
- R B,
60


2)
,
148,5(148,5
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74,25

(74,25/1,0

01)
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439

30
(30/1,0
01)

50

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30
(30/1,001)
33750
(33750/1.001)

25

50

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2:1

50

25

562
50

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2200
1100

24
(24/1,0
01)

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(24/1,001)
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(27000/1,001)

2640
1320

30

60

74,25 (74,25/1,001) 148,5


37,125
(39.125/1,001)

74,
25

48
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01)

2750
1375

30

74,25

74,25
(74,25/1,001)

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10







440

10.1


, .
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.

.
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( 10.1).
1
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441

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50 6,5 .
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.
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).

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(10.2)

0 ;
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.
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t, .. = t, .
3 = (. . )

E = -w

dF
= -F 0 ww cos w t ,
dt

(10.3)

, .
,
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445

10.2
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,
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.
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,
. .
fmax / fmin max / min.
min = = 3 , fmax. = 6,5 fmin =
50 m = 0,4 , 100
. ,
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10.2).
446

( 17 )
.
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.
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.
,

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(10.4)

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.
,
, .
, , .
< 1 f0 Fmax.
447

. f0/Fmax
. , f0 .
10.3, f0 Fmax. = 0,1 ... 0,2
10.3, . , ,
,
( 10.3, ). , .
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8.4).

8.3

448

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/. ,
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V V- = = V + V cos , V- :
V- = V + V cos ,

449

(10.5)

( V
V.)
-
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-; , -
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451

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.

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[5].
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452

10.1

/
,
VHS

12,65

23,39

43

S-VHS

Y/C

12,65

23,39

45

Hi8

Y/C

20,5

44

Betacam

YUV

12,65

101,5

49

Betacam

YUV

12,65

101,5

51

YUV

12,65

59,575

51

10:1

12,65

96,7

55

2:1

6,35

18,831

54

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28,2

54

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6,35

33,813

54

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6,35

67,626

62

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12,65

57,8

55

3.3:1

SP
Betacam

4:2:2

SX
Digital

4:2:2

Betacam
DV

YUV

YUV
4:2:0

DVCAM

YUV
4:2:0

DVCPRO

YUV
4:1:1

DVCPRO

4:2:2

50
Digital-S

YUV

YUV
4:2:2

453

10.3
.
Q ( Quadruplex
), - 4 . 50,8 . .
39,7 /.
B . Q ,
.. ,
.
25,4 .
. 24,3
/. B .
, , .

-, .
2,56 .
25,4 , 23,98 /.
.
.
1971
Sony, U-matic. 3 Umatic-L ( ), U-matic -H ( ), U-matic -SP ( ). ; . 2- :
. ,
2 , .
454

19,01 , 4,97 . .
, U-matic
, VHS (Video Home System), JVC
1976 . 1984
. VHS (12,65 ) ,
, 180 . 2- .
5,96 . 58 . .
.

- , ,
VHS S-VHS, . 2 .
VHS - (45 ), .
. SVHS .
Betacam Betamax. Betacam -
, . 101,5 /. : (Y) (R-Y B-Y) . (Y)
64 ,
(R-Y B-Y) 64 . ,
, (
Y R-Y B-Y).
(32 + 32
) . 455

,
.
,
- . ,
.
, , Betacam
SP. , , . Betacam Betacam SP . Betacam SP
Betacam. - Betacam SP .
Video-8 Hi-8 Sony 1984 .
. Video-8, VHS, Hi-8 S-VHS. : ,
8 , , .
1986 MII .
S-VHS-
. MII
, [6].

456

10.4
: D1, D2, D3, D5, D6, Digital Betacam,
DVCPRO (D7), Digital-S (D9), Betacam SX, DVCAM, DV, MPEG IMX.
D1 , Sony. 19,01 4:2:2. - ;
286,9 /. 12 30 . 3 ,
. 4 .
, 11, 34, 76
16 .
, , ,
D2 Ampex Sony , PAL NTSC.

19,01 , -

: , . - .
8- 35 . 154 /. 3 , .
.
D3 NHK 1991 . D3
8- PAL
NTSC. , D2,
. 18 , 4,9 .
.
D3,
,
457

, , , .
D5 ,
D3. D5 , D3,
, D5 . 270 /. 32, 62, 132 .
D5 D3. 4:3, 16:9. , D5 D1 . D5 ( ) 4:2:2 8 10 .
D6 1993 16:9.
1,2 /. 11 .
8, 28, 64 . D6 .
Digital Betacam
Sony 1993 . , Betacam SP. ,
. - . 6- . Digital Betacam
10- 4:2:2 .
4 ,
48 20- .
Digital Betacam
BRR ( ). 458

, . (intraframe)
(), 2:1. .
Betacam SX Sony,
8-
4:2:2 . 4 . , Betacam SX,
4:2:2 MPEG-2 10:1.
18 /. (12,65 ) .
184 L 60 S.

.
Betacam SX
SDI, . Betacam SX Betacam, Betacam SP.
D9 (Digital-S) , 8- 4:2:2
.
(intraframe), (DCT). 3.3:1 .
120 . (12,65 )

,
(, , ), 2-
() .
12- 20 5,96 .
DV 4:2:0 (PAL) 4:1:1 (NTSC) 1/4- (6.35 )
. 12- 459

10 . /, , . .
, DCT.
5:1. DV . , DV, DVCPRO
DVCAM.
IEEE-1394, .
D7 (DVCPRO) , 4:1:1 6,35 . 10- NTSC (525/60) 12-
PAL (625/50) 18 . () .
. 5:1.
4 QSDI (
).
DVCPRO 50 Panasonic.
50 /,
4:2:2, 16 /48 .
24 . 2
- () . 3.3:1. . DVCPRO 2
. DVCPRO.
DVCAM Sony.
1/4"
4:2:0 (PAL). 12 (PAL) 15 . /, , (ITI).
ITI , ,
. , DCT.
460

DVCAM QSDI
( ),
. DVCAM
IEEE-1394 (i.LINK) [7].

10.5
Sony
MPEG-2.
MPEG IMX ( SMPTE D-10).
MPEG IMX , MPEG-2 4:2:2 50 /
. , () ,
MPEG IMX
:
MPEG IMX ;
MPEG IMX
, MPEG.
16- 24- 48 , .
64,467 /. 12,65 (1/2 ), .
-.
, MPEG IMX,
,
, , ,
MPEG-2, .
461

XDCAM Sony
, Sony Professional Disk. , DVCAM, Betacam
SX MPEG IMX,
.
Professional Disc ,
, ( 10 . ). Professional Disc , ,
,

, .
Professional Disc
( 50 ). , Professional Disc
. , Professional Disc
. MPEG IMX DVCAM.
- .
Sony XDCAM .
,
. Essence Marks ( ), Sony XDCAM,
. Essence
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